Sample records for NI?OS (children)
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8

Estudio comparativo de los defectos de refracción en niños con ptosis miogénica congénita simple y niños control/ Comparative study of refractive errors in simple congenital myogenic ptosis and control children

Pérez-Íñigo, M.A.; González, I.; Mayoral, F.; Ferrer, C.; Honrubia, F.M.
2008-10-01

Resumen en español Propósito: Estudiar los defectos de refracción en niños con ptosis miogénica congénita simple de diferentes grados y realizar un estudio comparativo respecto a niños control en nuestra población. Método: Se han incluido 35 niños con ptosis miogénica congénita simple, de los que 27 tenían ptosis leve, 3 ptosis moderada y 5 ptosis grave, y 35 niños control. Se ha incluido un ojo de cada paciente, el peor en caso de ptosis, y aleatorio en caso de niño control. (mas) Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de los datos refractivos obtenidos en cada población, mediante los test estadísticos: t de student, ANOVA y Chi cuadrado o Chi cuadrado con corrección de Yates. Resultados: Se han obtenido diferencias significativas entre niños con ptosis miogénica congénita simple y niños control en equivalente esférico medio (3,08/1,49), en esfera absoluta media (2,80/1,42) y en cilindro absoluto medio (0,81/0,31) (p5,99) y entre la necesidad de corrección óptica y la existencia de ptosis (χ²=15,92>3,84). Conclusiones: Los niños con ptosis miogénica congénita simple de nuestro medio tienen más defectos de refracción tanto esférico como cilíndrico que los niños control. Los niños con ptosis necesitan corrección óptica con mayor frecuencia que los niños control. A mayor gravedad de ptosis, mayor es la posibilidad de tener astigmatismo. Resumen en inglés Purpose: To study refractive errors in children with relatively serious congenital myogenic ptosis and to carry out a comparative study in relation to control children in our population. Methods: We included 35 children with simple congenital myogenic ptosis, 27 of them had minor ptosis, 3 moderate ptosis and 5 serious ptosis. Thirty-five children were also in the control group. One eye of every subject was included, the worst eye in subjects of the ptosis group and an ey (mas) e selected at random in control group subjects. A comparative study of refractive data in every group was carried out, using the Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Chi square or Yates correction tests. Results: We obtained significant differences between children with ptosis and controls in average spherical equivalent (3.08/1.49), in average absolute sphere (2.80/1.42) and in average absolute cylinder (0.81/0.31) (p5.99), and between the need for optical correction and the presence of ptosis (χ2=15.92>3.84). Conclusions: Children with simple congenital myogenic ptosis in our enviroment have greater refractive errors than control children. Ptosis children require optical correction more frequently than control. The more serious the ptosis, the more likelihood there is of having astigmatism.

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9

ANÁLISIS TRANSVERSAL DE LOS CINCO FACTORES DE PERSONALIDAD POR SEXO Y EDAD EN NIÑOS ESPAÑOLES/ CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE BIG FIVE FACTORS OF PERSONALITY ACROSS AGE AND SEX GROUPS IN A SPANISH CHILDREN'S SAMPLE

DEL BARRIO GÁNDARA, MARÍA VICTORIA; CARRASCO ORTIZ, MIGUEL ÁNGEL; HOLGADO TELLO, FRANCISCO PABLO
2006-12-01

Resumen en español El presente estudio explora las diferencias por edad y sexo en los cinco factores de personalidad en población infantil. El cuestionario de personalidad de los cinco grandes (Big Five Questionnaire-Children. BFQ-C) fue administrado a 852 escolares (501 varones y 351 mujeres) de edades comprendidas entre 8 y 15 años. La comparación de medias y el análisis discriminante indicaron un patrón de personalidad diferencial entre grupos. Los sujetos de más edad presentaron s (mas) ignificativamente más características de neuroticismo y extraversión y menores niveles de conciencia, apertura y agradabilidad. Las chicas se caracterizaron por mayores rasgos de conciencia y agradabilidad que llegada la adolescencia equiparaban a sus iguales varones a favor de un aumento del neuroticismo y un descenso de la apertura. Resumen en inglés The aim of this study was to investigate personality differences across age and sex groups in a Spanish children´s sample. The Big Five Questionnaire-Children (BFQ-C) was administered to a sample of 852 students (501 males and 351 females) aged 8 to 15 years. The results showed that a number of age and sex differences emerged. Adolescents scored higher on neuroticism, extraversion and lower on conscientiousness, openness and agreeableness. As far as the sex is concerned, (mas) despite females scoring higher on conscientiousness and agreeableness in the total sample, among adolescents girls reported higher scores on neuroticism and openness than male peers.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

10

LA APARICIÓN DE LAS PREPOSICIONES EN NIÑOS HISPANOHABLANTES ENTRE LOS 18 Y LOS 36 MESES DE EDAD/ THE APPEARANCE OF THE PREPOSITIONS IN SPANISH SPEAKING CHILDREN BETWEEN 18 AND 36 MONTHS OF AGE

Castro Yánez, Ginette; Sandoval Zúñiga, María Soledad
2009-08-01

Resumen en español Con fundamento en la literatura que da cuenta de la existencia de una serie de hitos en la adquisición del lenguaje, correspondientes a las etapas en las que se observa que el niño pasa de una gramática básica a una gramática más compleja en su lengua materna, se considera que el contexto sintáctico complejo exige que el niño produzca enunciados en los que deben aparecer preposiciones. Así, el contexto constituye uno de los prerrequisitos para que ocurra la apari (mas) ción de dichos elementos gramaticales en el habla. Para apoyar esta tesis, en este estudio se recogieron datos a partir de muestras grabadas de lenguaje infantil en un contexto y con un interlocutor familiares. La muestra la conformaron 16 niños de 18 a 36 meses de edad y se dividió en cuatro grupos correspondientes a las edades de los sujetos (18, 24, 30 y 36 meses). El análisis de los resultados indica que las preposiciones aparecen en contextos más complejos cuando el niño ha aprendido la gramática básica de su lengua materna, entre los 18 y 24 meses de vida. Resumen en inglés The literature reports the existence of a series of events in language acquisition, corresponding to different stages, as children advance from basic to more complex grammar structures when learning their first language. With the greater complexity of the syntax context, children should produce phrases where prepositions appear. Thus, the syntax context should be one of the prerequisites for the appearance of these grammatical elements in their speech. To verify this hypo (mas) thesis, our study collected recorded samples of children's language use in familiar contexts and with familiar interlocutors. The sample consisted in 16 children aged 18 to 36 months; and the sample was divided in four groups corresponding to the subject's age group (18, 24, 30 and 36 months). The results indicate that prepositions appear in more complex contexts when the child has learned the basic grammar of his/her first language, which occurs between 18 and 24 months of age.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

11

Calidad de vida percibida por niños con enfermedad renal crónica y por sus padres/ Perceived quality of life in children with chronic renal disease and in their parents

Aparicio López, Cristina; Fernández Escribano, A.; Garrido Cantanero, G.; Luque de Pablos, A.; Izquierdo García, E.
2010-01-01

Resumen en español Introducción: La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) afecta al bienestar físico, psíquico y social del niño. En adultos y adolescentes se ha descrito una peor calidad de vida (CV) en enfermos renales que en población sana, pero hay pocos estudios con instrumentos de medida de CV en niños con enfermedad renal. Objetivo: Estudiar la CV de los niños con ERC y compararla con un grupo control de niños sanos. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal en 71 niños con ERC y 5 (mas) 7 sanos utilizando el cuestionario de salud general MOS-SF-20 en mayores de 9 años y sus padres o sólo en éstos en los menores de 9 años. Resultados: Los niños con ERC tienen peor CV que los niños sanos con diferencia significativa en la percepción de la función física, del rol físico y del estado general de la salud y no significativa en la socialización. Los niños enfermos refieren menos dolor y mejor bienestar emocional que los niños sanos. La calidad percibida por los padres es también peor en la población de niños enfermos que en la de niños sanos en todos los dominios excepto en el dolor. La CV percibida por los padres coincide en todos los dominios con la de los niños de 9 a 12 años e infravalora la función social y el bienestar emocional en los niños mayores de 12 años. Conclusiones: La CV en niños con ERC es peor que en niños sanos y afecta sobre todo al ámbito físico y a la salud general, en lo que coinciden niños y padres. Resumen en inglés Introduction: Chronic renal disease (CRD) affects physical, emotional and social wellbeing of children. Renal adult and adolescent patients have a poorer quality of life (QL) than healthy population but few studies have been performed in children with CRD and appropriate QL measurement tools. Objectives: To assess QL in children with CRD comparing it with healthy children. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study in 71 children with CRD and 57 healthy children with the (mas) generic health status tool MOSF-SF-20 answered by children older than 9 and their parents and only by parents when children were younger than 9. Results: Children with CRD have a poorer QL than healthy children with significant differences in general self-esteem, physical performance and physical activity and no significant difference in socialization. On the contrary they refer less pain and emotional discomfort than healthy population. Perceived QL of children by parents is also worse in CRD population affecting all but pain dominions. 9-12 years old children and their parents agree in all QL dominions while parents underestimate social function and emotional well-being when their children were older than 12. Conclusions: QL in children with CRD is worse than in healthy children mainly in physical function and general self-esteem and agree with parents perceptions.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

12

Diseño de Juegos Basados en el Paradigma de Gramáticas Artificiales Para Favorecer el Aprendizaje Implícito en Niños/ Design of Games Based on the Paradigm of Artificial Grammars to Facilitate Implicit Learning in Children

Thibaut, Carolina; Rosas, Ricardo
2007-11-01

Resumen en español Se desarrollaron dos juegos en formato computacional basados en el paradigma de gramáticas artificiales de Reber, con el objetivo de favorecer la demostración de aprendizaje implícito en niños con distintas características: normales (N), con déficit atencional (DA) y con déficit intelectual (DI). Los resultados muestran que los niños N y DA rinden por sobre lo esperado por azar, a diferencia de los DI quienes logran un desempeño similar al azar. Los hallazgos sug (mas) ieren que niños con problemas de atención aprenden a través de vías implícitas al igual que niños sin problemas de atención, independientemente del juego utilizado Resumen en inglés Two computer-based games were developed based on Reber(s Artificial Grammar Paradigm, in order to facilitate implicit learning ocurrence in normal (N), ADHD, and intellectually disabled (ID) children. Results show that N and ADHD children perform above chance level, as opposed to ID children whose performance is equivalent to random response. These findings show that ADHD children learn through implicit paths as well as children without attention problems, independently of the game used

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

13

Frecuencia de hipotiroidismo subclínico en niños sanos y con alteraciones neurológicas en el estado Mérida, Venezuela./ Frequency of subclinical hypothyroidism in children with and without neurological disorders in Mérida, Venezuela.

Paoli-Valeri, Mariela; Mamán-Alvarado, Denise; Jiménez-López, Virginia; Arias- Ferreira, Angela; Bianchi, Guillermo; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela
2003-09-01

Resumen en español Resumen. Con el objeto de investigar la frecuencia de hipotiroidismo subclínico (HS) y su probable etiología, en niños con desarrollo neurológico alterado y compararlos con niños sanos, se estudiaron 187 niños procedentes del Estado Mérida, en Venezuela, de ambos sexos, en edades entre 1 mes y 4 años; 64 con alteración del desarrollo neurológico y 123 niños sanos. Se les determinaron los niveles séricos de tiroxina libre (T4L) y tirotropina (TSH) mediante inmu (mas) nofluorescencia y de yodo urinario por el método de Sandell-Koltoff. Se diagnosticó como HS a los niños que presentaron niveles altos de TSH y normales de T4L. A los niños con HS se les midieron anticuerpos antitiroglobulínicos y antiperoxidasa por enzimoinmunoensayo. Para determinar la frecuencia de HS se utilizaron los niveles de referencia de TSH del estuche comercial utilizado (> 3,8µU/mL) y el nivel de TSH de referencia de nuestra población, calculada (X + 2DE) a partir de los valores de TSH de los 123 niños sanos (> 4,98 µU/mL). Cuando se tomó el valor de TSH de referencia del fabricante, la frecuencia de HS en todos los niños estudiados fue de 15% y cuando se refirió al de la población fue de 6,4% (p Resumen en inglés Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the frequency and possible aetiology of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) in healthy and sick children developing neurological disorder changes. One hundred and eighty-seven male and female children between 1 month and 4 years old, 64 with and 123 without neurological disorders, were studied in the state of Mérida, Venezuela. Serum levels of tyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and urinary iodine were (mas) measured by immunofluorescence and by the Sandell-Koltoff’s method. Children were diagnosed as having SH if they had high levels of TSH and normal levels of FT4. Antithyroglobulin and antiperoxidase antibodies were measured in children with SH. To establish the frequency of SH, the TSH reference levels on the commercial kit (> 3.8 uU/mL) and the TSH reference levels of our group of healthy children were used. The latter was calculated (X+2SD) from the values of TSH in the 123 healthy children (> 4.98 uU/mL). The frequency of SH in all children was of 15% when the TSH level from the commercial kit was used and of 6,4% when it was of our group of children (p

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14

Apolipoproteína A1 para evaluar el estado nutricional en niños con y sin malaria/ Evaluation of the nutritional status of children with and without malaria by means of Apolipoprotein A 1

CARMONA-FONSECA, JAIME; ÁLVAREZ SÁNCHEZ, GONZALO; BLAIR TRUJILLO, SILVIA
2007-06-01

Resumen en español ANTECEDENTES: la apolipoproteína A1 (apoA1) se ha propuesto como indicador del estado nutricional, pero existe controversia al respecto. OBJETIVO: comparar la apoA1 sérica con la evaluación antropométrica como prueba diagnóstica del estado nutricional de niños (4-11 años) con malaria y sin ella. METODOLOGÍA: diseño descriptivo, prospectivo y transversal, con uso ciego y simultáneo de las dos pruebas diagnósticas. ApoA1 sérica se midió con método nefelométri (mas) co (APOA, Laboratorio Beckman®). RESULTADOS: fueron evaluados 262 niños. La frecuencia de algún riesgo antropométrico de desnutrición fue 72% en niños maláricos y 70% en niños sin malaria. Dos de cada tres niños presentaron menos de 0,94 g/L (límite inferior normal) de apoA1. No hubo correlación significativa entre apoA1 y cada indicador antropométrico y los coeficientes rho de Spearman fueron siempre menores de 0,1. Entre niños sin malaria, apoA1 tuvo sensibilidad de 31% y especificidad de 83%, comparada con la clasificación nutricional antropométrica. Entre niños con malaria, la sensibilidad de apoA1 subió a 83% y la especificidad cayó a 27%. CONCLUSIONES: la apoA1 no es una herramienta útil para el diagnóstico del estado nutricional, tanto en niños con malaria como en aquellos sin esta enfermedad. Resumen en inglés BACKGROUND: apolipoprotein-A1 (apoA1) has been proposed as indicator of nutritional state, but controversy exists on the matter. OBJECTIVE: to compare serum apoA1 with anthropometric evaluation as a diagnostic test to of nutritional state in children with or without malaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional design, with blind and simultaneous use of diagnostic tests. Serum ApoA1 was measured with a nephelometric method (APOA, Beckman® La (mas) boratory). RESULTS: 262 children were evaluated. The frequency of some anthropometric risk of malnutrition was 72% in malaric children, and 70% in the non-malaric ones. Two out of every three children had less than 0,94 g/L (lowest normal limit) of apoA1. There was no significant correlation between apoA1 and each one of the anthropometric indicators, and the Spearman's coefficients were lower than 0,1 in every instance. Sensitivity and specificity of apoA1 were, respectively, 31% and 83% among non-malaric children, as compare with the anthropometrical nutritional classification; the corresponding figures among malaric children were 83% and 27%, respectively. CONCLUSION: apoA1 is not a useful tool for diagnosis of the nutritional state, either in malaric or nonmalaric children.

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15

Manifestaciones cutáneas de la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana en niños de Santiago de Chile/ Skin diseases in human immunodeficiency virus positive children from Santiago, Chile

Muñoz M, Paula; Gómez H, Oríetta; Luzoro V, Amaranta
2008-08-01

Resumen en español Los niños infectados por el virus de la inmunode-ficiencia humana, VIH, pueden presentar variadas manifestaciones mucocutáneas, muchas veces más graves y más difíciles de tratar que las de los niños sanos. Los trastornos de la piel o de las mucosas pueden proporcionar un indicador temprano de infección pediátrica por VIH. Para este estudio fueron examinados todos los niños infectados con VIH, atendidos en el sistema público de salud en Santiago de Chile. Registr (mas) amos 66 niños con rango de edades entre 7 meses y 12 años. Las manifestaciones muco-cutáneas fueron encontradas en 37 (56%). Los hallazgos dermatológicos más observados fueron las enfermedades infecciosas, de las cuales las infecciones micóticas y virales fueron las más frecuentes. Con el aumento del número de pacientes pediátricos infectados por el VIH en el mundo, es muy importante reconocer las manifestaciones cutáneas, ya que pueden permitir realizar un diagnóstico precoz de la infección por VIH. Este es la primera serie clínica publicada acerca de las enfermedades de la piel en niños con infección por VIH en Chile Resumen en inglés Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may develop severe, refractary mucocutaneous manifestations that may be the initiating symptom of HIV infection. In this study we examined the skin of all HIV positive children receiving medical care in the public health care system in Santiago, Chile,. We detected mucocutaneous manifestations in 37/66 (56%) children from 7 months to 12 years of age. The most commonly encountered dermatologic manifestations were of (mas) infectious origin, mostly fungal (7.5%) and viral (7.5%) infections. With the increase in pediatric HIV patients worldwide, it is important to recognize skin manifestations of HIV positive children. This is the first published series of skin diseases in HIV positive children in Chile

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16

Medida mediante un test específico de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en niños con enfermedad renal crónica: Influencia del tratamiento/ Measurement of health related quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease using a specific test: Influence of treatment

Aparicio López, Cristina; Fernández Escribano, A.; Izquierdo García, E.; Luque de Pablos, A.; Garrido Cantanero, E.
2010-01-01

Resumen en español Introducción: La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) modifica la vida del paciente y afecta de manera especial a los niños en su etapa de desarrollo personal. En adultos se ha demostrado peor calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS), sobre todo en hemodiálisis (HD); sin embargo, hay muy pocos datos objetivos sobre CVRS en niños con ERC, la mayoría obtenidos una vez superada la infancia de estos enfermos o con cuestionarios genéricos que no permiten discriminar ca (mas) mbios en una enfermedad específica. Objetivos: Conocer cómo perciben nuestros pacientes su estado de salud midiendo la CVRS y sus áreas más afectadas. Determinar la influencia de los distintos tratamientos y la concordancia entre la opinión de los niños y de sus padres. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal en 71 niños (33 sometidos a trasplante, 11 en diálisis peritoneal, cinco en HD y 22 en tratamiento conservador) y en sus padres. Utilizamos un cuestionario específico desarrollado por nosotros para la medida de CVRS en niños con ERC. En los menores de 9 años sólo contestaron los padres. Resultados: Los niños en HD refieren una peor CVRS, seguidos de los pacientes en diálisis peritoneal (DP) y de los sometidos a trasplante (TX), y la mejor CVRS se obtiene en los pacientes sometidos a tratamiento conservador. Los aspectos que más se ven alterados son la actividad física y la asistencia escolar, sobre todo en HD, hecho en el que coinciden padres e hijos. La concordancia entre padres e hijos fue buena en los mayores de 15 años, existiendo discordancia en los niños de 9 a 15 años. Resumen en inglés Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects the daily life of the child especially during the stage where their personal development takes place. Adult renal patients have a demonstrated worse health related quality of life (HRQL) mainly under hemodialysis (HD), however there are few published data about HRQL in children with CKD, most of them obtained after patient's childhood or with generic tests that do not discriminate changes in a specific disease. Objetive: (mas) To assess how our patients perceive their health by measuring the HRQL and its most affected domains. To determine how the different therapies affect the child with CKD and the agreement on the opinion between children and their parents. Material and methods: We included 71 CKD children and their parents in a cross-sectional study ( 33 transplanted, 11 peritoneal dialysis [PD], 5 HD, 22 conservative treatment). We used a specific quality of life test for CKD children that we had previously developed (TECAVNER). If the child was younger than 9 years, only their parents completed the survey. Results: Children on HD refer a worse HRQL followed those who underwent PD and those transplanted. The best HRQL was obtained in children with conservative treatment. Both parents and children agree that the domains more frequently affected are physical activity and school attendance especially those on HD. The way the adolescents 15 years and older perceived their health was similar to that of their parents. This was not the case in the younger group, 9 through 15 years.

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17

Prevalencia de la enuresis nocturna en la Comunidad Valenciana: Sección infantil del estudio nacional de incontinencia. Estudio EPICC/ Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the Valencian Community: Pediatric section of the National Incontinence Survey. The EPICC Study

Ramírez-Backhaus, Miguel; Martínez Agulló, Eduardo; Arlandis Guzmán, Salvador; Gómez Pérez, Luis; Delgado Oliva, Francisco; Martínez García, Roberto; Jiménez Cruz, Juan Fernando
2009-10-01

Resumen en español Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de la enuresis entre los niños de enseñanza primaria en nuestro medio. Material y métodos: Estudio epidemiológico, observacional, transversal, multicéntrico, de ámbito regional. Previo cálculo del tamaño muestral, se repartieron 1.687 encuestas. Se definió la enuresis nocturna como incontinencia urinaria intermitente mientras los niños duermen, con una frecuencia de al menos 1 escape al mes. Resultados: La prevalencia de enuresis (mas) encontrada en niños de enseñanza primaria con edades comprendidas entre los 6 y los 11 años fue del 7,8%, disminuye con la edad y fue significativamente mayor en los niños (70%). Los niños sin enuresis presentaban mayor peso y talla que los enuréticos, aunque no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. No se encontraron diferencias en cuanto al ámbito familiar ni educacional. El 73% de los niños presentó antecedentes familiares. El 21% de los enuréticos con hermanos, alguno de ellos también presenta este trastorno. El 55% presentaba una enuresis primaria. El 31% tenía escapes todas las noches, el 38% al menos un escape a la semana y el 31% alguno al mes. El 87% de esta población aplicaba alguna medida para los escapes. En cuanto a la sintomatología subjetiva, el 96,9% se sentían bien, aunque había una proporción mayor de niños que decían sentirse regular en el grupo de los enuréticos (el 76,7 frente al 23,1%; p = 0,004). Conclusiones: La enuresis es un trastorno frecuente, en niños significativamente más que en niñas, y cuya prevalencia disminuye con la edad. Tiene un importante componente hereditario. La mayoría toma medidas frente a los escapes. Resumen en inglés Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of enuresis among primary school children in Spain. Materials and methods: A multicenter, observational, cross-sectional, epidemiologic, regional study. After sample size calculation, a total of 1687 questionnaires were sent to schools. Nocturnal enuresis was defined as «loss of urine occurring during sleep, at least once a month». Results: The prevalence of enuresis found in primary school children aged 6-11 years was 7.8%, decrea (mas) se with age, and was significantly greater in boys (70%). Children without enuresis were taller and had a greater weight than those with enuresis, but the differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found in the family or educational setting between children with and without enuresis. Seventy-three percent of children with enuresis had a family history of the condition. The disorder also occurred in some sibling of 21% of children with enuresis who had siblings. Fifty-five percent of the bedwetting population had primary enuresis. Thirty-one percent of children with enuresis reported losses every night, 38% at least once a week, and 31% at least once a month. Eighty-seven percent of this population was under treatment for this condition. As regards subjective symptoms, 96.9% said they felt fine, but there were more bedwetting children who reported feeling a little bit uncomfortable (76.7% vs 23.1%; P=.004). Conclusions: Enuresis is a common disorder which is significantly more frequent in boys as compared to girls and whose prevalence decreases with age. It has a significant hereditary component. Most enuresis sufferers take measures against urine losses.

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MODIFICACIONES DEL PARADIGMA DE GRAMÁTICAS ARTIFICIALES PARA NIÑOS/ MODIFICATIONS OF THE ARTIFICIAL GRAMMARS PARADIGM FOR CHILDREN

LÓPEZ-RAMÓN, MARÍA FERNANDA; URQUIJO, SEBASTIÁN; RICHARD'S, MARÍA MARTA
2008-08-01

Resumen en español El objetivo del presente artículo es describir y analizar las modificaciones al paradigma de Gramáticas artificiales de Reber, que permiten su aplicación en niños a partir de la inclusión de juegos interactivos en soporte informático en dos formatos de presentación: alfabético y figurativo. Se trabajó con una muestra de 50 niños, divididos en dos grupos (tercero y quinto año) de enseñanza general básica de una escuela estatal de Mar del Plata, Argentina. Las (mas) puntuaciones obtenidas en ambas pruebas de aprendizaje implícito mostraron ser significativas con respecto a lo esperado por azar. Las diferencias de las medias (para muestras relacionadas) de los resultados de ambas pruebas no fueron significativas. Las modificaciones sugeridas implican un aporte para evaluar el Aprendizaje Implícito en niños con elementos estimulares y procedimentales basados en la retroalimentación que facilitan la adecuación de los niños a la lógica interna de las pruebas. Resumen en inglés The aim of the present article is to describe and analyze some modifications to the Artificial Grammars Learning Paradigm that makes it adaptable to children by using interactive computer games presented in two formats: Alphabetical and Figurative. We worked with a sample of 50 children of third and fifth year of Basic General Education (EGB) from a Provincial School of Mar del Plata, Argentina. The punctuations obtained in both tests of Implicit Learning were significant (mas) with regard to what was expected by chance. The means comparison (pair-samples) shows that the differences between both tests were not significant. The suggested modifications imply a contribution to the evaluation of Implicit Learning in children with new procedural and visual elements, based on the feedback.

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19

Desarrollo de un cuestionario en español de medida de calidad de vida en pacientes pediátricos con enfermedad renal crónica/ Design of a quality of life questionnaire in Spanish for children with chronic renal disease

Aparicio López, Cristina; Fernández Escribano, A.; Garrido Cantanero, G.; Luque de Pablos, A.; Izquierdo García, E.
2010-01-01

Resumen en español El tratamiento actual de la enfermedad renal crónica en la infancia debe incluir los aspectos sociales y psicológicos implicados en la calidad de vida del niño y de su familia. Nuestro objetivo ha sido desarrollar un instrumento de medida específico de la calidad de vida de los pacientes pediátricos con enfermedad renal crónica en español, ya que no existe actualmente ninguno validado para niños. Hemos desarrollado un cuestionario en español específico para enfe (mas) rmedad renal en niños basado en el test de calidad de vida para adultos con enfermedad renal (KDQOL-SFTM) y en el test de calidad de vida para niños con epilepsia (CAVE) adaptándolos a niños con enfermedad renal, al que denominamos TECAVNER (Test de Calidad de Vida en Niños con Enfermedad Renal). La fiabilidad de dicho cuestionario determinada por el coeficiente α Cronbach fue de 0,92. Las limitaciones del estudio consisten en que no se ha realizado validez de constructo ni test-retest. En conclusión, este trabajo constituye un primer intento para diseñar un cuestionario específico de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en español para niños con enfermedad renal crónica. Resumen en inglés Treatment of chronic renal disease in childhood must include assessment of social and psychological aspects involved in the perceived quality of life of the child and its family. Our objective has been to design a specific tool in Spanish for measuring quality of life in pediatric patients with chronic renal disease, since there is not a validated test for children at the moment. Results: We designed a specific questionnaire for renal disease in children based on the test (mas) of quality of life for adults with renal disease (KDQOL-SFTM) and on the test of quality of life for children with epilepsy (CAVE) adapting them to children with renal disease, denominating TECAVNER (Test of Quality of Life in Children with Renal Disease). Reliability of this questionnaire determined by alfa Cronbach coefficient was 0,92. Limitations: questionnaire determined by Test-retest reliability and construct validity were not conducted. In conclusion, this is a first approach for design a specific health related quality of life test in Spanish for children with chronic renal disease.

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Indicadores de Riesgo para la Caries Dental en Niños Preescolares de La Boquilla, Cartagena/ Risk indicators for dental caries in preschool children from La Boquilla, Cartagena

González-Martínez, Farith; Sánchez-Pedraza, Ricardo; Carmona- Arango, Luis
2009-08-01

Resumen en español Objetivo Describir la ocurrencia de la caries en niños preescolares del corregimiento de La boquilla, Cartagena y relacionarlo con los factores reportados en la literatura como de riesgo. Métodos La muestra fue de 238 niños entre 3 y 5 años. El promedio de edad fue 4.1 (DE=0.82). En cuanto al género, los niños fueron 116 y las niñas 122. La selección individual fue realizada en forma probabilística proporcional al tamaño de la población de cada institución edu (mas) cativa. Para la evaluación de las variables explicatorias y el evento se utilizó un cuestionario y un instrumento clínico respectivamente y los datos fueron analizados a partir de las ocurrencias, realizando un análisis bivariado a través de los Odd Ratios y análisis multivariable por medio de regresión logística. Resultados La prevalencia de caries fue de 60 %, siendo mayor para los niños de 5 años. Los factores asociados de mayor ocurrencia fueron los padres con escolaridad inferior a secundaria y la experiencia de caries. Al realizar los ajustes de los estimadores por la regresión logística, para la experiencia de caries se obtuvo un OR de 26,6, el consumo de dulces diariamente OR=3.37 y la no exposición a fluorizaciones OR=2.17. Conclusiones La presencia de la caries en esta población se puede explicar por estos tres factores asociados; sin embargo, esta evidencia puede cambiar cuando estén involucrados otras circunstancias, momentos y lugares en niños con las mismas características. Resumen en inglés Objective Describing the occurrence of dental caries in preschool children from the Boquilla neighbourhood in Cartagena and relating it to risk factors reported in the medical literature. Methods The sample consisted of 238 preschool children aged 3 to 5. Average age was 4.1. Regarding gender, there were 116 boys and 122 girls. The children were individually selected in a probabilistic way, bearing in mind the size of the population from the chosen educational institution (mas) ; a questionnaire and clinical instrument were used. The data was analysed according to outcome using Odd ratios for bivariate analysis and logistical regression for multivariable analysis. Results Caries prevalence was 60 %, mainly occurring amongst 5 year old children. The major risk factors observed were parents having not progressed to more than secondary level studies and a background of caries. A 26.6 OR was obtained at the moment of adjusting the logistical regression estimators for having a background of caries, 3.37 OR for daily candy consumption and 2.17 OR for non-exposure to fluorides. Conclusions The presence of caries in this population could be explained by means of the three associated risk factors mentioned above. This evidence may become changed when other circumstances, moments and places are involved in children having the same characteristics.

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Indicadores de Riesgo para la Caries Dental en Niños Preescolares de La Boquilla, Cartagena/ Risk indicators for dental caries in preschool children from La Boquilla, Cartagena

González-Martínez, Farith; Sánchez-Pedraza, Ricardo; Carmona- Arango, Luis
2009-08-01

Resumen en español Objetivo Describir la ocurrencia de la caries en niños preescolares del corregimiento de La boquilla, Cartagena y relacionarlo con los factores reportados en la literatura como de riesgo. Métodos La muestra fue de 238 niños entre 3 y 5 años. El promedio de edad fue 4.1 (DE=0.82). En cuanto al género, los niños fueron 116 y las niñas 122. La selección individual fue realizada en forma probabilística proporcional al tamaño de la población de cada institución edu (mas) cativa. Para la evaluación de las variables explicatorias y el evento se utilizó un cuestionario y un instrumento clínico respectivamente y los datos fueron analizados a partir de las ocurrencias, realizando un análisis bivariado a través de los Odd Ratios y análisis multivariable por medio de regresión logística. Resultados La prevalencia de caries fue de 60 %, siendo mayor para los niños de 5 años. Los factores asociados de mayor ocurrencia fueron los padres con escolaridad inferior a secundaria y la experiencia de caries. Al realizar los ajustes de los estimadores por la regresión logística, para la experiencia de caries se obtuvo un OR de 26,6, el consumo de dulces diariamente OR=3.37 y la no exposición a fluorizaciones OR=2.17. Conclusiones La presencia de la caries en esta población se puede explicar por estos tres factores asociados; sin embargo, esta evidencia puede cambiar cuando estén involucrados otras circunstancias, momentos y lugares en niños con las mismas características. Resumen en inglés Objective Describing the occurrence of dental caries in preschool children from the Boquilla neighbourhood in Cartagena and relating it to risk factors reported in the medical literature. Methods The sample consisted of 238 preschool children aged 3 to 5. Average age was 4.1. Regarding gender, there were 116 boys and 122 girls. The children were individually selected in a probabilistic way, bearing in mind the size of the population from the chosen educational institution (mas) ; a questionnaire and clinical instrument were used. The data was analysed according to outcome using Odd ratios for bivariate analysis and logistical regression for multivariable analysis. Results Caries prevalence was 60 %, mainly occurring amongst 5 year old children. The major risk factors observed were parents having not progressed to more than secondary level studies and a background of caries. A 26.6 OR was obtained at the moment of adjusting the logistical regression estimators for having a background of caries, 3.37 OR for daily candy consumption and 2.17 OR for non-exposure to fluorides. Conclusions The presence of caries in this population could be explained by means of the three associated risk factors mentioned above. This evidence may become changed when other circumstances, moments and places are involved in children having the same characteristics.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Aislamiento e identificación de especies del género Malassezia en piel sana de niños desnutridos y eutróficos de multihogares de cuidado diario/ Isolation and identification of Malassezia species isolated of healthy skin of malnourished and eutrophic children attended in day care centers in Venezuela

González-Morán, Evelyn; Rodríguez-Valero, Sofía; Del Monte, María L; Briceño, Marlin; Sintjago, Skarleth; Mesa, Luz Mila; García, Doris; Villalobos, Rafael; Pereira, Nayda
2009-06-01

Resumen en español El género Malassezia comprende un grupo de levaduras lipofílicas, integrantes de la microbiota normal de la piel del hombre y de animales. Se estudió la presencia de especies de Malassezia en piel sana de niños, que asistían a multihogares de cuidado diario de la ciudad de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela. La evaluación antropométrica permitió el diagnóstico de niños desnutridos (n = 48) y eutróficos (n = 40). Estos niños, entre 1 y 6 años de edad, que no p (mas) resentaban lesiones en la piel, se seleccionaron para el estudio. Las muestras de la piel se tomaron de distintas regiones anatómicas. Se empleó el método de la impronta con cinta plástica transparente. Se realizó un examen directo con azul de metileno (0,25%) y se cultivó en el medio Dixon con antibiótico. La identificación de los aislados se hizo según la metodología clásica. Los resultados indican que los niños desnutridos y eutróficos presentaron una colonización por Malassezia en un elevado porcentaje (66,6% y 65,0%, respectivamente). Se observó en los desnutridos un predominio significativo de M. furfur (77,0%). Esta especie se aisló en todas las localizaciones, tanto en los desnutridos como en los eutróficos, mientras que M. slooffiae predominó en la espalda en los eutróficos. Por otra parte, se observó en los desnutridos un predominio significativo de M. furfur en el sexo masculino y en los eutróficos en el femenino. Esta investigación demostró el predominio de M. furfur en piel sana de niños desnutridos y eutróficos. Resumen en inglés The Malassezia genus contains a group of lipophilic yeasts that form part of the normal microbiota of human and animals skins. The presence of Malassezia species was studied on healthy skin in children, who attended day care centers, located in Maracaibo, Zulia state, Venezuela. Children without skin lesions that were anthropometrically classified as malnourished (48) and eutrophics (40), were studied. Samples were taken from different anatomic regions with a transparent (mas) plastic tape. The direct examination was done using blue methylene (0.25%) and then, samples were cultivated in Dixon medium with antibiotic. The identification of the isolated yeasts was done by classical methodology. The results obtained indicate that malnourished and eutrophics children were positive to Malassezia in relatively high prevalences (66.6% and 65.0% respectively). It is worthy of notice that M. furfur was predominantly present in malnourished children (77%). It was isolated from all the anatomic locations in both groups of children. M. slooffiae was mainly located in the back of the eutrophic children. M. furfur was isolated preferently in malnourished male children, while in the eutrophic children, it was observed in females. It was demonstrated that M. furfur was predominantly present in the healthy skin of malnourished and eutrophic children.

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Enfermedad por citomegalovirus en niños chilenos infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana-1/ Cytomegalovinas disease in HIV-1 infected Chilean children

Peña D, Anamaría; Larrañaga L, Carmen; Luchsinger F, Vivian; Villarroel B, Julia; Chávez P, Ana; Wu H, Elba
2007-12-01

Resumen en español Citomegalovirus (CMV) es una infección oportunista frecuente en niños infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH 1) y produce altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia y trascendencia de la enfermedad por CMV en la cohorte de niños chilenos infectados con VIH-1. Se encontró enfermedad por CMV en 28 de 222 niños infectados con VIH-1 (12,6%o); 92%o fue clasificado en etapa C y 61%o en catego (mas) ría 3 (CDC 1994). La enfermedad pulmonar fue la manifestación más común (25). Las muestras clínicas se obtuvieron de tracto respiratorio, sangre, orina y biopsia. Para la detección de CMV se utilizó, preferentemente, el cultivo acelerado (shell vial), (20/28). Todos fueron tratados con ganciclovir ev. El tiempo promedio de sobrevida fue 42 meses hasta el momento de esta evaluación. Conclusión: La enfermedad por CMV causó morbilidad y mortalidad en los niños chilenos infectados por VIH-1. El diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces son la base para un resultado exitoso Resumen en inglés Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a frequent opportunistic infection in human inmunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected children associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and impact of CMV disease in a prospective ly followed cohort of HIV-1 infected Chilean children. CMV disease was diagnosed in 28 out of 222 HIV infected children (12.6%); 92% of them were classified in category C and 61% in category 3 (CDC, 199 (mas) 4). Lung disease was the most common manifestation (25 children). Samples were obtained from the respiratory tract, blood, urine and tissue biopsies. Shell vial for CMV early antigen detection was the most commonly used diagnostic technique (20/ 28). All patients were treated with iv.ganciclovir and two children died during the CMV episode. The mean survival time for the remaining children is currently 42 months. Conclusion: CMV disease was frequent and caused mortality in HIV-1 infected Chilean children. Early diagnosis and treatment are key for clinical success

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La experiencia de ser un 'niño débil y enfermo' lejos de su hogar: el caso del Asilo Marítimo, Mar del Plata (1893-1920)/ The experience of a 'weak and sick childhood' far from home: the experience of the Maritime Asylum, Mar del Plata (1893-1920)

Álvarez, Adriana
2010-03-01

Resumen en español Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la vida cotidiana de los 'niños tuberculosos', provenientes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, que fueron internados en el Hospital Marítimo, ubicado a 400km de la metrópolis, en la localidad marítima de Mar del Plata. En 1893, surgió la idea en la Sociedad de Beneficencia de la Capital Federal de fundar un hospital y el Asilo Marítimo destinado a niños enfermos de tuberculosis ósea en general, a niños débiles y convaleciente (mas) s y también al tratamiento de pacientes con tuberculosis extra-pulmonar. En este artículo, se pretende avanzar en la comprensión de dos problemáticas vinculadas entre sí: por un lado las características de la ingerencia institucionalizada de la Sociedad de Beneficencia y por el otro, la experiencia que estos niños tuberculosos vivieron en ese ámbito. Resumen en inglés The objective of this work is to analyze the daily life of 'tubercular children'" coming from the city of Buenos Aires. They were hospitalized in the Maritime Asylum located in the seaside city of Mar del Plata, 400 kilometers from the capital. In 1893, in the Charitable Society of the Federal Capital, the idea arose of founding a hospital and maritime asylum for children ill with osseous tuberculosis in general, weak and convalescing children and the treatment of patient (mas) s with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. This paper attempts to advance the understanding of two inter-related topics: on the one hand, the characteristics of the institutionalized meddling of the Charitable Society, and, on the other, the experience that these tubercular children had in this institution.

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Mediadores de inflamación (Proteína C Reactiva) en el niño con desnutrición Proteico-Energética y en el niño Eutrófico/ Inflammation mediators (C Reactive Protein) in children with Proteic-Energetic malnutrition and in Eutrophic children

Amesty-Valbuena, Alis; Pereira, Nayda; Castillo, José L.; García, Doris; Nuñez, José R.; Cayama, Neyda; Morán, Aida; Parra, María A.; Troconiz, Carmen
2004-03-01

Resumen en español Resumen Con la finalidad de investigar la síntesis de Proteína C Reactiva (PCR) en niños con diferentes grados de desnutrición y entre desnutridos graves infectados y eutróficos infectados; así como en un grupo control de niños eutróficos, se determinó las concentraciones de esta proteína por el método turbidimétrico en 109 niños venezolanos en edades comprendidas entre 6 meses y 6 años. Los resultados encontrados mostraron que el desnutrido grave infectado (mas) aumenta su valor de PCR de manera significativa (80,80 ± 38,39 mg/L) en relación con el no infectado (8,17 ± 3,06 mg/L) (p Resumen en inglés Abstract A multicentrical clinical study was designed with the purpose of measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) in normal and malnourished children, with and without infection. Blood samples were collected without anticoagulant from 109 venezuelan children, between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. The statistical analysis was carried out using the t Student and ANOVA. The values of CRP were higher (80.80 ± 38.39 mg/L) in severe malnourished infected than non-infected malno (mas) urished children (8.17 ± 3.06 mg/L, p

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Comparación de la efectividad entre la aplicación de aceponato de metilprednisolona 0.1% y dipropionato de betametasona 0.05% en niños con prepucio no retráctil/ Comparative effectiveness between 0.1% metilprednisolone aceponate and 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce

Ceballos-González, Sergio; Torres-Cantero, César; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Muñiz, Jesús; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Vásquez, Clemente
2006-04-01

Resumen en español Objetivo: Comparar el porcentaje de mejoría clínica entre aceponato de metilprednisolona versus dipropionato de betametasona tópicos, en niños con prepucio no retráctil. Material y métodos: De agosto del 2001 a noviembre de 2002 se realizó un estudio clínico, doble ciego y controlado en 34 niños con diagnóstico de prepucio no retráctil. Los niños fueron asignados al azar en los siguientes grupos de tratamiento tópico: grupo A; aceponato de metilprednisolona 0 (mas) .1% y grupo B; dipropionato de betametasona a 0.05%. Resultados: De los 34 pacientes analizados se obtuvo mejoría en 88.2% (n = 15) del grupo A y 76.4% (n = 13) del grupo B, sin embargo, no hubo diferencia significativa en la comparación de porcentajes entre los dos grupos estudiados ( = 0.2; p = 0.6). Conclusiones: El porcentaje de mejoría clínica entre los dos tratamientos de esteroides tópicos fue semejante. Resumen en inglés Objective: To compare clinical improvement between treatment with metilprednisolone aceponate vs. betamethasone dipropionate among children with nonretractable prepuce. Material and methods: Between August 2001 and November 2002, we carried out a double blind and controlled clinical trial in 34 children with a diagnosis of nonretracable prepuce. Children were randomly assigned to one of the following groups and topical treatment was administered: Group A; metilprednisolon (mas) e aceponate 0.1% and Group B; betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. Results: Improvement was noted in 88.2% of our sample studied; (n=15) children from group A and 76.4% (n=13) children from group B; however, we did not observe a significant difference when comparing percentages between the two groups ( = 0.2; p = 0.6). Conclusions: The percentage of clinical improvement was similar between the two groups of topical steroid treatment administered.

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Hospitalización por influenza en un Servicio de Pediatría de Santiago de Chile, 2001-2005/ Hospitalization due to influenza in children in Santiago, Chile, 2001-2005

Vega-Briceño, Luis E; Platzer M, Lisbeth; Oyarzún A, M. Angeliza; Abarca V, Katia; Pulgar B, Dahiana; Sánchez D, Ignacio
2008-08-01

Resumen en español Introducción: El virus influenza produce elevadas tasas de hospitalización y complicaciones en niños. Objetivo: Describir el perfil clínico-epidemiológico de los niños hospitalizados por influenza en un hospital universitario. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de las hospitalizaciones respiratorias y por influenza entre enero 2001 y diciembre 2005 en el Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica. Resultados: Se hospitalizaron 3.570 niños por a (mas) lguna causa respiratoria, 124 (3,5%) correspondieron a influenza confirmada, 75% ocurrieron entre abril y junio. La edad promedio fue 20,5 meses (60%) < 2 años), 24% tenían algún factor de riesgo identificado. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre (94%) y tos seca (61%). El 75%) presentó hipoxemia, siendo la complicación más frecuente la neumonía (53%). El promedio (días) de hospitalización y oxígeno fue 4,4 y 2,5; respectivamente. En 52/109 se indicaron antibacterianos, 9 niños ingresaron a cuidados intensivos. No hubo fallecidos. Conclusión: La hospitalización por influenza se asoció a serias complicaciones y afecta especialmente a niños sanos menores de 2 años Resumen en inglés Background: Influenza cause high hospitalization rates and complications in children. Objective: To describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of influenza infection in hospitalized children. Patients and methods: In Universidad Católica Hospital, all hospitalizations due to influenza in children aged 15 days to 14 years, ocurring between January 2001 and December 2005 were reviewed. Results: Of a total of 3570 admissions associated with a respiratory illness, (mas) 124 (3.5%) were due to influenza, of which 75% presented between the months of April and June. Median age was 20.5 months (60% younger than 2 years) and 24% had an underlying risk factor. Most common symptoms were fever (94%) and dry cough (61%) and 75% of the children required oxygen. The most frequent complication was pneumonia (53%). The mean duration of hospitalization and oxygen use were 4.4 and 2.5 days respectively. Fifty two children (49.1%) received an antibiotic and nine children were admitted to intensive care unit. No deaths were recorded. Conclusion: Influenza virus cause serious complications and affects mostly healthy children younger than 2 years

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Literatura para niños: una forma natural de aprender a leer/ Children's literature: a natural way of learning how to read

Escalante de Urrecheaga, Dilia; Caldera, Reina
2008-12-01

Resumen en español El propósito del artículo es destacar la importancia de la literatura infantil para motivar e involucrar a los niños con la lectura a fin de despertar la creatividad y el desarrollo de la imaginación. Para ello, se plantean tres aspectos fundamentales: 1) Funciones de la literatura infantil; 2) Papel del docente como promotor de la literatura infantil; y 3) Estrategias que favorecen el aprendizaje natural de la lectura, relacionadas con la literatura para niños. El a (mas) nálisis se fundamenta en el enfoque constructivista del aprendizaje del lenguaje. Se concluye con la mención de algunas consideraciones teórico-prácticas para mejorar el trabajo de la literatura infantil en el aula. Resumen en inglés The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of literature for children to motivate and involve them in reading in order to awaken creativity and the development of imagination. For this, three fundamental aspects are stated: 1) Children's literature functions; 2) The role of the teacher as promoter of children's literature; and 3) Strategies that favor the learning how to read naturally, related with children's literature. The analysis is founded in the constru (mas) ctivist approach of learning the language. It is concluded by mentioning some theoretical-practical considerations to improve the job of children's literature in the classroom.

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Luces y sombras en la televisión española para niños y jóvenes : la transmisión sociocultural en el caso de Canal Sur TV = Lights and shadows in the spanish television for children and teenagers : the sociocultural transmision in Canal Sur TV

Reig, Ramón; Labio Bernal, Aurora; López Hidalgo, Antonio

Este artículo pretende ofrecer una panorámica muy general sobre una actividad de dinámica laboral determinada por un contexto que, en nuestros días, se conoce como Nueva Economía o neoliberalismo. Dicha actividad laboral está centrada en la dinámica de los emisores de mensajes destinados al público ...

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Infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina adquiridas en la comunidad en niños antes sanos y en niños relacionados al hospital en la Argentina/ Community onset of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in previously healthy or health care-associated children en Argentina

Paganini, M, Hugo; Della L, Paula; Muller O, Beatriz; Ezcurra, Gustavo; Uranga, Macarena; Aguirre, Clarisa; Ensinck, Gabriela; Miranda, Marys Kamiya, M. Rosa; Ciriaci, Cristina; Hernández, Claudia; Casimir, Lidia; Rial, M. José; Schenonne, Norma; Ronchi, Estela; Rodríguez, M. del Carmen; Aprile, Fabiana; De Ricco, Catalina; Saito, Viviana; Vrátnica, Claudia; Pons, Laura; Ernst, Adriana; Morinigo, Sandra; Toffoli, Marcelo; Bosque, Celia; Monzani, Victoria; Mónaco, Andrea; Pinheiro, José L; López, M. del Pilar; Maninno, Leonardo; Sarkis, Claudia
2009-10-01

Resumen en español Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus meticilina-resistente proveniente de la comunidad (SAMRC) es altamente prevalente en diversos países del planeta. Objetivos: Realizar un análisis clínico comparativo entre las infecciones por SAMRC en niños antes sanos (SAMR-CO) y aquellos con S. aureus MR en pacientes con patologías previas (SAMR-RH). Material y Métodos: Estudio multicéntrico, prospectivo y comparativo. Fueron incluidos los niños que tenían infección clínic (mas) a y microbiológicamente documentada por SAMRC. Resultados: Entre 11/2006 y 11/2007 fueron diagnosticadas 840 infecciones porS. aureus. De ellas 582 (69%) fueron detectadas en la comunidad. Entre estas 356 (61%) fueron SAMRC. Entre estas últimas 75 (21%) fueron SAMR-RH y 281 (79%) SAMR-CO. La mediana de edad fue de 36 meses (rango: 1-201). Las enfermedades de base más frecuentes fueron: dermatopatías crónicas (13) y enfermedad crónica del SNC (9). Los niños con infección por SAMR-RH presentaron con mayor frecuencia tratamiento antimicrobiano previo (63 vs 34%), consultas médicas previas (76 vs 52%), procedimiento invasor previo (31 vs 8%o), cirugía (15 vs 0,3%) y fiebre al momento de la consulta (94 vs 74%) (p Resumen en inglés Introduction: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections (CA-MRSA) are prevalent in several countries of the world. These infections seem to differ clinically from those occurring within the health care system (HCS-MRSA). Objective: To compare clinical characteristics of infections by CA-MRSA and HCA-MRSA in the same communitty. Material and Methods: Prospective, multicentric and comparative study. Children with clinically and microbiologica (mas) ly documented CA-MRSA were included. Results: Between 11/2006 and 11/2007, 840 infections caused by S. aureus were diagnosed. Of them 582 (68%) were community-acquired. Among these 356 (61%) were CA-MRSA. In this group, 75 (21%) were HCA-MRSA and 281 (79%) CA-MRSA. The median age was 36months (range: 1-201). Chronic skindisease (13) and chronic disease of CNS (9) were the underlying disease predominant. Children with CA-MRSAhad more frequency of previous antibiotic treatment (63 vs 34%) and previous medical consult (76 vs 52%), invasive procedures (31 vs 8%), surgery (15 vs 0,3%) and fever (94 vs 74%) (p =

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Miocarditis en Niños con Fiebre por Dengue Hemorrágico en un Hospital Universitario de Colombia/ Myocarditis in children affected by dengue hemorrhagic fever in a teaching hospital in Colombia

Salgado, Doris M; Panqueba, Cesar A; Castro, Dolly; R.Vega, Martha; Rodríguez, Jairo A
2009-08-01

Resumen en español Objetivo Determinar la frecuencia de miocarditis en niños con fiebre por Dengue hemorrágico-FDH, en el Huila, Colombia. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de observación prospectiva, entre Marzo del 2005 y Octubre de 2006. Se observaron 102 pacientes con diagnóstico de FDH, basado en los criterios de la OMS, para identificar la frecuencia de miocarditis. Resultados Un 10,7 % de los niños presentaron miocarditis. Solo un caso con miocarditis fue (mas) clasificado como dengue II; los otros diez casos fueron dengue III y IV. La diferencia en la presentación de miocarditis en los estadíos más severos de dengue fue estadísticamente significativa, con un p=0.0004. Diez de los pacientes tuvieron miocarditis que respondió al soporte inotrópico temprano. En el electrocardiograma (EKG), dos pacientes presentaron taquiarritmias, uno tipo supraventricular y otro ventricular, el resto mostró bradicardia sinusal con trastornos de repolarización y bajos voltajes. El ecocardiograma se realizó en 50 % de los niños, encontrándose derrame pericárdico grado I-II en dos pacientes y uno con la fracción de eyección muy disminuida. La estancia promedio fue de 7 días. Un paciente presentó desenlace fatal. Conclusión La presentación de miocarditis alerta sobre la presencia de disfunción miocárdica como una patología a considerarse en pacientes con FDH. Resumen en inglés Objective To determining myocarditis frequency in children suffering from DHF in the Huila region of Colombia. Methods This was a descriptive and prospective study which was carried out between March 2005 and October 2005 involving 102 patients suffering from DHF, based on WHO criteria. These children were followed-up to identify signs of myocarditis. Results 10.7 % of the children had signs of myocarditis; one of them was classified as having dengue II and the other ten (mas) were classified as suffering form dengue III and IV. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.0004). 10 patients had fulminant myocarditis and required early inotropic support. Two patients had tachyarrythmias in the EKG (one SV and one ventricular); the others had sinusal bradichardia and low voltages. Echocardiograms were perfomed on 50 % of the children, revealing pericardial leakage grade I and II in two patients, one with very diminished EF and AF. Average hospital stay was 7 days. 10 had satisfactory outcome whereas one died. Conclusion This series of cases in children reinforces the association between myocarditis and dengue viral infection.

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Miocarditis en Niños con Fiebre por Dengue Hemorrágico en un Hospital Universitario de Colombia/ Myocarditis in children affected by dengue hemorrhagic fever in a teaching hospital in Colombia

Salgado, Doris M; Panqueba, Cesar A; Castro, Dolly; R.Vega, Martha; Rodríguez, Jairo A
2009-08-01

Resumen en español Objetivo Determinar la frecuencia de miocarditis en niños con fiebre por Dengue hemorrágico-FDH, en el Huila, Colombia. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de observación prospectiva, entre Marzo del 2005 y Octubre de 2006. Se observaron 102 pacientes con diagnóstico de FDH, basado en los criterios de la OMS, para identificar la frecuencia de miocarditis. Resultados Un 10,7 % de los niños presentaron miocarditis. Solo un caso con miocarditis fue (mas) clasificado como dengue II; los otros diez casos fueron dengue III y IV. La diferencia en la presentación de miocarditis en los estadíos más severos de dengue fue estadísticamente significativa, con un p=0.0004. Diez de los pacientes tuvieron miocarditis que respondió al soporte inotrópico temprano. En el electrocardiograma (EKG), dos pacientes presentaron taquiarritmias, uno tipo supraventricular y otro ventricular, el resto mostró bradicardia sinusal con trastornos de repolarización y bajos voltajes. El ecocardiograma se realizó en 50 % de los niños, encontrándose derrame pericárdico grado I-II en dos pacientes y uno con la fracción de eyección muy disminuida. La estancia promedio fue de 7 días. Un paciente presentó desenlace fatal. Conclusión La presentación de miocarditis alerta sobre la presencia de disfunción miocárdica como una patología a considerarse en pacientes con FDH. Resumen en inglés Objective To determining myocarditis frequency in children suffering from DHF in the Huila region of Colombia. Methods This was a descriptive and prospective study which was carried out between March 2005 and October 2005 involving 102 patients suffering from DHF, based on WHO criteria. These children were followed-up to identify signs of myocarditis. Results 10.7 % of the children had signs of myocarditis; one of them was classified as having dengue II and the other ten (mas) were classified as suffering form dengue III and IV. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.0004). 10 patients had fulminant myocarditis and required early inotropic support. Two patients had tachyarrythmias in the EKG (one SV and one ventricular); the others had sinusal bradichardia and low voltages. Echocardiograms were perfomed on 50 % of the children, revealing pericardial leakage grade I and II in two patients, one with very diminished EF and AF. Average hospital stay was 7 days. 10 had satisfactory outcome whereas one died. Conclusion This series of cases in children reinforces the association between myocarditis and dengue viral infection.

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Características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por virus parainfluenza en niños hospitalizados/ Clinical and epidemiological manifestations of parainfluenza infection in hospitalized children

Vega-Briceño, Luis E; Pulgar B, Dahiana; Potin S, Marcela; Ferres G, Marcela; Sánchez D, Ignacio
2007-10-01

Resumen en español Los virus parainfluenza del ser humano (VPIh) son patógenos importantes de enfermedad respiratoria en niños; pese a ello, existe escasa información publicada en Sudamérica dirigida a caracterizar esta infección. Objetivo: Describir las manifestaciones clínicas y epidemiológicas específicas de los VPIh en niños hospitalizados. Pacientes y Métodos: Se revisaron todas las hospitalizaciones respiratorias (HR) efectuadas en el Hospital de la Pontificia Universidad Ca (mas) tólica, Santiago, Chile, durante el período 2001-2004 y sus respectivos estudios virales obtenidos de secreciones nasofaríngeas en aquellos con sospecha de infección viral. Resultados: Se identificaron 3.043 HR siendo 64 (2,1%) VPUrh La edad promedio fue 13 meses (rango: 1 m-12 a) siendo 77%) de edad inferior a dos años. VPIh-2 fue el serotipo prevalente (47%), observándose una tendencia estacional para los serotipos 2 y 3. Las presentaciones más frecuentes fueron sibilancias asociadas a virus (40%o) y neumonía (30%). Todas las bronquiolitis se presentaron asociadas a VPIh serotipos 2 y 3. Sólo 17% de los hospitalizados por VPIh+ (44% VPIh-1) desarrollaron laringitis. Conclusión: Virus parainfluenza humano puede ser responsable de HR en niños, mostrando una tendencia estacional VPIh-2 y el serotipo 3. Aunque son poco frecuentes como causa de HR, confirmamos su participación como etiología específica de laringitis, bronquiolitis y neumonía, especialmente en niños pequeños Resumen en inglés Background: Human parainfluenza viruses (hPIV) are a common cause of respiratory illness of children but published data on clinical characteristics of hPIV infection in South America is scarce. Objective: To review the clinical presentation and epidemiological features of hPIV in a series of hospitalized children in Chile. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of clinical charts from all pediatric admissions with a diagnosis of respiratory disease (between January 20 (mas) 01 to December 2004) at the Catholic University Hospital, Santiago, Chile. Nasopharyngeal secretions were tested for hPIV in children admitted with suspected respiratory viral infections. Results: A total of 3,043 respiratory admissions were recorded during the study period; 64 children (2.1%) were hPIV positive. Average age was 13 months (range: lm to 12y) and 77%> were younger than 2 years. HPIV-2 was the most common type identified (47%). A seasonal trend was noted for serotypes hPIV-2 and 3. Acute wheezing (40%o) and pneumonia (30%) were the most common clinical diagnosis in hPIV positive children and 17%> hPIV positive children (44%> for hPIV-1) were associated with laryngitis. All hPIV positive bronchiolitis were due to serotypes hPIV-2 and 3. Conclusion: hPIV can cause respiratory disease requiring hospitalization; serotypes hPIV-2 and 3 displayed a seasonal trend. Although hPIV is an uncommon cause of severe respiratory infecion requiring hospitalization in children, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia, especially in younger children

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Características clínicas de la enfermedad respiratoria causada por Mycoplasma pneumoniae en niños hospitalizados/ Clinical characterizes of respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in hospitalized children

Paúl D, M. de los Ángeles; Vega-Briceño, Luis E; Potin S, Marcela; Ferrés G, Marcela; Pulgar B, Dahiana; García B, Cristián; Holmgren P, Linus; Sánchez D, Ignacio
2009-08-01

Resumen en español Introducción: La infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae es una condición respiratoria poco estudiada en nuestro medio. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de los niños hospitalizados porM. pneumoniae. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron todos los pacientes hospitalizados por infecciones respiratorias durante el 2000-2005, con IgM específica; se utilizó como diagnóstico de enfermedad por M. pneumoniae la presencia de fluorescencia verde manzana 2 a 3 po (mas) sitivo en títulos ≥ 1:32 diluciones. Resultados: Se analizaron 50 hospitalizaciones, con estadía promedio de 4 días (rango: 1-10); la edad promedio fue 5,4 años (46% bajo 5 años). Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron tos (92%), fiebre (82%), compromiso del estado general (74%) y dificultad respiratoria (72%). Al momento del ingreso 40/45 presentaron hipoxemia. La radiografía de tórax (RT) reveló infiltrado intersticial (69,3%), foco de consolidación (51%) e hi-perinsuflación (28,5%). Seis presentaron efusión pleural asociada. En 84% la evolución fue favorable; sin embargo, 8 niños ingresaron a la Unidad de Paciente Critico para monitorización. No hubo decesos Conclusiones: La infección respiratoria asociada aM. pneumoniae en niños produjo manifestaciones inespecíficas y variables de un caso a otro. La RT reveló una variedad de presentaciones similar a lo mostrado en la literatura médica Resumen en inglés Introduction: Studies onMycoplasmapneumoniae infection are scarce in Chile. Objective: To describe clinical characteristics associated withM. pneumoniae in children requiring hospitalization. Material and Methods: All children with a respiratory infection requiring hospitalizations between 2000-2005, whom had aM. pneumoniae specific IgM ≥ 1:32, were analyzed. Results: Fifty children meeting study criteria were identified with an ave-rage length of hospitalization of (mas) 4 days (range: 1-10); mean age was 5.4 years (46% were younger than 5 years). Common clinical features were cough (92%), fever (82%), malaise (74%) and respiratory distress (72%). At admission 40/45 children had hypoxemia. Chest-X ray showed interstitial pattern (69.3%), consolidation (51%) and hyperinsuflation (28.5%). Six patients had pleural effusion. Eighty four percent of patients had a favorable clinical outcome; eight children required admission to the PICU all of whom recovered. Conclusión: Respiratory infections associated withM. pneumoniae in our series of children had a highly variable and non-specific clinical spectrum. Chest-X rays showed different pattern in concordance with previous publications

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Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia/ Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia

Londoño, Ángela L; Mejía, Shirley; Gómez-Marín, Jorge E
2009-02-01

Resumen en español Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993) asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato uno y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia). Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de paras (mas) itismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Resumen en inglés Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220) of children aged 6 to 60 months, residing in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993) from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ri (mas) tchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year).

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Prevalencia y Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Parasitismo Intestinal en Preescolares de Zona Urbana en Calarcá, Colombia/ Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitism in preschool children from the urban area of Calarcá, Colombia

Londoño, Ángela L; Mejía, Shirley; Gómez-Marín, Jorge E
2009-02-01

Resumen en español Objetivo Determinar prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal y su relación con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, de saneamiento y prácticas de higiene. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio "cross sectional" en 220 niños entre 6 y 60 meses (N:1 993) asistentes a hogares infantiles de estrato uno y dos del área urbana de Calarcá (Colombia). Se estudió una muestra coprológica por método de concentración de Ritchie Resultados La prevalencia general de paras (mas) itismo entre los niños estudiados fue de un 54,7 %. Se encontró una prevalencia de Blastocystis de 36,4 % y de Giardia en 13,2 %. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo asociados estadísticamente con el parasitismo: edad mayor a dos años, no desparasitar las mascotas, tener hermanos, y recibir alimentos en el tetero diferentes a la leche. Conclusiones Este estudio muestra una alta frecuencia de Blastocystis en niños preescolares de un centro urbano con buen acceso a servicios públicos. Es necesario hacer enfasís en los programas de control de zoonosis y la desparasitación de mascotas. Se recomienda la vigilancia periódica de parásitos por exámenes en estos niños. Resumen en inglés Objectives Determining intestinal parasite prevalence and their relationship with social and demographic risk factors, hygiene procedures and sanitation in pre-school children. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=220) of children aged 6 to 60 months, residing in social strata one, two and three type homes (N:1,993) from the urban area of the city of Calarcá. Both microscopic and macroscopic studies were carried out using Ri (mas) tchie's test to confirm the diagnosis. Results 54.7% parasitism prevalence was found. Pathogenic parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 36.4% Blastocystis hominis and 13% Giardia lamblia . Bivariate analysis found intestinal parasite association with lack of parasite control of domestic animals, having brothers and sisters and having received food different to milk from a baby's bottle. Anemia was studied in 209 children and 3.3% prevalence found. Low weight prevalence was 9.6% and 7.5% for obesity. Conclusions A high Blastocystis prevalence was found in this group of preschool children residing in an urban setting and having good access to sanitary services. Controlling parasites on pets should be emphasized. This group of children should be submitted to periodical coprological analysis (once a year).

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Enfoque diagnóstico del dolor de cadera en niños/ Diagnostic approach to hip pain in children

Elorza Parra, Mussatyé; Eraso Garnica, Ruth María
2006-09-01

Resumen en español EL DOLOR DE CADERA O COXALGIA es uno de los principales motivos de consulta relacionados con problemas osteoarticulares en la edad pediátrica. Este artículo presenta su etiología por grupos de edad y aporta elementos clínicos y paraclínicos útiles en el diagnóstico diferencial. Resumen en inglés HIP PAIN IS ONE OF THE MOST FREQUENT musculoskeletal complaints in children. In this article we review its common causes according to age groups, and discuss clinical, radiological and laboratory criteria that are useful in making the differential diagnosis.

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Tratamiento intravenoso inicial abreviado en 70 pacientes pediátricos con infecciones osteo-articulares/ Short duration of initial intravenous treatment in 70 pediatric patients with osteoarticular infections

Prado S, M. Alejandra; Lizama C, Macarena; Peña D, Anamaría; Valenzuela M, César; Viviani S, Tamara
2008-02-01

Resumen en español Las infecciones osteoarticulares (IOA) son poco frecuentes en pediatría. Existe controversia acerca de la óptima duración y la vía de administración de la terapia antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Caracterizar y describir la evolución y complicaciones en niños con IOA que recibieron 7 días iniciales de terapia endovenosa, completando 4 a 6 semanas de terapia total. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a 70 niños con diagnóstico de IOA, entre marzo de (mas) 2003 y diciembre de 2004 en un hospital pediátrico, quienes recibieron tratamiento endovenoso abreviado a 7 días, seguido de terapia oral por 3 a 5 semanas. Resultados: La incidencia de IOA fue de 1,8: 10.000 niños bajo 15 años de edad. El promedio de edad fue 6,4 ± 4,4 años. Sesenta por ciento presentaba artritis séptica, 36% osteomielitis y 4% osteoartritis. En 80% la infección se localizó en extremidades inferiores. Los cultivos fueron positivos en 59%. En 46,5% se aisló Staphylococcus aureus. Siete niños evolucionaron con dolor persistente o elevación significativa de PCR y requirieron prolongar la terapia endovenosa y/o total, sin presentar complicaciones a corto plazo. Conclusiones: Siete días de terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa parece ser efectivo y recomendable para el tratamiento, en su fase inicial, de las infecciones osteo-articulares Resumen en inglés Osteoarticular infections (OAI) are infrequent in pediatrics and there is controversy on the need for prolonged use of intravenous antimicrobials. Objective: To characterize and describe evolution and complications of a regimen of 7 days initial intravenous antibiotic treatment for OAI in children, completing 4-6 weeks of total treatment. Patients and methods: In a large pediatric hospital, 70 children younger than 15 years of age were diagnosed with OAI between March 200 (mas) 3 and December 2004. Children received 7 days of intravenous antibiotics followed by 3 to 5 weeks of oral treatment. Results: Incidence of OAI in this hospital was 1.8:10000. Patients mean age was 6.4 ±4.4 years and 60% presented with septic arthritis, 36% osteomyelitis and 4% osteoarthritis. In 80% of cases, the infection was located in the lower extremity. Positive cultures were obtained in 59% predominating Staphylococcus aureus (46.5%). Seven patients had prolonged pain or persistantly high or increasing serum C reactive protein levels and were maintained on prolonged intravenous therapy. None of the 63 children with 7 day intravenous antimicrobials nor the 7 children with prolonged intravenous use developed a complication in the short-term follow up. Conclusions: Seven days of intravenous antibiotic for the initial phase of OAI treatment was effective in a majority of children and may be recommended

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Estudio del niño en contacto con paciente tuberculoso/ Evaluation of children with tuberculosis contact

Gutiérrez C, Daniela; Moreno M, Claudia; Araya D, Andrea; González L, Marcela
2010-10-01

Resumen en español La tuberculosis (TBC) es una enfermedad de distribución mundial, producida por Mycobacterium tuberculosis (bacilo de Koch), que ha re-emergido desde la década de los 80 en relación a la pandemia de VIH. Chile es uno de los países latinoamericanos con menores tasas de prevalencia de TBC. En los niños, la TBC presenta algunas características distintas al adulto en cuanto a patogenia, clínica y probabilidad de progresión desde una infección latente a enfermedad, sie (mas) ndo más difícil realizar el diagnóstico y mayor la probabilidad de desarrollar enfermedad una vez infectados. Existe un Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de la TBC que nos permite plantear estrategias de prevención y quimioprofilaxis. Este artículo esquematiza estas estrategias para orientar el estudio y manejo de niños que entran en contacto con pacientes con TBC Resumen en inglés Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide infectious disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Koch bacilli), that has re-emerged since the decade of the 80’s in relation to the pandemic of HIV infection. Chile has one of the lowest TB prevalence rates in Latin America. In children, TB exhibits some differences from adult disease in terms of pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and probability of progression from the infected state to disease, making it more difficult to di (mas) agnose and increasing the likelihood of developing the disease once the infection is acquired. There is a National Program for the Prevention and Control of TB that allows us to develop prevention and chemoprophylaxis strategies. This article summarizes these strategies to guide the study and management of children in contact with TB patients

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Guía de práctica clínica basada en la evidencia para el diagnóstico de disfagia en niños/ Evidence-based practice guidelines for the diagnosis of dysphagia in children

Henao Mejía, Paula Andrea; Lopera Cañaveral, María Victoria; Salazar Blanco, Olga Francisca; Medina Piedrahíta, Paula Andrea; Morales Múnera, Olga Lucía
2009-06-01

Resumen en español Se presenta una guía basada en la evidencia para el diagnóstico de disfagia en niños. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda de artículos indexados entre enero de 1996 y diciembre de 2007 en las bases de datos Medline, Lilacs y el registro Cochrane. Se hizo restricción por idioma a publicaciones en inglés y español y, por edad, solo se incluyó a la población pediátrica. Se complementó la exploración con artículos incluidos en la bibliografía de artículos primarios (mas) y citados en revisiones no sistemáticas. La estrategia de búsqueda produjo 605 artículos de los cuales se seleccionaron 58. El análisis de la validez de los artículos y el grado de recomendación se hicieron por consenso entre los investigadores. El desarrollo de la guía se basó en el instrumento AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) y en el modelo GRADE del Colegio Americano de Médicos del Tórax (Grading Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence in Clinical Guidelines). El enfoque diagnóstico del niño con disfagia debe partir de la sospecha clínica. La anamnesis y el examen físico deben preceder a cualquier actividad diagnóstica. Se encontró que en niños con alta sospecha clínica de disfagia debe complementarse la evaluación clínica con la videofluoroscopia (Recomendación 1C), que es el estándar de oro para confirmar la presencia de aspiración o penetración de la vía aérea (Recomendación 1A). El ultrasonido es el método de elección en niños con disfagia asociada a anormalidades de la lengua. (Recomendación 1C). La electromiografía se puede utilizar como una prueba de tamizaje para niños mayores de cinco años con alteración de la musculatura facial (Recomendación 2B). La resonancia magnética nuclear es útil en pacientes con sospecha de lesiones cervicales que alteran la dinámica de la deglución (Recomendación 1C). Se concluye que los estudios diagnósticos disponibles tienen deficiencias metodológicas que no permiten hacer recomendaciones de mayor grado de validez. Resumen en inglés We present an evidence-based guideline for the diagnosis of dysphagia in children. The articles included were retrieved by electronic search in Medline, Lilacs, and Cochrane databases. The search was restricted to those published between January 1996 and December 2007, in English or Spanish, and only to those including children (0-18 years). Manual search of papers cited by primary articles and non-systematic reviews was also done. The search strategy identified 605 artic (mas) les and 58 were chosen for further analysis. Evaluation of the papers was carried out by all the authors and recommendations were done by consensus. The guideline was developed by using the AGREE instrument (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) and the GRADE model (Grading Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence in Clinical Guidelines) from the American College of Chest Physicians. The diagnostic approach to children with dysphagia begins with clinical suspicion, and thorough clinical history and physical examination should precede any diagnostic test. We found that in children with clinical features that suggest dysphagia, videofluoroscopy is the recommended imaging technique to confirm this condition (Recommendation 1C). This test is considered to be the gold standard to demonstrate aspiration and/or penetration of contrast material into the airway (Recommendation 1A). Ultrasound is considered as the best diagnostic imaging technique in children with dysphagia associated with tongue abnormalities (Recommendation 1C). On the other hand, electromyography might be used as a screening test in children aged 5 years or more with disorders of the facial muscles (Recommendation 2B). Finally, magnetic resonance imaging seems to provide the best diagnostic yield in those children with cervical lesions responsible for disrupting deglutition dynamics (Recommendation 1C). In conclusion, available articles on diagnostic tests for dysphagia have serious methodological deficiencies and do not allow recommendations with better levels of evidence.

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Ideación suicida en población escolarizada infantil: factores psicológicos asociados/ Suicidal ideation among school children population: psycological factors associated

Miranda de la Torre, Ixchel; Cubillas Rodríguez, María José; Román Pérez, Rosario; Abril Valdez, Elba
2009-12-01

Resumen en español El suicidio es un problema de salud pública y un fenómeno social que incide sobre el desarrollo humano. A partir de la década de 1970 se observan en nuestro país suicidios en el grupo de infantes y escolares en el rango de edad de cinco a 14 años. Las lesiones autoinfligidas se ubican en el octavo lugar de las causas de defunciones para este grupo etáreo. El comportamiento suicida es un proceso de varias etapas. La primera es la ideación suicida que se refiere a lo (mas) s pensamientos en torno a la propia muerte y es de vital importancia como factor predictor para llegar al suicidio consumado. Aunque existe alguna investigación sobre el tema, ésta es escasa en población menor de 14 años. De ahí que en el presente estudio el objetivo es analizar los factores psicológicos en niños y niñas de 10 a 13 años, a fin de identificar aquellos asociados con la ideación suicida. Material y métodos El estudio fue descriptivo de tipo comparativo, observacional, transversal. Participantes: 631 estudiantes de quinto y sexto de primaria, varones y mujeres con edades de 10 a 13 años, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora. Instrumentos: Cuestionario en formato autoaplicado con las siguientes escalas: Children's Depresion Inventory CDI, escala de ansiedad manifiesta en niños CMAS-R y el inventario de autoestima de Coopersmith. Procedimiento: Se aplicó la primera parte del cuestionario a 631 niños, posteriormente se trabajó con una submuestra de dos grupos iguales: Uno identificado con ideación suicida (174) y el otro sin ideación (174), a los que se les aplicó la segunda parte del cuestionario. Análisis de datos: Se utilizó la prueba no paramétrica χ² y razón de prevalencias del paquete estadístico SPSS. Resultados La media de edad fue de 10.9 años, la variable sexo quedó a su vez distribuida en 50.8% niñas y 49.2% niños, el 72.1% de ellos en escuelas públicas y 27.9% en escuelas privadas, semejante a la proporción de la matrícula de educación primaria para los grupos de quinto y sexto grados. El 29.2% de los niños y niñas manifestó ideas suicidas. Depresión: El grupo de niños con ideación suicida presentó mayores estados depresivos en comparación con el grupo sin ideación (p Resumen en inglés Nowadays, suicide is a public health problem and a social phenomenon that affects human development. From 1995 to 2002, the state of Sonora showed a 3.8% annual average increase in the occurrence of suicide in productive age population, occupying the national third place with regard to this problem's growth. During the 1970's suicide in groups of infants and school children between 5 and 14 years old started to be noticed in the country. At present time, self-inflicted in (mas) juries are eighth cause of death for this age group. Suicidal behavior is a process comprised by several stages: passive suicidal ideation, active contemplation of suicide itself, planning and preparation, suicide attempt execution, and completed suicide. Since these stages may or not be sequential, it is important to study the steps preceding suicides, such as the ideation and the attempt, in order to know and treat this problem. The suicidal ideation is a very important stage as predictive factor to approach the completed suicide and refers to the thoughts regarding one's own death, which may or not be verbalized. There is little research about this subject matter particularly in regards to population under 14; hence, in this study, psychological factors of a sample comprised by boys and girls between 10 and 12 from public and private schools from the State of Sonora will be analyzed and compared to identify those children associated with suicidal ideation and advance in the understanding of this complex phenomenon. Material and methods The study was descriptive-comparative, observational, and transversal in nature. Sample: 631 elementary school fifth and sixth grader students, both genders, aged between 10 to 13 years, from 16 public schools and four private schools in Hermosillo, Sonora. A 631 student sample was considered through clusters connecting the entire schools within the city and the number of students enrolled in the school term. Instruments: A self applied form questionnaire, which evaluates socio-demographic data, was used with the following scales: Children's Depression Inventory CDI; Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale CMAS-R (revised); Self Esteem Inventory. Procedure: In order to carry out this research, authorization was requested to the Ministry of Education of Sonora. In a first phase during an academic hour, a self-applied form questionnaire with socio-demographic information and the depression scale was given. Subsequently, the second part of the questionnaire was given to a sub-sample of two equal groups, one of them identified with suicidal ideation and the other one without ideation. Data analysis: The statistical analyses were performed using the program SPSS version 15.0. Non-parametric test χ² (Chi Square) and prevalence ratio (odds ratio) were used. Results A total of 631 boys and girls were evaluated with the depression questionnaire during the first phase. The mean age was 1 0.9 years (range: 10-13 years), the gender variable was distributed 50.8% girls and 49.2% boys, as a result of the registration rate for fifth and sixth grades of elementary education; 72.1% of the children were in public schools and 27.9% in private schools. In accordance to answers of CDI item 9, children who marked these two possible answers: > (18.1%) and > (11.1%) were considered with suicidal ideation. This scale evaluated how the children felt during the two weeks previous to taking the questionnaire and 29.2% of the children somehow showed suicidal ideas. The sub-sample defined from the total population was distributed into two groups: one control group with 184 children without suicidal ideation and another group with 184 children with suicidal ideation. Depression: In regard to depression, results showed that group with suicidal ideation presented greater depressive states compared to the group without suicidal ideation (p

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Situación de la mortalidad por causas reducibles en menores de cinco años, Colombia, 1985-2004/ Mortality by avoidable causes in preschool children

Lurán, Albenia; López, Elizabeth; Pinilla, Consuelo; Sierra, Pedro
2009-03-01

Resumen en español Introducción. La tasa de mortalidad de menores de cinco años es un indicador del estado de salud de la población en general, que refleja en forma directa el nivel de vida y el grado de desarrollo de un país. Objetivo. Determinar y analizar la tendencia de la mortalidad en menores de cinco años en Colombia, entre 1985 y 2004, según causas reducibles o evitables. Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo. Las fuentes de información fueron las b (mas) ases de datos de las defunciones registradas y las proyecciones de población del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística de 1985 a 2004; el indicador utilizado fue la tasa de mortalidad por causas reducibles. Resultados. En niños menores de un año, la mortalidad reducible por “diagnóstico y tratamiento médico precoz” ocupó el primer lugar en todos los años con más del 50% de las defunciones; y en los niños de uno a cuatro años, el subgrupo “otras importantes reducibles” correspondió a más del 40% de las defunciones, debido principalmente a las muertes por enfermedades del aparato respiratorio. La tasa de mortalidad por causas reducibles disminuyó en 34% en menores de un año y, en los niños de uno a cuatro años, 23%. Conclusiones. La tasa de mortalidad por causas reducibles en menores de cinco años ha disminuido. Sin embargo, entre 77% y 80% se podría reducir; situación que amerita un análisis más profundo de las estrategias utilizadas en salud pública, especialmente frente a las enfermedades prevenibles de la infancia. Resumen en inglés Introduction. The infant-mortality rate in children aged less than five is an indicator of the general state of health of a population and directly reflect the quality of life and the level of socio-economic development of a country. Objective.Avoidable mortality was assessed in preschool children as a reflection of Colombia quality of life and socio-economic development. Materials and methods. Mortality trends were analyzed in preschool children aged less than five throu (mas) ghout Colombia during a 20-year period from 1985-2004, and focused on mortality causes that were considered avoidable.This was a descriptive, retrospective study; the sources of information were Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística records of deaths and population projections 1985-2004. Mortality rate due to avoidable causes was the statistical indicator. Results. In children aged less than one, the reducible mortality due to “early diagnosis and medical treatment” occupied the first place amongst causes for every year of the study period and accounted for more than 50% of recorded deaths. In children aged 1 to 4, the category “other important reducible causes” was associated with 40% of recorded deaths-deaths due mainly to respiratory diseases. Over the 20-year period, the avoidable mortality rate decreased by 34% in children aged less than one, in children 1-4, it decreased by 23%. Conclusions. Although the infant-mortality rate in preschoolchildren was reduced, the decrease was small, from 80% to 77%. The situation requires more analysis with respect to strategies in public health, particularly concerning preventable diseases of the infancy.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Manejo de la infección del tracto urinario en lactantes febriles: Experiencia de tratamiento antimicrobiano intravenoso ambulatorio/ Treatment of urinary tract infections in febrile infants: Experience of outpatient intravenous antibiotic treatment

Peña D, Anamaría; Viviani S, Tamara; Le Corre P, Nicole; Morales M, Viera; Montecinos B, Constanza; Gajardo S, Cristina
2009-08-01

Resumen en español Objetivo: Describir la factibilidad, efectividad y seguridad del tratamiento intravenoso (iv) ambulatorio en niños de 2 meses a 2 años con infección del tracto urinario (ITU) y fiebre. Método: Entre abril 2003 y abril 2005 se realizó un estudio prospectivo en pacientes con fiebre sin foco derivados de Emergencia Infantil, finalmente diagnosticados como ITU, estableciéndose dos grupos con tratamiento iv: uno hospitalizado y otro ambulatorio. Se administró amikacina (mas) o ceftriaxona según criterio del médico de turno, hasta obtener resultado del urocultivo, y posteriormente se cambió a tratamiento oral. Se controló urocultivo intra y post tratamiento registrándose adherencia, efectividad y complicaciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron 112 pacientes (58 hospitalizados y 54 ambulatorios), con edad promedio de 7,8 meses. El promedio de días de tratamiento iv fue 2,8 días (SD 1,2) sin diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos 2,7 +0,91 días en los internados vs 2,9 + 1,9 días en los ambulatorios (p = 0,22). En 100% de ambos grupos de pacientes (en globo 101/101) el urocultivo obtenido al día 5 fue estéril. No hubo complicaciones del tratamiento o sobre la vía venosa. El análisis de costos concluyó que en globo, el manejo ambulatorio representó un 73% de ahorro económico (1.430.000 pesos chilenos vs 5.300.000 pesos en el sólo rubro de día-cama Conclusiones: El tratamiento iv ambulatorio en pacientes con ITU febril entre 2 y 24 meses fue efectivo, seguro y a un menor costo Resumen en inglés Objective: To describe the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of intravenous (iv) outpatient treatment in 2 to 24 month-old children with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Method: Children presenting to the ER, between April 2003-2005, with fever and no identifiable focus who had a diagnosis of UTI were randomized to receive iv antibiotic in the hospital or in an outpatient facility. Children were started on amikacin or ceftriaxona according to physician criteria (mas) followed by antimicrobial adjustment based on uriñe culture result and a later switch to an oral antimicrobial. Uriñe cultures were performed during and after completing the antimicrobial course. Adherence and effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment and treatment-associated complications were analyzed. Results: The study included 112 patients, 58 inpatient children and 54 outpatient children, with an average age of 7.7 months. Duration of iv treatment didnot differ among groups (2.8 days (SD 1.2) 2.7 +0.91 days ininpatients vs 2.9 + 1.9 days in outpatients (p = 0.22). In 100% of outpatient children and 100% of inpatient children (overall 101/101) uriñe cultures were negative on day 5. None of the children had a treatment-associated complication. Cost analysis yielded 73% of saving money (overall cost for inpatient treatment US 9,815 vs outpatient treatment US 2,650). Conclusions: Outpatient iv treatment in patients between 2 and 24 months with UTI and fever was effective, safe and of lower cost

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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alpha 1-Antitrypsin and coeliac disease in spain.

Vazquez, C; Klasen, E C; Biemond, I; Polanco, I; Peña, A S

Ninety-three Spanish children suffering from coeliac disease and 103 control subjects from the same area were screened for the amount of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) and for any electrophoretic variations in it. In this case-control study no significant differences were detected either in phenoty...

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Valor de un test clínico para evaluar actividad física en niños/ Value of a clinical test for assessing physical activity in children

Godard M, Claude; Rodríguez N, María del Pilar; Díaz, Nora; Lera M, Lydia; Salazar R, Gabriela; Burrows A, Raquel
2008-09-01

Resumen en inglés Background: An appropriate measurement of physical activity (PA) in children is useful, since inactivity is associated to obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Aim: To assess the reliability of the INTA questionnaire of PA, to compare the derived PA score with accelerometry and to assess its ability to identify excessively inactive children. Material and methods: One hundred eighty children aged 8 to 13 years answered an interviewer-administered questionnaire about (mas) their usual PA, consisting in 5 items (recumbent, seated, walking, playing outdoor, sports). The answers were converted to a PA score with a 0-10 points scale. Reliability was tested in 87 children by test/retest conducted 3-5 days apart. The PA score was compared with 3-day accelerometry in 77 of 93 children (35 obese and 42 non obese). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the optimal cut-point for identify an excessively sedentary child. Results: The test/retest reliability of the questionnaire was 0.69 to 0.93 (Lin coefficient). Accelerometry was significantly associated with PA score (RHO: 0.60, p =0.008), outdoor plays (RHO: 0.37, p =0.0009) and practicing of sports (RHO: 0.33, p =0.003). Obese children were less active than non obese children, according both to PA score and to accelerometry. The optimal cut-point for classifying a child as too sedentary was a score of 5 (sensitivity =0.89). Conclusions: The INTA-test is a valuable instrument for measuring usual PA in clinicalpractice and is easy to administer

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Validación de un puntaje de riesgo cardiovascular en niños españoles aplicado a una población de escolares de Santiago de Chile/ Association between a cardiovascular risk score and early markers of atherosclerotic disease in Chilean children

ARNAIZ, PILAR; PINO, FELIPE; MARÍN, ARNALDO; BARJA, SALESA; AGLONY, MARLENE; CASSIS, BERTA; NAVARRETE, CARLOS; ACEVEDO, MÓNICA
2010-10-01

Resumen en inglés Background: A cardiovascular risk score for children, that includes traditional risk factors, obesity, sedentary habits and a family history of cardiovascular disease, has been recently proposed by Spanish researchers. Aim: To apply this score in school age children in Santiago de Chile and correlate its results with markers of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of data obtained from 209 children, aged 11.5 ± 2 years, studie (mas) d between 2005 and 2006. Weight, height, blood pressure, ultrasound measurement of carotid intimamedia thickness and fow mediated dilatation of brachial artery and ultrasensible C reactive protein (us PCR) were measured. The Spanish cardiovascular risk score was calculated and correlated with ultrasound parameters and C reactive protein. Results: According to the score, 173 children (83%) had a low cardiovascular risk, 28 (13%) an intermediate risk and 8 (4%) a high risk. There was no association between the cardiovascular risk score and carotid intima-media thickness, fow mediated arterial dilatation and us PCR. Conclusions: No significant association was observed between the proposed cardiovascular risk score and early markers of atherosclerotic disease in this group of children

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Validación de ecuaciones antropométricas para evaluar composición corporal en niños preescolares chilenos/ Validation of equations to assess body composition using anthropometric data in Chilean preschool children

Velásquez R, Marcia; Salazar R, Gabriela; Vio del R, Fernando; Díaz Z, Nora; Anziani G, Alyerina
2008-04-01

Resumen en inglés Background: Validated equations to measure body composition in Chilean preschool children are lacking, since the only international equation available was developed in obese, and undernourished Caucasian children. Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in Chile, it is essential to have simple and reliable instruments to assess children. Aim: To design and validate anthropometric equations to estimate body fat (BF) and total body water (TBW) to be applicable in chil (mas) dren aged 3 to 5 years, using deuterated water dilution as a reference method. Materials and Methods: Weight, height, circumferences and skinfold thickness were evaluated in 238 children aged 3 to 5 years, attending Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI). Several equations were developed using multiple regression models to estimate body water and fat. The proposed equations were validated against a sample of 77 children previously evaluated, using Bland and Alunan agreement analysis, that compares average differences of both methods with the average of predicted and estimated values. Results: New equations for TBW and BF were obtained, accounting for 86% and 72% in estimated variability. The agreement analysis showed a mean difference 0.001 ± 0.32 and 0.07 ± 0.56 kg, for TBW and BF, respectively, confirming the validity of the equations. Conclusions: The new validated equations in Chilean children aged 3 to 5 years, have an adequate and predictive capacity, especially useful for evaluating TBW and BF change in cohorts

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Urinary porphyrin excretion in children is associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds

Sunyer, Jordi; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; To-Figueras, Jordi; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan O.; Herrero, Carmen
2008-06-05

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

52

Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance in 1,968 Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Isolated in Spanish Hospitals (2001 to 2003): Decreasing Penicillin Resistance in Children's Isolates

Baquero, Fernando; Oteo, Jesús; de Abajo, Francisco J.; Lázaro, Edurne; Campos, José

To address the public health problem of antibiotic resistance, the European Union (EU) founded the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. A network of 40 hospitals that serve approximately 30% of the Spanish population (about 12 million) participated. Each laboratory reported data on...

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Trauma en el sistema nervioso central y su reparación | Traumatic injuries to the central nervous system and their repair

Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel ; Collazos-Castro, J. E. ; Taylor, Julian Scott ; Gudiño-Cabrera, G. ; Verdú-Navarro, E.

[EN]Development. Brain and spinal cord lesions have an increasing social and economic importance. Accidental traumaof various kinds is the main cause of mortality of children and young adults in developed countries. Only cardiac disease andcancer surpass the number of death caused by accidents and...

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Trauma en el sistema nervioso central y su reparación

Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Collazos-Castro, J. E.; Taylor, Julian Scott; Gudiño-Cabrera, G.; Verdú-Navarro, E.; Pascual-Piédrola, J. I.; Insausti-Serrano, R.
2002-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

55

The black-white test score gap widens with age?

Creel, Michael; Farell, Montserrat
2006-06-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

56

The Spanish Environment and Childhood Research Network (INMA study)

Fernandez, Mariana F. ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Grimalt, Joan O. ; Rebagliato, Marisa ; Ballester, Ferrán ; Ibarluzea, Jesús

3 pages. | Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental agents, including dietary exposure, is associated with child healthand human development and predisposes to late adult effects. Children are more vulnerable than adults to chemical,physical and biological hazards in air, water and soil, ...

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The Spanish Environment and Childhood Research Network (INMA study)

Fernández, Mariana F.; Sunyer, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O.; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferrán; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Torrent, Maties; Olea, Nicolás
2007-06-28

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

58

The "Narrators of Caraguatá" (documentary)

Gianotti, Camila; Dabezies, Juan Martín; De Souza, Gabriel; Bendahan, Gabriel; Costa, Andrés
2010-10-20

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

59

Targeting fertility and female participation through the income tax

Azmat, Ghazala; González, Libertad

We evaluate the effect of a 2003 reform in the Spanish income tax on fertility and the employment of mothers with small children. The reform introduced a tax credit for working mothers with children under the age of three, while also increasing child deductions for all households with children. Theo...

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60

TNFalpha-Polymorphismus bei Patienten mit Sepsis und Schilddrüsenkarzinomen

Rossbach, Christiane

Das Zytokin Tumornekrosefaktor a (TNFa) hat einen entscheidenden Anteil an der Entwicklung schwerer Komplikationen, wie septischer Schock und Multiorganversagen nach Entwicklung einer Sepsis. Eine Assoziation des TNF2-Allels mit einem erhöhten TNF a Spiegel und einer höheren Mortalitätsrate wurde i...

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62

Specific duodenal and faecal bacterial groups associated with paediatric coeliac disease

Collado, María del Carmen; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Calabuig, Miguel; Sanz, Yolanda
2009-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

63

Spain: Short on children and short on family policies

Delgado Pérez, Margarita; Meil, Gerado; Zamora López, Francisco
2008-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

64

Sociocultural influences on disability status in Puerto Rican children

Gannotti, M.-E.; Handwerker, W.P.; Groce, N.E.; Cruz, C.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This article describes culturally defined meanings of childhood function and disability in Puerto Rico to provide a context for the interpretation of test scores from the Spanish translation of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Mor...

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65

Social cognitive predictors of peer acceptance at age 5 and the moderating effects of gender

Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Muñoz, José M.; Carreras, María R.; Braza, Paloma; García, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sánchez-Martín, José R.
2009-09-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

66

Setting the stage for school health-promoting programmes for Deaf children in Spain

Muñoz Baell, Irma María; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Ferreiro Lago, Emilio; Aroca Fernández, Eva

Implementing health-promoting programmes for the most excluded and at-risk social groups forms a key part of any efforts to address underserved populations and reduce health inequalities in society. However, many at-risk children, particularly children in Deaf communities, are not reached, or are po...

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Sesgos de género en el lenguaje de los cuestionarios de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2003 Gender bias in the language of the health questionnaire of the Spanish National Health Survey 2003

Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Simón Rodríguez, Elena; Papí Gálvez, Natalia

Para identificar la posible existencia de sesgos de género en el lenguaje del cuestionario de Adultos y del cuestionario de Hogar de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS) de 2003, se analiza su lenguaje/estilo respecto a generalizaciones imprecisas, desigualdad de trato por uso de términos que refleja...

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Seguimientos de anticuerpos contra hepatitis A y E en una cohorte de niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico/ Hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in Chilean children of low socioeconomic status. A one year follow-up study

Ibarra V, Humberto; Riedemann G, Stella; Toledo A, Claudio
2006-02-01

Resumen en inglés Background: The seroprevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) is decreasing in many Latin American countries, along with improvements in sanitary standards. However, there is no information available about low socioeconomic status (LSE) populations. Aim: To assess the evolution of hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in a cohort of LSE Chilean children. Material and methods: One hundred sixty eight children aged four years, 97 males, coming from public primar (mas) y care clinics, were studied. Two blood samples were obtained with an interval of one year. Anti-HAV and anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies, were detected by ELISA using Abbott kits. Results: Anti-HAV was positive in 19 children (11.3%). After one year of follow-up, only 10 children had sustained reactivity (52.6%). Fourteen children, initially negative, became positive during the follow up (9.4%). Antibody titers to HAV were significantly higher in samples that remained positive, compared with those that lost reactivity. Anti-HEV was found positive in two children (1.2%). One remained positive and the other became negative. Conclusions: In this cohort of LSE Chilean children, the prevalence to antibodies against HAV and HEV is low. Follow-up detected loss of reactivity to HAV in nearly one half of the children, probably related to lower antibody levels

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Gliadin-Induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosa: Study in Germ-Free Rats

Cinova, Jana; de Palma, Giada; Stepankova, Renata; Kofronova, Olga; Kverka, Miloslav; Sanz, Yolanda; Tuckova, Ludmila
2011-01-13

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

74

Reduction of availability of trace metals in urban soils using inorganic amendments

Madrid, Fernando; Romero, A.S.; Madrid, L.; Maqueda Porras, Celia
2006-04-19

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

75

Reduced diversity and increased virulence-gene carriage in intestinal enterobacteria of coeliac children

Sánchez, Ester; Nadal, Inmaculada; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Calabuig, Miguel; Sanz, Yolanda
2008-11-04

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

76

Redistribution and Subsidies for Higher Education

Beviá, Carmen; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Inigo
2001-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

77

Recopilación del conocimiento oral de la lengua y cultura garífunas

María Dolores Álvarez; Bayardo Gámez Montenegro
2009-01-01

Latin America JOL

79

RB1 gene mutation up-date, a meta-analysis based on 932 reported mutations available in a searchable database

Valverde, José R. ; Alonso, Javier ; Palacios, Itziar ; Pestaña, Ángel

[Background] Retinoblastoma, a prototype of hereditary cancer, is the most common intraocular tumour in children and potential cause of blindness from therapeutic eye ablation, second tumours in germ line carrier's survivors, and even death when left untreated. The molecular scanning of RB1 in searc...

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Psychosocial traits of children identified as at risk for language delay by the Spanish MacArthur-CDI

Gallego López, Carlos ; Mariscal, Sonia

The MacArthur CDI Inventories have proved their validity as language assessing instruments, for very small children in the 8 to 30 months age period. Nevertheless, their application and use in clinical contexts is not yet clearlyestablished. The Inventories have been found to correctly predict lang...

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84

Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and asthma in children

Sunyer, Jordi ; Torrent, Maties ; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura ; Ribas-Fitó, Núria ; Carrizo, Daniel ; Grimalt, Joan O.

4 pages.-- PMID: 16330365 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Dec 2005. | Prevalence of asthma increases with increasing dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) levels.However, the effect of early-life exposure, the fundamental window of exposure, is unknown. Weassessed the association between pr...

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85

Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and asthma in children

Sunyer, Jordi; Torrent, Maties; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Carrizo, Daniel; Grimalt, Joan O.; Antó, Josep M.; Cullinan, Paul
2005-07-18

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

86

Portación faríngea de Mycoplasma pneumoniae en niños chilenos/ Asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Chilean children

PALMA S, CAMILO; MARTÍNEZ T, M. ANGÉLICA; SALINAS S, MARCIA; ROJAS G, PAMELA
2005-09-01

Resumen en español La reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) ha demostrado ser una alternativa sensible para el diagnóstico de enfermedad por M. pneumoniae proporcionando resultados en forma oportuna. Sin embargo, no se conoce bien la frecuencia de portación o la persistencia de este microorganismo en la faringe luego de una enfermedad respiratoria en niños, factores que podrían limitar la utilidad de este procedimiento de diagnóstico. Con el objeto de conocer la frecuencia de portaci (mas) ón silenciosa de M. pneumoniae en niños, se estudiaron mediante RPC muestras faríngeas de 185 niños sin signos ni síntomas de infección respiratoria, enrolados en dos consultorios de la Región Metropolitana, Chile, entre septiembre de 2002 y agosto de 2003. M. pneumoniae fue detectado en 4 (2,16%) niños. Las muestras positivas podrían representar portación o persistencia post enfermedad de M. pneumoniae Resumen en inglés PCR has become a sensitive option for the rapid detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory specimens, but little is known of the frequency of its asymptomatic carriage or persistence in the throat after Mycoplasma disease in healthy children. To investigate the frequency of asymptomatic carriage of M. pneumoniae in children, we studied by PCR throat specimens from 185 respiratory asymptomatic children aged 1-14 years, enrolled at two pediatric ambulatory health ser (mas) vices of Santiago, Chile from September 2002 through August 2003. M. pneumoniae DNA was detected in 4 (2.16%) children. Positive specimens could represent either asymptomatic carriage or persistence of the organism from a previous disease

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

87

Physical-chemical and maternal determinants of the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in four-year-old children

Carrizo, Daniel ; Grimalt, Joan O. ; Ribas-Fitó, Núria ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Torrents, Maties

7 pages, 2 figures, 4 tables.-- PMID: 16568751 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Mar 1, 2006. | A cohort study representing a general population (Minorca Island, birth year 1997-1998) showed that in utero transfer of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in children was strongly correlated with the age...

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Physical-chemical and maternal determinants of the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in four-year-old children

Carrizo, Daniel; Grimalt, Joan O.; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Torrents, Maties
2006-01-27

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

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90

Phonetic complexity and stuttering in Spanish

Howell, P; Au-Yeung, J

The current study investigated whether phonetic complexity affected stuttering rate for Spanish speakers. The speakers were assigned to three age groups (6-11, 12-17 and 18-years plus) that were similar to those used in an earlier study on English. The analysis was performed using Jakielski's Index ...

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92

Perfil de presión arterial e historia familiar de hipertensión en niños escolares sanos de Santiago de Chile/ Blood pressure and family history of hypertension in children from Santiago, Chile

Aglony I, Marlene; Arnaiz G, Pilar; Acevedo B, Mónica; Barja Y, Salesa; Márquez U, Sonia; Guzmán A, Beatriz; Berríos C, Ximena
2009-01-01

Resumen en inglés Background: The prevalence of pediatric arterial hypertension (AHT) is approximately 1% to 2%. In the last tenyears, mean blood pressure levels (BP) have raised due to obesity and changes in lifestyles. Family history (FH) of AHT is a risk factor to develop AHT in children. Aim: To assess blood pressure, cardiovascular risk factors and family history in healthy children of Santiago. Material and methods: Blood pressure, family history of AHT, birth weight (BW), gestationa (mas) l age, puberal stage, blood glucose, serum lipids and ultrasensitive Reactive C Protein (usCRP) were analyzed, using data from a study of early markers of atherosclerosis in children. Results: Data of 112 children aged between 6-12 years was analyzed. Hypertension (BP >percentile 95) was detected in 2.7% and pre hypertension (BP in percentiles 90-95) in 3.6% ofthe sample. Children with abnormal BP had higher levels of usCRP (p

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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94

PHF6 mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Palomero, Teresa; Khiabanian, Hossein; Joni Van der Meulen; Castillo, Mireia; Van Roy, Nadine; Moerloose, Barbara de; Philippé, Jan; González-García, Sara; Toribio, María Luisa; Taghon, Tom; Zuurbier, Linda; Cauwelier, Barbara; Harrison, Christine J.; Schwab, Claire; Pisecker, Markus; Strehl, Sabine; Langerak, Anton W.; Gecz, Jozef; Sonneveld, Edwin; Pieters, Rob; Paietta, Elisabeth; Rowe, Jacob M.; Wiernik, Peter H.; Benoit, Yves; Soulier, Jean; Poppe, Bruce; Yao, Xiaopan; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Meijerink, Jules; Rabadan, Raul; Speleman, Frank; Ferrando, Adolfo
2010-03-14

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

96

Organochlorine compounds and concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone in newborns

Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sala, María; Cardo, Esther; Mazón, Carlos; Muga, M. Eulàlia de; Verdú, Antoni; Marco, Esther
2003-04-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

97

Nutrición enteral ambulatoria en niños: Experiencia de 10 años/ Out-patient enteral nutrition in children: Experience over 10 years

Pedrón Giner, C; Acuña Quirós, MªD; Ferrero, C; García Alcolea, B; Muñoz Codoceo, R; Madruga Acerete, D; Robledillo, JC
2004-05-01

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

98

Nutrición enteral ambulatoria en niños con cáncer/ Out-patient enteral nutrition in children with cancer

Pedrón Giner, C; Rubio Cabezas, O; Aparicio, A; García Alcolea, B; Madruga Acerete, D; González Vicent, M
2004-05-01

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

100

Neutralidad y escuela pública: a propósito de la educación para la ciudadanía

Garcimartín Montero, María del Carmen

[Resumen] El artículo 27-3 de la Constitución reconoce el derecho de los padres a elegir laformación religiosa y moral que esté de acuerdo con sus propias convicciones. La LeyOrgánica 2/2006, de Educación, introdujo en la educación primaria y secundaria unanueva asignatura obligatoria denominada ...

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102

Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a novel partner for MAL2 in breast carcinoma cells

Fanayan, Susan; Shehata, Mona; Agterof, Annelies P.; McGuckin, Michael A.; Alonso, Miguel A.; Byrne, Jennifer A.
2009-01-28

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

106

Molecular Detection of Human Calicivirus among Spanish Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

Wilhelmi, I.; Roman, E.; Dalton, R. M.; Negredo, A.; Sánchez-Fauquier, A.

A survey was conducted among Spanish children with gastroenteritis treated in an emergency room. Reverse transcription-PCR with specimens negative for other enteric pathogens was used. The minimum incidence of human calicivirus infection was 7.7%, with Lordsdale as the predominant genotype. The clin...

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108

Mercury speciation in the hair of pre-school children living near a chlor-alkali plant

Montuori, Paolo ; Jover Comas, Eric ; Diez Salvador, Sergi ; Ribas-Fitó, Núria ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Triassi, Maria

8 pages, 1 figure, 3 tables.-- PMID: 16766021 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Oct 1, 2006. | Exposure to mercury species was assessed in the hair of 130 Spanish children (age 4) from the general population in two areas. Both areas are exposed to different sources of mercury: a point source in ...

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109

Mercury speciation in the hair of pre-school children living near a chlor-alkali plant

Montuori, Paolo; Jover Comas, Eric; Díez Salvador, Sergi; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Triassi, Maria; Bayona Termens, Josep María
2006-06-12

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

111

Mathematical modelling of Respiratory Syncytial Virus spread in the Spanish region of Valencia. Preventive applications

Moraño Fernández, José Antonio

This dissertation is related to mathematical modelling of the spread of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Valencia and is still causing a large number of hospitalizations of children in this community.A mathematical model based on a system of nonlinear differential equations of first order has b...

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113

Marcadores de aterosclerosis temprana y síndrome metabólico en niños/ Early markers for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome in children

Barja, Salesa; Acevedo, Mónica; Arnaiz, Pilar; Berríos, Ximena; Bambs, Claudia; Guzmán, Beatriz; Carvajal, Jacqueline; Cassis, Berta; Navarrete, Carlos
2009-04-01

Resumen en inglés Background: The high prevalence of obesity in children favors the appearance of metabolic syndrome (MS), increasing their cardiovascular risk. Aim: To evaluate components of MSin children and to comtate them with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and subclinical inflammation. Material and methods: We studied 209 children aged 11.5 ± 2 years (50% girls, 30% prepuberal). Fifty percent had normal weight, 18% were overweight, 29% were obese and 3% were undernourished. A f (mas) asting blood sample was obtained to measure lipid levels, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP). Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated using flow mediated dilatation of brachial artery (FMD) and carotid intima-media thicknes (IMT). For diagnosis of MS we adapted Cook's criteria. Results: Five percent of all children and 18% ofthose with overweight had MS. Children with more components had significantly higher fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) values. Clustering of MS components was also associated to higher values of usCRP and non significantly to lower adiponectin levels. We did not find differences in FMD. In obese children there was a tendency towards a higher IMT with clustering of MS components, although not significant. Conclusions: Children with overweight presented a higher risk of a clusteríng of MS components, which was also associated with insulin resistance and increase in ultrasensitive C reactive protein

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

114

Long-term morphological and immunohistochemical observations on biopsy specimens of small intestine from children with gluten-sensitive enteropathy.

Mearin, M L; Rosekrans, P C; Polanco, I; Meijer, C J; van der Wal, A M; Lindeman, J

Jejunal biopsy specimens from nine Spanish children with gluten-sensitive enteropathy were studied with morphometric and immunohistochemical techniques in three stages of the diseases: the first biopsy was taken for diagnosis, when the child had a gluten-containing diet, the second after gluten with...

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115

Local participation in Spain: beyond associative democracy

Font Fàbregas, Joan

Strategic Plans, Citizen Juries, Participatory Budgets or ChildrenCouncils are some of the labels used to refer to processes that incorporatea certain component of citizen participation that have been taking placeover the last few years. These processes have also become more commonin Spanish loc...

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117

Le développement morphosyntaxique du syntagme nominal chez des enfants et des adultes- approche générativiste

Granfeldt, Jonas

Le présent travail veut s’inscrire dans une tradition de linguistique appliquée dont l’ambition consiste à allier théorie et empirisme. Lorsque l’on tâche de combiner deux domaines, on pourrait espérer qu’ils s’avèrent mutuellement enrichis ; Dans le meilleur des cas, la théorie permettrait non seul...

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119

Iodine deficiency and brain development in the first half of pregnancy

Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Obregón, María Jesús; Escobar del Rey, Francisco
2007-12-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

122

Intestinal dysbiosis and reduced immunoglobulin-coated bacteria associated with coeliac disease in children

Palma, Giada de; Nadal, Inmaculada; Medina, Marcela Susana; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Calabuig, Miguel; Sanz, Yolanda
2010-02-24

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

123

Interplay Between Human Leukocyte Antigen Genes and the Microbial Colonization Process of the Newborn Intestine

Palma, Giada de; Capilla, A.; Nadal, Inmaculada; Nova, E.; Pozo, T.; Varea, V.; Polanco, I.; Castillejo, G; López, A.; Garrote, J.A.; Calvo, C.; García Novo, M.D.; Cilleruelo, M.L.; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Palau, F.; Sanz, Yolanda
2010-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

124

Interlanguage studies in a cross cultural context: the interlanguage of Spanish speakers (L1) in an approach English (L2), German (L3)

Grümpel, Claudia

This paper focuses on the acquisition of word order in German by adult native speakers of Spanish in an institutional context (longitudinal study) and a contrastive study on children and adolescent acquisition using transversal tests. The theoretical framework is based on generative grammar analysis...

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125

Influencia del nivel socioeconómico (NSE) en el asma bronquial y cambios en su prevalencia en población escolar en un periodo de 6 años/ Changes in asthma prevalence among school children during a 6 -year period: Influence of socioeconomic status

Valdivia C, Gonzalo; Caussade L, Solange; Navarro M, Héctor; Cerda L, Jaime; Pérez B, Enrique; Aquevedo S, Andrés; Sánchez D, Ignacio
2009-02-01

Resumen en inglés Background: Asthma prevalence is increasing worldwide, especially in developing countries. Aim: To determine the prevalence of asthma diagnosis and related symptoms in children, its changes during a 6-year period and the iníluence exerted by socioeconomic status. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study conducted among school children of Santiago. A sample of 4,561 children aged 6-7 and 13-14 years attending public schools (central district, medium-low and low socioe (mas) conomic status) and prívate schools (eastern distrícts, high socioecomic status) were surveyed. Dependent variables were asthma diagnosis (AD), wheezing duríng the last 12 months (WHE12) and frequency of episodes of wheezing (FEW). Prevalence odds ratios were calculated using regression models, adjusted for several confounding variables. Results: AD prevalence for the group as a whole was higher in boys than in girls (13.2% and 10.8%, respectively p =0.016). Prevalence rate of AD was also higher for children aged 13-14 than 6-7 years (13.8% and 10.1%, respectively p

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

126

Influence of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms on cognitive functioning effects induced by p,p'-DDT among preschoolers

Morales, Eva; Sunyer, Jordi; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Estivil, Xavier; Júlvez, Jordi; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Torrent, Maties; Grimalt, Joan O.; Cid, Rafael de
2008-07-30

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

127

Influence of breastfeeding in the accumulation of polybromodiphenyl ethers during the first years of child growth

Carrizo, Daniel ; Grimalt, Joan O. ; Ribas-Fitó, Núria ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Torrent, Maties

6 pages, 6 tables.-- PMID: 17711201 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Jul 15, 2007. | The concentrations of polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in children at birth (cord blood sera, n=92) and at the age of 4 years (sera, n=244) from a cohort established in Menorca Island (Balearic Island, Spain) w...

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128

Influence of breastfeeding in the accumulation of polybromodiphenyl ethers during the first years of child growth

Carrizo, Daniel; Grimalt, Joan O.; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Torrent, Maties
2007-06-19

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

129

Infección urinaria en la infancia/ Urinary tract infection in chilhood

Cavagnaro S.M, Felipe
2005-06-01

Resumen en español La infección del tracto urinario (ITU) es una de las principales causas de infección bacteriana en niños. Un diagnóstico oportuno, un tratamiento adecuado y un seguimiento estrecho prevendrán el daño renal crónico. En este breve artículo se revisan sus características clínicas y las recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de acuerdo a la edad de cada paciente Resumen en inglés The urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the major causes of bacterial infection in children. Therefore an opportune diagnosis, an adequate treatment and a close follow up will prevent chronic renal damage. In this brief article UTI clinical characteristics and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment according to children age are reviewed

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

130

Infección por VIH en Cuba por transmisión vertical: Reporte de nueve casos fatales en 10 años/ HIV mother to child transmission: Report of nine Cuban fatal cases in ten years

González N, Ida; Díaz-Jidy, Manuel; Berdasquera C, Denis; Toledo R, M. Eugenia; Pérez Á, Jorge
2008-02-01

Resumen en inglés Vertical transmission of HIV infection constitutes one of the most sensitive pillars of the current pandemic of this disease. This article carries out a report of the nine Cuban children who acquired this way the infection and died between 1986 and 2006. Prophylactic management of the cases and the clinical and anatomic pathological manifestations of those in whom autopsy was performed are described. The average gestational age was of 37.6 weeks, four of the pregnancies w (mas) ere captured late. Six children were born by caesarean section and in all transmission were presumably intrauterine. The average birth weight was 2786 grams. Four mother-sibling binomial received prophylaxis with AZT. The autopsy was carried out only in 4 children

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

132

Increased LIS1 expression affects human and mouse brain development

Bi, Weimin; Sapir, Tamar; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A.; Hunter, Jill V.; Levy, Talia; Shinder, Vera; Peiffer, Daniel A.; Gunderson, Kevin L.; Nezarati, Marjan M.; Shotts, Vern Ann; Amato, Stephen S.; Savage, Sarah K.; Harris, David J.; Day-Salvatore, Debra-Lynn; Horner, Michele; Lu, Xin-Yan; Sahoo, Trilochan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Martínez, Salvador; Lupski, James R.; Reiner, Orly
2009-01-11

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

133

In utero exposure to background concentrations of DDT and cognitive functioning among preschoolers

Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Torrent, Maties; Carrizo, Daniel; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Júlvez, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi
2006-09-12

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

134

In utero and post-natal accumulation of organochlorine compounds in children under different environmental conditions

Carrizo, Daniel ; Grimalt, Joan O. ; Ribas-Fitó, Núria ; Torrent, Maties ; Sunyer, Jordi

7 pages, 3 figures, 3 pages.-- PMID: 17554423 [PubMed]. | A study of intake of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in children both in utero and at the age offour years has been performed in two cohorts. One encompasses children born in Menorca Islandbetween 1997 and 1998, and the other those born betw...

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135

In utero and post-natal accumulation of organochlorine compounds in children under different environmental conditions

Carrizo, Daniel; Grimalt, Joan O.; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi
2007-05-14

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

136

Imágenes y estereotipos de género en la programación y en la publicidad infantil: análisis cuantitativo

Espinar Ruiz, Eva

El objetivo de este artículo es analizar, cuantitativamente, distintas características de la programación y la publicidad dirigidas al público infantil en referencia a la posible transmisión de imágenes y estereotipos de género. Para ello se emplea una amplia muestra de programas y espacios publicit...

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138

Impacto del ruido de tráfico en los procesos de atención y memoria de los escolares

Jiménez de la Torre, Fátima ; López Barrio, Isabel

6 pp.-- PACS nr.: 43.50.Qp.-- Comunicación presentada en: XXXII Congreso Nacional de Acústica – TecniAcústica 2001 y Encuentro Ibérico de Acústica (Logroño, 17-19 Octubre 2001). | Publicado en número especial de la Revista de Acústica: Vol 32(2001). | [EN] An experiment was carried out in order to ...

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Impacto de la violencia doméstica en la salud infantil/ The impact of domestic violence on children's health

Arcos G, Estela; Uarac U, Myrna; Molina V, Irma
2003-12-01

Resumen en inglés Background: There is close association between maltreatment during pregnancy and child abuse after birth. Aim: To compare anthropometric growth and use of health services of children whose mothers suffered maltreatment with children coming from families without domestic violence. Subjects and methods: A longitudinal study of two cohorts. An index groups formed by 76 children whose mothers experienced maltreatment and control group of 46 children coming from families witho (mas) ut domestic violence. Data was obtained from patient files in private health centers. Results: Respiratory diseases were the most prevalent cause of consultation and hospital admission. Children in the index group had a 2.8 times higher risk of bronchopneumonia in the post natal period and a poor attendance to health care controls. In four children, cerebral contusion was registered as the cause of hospital admission. Conclusions: Domestic violence is associated with a higher risk of respiratory diseases and hospital admissions in children. New strategies are necessary to detecte and prevent child abuse and neglect (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 1454-62)

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

141

Imbalances in faecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active coeliac disease

Collado, María del Carmen ; Donat, Ester ; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen ; Calabuig, Miguel ; Sanz, Yolanda

9 pages, 1 figure.-- PMID: 19102766 [PubMed].-- PMCID: PMC2635381. | [Background] Gut bifidobacteria are believed to influence immune-related diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the possible relationships between the gut bifidobacteria composition and coeliac disease (CD) in children...

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142

Imbalances in faecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active coeliac disease

Collado, María del Carmen; Donat, Ester; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Calabuig, Miguel; Sanz, Yolanda
2008-12-22

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

143

Hydrolysis under high hydrostatic pressure as a means to reduce the binding of β-lactoglobulin to immunoglobulin E from human sera

Chicón, Rosa ; Belloque, Josefina ; Alonso, Elena ; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J. ; López-Fandiño, Rosina

7 pages.-- PMID: 18680946 [PubMed]. | Cows' milk allergy is the most frequent food allergy in children, and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is a major allergen. Milk-based hypoallergenic ingredients are manufactured by enzymatic hydrolysis, a process that could be improved by the application of high-pressure...

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144

Hydrolysis under high hydrostatic pressure as a means to reduce the binding of β-lactoglobulin to immunoglobulin E from human sera

Chicón, Rosa; Belloque, Josefina; Alonso, Elena; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; López-Fandiño, Rosina
2008-07-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

145

Hippotherapy as early intervention for children with special needs:a study based on case studies of Spanish children with rare congenital disorders

Granados,Anabel Corral

This project is designed to provide mental health professionals, educators and others, with current information on how horses can be used in therapy for rare congenital disorders. This information is used to define the theoretical basis of my thesis and to justify the hypothesis. Purpose: Compile a...

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148

HLA-DR phenotypes in Spanish coeliac children: their contribution to the understanding of the genetics of the disease.

Polanco, I; Mearin, M L; Peña, A S; Biemond, I; Vazquez, C; van Rood, J J; Schreuder, G T; de Vries, R R

The DR-locus controlled B-cell antigens were studied in 163 unrelated Spanish coeliac children and 68 families of this group, nine of them with more than one coeliac patient, to obtain more information about the association between these antigens and coeliac disease. The results show that the most c...

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150

Funcionamiento social en niños hemofílicos: Análisis de encuesta para determinar factores psicopatológicos de riesgo/ Social functioning and psychopathologic risk factors in hemophilic children

Sarmiento, Sandra; Carruyo de Vizcaíno, Cecilia; Carrizo, Edgardo; Vizcaíno C, Jennifer; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Vizcaíno, Gilberto
2006-01-01

Resumen en inglés Background: Children with hemophilia can experience problems with their mental health status and social functioning. Aim: To assess the mental health status of hemophilic children. Material and methods: Thirty four hemophilic children aged 5 to 13 years were studied. A translation of the special survey to assess mental health in children, denominated "Domingo" Mental Health Survey was applied. It consisted in animated cartoon questions related to the family, social and sc (mas) hool life. According to the score obtained, children were classified as normal, doubtful or pathologic. The social functioning areas studied were family, school, relationship and emotional. Aggressiveness, depression/anxiety and rejection were the psychopathologic factors analyzed. Results: Forty four percent of hemophilic children were considered normal, 20% doubtful and 35% pathologic. According to the severity of the disease, 67% of children with severe, 57% with moderate and 45% with mild hemophilia, were considered abnormal. Aggressiveness was the main risk factor in the emotional and family area, depression/anxiety in the family and emotional area and rejection in the family area. Fifty six percent of children had abnormalities in their social functioning and the severity of the disease was a predisposing factor. Conclusions: Psychopathologic factors in children with hemophilia appear mainly in the family environment

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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Factores de riesgo de daño renal permanente en niños con infección del tracto urinario/ Risk factors for permanent kidney damage in children with urinary tract infection

Orellana B, Pilar; Cavagnaro SM, Felipe; Baquedano D, Paulina; Lagomarsino F, Edda; García B, Cristián; Villarroel, Luis; Eduardo Carreño P, Juan; Meneses Q, Luis
2002-10-01

Resumen en inglés Background: In children, urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common disease, and can cause permanent kidney damage. Aim: To determine risk factors for permanent kidney damage, in children with UTI. Patients and methods: In 337 children with UTI (237 female, mean age 4,2 years) a static renal scintigraphy was performed to assess the presence of permanent kidney damage. The history of vesicoureteral reflux and number of episodes of UTI was obtained. Results: One hundred (mas) three children had a history of one episode of infection and the rest had recurrent infections. Permanent kidney damage was observed in 161 children (48%). This damage was observed in 39% of children of less than one year of age, in 43% of children aged 1 to 5 years of age and in 58% of children older than 5 years (p=0.02). Sixty three percent of 122 children with vesicoureteral reflux had permanent kidney damage, compared with 27% of children without this condition (p

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

155

Exposure to hexachlorobenzene during pregnancy and children's social behavior at 4 years of age

Ribas-Fitó, Núria ; Torrent, Maties ; Carrizo, Daniel ; Júlvez, Jordi ; Grimalt, Joan O. ; Sunyer, Jordi

4 pages, 4 tables.-- PMID: 17431497 [PubMed].-- PMCID: PMC1849941. | [Background] Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine chemical that has been used inagriculture and industrial processes. Behavioral impairment after HCB exposure has been describedin animal models, but little information is ...

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156

Exposure to hexachlorobenzene during pregnancy and children's social behavior at 4 years of age

Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Torrent, Maties; Carrizo, Daniel; Júlvez, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi
2007-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

158

Exchange of disfluency with age from function words to content words in Spanish speakers who stutter

Au-Yeung, J; Gomez, IV; Howell, P

The main purpose of the present study was to examine whether the developmental change in loci of disfluency from mainly function words to mainly content words, observed for English speakers who stutter (P. Howell, J. Au-Yeung, & S. Sackin, 1999), also occurs for comparable Spanish speakers who stutt...

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Evolución nutricional de 19 niños y adolescentes con fibrosis quística/ Nutritional progress of 19 children and teenagers with cystic fibrosis

Martínez Costa, C; Martínez Rodríguez, L; García Maset, L; Luján Martínez, J; Escribano Montaner, A; Brines Solanes, J
2004-05-01

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

160

Evolución del estado nutricional en una cohorte de escolares chilenos: ¿Un cambio real o ficticio?/ Evolution of nutritional status in a cohort of school age children

Loaiza M, Susana; Taibo G, Marcela; Cornejo, Amalia; Atalah S, Eduardo
2009-11-01

Resumen en inglés Background: Considering the high prevalence of obesity among children attending elementary schools, it is important to know the evolution of body weight when these children reach adolescent. Aim: To analyze the changes in nutritional status of children between the first year of elementary school and the first year of high school. Material and methods: A historical cohort of children that were assessed when they started elementary school in 1997 was evaluated again eight y (mas) ears later Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Obesity was considered as a BMI over percentile 95 of Center for Disease Control (CDC) references. The concordance between nutritional assessment in both periods and the risk of obesity during adolescence, based on previous weight were also calculated. Results: Data from 117,815 children were analyzed. The prevalence of obesity in the first year of elementary school and the first year of high school was 14.6% and 7%, respectively. The mean weight increase during the eight years period was 32.6±8.4 kg corresponding to 108%±28.1% of the expected increase. There was a low diagnostic concordance between both assessment periods. There was a reduction of under and overweight and a higher proportion of subjects with normal weight in the second assessment period. The risk for being obese in the first year of high school was 6.4 times greater for children that were obese in the first year of elementary school (confidence intervals 6.1-6.9. Conclusions: There was an important reduction in the proportion of obesity between the age of 6 and 14 years. The risk of obesity at 14 years of age was strongly influenced by the presence of obesity at 6 years of age. The broader BMIranges for normality for high school children could give a false image of the nutritional status of teenagers

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

162

Estrategia de prevención de obesidad en escolares: Efecto de un programa aplicado a sus profesores (2007-2008)/ Effect of counselling school teachers on healthy lifestyle on the impact of a program to reduce childhood obesity

KAIN, JULIANA; LEYTON, BÁRBARA; CONCHA, FERNANDO; SALAZAR, GABRIELA; LOBOS, LUZ; VIO, FERNANDO
2010-02-01

Resumen en inglés Background: In 2007, a preventive strategy for childhood obesity, that included food education and an increase in physical activity, was implemented in seven public schools located in Santiago. In four of these schools, a counseling program about healthy lifestyles for teachers was also carried out. Aim: To test if counseling had an effect in the intervention for children. Material and Methods: Anthropometric measures were assessed in children at baseline and after two ye (mas) ars of intervention. Teachers were also evaluated with anthropometry and a blood sample was obtained to measure blood glucose and serum lipids. Results: Four hundred twelve children from schools whose teachers had counseling and 237 children from schools whose teachers did not have it were evaluated. Twenty-eight teachers with and 19 with no counseling were assessed. In children, the overall prevalence of obesity decreased from 20.2 to 18.3% (p = 0.03). This reduction was only significant among females. BMIZ score decreased significantly in children of both genders. No effect of counseling was observed on weight reduction. Among teachers that received counseling, the prevalence of obesity decreased from 25 to 22.4%, with significant improvements in blood glucose and HDL cholesterol. Conclusions: Counseling directed at teachers did not improve the effect of a program to reduce obesity among schoolchildren

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

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El meningioma en edad pediátrica: Revisión de 10 casos/ Intracranial meningiomas in children: report of 10 cases

Teixidor, P.; Guillén, A.; Cruz, O.; Costa, J.M.
2008-10-01

Resumen en español La presencia de meningiomas en la edad pediátrica es relativamente rara, representan menos del 5% de todos los tumores del sistema nervioso central en este estadio de la vida. Hemos realizado un estudio retrospectivo de 10 casos de meningiomas en pacientes pediátricos analizando los factores epidemiológicos, clínicos y radiológicos, así como el pronóstico a largo plazo de nuestros pacientes. Los resultados se comparan con aquéllos reportados en la literatura. Resumen en inglés The occurrence of meningiomas in children is rare, accounting for less than 5% of tumors of the central nervous system in childhood. This is a retrospective study of 10 patients with CNS meningiomas. The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiology, clinical and radiological features, and long-term outcome of meningiomas The results ware compared with those reported in the literature.

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

166

El desarrollo de la toma de conciencia racial. Un estudio evolutivo con niños españoles de 3 a 5 años

Guerrero Moreno, Silvia

Tesis en español The purpose of this thesis was to assess the onset and development of racial awareness among Spanish children aged 3 to 5 years. Our theoretical framework is the Socio-Cognitive theory (Aboud, 1988) according to which the development of prejudice during childhood is related to, and d...

DRIVER (Spanish)

167

Efecto de dosis altas de budesonida y función suprarrenal de niños asmáticos severos/ High doses of inhaled budesonide and adrenal function in children with severe asthma

Milinarsky T, Aída; Fischer G, Sylvia; Giadrosich R, Vinka; Lezana S, Viviana; Torres C, María Teresa
2006-01-01

Resumen en inglés Background: The use of inhaled steroids is common in the treatment of bronchial asthma in children. Aim: To assess adrenocortical function in children with severe asthma receiving inhaled budesonide for six or more months. Material and methods: Children with severe asthma that required 800 µg/day or more of inhaled budesonide and that did not required systemic steroids for more than six days in the last four months to control their disease, were studied. Serum cortisol w (mas) as measured one hour after administration of 0.25 mg of ACTH (Cosyntropin®) intravenously. The test was considered normal if post stimulation serum cortisol was over 18 µg/ml. Results: Twenty children (aged 5 to 14 years, 15 males), were studied. The stimulation test was normal in 17 children. Conclusions: Alterations in adrenal function are present in a small proportion of asthmatic children who require 800 µg/day of inhaled budesonide

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

168

Ectopic expression of the erythrocyte band 3 anion exchange protein, using a new avian retrovirus vector

Fuerstenberg, S.; Beug, H.; Introna, M.; Khazaie, K.; Muñoz, A.; Ness, S.; Nordström, Kristina; Sap, J.; Stanley, I.; Zenke, M.; Vennström, Björn
1990-12-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

169

Early exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, breastfeeding and asthma at age six

Sunyer, Jordi; Torrent, Maties; Garcia-Esteban, R.; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Carrizo, Daniel; Romieu, I.; Antó, Josep M.; Grimalt, Joan O.
2006-10-02

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

170

EXT CS - CALFNES Spanish, Fall 2004

Mendiola, Hector

Hector Mendiola, a retired pediatrician from Mexico City, who was living in Utah, noticed that many of the children of migrant workers were illiterate in their native tongue and so he developed, along with Fred Berthong, a local community volunteer, a computer assisted program to help Hispanic youth...

DRIVER (Spanish)

171

Drug utilization and off-label drug use among Spanish emergency room paediatric patients


Abstract Objective To describe the use of medicines and to determine the frequency of off-label use in emergency room paediatric patients. Patients and methods A prospective, observational and descriptive study was carried out in the...

DRIVER (Spanish)

172

Do parents and children know each other? A study about agreement on personality within families

García Rodríguez, Luis Francisco; Aluja Fabregat, Antón; Colom Marañón, Roberto

Se estudiaron las relaciones entre autoevaluaciones y heteroevaluaciones de cuestionarios de personalidad en contextos familiares españoles. 336 matrimonios evaluaron la personalidad de uno de sus hijos. Al mismo tiempo, cada hijo se autoevaluaba. Se aplicaron los marcadores de Goldberg. En una segu...

DRIVER (Spanish)

175

Differences in desired and actual fertility: an economic analysis of the Spanish case

Adsera, Alicia

Family size is the outcome of sequential decisions influenced both by preferences and by ongoing changes in the environment where a family lives. During the last two decades the gap between the number of children women prefer and their actual fertility has widened in Spain. The paper uses the 1985 a...

DRIVER (Spanish)

178

Controlling relationships in preschool children

Muñoz, J.M.; Braza, F.; Carreras, M.R.
2010-11-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

179

Constrained School Choice

Haeringer, Guillaume ; Klijn, Flip

Recently, several school districts in the US have adopted or consider adopting the Student-Optimal Stable Mechanism or the Top Trading Cycles Mechanism to assign children to public schools. There is clear evidence that for school districts that employ (variants of) the so-called Boston Mechanism the...

DRIVER (Spanish)

180

Constrained School Choice

Haeringer, Guillaume; Klijn, Flip
2007-03-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

183

Cognitive abilities, androgen levels, and body mass index in 5 year old children

Azurmendi, A.; Braza, F.; Sorozabal, A.; García, A.; Braza, P.; Muñoz, J.M.; Sanchez-Martin, J.R.
2010-11-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

184

Children's annoyance reactions to aircraft and road traffic noise

Van Kempen, Elise E. M. M.; Van Kamp, Irene; Stellato, Rebecca K.; López Barrio, Isabel; Haines, Mary M.; Nilsson, Mats E.; Clark, Charlotte; Houthuijs, Danny; Brunekreef, Bert; Berglund, Birgitta; Stansfeld, Stephen A.
2009-02-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

185

Children's Gestures from 18 to 30 months

Andrén, Mats

This thesis concerns the nature of the gestures performed by five Swedish children. The children are followed from 18 to 30 months of age: an age range which is characterized by a rapid succession of developmental changes in children's abilities to communicate by means of both spoken language and ge...

DRIVER (Spanish)

186

Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study

Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferrán; Grimalt, Joan O.; Marco, Alfredo; Olea, Nicolás; Posada, Manuel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi
2006-08-14

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

187

Breastfeeding and concentrations of HCB and p,p'-DDE at the age of 1 year

Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan O.; Marco, Esther; Sala, María; Mazón, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi
2005-05-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

188

Body composition and fitness in elite Spanish children tennis players

Berdejo del Fresno, Daniel; Vicente Rodríguez, Germán; González Ravé, José María; Moreno, Luis Antonio; Rey López, Juan Pablo

The aims of this study were to describe body composition and physical fitness changes during a whole-season in elite children tennis players. A total of 7 elite children tennis players participated in the study. Whole body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and physical fitness we...

DRIVER (Spanish)

189

Bocavirus humano: Estudios en la literatura médica y en Chile/ Human bocavirus: Studies in the literature and in Chile

Moreno M, Claudia; Solís O, Yanahara; O`Ryan G, Miguel
2009-12-01

Resumen en inglés Bocavirus humano (HBoV), virus de la familia Par-voviridae, descubierto por métodos moleculares el año 2005, ha sido reportado en muestras respiratorias, fecales, sanguíneas y urinarias, tanto en niños como en adultos. Se han reportado prevalencias que van desde 0,8%) en muestras fecales de individuos con diarrea aguda hasta 19%o en muestras respiratorias y sanguíneas. En niños asintomáticos se ha detectado hasta 43%o de HBoV en muestras nasofaríngeas. En Chile, s (mas) e ha detectado HBoV en muestras de hisopado nasofaríngeo en niños bajo 5 años de edad, con síntomas respiratorios, en 24,2%o, existiendo co-infección con otros virus en 74%o, y en niños asintomáticos bajo 5 años años se ha encontrado 37,5%o de muestras positivas para HBoV. Se discute el rol de HBoV como agente causal de enfermedades respiratorias y/o digestivas, debido a co-infección con otros microorganismos, dificultando determinar si HBoV participa como único agente infeccioso The human bocavirus (HBoV), virus of the Parvoviridae family, discovered by molecular methods in 2005, has been reported in respiratory samples, stool, urine and blood, both in children and adults. Prevalence rates range from 0.8% in fecal samples of individuals with acute diarrhea, up to 19% in respiratory samples and blood. HBoV has been detected in up to 43% of nasopharyngeal samples in asymptomatic children. In Chile, HBoV was detected in 24.2% of nasopharyngeal swabs in children under 5 years of age with respiratory symptoms of which 74% had coinfection with other viruses. In asymptomatic children under 5 years of age, 37.5% of NP samples were positive for HBoV. We discuss the role of HBoV as a causal agent of respiratory and/or enteric disease in light of the high rates of coinfection and asymptomatic infections

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

190

Beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cognition regardless of DDT concentrations at birth

Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Júlvez, Jordi; Torrent, Maties; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi
2007-09-22

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

191

Behavioral profiles of different types of social Status in preschool children: An observational approach.

Braza, F.; Braza, P.; Carreras, C.M.; Muñoz, J.M.; Sánchez-Martin, J.R.; Azurmendi, A.; Sorozabal, A.; García, A.; Cardas, J.
2010-11-17

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

193

Arte rupestre de Galicia. Ficha didáctica 2

Seoane-Veiga, Yolanda; Figueroa Greno, Luis
2010-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

194

Arte rupestre de Galicia. Ficha didáctica 1

Seoane-Veiga, Yolanda; Figueroa Greno, Luis
2010-01-01

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

195

Anemia y deficiencia de vitamina A en niños evaluados en un centro de atención nutricional de Caracas./ Anemia and deficiency of vitamin A in children evaluated in a nutritional Attention center from caracas.

De Abreu, Jorge; Borno, Sonia; Montilla, María; Dini, Elizabeth
2005-09-01

Resumen en español Para determinar la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de vitamina A en niños menores de 10 años se midieron, entre 1999 y 2000, la concentración de hemoglobina, saturación de transferrina, hierro sérico y varios indicadores del estado nutricional de vitamina A: concentración de retinol plasmático (cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento), prueba dosis respuesta relativa (RDR) y citología de impresión conjuntival (CIC). El estudio se realizó en 124 niños co (mas) n desnutrición moderada y 98 niños eutróficos que asistieron a la consulta de triaje del Centro de Atención Nutricional Antímano (CANIA, Caracas). Se analizó el consumo dietético mediante un recordatorio de 24 horas. Se empleó la t de Student para comparar las concentraciones promedio de las variables bioquímicas y la prueba Chi-cuadrado para evaluar la relación entre la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de vitamina A y las variables cualitativas como estado nutricional, grupo de edad y sexo. La prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A fue de aproximadamente 10% en desnutridos y eutróficos, la prueba de CIC discriminó una proporción de deficientes superior a 25% y la prueba RDR detectó una prevalencia significativamente menor en eutróficos (p Resumen en inglés In order to determine the prevalence of anemia and the deficiency of vitamin A in children under 10 years, the concentration of hemoglobin, transferrin saturation, serum iron and the nutritional state of vitamin A were studied between 1999 and 2000, in 124 children with moderate malnutrition and 98 healthy children who attend triage consultation in the Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano (CANIA, Caracas) by means of plasma retinol test (high performance liq (mas) uid chromatography), relative dose response test (RDR) and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC). The dietary intake was analyzed by 24 hour recall. The Student t and Chi-square test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was approximately 10% in malnourished and healthy children, the CIC test discriminated a proportion of vitamin A deficient children superior to 25% and RDR test detected a significantly smaller percentage of deficiency in healthy children (p

Scientific Electronic Library Online (Spanish)

196

An experimental approach to language training in second language acquisition: Focus on negation

Madrid, Dennis; Torres, Irene

The effect of negation training in a second language on the expression of negation in the native language was investigated. Four-year-old children from bilingual (Spanish/English) homes who showed no expressive or receptive ability in Spanish negation and were either proficient or nonproficient in E...

DRIVER (Spanish)

197

An analysis of generalized imitation1

Burgess, Robert L.; Esveldt, Karen C.; Burgess, Judy M.

An experimenter presented English words to three intermediate-level children and reinforced accurate imitation of these words. The experimenter also presented novel Spanish words, but the imitation of these words was never experimentally reinforced. One subject quickly ceased performing non-reinforc...

DRIVER (Spanish)

199

Aggression, dominance and affiliation: Their relationship with androgen level and intelligence in 5-year-old children

Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; García, Ainhoa; Braza, Paloma; Muñoz, José M.; Sánchez-Martín, José R.
2010-10-26

Digital.CSIC (Spain)

203

Thompson-Chagoyan, O.C.; Vieites, J.M.; Maldonado, J.; Edwards, C.; Gil, A.

Major differences have been found in gut microbiota between healthy and allergic children, and a possible association between allergy and altered microbiota patterns have been postulated. The main object of the study was to compare the faecal microbiota between healthy and cow's milk protein allergy...

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204

Rosa, Sandra

En el 2007 se cambió el artículo 234 del Código Civil chileno, eliminando la autorización a los padres de usar toda forma de maltrato infantil. La pregunta de esta investigación es la siguiente ¿Cómo se pretende, tanto por parte del Estado como por parte de las organizaciones no gubernamentales c...

DRIVER (Spanish)

205

Crivello, G.; Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena; Chatty, D.

DRIVER (Spanish)