Sample records for FUERZA COERCITIVA (coercive force)
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Sample records 1 - 17 shown.



1

¿Qué es la coerción sexual? significado, tácticas e interpretación en jóvenes universitarios de la ciudad de México/ What is sexual coercion? Meaning, tactics and interpretation in young university students in Mexico City

Saldívar Hernández, Gabriela; Ramos Lira, Luciana; Romero Mendoza, Martha
2008-02-01

Resumen en español La coerción sexual, en el contexto de situaciones de "ligue" o en el noviazgo, es una forma de violencia sexual poco investigada en México. Posiblemente esto responda a que incluye el uso de ciertas prácticas que tradicionalmente no han sido reconocidas como violentas y que, muy por el contrario, se han visto como > en las relaciones heterosexuales íntimas. Para los fines de este trabajo, la coerción sexual se define como cualquier tipo de presión física (mas) o emocional utilizada por una persona para imponer a otra actos de orden sexual en el contexto de un encuentro heterosexual de mutuo acuerdo para salir juntas. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo conocer el significado de coerción sexual, las tácticas utilizadas por ambos sexos y la manera en que interpretan un mismo suceso coercitivo distintos jóvenes universitarios. Método Para los fines de este estudio, se utilizaron grupos focales. Participaron un total de 27 estudiantes que conformaron cuatro grupos focales: dos de mujeres y dos de hombres. Para obtener la información, se elaboró una guía temática que abordaba el significado e interpretación que otorgan los estudiantes a la coerción sexual, así como el tipo de tácticas que reconocen son utilizadas por hombres y mujeres. Procedimiento El estudio se llevó a cabo en las instalaciones de las Universidades participantes, previa convocatoria para asistir al grupo focal. Para el análisis de los grupos focales se transcribieron las entrevistas audiograbadas. Se realizó una segmentación que es la extracción de fragmentos o párrafos, oraciones, frases o palabras consideradas significativas. Resultados En cuanto al significado de la coerción sexual, destaca que hombres y mujeres asocian el concepto con el uso de una fuerza extrema. Para dar una idea de los significados atribuidos a una situación de coerción sexual en el noviazgo, se discutieron los dos personajes de una viñeta con el fin de dar cuenta de los aspectos que pueden considerarse aceptados, permitidos, cuestionados o rechazados como medios para obtener una relación sexual. Tras analizar las tácticas de coerción sexual utilizadas por hombres y mujeres para obtener una relación sexual, se encontró que las tácticas indirectas son las más utilizadas por ambos. Conclusiones De los resultados de este estudio se puede concluir lo siguiente: a) La gran mayoría de los sujetos entrevistados no tiene claro el significado del concepto >. b) Tanto los hombres como las mujeres de este estudio culpan a las segundas de su victimización, situación que se ve muy clara en la viñeta sobre coerción sexual, c) Se pudo constatar que la coerción sexual es un problema que padecen con más frecuencia las mujeres, aunque se menciona que los hombres también pueden ser víctimas de coerción sexual. Este hallazgo abre una importante línea de investigación sobre cómo perciben los hombres este tipo de violencia. d) Por último, aunque todos los estudiantes participantes en este estudio mencionan que las tácticas indirectas son las que utilizan con más frecuencia los hombres y las mujeres para obtener un encuentro sexual, es importante señalar que hay diferencias ya que los primero recurren a una táctica sutil con amenaza y las mujeres no. Este estudio exploratorio sobre el fenómeno permite formular las estrategias de prevención necesarias para que hombres y mujeres sean capaces de identificar un evento en que perciban que se les presiona para tener un encuentro sexual. Por lo cual es importante que los programas de educación sexual contemplen una perspectiva de género y que además enfaticen sobre la noción de derechos de las personas para erradicar las desigualdades de poder y así eliminar cualquier tipo de violencia. Resumen en inglés Sexual coercion in the context of flirting or courtship is a form of sexual violence that has rarely been explored in Mexico, with studies mainly being undertaken in the United States and some European countries. This may be due to the fact that it includes the use of certain practices that have traditionally not been regarded as violent and, on the contrary, been viewed as > within intimate heterosexual relations. Like other forms of sexual violence, the definit (mas) ion of social coercion involves conceptual and methodological problems, since the term has been used interchangeably with other forms of sexual violence. Generally speaking, violence on dates or during courtship and sexual aggression tend to refer to a domineering behavior in sexual behavior in which physical aggression is used. At the same time, sexual coercion comprises a continuum of practices ranging from subtle psychological pressure and the use of language to the utilization of physical aggression to secure a sexual encounter. This form of violence may trigger major problems in the areas of mental, sexual, and reproductive health. For the purposes of this study, sexual coercion is defined as any type of physical or emotional pressure used by a person to impose acts of a sexual nature on another person within the context of a mutually agreed on heterosexual encounter to go out together, get to know each other or engage in a romantic or erotic relationship or in a more formal relationship such as courtship. This type of sexual violence occurs in Latin American countries where couple relationships continue to be regulated by certain cultural traditions that may prevent the problem from being detected. These norms, which are often stereotyped, create >, in other words, structural blocks of information processing that combine concepts, categories and relationships based on the social experience that indicate how heterosexual relationships > be conducted. These scripts and their particular expression are strongly influenced by cultural attitudes and beliefs for men and women. In view of this context, it is hardly surprising that men and women engage in coercion in different ways to secure a sexual encounter. These different forms of coercion have been conceptualized as >, whether direct or indirect. Given the need to know how sexual coercion is defined, how it is exercised and whether coercive behavior is in fact identified, this study seeks to determine the meaning of sexual coercion, the tactics used by both sexes and the way in which young university students interpret the same coercive event. Method One way of dealing with the significance of a phenomenon, as well as its interpretation, is through the qualitative approach; for the purposes of this study, focus groups were used. Participants A total of 27 students comprised four focus groups, two comprising women, two comprising men. Three of these groups consisted of seven participants and one of six. The age range was 18 to 25. Data gathering techniques In order to obtain the information, thematic guidelines were drawn up to explore the meaning and interpretation students give sexual coercion as well as the type of tactics they recognize as being used by men and women. Procedure The study was carried out at two universities, after inviting participants to attend a focus group. At each public and private university, two groups (one of men, one of women) were formed. Analytical strategy For the analysis of the focus groups, audio-recorded interviews were transcribed. For each of the study, the entire transcription was read out for the first level of analysis. This was followed by segmentation, the extraction of fragments or paragraphs, sentences, phrases of words regarded as significant. Results As far as the significance of sexual coercion is concerned, it is striking that both men and women associate the term with extreme force, divided into three main categories: physical force, rape and violence against women. To a lesser extent, the term is identified with family violence and a continuum of sexual violence ranging from subtle to extremely severe. In order to obtain the meanings attributed to a situation of sexual coercion in courtship, participants discussed the two characters in a cartoon in order to reveal the aspects that could be regarded as accepted, permitted, questioned or rejected as means of obtaining a sexual relationship. The group discussion revealed two different points of view: men's and women's. In the analysis of the female character in the story, the men described her as a > while the women regarded her as being responsible for what had happened. As for the male character in the story, the men perceived him as someone who was tactless and abusive, whereas the women labeled him as >. The analysis of the tactics of sexual coercion used by men and women to obtain a sexual relationship revealed that indirect tactics are most commonly used by men and women. Conclusions It is important to note that although there are very few studies on sexual coercion in Latin American countries except in Argentina, Peru and Mexico, they must be undertaken, since failure to do so would mean neglecting a significant part of young people's sexual, reproductive, social and mental health. The following conclusions may be drawn from the results of this study: a) Most of the subjects interviewed are unclear as to the meaning of the term >; b) Both the men and women in this study blame women for their victimization. This is particularly evident from the discussion of the cartoon on sexual coercion; c) Sexual coercion is a more common problem in women, although it has been said that men can be victims of sexual coercion as well. This finding opens up a significant line of research on how men perceive this type of violence, and d) Although both the male and female students in this study mentioned that men and women used indirect tactics more frequently to secure a sexual encounter, it is important to note that these are different, since men use subtle tactics with threats whereas women do not. This study showed that women are more likely to suffer some type of sexual coercion and that men use indirect tactics with threats. Although the subjects that participated in this study mentioned certain types of tactics used by women to obtain a sexual relationship, this result must be treated with caution, since further study is required on this issue. This exploratory study on the phenomenon shows the need for prevention strategies to enable men and women to identify an event in which they perceive they are being pressed in to having a sexual encounter. This is why it is important for sex education programs to include a gender perspective and to emphasize the notion of people's rights in order to eradicate inequalities of power and thereby eliminate any type of violence.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

2

Temperature and thickness dependence at the onset of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in FePd thin films sputtered on MgO(001)

Clavero, C.; García-Martín, José Miguel; Costa Krämer, José Luis; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Cebollada, Alfonso; Huttel, Y.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Kellock, A. J.
2006-05-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

3

Structure and magnetic properties of RNi2Mn compounds (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er)

Wang, J. L.; Marquina, Clara; Ibarra, M. Ricardo; Wu, G. H.
2006-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

4

Order and phase nucleation in nonequilibrium nanocomposite Fe-Pt thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

Clavero, C.; Skuza, J. R.; García-Martín, José Miguel; Cebollada, Alfonso; Walko, D. A.; Lukaszew, R. A.
2009-03-31

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

6

Morphological and magnetic properties of Co nanoparticle thin films grown on Si3N4

Presa, B. ; Matarranz, R. ; Clavero, C. ; García-Martín, J.M. ; Calleja, J.F. ; Contreras, M.C.

The morphological and magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles deposited by triode sputtering on Si3N4 at 550 °C are reported. The nominal thickness of Co ranges from 2 up to 15 nm, and two different capping layers, Au and Pt, are used. The nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction and ...

DRIVER (Spanish)

7

Morphological and magnetic properties of Co nanoparticle thin films grown on Si3N4

Presa, B.; Matarranz, R.; Clavero, C.; García-Martín, José Miguel; Calleja, J. F.; Contreras, M. C.
2007-09-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

8

Magnetotransport properties of oxidized iron thin films

Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Jiménez-Villacorta, Félix; Prieto, Carlos
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

9

Magnetic properties of densely packed arrays of Ni nanowires as a function of their diameter and lattice parameter

Vázquez Villalabeitia, Manuel; Pirota, K. R.; Hernández Vélez, M.; Prida, V. M.; Navas, D.; Sanz, R.; Batallán, F.; Velázquez, J.
2004-06-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

10

La democracia venezolana vista desde la relación triangular: fuerza, poder y derecho/ Venezuelan Democracy Seen from the Triangular Relationship: Force, Power and Right

Rincón de Maldonado, Miriam; Fernández G, María Alejandra
2006-08-01

Resumen en español El Estado moderno tiene como sustento la relación triangular existente entre fuerza, poder y derecho. Se entiende que el sano equilibrio de estos tres elementos produce la estabilidad democrática, en virtud de la fuente legitimadora del Estado para aplicar sus normas, y su poder de coerción sobre los ciudadanos. En el proceso de transformación del poder en derecho y del derecho como respaldo de la fuerza interviene una lógica jurídica la cual obedece específicament (mas) e a mecanismos de Procesos Constitucionales de creación normativa. En el periodo de consolidación de la democracia venezolana desde el 23 de enero de 1958, y el proceso de cambio radical de 1999, intervinieron los elementos antes nombrados, por lo cual el siguiente papel de trabajo pretende la descripción de los mismos y el rol que jugaron en desarrollo de la democracia venezolana, durante su consolidación, mantenimiento, y cambio. Resumen en inglés The modern State uses the triangular relationship of force, power and right as its support. It is understood that a healthy balance of these three elements produces democratic stability by virtue of the legitimating source of the State to apply its laws, and its coercive power over the citizens. In the power transformation process in law and of law as a backup for force, a juridical logic intervenes that specifically obeys Constitutional process mechanisms for creating la (mas) ws. In the consolidation period of Venezuelan democracy, starting on January 23, 1958, and in the radical change process of 1999, the aforementioned elements intervened; therefore, the following work paper intends to describe them and the role they played in the development of Venezuelan democracy during its consolidation, maintenance and change.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

12

Experimental and computational analysis of the angular dependence of the hysteresis processes in an antidots array.

Pigazo, F.; García Sánchez, F.; Palomares, F. J.; González, J. M.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Cebollada, F.; Torres, J. M.; Bartolomé, Juan; García Vinuesa, L. M.
2006-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

13

Exchange bias in laterally oxidized Au/Co/Au nanopillars

Balcells Argemi, Lluis ; Martínez, B. ; Iglesias, O. ; García-Martín, J.M. ; Cebollada, Alfonso ; García, A.

Au/Co/Au nanopillars fabricated by colloidal lithography of continuous trilayers exhibit an enhanced coercive field and the appearance of an exchange bias field with respect to the continuous layers. This is attributed to the lateral oxidation of the Co interlayer that appears upon disk fabrication....

DRIVER (Spanish)

14

Exchange bias in laterally oxidized Au/Co/Au nanopillars

Balcells Argemi, Lluis; Martínez Perea, Benjamín; Iglesias, O.; García-Martín, José Miguel; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Sepúlveda Martínez, Borja; Alaverdyan, Yury
2009-02-09

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

15

Enhancement of the magnetic anisotropy of Co clusters by Au capping.

Luis, F.; Bartolomé, Juan; Bartolomé, Fernando; Martínez, M. J.; García, L. M.; Petroff, F.; Deranlot, C.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.
2006-04-26

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

16

Diagenetic processes and remagnetization in Permo-Triassic red beds.

Ramos, Amparo; Sopeña, A.; Turner, A.; Turner, P.
1988-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

17

Coercivity analysis in sputtered Sm–Co thin films

Prados, C.; Hernando, Antonio; Hadjipanayis, G. C.; González Fernández, Jesús María
1999-04-15

Digital.CSIC (Spain)