Sample records for CROMO 59 (chromium 59)
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Sample records 1 - 2 shown.



1

Balance de nitrógeno y fósforo de vacas lecheras en pastoreo con diferentes ofertas de kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum) suplementadas con ensilaje de avena (Avena sativa)/ Nitrogen and phosphorus balance of cows offered different amounts of Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) and supplemented with oats (Avena sativa) silage/ Saldo de nitrogênio e fósforo a partir de vacas leiteiras em pastagem com diferentes ofertas de capim Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) silagem suplementada com aveia (Avena sativa)

León, Javier M; Mojica, José E; Castro, Edwin; Cárdenas, Edgar A; Pabón, Martha L; Carulla, Juan E
2008-12-01

Resumen en portugués Azoto (N) e fósforo (F) são elementos envolvidos na poluição ambiental. Com o objetivo de avaliar o balanço de N e P foram usadas 18 vacas em pastagem de capim kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) no Centro Agropecuario Marengo em Mosquera (Cundinamarca, Colombia). Os tratamentos consistiram de três níveis (0, 0.7 e 1.4% do peso corporal) lance silagem (MS) de aveia (Avena sativa). Essa oferta por dia foi complementado com pastagem Kikuyu em um lance de chegar a (mas) 4% do total da ração. A relação Kikuyu erva:silagem foi de 4:0, 3.3:0.7 e 2.6:1.4 para os tratamentos 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. A silagem foi fornecida diariamente (AM e PM), no paddock. As vacas foram agraciados com uma alimentação equilibrada a uma taxa de 1 kg para cada 4.2 kg de leite produzido, e permaneceu constante durante o período experimental, que durou 14 dias, com sete dias de adaptação e sete dias de medidas. A produção de leite (AM, PM) foi medido numa base individual; enquanto a produção de urina e fezes foi mensurado dias 0, 7, e 14, para quantificar N e P. O volume de urina é considerada utilização e consumo de creatina usando cromo (quantidade de fezes) e fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (digestibilidade). O consumo de N (667.8 g/dia) e excretada na urina (240.6 g/d) foram significativamente maiores (p0.05) na eficiência de utilização de N (15.6, 16.6 e 15.1%, respectivamente). O consumo de P (98.2, 85.9 e 93.4 g/d), excreção de urina (0.43, 0.39 e 0.48 g/d) e nas fezes (91.9, 100.7 e 108.6 g/d) não foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os tratamentos (p>0.05); No entanto, o balanço de P foi significativamente maior (p Resumen en español Nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P) son elementos implicados en la contaminación ambiental. Con el objetivo de evaluar el balance de N y P se utilizaron 18 vacas bajo pastoreo en pasto kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum) en el Centro Agropecuario Marengo en Mosquera (Cundinamarca, Colombia). Los tratamientos consistieron en tres niveles (0, 0.7 y 1.4% del peso vivo) de oferta de ensilaje (MS) de avena (Avena sativa). Esta oferta diaria fue complementada con pasto kikuyo en pastor (mas) eo hasta alcanzar una oferta total del 4%. La relación kikuyo:ensilaje fue de 4:0, 3.3:0.7 y 2.6:1.4 para los tratamientos 1, 2 y 3, respectivamente. El ensilaje se suministró diariamente (AM y PM) en el potrero. Las vacas recibieron un alimento balanceado comercial a razón de 1kg por cada 4.2 kg de leche producida, y se mantuvo constante durante el periodo experimental que duró 14 días, con siete días de adaptación y siete de mediciones. La producción de leche (AM, PM) fue medida de manera individual; mientras que la producción de orina y heces fue medida los días 0, 7, y 14, para cuantificar N y P. El volumen de orina se estimó usando creatinina y el consumo usando cromo (cantidad de heces) y fibra en detergente acido indigerible (digestibilidad). El consumo de N (667.8 g/día) y la excreción en orina (240.6 g/d) fueron significativamente mayores (p0.05) en la eficiencia de utilización de N (15.6; 16.6 y 15.1%, respectivamente). El consumo de P (98.2, 85.9, y 93.4 g/d), la excreción en orina (0.43, 0.39, y 0.48, g/d) y en heces (91.9, 100.7, y 108.6 g/d) no fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre tratamientos (p>0.05); sin embargo, el balance de P fue significativamente mayor (p Resumen en inglés Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) have been implicated in environmental pollution. To evaluate N a P balance, eighteen lactating multiparous Holstein cows grazing kikuyu in the Livestock Center Marengo in Mosquera (Cundinamarca, Colombia). The treatments consisting three allowances of oat silage 0, 0.7 and 1.4 kg/100 kg of body weight. This daily allowance was completed with kikuyu on grazing to obtain a total dry matter allowance of 4kg/100 kg of body weight. The kikuyu an (mas) d silage ratio was 4:0; 3.3:0.7 and 2.6:1.4 for treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Cows received a commercial balanced feed 1kg for each 4.2kg of milk, and it was maintained during all the experimental period. This period lasted 14 days and consisted of 7 adaptation days and 7 experimental days. Individual milk production was measured (AM PM) and samples of urine and feces were taken on days 0, 7 and 14 to determine N and P. Urine volume was estimated using creatinine and dry matter intake using chromium (feces volume) and Indigestible Acid Detergent Fiber (Digestibility). N intake (667.8 g/d) and urine N excretion (240.6 g/d) was greater for cows on treatment 1 than for treatment 2 (560.7 and 199.7 g/d respectively) and for treatment 3 (594.8 and 200.8 g/d) respectively. However no differences were found on the efficiency of N utilization that was 15.6; 16.6 and 15.1 % for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily P intakes (98.2; 85.9 and 93.4 g/d), P excretion in urine (0.43; 0.42; and 0.35 g/d) and P excretion in feces (91.8; 100.7 and 108.6) were not different between treatments, however phosphorus balance was positive and greater for cows on treatment 1 (5.9 g/d) than cows in treatments 2 and 3 (-15.5, and -15.6 g/d, respectively).

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2

Contenido de zinc y cobre en los componentes individuales de las mezclas para fórmulas pediátricas de nutrición parenteral total/ Zinc and copper content in individual components used to prepare pediatric total nutrition mixtures

Menéndez, A. M.ª; Weisstaub, A. R.; Montemerlo, H.; Rusi, F.; Guidoni, M.ª E.; Piñeiro, A.; Pita Martín de Portela, M.ª L.
2007-10-01

Resumen en español Objetivos: 1) Determinar el contenido de zinc y cobre presente como contaminante en los componentes individuales destinados a preparar mezclas pediátricas de nutrición parenteral total; 2) Comparar los valores prescriptos con las cantidades reales de zinc y cobre que tendrían las mezclas de nutrición parenteral total para un neonato de 1,2 kg de peso y para un niño de 10 kg de peso. Materiales y métodos: Se determinó zinc y cobre por espectrofotometría de absorci� (mas) �n atómica, en 59 productos de distintos laboratorios y lotes, correspondientes a 14 componentes diferentes, utilizados para preparar mezclas pediátricas de nutrición parenteral total, en Argentina. Resultados: El agua estéril, las soluciones de cloruro de potasio y las mezclas de vitaminas no presentaron cantidades detectables de zinc y cobre. Se encontró contaminación en 11 componentes, con valores variables según el fabricante y el lote de cada producto. El cloruro de sodio, sulfato de manganeso, cloruro de cromo y el ácido selenioso contenían zinc y no contenían cobre. La solución de dextrosa y los lípidos presentaron las mayores cantidades de zinc y cobre. Algunas soluciones de sulfato de zinc contenían cobre y todas las soluciones de sulfato de cobre contenían zinc. Conclusiones: 1) Se encontró zinc en nueve componentes y cobre en cinco, ambos no declarados en los rótulos. 2) La mezcla de nutrición parenteral total de prescripción habitual en Neonatología y Pediatría podría alcanzar una concentración final de zinc y cobre superior a las recomendaciones internacionales. 3) Las cantidades halladas de zinc y cobre no traerían inconvenientes en pacientes clínicamente estables, pero serían perjudiciales en aquellos con enfermedades inflamatorias, insuficiencia renal, alteración hepática o colestasis. 4) Sería aconsejable solicitar la declaración en el rótulo del contenido real de zincy cobre, para evitar tanto las deficiencias como los excesos, que pueden comprometer la evolución del paciente pediátrico grave. Resumen en inglés Objectives: 1) to determine zinc and copper levels of contamination in the individual component solutions used to prepare the pediatric total parenteral nutrition mixtures in Argentina; 2) to compare zinc and copper amounts prescribed by the physician with the true amount given to a neonate weighing 1,2 kg and to a child weighing 10 kg, who would receive total parenteral nutrition formulas prepared with those component solutions. Materials and methods: Zn and Cu were dete (mas) rmined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 59 individual solutions belonging to 14 components chosen between the commercial products available in Argentina. Results: zinc and copper, as contaminants, were found neither in the sterile water, nor in the potassium chloride or in the vitamin solutions. Zinc, but no copper, was detected in sodium chloride, manganese sulfate, chromium chloride and seleniose acid solutions. Zinc and copper were detected in dextrose, amino acids, calcium gluconate and lipid solutions at variable levels. Zinc sulfate solutions® contained between 90,4% and 140% of the declared content and a variable contamination with copper. Copper sulfate solutions® presented between 4% and 18% less the declared copper concentration and a variable contamination with zinc. Dextrose and lipid solutions presented the highest amount of zinc and copper. Therefore, the total parenteral mixtures prepared with the analyzed solutions must have had an excess of zinc and copper in relation to the prescription: ranging between 103% and 161% and between 7%-426% higher than the Zn and Cu amounts prescribed for neonates, respectively; the excess in the total parenteral nutrition for a child weighing 10 kg would ranged between 105% and 189% and between 7%-365% higher than the prescribed for Zn and Cu, respectively. Conclusions: 1) nine components presented Zn and five Cu, both of them not declared in the label; 2) the usually prescribed total parenteral nutrition mixtures must have had a zinc and copper amount higher than the prescribed one according to international recommendations; 3) those figures would be safe in patients without complications, but it would be harmful in renal failure, hepatic compromise or colestasis mainly in pediatric patients; 4) It would be advisable to declare in the label the true content of zinc and copper, with the aim to avoid deficiencies and excess which would compromise the evolution of pediatric patients.

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