WorldWideScience

Sample records for mytilus edulis bivalvia

  1. A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. CASOLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster occurred just off the coast of Italy on January 13th, 2012, and entailed the largest marine salvage operation in history. The salvage employed vessels from different European harbours, providing an unexpected means for transporting alien species into the Mediterranean. In this work we identified mussel species using fragments length polymorphism of a nuclear locus and report the first evidence of the transport of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mollusca, into the Mediterranean Sea, as a part of the fouling community of the hull of an accommodation barge arrived from a NE Atlantic location in October 2012. Furthermore, we describe the rapid growth of this species, under the ASV Pioneer, until its almost total extinction during the summer of 2013, which left a covering of mussel shells on the underlying Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, 1813. meadow. This high mortality rate indicated that M. edulis had been exposed to high stress conditions, probably due to different salinity, temperature, and oligotrophic conditions from its place of origin, and there was no spawning event or known settlement on the nearest infralittoral natural habitats. This event reminds us of how the Mediterranean Sea is constantly under alien-species pressure, due to human activities.

  2. Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory- and field-cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Kennedy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mg/Ca ratios of biogenic calcite is commonly seen as a valuable palaeo-proxy for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. The temperature dependence of Mg/Ca ratios in bivalve calcite has been the subject of contradictory observations. The palaeoceanographic use of a geochemical proxy is dependent on initial, rigorous calibration and validation of relationships between the proxy and the ambient environmental variable to be reconstructed. Shell Mg/Ca ratio data are reported for the calcite of two bivalve species, Mytilus edulis (common mussel and Pecten maximus (king scallop, which were grown in laboratory culturing experiments at controlled and constant aquarium seawater temperatures over a range from ~10 to ~20°C. Furthermore, Mg/Ca ratio data of laboratory- and field-grown M. edulis specimens were compared. Only a weak, albeit significant, shell Mg/Ca ratio–temperature relationship was observed in the two bivalve species: M. edulis (r2=0.37, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens and r2=0.50, p0.001 for field-cultured specimens and P. maximus (r2=0.21, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens only. In the two species, shell Mg/Ca ratios were not found to be controlled by shell growth rate or salinity. The Mg/Ca ratios in the shells exhibited a large degree of variability among and within species and individuals. The results suggest that the use of bivalve calcite Mg/Ca ratios as a temperature proxy is limited, at least in the species studied to date. Such limitations are most likely due to the presence of physiological effects on Mg incorporation in bivalve calcite. The utilization is further limited by the great variability both within and among shells of the same species that were precipitated under the same ambient conditions.

  3. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    shell lengths. Here, we present results of a detailed study of fully open mussels Mytilus edulis in terms of filtration rate, exhalant siphon aperture area, jet velocity, gill area and body dry weight, all as a function of shell length (mean +/- SD) over the range 16.0 +/- 0.4 to 82.6 +/- 2.9 mm...... detailed 2-component velocity distributions near the exhalant siphon in 5 planes parallel to the axis of the jet and the major axis of the oval aperture, and hence estimates of momentum and kinetic energy flows in addition to mean velocity. Data obtained on particles inside the exhalant jet of filtered...

  4. Ion microprobe assessment of the heterogeneity of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis (bivalvia shell calcite precipitated at constant temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale heterogeneity of biogenic carbonate elemental composition can be a significant source of error in the accurate use of element/Ca ratios as geochemical proxies. In this study ion microprobe (SIMS profiles showed significant small-scale variability of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in new shell calcite of the marine bivalves Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis that was precipitated during a constant-temperature culturing experiment. Elevated Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios were found to be associated with the deposition of elaborate shell features, i.e. a shell surface stria in P. maximus and surface shell disturbance marks in both species, the latter a common occurrence in bivalve shells. In both species the observed small-scale elemental heterogeneity most likely was not controlled by variable transport of ions to the extra-pallial fluid, but by factors such as the influence of shell organic content and/or crystal size and orientation, the latter reflecting conditions at the shell crystal-solution interface. In the mid and innermost regions of the P. maximus shell the lack of significant small-scale variation of Mg/Ca ratios, which is consistent with growth at constant temperature, suggest a potential application as a palaeotemperature proxy. Cross-growth band element/Ca ratio profiles in the interior of bivalve shells may provide more promising palaeo-environmental tools than sampling from the outer region of bivalve shells.

  5. Modulations in cell-mediated immunity of Mytilus edulis following the 'Sea Empress' oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrynda, E.A.; Dyrynda, P.E.J.; Ratcliffe, N.A.; Pipe, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Sea Empress' oil tanker grounded outside Milford Haven (Wales, UK) in February 1996, spilling ∼ 70,000 tonnes of crude oil and contaminating over 100 km of coastline, causing mass mortalities and strandings of at least 11 mollusc species. Intensive field monitoring commenced after the spill, examining immunity and hydrocarbon levels in the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Mollusca: Bivalvia), a commercially-harvested species which can accumulate contaminants. Comparisons of mussels from oiled and reference sites revealed significant modulations in cell-mediated immunity. Elevations in blood cell (haemocyte) numbers and decreases in superoxide generation and phagocytosis were identified in contaminated animals. The immune response of contaminated mussels gradually improved and generally showed no significant differences compared with clean mussels after 11 weeks. By then, total hydrocarbon content in contaminated mussels had declined by 70-90%, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content had decreased by over 90%. (author)

  6. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  7. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 ± 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  8. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Barrett, Mark; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis

  9. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Barrett, Mark [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis.

  10. Complete sequences of the highly rearranged molluscan mitochondrial genomes of the scaphopod graptacme eborea and the bivalve mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Medina, Monica; Rosenberg, Lewis A.

    2004-01-31

    We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (Conrad, 1846) (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer non-coding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest non-coding region being only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups.

  11. Differing effects of eelgrass Zostera marina on recruitment and growth of associated blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusch, B.H.T.

    1998-01-01

    I studied the effects of habitat structure, provided by an eelgrass Zostera marina canopy, on shell growth rate and recruitment of co-occurring blue mussels Mytilus edulis in the Western Baltic Sea. M. edulis in clumps consisting of 10 and 30 individuals were tagged and placed in unvegetated areas

  12. Hydrocarbon uptake and loss by the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossato, V U; Canzonier, W J

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of accumulation and elimination of hydrocarbons by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were studied in a continuous-flow system. Mussels were exposed for as long as 41 days to 200 to 400 ..mu..g/l of diesel fuel adsorbed on kaolin particles. Hydrocarbons were accumulated in the tissues in excess of 1000 times the exposure levels. Upon termination of dosing, the mussels exhibited a rather rapid loss of hydrocarbons for the first 15 to 20 days (biological half-life = 2.7 to 3.5 days). Subsequently, however, elimination was reduced to a minimum and a considerable fraction of the hydrocarbons could be recovered from the tissues after as long as 32 days of depuration. The mussels exhibited definite signs of physiological stress due to chronic exposure to diesel fuel, although recovery was rapid upon termination of dosing. It is concluded that mussels could be utilized as a test organism for monitoring long-term hydrocarbon pollution in marine waters. The implications for the mussel culture industry are discussed.

  13. Toxicity of tributyltin in the marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Josephine A; Depledge, Michael H; Galloway, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that tributyltin (TBT) is genotoxic to the early life stages of marine mussels and worms. Here, the toxicity of TBT to adult organisms was determined using a suite of biomarkers designed to detect cytotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic effects. Exposure of adult mussels, Mytilus edulis, to environmentally realistic concentrations of TBTO for 7 days resulted in a statistically significant decrease in cell viability at concentrations of 0.5 microg/l and above. TBT had no effect on phagocytic activity or antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay). There was a statistically significant increase in DNA damage detected using the comet and micronucleus assays between the controls and 0.5, 1 and 5 microg/l of TBTO (P > 0.0005). Furthermore there was a strong correlation between DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and formation of micronuclei (P = 0.0005; R2 = 61.5%). Possible mechanisms by which TBT could damage DNA either directly or indirectly are discussed including the possibility that TBT is genotoxic due to its ability to disrupt calcium homeostasis.

  14. Seasonal variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis rope culture in oligotrophic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Strand, O.; Strohmeier, T.; Krogness, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussel Mytilus edulis cultures contribute to nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Mussel populations filter particulate nutrients from the water column and inorganic nutrients are regenerated by excretion of metabolic wastes and decomposition of (pseudo-)faeces. The objective of this study

  15. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels, and ...

  16. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,

  17. Bioremediation of waste under ocean acidification: Reviewing the role of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszeit, Stefanie; Hattam, Caroline; Beaumont, Nicola

    2016-02-15

    Waste bioremediation is a key regulating ecosystem service, removing wastes from ecosystems through storage, burial and recycling. The bivalve Mytilus edulis is an important contributor to this service, and is used in managing eutrophic waters. Studies show that they are affected by changes in pH due to ocean acidification, reducing their growth. This is forecasted to lead to reductions in M. edulis biomass of up to 50% by 2100. Growth reduction will negatively affect the filtering capacity of each individual, potentially leading to a decrease in bioremediation of waste. This paper critically reviews the current state of knowledge of bioremediation of waste carried out by M. edulis, and the current knowledge of the resultant effect of ocean acidification on this key service. We show that the effects of ocean acidification on waste bioremediation could be a major issue and pave the way for empirical studies of the topic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress on stress response of wild mussels, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus, as an indicator of ecosystem health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellou, J.; Law, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Mussels' health as indicated by the survival time of 50% of sampled animals (LT 50 ) when maintained in air at 15 deg. C was examined at three sites in Halifax Harbour with expected differing levels of contamination. Condition and gonad indices, lipid content and the body burden of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were compared with this stress response in 60 groups of mussels covering two species. At each sampling time, the bioaccumulation of PACs, lipid content and condition indices were higher whithin Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus displaying shorter survival than at the other sites. M. edulis was generally more tolerant than M. trossulus (for n=11, LT 50 of 9.3 and 7.9 days), with indications of shorter and later gonad development in M. trossulus. Minimum and maximum tolerance was apparent in June and October (LT 50 spanning 3-14 days), respectively. Our results indicate that the stress on stress response provides a simple and sensitive indicator of environmental health, which could be integrated with mussel watch studies. - Stress on stress response is a simple and sensitive indicator of environmental condition

  19. Protection against suspended sand: the function of the branchial membrane in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    2006-09-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) living in estuaries have to cope with varying concentrations of suspended sand. Sand flowing through the inhalant siphons comes into the infrabranchial chamber. The inhalant siphon can be partially closed by the branchial membrane. As a result the inward flow decreases, and suspended sand sinks and can be eliminated. Experiments with mussels from three ecologically different locations showed about the same response of the branchial membrane on contact with suspended sand. The presence and function of the branchial membrane appears to be an adaptation of mussels to their estuarine environment.

  20. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury uptake...... increased throughout the entire period, though there was a tendency for decreased efficiency of the removal of mercury per liter of water filtered by the mussels. Mussels were also translocated from polluted to clean (laboratory) water to depurate mercury. The biological half-lives of mercury was 293 d...

  1. Reducing the impact of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) dredging on the ecosystem in shallow water soft bottom areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Poulsen, Louise K.

    2015-01-01

    Dredging blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and thus removing structural elements, inducing resuspension of sediment as well as reducing filtration capacity, will inevitably affect the ecosystem. The study demonstrates that the impacts of fishing can be reduced through gear developments. A new light d...

  2. Impact of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Riegman, R.; van der Meer, J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the Dutch Wadden Sea, natural sea water was first exposed to mussel filtration. Subsequently, filtered plankton communities were used in a dilution experiment to establish mussel-induced changes in bacterial,

  3. Impact of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the western Wadden Sea, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Riegman, R.; Meer, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the Dutch Wadden Sea, natural sea water was first exposed to mussel filtration. Subsequently, filtered plankton communities were used in a dilution experiment to establish mussel-induced changes in bacterial,

  4. Comparison of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters using mussels from Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przytarska, J.E.; Sokołowski, A.; Wołowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cu at 17 sampling sites to assess the relative bioavailability of metals in coastal waters around the European continent. Because accumulated metal concentrations in a given area can differ

  5. Influence of abiotic factors on bacterial proliferation and anoxic survival of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babarro, J.M.F.; De Zwaan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of several abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and pH) on bacterial proliferation and survival time of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L. were studied under anoxic incubations. In addition, the presence in the incubation media of ammonium and the volatile fatty acids propionate and

  6. Immune modulation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to North Sea produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, M.L., E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.u [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bamber, S.D.; Sundt, R.C. [IRIS - Biomiljo, Mekjarvik 12, 4070 Randaberg (Norway); Galloway, T.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of PW on immune function in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to sublethal PW concentrations (0.125-0.5%) and cellular parameters were measured. Cell viability, phagocytosis and cytotoxicity were inhibited after exposure to 0.25% and 0.5% PW, whilst the 0.125% PW treatment produced significant increases in these biomarker responses. This biphasic response was only observed after 7 days exposure; longer exposure periods led to a reduction in immune parameters. Results indicate that PW concentrations close to the discharge point cause modulation to cellular immunity. The implications for longer-term disease resistance are discussed. - Exposure to produced water alters immune function in the sentinel species Mytilus edulis.

  7. Trophic level transfer of microplastic: Mytilus edulis (L.) to Carcinus maenas (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Paul; Nelson, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the trophic transfer of microplastic from mussels to crabs. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to 0.5 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres, then fed to crabs (Carcinus maenas). Tissue samples were then taken at intervals up to 21 days. The number of microspheres in the haemolymph of the crabs was highest at 24 h (15 033 ml −1 ± SE 3146), and was almost gone after 21 days (267 ml −1 ± SE 120). The maximum amount of microspheres in the haemolymph was 0.04% of the amount to which the mussels were exposed. Microspheres were also found in the stomach, hepatopancreas, ovary and gills of the crabs, in decreasing numbers over the trial period. This study is the first to show ‘natural’ trophic transfer of microplastic, and its translocation to haemolymph and tissues of a crab. This has implications for the health of marine organisms, the wider food web and humans. -- Highlights: ► Microplastic transferred in marine food chain. ► Microplastic transferred to haemolymph when ingested in food. ► Microplastic remains in organism for at least 21 days. -- This communication demonstrates trophic level transfer of microplastic particles from Mytilus edulis to Carcinus maenas

  8. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of filtra......The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  9. Immune modulation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to North Sea produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannam, M.L.; Bamber, S.D.; Sundt, R.C.; Galloway, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of PW on immune function in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to sublethal PW concentrations (0.125-0.5%) and cellular parameters were measured. Cell viability, phagocytosis and cytotoxicity were inhibited after exposure to 0.25% and 0.5% PW, whilst the 0.125% PW treatment produced significant increases in these biomarker responses. This biphasic response was only observed after 7 days exposure; longer exposure periods led to a reduction in immune parameters. Results indicate that PW concentrations close to the discharge point cause modulation to cellular immunity. The implications for longer-term disease resistance are discussed. - Exposure to produced water alters immune function in the sentinel species Mytilus edulis.

  10. Endozoicomonas dominates the gill and intestinal content microbiomes of Mytilus edulis from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, William B.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Adams, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, Linnaeus 1758 from southern Barnegat Bay, New Jersey were examined to determine the make-up of the normal blue mussel microbiome. Sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from gill and intestinal content microbiomes using the Illumina® MiSeq platform yielded 1,276,161 paired end sequence reads from the gill libraries and 1,092,333 paired end sequence reads from the intestinal content libraries. General bioinformatic analyses were conducted with the open-source packages Qiime and Mothur. Phylotype assignments to the genus level were made using the commercial One Codex platform. This resulted in 1,697,852 gill and 988,436 intestinal content sequences being classified to genus. A majority of these (67.6% and 37.2% respectively) were assigned to a single operational taxonomic unit (Mytilus edulis Symbiont, MeS) that has homologies with other recently described Endozoicomonas pathogens and symbionts of marine invertebrates. MeS shares 98% identity with an uncultured bacterium from the gill tissue of an invasive indo-Pacific oyster and with HQE1 and HQE2 isolated from the sea squirt, Styela clava. Other than MeS, most of the detected bacterial species are known from marine sediments and seawater.

  11. Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baojun; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-03-01

    The large water-pumping and particle-capturing gills of the filter-feeding blue mussel Mytilus edulis are oversized for respiratory purposes. Consequently, the oxygen uptake rate of the mussel has been suggested to be rather insensitive to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the ambient water, since the diffusion rate of oxygen from water flowing through the mussel determines oxygen uptake. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the oxygen uptake in mussels exposed to various oxygen concentrations. These concentrations were established via N2-bubbling of the water in a respiration chamber with mussels fed algal cells to stimulate fully opening of the valves. It was found that mussels exposed to oxygen concentrations decreasing from 9 to 2 mg O2/L resulted in a slow but significant reduction in the respiration rate, while the filtration rate remained high and constant. Thus, a decrease of oxygen concentration by 78% only resulted in a 25% decrease in respiration rate. However, at oxygen concentrations below 2 mg O2/L M. edulis responded by gradually closing its valves, resulting in a rapid decrease of filtration rate, concurrent with a rapid reduction of respiration rate. These observations indicated that M. edulis is no longer able to maintain its normal aerobic metabolism at oxygen concentration below 2 mg O2/L, and there seems to be an energy-saving mechanism in bivalve molluscs to strongly reduce their activity when exposed to low oxygen conditions.

  12. Massively Parallel RNA Sequencing Identifies a Complex Immune Gene Repertoire in the lophotrochozoan Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Eva E. R.; Kraemer, Lars; Melzner, Frank; Poustka, Albert J.; Thieme, Sebastian; Findeisen, Ulrike; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The marine mussel Mytilus edulis and its closely related sister species are distributed world-wide and play an important role in coastal ecology and economy. The diversification in different species and their hybrids, broad ecological distribution, as well as the filter feeding mode of life has made this genus an attractive model to investigate physiological and molecular adaptations and responses to various biotic and abiotic environmental factors. In the present study we investigated the immune system of Mytilus, which may contribute to the ecological plasticity of this species. We generated a large Mytilus transcriptome database from different tissues of immune challenged and stress treated individuals from the Baltic Sea using 454 pyrosequencing. Phylogenetic comparison of orthologous groups of 23 species demonstrated the basal position of lophotrochozoans within protostomes. The investigation of immune related transcripts revealed a complex repertoire of innate recognition receptors and downstream pathway members including transcripts for 27 toll-like receptors and 524 C1q domain containing transcripts. NOD-like receptors on the other hand were absent. We also found evidence for sophisticated TNF, autophagy and apoptosis systems as well as for cytokines. Gill tissue and hemocytes showed highest expression of putative immune related contigs and are promising tissues for further functional studies. Our results partly contrast with findings of a less complex immune repertoire in ecdysozoan and other lophotrochozoan protostomes. We show that bivalves are interesting candidates to investigate the evolution of the immune system from basal metazoans to deuterostomes and protostomes and provide a basis for future molecular work directed to immune system functioning in Mytilus. PMID:22448234

  13. Effects of coexistence between the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and eelgrass Zostera marina on sediment biogeochemistry and plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, H.F.; Norling, P.; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2012-01-01

    The habitat-modifying suspension-feeding mussel, Mytilus edulis, may have facilitating or inhibiting effects on seagrass meadows depending on the environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of M. edulis on sediment biogeochemistry in Zostera marina meadows under eutrophic conditions...... in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. Sediment and plant samples were collected at ten stations; five with Z. marina (Eelgrass) and five with Z. marina and M. edulis (Mixed) and at two unvegetated stations; one with mussels (Mussel) and one with sand (Sand). The Mixed sediment was enriched in fine particles (2-3 times...... significantly reduced at Mixed stations suggesting inhibiting effect of M. edulis on Z. marina. Negative correlations between eelgrass measures and sediment sulphide at Mixed stations indicate that presence of mussels increase sulphide invasion in the plants. A survey of 318 stations in Danish fjords suggests...

  14. The production of relaid blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Sand; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) smaller than the commercial size caught in Limfjorden, as in other areas, are typically discarded. However, during the period 1990 to 1993 these small mussels were returned, after sorting to mussel beds for later harvest; a process defined as ''relay''. This paper...... presents data from two commercial culture beds and from two smaller experimental beds established to study growth and mortality of these small mussel discards. The data were analysed by a yield- per-recruit model to calculate yields from such relays. This model was also used to predict the optimal time...... of harvest. The parameters utilized in the model were: (1) initial mortality due to harvesting, unshipping and sorting; (2) growth and mortality between relay and harvest; and, (3) the drained wet weight of a mussel of a given shell length. The initial mortality was estimated from observations of mussels...

  15. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Holwerda, D.A.; Van der Mast, C.A.; Zandee, D.I.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular toxicity of cadmium was studied in the gill tissue of the sea mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to cadmium chloride at 50 or 250 microgram Cd/L for short periods. Then the gills were excised and incubated with 35-S-methionine or cysteine for 4 hr. Uptake of radiolabeled amino acids by the isolated gills was not affected by Cd, whereas the incorporation of label was significantly decreased after Cd exposure. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill proteins. It revealed that the expression of particular proteins was differently altered by Cd. One dimensional gel analysis by 35-S-cysteine labeled gill proteins demonstrated that Cd induced, in a concentration dependent manner, a cysteine-rich protein with a molecular weight of approximately 13 kDa, consisting of two isomers with low isoelectric points

  16. Clearance rate of Mytilus edulis (L.) as a function of current velocity and mussel aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Vismann, Bent

    2014-01-01

    by current velocities up to 1.4 m/sec, whereas experiments with 3 mussels showed that clearance of the mussels decreased progressively at current velocities greater than 0.2 m/sec, and reached 0 L/h per individual at current velocities greater than 0.6 m/sec. The constant feeding at all current velocities......The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of water current velocities on the clearance rate of Mytilus edulis when different numbers of mussels were used in the experiments. An automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continually, was used to measure...... the effect of increasing current velocity (0.05-1.4 m/sec) on the M. edulis clearance rate. Clearance rate measurements were performed under constant food concentrations of 3,000 cells/mL of Rhodomonas salina on either 3 mussels or 20 mussels. We found that the clearance rate of 20 mussels was unaffected...

  17. Elevated extracellular pH during early shell formation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K.; Melzner, F.; Himmerkus, N.; Hu, M.; Bleich, M.

    2016-02-01

    Marine calcifiers are amongst the most vulnerable organisms to ocean acidification (OA). However, limited studies investigate the mechanisms underlying their hindered performance under OA stress. Working with larval stages of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, we use microsensors to study the pH and calcium conditions necessary for shell deposition. Using 45-48 hour, D-veliger stages, we discover alkaline conditions with respect to ambient seawater pH by 0.28 pH units and higher calcium concentrations (by 0.54mM) in the extra pallial space beneath the growing shell that likely promotes the rapid synthesis of the first shell. We further use enzyme assays in combination with immuno-stainings of sodium-potassium ATPase (NKA) and proton ATPase (VHA) to provide information on the major ion regulatory pathways that enable transport of calcium carbonate required for shell formation and pH homeostasis. We also use the juvenile stages of M. edulis to understand how extracellular pH regulation close to the shell formation site will be influenced by OA stress. This allows us to describe the pH dependency of early shell formation and to begin to develop a model of the ion regulatory network that facilitates biomineralisation in the organism. The results are discussed in the context of environmental change and consequences for mollusc developmental success.

  18. On the dynamics of the stocks of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2001-01-01

    As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis for the esti...... with figures from other investigations. These analyses have been the basis for annual assessments of the mussel stocks, which again are used in the current management of mussel fishery in the Danish Wadden Sea.......As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis...

  19. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Gene expression and metal tissue concentrations were compared in Mytilus edulis. • Expression levels of several transcripts correlated with metal concentrations. • Transcripts involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced. • Integration of transcriptomics and tissue levels provides insight to toxicity. - Abstract: Marine biomonitoring programs in the U.S. and Europe have historically relied on monitoring tissue concentrations of bivalves to monitor contaminant levels and ecosystem health. By integrating ‘omic methods with these tissue residue approaches we can uncover mechanistic insight to link tissue concentrations to potential toxic effects. In an effort to identify novel biomarkers and better understand the molecular toxicology of metal bioaccumulation in bivalves, we exposed the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., to sub-lethal concentrations (0.54 μM) of cadmium, lead, and a Cd + Pb mixture. Metal concentrations were measured in gill tissues at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and increased linearly over the 4 week duration. In addition, there was evidence that Pb interfered with Cd uptake in the mixture treatment. Using a 3025 sequence microarray for M. edulis, we performed transcriptomic analysis, identifying 57 differentially expressed sequences. Hierarchical clustering of these sequences successfully distinguished the different treatment groups demonstrating that the expression profiles were reproducible among the treatments. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms identified several biological processes that were perturbed by the treatments, including nucleoside phosphate biosynthetic processes, mRNA metabolic processes, and response to stress. To identify transcripts whose expression level correlated with metal bioaccumulation, we performed Pearson correlation analysis. Several transcripts correlated with gill metal concentrations including mt10, mt20, and contig 48, an unknown transcript containing a wsc domain. In addition

  20. Genotoxic and immunotoxic potential effects of selected psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, Emilie; Pédelucq, Julie; Fortier, Marlène; Brousseau, Pauline; Auffret, Michel; Budzinski, Hélène; Fournier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals towards aquatic invertebrates is still poorly understood and sometimes controversial. This study aims to document the in vitro genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on Mytilus edulis. Mussel hemocytes were exposed to fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin, at concentrations ranging from μg/L to mg/L. Paroxetine at 1.5 μg/L led to DNA damage while the same concentration of venlafaxine caused immunomodulation. Fluoxetine exposure resulted in genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the case of antibiotics, trimethoprim was genotoxic at 200 μg/L and immunotoxic at 20 mg/L whereas erythromycin elicited same detrimental effects at higher concentrations. DNA metabolism seems to be a highly sensitive target for psychotropic drugs and antibiotics. Furthermore, these compounds affect the immune system of bivalves, with varying intensity. This attests the relevance of these endpoints to assess the toxic mode of action of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics affect the immune system of Mytilus edulis. • Genotoxic and immunotoxic endpoints were relevant to assess pharmaceuticals toxicity. • DNA metabolism is a highly sensitive target for pharmaceuticals. • Fluoxetine and paroxetine were the most toxic compounds on mussel hemocytes. - Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics have the potential to cause immune toxicity and genotoxicity on Mytilus edulis hemocytes

  1. Towards the determination of Mytilus edulis food preferences using the dynamic energy budget (DEB theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Picoche

    Full Text Available The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a commercially important species, with production based on both fisheries and aquaculture. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB models have been extensively applied to study its energetics but such applications require a deep understanding of its nutrition, from filtration to assimilation. Being filter feeders, mussels show multiple responses to temporal fluctuations in their food and environment, raising questions that can be investigated by modeling. To provide a better insight into mussel-environment interactions, an experiment was conducted in one of the main French growing zones (Utah Beach, Normandy. Mussel growth was monitored monthly for 18 months, with a large number of environmental descriptors measured in parallel. Food proxies such as chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and phytoplankton were also sampled, in addition to non-nutritious particles. High-frequency physical data recording (e.g., water temperature, immersion duration completed the habitat description. Measures revealed an increase in dry flesh mass during the first year, followed by a high mass loss, which could not be completely explained by the DEB model using raw external signals. We propose two methods that reconstruct food from shell length and dry flesh mass variations. The former depends on the inversion of the growth equation while the latter is based on iterative simulations. Assemblages of food proxies are then related to reconstructed food input, with a special focus on plankton species. A characteristic contribution is attributed to these sources to estimate nutritional values for mussels. M. edulis shows no preference between most plankton life history traits. Selection is based on the size of the ingested particles, which is modified by the volume and social behavior of plankton species. This finding reveals the importance of diet diversity and both passive and active selections, and confirms the need to adjust DEB models to

  2. Manganese in the shell of the bivalve Mytilus edulis: Seawater Mn or physiological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro S.; Clarke, Leon J.; Kennedy, Hilary; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2016-12-01

    Manganese in the shell calcite of marine bivalves has been suggested to reflect ambient seawater Mn concentrations, thus providing a high-resolution archive of past seawater Mn concentrations. However, a quantitative relationship between seawater Mn and shell Mn/Ca ratios, as well as clear understanding of which process(es) control(s) shell Mn/Ca, are still lacking. Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were grown in a one-year duration field experiment in the Menai Strait, U.K., to study the relationship between seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations and shell calcite Mn/Ca ratios. Shell Mn/Ca showed a well-defined intra-annual double-peak, with maximum values during early spring and early summer and low values during autumn and winter. Seawater particulate Mn peaked during winter and autumn, with a series of smaller peaks during spring and summer, whereas dissolved Mn2+ exhibited a marked single maximum during late-spring to early-summer, being low during the remainder of the year. Consequently, neither seawater particulate Mn nor dissolved Mn2+ concentrations explain the intra-annual variation of shell Mn/Ca ratios. A physiological control on shell Mn/Ca ratios is evident from the strong similarity and timing of the double-peaked intra-annual variations of Mn/Ca and shell growth rate (SGR), the latter corresponding to periods of increased metabolic activity (as indicated by respiration rate). It is thus likely that in M. edulis SGR influences shell Mn/Ca by altering the concentration or activity of Mn2+ within the extra-pallial fluid (EPF), by changing the flux of Mn into or the proportion of protein bound Mn within the EPF. By linking shell Mn/Ca ratios to the endogenous and environmental factors that determine growth and metabolic activity, this study helps to explain the lack of a consistent relationship between shell Mn/Ca in marine bivalve shell calcite and seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations. The use of Mn content from M. edulis

  3. Effects of estrogen exposure in mussels, Mytilus edulis, at different stages of gametogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciocan, Corina M.; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Puinean, Alin M.; Hill, Elizabeth M. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 Rue Philippe Lebon, BP540, 766058 Le Havre (France); Osada, Makoto [Laboratory of Aquacultural Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-amamiyamachi, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Fenlon, Kate [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: j.rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Mytilus edulis were exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and the synthetic estrogens ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and estradiol benzoate (EB) for 10 days. Two exposures were performed to determine their effect on vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor 2 (ER2) mRNA expression at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Significant natural variation was not observed in VTG mRNA expression, though ER2 mRNA expression displayed significantly lower values during January, February and July compared with other times of the year. A significant increase in VTG and ER2 mRNA expression was observed in mussels exposed to estrogens at the early stage of gametogenesis. In contrast, mature mussels displayed no statistically significant change in the VTG or ER2 mRNA expression. The data presented suggests that the reproductive physiology of molluscs, in terms of VTG and ER2 mRNA expression, may be susceptible to damage by environmental estrogens at certain points in their gametogenesis process. - This study concerns vitellogenin and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in a mollusc and is relevant to those studying endocrine disruption in invertebrate species.

  4. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, U.F.; Collins, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The elimination of sewage effluent-associated poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a 22-nm icosahedral coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, was studied. Both laboratory-and commercial-scale recirculating, UV depuration systems were used in this study. In the laboratory system, the logarithms of the poliovirus, E. coli, and coliphage levels were reduced by 1.86, 2.9, and 2.16, respectively, within 52 h of depuration. The relative patterns and rates of elimination of the three organisms suggest that they are eliminated from mussels by different mechanisms during depuration under suitable conditions. Poliovirus was not included in experiments undertaken in the commercial-scale depuration system. The differences in the relative rates and patterns of elimination were maintained for E. coli and coliphage in this system, with the logarithm of the E. coli levels being reduced by 3.18 and the logarithm of the coliphage levels being reduced by 0.87. The results from both depuration systems suggest that E. coli is an inappropriate indicator of the efficiency of virus elimination during depuration. The coliphage used appears to be a more representative indicator. Depuration under stressful conditions appeared to have a negligible affect on poliovirus and coliphage elimination rates from mussels. However, the rate and pattern of E. coli elimination were dramatically affected by these conditions. Therefore, monitoring E. coli counts might prove useful in ensuring that mussels are functioning well during depuration

  5. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  6. Ocean acidification and host-pathogen interactions: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, encountering Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Maria E; Baden, Susanne P; Russ, Sarah; Ellis, Robert P; Gong, Ningping; Hernroth, Bodil E

    2014-04-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and a common bivalve bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e haemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to haemocytes of OA-treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the outcome of host-pathogen interactions, favouring the success of the latter. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exposure of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, to gold nanoparticles and the pro-oxidant menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-03-01

    Relatively little is known about how gold nanoparticles (GNP) might interact in vivo with marine organisms. Mytilus edulis was exposed (24h) to approximately 15 nm GNP, menadione and both compounds simultaneously (GNP/menadione). GNP was detected by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy mainly in digestive gland of samples exposed to GNP though not GNP/menadione, perhaps due to impaired feeding. Thioredoxin reductase activity and malondialdehyde levels were determined in all tissues. Thioredoxin reductase inhibition was detected only in digestive gland exposed to menadione whilst malondialdehyde levels did not vary in response to treatment in all tissues. GNP caused a decrease in the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio in digestive gland, but no difference was found in other tissues or for other treatments. One dimensional electrophoresis of proteins containing thiol groups was performed in all tissues and revealed a reduction in protein thiols for all treatments in digestive gland. Two dimensional electrophoresis of digestive gland extracts, from GNP and control groups, showed decreased levels of thiol proteins in response to GNP which we attribute to oxidation. Our results suggest that GNP causes a modest level of oxidative stress sufficient to oxidize thiols in glutathione and proteins but without causing lipid peroxidation or induction of thioredoxin reductase activity.

  8. Colloidal complexed silver and silver nanoparticles in extrapallial fluid of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Demers, Serge

    2011-02-01

    Metal transport in mollusk extrapallial fluid (EPF) that acts as a "bridge" between soft tissues and shell has surprisingly received little attention until now. Using ultrafiltration and radiotracer techniques we determined silver concentrations and speciation in the EPF of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis after short-term uptake and depuration laboratory experiments. Radiolabelled silver ((¹¹⁰m)Ag) was used in dissolved or nanoparticulate phases (AgNPs silver nanoparticles were transported to the EPF of blue mussels at a level similar to the Ag ionic form. Bulk activity of radiolabelled silver in the EPF represented only up to 7% of the bulk activity measured in the whole mussels. The EPF extracted from mussels exposed to both treatments exhibited an Ag colloidal complexed form based on EPF ultrafiltration through a 3 kDa filter. This original study brings new insights to internal circulation of nanoparticles in living organisms and contributes to the international effort in studying the potential impacts of engineered nanomaterials on marine bivalves which play an essential role in coastal ecosystems, and are important contributors to human food supply from the sea. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records...... its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring...

  10. Effect of treatment with reserpine on the change in filtration rate of Mytilus edulis subjected to dissolved copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, R.; Grant, A.M.; Maccoy, N.E.J.

    1984-12-01

    Exposure of specimens of Mytilus edulis to dissolved copper leads to a fall in the filtration rate measured in whole animals. The copper concentration leading to a 50% reduction in the filtration rate was found to be 0.094 mg I/sup -1/. This effect was abolished on depletion of the monoamine content of the animal using reserpine. It is suggested that there may be a chemosensory mechanism present in the animals which responds to increased levels of metals in the seawater leading to a reduction in the rate of ciliary beating and mediated via the branchial nerve. 15 references, 2 figures.

  11. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  12. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Seasonal changes in size selection and intake rate of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus feeding on the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, B.J.; Dirksen, S; Smit, CJ; Bunskoeke, AJ

    1996-01-01

    During the course of spring, Cockles Cerastoderma edule and Mussels Mytilus edulis grow in size, while the condition, as measured by the biomass content of shells of a given size, also increases. Condition temporarily drops when the larger individuals spawn. This study investigates the effects of

  14. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  15. Predation of shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L.)) and starfish (Asterias rubens L.) on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seed from wild sources and spat collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blankendaal, M.; Perdon, J.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, several pilot projects are carried out on the use of spat collectors as an additional supply of seed for bottom culture of mussels (Mytilus edulis). The method proves to be successful in yielding substantial amounts of seed. One of the conditions for successful application of

  16. Tissue-specific incorporation and genotoxicity of different forms of tritium in the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C., E-mail: ben@ecology.su.s [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Millward, Geoffrey E. [Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Moody, A. John; Jha, Awadhesh N. [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to seawater spiked with tritiated water (HTO) at a dose rate of 122 and 79 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and tritiated glycine (T-Gly) at a dose rate of 4.9 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} over 7 days. This was followed by depuration in clean seawater for 21 days. Tissues (foot, gills, digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and byssus) and DNA extracts from tissues were analysed for their tritium activity concentrations. All tissues demonstrated bio-accumulation of tritium from HTO and T-Gly. Tritium from T-Gly showed increased incorporation into DNA compared to HTO. About 90% of the initial activity from HTO was depurated within one day, whereas T-Gly was depurated relatively slowly, indicating that tritium may be bound with different affinities in tissues. Both forms of tritium caused a significant induction of micronuclei in the haemocytes of mussels. Our findings identify significant differential impacts on Mytilus edulis of the two chemical forms of tritium and emphasise the need for a separate classification and control of releases of tritiated compounds, to adequately protect the marine ecosystem. - Tritium from tritiated glycine demonstrates greater accumulation and persistence in tissues and enhanced genotoxicity in haemocytes of marine mussels, compared to tritium from tritiated water.

  17. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Mackenzie

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments.

  18. Spatial variations in biomarkers of Mytilus edulis mussels at four polluted regions spanning the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, F.; Burgeot, T.; Hellou, J.; St-Jean, S.; Farcy, E.; Blaise, C.

    2008-01-01

    Economic and social developments have taken place at the expense of the health of the environment, both locally and on a global scale. In an attempt to better understand the large-scale effects of pollution and other stressors like climate change on the health status of Mytilus edulis, mussels were collected during the first two weeks of June 2005 at three sites (one pristine and two affected by pollution) located in each of the regions of the Canadian West Coast, the St. Lawrence estuary, the Atlantic East Coast and the northwestern coast of France, covering a total distance of some 11 000 km. The mussels were analyzed for morphologic integrity (condition factor), gametogenic activity (gonado-somatic and gonad maturation index, vitellogenin(Vtg)-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity and gonad lipid stores), defense mechanisms (glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, cytochrome P4503A activity and xanthine oxidoreductase-XOR), and tissue damage (lipid peroxidation-LPO and DNA strand breaks). The results showed that data from the reference sites in each region were usually not normally distributed, with discriminant factors reaching the number of regions (i.e. four), except for the biomarkers gonadal lipids, XOR and LPO in digestive gland. The integrated responses of the biomarkers revealed that biomarkers of stress were significantly more pronounced in mussels from the Seine estuary, suggesting that the impacts of pollution are more generalized in this area. Mussels from the Seine estuary and the Atlantic East Coast (Halifax Harbor) responded more strongly for Vtg-like proteins, but was not related to gonad maturation and gonado-somatic indexes, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. Moreover, these mussels displayed reduced DNA repair activity and increased LPO. Factorial analyses revealed that energy status, cytochrome P4503A activity and Vtg-like proteins were the most important

  19. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B.C., E-mail: Ben.Jaeschke@gmail.com [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Lind, O.C. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Bradshaw, C. [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Salbu, B. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h{sup −1}) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment

  20. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, B.C.; Lind, O.C.; Bradshaw, C.; Salbu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h −1 ) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example

  1. Effects of substrate type on growth and mortality of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) exposed to the predator Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Structure and complexity of the substrate are important habitat characteristics for benthic epifauna. The specific growth and mortality rates and inducible defence characters on medium- sized blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to shore crabs (Carcinus maenas L.) were examined on three...... different substrate types in combined field and laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that complexity of the substrate increased blue mussel survival significantly, through a decrease in predation pressure. However, increased intraspecific competition for food on the complex substrate resulted...... in significantly lower growth rates of the mussels. Inducible defence characters were also influenced by substrate type. Blue mussels were more affected by predators on the structurally simple substrate, where they developed thicker shells and a larger posterior adductor muscle....

  2. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  3. Somatic growth of mussels Mytilus edulis in field studies compared to predictions using BEG, DEB, and SFG models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Filgueira, Ramón; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of somatic growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, based on the data from 2 field-growth studies of mussels in suspended net-bags in Danish waters was made by 3 models: the bioenergetic growth (BEG), the dynamic energy budget (DEB), and the scope for growth (SFG). Here, the standard BEG...... at nearly constant environmental conditions with a mean chl a concentration of C=2.7μgL−1, and the observed monotonous growth in the dry weight of soft parts was best predicted by DEB while BEG and SFG models produced lower growth. The second 165-day field study was affected by large variations in chl...... a and temperature, and the observed growth varied accordingly, but nevertheless, DEB and SFG predicted monotonous growth in good agreement with the mean pattern while BEG mimicked the field data in response to observed changes in chl a concentration and temperature. The general features of the models were that DEB...

  4. Assessment of blue mussel Mytilus edulis fisheries and waterbird shellfish-predator management in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karsten; Kristensen, Per Sand; Clausen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    biomass and mussel bed areas in zones closed to fishery, (ii) decrease in eiders Somateria mollissima numbers and increase or stable numbers for oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and herring gull Larus argentatus and (iii) that energy estimations based on ecological food requirements for the mussel-eating......We assessed the blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishery management scheme introduced in 1994 in the Danish Wadden Sea that regulate fishing vessels, fishery quota, set-aside for mussel-eating birds and established zones closed to mussel fishery. The results showed (i) a reduction in the blue mussel......, it is recommended to revise the present blue mussel management scheme in the Danish Wadden Sea, to continue and improve mussel stock and bird surveys, and to consider novel studies of the mussel-eating birds’ energetics for improved set-aside estimates and future assessments....

  5. Growth of mussels Mytilus edulis at algal (Rhodomonas salina) concentrations below and above saturation level for reduced filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Pleissner, Daniel; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2013-01-01

    Average filtration and growth rates of groups of juvenile Mytilus edulis (n =2545 of 22-35 mm shell length) were measured at different concentrations of an algal cell monoculture in 9 laboratory experiments of duration 14-30 days, 4 experiments below and 5 above the limit of incipient saturation...... concentration (Csat ≈ 6000-7000 Rhodomonas salina cells ml-1). From a nearly constant filtration rate (F ≈ 30 ml min-1 for a 30 mm shell length) at measured algal concentrations below Csat the steady-state filtration rate decreased approximately as 1/C for increasing algal concentrations (C) above Csat...... is exceeded and then as partial valve closure and reduced filtration and growth rates along with production of pseudofaeces. A survey of naturally occurring phytoplankton biomass in the sea shows that this is generally below Csat except for the short spring bloom periods; hence mussels generally feed...

  6. A comparison of scope for growth (SFG) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models applied to the blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Rosland, Rune; Grant, Jon

    2011-11-01

    Growth of Mytilus edulis was simulated using individual based models following both Scope For Growth (SFG) and Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) approaches. These models were parameterized using independent studies and calibrated for each dataset by adjusting the half-saturation coefficient of the food ingestion function term, XK, a common parameter in both approaches related to feeding behavior. Auto-calibration was carried out using an optimization tool, which provides an objective way of tuning the model. Both approaches yielded similar performance, suggesting that although the basis for constructing the models is different, both can successfully reproduce M. edulis growth. The good performance of both models in different environments achieved by adjusting a single parameter, XK, highlights the potential of these models for (1) producing prospective analysis of mussel growth and (2) investigating mussel feeding response in different ecosystems. Finally, we emphasize that the convergence of two different modeling approaches via calibration of XK, indicates the importance of the feeding behavior and local trophic conditions for bivalve growth performance. Consequently, further investigations should be conducted to explore the relationship of XK to environmental variables and/or to the sophistication of the functional response to food availability with the final objective of creating a general model that can be applied to different ecosystems without the need for calibration.

  7. Interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acidification and warming resulting from anthropogenic production of carbon dioxide are increasing threats to marine ecosystems. Previous studies have documented the effects of either seawater acidification or warming on marine calcifiers; however, the combined effects of these stressors are poorly understood. In our study, we examined the interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(CO2)) and temperature on biomineralization and amino acid content in an ecologically and economically important mussel, Mytilus edulis. Adult M. edulis were reared at different combinations of P(CO2) (pH 8.1 and 7.8) and temperature (19, 22 and 25°C) for 2 months. The results indicated that elevated P(CO2) significantly decreased the net calcification rate, the calcium content and the Ca/Mg ratio of the shells, induced the differential expression of biomineralization-related genes, modified shell ultrastructure and altered amino acid content, implying significant effects of seawater acidification on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism. Notably, elevated temperature enhanced the effects of seawater acidification on these parameters. The shell breaking force significantly decreased under elevated P(CO2), but the effect was not exacerbated by elevated temperature. The results suggest that the interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on mussels are likely to have ecological and functional implications. This study is therefore helpful for better understanding the underlying effects of changing marine environments on mussels and other marine calcifiers. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Pleissner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    rate (F, l h-1), W (g), and L (mm) as described by the equations: FW = aWb and FL = cLd, respectively. This is done by using available and new experimental laboratory data on M. edulis obtained by members of the same research team using different methods and controlled diets of cultivated algal cells...

  9. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul S. Larsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis, valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl a concentration. It was used to predict the growth of M. edulis on optimally thinned farm-ropes in Great Belt (Denmark, from newly settled post-metamorphic mussels of an initial shell size of 0.8 mm to marketable juvenile 30–35 mm ‘mini-mussels’. Such mussels will presumably in the near future be introduced as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011 showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1 and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9 while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13 and Day 159 (Nov 20. Similar results were obtained by use of the ad hoc BEG model which also demonstrated the sensitivity of growth prediction to levels of chl a concentration, but less to temperature. The results suggest that it is possible (when the conditions are optimal, i.e., no intraspecific competition ensured by sufficient thinning to produce ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt during one season, but not the usual marketable 45-mm mussels. We suggest that the prediction model may be used as a practical instrument to evaluate to what degree the actual growth of mussels on farm ropes due to intraspecific competition may deviate from the potential (optimal growth under specified chl a and temperature conditions, and this implies that the effect of thinning to optimize the individual growth by eliminating intraspecific competition can be rationally evaluated.

  10. Assessment of bioavailability of weathered oil residues using caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) as indicator organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleczinski, C.F.; Costa, H.J.; Rigatti, M.J.; Wong, M.C.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1988, an estimated 400,000 gallons of San Joaquin Valley crude oil spilled into Peyton Slough and subsequently into Suisun Bay from an oil refinery in Martinez, California. The crude oil initially impacted a number of ecologically sensitive environments including estuarine water, marsh grasses, marsh and shoreline sediment, and intertidal sediment. A four-year oil weathering study was performed to determine the concentrations of environmentally important compounds in the stranded oil, to monitor changes in these concentrations over time, and to assess the potential long-term impact of the spilled oil in these various environments. As a result of marked differences in the rate of weathering at the different sites, a bioaccumulation component was added to the original study design in order to assess the bioavailability of crude oil residues remaining four-years post spill. Caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) were deployed at the three study sites as sentinel organisms and exposed for three months. Sediments and organism tissues were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblages characteristics of the spilled oil. Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques (e.g., double ratio plots of characteristic alkyl PAHs) were used to match distributions in the organisms and in the study site sediments

  11. Long-term loss rates of radioisotopes of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term loss rates of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis soft parts as well as shells were measured under field conditions in the Mediterranean Sea at Monaco during a period of 13 months after experimental contamination. For all 5 elements, the loss could be described by two exponential functions for the soft parts and one for the shells. Biological half lives for the long-lived compartment ranged from ∼20 days for caesium to 100 - 200 days for cobalt, zinc, ruthenium and silver for soft parts as well as for shells. A comparison with results from similar experiments performed under very different environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea indicated that caesium and maybe silver had a faster turnover in the warm and saline Mediterranean, whereas loss rates for cobalt and zinc were comparable. It is argued, that reliable deduction of loss rates require experiments running over several months to a year, and it is pointed out that shorter term experiments - even up to 3 months - may give biased results. (author)

  12. NMR Profiling of Metabolites in Larval and Juvenile Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) under Ambient and Low Salinity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Melissa A; Bishop, Karl D; Rawson, Paul D

    2017-07-06

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) are ecologically and economically important marine invertebrates whose populations are at risk from climate change-associated variation in their environment, such as decreased coastal salinity. Blue mussels are osmoconfomers and use components of the metabolome (free amino acids) to help maintain osmotic balance and cellular function during low salinity exposure. However, little is known about the capacity of blue mussels during the planktonic larval stages to regulate metabolites during osmotic stress. Metabolite studies in species such as blue mussels can help improve our understanding of the species' physiology, as well as their capacity to respond to environmental stress. We used 1D ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2D total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiments to describe baseline metabolite pools in larval (veliger and pediveliger stages) and juvenile blue mussels (gill, mantle, and adductor tissues) under ambient conditions and to quantify changes in the abundance of common osmolytes in these stages during low salinity exposure. We found evidence for stage- and tissue-specific differences in the baseline metabolic profiles of blue mussels, which reflect variation in the function and morphology of each larval stage or tissue type of juveniles. These differences impacted the utilization of osmolytes during low salinity exposure, likely stemming from innate physiological variation. This study highlights the importance of foundational metabolomic studies that include multiple tissue types and developmental stages to adequately evaluate organismal responses to stress and better place these findings in a broader physiological context.

  13. Multixenobiotic resistance in Mytilus edulis: Molecular and functional characterization of an ABCG2- type transporter in hemocytes and gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Yosra; Xuereb, Benoit; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Le Foll, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Among the cellular protection arsenal, ABC transporters play an important role in xenobiotic efflux in marine organisms. Two pumps belonging to B and C subfamily has been identified in Mytilus edulis. In this study, we investigated the presence of the third major subtype ABCG2/BCRP protein in mussel tissues. Transcript was expressed in hemocytes and with higher level in gills. Molecular characterization revealed that mussel ABCG2 transporter shares the sequence and organizational structure with mammalian and molluscan orthologs. Overall identity of the predicted amino acid sequence with corresponding homologs from other organisms was between 49% and 98%. Moreover, protein efflux activity was demonstrated using a combination of fluorescent allocrites and specific inhibitors. The accumulation of bodipy prazosin and pheophorbide A was heterogeneous in gills and hemocytes. Most of the used blockers enhanced probe accumulation at different levels, most significantly for bodipy prazosin. Moreover, Mrp classical blocker MK571 showed a polyspecificity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that several ABC transporters contribute to MXR phenotype in the blue mussel including ABCG2 that forms an active pump in hemocytes and gills. Efforts are needed to distinguish between the different members and to explore their single function and specificity towards allocrites and chemosensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  15. Macromolecule oxidation and DNA repair in mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) gill following exposure to Cd and Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanouil, C.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of DNA and lipid was analysed in the marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) in response to exposure (10 μg/l and 200 μg/l) to cadmium (Cd) and chromium [Cr(VI)]. Concentration dependent uptake of both metals into mussel tissues was established and levels of gill ATP were not depleted at these exposure levels. DNA strand breakage in gill cells (analysed by the comet assay) was elevated by both metals, however, DNA oxidation [measured by DNA strand breakage induced by the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)] was not elevated. This was despite a statistically significant increase in both malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal - indicative of lipid peroxidation - following treatment with Cd. In contrast, both frank DNA stand breaks and FPG-induced DNA strand breaks (indicative of DNA oxidation) were increased following injection of mussels with sodium dichromate (10.4 μg Cr(VI)/mussel). The metals also showed differential inhibitory potential towards DNA repair enzyme activity with Cd exhibiting inhibition of DNA cutting activity towards an oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and Cr(VI) showing inhibition of such activity towards an oligonucleotide containing ethenoadenosine, both at 200 μg/l. The metals thus show DNA damage activity in mussel gill with distinct mechanisms involving both direct and indirect (oxidative) DNA damage, as well as impairing different DNA repair capacities. A combination of these activities can contribute to adverse effects in these organisms

  16. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  17. Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: Dragging impacts and habitat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Short, Frederick T.; Barker, Seth; Kopp, Blaine S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of commercial harvest of blue mussels Mytilus edulis on eelgrass Zostera marina L. in Maquoit Bay, Maine, USA, at a hierarchy of scales. We used aerial photography, underwater video, and eelgrass population- and shoot-based measurements to quantify dragging impacts within 4 sites that had been disturbed at different times over an approximate 7 yr interval, and to project eelgrass meadow recovery rates. Dragging had disturbed 10% of the eelgrass cover in Maquoit Bay, with dragged sites ranging from 3.4 to 31.8 ha in size. Dragging removed above- and belowground plant material from the majority of the bottom in the disturbed sites. One year following dragging, eelgrass shoot density, shoot height and total biomass of disturbed sites averaged respectively 2 to 3%, 46 to 61% and model based on measured rates of lateral patch-expansion (mean 12.5 cm yr-1) and new-patch recruitment (mean 0.19 patches m-2 yr-1) yielded a mean bed recovery time of 9 to 11 yr following dragging, depending on initial degree of plant removal. Model simulations suggested that with favorable environmental conditions, eelgrass beds might recover from dragging disturbance in 6 yr; conversely, recovery under conditions less conducive to eelgrass growth could require 20 yr or longer. This study shows that mussel dragging poses a severe threat to eelgrass in this region and that regulations to protect eelgrass from dragging impacts would maintain the integrity of a substantial amount of habitat.

  18. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We...

  19. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement...... originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels...

  20. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the Comet assay), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability, LMS) were studied in native and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in coastal areas of western Denmark...... of chemical pollution complex, as seen especially in the variability in results on DNA damage, and also in regard to AChE activity. These investigations further stress the importance of understanding the effects of natural factors (salinity, temperature, water levels, rain and storm events) in correct...

  1. Dredging of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish sound: stock sizes and fishery-effects on mussel population dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, 1994 and 1995 the abundance of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L., was estimated in Limfjorden, Denmark. The stocks were assessed by using a down-scaled model of a commercial mussel dredge which efficiency was analysed by comparing its samples with others collected by diver. The mean...... dredge efficiency was 17%. The fishing area in Limfjorden (700 km(2)) is divided into 22 fishery zones and mussel stock size was calculated for each zone. From April 1993 to April 1994 the total stock size declined from 771 000 to 616 000 t. In the same period, the exploitation rate in the fishery was 14...

  2. Potential for production of ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt (Denmark) evaluated on basis of actual and modeled growth of young mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a first step towards evaluation of the potential for line-mussel production in the Great Belt region between the Kattegat and Baltic Sea, Denmark. We present experimental results for actual growth rates of juvenile/adult mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended net bags in terms......) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g) by a previously developed simple bioenergetic growth model μ = aW −0.34. Results were generally in good agreement with the model which assumes the prevailing average chlorophyll a concentration at field sites to essentially account for the nutrition. Our studies...

  3. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  4. L-alanine uptake in membrane vesicles from Mytilus edulis gills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajor, A.M.; Wright, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that gills from M. edulis can accumulate L-alanine from seawater by a saturable process specific for α-neutral amino acids. This uptake occurs against chemical gradients in excess of 10 6 to 1. To further characterize this uptake, membrane vesicles were prepared from M. edulis gill tissue by differential centrifugation. Enrichments of putative enzyme markers (relative to that in combined initial fractions) were as follows: γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, 25-30x; Alkaline Phosphatase, 5-6x; K + -dependent para-Nitrophenyl Phosphatase, 3-5x; Succinate Dehydrogenase 0.1-0.2x. These results suggest that the preparation is enriched in plasma membranes, although histochemical studies will be needed to verify this. The time course of 14 C-L-alanine uptake in the presence of inwardly-directed Na + gradient showed a transient overshoot (3-5 fold) at 10 minutes which decreased to equilibrium after six hours. The size of the overshoot and early uptake rates depended on the size of the inwardly-directed Na + gradient. No overshoot was seen in the presence of inwardly-directed gradients of LiCl or choline-Cl, or with equilibrium concentrations NaCl or mannitol. A reduced overshoot was seen with a gradient of NaSCN. A small overshoot was seen with an inwardly-directed gradient of KCl. Transport of L-alanine included saturable and diffusive components. Uptake of 6 μM L-alanine was inhibited more than 80% by 100 μM α-zwitterionic amino acids (alanine, leucine, glycine); by 30 to 75% by proline, aspartate and lysine; and less than 20% by a β-amino acid, taurine. The results of these experiments agree with those from intact gill studies and support the hypothesis that L-alanine is transported into gill epithelial cells by a secondary active transport process involving Na +

  5. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katolikova

    Full Text Available Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME and M. trossulus (MT, co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1 in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2 mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3 in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4 at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been

  6. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival effects of tritiated water in the early life stages of the marine mollusc, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Atienzar, Franck A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2005-09-10

    Using an integrated approach linking different levels of biological organisation, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival impact of tritiated water (HTO) were investigated in the embryo-larvae of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. One-hour-old embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.37-370 kBq ml{sup -1}) of HTO, which delivered a dose between 0.02 and 21.41 mGy over the exposure period for different end points. Detrimental effects, if any, were monitored at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. DNA, chromosomal, cellular and individual). Genotoxic effects were assessed using molecular and cytogenetic approaches which included analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (Cabs). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the proliferative rate index (PRI) of the embryo-larval cells. Developmental and survival effects were also monitored every 24 h up to 72 h. Results in general indicated that HTO significantly increased cytogenetic damage, cytotoxicity, developmental abnormalities and mortality of the embryo-larvae as a function of concentration or radiation dose. The analysis of RAPD profiles also revealed qualitative effects in the HTO exposed population compared to controls. However, while the embryo-larvae showed dose or concentration dependent effects for mortality, developmental abnormalities and induction of SCEs, the dose-dependent effects were not apparent for Cabs and PRI at higher doses. The study contributes to our limited understanding of the impact of environmentally relevant radionuclides on non-human biota and emphasises the need for further investigations to elucidate potentially long term damage induced by persistent, low levels of other radionuclides on commercially and ecologically important species, in order to protect human and ecosystem health.

  7. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Somatic growth of mussels Mytilus edulis in field studies compared to predictions using BEG, DEB, and SFG models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Filgueira, Ramón; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2014-04-01

    Prediction of somatic growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, based on the data from 2 field-growth studies of mussels in suspended net-bags in Danish waters was made by 3 models: the bioenergetic growth (BEG), the dynamic energy budget (DEB), and the scope for growth (SFG). Here, the standard BEG model has been expanded to include the temperature dependence of filtration rate and respiration and an ad hoc modification to ensure a smooth transition to zero ingestion as chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration approaches zero, both guided by published data. The first 21-day field study was conducted at nearly constant environmental conditions with a mean chl a concentration of C = 2.7 μg L- 1, and the observed monotonous growth in the dry weight of soft parts was best predicted by DEB while BEG and SFG models produced lower growth. The second 165-day field study was affected by large variations in chl a and temperature, and the observed growth varied accordingly, but nevertheless, DEB and SFG predicted monotonous growth in good agreement with the mean pattern while BEG mimicked the field data in response to observed changes in chl a concentration and temperature. The general features of the models were that DEB produced the best average predictions, SFG mostly underestimated growth, whereas only BEG was sensitive to variations in chl a concentration and temperature. DEB and SFG models rely on the calibration of the half-saturation coefficient to optimize the food ingestion function term to that of observed growth, and BEG is independent of observed actual growth as its predictions solely rely on the time history of the local chl a concentration and temperature.

  9. Experimental Transmission of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, to Cohabitating Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrak, Michael R.; Bricknell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) reduces the environmental impacts of commercial aquaculture systems by combining the cultivation of fed species with extractive species. Shellfish play a critical role in IMTA systems by filter-feeding particulate-bound organic nutrients. As bioaccumulating organisms, shellfish may also increase disease risk on farms by serving as reservoirs for important finfish pathogens such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The ability of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to bioaccumulate and transmit IPNV to naive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts was investigated. To determine the ability of mussels to filter and accumulate viable IPNV, mussels were held in water containing log 4.6 50% tissue culture infective dose(s) (TCID50) of the West Buxton strain of IPNV ml−1. Viable IPNV was detected in the digestive glands (DGs) of IPNV-exposed mussels as early as 2 h postexposure. The viral load in mussel DG tissue significantly increased with time and reached log 5.35 ± 0.25 TCID50 g of DG tissue−1 after 120 h of exposure. IPNV titers never reached levels that were significantly greater than that in the water. Viable IPNV was detected in mussel feces out to 7 days postdepuration, and the virus persisted in DG tissues for at least 18 days of depuration. To determine whether IPNV can be transmitted from mussels to Atlantic salmon, IPNV-exposed mussels were cohabitated with naive Atlantic salmon smolts. Transmission of IPNV did occur from mussels to smolts at a low frequency. The results demonstrate that a nonenveloped virus, such as IPNV, can accumulate in mussels and be transferred to naive fish. PMID:23872575

  10. Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.C.; Christopher, S.J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Donard, O.F.X.; Krupp, Eva A.; Point, David; Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D.; Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z.; Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST. (orig.)

  11. Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.C.; Christopher, S.J.; Pugh, Rebecca S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Hollings Marine Laboratory, Analytical Chemistry Division, Charleston, SC (United States); Donard, O.F.X.; Krupp, Eva A. [LCABIE/CNRS Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Pau (France); Point, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Hollings Marine Laboratory, Analytical Chemistry Division, Charleston, SC (United States); LCABIE/CNRS Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Pau (France); Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2007-04-15

    This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST. (orig.)

  12. Field data and growth model for mussels Mytilus edulis in Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul S.

    2012-01-01

    of different overlapping size-classes of M. edulis were analysed individually and after being assembled to cover the full range of sizes, as full time series in terms of weight specific growth rate (μ = (1/W) dW/dt,% day-1) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g). The results were compared to a simple...... bioenergetic growth model for mussels (μ = aWb, a = 0.871 x C - 0.986, b = -0.34), and observed power-law relations of growth data were in good agreement with the model, which takes into account the prevailing average chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (C, μ g chl a l-1) at field sites. Thus, the b......-values of data were close to the predicted -0.34 while the a-value was in one case lower than estimated due to suboptimal conditions during part of the growth period. As a supplementary interpretation the growth data have been expressed in terms of the time to double the dry weight of soft parts for a given size...

  13. Ciclo gonadal del chorito Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en dos localidades del sur de Chile Gonadal cycle of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae at two localities in southern of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa el ciclo gonadal del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis en las localidades de Chaihuín y bahía Yal, sur de Chile, entre octubre 2007 y junio 2008. Por medio de análisis histológico gonadal se determinaron cuatro estadios gametogénicos y a su vez se estimó en forma cuantitativa, el Volumen de la Fracción Gamética (VFG, el porcentaje de tejido interfolicular y el índice gonadal. El análisis cuantitativo (VFG fue el mejor indicador para determinar los desoves. En los ejemplares de Chaihuín se observaron dos eventos de emisión gamética en forma simultánea en ambos sexos, que ocurrieron en octubre y marzo. Sin embargo, en los ejemplares de bahía Yal se registraron cuatro desoves, principalmente de marzo a junio (otoño, cuando la temperatura del agua disminuyó. Se determinó una escasa relación entre el Índice Gonadosomático (IG y los estadios gametogénicos, al igual que entre el IG y el porcentaje de ovocitos maduros, por ende el IG no sería un indicador apropiado para los desoves en esta especie. Se sugiere la revisión del periodo de veda de Mytilus chilensis (1 noviembre a 31 diciembre, ya que la mayor parte de los individuos de las poblaciones estudiadas, maduran principalmente en octubre. En ambas localidades, el porcentaje de tejido conjuntivo de los especímenes estudiados fluctúo entre 15 y 70% de cobertura gonadal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron diferencias en los ciclos reproductivos de Mytilus chilensis entre las localidades analizadas, las que se podrían atribuir a diferencias ambientales (e.g. temperatura causadas por el gradiente latitudinal.A qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out of the gonadal cycle of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis from Chaihuín and Yal bay, southern Chile, between October 2007 and June 2008. Four gametogenic stages were determined using histological analysis of the gonads, and quantitative estimates were made of the Gametic Volume

  14. Heterogeneity of Cr in Mytilus edulis: Implications for the Cr isotope system as a paleo-redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Klaebe, Robert; Frei, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Changes in 53Cr/52Cr (δ53Cr) values recorded by biogenic carbonates are emerging as a proxy for variations in the redox state of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere (e.g. [1], [2]). We investigate the ability of modern carbonate shells (Mytilus edulis) to record the δ53Cr composition of ambient seawater in order to assess their utility as a paleo-redox proxy. Samples of cultivated M. edulis from the Kiel Fjord, Germany, were analyzed for their δ53Cr composition and Cr concentrations [Cr] using TIMS. To disentangle the pathway of Cr into the carbonate shell, a series of step-digestions of their organic outer sheaths (periostraca) and their intra-layer composition were performed. Bulk analyses of specimens with intact periostraca returned 16 to 34 ppb Cr with δ53Cr values ranging from 0.28 to 0.65 ± 0.1 (2SE) and thus fall within the range of surface seawater from the Baltic Sea (0.3 - 0.6 \\permil [3]). Partial removal of periostraca resulted in lower [Cr] (5 to 17 ppb) and δ53Cr values (-0.05 ± 0.15 \\permil). These results show a positive correlation between the amount of organic matter present in a sample and both [Cr] and δ53Cr (n = 9). With nearly complete removal of periostraca, the remaining [Cr] is significantly lower (less than 5 ppb) and can only be accessed by incineration of the carbonate shell. The correlation between [Cr], δ53Cr and the amount of periostracum present in bulk samples indicates that a significant proportion of preserved Cr may be associated with the organic outer sheath. The Cr endmember accessed after incineration is less likely associated with the carbonate crystal lattice. Instead, the δ53Cr values obtained after incineration are similar to those reported from terrestrial rocks, suggesting the influence of detrital particles. Alternatively, Cr may be reduced and subsequently re-oxidized during the mineralization of biogenic carbonates [4]. Seasonal changes in primary productivity in seawater may further influence the shell

  15. Measurement of stress effects (scope for growth) and contaminant levels in mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, J; Donkin, P; Staff, F J; Matthiessen, P; Law, R J; Allen, Y T; Thain, J E; Allchin, C R; Jones, B R

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this research was to quantify the impact of pollution along the coastlines of the Irish Sea. Pollution assessment was based on the combined measurement of scope for growth (SFG), and chemical contaminants in the tissues of mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from 38 coastal sites around the Irish Sea during June-July in 1996 and 1997. On the UK mainland coast, the SFG showed a general trend with a significant decline in water quality in the Liverpool and Morecambe Bay region. High water quality was recorded along the west coast of Wales, as well as southwest England and northwest Scotland (clean reference sites outside the Irish Sea). Along the coast of Ireland there was a similar trend with reduced SFG within the Irish Sea region. SFG was generally low north of Duncannon and then improved north of Belfast. The poor water quality on both sides of the Irish Sea is consistent with the prevailing hydrodynamics and the spatial distribution of contaminants associated with urban/ industrial development. The decline in SFG of mussels on both sides of the Irish Sea was associated with a general increase in contaminant levels in the mussels. Certain contaminants, including PAHs, TBT, sigmaDDT, Dieldrin, gamma-HCH, PCBs, and a few of the metals (Cd, Se, Ag, Pb), showed elevated concentrations. Many of these contaminants were particularly elevated in the coastal margins of Liverpool Bay, Morecambe Bay and Dublin Bay. A quantitative toxicological interpretation (QTI) of the combined tissue residue chemistry and SFG measurements indicated that at the majority of coastal sites, c. 50 to > 80% of the observed decline in SFG was due to PAHs as a result of fossil fuel combustion and oil spills. TBT levels were highest at major ports and harbours, but these concentrations only made a minor contribution to the overall reduction in SFG. At no sites were individual metals accumulated to concentrations that could cause a significant effect on SFG. The study identified

  16. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C.; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l −1 ). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a ‘representative’ species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  17. Immunological responses, histopathological finding and disease resistance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to treated and untreated municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Fabiola M.; St-Jean, Sylvie D.; Bishay, Farida; Clarke, John; Rabitto, Ines da S.; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A. de

    2007-01-01

    This study provides new information on the response of the immune system of Mytilus edulis exposed to untreated and treated sewage, linking immune response to ecologically relevant endpoints, such as disease resistance. Our goal was to assess the potential effects of sewage on the immune system (phagocytic activity and production of cytotoxic metabolites, disease resistance) and gills (light microscope) of mussels through a bioassay and field study in an estuarine receiving environment (RE). A semi-static experiment was developed in a wastewater treatment plant in New Glasgow, NS Canada. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% of untreated sewage influent and artificial seawater control. Sampling occurred after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. In the field study, eight sites were selected in East River and Pictou Harbour, NS, positioned upstream and downstream of sewage effluents outfalls. Caged mussels were exposed to the RE for 90 days (May-July 2005). Mussels were challenged to test their efficiency at eliminating the bacteria, Listonella anguillarium in the bioassay and field studies. The bioassay results showed that higher concentrations of untreated sewage could modulate the immune system of mussels through increased of phagocytic activity (PA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production during 14 days of exposure, and decreased activity and production at 21 days, with the exception of H 2 O 2 production which was high even at 21 days. Mussels exposed to untreated sewage RE also presented a high PA, NO and H 2 O 2 production and lower number of haemocytes compared to mussels from reference sites. In the bacterial challenge, mussels pre-exposed to 100% sewage died 24 h after being infected with L. anguillarium, while mussels pre-exposed to 50% eliminated bacteria had a mortality rate of 30%. Mussels from the control, 12.5% and 25% groups eliminated bacteria and no mortality was observed. No significant difference was

  18. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l(-1)). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a 'representative' species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  19. Effect of infection with Metacercariae of Himasthla elongata (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on cardiac activity and growth rate in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmet, Igor; Nikolaev, Kirill; Levakin, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Trematode parasites can affect their molluscan hosts, which serve as the first intermediate hosts in their life cycles, in manifold ways, but little is known about trematode-induced effects on their second intermediate hosts. Experimental infection of blue mussels Mytilus edulis serving as second intermediate hosts for larval stages (metacercariae) of the trematodes Himasthla elongata was studied in field experiments during one year. The heart rates and growth rates of noninfected mussels were significantly higher than those of infected mussels. During the summer, the heart rates of noninfected mussels showed rhythmic oscillations, whereas the parasitized animals displayed no any rhythmicity. There was a significant difference between the infected and uninfected mussels in relation to heart rates and temperature. The results indicate that mussels infected with H. elongata metacercariae may be at an energetic disadvantage relative to noninfected mussels. Furthermore, trematode infection may disrupt neuronal control of cardiac function.

  20. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, J.; Lehtonen, K. K.; Strand, J.

    2007-01-01

    of chemical pollution complex, as seen especially in the variability in results on DNA damage, and also in regard to AChE activity. These investigations further stress the importance of understanding the effects of natural factors (salinity, temperature, water levels, rain and storm events) in correct......Biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the Comet assay), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability, LMS) were studied in native and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in coastal areas of western Denmark...... potentially affected by anthropogenic pollution originating from chemical dumping sites. The results indicate responses to pollution in all the biomarkers applied at the suspected areas, but the results were not consistent. Seasonal fluctuations in exposure situations at the study sites make interpretation...

  1. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) – Test of hypothesis and new ‘high Chl a BEG-model’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl...... a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l−1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison...... the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu....

  2. Pollution from mining in South Greenland: Uptake and release of Pb by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) documented by transplantation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, L.A.; Asmund, G.; Johansen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term impact of former mining activities on the marine sub-Arctic ecosystem in the Ivittuut area, Arsuk Fjord, South Greenland, was studied by transplantation experiments with the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Measurements of metal concentration in mussels were conducted using atomic absorption...... spectrometry (flame AAS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (graphite furnace AAS). Uptake and release of Pb were documented to be slow processes. For mussels transplanted from the pristine Kugnait Bay to the polluted mining site at Ivittuut, a continuous accumulation throughout...... the experiments was found. Linear uptake rates of 5.86, 6.94 and 11.62 μg Pb month−1 for small, medium and large mussels were found for a 6-week experiment, whereas exponential uptake rates of 0.26, 0.20 and 0.28 month−1 were found for a 9-month experiment. It is estimated that the transplanted mussels will reach...

  3. Major and minor arsenic compounds accounting for the total urinary excretion of arsenic following intake of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): A controlled human study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ydersbond, T.A.; Ulven, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) accumulate and biotransform arsenic (As) to a larger variety of arsenicals than most seafood. Eight volunteers ingested a test meal consisting of 150g blue mussel (680μg As), followed by 72h with an identical, low As controlled diet and full urine sampling. We provide...... a complete speciation, with individual patterns, of urinary As excretion. Total As (tAs) urinary excretion was 328±47μg, whereof arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) accounted for 66% and 21%, respectively. Fifteen minor urinary arsenicals were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass...... spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled to reverse-phase, anion and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thio-arsenicals and non-thio minor arsenicals (including inorganic As (iAs) and methylarsonate (MA)) contributed 10% and 7% of the total sum of species excretion, respectively, but there were...

  4. Growth of farmed blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Norwegian coastal area; comparison of food proxies by DEB modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handå, Aleksander; Alver, Morten; Edvardsen, Christian Vik; Halstensen, Stein; Olsen, Anders Johny; Øie, Gunvor; Reitan, Kjell Inge; Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge

    2011-11-01

    Seston variables and growth of the blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis L.) were measured during the growth season from March to October in three suspended longline farms in Central Norway; one in the inner part of Åfjorden (63° 56' N, 10° 11' E) and two in Inner and Outer Koet, respectively (63° 49' N, 9° 42' and 47' E). Four seston variables were used as alternative input values in a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model to compare their suitability as food proxies for predicting mussel growth: 1; total particulate matter (TPM), 2; particulate organic matter (POM), 3; organic content (OC) and 4; chlorophyll a (chl a). Mean TPM and POM measured 6.1 and 1.9 mg L - 1 in Åfjorden, 10.3 and 4.2 mg L - 1 in Inner Koet, and 10.5 and 4.6 mg L - 1 in Outer Koet, respectively, resulting in a mean OC of 32, 41 and 44% in Åfjorden and Inner and Outer Koet, respectively. Mean chl a measured 1.6 μg L - 1 in Åfjorden, 3.1 μg L - 1 in Inner Koet, and 1.6 μg L - 1 in Outer Koet. Average length growth was 0.20% day - 1 in medium sized mussels (24-36 mm) in Åfjorden and 0.08% day - 1 in large mussels (40-55 mm) in Inner and Outer Koet. Mean standardized soft tissue dry weight ranged between 250 and 390 mg in Åfjorden, 600 and 1175 in Inner Koet, and 600 and 960 mg in Outer Koet, and showed a seasonal pattern independent of growth in length with scattered spawnings. The model showed the best match for a single criterion for growth in both length and soft tissue dry weight for different food proxies depending on location. TPM gave the best match in Åfjorden, while chl a and POM gave the best match in Inner and Outer Koet, respectively. For Åfjorden, growth in length decreased markedly at the end of the sampling period, and this decrease was not reproduced by the model for any of the food proxies. For Inner and Outer Koet, agreement between measured and modeled length was quite good for the optimal choices of food proxy, with clear variations between the proxies for both farms. The

  5. Reaction of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia) to Eugymnanthea inquilina (Cnidaria) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria) concurrent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladineo, Ivona; Petrić, Mirela; Hrabar, Jerko; Bočina, Ivana; Peharda, Melita

    2012-05-01

    In total 480 individuals of Mytilus galloprovincialis were sampled monthly from October 2009 to September 2010, at the shellfish farm in the Mali Ston Bay, south Adriatic Sea (Croatia) in order to assess the extent of pathology imposed by two parasites, Eugymnanthea inquilina (Cnidaria) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria). Although a deteriorating impact on host reproduction or condition index was lacking, we evidenced ultrastructural and functional alteration in host cells at the attachment site. Ultrastructural changes included hemocytic encapsulation of the turbellarian and cell desquamation in medusoid infestation. Caspase positive reaction inferred by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was triggered in cases of turbellarian infestation, in contrast with hydroids, suggesting that the former exhibits more complex host-parasite interaction, reflected in the persistent attempts of the parasite to survive bivalve reaction. We have evidenced that both organisms trigger specific host reaction that although not costly in terms of host reproductive cycle or growth, results in mild tissue destruction and hemocyte activation. A lower degree of tissue reaction was observed in cases of hydroid infestation, compared to turbellarian. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal acclimation and latitudinal adaptation are of the same magnitude in Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Bundgård, Amanda Marie; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models often assume homogeneous physiological performance within a species distribution range. This assumption potentially underestimates the distribution as it neglects physiological plasticity and adaptation among species and populations. Better knowledge on the physiological......% after cold acclimation. Combined, our results show that seasonal variation in mitochondrial respiration is of the same magnitude as large-scale (>1000 km) latitudinal variation. The high respiratory plasticity in Mytilus spp. improves fitness in changing temperature environments and supports their large...

  7. The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Cottrell

    Full Text Available Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables.Mussel mortality was significantly higher in organically loaded burials when compared to control sediments after just 2 days. Particularly, M. edulis specimens under burial in fine sediment with high (1% concentrations of organic matter experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0.01 than those under coarse control aggregates. Additionally, mussels exposed to the summer maximum temperature treatment (20°C exhibited significantly increased mortality (p<0.01 compared to those in the ambient treatment group (15°C. Total Oxygen Uptake rates of experimental aggregates were greatest (112.7 mmol m-2 day-1 with 1% organic loadings in coarse sediment at 20°C. Elevated oxygen flux rates in porous coarse sediments are likely to be a function of increased vertical migration of anaerobically liberated sulphides to the sediment-water interface. However, survival of M. edulis under bacterial mats of Beggiatoa spp. indicates the species' resilience to sulphides and so we propose that the presence of reactive organic matter within the burial medium may facilitate bacterial growth and increase mortality through pathogenic infection. This may be exacerbated under the stable interstitial conditions in fine sediment and increased bacterial metabolism under high temperatures. Furthermore, increased temperature may impose metabolic demands upon the mussel that cannot be met during burial-induced anaerobiosis.Lack of consideration for the role of organic matter and

  8. Annual variation in the levels of transcripts of sex-specific genes in the mantle of the common mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Anantharaman

    Full Text Available Mytilus species are used as sentinels for the assessment of environmental health but sex or stage in the reproduction cycle is rarely considered even though both parameters are likely to influence responses to pollution. We have validated the use of a qPCR assay for sex identification and related the levels of transcripts to the reproductive cycle. A temporal study of mantle of Mytilus edulis found transcripts of male-specific vitelline coat lysin (VCL and female-specific vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL could identify sex over a complete year. The levels of VCL/VERL were proportional to the numbers of sperm/ova and are indicative of the stage of the reproductive cycle. Maximal levels of VCL and VERL were found in February 2009 declining to minima between July - August before increasing and re-attaining a peak in February 2010. Water temperature may influence these transitions since they coincide with minimal water temperature in February and maximal temperature in August. An identical pattern of variation was found for a cryptic female-specific transcript (H5 but a very different pattern was observed for oestrogen receptor 2 (ER2. ER2 varied in a sex-specific way with male > female for most of the cycle, with a female maxima in July and a male maxima in December. Using artificially spawned animals, the transcripts for VCL, VERL and H5 were shown to be present in gametes and thus their disappearance from mantle is indicative of spawning. VCL and VERL are present at equivalent levels in February and July-August but during gametogenesis (August to January and spawning (March to June VCL is present at lower relative amounts than VERL. This may indicate sex-specific control mechanisms for these processes and highlight a potential pressure point leading to reduced reproductive output if environmental factors cause asynchrony to gamete maturation or release.

  9. Expression of M6 and M7 lysin in Mytilus edulis is not restricted to sperm, but occurs also in oocytes and somatic tissue of males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Anne-Katrin; Bartel, Manuela; Roth, Karina; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Heilmann, Katja; Kenchington, Ellen; Micheel, Burkhard; Stuckas, Heiko

    2012-08-01

    Sperm proteins of marine sessile invertebrates have been extensively studied to understand the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. Apart from molecules such as bindin of sea urchins or lysin of abalone species, the acrosomal protein M7 lysin of Mytilus edulis has been analyzed. M7 lysin was found to be under positive selection, but mechanisms driving the evolution of this protein are not fully understood. To explore functional aspects, this study investigated the protein expression pattern of M7 and M6 lysin in gametes and somatic tissue of male and female M. edulis. The study employs a previously published monoclonal antibody (G26-AG8) to investigate M6 and M7 lysin protein expression, and explores expression of both genes. It is shown that these proteins and their encoding genes are expressed in gametes and somatic tissue of both sexes. This is in contrast to sea urchin bindin and abalone lysin, in which gene expression is strictly limited to males. Although future studies need to clarify the functional importance of both acrosomal proteins in male and female somatic tissue, new insights into the evolution of sperm proteins in marine sessile invertebrates are possible. This is because proteins with male-specific expression (bindin, lysin) might evolve differently than proteins with expression in both sexes (M6/M7 lysin), and the putative function of both proteins in females opens the possibility that the evolution of M6/M7 lysin is under sexual antagonistic selection, for example, mutations beneficial to the acrosomal function that are less beneficial the function in somatic tissue of females. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) - Test of hypothesis and new 'high Chl a BEG-model'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-04-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l-1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison of literature values for actually measured weight-specific growth rates (μ, % d-1) of small (20 to 25 mm) M. edulis, either grown in controlled laboratory experiments or in net bags in Danish waters, as a function of Chl a. A linear increase up to about μ = 8.3% d-1 at 8.1 μg Chl a l-1 fits the "standard BEG-model" after which a marked decrease takes place, and this supports the hypothesis. A "high Chl a BEG-model", applicable to newly settled post-metamorphic and small juvenile (non-spawning) mussels in eutrophicated Danish and other temperate waters, is developed and tested, and new data from a case study in which the growth of mussels in net bags was measured along a Chl a gradient are presented. Finally, we discuss the phenomenon of reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated areas versus a possible impact of low salinity. It is concluded that it is difficult to separate the effect of salinity from the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu.

  11. Bioavailability of sediment-associated and low-molecular-mass species of radionuclides/trace metals to the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borretzen, Peer [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 50003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: peer.borretzen@gmail.com; Salbu, Brit [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 50003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-1432 As (Norway)

    2009-04-15

    Sediments can act as a sink for contaminants in effluents from industrial and nuclear installations or when released from dumped waste. However, contaminated sediments may also act as a potential source of radionuclides and trace metals to the water phase due to remobilisation of metals as dissolved species and resuspension of particles. The marine mussel Mytilus edulis is a filter-feeding organism that via the gills is subjected to contaminants in dissolved form and from contaminants associated to suspended particles via the digestive system. In this paper the bioavailability of sediment-associated and seawater diluted Cs, Co, Cd and Zn radioactive tracers to the filtering bivalve M. edulis has been examined. The mussels were exposed to tracers diluted in ultrafiltered (<10 kDa) seawater (Low Molecular Mass form) or to tracers associated with sediment particles from the Stepovogo Fjord at Novaya Zemlya in short-term uptake experiments, followed by 1-month depuration experiments in flow-through tanks. A toxicokinetic model was fitted to the uptake and depuration data, and the obtained parameters were used to simulate the significance of the two uptake pathways at different suspended sediment loads and sediment-seawater distribution coefficients. The results of the model simulations, assuming steady state conditions, suggest that resuspended particles from contaminated sediments can be a highly significant pathway for mussels in the order {sup 109}Cd {approx_equal} {sup 65}Zn < {sup 134}Cs < {sup 60}Co. The significance increases with higher suspended sediment load and with higher K{sub d}. Furthermore, the experimental depuration data suggest that Cs is retained longer and Co, Cd and Zn shorter by the mussels when associated with ingested sediments, than if the metals are taken up from the low molecular mass (LMM) phase.

  12. Fluctuating seawater pH/pCO2 regimes are more energetically expensive than static pH/pCO2 levels in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Stephanie; Urbina, Mauricio A; Findlay, Helen S; Wilson, Rod W; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-10-25

    Ocean acidification (OA) studies typically use stable open-ocean pH or CO 2 values. However, species living within dynamic coastal environments can naturally experience wide fluctuations in abiotic factors, suggesting their responses to stable pH conditions may not be reflective of either present or near-future conditions. Here we investigate the physiological responses of the mussel Mytilus edulis to variable seawater pH conditions over short- (6 h) and medium-term (2 weeks) exposures under both current and near-future OA scenarios. Mussel haemolymph pH closely mirrored that of seawater pH over short-term changes of 1 pH unit with acidosis or recovery accordingly, highlighting a limited capacity for acid-base regulation. After 2 weeks, mussels under variable pH conditions had significantly higher metabolic rates, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation than those exposed to static pH under both current and near-future OA scenarios. Static near-future pH conditions induced significant acid-base disturbances and lipid peroxidation compared with the static present-day conditions but did not affect the metabolic rate. These results clearly demonstrate that living in naturally variable environments is energetically more expensive than living in static seawater conditions, which has consequences for how we extrapolate future OA responses in coastal species. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Distribution and elimination of [14C]octachlorostyrene in cod (Gadus morhua), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingebrigtsen, K.; Solbakken, J.E.; Norheim, G.; Nafstad, I.

    1988-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were given a single oral dose of 100 microCi/kg b.w. of [ 14 C]octachlorostyrene [( 14 C]OCS) in peanut oil. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was exposed to [ 14 C]OCS in water. The distribution and elimination of the compound was studied by liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography. The highest degree of radioactivity in the cod and rainbow trout was measured in the liver and the visceral fat, respectively. The degree of radioactivity in the brain of cod exceeded that of the rainbow trout by a factor between 2 and 4 at all survival times. In addition to bile excretion of [ 14 C]OCS-derived radioactivity, a possible excretion over the intestinal mucosa was suggested. The rate of elimination was slow in both species, and substantial amounts of radioactivity remained in the tissues 90 d after administration. In the blue mussel, the highest degree of radioactivity was found in the hepatopancreas. Substantial amounts of radioactivity were present in the mussel tissues 60 d after administration

  14. Sublethal effects of a chlorinated and heated effluent on the physiology of the mussel, Mytilus edulis L.: A reduction in fitness for survival?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazik, Krysia; Hitchman, Natasha; Quintino, Victor; Taylor, Colin J.L.; Butterfield, Jonathan; Elliott, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of chlorinated cooling water effluent on Scope for Growth was assessed. • Scope for Growth in mussels was reduced after exposure to effluent in the field. • Scope for Growth was reduced along an exposure gradient, most notably in summer. • Body condition and reproductive condition decreased along a gradient of exposure. • Negative physiological effects were contained within a 1 km radius of the discharge. -- Abstract: Coastal power stations entrain large volumes of cooling water, requiring biocidal treatment to prevent biological fouling. Discharged effluent is both heated and contaminated with residual traces of biocide and so it is necessary to quantify the impacts of this discharge. Cooling water from Heysham 2 nuclear power station, NW England, UK, is discharged to the intertidal area, via a culvert (to minimise erosion and maximise dilution and dispersion by directing the effluent into the receiving water at all states of the tide) within which the effluent is contained at low water. The culvert and surrounding coastal area support a population of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussel health was determined along a gradient of exposure, using three physiological indices: Scope for Growth, Gonad Mantle Index and Somatic Condition Index (K Factor). The Mussels within the culvert exhibited reduced physiological index values compared to an external site. A trend was identified down the length of the culvert, representing a gradient of exposure and indicating a potential negative effect on growth and reproductive output

  15. The effects of oil and dispersant on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) of the Quark region in the Gulf on Bothnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtonen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The ecute toxic effects of heavy fuel oil (POR 180) and a dispersant (FinaSol OSR-5) were studied by static aquarium esposures, using the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) as a test animal. The work was partially associated with the studies of the impact of the M/S Eira oil spill(1984) on the ecosystem of the Quark region in the Gulf of Bothnia. Test animals were collected from an area where the hydrologic condtions are very similar to those at the oil spill area. Different concentrations of oil and dispersant alone and their mixtures were used in the tests. Exposure time was 24 h, after which the animals were removed into clean water for a few weeks. Mortality and reduced byssal attachment ability were recorded as toxic effects. Surviving individuals were prepared for histological examination. POR 180's solubility into brackish water was poor. Test concentrations were not lethal to mussels, but the ability to attach was reduced in the highest concentrations. The 24 h LC 5 0-value for FinaSol OSR-5 was high (app. 2200 mg/l). The toxicity of oil/dispersant mixtures was high in the lower test concentrations. Histological examination revealed significant acute inflammatory reactions in the gastrointestinal track in some test groups

  16. Construction and characterization of a forward subtracted library of blue mussels Mytilus edulis for the identification of gene transcription signatures and biomarkers of styrene exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de Cerio, O.; Hands, E.; Humble, J.; Cajaraville, M.P.; Craft, J.A.; Cancio, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Transcription responses in blue mussels exposed to styrene have been studied by SSH. ► 1440 Clones were obtained from which 287 were sequenced. ► Immune system, cancer-related and ribosomal genes identified as upregulated genes. ► Chitin and β-1-3-glucan metabolism genes highly represented in subtracted library. -- Abstract: Transcriptional profiling can elucidate adaptive/toxicity pathways participating in achieving homeostasis or leading to pathogenesis in marine biota exposed to chemical substances. With the aim of analyzing transcriptional responses in the mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to the corrosive and putatively carcinogenic hydrocarbon styrene (3–5 ppm, 3 days), a forward subtracted (SSH) cDNA library was produced. Female mussels were selected and digestive gland mRNA was isolated. A library with 1440 clones was produced and a total of 287 clones were sequenced, 53% being identified through BlastN analysis against Mytibase and DeepSeaVent databases. Those genes included GO terms such as ‘response to drugs’, ‘immune defense’ and ‘cell proliferation’. Furthermore, sequences related to chitin and beta-1-3-glucan metabolism were also up-regulated by styrene. Many of the obtained sequences could not be annotated constituting new mussel sequences. In conclusion, this SSH study reveals novel sequences useful to generate molecular biomarkers of styrene exposure in mussels

  17. Fluctuating and Directional Asymmetry of the Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis: Improving Methods of Morphological Analysis to Explore Species Performance at the Northern Border of Its Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Lajus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined morphological variation at different levels to study performance and population structuring of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Our objectives were: (i to develop an integrated technique for analyzing morphological variation in blue mussels and, based on this technique; (ii to perform a morphometric description of mussels from the northern part of their range; and (iii to verify the hypothesis that populations at the outer range of their distribution have reduced performance due to harsh climatic conditions. Means, directional asymmetry (i.e., systematic differences between left and right structures, fluctuating asymmetry (random deviations from perfect symmetry, a measure of developmental instability, factorial variation (difference between total variance and variance of fluctuating asymmetry, an indirect index of genotypic variation, and measurement error were examined for 14 bilateral characters of muscle scars on mussel shells. Also, we analyzed one non-bilateral character. For the first time directional asymmetry—approaching 13% of the right:left ratio—was described in blue mussels. Measurement error, often ignored in morphometric studies, contributed 26% of total variance. Accurately addressing these methodical challenges is key to further and improved ecological interpretations. Morphological differences were found between (i samples from estuarine areas in the White and Pechora Seas and (ii samples from Barents Sea areas with oceanic salinity. Samples from the first group exhibited lower fluctuating asymmetry, indicating higher developmental stability likely due to better feeding conditions and lower factorial variation, which may result from lower genotypic variation. Absence of correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and temperature suggests that low temperatures in the northern border of their range do not degrade the performance of adult blue mussels in this region.

  18. Increased Relative Calcification, Shell Dissolution and Maintained Larval Growth in Mussel (Mytilus edulis) Larvae Exposed to Acidified Under-Saturated Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, A.; Dupont, S. T.; Schulz, S.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is known to affect bivalve early life-stages. It is often assumed that aragonite saturation state (Ωa) is the main driver of the biological response. However saturation state of different CaCO3 forms is not the main driver of most physiological processes and pH/pCO2 are playing an overarching role (e.g. acid-base regulation). The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a wide range of seawater pH on different physiological parameters (e. g. calcification; growth) of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) developing larvae in order to identify a physiological tipping point beyond which they are no longer capable of carrying out those functions necessary to their survival and recruitment into the adult population. Our results confirmed that increasing seawater acidity and decreasing saturation state increases larval mortality rate and the percentage of abnormally developing larvae. No larvae reared at pHT ≈ 7.1 were able to reach the D-shell veliger stage and their development appeared to be arrested at the trochophore stage. However - despite morphological shell abnormalities - larvae were capable of reaching the D-shell stage when reared at pHT ≈ 7.35 and normally D-shaped larvae were observed in all the remaining treatments (pH ≈ 7.6, 7.85 and 8.1) including in under-saturated seawater with Ωa as low as 0.75 ± 0.03 (mean ± SE). Growth rate of these larvae was not affected by lower pHT despite potential increased energy costs associated with compensatory calcification in response to increased shell dissolution. Overall, our results suggest a shift in energy allocation toward growth in larvae exposed to ocean acidification.

  19. Modelling spatio-temporal variability of Mytilus edulis (L.) growth by forcing a dynamic energy budget model with satellite-derived environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yoann; Mazurié, Joseph; Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Bacher, Cédric; Bouget, Jean-François; Gohin, Francis; Pouvreau, Stéphane; Struski, Caroline

    2011-11-01

    In order to assess the potential of various marine ecosystems for shellfish aquaculture and to evaluate their carrying capacities, there is a need to clarify the response of exploited species to environmental variations using robust ecophysiological models and available environmental data. For a large range of applications and comparison purposes, a non-specific approach based on 'generic' individual growth models offers many advantages. In this context, we simulated the response of blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis L.) to the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the environment in Mont Saint-Michel Bay (North Brittany) by forcing a generic growth model based on Dynamic Energy Budgets with satellite-derived environmental data (i.e. temperature and food). After a calibration step based on data from mussel growth surveys, the model was applied over nine years on a large area covering the entire bay. These simulations provide an evaluation of the spatio-temporal variability in mussel growth and also show the ability of the DEB model to integrate satellite-derived data and to predict spatial and temporal growth variability of mussels. Observed seasonal, inter-annual and spatial growth variations are well simulated. The large-scale application highlights the strong link between food and mussel growth. The methodology described in this study may be considered as a suitable approach to account for environmental effects (food and temperature variations) on physiological responses (growth and reproduction) of filter feeders in varying environments. Such physiological responses may then be useful for evaluating the suitability of coastal ecosystems for shellfish aquaculture.

  20. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)—Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrgang, J.; Brooks, S.J.; Evenset, A.; Camus, L.; Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J.; Lukina, J.; Frantzen, M.; Giarratano, E.; Renaud, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  1. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)-Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, J., E-mail: jasmine.m.nahrgang@uit.no [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Brooks, S.J. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, L. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway); Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Lukina, J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University of Tromso, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, Department of Arctic and Marine Biosciences, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Giarratano, E. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CENPAT-CONICET), AR-9120 Puerto Madryn (Argentina); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2013-02-15

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  2. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post γ-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H 2 O 2 and 60 Co γ-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H 2 O 2 ( 2 O 2 (30% v/v) produced a small difference. 60 Co γ-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and between species. PC=Os can be detected by DNPH-reactivity/Western blotting assay in host A. agaricites. UPCs can be assayed via Western

  3. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-07-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post {gamma}-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (<30% v/v) stressors were used, nor with between-site comparisons. Concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30% v/v) produced a small difference. {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and

  4. Field clearance of an intertidal bivalve bed: relative significance of the co-occurring blue mussel Mytilus edulis and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vismann, Bent; Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Davids, Jens

    2016-01-01

    was estimated by combining field measurements of clearance rates and modelling of the bivalve bed (topography, biomass distribution, temporal and spatial water coverage and depth). The average density of C. gigas and M. edulis was 35 ± 36 and 1001 ± 685 ind. m−2, respectively. The water volume cleared during...... a tidal cycle was estimated at 45 838 m3, of which C. gigas and M. edulis contributed 9169 and 36 669 m3, respectively. Therefore, M. edulis contributed 4 times as much as C. gigas to the bivalve bed’s clearance, and the 2 bivalves were estimated to clear the water volume 1.9 times during each tidal cycle....... However, the estimated water column cleared during low tide is overestimated due to phytoplankton depletion. Hence, it is concluded that the bivalve bed clears the water close to 1 time each tidal cycle. This, together with a low dry weight of soft parts, indicates that the bivalve bed, in general...

  5. Metabolic cold adaptation and aerobic performance of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a temperature gradient into the High Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Rysgaard, Søren; Blicher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    and plasticity of blue mussels across latitudes spanning from 56 to 77ºN. This indicates that low ocean temperature per se does not constrain metabolic activity of Mytilus in the Arctic; rather, we speculate that maturation of reproductive tissues, larval supply and annual energy budgets are the most relevant...

  6. Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Sofie Smedegaard; Thyrring, Jakob; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer

    2017-01-01

    engineers in the coastal zone globally. To improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp. individuals sampled at 13 sites to provide baseline data for distribution and genetic variation of Mytilus mussels...

  7. Variación temporal de la población de la almeja Darina solenoides y del mejillón Mytilus Edulis Platensis, y su relación con la alimentación del ostrero austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Javier Gallardo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El presente trabajo de investigación se ha planteado en el marco de una beca para alumnos avanzados de la UNPA, Unidad Académica Río Gallegos. Tiene como objetivo analizar las variaciones temporales de la población del mejillón Mytilus edulis platensis y de la almeja Darina solenoides y se inserta en un Proyecto de Investigación (29A/227 dirigido por Dra. Z. Lizarralde que tiene como objeto estudiar la ecología trófica del Ostrero Austral (Haematopus leucopodus en el estuario del río Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Durante el 2010 se efectuaron muestreos mensuales (abril a diciembre en un banco de mejillones y otro de almejas, con el objeto de analizar la variación temporal de la densidad y biomasa, y la estructura de tallas poblacional. Se analizó la granulometría y porcentaje de materia orgánica de los sedimentos. El sedimento del banco de mejillones se encuentra constituido en su mayoría por la fracción correspondiente a los gránulos; en el banco de almejas por arenas muy finas (43% y finas (39%. En ambos casos la materia orgánica no supera el 3 %. La densidad de mejillones alcanzó un valor máximo de 2255 individuos/m2 en abril y un mínimo de 497 en noviembre. La biomasa máxima se encontró en abril (110 g/m 2. La densidad de Darina solenoides alcanzó un valor máximo de 565 en junio y un mínimo de 282 individuos/m2 en el mes de octubre. La biomasa máxima ocurrió en diciembre (132 g/m2. No se detectó el período de reclutamiento de nuevos individuos en los bancos de las especies estudiadas.

  8. Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Sofie Smedegaard; Thyrring, Jakob; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer

    2017-01-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp., are ecosystem...... engineers in the coastal zone globally. To improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp. individuals sampled at 13 sites to provide baseline data for distribution and genetic variation of Mytilus mussels...

  9. The Mass-Dimension Relationships in the Mussels Mytilus Galloprovincialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Different Phenotypical Groups in Periphyton Populations near Odessa Coast, the North-Western Part of Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govorin I. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of the size-mass indices in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819 from three phenotypic groups - brown, dark violet (black and “zebra” (brown with radial black stripes shells in the periphyton settlements on the concrete traverses near Odessa coast, the North-western part of Black Sea (Ukraine, in March-November 2014-2015 are presented. A comparative evaluation has been made on the relationships of total mass of the mollusks, wet and dry mass of their soft body and mass of the shells on the one hand, and the size of animals (length of its shells on the other hand, in the each of phenotypical groups from the five marine beach areas. It is shown, that in the marine areas with different degrees of isolation from the open sea by coast-protection engineering constructions, the mussels from different phenotypes have almost the same size-mass characteristics. Only the dry weight of soft animal body, which indicated to fatness of mollusk and therefore demonstrated his biological prosperity in specific hydrological conditions, can serve as a reliable criterion which can mark the shellfish habitats with different gradients of environmental factors.

  10. Study of polonium and lead in shellfish (Mytilus Edulis) from NORM discharge area of Aberdeen Bay and Ythan Estuary of Scotland and radiological impact to the local people and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyajit Ghose; Brian Heaton

    2005-01-01

    can be made it is essential that the release rates of the nuclides from the discharges are known. If polonium becomes available in the marine environment from these discharges they will contribute to the impact on the environment. In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local people and the environment, a comprehensive study was set up in order to determine the full extent of TENORM and NORM outputs and the impact that these radionuclides were having on the environment. The main aim of this study concerned the quantification of the levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb in shellfish species and other environmental samples taken from around Aberdeen, and use them as bio-indicators for the analysis of Polonium-210 and Lead-210 with particular emphasis on the seasonal variation in Mytilus edulis at one site of Ythan estuary. There was a supplementary programme undertaken to some dose assessment work relevant to human consumption of shellfish. Additionally, the study of the distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Pb between the filtered, particulate phases, sediment and mussels can provide interesting in formation about their behaviour in this aquatic system. Experimental Radiochemical separation and α Spectrometer with Dual surface barrier detector was used to count the polonium a particles. A Perspex disc holder for polonium deposition was specially designed to be held in a stirrer and to fit inside a 150-200 ml breaker. The holder provides positive protection to one face of the silver disc. Silver disc with a thickness of 0.2 mm and 25 mm in diameter was used for 210 Po spontaneous deposition. Results: The measured 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations and 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio in filtrate water, sediment, particulate matter and mussel samples are reported. Some results are presented in Figure 1 and Table 1. Correlations between 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in mussel and related environmental samples, mussel wet weight and size are presented. The Condition

  11. Mussels (Mytilus sp.) as an indicator of lead pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.J.; Snyder, H.G.; Snyder, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    The lead contents of two species of mussels (Mytilus californianus and M. edulis) collected along the Pacific coast from Piedras Blancas, California to Punta Bnada, Baja California were determined by isotope dilution method. The whole soft parts of the mussels, on a dry weight basis, contained from 0.27 to 42 ppm of lead which can be related to their local habitats. The gill tissues of the mussels showed the highest lead concentration

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in native South American Atlantic coast populations of smooth shelled mussels: hybridization with invasive European Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Trucco, María I; Wenne, Roman

    2018-02-22

    Throughout the world, harvesting of mussels Mytilus spp. is based on the exploitation of natural populations and aquaculture. Aquaculture activities include transfers of spat and live adult mussels between various geographic locations, which may result in large-scale changes in the world distribution of Mytilus taxa. Mytilus taxa are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish. In spite of much research on taxonomy, evolution and geographic distribution, the native Mytilus taxa of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly understood. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used to clarify the taxonomic status of populations of smooth shelled mussels from the Pacific coast of South America. In this paper, we used a set of SNPs to characterize, for the first time, populations of smooth shelled mussels Mytilus from the Atlantic coast of South America. Mytilus spp. samples were collected from eastern South America. Six reference samples from the Northern Hemisphere were used: Mytilus edulis from USA and Northern Ireland, Mytilus trossulus from Canada, and Mytilus galloprovincialis from Spain and Italy. Two other reference samples from the Southern Hemisphere were included: M. galloprovincialis from New Zealand and Mytilus chilensis from Chile. Fifty-five SNPs were successfully genotyped, of which 51 were polymorphic. Population genetic analyses using the STRUCTURE program revealed the clustering of eight populations from Argentina (Mytilus platensis) and the clustering of the sample from Ushuaia with M. chilensis from Chile. All individuals in the Puerto Madryn (Argentina) sample were identified as M. platensis × M. galloprovincialis F2 (88.89%) hybrids, except one that was classified as Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. No F1 hybrids were observed. We demonstrate that M. platensis (or Mytilus edulis platensis) and M. chilensis are distinct native taxa in South America, which indicates that the evolutionary histories of Mytilus taxa along the

  13. Micropropagation of Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Key words: In vitro propagation, meristem culture, micropropagation, Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew, shoots multiplication. ... P. edulis showed the occurrence of diseases (Taye,. 2008). ..... Asian J. Plant Sci. 2:616-622.

  14. Micropropagation of Alibertia edulis Rich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Augusta Boato da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a micropropagation protocol for Alibertia edulis, a medicinal Brazilian Cerrado plant. A. edulis seeds were sterilized and germinated in water-agar. Fifteen millimeter long explants from the seedlings cultivated for 50 days were used for the multiplication in three consecutive subcultures. The cytokinin benzyladenine (BA alone or combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA was added to ¼ MS medium. The treatments containing combinations of the BA + IBA induced more shoot proliferation than the BA alone, with the optimum concentration of 0.5 mg.L-1 for both growth regulators. A. edulis shoots elongated easily and the presence of growth regulators did have a positive effect on the shoot elongation. Consecutive subcultures also had a positive effect on both sprouting and shoot elongation. Activated charcoal was essential for rooting, and all rooted plants were able to acclimatize.Foi desenvolvido um protocolo de micropropagação para A. edulis, uma espécie arbórea frutífera e medicinal presente no Cerrado brasileiro. Sementes de A. edulis foram esterilizadas e germinadas em ágar-água. Explantes de 15 mm foram retirados das plântulas e cultivados por 50 dias em meio de multiplicação e três subculturas. A citocinina benzilalanina (BA, sozinha ou em combinação com ácido indol butírico (IBA foram adicionados em no meio ¼ MS. Os tratamentos contendo combinações de BA-IBA induziram uma maior proliferação de brotos que aqueles somente com BA, e a concentração ótima desses reguladores de crescimento foi de 0.5 mg.L-1 para cada. Os brotos de A. edulis facilmente se alongaram e a presença de reguladores de crescimento no meio de cultura teve efeito positivo sobre o alongamento. Da mesma forma, as consecutivas subculturas tiveram um efeito positivo tanto sobre a brotação quanto no alongamento. Carvão ativado foi essencial para o enraizamento dos ramos, e todas as plantas foram aclimatadas com sucesso.

  15. Variations in the concentration factor of $sup 60$Co in the mussel, Mytilus edulis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiard, J.C.; Le Lannou, M.

    1972-11-01

    From twenty-third meeting of the International Commission for Scientific Exploitation of the Mediterranean Sea; Athens, Greece 13 Nov 1972). Mussels, collected at various times during the year, were placed in aquariums operating in closed circuit in a room kept at 14 to 16 deg C. Solutions of /sup 60/Co in HCl were added to the aquariums and the mussels were introduced in the contaminated medium when the radioactivity of the water was stabilized. Under the experimental conditions used the radiocobalt introduced in the cation form evolved toward the anion form. The radioactivity of the flesh and the shells of the mussels was measured separately with the aid of a multichannel analyzer. The results were expressed in concentration factor with respect to the water. An increase of the concentration factor of the meat was noted when the concentration level of the water passed from 1 to 7 mu Ci/l. A lower content was found for the shell than for the meat. (JSR)

  16. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark A; Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S; Lowe, David M; Thompson, Richard C

    2008-07-01

    Plastics debris is accumulating in the environment and is fragmenting into smaller pieces; as it does, the potential for ingestion by animals increases. The consequences of macroplastic debris for wildlife are well documented, however the impacts of microplastic (plastic fragments into smaller particles, the potential for accumulation in the tissues of an organism increases. The short-term pulse exposure used here did not result in significant biological effects. However, plastics are exceedingly durable and so further work using a wider range of organisms, polymers, and periods of exposure will be required to establish the biological consequences of this debris.

  17. Effect of temperature on immunocompetence of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Beaudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The blue mussel is a filter-feeding bivalve commonly used in ecotoxicological monitoring as a sentinel species. Due to climate change and the increase of temperature expected in marine environment, it is important to anticipate potential impacts on this species. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunocompetence of blue mussels acclimated to different temperatures and on the effects of increasing temperatures (5, 10 and 20°C. Different indices and gonad maturation stages were also determined throughout the experiments. Cell viability, phagocytosis, serum lysozyme activity and cyclooxygenase (COX activity were evaluated as immune parameters. The cellular immunity was also evaluated after hemocytes exposure to various cadmium concentrations in vitro. The results obtained demonstrate modulation of hemocyte viability and the ability of these cells to phagocytize in absence of contaminants. After the exposure to cadmium, hemocytes showed greater viability at 5°C while maintaining a higher phagocytic competence. In addition, the lysozyme activity stayed stable at all tested temperatures, contrary to that of COX, which increased when the mussels were maintained at 20°C. The evaluation of indices demonstrated no reduction of general conditions during all the experiment despite the increase of temperature and the reduction of the digestive gland weight. Moreover, the lack of food does not affect gonad maturation and the spawning process.

  18. Seasonal variation in mineralization rates (C-N-P-Si) of mussel Mytilus edulis biodeposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    To determine seasonal variability in mineralization dynamics of mussel biodeposits, we applied a multiple-element approach measuring mineralization rates of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silicate (Si) during three periods (March, August and November). The results of this study showed

  19. Intersex in Littorina littorea and DNA damage in Mytilus edulis as indicators of harbour polllution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette

    2009-01-01

    of exposure to genotoxic chemicals, and the intersex index (ISI) observed in snails was an indicator of exposure to butyltin (BT) compounds. Biota and sediments were analysed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), butyltin compounds (TBT, DBT and MBT), nine PCB congeners and 19 PAH compounds. The biological...

  20. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  1. Induction of micronuclei in hemocytes of Mytilus edulis and statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrisberg, M. N.; Bilbo, Carl M.; Spliid, Henrik

    1992-01-01

    biological variation, emphasizing the importance of application of a correct statistical method. A systematic approach to the statistical evaluation of the mussel MN test is outlined. The statistical model includes three different situations: (a) estimation of parameters of a single sample, (b) estimation...

  2. The influence of climatic and physiological performance on population dynamics of Mytilus edulis in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2014-01-01

    data on current distribution and physiological performance of blue mussels in the Arctic is lacking, and knowledge of how “climate” in a broad sense specifically influence population dynamics of this species is unknown. Here, we present data on abundance, age and mortality of blue mussels in West...... Greenland. We supplement our data with physiological measurements on freezing tolerance and aerobic metabolic performance of intertidal specimens. We hereby attempt to identify links between temperature and physiology and how this might translate into population dynamics in this region of the Arctic....... Results show an overall decline in blue mussel abundance along the coast from south to north Greenland. Physiological adaptation and plasticity of blue mussels was found across latitudes spanning from the temperate to the High Arctic region. Combined our results indicate that low ocean temperature per se...

  3. Dual transcriptomics reveals co-evolutionary mechanisms of intestinal parasite infections in blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feis, M.E.; John, U.; Lokmer, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2018-01-01

    On theoretical grounds, antagonistic co-evolution between hosts and their parasitesshould be a widespread phenomenon but only received little empirical support sofar. Consequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary stepsremain elusive, especially in nonmodel systems. Here, we

  4. Biomixing in stagnant wate above population of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Andrup, P.; Tang, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dense beds of filter-feeding mussels can exert a considerable grazing impact on phytoplankton in many marine areas depending on downmixing promoted by current, wave- and wind action. But downmixing may also be promoted by biomixing caused by the action of the strong exhalent jets of water from...... a population of 48 ind.m-2 of mussels of shell length 69.5 ± 2.3 mm. Due to the intense agitation (biomixing) generated by exhalant jets of the actively feeding mussels the profiles remained nearly uniform over the full water column while decreasing exponentially with time, reaching a level of about 40...

  5. Short-term impact of blue mussel dredging ( Mytilus edulis L.) on a benthic community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, T.; Christiansen, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The short-term effect of mussel dredging in a brackish Danish sound was studied. A commercial dredging track was identified and an analysis of the species composition inside the track and at an adjacent control area showed that dredging changed the community structure by reducing the density...... of polychaetes. In order to investigate the extent and the duration of the dredging impact experimental dredging was conducted. The experimental dredging removed 50% of the mussels in two dredged areas. Immediately after dredging, a significantly lower number of species was measured inside the mussel beds...... in dredged areas compared to control and boundary areas. This effect lasted for at least 40 days. The analysis of the species composition showed that the dredged area had a significantly lower density, particularly of polychaetes compared to the boundary area. An increased number of species was recorded...

  6. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post...

  7. Response of Mytilus edulis to enhanced phytoplankton availibility by controlled upwelling in an oligographic fjord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strohmeier, T.; Strand, Ø.; Alunno-Bruscia, M.; Duinker, A.; Rosland, R.; Jansen, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The controlled upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water in oligotrophic coastal regions has been proposed as a means of increasing phytoplankton and, subsequently, bivalve aquaculture production. This was tested as part of a large-scale upwelling experiment in an oligotrophic environment (Lysefjord,

  8. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hae-Young.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with [ 14 C]glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 x 10 4 daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline

  9. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp

    column have the potential to become an alternative seed source for mussel production in bottom cultures. When compared to mussels collected from natural benthic mussel beds, suspended mussels had an active predator response by developing a significantly stronger attach-ment to the substrate and having...... a more pronounced aggregation behaviour. Bottom mussels exhibited a passive strategy by developing a thicker shell and larger relative size of the posterior adductor muscle. When comparing the performance of suspended and bottom seed mussels on complex and smooth sub-strate, respectively, originally...

  10. Flavonoids from Afrofittonia silvestris and Dacryodes edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dirhamnoside, as well as a known glycoside, kaempferide 3–O–β–glucoside, were identified from the leaves of Afrofittonia silvestris. Other known compounds, ethylgallate and quercitrin, were isolated from the leaves of Dacryodes edulis.

  11. Genetic composition of Mytilus species in mussel populations from southern Chile Composición genética de especies de Mytilus en poblaciones de mejillón del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Larraín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mussels are one of the most cultivated and commercialized bivalves worldwide and in southern Chile its culture represent an important economic activity. The species identification within the Mytilus genera, by morphological features, is unreliable, so we used a polymorphism RFLP in the gene encoding the polyphenolic adhesive protein as a species-specific genetic marker to describe Mytilus species diversity in southern Chile, and evaluate possible applications in traceability, food quality and safety. Using Me 15-16 marker most mussels were M. chilensis, finding no other pure individuals; however, putative hybrids of M. chilensis x M. trossulus and M. chilensis x M. galloprovincialis were detected. There was no evidence of M. edulis. The presence of the M. trossulus allele, faraway from its distribution area, demands further analysis with different genetic markers to allow a better understanding of its origin. In addition, the correspondence between markers that distinguishes northern from southern hemisphere M. galloprovincialis, with those who discriminates between M. chilensis and M. galloprovincialis would contribute to the taxonomic status of Chilean blue mussels. In Chile, the genetic composition of Mytilus indicates that geographical origin of mussels and its traceability cannot be established merely from the identification of the species. The use of other markers would be required.Los mejillones son una de las especies de bivalvos más cultivadas y comercializadas, en el sur de Chile donde su cultivo representa una actividad económica importante. La identificación de la especie dentro del género Mytilus, basada en las características morfológicas no es confiable por lo que se utilizó un polimorfismo RFLP en el gen que codifica la proteína adhesiva polifenólica como marcador genético específico de la especie para describir la diversidad de especies Mytilus en el sur de Chile, y evaluar posibles aplicaciones en trazabilidad

  12. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja

    2015-01-01

    ) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. Themodified DEBmodel was validated with experimental data fromdifferent locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production......For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...... was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii...

  13. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  14. Aggregation and attachment responses of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis—impact of substrate composition, time scale and source of mussel seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-01-01

    to an optimization of the production. The effect of substrate composition and timing of formation of a mussel bed in relation to aggregation and attachment of mussels were investigated with mussel seeds obtained from two different sources: mussel seed dredged from a natural mussel bed and mussel seed collected from......Survival after transplantation of mussel seeds is crucial for the production output of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in bottom cultures. Hence, an understanding of the interactions between bed formation, habitat structure and performance of mussel seed of different origins can contribute...... showed that complex substrate indeed had a stabilizing effect on the mussel structure resulting in less aggregation and increased attachment strength. The 3D matrix forming a mussel bed was achieved faster on complex substrate, and led to reduced mortality of transplanted mussels. Despite significantly...

  15. Hexane extract of Dacryodes edulis fruits possesses anti-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The fruit extract of Dacryodes edulis (D. edulis), the African pear or plum, a tree indigenous to the humid tropics has been used for managing wounds, skin diseases, sickle cell anaemia, dysentery and fever in some African nations. In South Eastern Nigeria, 'herbal doctors' include its marshed fruit in decoctions ...

  16. Caracterización molecular de materiales cultivados de gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Hernán Moreno-Osorio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of cultivated materials of gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis. Objective. To evaluate through RAM(Random Amplified Microsatellites molecular markers the genetic diversity of cultivated materials of gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis,collected in the departments of Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Huila. Materials and methods. Young and healthy leaves were collected fromcrop fields of gulupa for DNA extraction and characterization through RAM molecular markers, according to Hantula’s protocol (1996.Binary data of the type presence/absence were collected from the electrophoretic profiles. Data were analyzed with NTSYS- pc- 2.0statistical package, obtaining a similarity matrix using the Dice coefficient. Results. RAM markers were efficient in detecting polymorphismin this species. Four universal primers were used that produced 88.8% of polymorphism. In general terms, with the RAM molecularmarkers a high genetic diversity was detected in the areas where gulupa is cultivated in Colombia. In the present study no geographicalrelatedness was found with the accessions evaluated for department or locality. Conclusions. The materials of gulupa evaluated in thisstudy showed a high genetic diversity (0.291-1, probably due to the propagation method, its diverse provenances and the short time ofestablishment of the culture in Colombia.

  17. Chemical constituents of Carissa edulis Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the biologically active ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the aerial parts of Carissa edulis afforded 3-O-acetyl chlorogenic acid (I, along with four known flavonol glucosides including, kaempferol 3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (II, quercetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (III, rhamnetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (IV and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (V from ethyl acetate fraction. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(2″→1″′-rhamnopyranoside (VI, Caredulis, 1-{1-[2-(2 hydroxypropoxy propoxy] propan-2-yloxy} propan-2-ol (VII and (+ butyl-O-α-l-rhamnoside (VIII were isolated from butanol fraction. Characterization of these compounds was achieved by various spectroscopic methods (UV, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC and through comparison with published data. Compounds I–VIII were isolated from C. edulis for the first time, while compounds VII and VIII were isolated for the first time from nature.

  18. Loss of 51Cr, 54Mn, 57Co, 59Fe, 65Zn and 134Cs by the mussel Mytilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1981-01-01

    The loss of 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 59 Fe, 65 Zn and 134 Cs from naturally growing mussels (Mytilus edulis) was followed in a temperate estuarine environment -a Danish fjord - by individual whole-body countings on a Ge(Li) detector. The mussels accumulated the radionuclides in the laboratory from food and water and were brought back to their natural environment in small plastic cages. The loss curves for 12 animals from July - August 1979 until November 1979 (20-5 0 C) were resolved in a slow compartment with 140-215 d biological half-life for 57 Co, 54 Mn, 51 Cr and 59 Fe, and 87 d for 65 Zn, and a medium compartment with a biological half-life of 4-7 d for all nuclides. The long-lived compartments of 65 Zn, 57 Co and 54 Mn were followed in four individual animals from August 1979 to August 1980. For 65 Zn a seasonal effect was clearly demonstrated as the biological half-life was prolonged from 87 d during autumn 1979 to 347 d in the cold period (0-5 0 C), whereas it decreased again during the summer of 1980. For 57 Co and 54 Mn the long-term excretion study revealed an extra-slow compartment, as the long half-life in the cold period (approximately 600 d) persisted during the summer of 1980. This is explained by association with the shell. (author)

  19. Bioenergetic model predictions of actual growth and allometric transitions during ontogeny of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Lundgreen, Kim; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    > 10 mm followed a power-law (W = 2.15L3.40) which supplemented an existing power-law for L ... with predictions based on a previously developed bioenergetic growth model (BEG) for W> 10 mg (μ =aWb, a = 0.871× C – 0.986; b = –0.34, with μ in % d−1 and W in g) which explicitly takes into account the prevailing chla concentration C (μg L−1). Results for Wpower-law (μ =a...

  20. Changes in benthos associated with mussel (Mytilus edulis L. farms on the west-coast of Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Wilding

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, as a means of food production, is growing rapidly in response to an increasing demand for protein and the over-exploitation of wild fisheries. This expansion includes mussels (family Mytilidae where production currently stands at 1.5 million tonnes per annum. Mussel culture is frequently perceived as having little environmental impact yet mussel biodeposits and shell debris accumulate around the production site and are linked to changes in the benthos. To assess the extent and nature of changes in benthos associated with mussel farming grab and video sampling around seven mussel farms was conducted. Grab samples were analysed for macrofauna and shell-hash content whilst starfish were counted and the shell-hash cover estimated from video imaging. Shell-hash was patchily distributed and occasionally dominated sediments (maximum of 2116 g per 0.1 m(2 grab. Mean shell-hash content decreased rapidly at distances >5 m from the line and, over the distance 1-64 m, decreased by three orders of magnitude. The presence of shell-hash and the distance-from-line influenced macrofaunal assemblages but this effect differed between sites. There was no evidence that mussel farming was associated with changes in macrobenthic diversity, species count or feeding strategy. However, total macrofaunal count was estimated to be 2.5 times higher in close proximity to the lines, compared with 64 m distance, and there was evidence that this effect was conditional on the presence of shell-hash. Starfish density varied considerably between sites but, overall, they were approximately 10 times as abundant close to the mussel-lines compared with 64 m distance. There was no evidence that starfish were more abundant in the presence of shell-hash visible on the sediment surface. In terms of farm-scale benthic impacts these data suggest that mussel farming is a relatively benign way of producing food, compared with intensive fish-farming, in similar environments.

  1. The role of the starfish (Asterias rubens L.) predation in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seedbed stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüera García, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Mussel beds are an important ecological component in the Wadden Sea. Mussels’ offspring settle massively in new suitable areas, forming seedbeds that may disappear again within months. The probability of a seedbed to survive the first winter is defined as seedbed

  2. Interactions between the introduced Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the indigenous blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Local-scale food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, I.W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if food competition between mussels and oysters occurs, and how mussel and oyster growth is affected by this interaction. This was done by relating mussel growth to oyster density relating oyster growth to oyster biomass and perform a field control, by

  3. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models pre...

  4. Accumulation, transformation and breakdown of DSP toxins from the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Hansen, Per Juel; Krock, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTX) and pectenotoxins (PTX) produced by the dinoflagellates Dinophysis spp. can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning upon human consumption. Shellfish toxicity is a result of algal abundance and toxicity as well as accumulation and...

  5. Effectiveness of cooking to reduce norovirus and infectious F-specific RNA bacteriophage concentrations in Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, J; Rajko-Nenow, P; Winterbourn, J B; Malham, S K; Jones, D L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if domestic cooking practices can reduce concentrations of norovirus (NoV) and F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage in experimentally contaminated mussels. Mussels (n = 600) contaminated with NoV and FRNA bacteriophage underwent four different cooking experiments performed in triplicate at ~70°C and >90°C. Concentrations of infectious FRNA bacteriophage (using a plaque assay) were compared with concentrations of FRNA bacteriophage and NoV determined using a standardised RT-qPCR. Initial concentrations of infectious FRNA bacteriophage (7·05 log10  PFU g(-1) ) in mussels were not significantly reduced in simmering water (~70°C); however, cooking at higher temperatures (>90°C) reduced infectious FRNA bacteriophage to undetected levels within 3 min. Further investigation determined the time required for a 1-log reduction of infectious FRNA bacteriophage at 90°C to be 42 s therefore a >3-log reduction in infectious virus can be obtained by heating mussel digestive tissue to 90°C for 126 s. Domestic cooking practices based on shell opening alone do not inactivate infectious virus in mussels, however, cooking mussels at high temperatures is effective to reduce infectious virus concentrations and the risk of illness in consumers. The data will contribute towards evidence-based cooking recommendations for shellfish to provide a safe product for human consumption. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Pelagic and benthic nutrient regeneration processes in mussel cultures (Mytilus edulis) in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Carlsson, Marita Sundstein

    2015-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool in eutrophic coastal areas as nutrients are removed from the ecosystem upon harvest of the crops and transferred back to land. Further mussels filter the water and thereby increase water transparency and promote benthic plant growth...... of this study was to explore the environmental interactions of a long-line mussel farm located in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark) by studying the nutrient cycling in the water column and sediments and assessing their contribution to the nutrient dynamics and oxygen conditions in the fjord...

  7. Radio-resistance of some bacterial pathogens in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) and mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licciardello, J.J.; D'Entremont, D.L.; Lundstrom, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation decimal reduction doses were determined for E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Strept. faecalis, Staph, aureus, and the Total Plate Count in a soft-shell clam or mussel substrate. Factors to be considered for designing and irradiation bacterial-decontamination process for shellfish are discussed

  8. Changes in sedimentary redox associated with mussel (Mytilus edulis L. farms on the west-coast of Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Wilding

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is growing rapidly in response to an increasing demand for protein and the over-exploitation of wild fisheries. Mussel (family Mytilidae production has doubled over the last decade and currently stands at 1.5 million tones production per annum. Mussels produce organic biodeposits which are dispersed around the production site and, potentially, impact the receiving environment in a number of inter-linked ways. The reported benthic impacts that occur, primarily through the accumulation of these biodeposits and associated organic enrichment, vary widely between studies. The objectives of this research were to determine the nature of the relationship between sediment redox (a proxy for oxygenation and farm-proximity and covariables whilst accounting for, and quantifying, differences in redox between sites. Sediment cores (N = 159 were taken remotely around a random sample of mussel farms, redox was measured at 10 mm sediment depth and linked to farm-distance and sediment organic/shell content and particle size, using an additive, mixed, weighted regression model. Redox varied considerably between sites and there was a highly significant reduction (50 mV in redox adjacent to the mussel lines. Redox increased non-linearly with distance, rising rapidly at >7 m from the farm edge. The modest reduction in sediment oxygenation in close proximity to mussel farms reported here suggests that farms located over sediments characterised by pre-existing oxygen stress are likely to exacerbate benthic species impoverishment associated with reducing sedimentary conditions whilst those located over highly oxygenated sediments are likely to increase benthic productivity.

  9. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  10. Subchronic Crude Khat ( Catha edulis F.) Extract Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People chew khat (Catha edulis F.), believing that it improves memory, ... Morphometric analysis revealed a significant reduction in weight of brain as well as ... properties of the dentate granule cells, including volume of the granular layer of ...

  11. Invasion of Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa, by Mytilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1992 the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis began establishing beds on the centre sandbanks of Langebaan Lagoon. This global invader had previously been restricted to rocky shores along the South African coastline. In order to investigate the effect of the invasion on naturally-occurring communities, ...

  12. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  13. Effects of altitudinal variation on pollination in purple passion fruit crops (passiflora edulis f. edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gutierrez, Julian; Ospina Torres, Rodulfo; Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study in two crops of purple passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. edulis harvested at different altitudes (2225 m.a.s.l. and 1657 m.a.s.l.) in the municipality of Buenavista - Boyaca, located in the eastern Mountain range of Colombia, in order to familiarize with visitors and pollinators. This study reveals that in both crops there were differences found in composition, the number of visitors and pollinators. In the crop at 2225 m.a.s.l., 7 species were registered, while 18 species were recorded at the 1657 m.a.s.l. crop. In order to achieve this, collected material by the visitors and the floral structures with which they approach, were observed; at the same time four experiments took place: passive pollination, natural pollination, manual pollination and pollinator's efficiency. These experiments established that pollinator species are: in C1 Apis mellifera, and in C2 and Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa lachnea and Epicharis sp.

  14. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josseara Beraldo

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edulis podem-se destacar o contorno da lâmina foliar, a forma da nervura mediana em secção transversal, o número e a localização de nectários extraflorais e, o indumento

  15. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bregante

    Full Text Available We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses.

  16. Allometry of a neotropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart. Alometria de uma palmeira Neotropical, Euterpe edulis Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana F. Alves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem allometry (stem diameter vs. tree height of a Neotropical palm (Euterpe edulis found in rain and seasonal forest of Southeastern Brazil was examined. Observed height-diameter relationships along the stem (diameter at ground level, (dgl, and diameter at breast height (dbh were compared to three theoretical stability mechanical models: elastic similarity, stress similarity and geometric similarity. Slopes of log-transformed height-diameter relationships did not lie near those predicted by any stability mechanical models. Significant differences in stem allometry were found when comparing dgl to dbh, suggesting greater increase in dbh with height. The relationship between stability safety factor (SSF and palm height showed that both dgl and dbh were found to be above McMahon's theoretical buckling limit for dicotyledonous trees, but some individuals approached this limit in relation to dbh. Despite displaying a similar decreasing pattern of SSF with height, differences found in SSF along the stem - greater SSF for dgl when compared to dbh - indicate that the risk of mechanism failure in palms depends upon the size and varies along the stem. Distinct allometric relationships along the stem obtained for Euterpe edulis may be reflecting possible differences in stem design and growth strategies.Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações entre o diâmetro e a altura de uma palmeira Neotropical (Euterpe edulis comum na Floresta Atlântica do SE do Brasil. As relações observadas entre a altura e o diâmetro ao longo do estipe (diâmetro ao nível do solo (DAS, e diâmetro ao nível do peito (DAP foram comparadas a três modelos teóricos de estabilidade mecânica: similaridade elástica, similaridade de estresse e similaridade geométrica. As inclinações das regressões altura-diâmetro não se ajustaram a nenhum dos modelos de estabilidade mecânica. Diferenças significativas na alometria do estipe foram encontradas comparando-se as rela

  17. Physico-chemical properties of Safou (Dacryodes edulis) fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-09-30

    Sep 30, 2016 ... Most of high levels of nutrient content ... Conclusions and application of findings: Dacryodes edulis fruits are potential source of essential nutrient for ... pulp and its oil (Ajayi et al., 2006), and the oil ... and interesting food processing properties of the oils ..... maintenance of osmotic pressure in the body.

  18. Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre Tapinanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2013 ... Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre. Tapinanthus (Loranthaceae) et répartition de la myrmécofaune associée à Logbessou Plateau. (Douala, Cameroun). Massako F1*, Tchatat M2, Mony R3, Ladoh Yemeda CF1, Dibong SD1,4,5. 1Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Organismes ...

  19. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae) and Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae) whole plants against high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. ... Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TGs) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were assayed using Merck diagnostic kits. For histopathological analysis ...

  20. Initial development of passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis and P. alata grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Zucareli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the initial growth and leaf mineral levels in passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., P. edulis f. edulis Sims. and P. alata Dryander grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata. To obtain seedlings, seeds were sown in plastic bags (500 mL and hypocotyl grafting was performed when seedlings reached the stage of two fully expanded leaves. Fifteen days after grafting, plants were transplanted to 10L pots filled with previously limed and fertilized soil. Each pot contained two plants and corresponded to one plot. For each commercial species studied as rootstock, experimental design was completely randomized, in 3x5 (plant type x time of harvest factorial arrangement, with four replicates of two plants per plot and five destructive harvests. Plant types were ungrafted P. cincinnata, ungrafted commercial passion fruit tree and commercial passion fruit tree grafted onto P. cincinnata. The first harvest was performed at 15 days after transplanting and the remaining ones at 14-day intervals (60, 74, 88, 102 and 116 DAS. At each harvest, the number of leaves per plant was counted, and leaf area, stem length, and stem, root, leaf and total dry matter were estimated. At the last harvest, the mineral composition (macro and micronutrients of plants was analyzed. In general, it was observed that grafting onto P. cincinnata did not interfere negatively with the initial development and mineral levels of commercial passion fruit trees, and this interference varied according to the used canopy.

  1. Microsatellite Primers in the Foundation Tree Species Pinus edulis and P. monophylla (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Krohn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the foundational tree species Pinus edulis to investigate population differentiation of P. edulis and hybridization among closely related species. Methods and Results: Using a hybridization protocol, primer sets for 11 microsatellite loci were developed using megagametophyte tissue from P. edulis and scored for polymorphism in three populations of P. edulis and a single P. monophylla population. The primers amplified simple and compound di-, tri-, and pentanucleotide repeats with two to 18 alleles per locus. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the utility of the described primers for studies of population differentiation within and among P. edulis populations as well as across putative hybrid zones where P. edulis may coexist with sister species.

  2. Nervous system development in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Olga V; Skiteva, Olga I; Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav A

    2018-01-01

    Bivalves comprise a large, highly diverse taxon of invertebrate species. Developmental studies of neurogenesis among species of Bivalvia are limited. Due to a lack of neurogenesis information, it is difficult to infer a ground pattern for Bivalvia. To provide more comprehensive morphogenetic data on bivalve molluscs and relationships among molluscan clades, we investigated neurogenesis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , from the appearance of the first sensory cells to the formation of the larval ganglionic nervous system by co-immunocytochemistry of the neuronal markers FMRFamide or 5-HT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Neurogenesis begins with the emergence of the apical serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) sensory cells and paired sensory posttrochal dorsal and ventral FMRFamide-immunoreactive (FMRFamide-ir) cells at the early trochophore stage. Later, at the early veliger stage, the apical organ (AO) includes 5-HT-ir, FMRFamide-ir, and VAChT-ir cells. At the same stage, VAChT-ir cells appear in the posterior region of larvae and send axons towards the AO. Thus, FMRFamide-ir neurites and VAChT-ir processes form scaffolds for longitudinal neurite bundles develop into the paired ventral nerve cords (VNC). Later-appearing axons from the AO/CG neurons join the neurite bundles comprising the VNC. All larval ganglia appear along the VNC as paired or fused (epiathroid) clusters in late veliger and pediveliger larvae. We observed the transformation of the AO into the cerebral ganglia, which abundantly innervated the velum, and the transformation of ventral neurons into the pedal ganglia, innervating the foot, gills, and anterior adductor muscle. The visceral ganglia appear last in the pediveliger oyster and innervate the visceral mass and posterior adductor of premetamorphic larvae. In addition, a local FMRFamide-ir network was detected in the digestive system of pediveliger larvae. We identified VAChT-ir nervous elements in oyster larvae, which

  3. Accumulation factors of mercury by King Bolete Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Frankowska, A.

    2003-05-01

    To understand pollution picture with mercury and to examine suitability of King Bolete Boletits edulis Bull.: Fr. as possible bioindicator the total mercurv concentrations were determined both in the fruiting bodies and underlying soil substrate collected from various regions of Poland. There were quite large spatial variations of mercury concentration and some seasonal also were noted. Mercury content of the caps exceeded that of stalks (p<0.05), Nvhile Hg BCF values varied between 9 and 40, and 4 and 40, respectively.

  4. [Study on physiological and germination characteristics of Tulipa edulis seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjun; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Hongjian; Miao, Yuanyuan

    2012-03-01

    Current study was conducted to investigate the seed physiological characteristics of Tulipa edulis and improve germination rate. Anatomical characteristics was observed. Seed water absorption curve was tested by soaking method. Dynamic of embryo development and germination rate as well as germination index under different conditions were recorded. And the biological test of cabbage seed was used for detecting the germination inhibitors. The embryo rate of newly matured seeds was about 10%, and there was no obstacle of water absorption on testa of T. edulis. The optimum method for embryo development was exposure to 300 mg x L(-1) gibberellin solution for 24 hours, and stratification at 25 degrees C for 70 days followed by stratification at 5 degrees C for 40 days. The germintion rate and germination index of dormancy-broken seeds under the dark environment at 10 degrees C and 15 degrees C were significantly higher than those under other conditions. Additionally, there were some germination inhibitory substances in dry seeds. The seed of T. edulis can be classified as having complex morphophysiological dormancy, and the morphological embryo dormancy played a leading role. Warm and cold stratification resulted in a fast dormancy breaking effect, and a high germination rate more than 90% could be obtained under the optimum conditions.

  5. Actividad hipoglucemiante de Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia y Parmentiera edulis Hypoglicemic activity of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martha Pérez-Gutiérrez

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de Brickellia veronicaefolia, Bouvardia terniflora y Parmentiera edulis. Material y métodos. Se probaron los extractos de las plantas (100, 200 y 300 mg/kg, vía intraperitoneal en ratones normoglucémicos y con diabetes inducida con aloxana. Resultados. La administración de 300 mg/kg de los extractos clorofórmicos de P. edulis, B. terniflora y hexánico de B. veronicaefolia en ratones diabéticos disminuye el nivel de glucosa sanguínea en 43.75, 58.56 y 72.13%, respectivamente. Estos extractos (300 mg/kg, administrados en ratones normoglucémicos, reducen la glucosa sanguínea en 29.61, 33.42 y 39.84%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Con este estudio se confirma la actividad hipoglucemiante de estas plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la diabetes.Objective. To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickelia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis. Material and methods. Normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered these plant extracts (intraperitoneal 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Results. The administration of 300 mg/kg of chloroform extracts from P. edulis and B. terniflora and hexane from B. veronicaefolia to diabetic mice decreased the blood glucose levels in 43.75, 58.56 and 72.13%, respectively. These extracts administered to normal mice reduced blood glucose levels in 29.61, 33.42 and 39.84%, respectively. Conclusions. The hypoglycemic effect of these plant extracts used in traditional medicine for diabetes treatment is confirmed.

  6. Evaluation of Dacryodes edulis (native pear) seed biomass for Pb (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis (Native pear) seed is herein evaluated as a promising biomass for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution. The Pb(II) adsorption onto Dacryodes edulis seed biomass was influenced by the solution pH, time, biomass dose and initial adsorbate concentration. The Freundlich model fitted better than the ...

  7. Boletus edulis: a digestion-resistant allergen may be relevant for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, A; Bonadies, N; Brander, K A; Pichler, W J

    2002-05-01

    Fungal components can cause allergic symptoms either through inhalation, ingestion or contact. Whereas respiratory allergy is thought to be induced by spores, allergic reactions following ingestion are attributed to other parts of the mushroom. Reports of food-related allergic reactions due to the edible mushroom Boletus edulis have occasionally been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate whether separate allergens may be detected in alimentary allergy to Boletus edulis. Sera of two subjects, one with recurrent anaphylaxis and the other with a predominantly oral allergy syndrome following ingestion of Boletus edulis, have been analysed by a time-course digestion assay using simulated gastric fluid and by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. Sera of four Boletus edulis skin prick test-negative subjects and all without clinical symptoms to ingested Boletus edulis served as controls. In lyophilized Boletus edulis extract, at least four water-soluble proteins were detected, the most reactive at 55 kDa and at 80 kDa. Following the time-course digestion assay, IgE binding was found to a 75-kDa protein, but only if the sera of the subject with recurrent anaphylaxis was used. The data indicate that Boletus edulis can cause an IgE-mediated food allergy due to a digestion-stabile protein at 75 kDa. No IgE immune response to this protein was detected in the serum of a subject with respiratory allergy and oral allergy syndrome to Boletus edulis nor in control sera.

  8. Effects of Catha edulis on kidney and liver function among chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Catha edulis on kidney and liver function among chewing adults in Meru ... socio-cultural tradition in Kenya and as such poses a public health problem. ... Objective: To investigate the possible effects of Catha edulis on the levels of ...

  9. Fruiting efficiency in Dacryodes edulis (G.Don): A case study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruiting efficiency in 2 varieties of Dacryodes edulis were investigated between 2004 to 2007 in Ekpoma. The influence of variety on fruiting efficiency and abortion rate of gynoecium per inflorescence was determined. D. edulis had a regular fruiting pattern with no interannual variability. The mean fruiting efficiency per ...

  10. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop an efficacious and environmentally safe method for managing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and quaggamussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, we initiated a research project investigating the potential use of bacteria and their naturalmetabolic products as biocontrol agents. This project resulted in the discovery of an environmental isolate lethal to dreissenid mussels,Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A. In previous published reports we have demonstrated that: 1 Pf-CL145A’s mode ofaction is intoxication (not infection; 2 natural product within ingested bacterial cells lyse digestive tract epithelial cells leading to dreisseniddeath; and 3 high dreissenid kill rates (>90% are achievable following treatment with Pf-CL145A cells, irrespective of whether thebacterial cells are dead or alive. Investigating the environmental safety of Pf-CL145A was also a key element in our research efforts, andherein, we report the results of non-target trials demonstrating Pf-CL145A’s high specificity to dreissenids. These acute toxicity trials weretypically single-dose, short-term (24-72 h exposures to Pf-CL145A cells under aerated conditions at concentrations highly lethal todreissenids (100 or 200 mg/L. These trials produced no evidence of mortality among the ciliate Colpidium colpoda, the cladoceran Daphniamagna, three fish species (Pimephales promelas, Salmo trutta, and Lepomis macrochirus, and seven bivalve species (Mytilus edulis,Pyganodon grandis, Pyganodon cataracta, Lasmigona compressa, Strophitus undulatus, Lampsilis radiata, and Elliptio complanata. Lowmortality (3-27% was recorded in the amphipod Hyalella azteca, but additional trials suggested that most, if not all, of the mortality couldbe attributed to some other unidentified factor (e.g., possibly particle load or a water quality issue rather than Pf-CL145A’s dreissenidkillingnatural product. In terms of potential environmental safety, the results of

  11. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  12. [Floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Zhou, Shoubiao; Zhang, Dong; Chao, Tiancai

    2012-05-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis located in natural populations in campus of Anhui Normal University by out-crossing index, pollen-ovule ratio, artificial pollination and bagging experiment. The results showed that the plant was in bloom from March to May and flowering span among populations was 72 days. The flowering span for a raceme was 14-24 days. The life span of one single flower was approximately 5-10 days. Spatial positioning of stigma and anthers were spatially desperation on the day of anthesis. The filaments were shorter than the styles through pollen vitality and stigma receptivity experiments. A self-pollination breeding system was reflected by OCI 3, pollinators were required sometimes; A complex cross bred was indicated by P/O = 857.14, combined with the results of the bagging and artificial pollination experiment, the breeding system of C. edulis was mixed with self-pollination and outcrossing. The special floral structure and pests destroying may have a certain impact on seed-set rate.

  13. Mycorrhization between Cistus ladanifer L. and Boletus edulis Bull is enhanced by the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Olaya; Olaizola, Jaime; Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Oria-de-Rueda, Juan Andrés; Martín-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Boletus edulis Bull. is one of the most economically and gastronomically valuable fungi worldwide. Sporocarp production normally occurs when symbiotically associated with a number of tree species in stands over 40 years old, but it has also been reported in 3-year-old Cistus ladanifer L. shrubs. Efforts toward the domestication of B. edulis have thus focused on successfully generating C. ladanifer seedlings associated with B. edulis under controlled conditions. Microorganisms have an important role mediating mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as some bacteria species which enhance mycorrhiza formation (mycorrhiza helper bacteria). Thus, in this study, we explored the effect that mycorrhiza helper bacteria have on the efficiency and intensity of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. The aim of this work was to optimize an in vitro protocol for the mycorrhizal synthesis of B. edulis with C. ladanifer by testing the effects of fungal culture time and coinoculation with the helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. The results confirmed successful mycorrhizal synthesis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. Coinoculation of B. edulis with P. fluorescens doubled within-plant mycorrhization levels although it did not result in an increased number of seedlings colonized with B. edulis mycorrhizae. B. edulis mycelium culture time also increased mycorrhization levels but not the presence of mycorrhizae. These findings bring us closer to controlled B. edulis sporocarp production in plantations.

  14. Utilization of Passion fruit hulls (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg as component of complete feed for growing Kacang goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiston Simanihuruk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg to produce passion fruit juice produce passion fruit hulls that is potential for feedstuff. Twenty male kacang goats (average initial body weight 17±1.24 kg were used in an experiment to study the effect of utilization of passion fruit hulls as feed component in the complete pellet ration on their growth. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design consisting of 4 diets and 5 replications. Animal were randomly allocated into 4 diets (0, 15, 30, 45% level of passion fruit hulls. Each diet contained 14% crude protein and 2550 Kcal kg-1 metabolism energy. The ration was offered at 3.8% of body weight based on dry matter. The result of the experiment showed that all variables observed were not affected by level of passion fruit hulls (P>0.05. Average daily gain and feed efficiency tended to decrease with the increase level of passion fruit hulls. The highest dry matter, organic matter and N intake (768,78 g h-1 d-1; 687,37 g h-1 d-1 and 17,22 g h-1 d-1 respectively were found from R1 treatment (15% level of passion fruit hulls. It was concluded that passion fruit hulls can be used till 45% level in the diet of Kacang goat.

  15. Studies on agronomy and crop physiology of Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.

    2008-01-01


    Keywords: Development, morphology, plant density, potato, radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, seed size, seed tuber, spacing, stolon, tipping, tuber


    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian tuber crop grown in mid and high altitude

  16. Intra-population variability of ocean acidification impacts on the physiology of Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): integrating tissue and organism response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, L S; Thomsen, J; Schade, H; Bock, C; Melzner, F; Pörtner, H O; Lannig, G

    2017-05-01

    Increased maintenance costs at cellular, and consequently organism level, are thought to be involved in shaping the sensitivity of marine calcifiers to ocean acidification (OA). Yet, knowledge of the capacity of marine calcifiers to undergo metabolic adaptation is sparse. In Kiel Fjord, blue mussels thrive despite periodically high seawater PCO 2 , making this population interesting for studying metabolic adaptation under OA. Consequently, we conducted a multi-generation experiment and compared physiological responses of F1 mussels from 'tolerant' and 'sensitive' families exposed to OA for 1 year. Family classifications were based on larval survival; tolerant families settled at all PCO 2 levels (700, 1120, 2400 µatm) while sensitive families did not settle at the highest PCO 2 (≥99.8% mortality). We found similar filtration rates between family types at the control and intermediate PCO 2 level. However, at 2400 µatm, filtration and metabolic scope of gill tissue decreased in tolerant families, indicating functional limitations at the tissue level. Routine metabolic rates (RMR) and summed tissue respiration (gill and outer mantle tissue) of tolerant families were increased at intermediate PCO 2 , indicating elevated cellular homeostatic costs in various tissues. By contrast, OA did not affect tissue and routine metabolism of sensitive families. However, tolerant mussels were characterised by lower RMR at control PCO 2 than sensitive families, which had variable RMR. This might provide the energetic scope to cover increased energetic demands under OA, highlighting the importance of analysing intra-population variability. The mechanisms shaping such difference in RMR and scope, and thus species' adaptation potential, remain to be identified.

  17. Contribution to investigations on trace elements transport in the Channel: spatial distribution of industrial tracers in mytilus edulis and fucus serratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Masson, M.; Baron, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of artificial tracers - gamma emitters - has been studied in biological indicator species, mussels and fucus, along the french and english Channel shores in order to gain a better knowledge of trace elements transports in the Channel coastal areas. The main conclusions are supplied by 106 Ru-Rh and 60 Co. Extension of species labelling is larger eastwards than westwards, and the differences recorded between french and english shores show weak exchanges between south and north Channel; in the norman-breton gulf and in the Seine river bay, the distribution of radioactive tracers demonstrates complex current processes. The results are compared to the hydrodynamical studies carried out through models and follow-up of radioactive tracers in sea-water. Particular processes have been observed, corresponding to areas where the decay gradient from the source term is not respected (western Cotentin shore, western Seine Bay, Caux aerea). They are discussed in relation with fresh - sea water mixing, current and physico-chemical problems [fr

  18. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, Hans

    2016-01-01

    as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011) showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1) and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9) while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13) and Day 159 (Nov...... 20). Similar results were obtained by use of the ad hoc BEG model which also demonstrated the sensitivity of growth prediction to levels of chl a concentration, but less to temperature. The results suggest that it is possible (when the conditions are optimal, i.e., no intraspecific competition...... competition may deviate from the potential (optimal) growth under specified chl a and temperature conditions, and this implies that the effect of thinning to optimize the individual growth by eliminating intraspecific competition can be rationally evaluated....

  19. Feeding current characteristics of three morphologically different bivalve suspension feeders, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule, in relation to food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, K.; Stamhuis, E.J.; van Duren, L.A; Wolff, W.J.

    Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have shown rapid expansion in the Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly or remained stable. This indicates that they might have an advantage over native bivalve filter feeders. Hence, at the scale of individual

  20. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples...

  1. In situ responses of a biological indicator Mytilus edulis L. to the variations of radionuclide discharges from a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Michel; Leon, Rene; Miramand, Pierre; Germain, Pierre.

    1983-01-01

    The introduction of 10 lots of 100kg of mussels in La Hague waters made it possible to investigate the in situ uptake kinetics of 106 Ru + 106 Rh released by the fuel reprocessing plant of La Hague during 1 year. Equilibrium was reached within 1 - 3 months, whatever the time of introduction and the amounts released. The removal of the mussels labelled at La Hague to a remote aera made it possible to calculate the biological half-life of 106 Ru + 106 Rh, viz from 16 to 18 days [fr

  2. Relation between the concentration of Dinophysis acuminata and diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) during a toxic episode in the Limfjord (Denmark), 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per

    2008-01-01

    (1). The OA content per cell measured when concentrating only 0.2 L per filter was a good measure of the theoretical content of toxins calculated in a "no handling" case. The influence of heat-treatment on the concentration of DSP toxins in mussels was investigated. Results of OA concentration...

  3. Feeding current characteristics of three morphologically different bivalve suspension feeders, Crassostrea gigas Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule , in relation to food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, K.; Stamhuis, E.J.; Duren, L.A.; Wolff, W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have shown rapid expansion in the Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly or remained stable. This indicates that they might have an advantage over native bivalve filter feeders. Hence, at the scale of individual

  4. Relating a DEB model for mussels (Mytilus edulis) to growth data from the Oosterschelde : trace-back analysis of food conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the food conditions for mussels are estimated at different locations within the Oosterschelde. In 2014, 2015 and 2016, mussels with a uniform size were placed in baskets at the borders of commercial culture plots distributed over the Oosterschelde. Each month, a subsample was taken

  5. Seagrass beds as ocean acidification refuges for mussels? High resolution measurements of pCO2 and O2 in a Zostera marina and Mytilus edulis mosaic habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Fietzek, P.; Aßmann, S.; Körtzinger, A.; Hiebenthal, C.

    2015-07-01

    It has been speculated that macrophytes beds might act as a refuge for calcifiers from ocean acidification. In the shallow nearshores of the western Kiel Bay (Baltic Sea), mussel and seagrass beds are interlacing, forming a mosaic habitat. Naturally, the diverse physiological activities of seagrasses and mussels are affected by seawater carbonate chemistry and they locally modify it in return. Calcification by shellfishes is sensitive to seawater acidity; therefore the photosynthetic activity of seagrasses in confined shallow waters creates favorable chemical conditions to calcification at daytime but turn the habitat less favorable or even corrosive to shells at night. In contrast, mussel respiration releases CO2, turning the environment more favorable for photosynthesis by adjacent seagrasses. At the end of summer, these dynamics are altered by the invasion of high pCO2/low O2 coming from the deep water of the Bay. However, it is in summer that mussel spats settle on the leaves of seagrasses until migrating to the permanent habitat where they will grow adult. These early life phases (larvae/spats) are considered as most sensitive with regard to seawater acidity. So far, the dynamics of CO2 have never been continuously measured during this key period of the year, mostly due to the technological limitations. In this project we used a combination of state-of-the-art technologies and discrete sampling to obtain high-resolution time-series of pCO2 and O2 at the interface between a seagrass and a mussel patch in Kiel Bay in August and September 2013. From these, we derive the entire carbonate chemistry using statistical models. We found the monthly average pCO2 more than 50 % (approx. 640 μatm for August and September) above atmospheric equilibrium right above the mussel patch together with large diel variations of pCO2 within 24 h: 887 ± 331 μatm in August and 742 ± 281 μatm in September (mean ± SD). We observed important daily corrosiveness for calcium carbonates (Ωarag and Ωcalc < 1) centered on sunrise. On the positive side, the investigated habitat never suffered from hypoxia during the study period. We emphasize the need for more experiments on the impact of these acidic conditions on (juvenile) mussels with a focus on the distinct day-night variations observed.

  6. Multiple experimental approaches of immunotoxic effects of mercury chloride in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, through in vivo, in tubo and in vitro exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Matthieu B.; Auffret, Michel; Wessel, Nathalie; Fortier, Marlene; Morin, Yves; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Fournier, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Biological impairments due to mercury discharge into the environment are now an issue of global concern. From the three forms of mercury found in aquatic ecosystems, the immunotoxic effects of mercury chloride were examined in the model animal, the blue mussel. In order to investigate the toxic potency of this chemical, three exposure regimes were carried out: chronic exposure of groups of individuals, a new protocol 'in tubo' designed for sub-acute exposures of individuals, and acute exposures of target cells. Chronic exposure revealed significant immunotoxic effects after 7 days at 10 -6 M, while acute exposures showed significant inhibition of phagocytosis at 10 -4 M and 10 -3 M. In sub-acute exposures both circulating haemocytes and haemocyte mortality increased at 10 -4 M and 10 -3 M while phagocytosis and the clearance rate drew hormetic toxic effects on healthy individuals. These results suggest the use of the 'in tubo' design for bivalve toxicological individual studies. - HgCl 2 impairs the immune system of test-tube mussels

  7. Gravikinesis in Stylonychia mytilus is based on membrane potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Martin; Bräucker, Richard; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The graviperception of the hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia mytilus was investigated using electrophysiological methods and behavioural analysis. It is shown that Stylonychia can sense gravity and thereby compensates sedimentation rate by a negative gravikinesis. The graviresponse consists of a velocity-regulating physiological component (negative gravikinesis) and an additional orientational component. The latter is largely based on a physical mechanism but might, in addition, be affected by the frequency of ciliary reversals, which is under physiological control. We show that the external stimulus of gravity is transformed to a physiological signal, activating mechanosensitive calcium and potassium channels. Earlier electrophysiological experiments revealed that these ion channels are distributed in the manner of two opposing gradients over the surface membrane. Here, we show, for the first time, records of gravireceptor potentials in Stylonychia that are presumably based on this two-gradient system of ion channels. The gravireceptor potentials had maximum amplitudes of approximately 4 mV and slow activation characteristics (0.03 mV s(-1)). The presumptive number of involved graviperceptive ion channels was calculated and correlates with the analysis of the locomotive behaviour.

  8. Genes of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Estévez-Calvar

    Full Text Available Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress.

  9. Biocenosis de Bivalvia y Polyplacophora del intermareal rocoso en playa Tlacopanocha, Acapulco, Guerrero, México Polyplacophora and Bivalvia biocenosis at rocky intertidal Tlacopanocha beach, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Galeana-Rebolledo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El Estado de Guerrero, México, tiene regiones marinas prioritarias para la conservación de su biodiversidad y la información acerca de la diversidad de moluscos es escasa, por lo que es necesario realizar inventarios de especies, estudios de ecología de poblaciones y comunidades. Este estudio se efectuó en el intermareal rocoso de la playa Tlacopanocha. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la riqueza, densidad y diversidad de especies; analizar la composición de especies y estructura de tallas. El área de muestreo fue de 10 m² y la unidad de muestreó fue de 1 m². Se identificaron 35 especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros para el intermareal rocoso de Guerrero: las familias mejor representadas en riqueza de especies fueron Ischnochitonidae y Arcidae, y en abundancia Chitonidae y Chamidae; la densidad fue de 31,60 ind m-2. Polyplacophora presentó 42,9% de especies dominantes y Bivalvia 19,0%. Chama corallina presentó la mayor talla en longitud y Chama sordida en ancho. La riqueza de especies de moluscos registrada se considera alta y corresponde a lo esperado para un sustrato rocoso en zona tropical. Polyplacophora presentó alta composición de especies, que podría ser resultado de la adaptación de los organismos a las condiciones dinámicas del intermareal rocoso. Los nuevos registros indican la importancia de los inventarios de especies y también del conocimiento de las poblaciones y comunidades de la fauna marina de Guerrero.The State of Guerrero, Mexico, has priority marine areas for conservation of its biodiversity, but information concerning diversity of mollusks is limited, so it is convenient to carry out species inventories, studies of populations and community ecology. This study was conducted in the intertidal rocky beach Tlacopanocha. The objectives were to determine richness, density and species diversity, analyze the species composition and size structure. The sampling area was 10 m² and the sampling unit was

  10. Comparative central effects of the aqueous leaf extract of two populations of Passiflora edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S.F.S.J. Ayres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPassiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF; P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE. This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulisvarieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (1000 mg/kg, p.o. also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component.

  11. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Gu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae.

  12. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R.; Zheng, Shaoyu; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2018-01-01

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae. PMID:29425128

  13. Seasonal variations of arsenic in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, Sanja; Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2004-10-01

    Total arsenic concentration in the edible part of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was evaluated seasonally in the coastal area of Rijeka Bay (North Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Sampling stations were located close to the City of Bakar with no industrial facilities (site 1), in the vicinity of the oil refinery and oil thermoelectric power plant (Urinj, site 2), and 4 miles away from the Plomin coal thermoelectric power plant (Brseč village, site 3). Additionally, the concentration of arsenic in the tail muscle of the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, collected in Rijeka Bay, was studied. During winter at sites 2 and 3, the total arsenic in the edible part of the mussels was 16.4 mg As/kg FW (FW=fresh weight) and 4.38 mg As/kg FW, respectively, and increased during springtime at site 2 (6.5 mg As/kg FW) compared to the rest of the year, when individual total arsenic concentration at all sites ranged from 1.7 to 3.7 mg As/kg FW. In the winter (sites 2 and 3) and springtime (site 2) there was no correlation between the length of the mussel shell and the arsenic concentration in the edible part of the mussels. In the other seasons, at sites 1, 2 and 3, there was a correlation between arsenic in the edible part of mussels and shell length in most cases (correlation coefficients r varied from 0.64 to 0.85; P edible part of the mussels shows linearity with a high regression coefficient (r =0.914; P edible part during winter. In addition, a linear relationship was found between body length and arsenic concentration in the tail muscle (mean 17.11±4.48 mg As/kg FW) of the Norway lobster.

  14. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijewski, T.; Zmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels (Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction

  15. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  16. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not

  17. The Effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that fruits have different effects on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-induced liver injury. The present work selected three fruits and aimed at studying the effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were treated daily with alcohol and fruit juices for fifteen days. Chronic treatment with alcohol increased the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, total bilirubin (TBIL, triglyceride (TG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and decreased total protein (TP. Histopathological evaluation also showed that ethanol induced extensive fat droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm. Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis normalized various biochemical parameters. Solanum muricatum increased the level of ALT and induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver. These results strongly suggest that treatment with Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis could protect liver from the injury of alcohol, while Solanum muricatum could aggravate the damage.

  18. Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides extracted from Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anqiang; Xiao, Nannan; He, Pengfei; Sun, Peilong

    2011-12-01

    Boletus edulis is a well-known delicious mushroom. In this study, three crude polysaccharides (BEPF30, BEPF60 and BEPF80) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of B. edulis with boiling water. Chemical and physical characteristics of the three crude polysaccharides were investigated by the combination of chemical and instrumental analysis methods. Their antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro systems including hydroxyl assay, superoxide radical assay, reducing power and chelating activity. Among these three polysaccharides, BEPF60 showed more significant reducing power and chelating activity; and highest inhibitory effects on superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical. These results indicated that polysaccharides extracted from B. edulis might be employed as ingredients in healthy and functional food to alleviate the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of mineral contents of wild Boletus edulis mushroom and its edible safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiuyan; Zhang, Ji; Li, Jieqing; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to determine the contents of main mineral elements of wild Boletus edulis and to assess its edible safety, which may provide scientific evidence for the utilization of this species. Fourteen mineral contents (Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr, V and Zn) in the caps and stipes of B. edulis as well as the corresponding surface soils collected from nine different geographic regions in Yunnan Province, southwest China were determined. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) after microwave digestion. Measurement data were analyzed using variance and Pearson correlation analysis. Edible safety was evaluated according to the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of heavy metals recommended by United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Mineral contents were significantly different with the variance of collection areas. B. edulis showed relative abundant contents of Ca, Fe, Mg and Na, followed by Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn, and the elements with the lower content less were Cd, Co, Ni, Sr and V. The elements accumulation differed significantly in caps and stipes. Among them, Cd and Zn were bioconcentrated (BCF > 1) while others were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). The mineral contents in B. edulis and its surface soil were positively related, indicating that the elements accumulation level was related to soil background. In addition, from the perspective of food safety, if an adult (60 kg) eats 300 g fresh B. edulis per week, the intake of Cd in most of tested mushrooms were lower than PTWI value whereas the Cd intakes in some other samples were higher than this standard. The results indicated that the main mineral contents in B. edulis were significantly different with respect to geographical distribution, and the Cd intake in a few of regions was higher than the acceptable intakes with a potential risk.

  20. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  1. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species. PMID:21059254

  3. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MUSSELS (MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS FARMED AND COMMERCIALIZED IN CAMPANIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Costanzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus galloprovincialis is one of the most commonly consumed bivalve molluscs. Several samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from different sea farms or bought in retail shops and from irregular peddlers. Total Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Aerobic Bacteria, Enterobatteriacee, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp. and L. monocytogenes were researched following ISO methods and EU Regulations. In mussels taken from the farms the limits were higher than those established by EU Regulation 2073/2005 only in one sample for E.coli and one for Salmonella spp. The mussels bought in retail shops showed good results and no sample exceed the law limits. Only one sample collected from irregular peddlers showed high levels of E.coli.

  5. Boletus edulis y cistus ladanifer : caracterización de sus ectomicorrizas, síntesis in vitro y área ptoencial= Boletus edulis and cistus ladanifer: characterization of its ectomycorrhizae, in vitro synthesis, and realised niche

    OpenAIRE

    Águeda Hernández, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    El grupo Boletus edulis incluye cuatro especies que poseen gran importancia económica por su valor gastronómico: Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus pinophilus y Boletus reticulatus. Las Cistaceae son plantas características de las primeras etapas sucesionales, ecológicamente importantes por su papel como reservorio de inóculo de hongos ectomicorrícicos ante perturbaciones ecológicas. Los carpóforos del grupo Boletus edulis son recolectados en algunas regiones de la España Central, en z...

  6. Does selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine affects mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Bebianno, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX) the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in Prozac ® is a widely prescribed psychoactive drug which ubiquitous occurrence in the aquatic environment is associated to a poor removal rate in waste-water treatment plant (WWTP) systems. This API acts as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) frequently reported to cause disrupting effects in non-target species. The objective of this study includes a multibiomarker response evaluation on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis during two weeks exposure to 75 ng L −1 FLX assessing antioxidant enzymes activities – superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); lipid peroxidation (LPO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) neurotoxic response and endocrine disruption through alkali-labile phosphates (ALP) indirect measurement of vitellogenin-like proteins. Results show transient tissue-specific enzymatic responses and damage affecting mostly mussel gills. However, the clear ALP levels inhibition throughout time in both sex-differentiated gonads gives evidence to FLX reinforced action as an endocrine disruptor rather than an oxidative or neurotoxic inducer. - Highlights: ► Short-time exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to antidepressant fluoxetine. ► Tissue-specific transient antioxidant enzymes activities alteration. ► Lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction in exposed-tissues. ► Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity upregulation in exposed gills. ► ALP levels downregulation in exposed sex-differentiated mussels. - Exposure to 75 ng L −1 antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) induces tissue-specific multibiomarker responses alteration in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

  7. Preparation of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Mytilus coruscus Hydrolysate Using Uniform Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chao Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory peptides from mussel, Mytilus coruscus, were investigated and the variable factors, protease concentration, hydrolysis time, pH, and temperature, were optimized using Uniform Design, a new statistical experimental method. The results proved that the hydrolysate of alkali proteases had high ACE-inhibitory activity, especially the alkali protease E1. Optimization by Uniform Design showed that the best hydrolysis conditions for preparation of ACE-inhibitory peptides from Mytilus coruscus were protease concentration of 36.0 U/mL, hydrolysis time of 2.7 hours, pH 8.2, and Temperature at 59.5°C, respectively. The verification experiments under optimum conditions showed that the ACE-inhibitory activity (91.3% were agreed closely with the predicted activity of 90.7%. The amino acid composition analysis of Mytilus coruscus ACE-inhibitory peptides proved that it had high percent of lysine, leucine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid.

  8. Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis: isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of isoorientin in passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Degener was determined by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography with densitometric analysis. The results revealed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds of P. edulis (92.275 ± 0.610 mg L-1 than in rinds with typical symptoms of PWV (Passion fruit Woodiness Virus infection (28.931 ± 0.346 mg L-1. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of radical scavenging activity, suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.

  9. Seasonal light interception, radiation use efficiency, growth and tuber production of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian crop that produces below-ground, edible tubers on stolons. It is grown from seed tuber pieces. There is thus far little quantitative information on dry matter production of this crop and parameters determining growth and yield.

  10. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and cytotoxicity test of Carissa edulis Vahl dried fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J.; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Plants are the main source of medicine which is used in traditional as well as modern medicine in recent years for curing many diseases. Carissa edulis Vahl is one of the traditional plants which have healing property on diarrhea, toothache and chest pain. The present work aims on phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis dried fruits. The different solvent extracts obtained from petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water have been evaluated the presence of phytochemicals. Several assays were carried out like total antioxidant, DPPH, reducing power and thiobarbituric acid to investigate the free radical scavenging property. In addition, the cytotoxicity study also carried out on human lung cancer cells (A549). Among different solvent extract, ethanol exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis on human lung cancer cell (A549) showed IC50 value 405.704 ± 2.42 μg/mL. Therefore, C. edulis could be useful as a potential preventive intervention for free radicals mediated diseases as well as an antioxidant drug in the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Epidemiology of Bonamia ostreae infecting European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) from Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, M.Y.; Kerkhoff, S.; Roozenburg, I.; Haenen, O.L.M.; van Gool, A.; Sistermans, W.C.H.; Wijnhoven, S.; Hummel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Production of European flat oysters Ostrea edulis in the Netherlands has been hampered by the presence of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae, which is now an enzootic species following its establishment after 1980. We analyzed histopathological data from annual shellfish disease monitoring

  12. Epidemiology of Bonamia ostrea infecting European flat oysters Ostrea edulis from Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, M.Y.; Kerkhoff, S.; Roozenburg, I.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Gool, van A.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Production of European flat oysters Ostrea edulis in the Netherlands has been hampered by the presence of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae, which is now an enzootic species following its establishment after 1980. We analyzed histopathological data from annual shellfish disease monitoring

  13. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum' a novel taxon from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of abnormal proliferation of shoots resulting in formation of witches’ broom growths were observed in diseased plants of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) in Brazil. RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified in polymerase chain reactions containing template DNAs...

  14. Insect Pests Occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) in Rural Areas in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poligui, R N; Mouaragadja, I; Vandereycken, A; Haubruge, E; Francis, F

    2014-08-01

    The inventory of pests occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) was carried out in rural areas in Gabon during 2009 and 2010. Yellow traps and visual observations were used to record weekly pests during the tree flowering stage, in five villages. Catches from yellow traps rose to 7,296 and 1,722 insect pests in 2009 and 2010, respectively, whereas records from visual observations corresponded to 1,812 and 171 insect pests in 2009 and 2010, respectively. During both years, abundance from traps and visual monitoring was significantly different between sampling sites (p pests' diversity between sampling sites was not significant (p > 0.05) according to traps, but significant (p ≤ 0.04) according to visual observations in 2010. Mecocorynus loripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae) attacked the stem of D. edulis, while Oligotrophus sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Pseudophacopteron serrifer Malenovsky and Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Phacopteronidae), and Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard (Thysanopera: Thripidae) attacked leaves. Pseudonoorda edulis Maes and Poligui (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Lobesia aeolopa Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) infested fruits and inflorescences, respectively. These insects are specifically linked to plant patterns, and their identification provided the first basic information for developing suitable strategies to control pests of D. edulis in Gabon, as well as in neighboring central African countries.

  15. A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis frosk., (celastraceae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis frosk., (celastraceae) on metabolic syndrome in WOKW rats. ... Feeding with khat leaves reduced the body weight and the triglyceride level of the animals. The effect of KD on these parameters was stronger than that of KL. KD lowered the blood glucose concentration and the leptin ...

  16. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  17. The Upper Miocene of the Rostov Dome (Eastern Paratethys: Implication of the chronostratigraphy and bivalvia-based biostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rostov Dome is located in the south of the Russian Platform. In the Late Miocene this area was embraced by the Eastern Paratethys. The implications of a recently developed Neogene chronostratigraphy to the studied area are discussed. The Sarmatian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Langhian, the entire Serravalian and the lower part of the Tortonian global stages; the Maeotian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Tortonian and the lowermost horizons of the Messinian global stages; the Pontian regional stage corresponds to most of the Messinian and the lowermost Zanclean global stages. A first Bivalvia-based bio-stratigraphic framework is proposed for the territory of the Rostov Dome. Five biozones were established within the Serravalian-Messinian: Tapes vitalianus, Cerastoderma fittoni-Cerastoderma subfittoni, Congeria panticapaea, Congeria amygdaloides navicula and Monodacna pseudocatillus-Prosodacna schirvanica.

  18. Cycloartane triterpenoid saponins from water soluble of Passiflora edulis Sims and their antidepressant-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Xu, Feng-Qing; Shang, Jian-Hua; Xiao, Huai; Fan, Wei-Wei; Dong, Fa-Wu; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhou, Jun

    2013-07-30

    Various species of genus Passiflora have been used as traditional folk medicines owing to their sedative and anti-hypertensive properties. Passiflora edulis Sims most widely grown in the warm temperate for their fragrant fruits and their twigs and leaves are used as a folk medicine for treating both anxiety and nervousness in American countries. The present study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect and the active components of this plant. The alcohol extracts of the stems (PES, 10 and 2 g/kg of the plant materials) and leaves (PEL, 10 and 2 g/kg of the plant materials) of Passiflora edulis Sims were orally administered to mice for 7 day. The animals were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). After behavioral assay of ethanol extract, phytochemical research of the stems and leaves (5.7 kg) of Passiflora edulis Sims were developed and further bioactive verification of monomeric compounds were conducted. There are mainly cycloartane triterpenoids and their saponins isolated from this plant, including two new cycloartane triterpenoid saponins named cyclopassifloside ХII (1) and ХIII (2), together with six known cycloartane triterpenoids, cyclopassifloic acids B and E, cyclopassiflosides II, VI, IX and XI. The ethanol extract of Passiflora edulis Sims together with isolated compounds cyclopassiflosides IX and XI may possess antidepressant-like effect. Cycloartane triterpenoid was one of the main compositions of Passiflora edulis Sims and possess antidepressant-like activity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of Prince Islands, Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcıoğlu, Esra Billur

    2016-08-15

    In this study, PAH analyses have been conducted on indigenous mussels. Mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis) have been collected from seven stations of Prince Islands during September 2015. Concentrations of total determined PAHs (sum of 16 compounds) ranged between 664 and 9083ngg(-1). The origin of PAHs has been found to be pyrolytic according to the PHE/ANT and FA/PYR ratios in Büyükada. For other islands, PAH origins have been observed as pyrolytic and petrogenic together according to the PHE/ANT, FA/PYR and BaA/CHR ratios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding traits of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vismann, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Two oysters, the native flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the non-indigenous Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have partially overlapping distributions in European waters. Relatively little is known about particle selection by O. edulis, and the goal of the present study was to establish baselines...... for particle selection by both oyster species under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The study was carried out with adult oysters of similar shell size collected in the Limfjord estuary, Denmark (56°47′N, 08°51′E), in November 2011. The feeding traits of both species [clearance rate (CR), retention...... efficiency (RE) and lower threshold for clearance (LTC)] were compared using five algal species with different cell sizes (5−32 µm ESD) (Isochrysis galbana, Rhodomonas salina, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Prorocentrum micans and Akashiwo sanguinea). Oysters were acclimated to an experimental temperature of 22...

  1. Proteome analysis of an ectomycorrhizal fungus Boletus edulis under salt shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Chen, Hui; Tang, Mingjuan; Shen, Shihua

    2007-08-01

    Soil salinization has become a severe global problem and salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stresses inhibiting growth and survival of mycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. Salinity tolerance of ectomycorrhizal fungi and survival of ectomycorrhizal inocula is essential to reforestation and ecosystem restoration in saline areas. Proteomic changes of an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Boletus edulis, when exposed to salt stress conditions (4% NaCl, w/v) were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. Twenty-two protein spots, 14 upregulated and 8 downregulated, were found changed under salt stress conditions. Sixteen changed protein spots were identified by nanospray ESI Q-TOF MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. These proteins were involved in biosynthesis of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine, glycolysis, DNA repair, cell cycle control, and general stress tolerance, and their possible functions in salinity adaptation of Boletus edulis were discussed.

  2. New phenyl-ethanediols from the culture broth of Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Qiu; Qin, Xiang-Dong; Shao, Hong-Jun; Fang, Li-Zhen; Wang, Fei; Ding, Zhi-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-04-01

    A new phenyl-ethanediol, (1S)-(4-acetylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (1), and a new natural product, (1S)-(3-ethenylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (2), were isolated from the culture broth of the basidiomycete Boletus edulis together with three related known compounds, 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (3), 1-(3-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (4) and 1-(3-formylphenyl)-ethanone (5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 2D-NMR techniques.

  3. Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gwilym J. G.; Knight, David P.; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

  4. Toxic effect of khat (Catha edulis on memory: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhane Alem Berihu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People use khat (Catha edulis for its pleasant stimulant effect of physical activity, consciousness, motor, and mental functions. Although there are reports assessing the effect of khat on memory, there was no study based on formal systematic review and meta-analysis. Objective: We have therefore conducted this meta-analysis to determine the level of evidence for the effect of khat (C. edulis Forsk on memory discrepancy. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to retrieve the papers for this review. Keywords utilized across database search were khat, cat, chat, long-term memory, short-term memory, memory deficit, randomized control trial, and cross-sectional survey. The search was limited to studies in humans and rodents; published in English language. Result: Finding of various studies included in our meta-analysis showed that the effect of acute, and subchronic exposure to khat showed that short-term memory appears to be affected depending on the duration of exposure. However, does not have any effect on long-term memory. Conclusion: Although a number of studies regarding the current topic are limited, the evidenced showed that khat (C. edulis induced memory discrepancy.

  5. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, proximate and nutritional composition of Gracilaria edulis collected from Palk Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2015-05-01

    Gracilaria edulis, a red alga present in southeast coast of India was evaluated for its nutritional composition. FT-IR analysis of soluble polysaccharides revealed the presence of galactans, 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose, sulphated galactose and the gelling agent agar, with the sulphate content estimated as 51.01 μg/mg of polysaccharide. Results of physicochemical properties and nutritional profile reveal the presence of dietary fibre (8.9 ± 0.62% DW), carbohydrate (101.61 ± 1.8 mg/g DW), crude protein (6.68 ± 0.94 mg/g DW) and lipid content (8.3 ± 1.03 mg/g DW). G. edulis contains biologically important fatty acids like palmitic acid (2.06%), linolenic acid (2.56%), and oleic acid (1.98%). The other nutritional components present in high amounts are proline, chlorophyll A and B, all the essential amino acids and vitamin A, E and C. These findings suggest that G. edulis has potent nutritional value which might be used as a source of nutrients for human and animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Depletion of plankton in a raft culture of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Ría de Vigo, NW Spain. I. Phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, J.K.; Nielsen, T.G.; Van Duren, L.A.; Maar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Food depletion in mussel cultivation has been rarely studied and seldom demonstrated. In this study, concentrations of phytoplankton in and around a blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis raft culture unit in the Ría de Vigo were measured during a 2 wk study period in July 2004. Flow direction and

  7. A novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of HSP90 from Mytilus coruscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Wu, Jiong; Xu, Mengshan; He, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a conserved molecular chaperone contributing to cell cycle control, organism development and the proper regulation of cytosolic proteins. The full-length HSP90 cDNA of Mytilus coruscus (McHSP90, KT946644) was 2420 bp, including an ORF of 2169 bp encoding a polypeptide of 722 amino acids with predicted pI/MW 4.89/83.22 kDa. BLASTp analysis and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested McHSP90 was a member of HSP90 family, and it was highly conserved with other known HSP90, especially in the HSP90 family signatures, ATP/GTP-Binding sites and ‘EEVD’ motif. The mRNA of McHSP90 in haemolymph was upregulated in all treatments including Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi challenge, metals stresses (copper and cadmium) and 180 CST fuel exposure. All the results implied the expression of McHSP90 could be affected by Vibrio challenge and environmental stress, which might help us gain more insight into the molecular mechanism of HSP against adverse stresses in mollusca. - Highlights: • A novel HSP90 (McHSP90) was identified from Mytilus coruscus. • McHSP90 significantly affected by Vibrio challenge for immune defense. • McHSP90 mRNA was obviously up-regulated under stress of heavy metals and 180CST fuel. • McHSP90 might be an ideal marine pollution indicator.

  8. Heavy metals monitoring in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Apulian coasts (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SPADA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn and one semi-metal (As were determined in tissues of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected along the Apulian coasts (Mediterranean sea. This project, performed in 2009, was targeted toward the assessment of levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment in order to evaluate the coastal water quality using mussels as bioindicators and health risk for mussel consumers.The concentrations (mg/kg d.w. of these metals ranged from 6.35 to 76.17 for arsenic (As, 0.38 to 2.54 for cadmium (Cd, 0.96 to 9.46 for chromium (Cr, 5.26 to 19.22 for copper (Cu, 0.10 to 0.81 for mercury (Hg, 25.00 to 110.51 for zinc (Zn and from 0.37 to 3.25 for lead (Pb. These levels were lower than the permissible limits set by European Commission and FAO with the exception for Cr in three sampling stations. Evaluation of the risk associated to molluscs consumption for human health suggested that there is no evident risk for a moderate Mytilus g. consumer, however heavy metals concentrations must be monitored periodically and carefully with respect to the consumers health.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus extraradical mycelium in pine forests of central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, Herminia; Águeda, Beatriz; Ágreda, Teresa; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan

    2013-07-01

    The annual belowground dynamics of extraradical soil mycelium and sporocarp production of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus, have been studied in two different pine forests (Pinar Grande and Pinares Llanos, respectively) in Soria (central Spain). Soil samples (five per plot) were taken monthly (from September 2009 to August 2010 in Pinar Grande and from September 2010 to September 2011 in Pinares Llanos) in eight permanent plots (four for each site). B. edulis and L. deliciosus extraradical soil mycelium was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, with DNA extracted from soil samples, using specific primers and TaqMan® probes. The quantities of B. edulis soil mycelium did not differ significantly between plots, but there was a significant difference over time with a maximum in February (0.1576 mg mycelium/g soil) and a minimum in October (0.0170 mg mycelium/g soil). For L. deliciosus, significant differences were detected between plots and over time. The highest amount of mycelium was found in December (1.84 mg mycelium/g soil) and the minimum in February (0.0332 mg mycelium/g soil). B. edulis mycelium quantities were positively correlated with precipitation of the current month and negatively correlated with the mean temperature of the previous month. Mycelium biomass of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively correlated with mean temperature and radiation. No significant correlation between productivity of the plots with the soil mycelium biomass was observed for any of the two species. No correlations were found between B. edulis sporocarp production and weather parameters. Sporocarp production of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with precipitation and relative humidity and negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperatures. Both species have similar distribution over time, presenting an annual dynamics characterized by a seasonal variability, with a clear increase

  10. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  11. The Preliminary Study of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues on Sediments of Bivalvia Fishing Ground at Eastern Part of Coastal Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Subagyo; Setyati, Wilis Ari; Sri Susilo, Endang; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Triaji Mahendrajaya, Robertus

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the occurrence level of organochlorine contamination in marine sediments of Semarang coastal areas as a fishing ground of Bivalvia. Five compounds (Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT) of contaminant have been determined in the sediments surface of Semarang coastal waters. The samples were then analyzed by using gas chromatography and followed by using the method of Standard Method Examination. The result showed that the average concentration of organochlorine pesticides Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT were 25.5, bellow detected, 7.1, 37.2, 28.6 μ g/L, respectively. The high concentration of pesticide showed on Endrin (65,84 ppb), pp-DDT (29,53 μ g/L), and heptachlor (25,45 μ g/L). The low concentrations were detected on aldrin (bellow detected) and endosulfan (0,92 μ g/L). The concentration of organochlorine pesticides in these areas might contribute on four rivers which deposited the sediment in these coastal waters

  12. Comparative studies on the morphometry and physiology of European populations of the lagoon specialist Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tarnowska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the morphometric and physiological parameters of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia from the Baltic Sea (GD, the North Sea (LV, and the Mediterranean Sea (BL were investigated. The cockles from GD were much smaller than those from other populations due to osmotic stress. The female to male ratios did not differ significantly from 1:1. The northern populations (GD, LV had a monocyclic reproductive pattern, whereas the southern population (BL seemed to reproduce throughout the year. Seasonal changes in the contents of biochemical components appeared to be correlated with changes in trophic conditions and the reproductive cycle. Protein content was the highest in spring for all the populations. The highest lipid contents and lowest carbohydrate contents were noted in GD and BL in spring, while no marked differences were noted among seasons in LV (probably because the data from both sexes were pooled. Respiration rates in GD were the highest among the populations, which could have been due to osmotic stress. High metabolic rates expressed by high respiration rates in GD and LV in spring and autumn could have resulted from gamete development (in spring and phytoplankton blooms (in spring and autumn.

  13. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  14. The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) revisited: Molecular species delineation using a mitochondrial DNA gene reveals multiple conspecifics and undescribed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M.; Harris, John L.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Eackles, Michael S.; King, Tim; Jones, Jess W.; Hallerman, Eric M.; Christian, Alan D.; Randklev, Charles R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) represent approximately one-third of freshwater mussel diversity in North America. Species identification within this group is challenging due to morphological convergence and phenotypic plasticity. Accurate species identification, including characterization of currently unrecognized taxa, is required to develop effective conservation strategies because many species in the group are imperiled. We examined 573 cox1 sequences from 110 currently recognized species (including 13 Fusconaia and 21 Pleurobema species) to understand phylogenetic relationships among pleurobemine species (mainly Fusconaia and Pleurobema) and to delineate species boundaries. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed no geographic structure within widespread species and illustrated a close relationship between Elliptio lanceolata and Parvaspina collina. Constraint tests supported monophyly of the genera Fusconaia and Pleurobema, including the subgenus P. (Sintoxia). Furthermore, results revealed multiple conspecifics, including P. hanleyianum and P. troschelianum, P. chattanoogaense and P. decisum, P. clava and P. oviforme, P. rubrum and P. sintoxia, F. askewi and F. lananensis, and F. cerina and F. flava. Species delimitation analyses identified three currently unrecognized taxa (two in Fusconaia and one in Pleurobema). Further investigation using additional genetic markers and other lines of evidence (e.g., morphology, life history, ecology) are necessary before any taxonomic changes are formalized.

  15. Comparative feeding on chlorophyll - rich versus remaining organic matter in bivalve shellfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkins, A.; Pascoe, P.L.; Parry, H.; Brinsley, M.; Cacciatore, F.; Black, K.; Fang, J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Filter feeding was compared in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, Chinese pleated oyster Crassostrea plicatula, Chinese scallop Chlamys farreri,Manila clam Tapes phillipinarum, razor clam Sinonvacula constricta, and blood

  16. Effects of soil characteristics, allelopathy and frugivory on establishment of the invasive plant Carpobrotus edulis and a co-occurring native, Malcolmia littorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís; Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establishment and that of the native species Malcolmia littorea. We used laboratory solutions representing different chemical composition and moisture of the soil, herbivore feeding assays to simulate seed scarification and rainwater solutions to account for the effect of differently aged C. edulis litter. We show that unlike that of the native species, germination and early growth of C. edulis was not constrained by low moisture. The establishment of C. edulis, in terms of germination and early growth, was increased by scarification of seeds following passage through the European rabbit intestines; the rabbits therefore may have potential implications for plant establishment. There was no competition between C. edulis and M. littorea. The litter of the invasive C. edulis, which remains on the soil surface for several years, releases allelopathic substances that suppress the native plant germination process and early root growth. The invasive species exhibits features that likely make it a better colonizer of sand dunes than the co-occurring native species. Allelopathic effects, ability to establish in drier microsites and efficient scarification by rabbits are among the mechanisms allowing C. edulis to invade. The results help to explain the failure of removal projects that have been carried out in order to restore dunes invaded by C. edulis, and the long-lasting effects of C. edulis litter need to be taken into account in future restoration projects.

  17. Effects of soil characteristics, allelopathy and frugivory on establishment of the invasive plant Carpobrotus edulis and a co-occurring native, Malcolmia littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establishment and that of the native species Malcolmia littorea. We used laboratory solutions representing different chemical composition and moisture of the soil, herbivore feeding assays to simulate seed scarification and rainwater solutions to account for the effect of differently aged C. edulis litter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that unlike that of the native species, germination and early growth of C. edulis was not constrained by low moisture. The establishment of C. edulis, in terms of germination and early growth, was increased by scarification of seeds following passage through the European rabbit intestines; the rabbits therefore may have potential implications for plant establishment. There was no competition between C. edulis and M. littorea. The litter of the invasive C. edulis, which remains on the soil surface for several years, releases allelopathic substances that suppress the native plant germination process and early root growth. CONCLUSIONS: The invasive species exhibits features that likely make it a better colonizer of sand dunes than the co-occurring native species. Allelopathic effects, ability to establish in drier microsites and efficient scarification by rabbits are among the mechanisms allowing C. edulis to invade. The results help to explain the failure of removal projects that have been carried out in order to restore dunes invaded by C. edulis, and the long-lasting effects of C. edulis litter need to be taken into account in future

  18. A King Bolete, Boletus edulis (Agaricomycetes), RNA Fraction Stimulates Proliferation and Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells Against Myelogenous Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Nunes, Fernando Herminio Ferreira Milheiro; Sawa-Wejksza, Katarzyna; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate the crucial role of natural killer (NK) cells in the prevention of tumor growth and inhibition of their metastasis, which suggests the possibility of their use in cancer treatment. This therapeutic strategy required finding a selective NK cell stimulator that, upon administration, did not disturb organism homeostasis, unlike natural activators (interleukin-2 or interleukin-12). Because the majority of anticancer agents derived from Basidiomycetes are able to stimulate lymphocytes, we describe the influence of Boletus edulis RNA on a human NK cell line (NK92). Our studies showed that a B. edulis RNA fraction was not toxic against NK92 cells. Furthermore, the tested fraction significantly stimulated NK92 cell proliferation and their cytotoxicity against tumor cells. We demonstrate here, to our knowledge for the first time, that B. edulis RNA enhances NK cell activity and possesses immunomodulatory potential.

  19. Effects of bark flour of Passiflora edulis on food intake, body weight and behavioral response of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara A.F. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of treatment with the bark flour of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days (130 mg/kg, p.o. with the albedo flour, flavedo and full bark of P. edulis, corresponding to albedo associated with flavedo. Behavioral response observed after treatment with bark flour P. edulis showed sedative effects by the reduction of exploratory activity and increased duration of immobility in the open field test for the group of animals that received the albedo flour associated with the flavedo. Sedative effects were observed in the absence of motor incoordination or muscle relaxation. Food intake of experimental animals was not changed, but the weight gain was decreased both in animals that received only albedo flour, and in those who received the full bark flour. The full bark flour of Passiflora showed sedative effects, without anxiolytic effect detectable and muscle relaxation or motor incoordination, and reduces body weight gain.

  20. Differential metabolic responses in three life stages of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifeng; Xu, Lanlan; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important metal contaminants in the Bohai Sea. In this work, NMR-based metabolomics was used to investigate the toxicological effects of Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration (50 µg L -1 ) in three different life stages (D-shape larval, juvenile and adult) of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Results indicated that the D-shape larval mussel was the most sensitive life stage to Cd. The significantly different metabolic profiles meant that Cd induced differential toxicological effects in three life stages of mussels. Basically, Cd caused osmotic stress in all the three life stages via different metabolic pathways. Cd exposure reduced the anaerobiosis in D-shape larval mussels and disturbed lipid metabolism in juvenile mussels, respectively. Compared with the D-shape larval and juvenile mussels, the adult mussels reduced energy consumption to deal with Cd stress.

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VARIANT GII.b/HILVERSUM OF NOROVIRUS IN RETAIL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tantillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of norovirus infections world-wide are due to genogroup II noroviruses. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis at the end of the commercial chain, the points of purchase, were sampled and screened by an hemi-nested RT-PCR specific for genogroup II noroviruses. Noroviral RNA was detected in 10% of the samples, with the lower frequency being observed in samples obtained from hypermarkets (8% rather than in samples from open-air markets and fish shops (16% and 12%, respectively, suggesting more efficient systems of purification and control being enacted by shellfish producers and suppliers of large retail chains. By sequence analysis, the strains were characterized as norovirus variant GII.b/Hilversum.

  2. STUDIES ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SPECIES Mytilus galloprovincialis OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sirbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that, among the marine organisms, mollusks are highly appreciated in many European, Asian and North American countries. In the Romanian area of the Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis can be found in deep areas which form a belt around the sea on the continental platform. There are significant variations of the main environmental factors which directly influence the physiological behavior of the organisms and the accumulation of the biochemical components with nutritional value. This paper correlates the study of the dynamics of the main biochemical compounds with the environmental factors and the annual ontogenetic phases of the organisms. There are also presented comparative studies concerning the rock mollusks and mollusks of deep from the Black Sea. It was found variations in quantitative results for biochemical composition. Cases are due to seasonal variations of physical-chemical conditions of seawater.

  3. Isotopic characteristics of shells Mytilus galloprovincialis from eastern coastal area of Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from entire Eastern Adriatic coast to determine δ18O and δ13C performed on calcite and aragonite shell layers. The aim of this work was to check whether shells of M. galloprovincialis are good environmental indicators (water temperature, salinity. Based on measured isotopic composition of oxygen in shell layers and assumed isotopic composition in water temperatures of calcite and aragonite of shell layers were calculated. The calculated temperatures for M. galloprovincialis shell growth of calcite and aragonite shell layer are in good agreement with measured temperatures of sea water. According to our results of δ18O and δ13C in shell layers we canseparate the locations of the investigated area into three groups: those with more influence of fresh water, those with less influence of fresh water and those of marine environments.

  4. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-08-15

    The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Stable isotopes and metal contamination in caged marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Tejada, S.; Tintore, J.

    2009-01-01

    Metal concentrations and isotopic composition were measured in different tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in waters of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) in order to assess pollution levels. The isotopic composition was correlated with lead, cadmium, selenium and nickel obtained from the digestive gland and foot of the mussels. Significant negative correlations were found between cadmium, selenium and zinc and the mussel foot, mainly for 13 C. Significant correlations were also found between lead and cadmium and the digestive gland. Pearson correlations indicated that the 13 C isotopic signal in foot is a good proxy for the concentration of metals such as lead, cadmium, selenium and zinc. Similarly, 15 N isotopic signatures in the digestive gland reflected the lead and cadmium concentration.

  6. Ruinous resident: the hydroid Ectopleura crocea negatively affects suspended culture of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitridge, Isla; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Hydroids are major biofouling organisms in global aquaculture. Colonies of the hydroid Ectopleura crocea have recently established in Australian commercial mussel leases culturing Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study examined the impacts of E. crocea on mussel culture at two stages of the production cycle: spatfall and grow-out. Hydroids most commonly fouled the body, edge and dorsal regions of the mussel shell and cause a reduction in the length (4%) and weight (23%) of juvenile mussels. They also consumed mussel larvae in the field and in the laboratory. Prey numbers of many taxa, including mussel larvae, were consistent in natural hydroid diets regardless of the temporal variation in prey availability, implying some selectivity in hydroid feeding. In the laboratory, E. crocea consumed settling plantigrade mussel larvae more readily than trochophore or veliger larvae. Fouling by E. crocea is detrimental to mussel condition, and may affect the availability of wild mussel larvae in the commercial culture of M. galloprovincialis.

  7. Molecular interactions of mussel protective coating protein, mcfp-1, from Mytilus californianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingye; Hwang, Dong Soo; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Hongbo

    2012-02-01

    Protective coating of the byssus of mussels (Mytilus sp.) has been suggested as a new paradigm of medical coating due to its high extensibility and hardness co-existence without their mutual detriment. The only known biomacromolecule in the extensible and tough coating on the byssus is mussel foot protein-1 (mfp-1), which is made up with positively charged residues (~20 mol%) and lack of negatively charged residues. Here, adhesion and molecular interaction mechanisms of Mytilus californianus foot protein-1 (mcfp-1) from California blue mussel were investigated using a surface forces apparatus (SFA) in buffer solutions of different ionic concentrations (0.2-0.7 M) and pHs (3.0-5.5). Strong and reversible cohesion between opposed positively charged mcfp-1 films was measured in 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with 0.1 M KNO(3). Cohesion of mcfp-1 was gradually reduced with increasing the ionic strength, but was not changed with pH variations. Oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues of mcfp-1, a key residue for adhesive and coating proteins of mussel, didn't change the cohesion strength of mcfp-1 films, but the addition of chemicals with aromatic groups (i.e., aspirin and 4-methylcatechol) increased the cohesion. These results suggest that the cohesion of mcfp-1 films is mainly mediated by cation-π interactions between the positively charged residues and benzene rings of DOPA and other aromatic amino acids (~20 mol% of total amino acids of mcfp-1), and π-π interactions between the phenyl groups in mcfp-1. The adhesion mechanism obtained for the mcfp-1 proteins provides important insight into the design and development of functional biomaterials and coatings mimicking the extensible and robust mussel cuticle coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Profile and Biological Activity of Casimiroa Edulis Non-Edible Fruit`s Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Mostafa Elkady

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the non-edible fruit parts of Casimiroa edulis Llave et were evaluated for their active constituents and their potential as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. Methods: Fruits peel (FP and seeds kernel (SK of Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex. were extracted successively with hexane and then methanol. Fatty acids were prepared from hexane extracts and identified by GC. Total flavonoid, phenolic acids and tannins contents in methanol extracts were determined by UV spectrophotometer and identified by HPLC. Antioxidant, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity and antitumor effect against Caco-2 cell line were determined. Results: GC analysis of hexane extracts showed that oleic acid (47.00% was the major unsaturated fatty acids in both extracts while lignoceric acid (15.49% is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in (FP. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents in (FP & (SK methanol extracts were; 37.5±1.5, 10.79±0.66 and 22.28±0.23 for (FP; 53.5±1.5mg/g, 14.44±0.32 mg/g; and 53.73±3.58 mg/g for (SK respectively. HPLC analysis of methanol extract revealed that; the major phenolic compound was pyrogallol in (FP and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in (SK, the major flavonoid was luteolin 6-arabinose-8-glucose in (FP and acacetin in (SK. Conclusion: This study showed that non-edible parts of C. edulis fruit is a rich source of different phenolic compounds and fatty acids which has great antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities; that could be used as a natural source in pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Boletus edulis biologically active biopolymers induce cell cycle arrest in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferreira Milheiro Nunes, Fernando Hermínio; Ramos Novo Amorim de Barros, Ana Isabel; Marques, Guilhermina; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2013-04-25

    The use of biologically active compounds isolated from edible mushrooms against cancer raises global interest. Anticancer properties are mainly attributed to biopolymers including mainly polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, polysaccharide proteins, glycoproteins and proteins. In spite of the fact that Boletus edulis is one of the widely occurring and most consumed edible mushrooms, antitumor biopolymers isolated from it have not been exactly defined and studied so far. The present study is an attempt to extend this knowledge on molecular mechanisms of their anticancer action. The mushroom biopolymers (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) were extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The antiproliferative activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180) was screened by means of MTT and BrdU assays. At the same time fractions' cytotoxicity was examined on the human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) by means of the LDH assay. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis and protein expression involved in anticancer activity of the selected biopolymer fraction. In vitro studies have shown that fractions isolated from Boletus edulis were not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells and in the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained in the case of the fraction designated as BE3. The tested compound inhibited cancer cell proliferation which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase. Growth inhibition was associated with modulation of the p16/cyclin D1/CDK4-6/pRb pathway, an aberration of which is a critical step in the development of many human cancers including colon cancer. Our results indicate that a biopolymer BE3 from Boletus edulis possesses anticancer potential and may provide a new therapeutic/preventive option in colon cancer chemoprevention.

  10. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Boletus edulis species complex and rockroses (Cistus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águeda, Beatriz; Parladé, Javier; Fernández-Toirán, Luz Marina; Cisneros, Óscar; de Miguel, Ana María; Modrego, María Pilar; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Pera, Joan

    2008-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizas of Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, and Boletus reticulatus were synthesized with Cistus sp. under laboratory conditions using synthesis tubes filled with a mixture of sterilized peat-vermiculite and nutrient solution. The fungal strains isolated from sporocarps were identified by molecular techniques. The inoculated seedlings were grown for 4-5 months. The ectomycorrhizas formed were described based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The three ectomycorrhizas described were very similar, with white monopodial-pinnate morphology, a three-layered plectenchymatous mantle on plan view and boletoid rhizomorphs.

  11. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean De Dieu Tamokou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae, is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25-38 m. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v. The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml. Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml. The median lethal doses (LD50 of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05 changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW, the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities

  12. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Marceau; Martin‐Benito, Dario; von Arx, Georg; Andreu‐Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L.; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G.; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the southwestern USA, recent large‐scale die‐offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines (Pinus edulis) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7‐year experiment in central New Mexico with three wateri...

  13. Evaluation and comparison of four protein extraction protocols for mono- and two-dimensional electrophoresis in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceruso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four protein extraction protocols from Mytilus galloprovincialis were evaluated with the aim to identify the most practical, efficient and reproducible method. Four extraction protocols frequently used for mussels and organic matrices were selected and compared. The methods were based on the use of: i TRIzol reagent; ii Lysis buffer; iii phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; iv trichloroacetic acid-acetone. Protein concentration was measured by the Bradford method. Three specimens of mussels were studied and the analysis was conducted in triplicate for each of the four protocols. Results indicated that the four methods could extract significantly different protein profiles. The highest number of protein spots resolved in 2DE gels and the best reproducibility was obtained using trichloroacetic acid-acetone protocol. Results afforded the selection of a suitable extraction protocol to be used for ecotoxicoproteomics studies from mussels and for other proteomic studies conducted by particularly complex tissues such as Mytilus galloprovincialis.

  14. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L. N.E.Br. on the germination, establishment and survival of native plants: a clue for assessing its competitive strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis' soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L. R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L. growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats.

  15. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. on the germination, establishment and survival of native plants: a clue for assessing its competitive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis' soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L.) growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats.

  16. The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) revisited: Molecular species delineation using a mitochondrial DNA gene reveals multiple conspecifics and undescribed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M.; Harris, John L.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Eackles, Michael S.; King, Tim; Jones, Jess W.; Hallerman, Eric M.; Christian, Alan D.; Randklev, Charles R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) represent approximately one-third of freshwater mussel diversity in North America. Species identification within this group is challenging due to morphological convergence and phenotypic plasticity. Accurate species identification, including characterisation of currently unrecognised taxa, is required to develop effective conservation strategies because many species in the group are imperiled. We examined 575 cox1 sequences from 110 currently recognised species (including 13 Fusconaia and 21 Pleurobema species) to understand phylogenetic relationships among pleurobemine species (mainly Fusconaia and Pleurobema) and to delineate species boundaries. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed no geographic structure within widespread species and illustrated a close relationship between Elliptio lanceolata and Parvaspina collina. Constraint tests supported monophyly of the genera Fusconaia and Pleurobema, including the subgenus P. (Sintoxia). Furthermore, results revealed multiple conspecifics, including P. hanleyianum and P. troschelianum, P. chattanoogaense and P. decisum, P. clava and P. oviforme, P. rubrum and P. sintoxia, F. askewi and F. lananensis, and F. cerina and F. flava. Species delimitation analyses identified three currently unrecognised taxa (two in Fusconaia and one in Pleurobema). Further investigation using additional genetic markers and other lines of evidence (e.g. morphology, life history, ecology) are necessary before any taxonomic changes are formalised.

  17. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Population dynamics of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae in the Pendjari River (Benin-Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akélé G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae is the only freshwater oyster occurring in Africa. The current study provides the first data on the population structure, growth, age, mortality and exploitation status of this species in the Pendjari River. E. elliptica length-frequency data were collected monthly from January to December 2009 and analyzed with FiSAT software. Population parameters including the asymptotic length (L∞ and growth coefficient (K were assessed to evaluate the stock status. The recruitment pattern was modeled with a FiSAT routine. The asymptotic length (L∞ was 14.75 cm, while the growth coefficient (K was 0.38 year-1. The growth performance index (ø′ reached 1.92. Specimens of Etheria elliptica reached a mean size of 4.66 cm and 6.41 cm at the end of one year and 1.5 years, respectively. We estimated total mortality (Z, natural mortality (M and fishing mortality (F to be 2.90 year-1, 1.16 year-1 and 1.74 year-1, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous over the year with one major peak event during the rainy season (July. The exploitation rate (E = 0.60 revealed that the freshwater oyster was probably facing overexploitation due to lack of a minimum limit size and also due to an increase in the harvesting effort. Therefore, efficient management methods were urgently required to conserve the species. The return of empty shells into the water to increase the recruitment surface, rotation planning among harvesting sites and the imposition of a minimum limit size were recommendations made in order to ensure the sustainable exploitation of wild stocks.

  19. Evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of virgin polystyrene microbeads in freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Stefano; Gagné, François; André, Chantale; Della Torre, Camilla; Auclair, Joëlle; Hanana, Houda; Parenti, Camilla Carla; Bonasoro, Francesco; Binelli, Andrea

    2018-08-01

    Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×10 5 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×10 5 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×10 6 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×10 6 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days. The PM uptake in the mussel body and hemolymph was assessed using confocal microscopy, while the chronic toxicity of PMs was evaluated on exposed mussels using a comprehensive battery of biomarkers of cellular stress, oxidative damage and neuro- genotoxicity. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that MPs concentrated in the gut lumen of exposed mussels, absorbed and transferred firstly in the tissues and then in the hemolymph. The results revealed that PMs do not produce oxidative stress and genetic damage, with the exception of a significant modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in mussels exposed to MIX 1. Regarding neurotoxicity, we observed only a significant increase of dopamine concentration in mussels exposed to both MIXs, suggesting a possible implication of this neurotransmitter in an elimination process of accumulated PMs. This research represents a first study about the evaluation of virgin MP toxicity in zebra mussel and more research is warranted concerning the long term neurological effects of virgin MPs. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-10-08

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications.

  1. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historic cultivation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described i...

  2. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  3. Rehydration of freeze-dried and convective dried boletus edulis mushrooms: effect on some quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, I; Sanjuán, N; Pérez-Munuera, I; Mulet, A

    2008-10-01

    Quality of rehydrated products is a key aspect linked to rehydration conditions. To assess the effect of rehydration temperature on some quality parameters, experiments at 20 and 70 degrees C were performed with convective dried and freeze-dried Boletus edulis mushrooms. Rehydration characteristics (through Peleg's parameter, k(1), and equilibrium moisture, W(e)), texture (Kramer), and microstructure (Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy) were evaluated. Freeze-dried samples absorbed water more quickly and attained higher W(e) values than convective dried ones. Convective dehydrated samples rehydrated at 20 degrees C showed significantly lower textural values (11.9 +/- 3.3 N/g) than those rehydrated at 70 degrees C (15.7 +/- 1.2 N/g). For the freeze-dried Boletus edulis, the textural values also exhibited significant differences, being 8.2 +/- 1.3 and 10.5 +/- 2.3 N/g for 20 and 70 degrees C, respectively. Freeze-dried samples showed a porous structure that allows rehydration to take place mainly at the extracellular level. This explains the fact that, regardless of temperature, freeze-dried mushrooms absorbed water more quickly and reached higher W(e) values than convective dried ones. Whatever the dehydration technique used, rehydration at 70 degrees C produced a structural damage that hindered water absorption; consequently lower W(e) values and higher textural values were attained than when rehydrating at 20 degrees C.

  4. STUDIES ON ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS BOLETUS EDULIS AND CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena ZAVASTIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antimicrobial effects of both ethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts of the fruiting bodies of wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis (penny bun and Cantharellus cibarius (golden chanterelle sampled in Poiana Stampei (Suceava county, Romania. The total phenolic contents of extracts were also determined. Boletus edulis hydromethanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content (72.78±0.29 mg/g. This extract was also the most active as scavenger of DPPH and ABTS radicals (EC50=151.44±0.85 and 65.4±0.4 µg/mL, respectively and reducing agent (EC50=46.77±0.34 µg/mL. Cantharellus cibarius ethanolic extract showed high ferrous ion chelating (EC50=82.9±0.6 µg/mL, 15-lipoxygenase (EC50=236.7±1.5 µg/mL and α-glucosidase (EC50=9.77±0.06 μg/mL inhibitory activities. For both mushrooms, the ethanolic extracts were more active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 than the hydromethanolic ones. The antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects revealed in this study support further investigations for a possible valorization of both mushrooms in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. BEL β-trefoil: a novel lectin with antineoplastic properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Cenci, Lucia; Perduca, Massimiliano; Capaldi, Stefano; Carrizo, Maria E; Civiero, Laura; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2013-05-01

    A novel lectin was purified from the fruiting bodies of king bolete mushrooms (Boletus edulis, also called porcino, cep or penny bun). The lectin was structurally characterized i.e its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure were determined. The new protein is a homodimer and each protomer folds as β-trefoil domain and therefore we propose the name Boletus edulis lectin (BEL) β-trefoil to distinguish it from the other lectin that has been described in these mushrooms. The lectin has potent anti-proliferative effects on human cancer cells, which confers to it an interesting therapeutic potential as an antineoplastic agent. Several crystal forms of the apoprotein and of complexes with different carbohydrates were studied by X-ray diffraction. The structure of the apoprotein was solved at 1.12 Å resolution. The interaction of the lectin with lactose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc, was examined in detail. All the three potential binding sites present in the β-trefoil fold are occupied in at least one crystal form and are described in detail in this paper. No important conformational changes are observed in the lectin when comparing its co-crystals with carbohydrates with those of the ligand-free protein.

  6. Structure of a lectin with antitumoral properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Carrizo, Maria E; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2011-08-01

    A novel lectin has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (king bolete, penny bun, porcino or cep) by affinity chromatography on a chitin column. We propose for the lectin the name BEL (B. edulis lectin). BEL inhibits selectively the proliferation of several malignant cell lines and binds the neoplastic cell-specific T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc. The lectin was structurally characterized: the molecule is a homotetramer and the 142-amino acid sequence of the chains was determined. The protein belongs to the saline-soluble family of mushroom fruiting body-specific lectins. BEL was also crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray diffraction to 1.15 Å resolution. The structure is similar to that of Agaricus bisporus lectin. Using the appropriate co-crystals, the interactions of BEL with specific mono- and disaccharides were also studied by X-ray diffraction. The six structures of carbohydrate complexes reported here provide details of the interactions of the ligands with the lectin and shed light on the selectivity of the two distinct binding sites present in each protomer.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of Boletus edulis polysaccharide on asthma pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songquan; Wang, Guangli; Yang, Ruhui; Cui, Yubao

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease common around the world. The burden of this disease could be reduced with new and effective treatments. Here, the efficacy of a polysaccharide extract from the Boletus edulis (BEP) mushroom, which has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, was tested in a mouse model of asthma. Five groups of BaLB/C mice were developed; one group served as a control and did not have asthma induction. The other four groups of mice were sensitized by ovalbumin challenge. FinePointe™ RC animal airway resistance and pulmonary compliance was used to assess airway function in asthma models. Three of the 4 model groups received treatments: one received pravastatin, one received dexamethasone, and one received BEP. Histopathology of lung tissues was performed using H&E and AB-PAS staining. Levels of cytokines IL-4 and IFN-g were detected using ELISA, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. Cyclophilin A was measured by Western blot, and flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + Treg cells. BEP treatment resulted in improvements in lung pathology, IL-4 level (PBoletus edulis polysaccharide reduces pro-inflammatory responses and increases anti-inflammatory responses in mouse models of asthma, suggesting this may be a novel treatment method.

  8. Pulsed counter-current ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Ji, Chaowen

    2014-01-30

    Four methods for extracting polysaccharides from Boletus edulis, namely, hot-water extraction, ultrasonic clearer extraction, static probe ultrasonic extraction, and pulsed counter-current probe ultrasonic extraction (CCPUE), were studied. Results showed that CCPUE has the highest extraction efficiency among the methods studied. Under optimal CCPUE conditions, a B. edulis polysaccharide (BEP) yield of 8.21% was obtained. Three purified fractions, BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III, were obtained through sequential purification by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The average molecular weights of BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III were 10,278, 23,761, and 42,736 Da, respectively. The polysaccharides were mainly composed of xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose; of these, mannose contents were the highest. The antioxidant activities of the BEPs were further investigated by measurement of their ability to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as their reducing power. The results indicated that the BEPs have good antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and N-terminal sequencing of a novel cadmium-binding protein from Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, C.; Andersen, R. A.; Steinnes, E.

    2003-05-01

    A Cd-binding protein was isolated from the popular edible mushroom Boletus edulis, which is a hyperaccumulator of both Cd and Hg. Wild-growing samples of B. edulis were collected from soils rich in Cd. Cd radiotracer was added to the crude protein preparation obtained from ethanol precipitation of heat-treated cytosol. Proteins were then further separated in two consecutive steps; gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. In both steps the Cd radiotracer profile showed only one distinct peak, which corresponded well with the profiles of endogenous Cd obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Concentrations of the essential elements Cu and Zn were low in the protein fractions high in Cd. N-terminal sequencing performed on the Cd-binding protein fractions revealed a protein with a novel amino acid sequence, which contained aromatic amino acids as well as proline. Both the N-terminal sequencing and spectrofluorimetric analysis with EDTA and ABD-F (4-aminosulfonyl-7-fluoro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazole) failed to detect cysteine in the Cd-binding fractions. These findings conclude that the novel protein does not belong to the metallothionein family. The results suggest a role for the protein in Cd transport and storage, and they are of importance in view of toxicology and food chemistry, but also for environmental protection.

  10. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  11. Calcium modified edible Canna (Canna edulis L) starch for controlled released matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. P.; Ridwan, M.; Darmawan, T. A.; Darusman, F.; Gadri, A.

    2017-07-01

    Canna edulis L starch was modified with calcium chloride in order to form controlled released matrix. Present study aim to analyze modified starch characteristic. Four different formulation of ondansetron granules was used to provide dissolution profile of controlled released, two formula consisted of 15% and 30% modified starch, one formula utilized matrix reference standards and the last granules was negative control. Methocel-hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose was used as controlled released matrix reference standards in the third formula. Calcium starch was synthesized in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form gelatinized mass and calcium chloride as the cross linking agent. Physicochemical and dissolution properties of modified starch for controlled released application were investigated. Modified starch has higher swelling index, water solubility and compressibility index. Three of four different formulation of granules provide dissolution profile of controlled released. The profiles indicate granules which employed calcium Canna edulis L starch as matrix are able to resemble controlled drug released profile of matrix reference, however their bigger detain ability lead to lower bioavailability.

  12. Initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga spectabilis, and Inga edulis in Napo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril Saltos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has been one of the causes of deforestation, causing environmental impact and soil degeneration, which leads to lower income earned by farmers; hence the need to implement agroforestry systems .This research aims to describe fromthe initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga edulis, and Inga spectabilis to 320 days after emergence. The study took place at the Amazon Research and Conservation Center of the Amazonas State University, during 2014 and 2015. The growth process was evaluated in regards to plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and branch length. Plant height and stem diameter were compared over time applying variance analysis. Precipitation was also compared to analyze whether its variations had a direct influence on plant growth. The linear and polynomial models fitted better for thespecies regarding plant height and sprout diameter. Predominance of green leaves compared to yellow and dry ones, as branch length showed significant differences over all the sampling periods. The two-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the correlation between age and precipitation over plant height and stem diameter. The outcomes led to conclude that Eugenia stipitata had a lower growth than both Inga edulis and Inga spectabilis. Branch production and growth and the number of leaves were also important elements of the growth process.

  13. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  14. Morphological beak differences of loliginid squid, Uroteuthis chinensis and Uroteuthis edulis, in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Staples, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    The mitre squid ( Uroteuthis chinensis) and the swordtip squid ( U. edulis) are Indo-Pacific cephalopod species that are abundant in the western Pacific Ocean. They are currently exploited in the East and South China Seas and make up a significant portion of the Chinese neritic squid catch. Beaks, the feeding organs of squid, are important for individual size and biomass estimation because of their high resistance to degradation in predator stomachs and consistent dimensions. In this study, 104 U. chinensis and 143 U. edulis individuals were sampled from northern South China Sea with mantle length from 70 to 260 mm and 96 to 284 mm, respectively. The results indicated that morphological beak values were greater for U. edulis, compared to U. chinensis, for upper hood length (UHL), upper crest length (UCL), upper lateral wall length (ULWL), lower crest length (LCL), and lower lateral wall length (LLWL). According to principal component analysis, UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LCL/ML, LLWL/ML and LWL/ML could represent the characteristics of beaks for U. chinensis, while UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LHL/ML, LCL/ML and LLWL/ML could represent it for U. edulis. According to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) values, a power function was the most suitable model for U. chinensis, while a linear function was the most suitable model for U. edulis. The beak variable-mantle length ratio (beak variable/mantle length) declined with the increasing of mantle length and declined sharply at the early stage of growth in both beaks and species. The ratio changed quickly after achieving the mantle length of 140 mm for U. chinensis, while the ratio changed quickly after 170 mm for U. edulis. Beaks in both species experienced sharper changes through maturity stage I to II than other maturity stages. This study gives us basic beak morphology information for U. chinensis and U. edulis in the East and South China Seas. Geometric morphological methods combined with dietary analysis should be used

  15. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  16. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Moharram, Mohammed A.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.

    2012-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: ► Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. ► Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. ► The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. ► The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  17. Single, binary and multi-component adsorption of some anions and heavy metals on environmentally friendly Carpobrotus edulis plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad; Persin, Michel

    2011-02-01

    A low-cost adsorbent and environmentally friendly adsorbent from Carpobrotus edulis plant was used for the removal of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions from single, binary and multi-component systems. The efficiency of the adsorbent was studied using batch adsorption technique under different experimental conditions by varying parameters such as pH, initial concentration and contact time. In single component systems, the dried C. edulis has the highest affinity for Pb(2+), followed by NO(3)(-), Cd(2+) and H(2)PO(4)(-), with adsorption capacities of 175mg/g, 125mg/g, 28mg/g and 26mg/g, respectively. These results showed that the adsorption of NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Freundlich adsorption model, showed the best fit to the single and binary experimental adsorption data. These results also indicated that the adsorption yield of Pb(2+) ion was reduced by the presence of Cd(2+) ion in binary metal mixture. The competitive adsorption of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions on dried C. edulis plant shows that NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) anions are able to adsorb on different free binding sites and Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) cations are able to adsorb on the same active sites of C. edulis particles. The dried C. edulis was found to be efficient in removing nitrate, phosphate, cadmium and lead from aqueous solution as compared to other adsorbents already used for the removal of these ions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. on the Germination, Establishment and Survival of Native Plants: A Clue for Assessing Its Competitive Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis’ soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L.) growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats. PMID:25210924

  19. Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid - a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Guichard Alves, Helena; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2016-07-13

    Despite the large popularity of the Boletus edulis mushroom, little is known about its influence on human health and the possibilities of its therapeutic use. Nevertheless, several reports revealed the usefulness of biopolymers isolated from it in cancer treatment. Our previous studies have shown that B. edulis water soluble biopolymers are not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoTr) and at the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells (LS180) which was accompanied with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The purpose of the present study was to verify the proapoptotic properties of a selected fraction from B. edulis - BE3, as well as determine its chemical nature. The BE3 fraction was extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Further chemical examinations revealed that BE3 consists mainly of ribonucleic acid (59.1%). The ability of BE3 to induce programmed cell death was examined in human colon cancer cell lines LS180 and HT-29 by measuring caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and expression of BAX, BCL2, TP53 and CDKN1A genes. The sensitivity of colon cancer cells with silenced BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A expression to BE3 treatment was also evaluated. We have demonstrated for the first time that the BE3 fraction is a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon cancer cells. The revealed mechanism of apoptosis triggering was dependent on the presence of functional p53 and consequently was a little different in investigated cell lines. Our results indicated that BE3 stimulated proapoptotic genes BAX (LS180, HT-29), TP53 (LS180) and CDKN1A (HT-29) while at the same time silenced the expression of the key prosurvival gene BCL2 (LS180, HT-29). The obtained results indicate the high therapeutic potential of the BE3 fraction against colon cancer, yet it is necessary to further confirm fraction efficacy and safety in animal and clinical studies.

  20. Expression patterns of Passiflora edulis APETALA1/FRUITFULL homologues shed light onto tendril and corona identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia C. T. Scorza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passiflora (passionflowers makes an excellent model for studying plant evolutionary development. They are mostly perennial climbers that display axillary tendrils, which are believed to be modifications of the inflorescence. Passionflowers are also recognized by their unique flower features, such as the extra whorls of floral organs composed of corona filaments and membranes enclosing the nectary. Although some work on Passiflora organ ontogeny has been done, the developmental identity of both Passiflora tendrils and the corona is still controversial. Here, we combined ultrastructural analysis and expression patterns of the flower meristem and floral organ identity genes of the MADS-box AP1/FUL clade to reveal a possible role for these genes in the generation of evolutionary novelties in Passiflora. Results We followed the development of structures arising from the axillary meristem from juvenile to adult phase in P. edulis. We further assessed the expression pattern of P. edulis AP1/FUL homologues (PeAP1 and PeFUL, by RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization in several tissues, correlating it with the developmental stages of P. edulis. PeAP1 is expressed only in the reproductive stage, and it is highly expressed in tendrils and in flower meristems from the onset of their development. PeAP1 is also expressed in sepals, petals and in corona filaments, suggesting a novel role for PeAP1 in floral organ diversification. PeFUL presented a broad expression pattern in both vegetative and reproductive tissues, and it is also expressed in fruits. Conclusions Our results provide new molecular insights into the morphological diversity in the genus Passiflora. Here, we bring new evidence that tendrils are part of the Passiflora inflorescence. This points to the convergence of similar developmental processes involving the recruitment of genes related to flower identity in the origin of tendrils in different plant families. The data obtained also

  1. The influence of Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Starfish (Asterias rubens) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammershøj, Marianne; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment....... The egg weight was not different from the egg weights of control diets, but the inclusion of 4 g mussel meal resulted in a lower (P colour was lower (P ... 100 g feed can be used in diets as a high quality protein source for egg production. These meals can replace fish meal; however, an inclusion level higher than 8 g/100 g of mussel or starfish meal may result in a fishy smell of the eggs....

  2. Chemical and ancillary data associated with bed sediment, young of year Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) tissue, and mussel (Mytilus edulis and Geukensia demissa) tissue collected after Hurricane Sandy in bays and estuaries of New Jersey and New York, 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Deshpande, Ashok D.; Blazer, Vicki; Galbraith, Heather S.; Dockum, Bruce W.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Colella, Kaitlyn; Deetz, Anna C.; Fisher, Irene J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Sharack, Beth; Summer, Lisa; Timmons, DeMond; Trainor, John J.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Samson, Jennifer; Reilly, Timothy J.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2015-09-09

    This report describes the methods and data associated with a reconnaissance study of young of year bluefish and mussel tissue samples as well as bed sediment collected as bluefish habitat indicators during August 2013–April 2014 in New Jersey and New York following Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. This study was funded by the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (PL 113-2) and was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  3. On some Indo-Pacific boring endolithic Bivalvia species introduced into the Mediterranean Sea with their host – spread of Sphenia rueppelli A. Adams, 1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the endolithic molluscs found on/in living alien Spondylusshells collected in the Gulf of Iskenderun (Turkey brought to light three more alien bivalvia species namely Petricola hemprichi, Gastrochaena cymbium and Sphenia rueppelli. The presence of Sphenia rueppellideserves attention as it constitutes the first record of this species as living in the Mediterranean Sea. The definitive establishment and spreading of these bivalves in the basin seems to be also attested by careful analysis of specimens sampled in other southern Turkish localities and previously retained in local private collections. The present records raise some questions on the vector of arrival of the species in the Mediterranean Sea that could be strictly connected with their hosts.

  4. Data on the uptake and metabolism of testosterone by the common mussel, Mytilus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar I. Schwarz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides data in support of the research article entitled “Rapid uptake, biotransformation, esterification and lack of depuration of testosterone and its metabolites by the common mussel, Mytilus spp.” (T.I. Schwarz, I. Katsiadaki, B.H. Maskrey, A.P. Scott, 2017 [1]. The uptake of tritiated testosterone (T from water by mussels is presented. The two main radioactive peaks formed from T and present in the fatty acid ester fraction of mussel tissues were shown to have the same elution positions on a thin layer chromatography plate as 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one (DHT and 5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol (3β,17β-A5α. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography of the non-esterified (80% ethanol fraction of the mussel tissue extracts also presented radioactive peaks at the elution positions of DHT and 3β,17β-A5α. There was no evidence for sulfated T in this fraction. It was shown that aeration led to significant losses of radiolabeled testosterone from the water column.

  5. Impact of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles on the energy budgets of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erik B.; Hanna, Shannon K.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Miller, Robert J.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper characterizes the sublethal impact of engineered ZnO nanoparticles on the individual performance of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis within the context of Dynamic Energy Budget theory, thereby allowing an integrated evaluation of the impact of multiple stressors on various endpoints. Data include measurements of the impact of ZnO nanoparticles on body burden, feeding, respiration, shell length, biomass, and mortality of mussels kept in laboratory tanks for over 100 days. ZnO nanoparticles in the environment impair the mussels' feeding rate (EC50 for the maximum feeding rate is 1.5 mg ZnO nanoparticles L- 1). Zn accumulated in tissue increases respiration (EC50 for the respiration rate is 0.9 mg environmental ZnO nanoparticles L- 1 with the body burden having reached its ultimate level), indicating that maintenance processes are more affected by ZnO nanoparticles than feeding. The feeding regime constrained growth and biomass production to the extent that the impact of ZnO nanoparticles on these processes was undetectable, yet the remaining measurements allowed the estimation of the toxicity parameters. The toxicity representation, combined with the DEB model, allowed the calculation of the effect of the nanoparticles on the expected lifetime production of reproductive matter. EC50 for the expected lifetime production of reproductive matter is less than 0.25 mg ZnO nanoparticles L- 1, indicating that that the ecological impact of ZnO nanoparticle exposure is stronger than its impact on individual physiological rates.

  6. Some risk factors that affect contamination of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, N.; Velebit, B.; Teodorović, V.; Karabasil, N.; Vasilev, D.; Đorđević, V.; Dimitrijević, M.

    2017-09-01

    Pollution and contamination of the Bay of Kotor ecosystem arise from both anthropogenic sources and natural weathering. In recent decades, a need has arisen for regular control of marine organisms, which are used in human nutrition, because the entire bay is constantly and increasingly exposed to negative anthropogenic impact. Molluscs, including mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), can be involved in foodborne disease. They are filter feeding organisms, able to retain and concentrate in their bodies the bacteria, parasites, viruses and biotoxins of marine algae present in their external environment. A structured field study was undertaken in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro, in order to investigate plausible influence of environmental factors, like rainfall and temperature, on the variability of Escherichia coli and norovirus (NoV). This study focuses on human-derived pathogens that are abundant in sewage-related sources. We proved the negative correlation between outside temperature and the number of E.coli and the presents of Norovirus in Bay of Kotor mussel. We used this data from the sampling site to discuss options to better manage the risk of contamination of shellfish. From the aspect of food safety, an upgrade of monitoring plans in the future could lead to obtaining safer products.

  7. Developmental effects of barium exposure in a marine bivalve (Mytilus californianus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, J.V.; Cherr, G.N.; Univ. of California, Davis, CA

    1996-01-01

    Produced water, an aqueous waste of variable composition associated with petroleum and natural gas extraction, is frequently discharged into the marine environment in significant quantities. Concern and controversy exist regarding potential adverse environmental effects related to such discharges. Previous reports indicated that barium (Ba) and/or strontium (Sr) were primarily responsible for the toxicity of a southern California produced water to developing marine embryos. To further investigate toxicity of Ba and Sr in seawater, mussel embryos (Mytilus californianus) were subjected to static exposures of barium acetate and strontium chloride from fertilization through veliger formation. Only Ba exhibited bioactivity at environmentally relevant levels. Adverse effects occurred between 200 and 900 microg/L (ppb); higher concentrations were associated with decreased toxicity and apparent precipitation of Ba salts from seawater. Nominal Ba exposure concentrations between 100 and 900 microg/L yielded measured concentrations of 100 to 550 microg/L soluble Ba when analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy. Adverse developmental effects included abnormal shell calcification and embryo morphology. Exposure of embryos to Ba in state-specific experiments revealed that developmental stages were differentially affected, though they exhibited similar abnormalities. Gastrulae were the most sensitive, while blastula and trochophore larvae were less so. Adverse effects in embryos exposed during the gastrula stage were not reversible despite washing and return to clean seawater. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that low concentrations of soluble Ba in seawater can be toxic and are of potential concern in the marine environment

  8. A First Insight into the Genome of the Filter-Feeder Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Murgarella

    Full Text Available Mussels belong to the phylum Mollusca, one of the largest and most diverse taxa in the animal kingdom. Despite their importance in aquaculture and in biology in general, genomic resources from mussels are still scarce. To broaden and increase the genomic knowledge in this family, we carried out a whole-genome sequencing study of the cosmopolitan Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis. We sequenced its genome (32X depth of coverage on the Illumina platform using three pair-end libraries with different insert sizes. The large number of contigs obtained pointed out a highly complex genome of 1.6 Gb where repeated elements seem to be widespread (~30% of the genome, a feature that is also shared with other marine molluscs. Notwithstanding the limitations of our genome sequencing, we were able to reconstruct two mitochondrial genomes and predict 10,891 putative genes. A comparative analysis with other molluscs revealed a gene enrichment of gene ontology categories related to multixenobiotic resistance, glutamate biosynthetic process, and the maintenance of ciliary structures.

  9. Uptake and retention of metallic nanoparticles in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Matthew S.; Vikesland, Peter J. [Virginia Tech Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS) (United States); Virginia Tech Center for Sustainable Nanotechnology (VT SuN) (United States); Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT) (United States); Schultz, Irvin R., E-mail: ir_schultz@pnl.gov [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We measured uptake of two types of nanomaterials in a marine mussel. •Uptake from water was rapid and complete in less than 24 h. •Only particles suspended in the water appeared to be absorbed. •Most absorbed nanomaterial was concentrated in the digestive gland. -- Abstract: We measured the uptake, distribution and elimination of two types of metallic nanoparticles (MetNPs) by the aquatic mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in static seawater column exposures. Test MetNPs included polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (PEG-FeOxNP) and PEG-functionalized cadmium-selenide quantum dots (PEG-Qdot). Exposure water was sampled at various times to assess MetNP clearance, and mussels were serially euthanized to assess uptake of MetNPs into the hemolymph, digestive gland, and remaining carcass. Results indicated that >90% of both types of MetNPs were taken up by mussels within 8 h of initial exposure. Nearly the entire retained dose of FeOxNPs and PEG-Qdots was deposited in the digestive gland. Our results provide important insights on the uptake and elimination kinetics of MetNPs in filter-feeding marine bivalves, and will be useful for subsequent development of toxicokinetic models to predict the kinetics of these processes.

  10. Influence of food quality and salinity on dietary cadmium availability in Mytilus trossulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmeyer, Joline R. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)]. E-mail: joline_widmeyer@alumni.sfu.ca; Bendell-Young, Leah I. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2007-02-28

    Surficial sediments (a combination of re-suspended and suspended sediments denoted as RSS) were collected from two distinct marine intertidal habitats. The two habitats differed with respect to salinity (25 ppt versus 15 ppt) and RSS % organic carbon content (24% versus 15%). Feeding experiments were conducted simulating the conditions in the two habitats to determine if salinity and RSS % organic carbon content affected cadmium accumulation in the pacific blue mussel Mytilus trossulus. Eleven different treatments including pure phytoplankton, collected RSS and control clay were radiolabeled with {sup 109}Cd and pulse-fed to M. trossulus under both high (25 ppt) and low salinities (15 ppt). Metal uptake and accumulation was determined using the DYMBAM biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Although M. trossulus ingestion rates (IR) were significantly higher at 25 ppt as compared to 15 ppt, assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and [{sup 109}Cd] tissue levels were significantly lower at high as compared to low salinity exposures. Of the abiotic and biotic parameters examined and in contrast to other studies, differences in salinity rather than ingestion rate or food quality (as defined by % organic carbon content) seemed to best define the observed differences in {sup 109}Cd AE by M. trossulus.

  11. Lysosomal membrane stability of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.), as a biomarker of tributyltin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Hussein K; Snyman, Reinette G; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Adekola, Folahan A; Ximba, Bhekumusa J; Slabber, Michelle Y

    2015-05-01

    The effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the stability of hemocytic lysosome membranes of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the use thereof as a biomarker of TBT-induced stress, was investigated. Mussels were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0 µg/L tributyltin respectively for 4 weeks. Lysosomal membrane stability of hemocytes was tested weekly by means of the neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, after which the mussel samples were analyzed for TBT content. The two exposed groups exhibited significantly increased (p < 0.05) whole body TBT concentrations with concomitant significant decreases (p < 0.05) in NRRT (R(2) values of 0.85 and 0.971 for lower and higher exposure groups, respectively). The higher exposure group showed a typical dose-response curve. For the control, no TBT was detected and NRRT remained stable. It was concluded that the NRRT assay could be considered as a useful technique, and lysosomal membrane destabilization a useful early warning and cellular biomarker of stress due to TBT exposure in M. galloprovincialis.

  12. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195 were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level. Keywords: Hard-shelled mussel, Heavy metal, Transcriptome, Ecotoxicity

  13. Influence of food quality and salinity on dietary cadmium availability in Mytilus trossulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmeyer, Joline R.; Bendell-Young, Leah I.

    2007-01-01

    Surficial sediments (a combination of re-suspended and suspended sediments denoted as RSS) were collected from two distinct marine intertidal habitats. The two habitats differed with respect to salinity (25 ppt versus 15 ppt) and RSS % organic carbon content (24% versus 15%). Feeding experiments were conducted simulating the conditions in the two habitats to determine if salinity and RSS % organic carbon content affected cadmium accumulation in the pacific blue mussel Mytilus trossulus. Eleven different treatments including pure phytoplankton, collected RSS and control clay were radiolabeled with 109 Cd and pulse-fed to M. trossulus under both high (25 ppt) and low salinities (15 ppt). Metal uptake and accumulation was determined using the DYMBAM biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Although M. trossulus ingestion rates (IR) were significantly higher at 25 ppt as compared to 15 ppt, assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and [ 109 Cd] tissue levels were significantly lower at high as compared to low salinity exposures. Of the abiotic and biotic parameters examined and in contrast to other studies, differences in salinity rather than ingestion rate or food quality (as defined by % organic carbon content) seemed to best define the observed differences in 109 Cd AE by M. trossulus

  14. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Lauren; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S. neurona contamination, and (2) S. neurona contamination in mussels would be highest during the rainy season and in mussels collected near freshwater. Initial validation of molecular assays through sporocyst spiking experiments revealed the ITS-1500 assay to be most sensitive for detection of S. neurona, consistently yielding parasite amplification at concentrations ⩾5 sporocysts/1 mL mussel haemolymph. Assays were then applied on 959 wild-caught mussels, with detection of S. neurona confirmed using sequence analysis in three mussels. Validated molecular assays for S. neurona detection in mussels provide a novel toolset for investigating marine contamination with this parasite, while confirmation of S. neurona in wild mussels suggests that uptake by invertebrates may serve as a route of transmission to susceptible marine animals.

  15. Biofouling leads to reduced shell growth and flesh weight in the cultured mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions between cultured mussels and fouling organisms may result in growth and weight reductions in mussels, and compromised aquaculture productivity. Mussel ropes were inoculated with Ciona intestinalis, Ectopleura crocea or Styela clava, and growth parameters of fouled and unfouled Mytilus galloprovincialis were compared after two months. Small mussels (≈ 50 mm) fouled by C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.0 and 3.2% shorter in shell length and had 21 and 13% reduced flesh weight, respectively, compared to the controls. Large mussels (≈ 68 mm) fouled by S. clava, C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.4, 3.9 and 2.1% shorter than control mussels, respectively, but flesh weights were not significantly reduced. A series of competitive feeding experiments indicated that S. clava and C. intestinalis did not reduce mussels' food consumption, but that E. crocea, through interference competition, did. Fouling by these species at the densities used here reduced mussel growth and flesh weight, likely resulting in economic losses for the industry, and requires consideration when developing biofouling mitigation strategies.

  16. Occurrence of Vibrio and Salmonella species in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannas, Hasna; Mimouni, Rachida; Chaouqy, Noureddine; Hamadi, Fatima; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of different Vibrio and Salmonella species in 52 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the Atlantic coast between Agadir and Essaouira (Anza, Cap Ghir, Imssouane and Essaouira). The level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. In this study three methods were used : AFNOR NF EN ISO 6579 V08-013 for Salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely used by several laboratories (Institut Pasteur, Paris,…) for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the seafood, and the most probable number method (MPN) using Norm ISO/TS 16649-3 (2005) for E. coli. The most frequently isolated Vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (90.4% of samples), followed by V. cholerae non O1 non O139 (15.4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (7.7%). Salmonella spp. was found in 15% of the samples. The number of E. coli ranged between 0.2/100 g and 1.8 10(3) /100 g of mussel soft tissues. This study indicates the potential sanitary risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in cultivated mussels in the two populous regions of southern Morocco, where shellfish production and maritime tourism are important to the local economy.

  17. Effects of thermal stress and nickel exposure on biomarkers responses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, Hajer; Kamel, Naouel; Sforzini, Susanna; Dagnino, Alessandro; Jamel, Jebali; Boussetta, Hamadi; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    The present work aimed to assess the Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland biomarkers responses to nickel (Ni) exposure along with a heat stress gradient. Mussels were exposed to a sublethal dose of nickel (13 μM) along with a temperature gradient (18 °C, 20 °C, 22 °C, 24 °C and 26 °C) for 4 days. Metallothionein (MTs) content was assessed as specific response to metals. Catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The cholinergic system was monitored using the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). Moreover, Ni uptakes along with the exposure temperatures were assessed. A correlation matrix (CM) between the investigated biomarkers and the exposure temperatures and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were achieved. Our data showed a negative effect of temperature increase on mussel's antioxidant and detoxification response to Ni exposure being more pronounced in animals exposed to the 24 °C and 26 °C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus coruscus in response to monospecific bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Long; Shen, Pei-Jing; Liang, Xiao; Li, Yi-Feng; Bao, Wei-Yang; Li, Jia-Le

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bacterial biofilms (BFs) on larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel, Mytilus coruscus, were investigated in the laboratory. Of nine different isolates, Shewanella sp.1 BF induced the highest percentage of larval settlement and metamorphosis, whereas seven other isolates had a moderate inducing activity and one isolate, Pseudoalteromonas sp. 4, had a no inducing activity. The inducing activity of individual bacterial isolates was not correlated either with their phylogenetic relationship or with the surfaces from which they were isolated. Among the eight bacterial species that demonstrated inducing activity, bacterial density was significantly correlated with the inducing activity for each strain, with the exception of Vibrio sp. 1. The Shewanella sp. 1 BF cue that was responsible for inducing larval settlement and metamorphosis was further investigated. Treatment of the BFs with formalin, antibiotics, ultraviolet irradiation, heat, and ethanol resulted in a significant decrease in their inducing activities and cell survival. BF-conditioned water (CW) did not induce larval metamorphosis, but it triggered larval settlement behavior. A synergistic effect of CW with formalin-fixed Shewanella sp. 1 BF significantly promoted larval metamorphosis. Thus, a cocktail of chemical cues derived from bacteria may be necessary to stimulate larval settlement and metamorphosis in this species.

  19. A portable infrared photoplethysmograph: heartbeat of Mytilus galloprovincialis analyzed by MRI and application to Bathymodiolus septemdierum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared photoplethysmogram (IR-PPG and magnetic resonance image (MRI of the Mytilus galloprovincialis heart were obtained simultaneously. Heart rate was varied by changing temperature, aerial exposure and hypoxia. Higher heart rates (35-20 beat min−1 were usually observed at 20°C under the aerobic condition, and typical IR-PPG represented a single peak (peak v. The upward and downward slopes of the peak v corresponded to the filling and contracting of the ventricle, respectively. A double-peak IR-PPG was observed in a wide range of heart rates (5 to 35 beats min−1 under various conditions. The initial peak v corresponded to the filling of the ventricle, and the origin of the second peak (v’ varied with the heart rate. A flat IR-PPG with a noise-level represented cardiac arrest. Although large movement of the shells and the foot caused slow waves or a baseline drift of the IR-PPG, the heart rate can be calculated from the v-v interval. Based on these results, we assembled a portable IR-PPG recording system, and measured the heartbeats of Bathymodiolus septemdierum (Mytilidae for 24 h on a research vessel just after sampling from the deep sea, showing that IR-PPG is a noninvasive, economical, robust method that can be used in field experiments.

  20. Quantification of extraradical soil mycelium and ectomycorrhizas of Boletus edulis in a Scots pine forest with variable sporocarp productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, Herminia; Agueda, Beatriz; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The availability of most edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms depends on their natural fructification. Sporocarp formation of these fungi is linked to habitat characteristics and climate conditions, but these data alone do not explain all the trends of fungal fruiting and dynamics. It could be hypothesized that the amount of soil mycelia could also be related to the production of carpophores. Soil samples (five cylinders of 250 cm(3) per plot) were taken monthly, from September to November, in five fenced permanent plots (5 × 5 m) in Pinar Grande (Soria, Spain), a Pinus sylvestris stand situated in the north of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. Plots were chosen to establish a gradient of Boletus edulis productivity from 0 to 38.5 kg/ha year, according to the mean fresh weight of sporocarps collected during the last 10 years. B. edulis ectomycorrhizal root tips were identified in each soil sample according to its morphology and counted. DNA extractions were performed with the PowerSoil(TM) DNA Isolation Kit and quantification of extraradical soil mycelium by real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and a TaqMan® probe. The concentration of soil mycelium of B. edulis (mg mycelium/g soil) did not differ significantly between plots (p = 0.1397), and sampling time (p = 0.7643) within the fructification period. The number of mycorrhizal short roots per soil volume showed significant differences between the plots (p = 0.0050) and the three sampling times (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation between the number of mycorrhizas and the productivity of the plot (kg of B. edulis/ha year) was detected (p = 0.615). A statistically significant positive correlation (p = 0.0481) was detected between the concentration of mycelia of B. edulis in the soil samples and the presence of short roots mycorrhizal with B. edulis in these samples. The productivity of the plots, in terms of sporocarps produced during the last 10 years, was not correlated either with the

  1. ANALISA KARAKTERISTIK MANISAN KERING SALAK(SALACCA EDULIS DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN DAN KONSENTRASI LARUTAN GULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Maulidiah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Snake fruit (Salacca edulis can be made into dried fruit with addition of high concentration of sugar syrup prior to drying. This study aims to determine the effect of the concentration of sugar solution and soaking time on the characteristics of candied snake fruit. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD factorial consisting of two factors: the concentration of sugar solution (40%, 50%, 60% and the soaking time (24 and 48 hours. Each treatment was repeated three times. Data processing on quality of candied snake fruit was done using the General Linear Model (GLM and univariate test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that concentration of sugar solution and soaking time gave significant effect on concentration of reducing sugar. Soaking at 48 hours significantly affectedyield, preferences for taste, texture, and overall preferences of candied snake fruit. Interaction of soaking and the concentration of sugar solution significantly affected moisture content of final product.

  2. [The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms.

  3. Yellow passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa: physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Roberta Malacrida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition -physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and total phenolic compounds -and evaluate the radical-scavenging activity of crude oil extracted from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seeds, aiming to use the agro-industrial by-products. The oil seed extraction was performed by Soxhlet method and the oil yield from the seeds was 30.39%. The oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (87.59%, including mainly linoleic (73.14% and oleic (13.83% acids, tocopherol (499.30 mg/kg and phenolic compounds (1,314.13 mg GAE/kg. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oil showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the potential utilization of the passion fruit seed oil as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries could be favorable.

  4. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci developed for Passiflora edulis Sims. in related Passiflora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Alvarenga Fachardo Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected 41 SSR markers developed for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims. for their transferability to 11 different Passiflora species. Twenty-one SSR were successfully amplified in 10 wild species of passion fruit producing 101 bands. All the markers were amplifiable for at least one species. The mean transferability was 68,8%, ranging from 15,4% (primer PE11 to 100 % (PE13, PE18, PE37, PE41 and PE88. Transferability was higher for the species from the Passiflora subgenus than for those from the Decaloba and Dysosmia subgenus. The results indicated a high level of nucleotide sequence conservation of the primer regions in the species evaluated, and consequently, they could potentially be used for the establishment of molecular strategies for use in passion fruit breeding and genetics.

  5. First report of phytochelatins in a mushroom: induction of phytochelatins by metal exposure in Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, Christian; Pedersen, Sindre A; Andersen, Rolf A; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2007-01-01

    Some species of macromycetes (mushrooms) consistently are found to contain high concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), and consumption of wild-growing mushrooms is acknowledged as a significant source for Cd and Hg in humans. Yet little is known about the speciation of Cd and Hg in mushroom tissues. Here we present the first evidence of peptides of the phytochelatin family being responsible for binding a large fraction of Cd in caps of the macromycete Boletus edulis exposed to excess metals. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg, as well as cytosolic Cd-binding capacity (CCBC), glutathione (GSH) and free proline (Pro) were quantified in fruiting bodies of B. edulis differentially exposed to a wide range of metals. Metal distribution among cytosolic compounds were investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by metal determinations with atomic absorption chromatography (AAS) and HR-ICP-MS. Cd-binding compounds in SEC elutates were investigated further by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). CCBC was >90 times higher in the exposed group relative to the reference group (Mann-Whitney's P < 0.001), whereas concentrations of free Pro were almost identical for the two groups. For the whole study selection, CCBC correlated positively with metal exposure (Spearman's P < 0.001 for all four metals), suggesting dose-dependent induction of Cd-binding compounds by exposure to these metals, possibly as a defense mechanism. The presence of phytochelatins (PCs), a family of cystein-rich oligopeptides, was confirmed in Cd-containing SEC fractions by HPLC-MS. The appearance of more complex PCs was coupled to declining concentrations of GSH. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating the presence of PCs in a macromycete.

  6. (90)Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at <0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Activity concentrations of (90)Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (<1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. - uma Cucurbitaceae pouco conhecida na alimentação humana Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae[ign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gomes Klein

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available São mencionados os diversos usos como alimento dos frutos de Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn., além de sua descrição morfológica e de seus nomes vulgares, objetivando um melhor conhecimento e ou divulgação dessa nova opção entre as fontes já bastantes conhecidas de alimentos.On mention here the food uses of the fruits of "Cyclanthera pedata (L. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. besides the its morphology description and common families having in view the knowing or else the divulgation of new options among the sourrées already wellknown.

  8. Study the possibility of use of extracts of the mushroom Boletus edulis in the production of functional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are rich in proteins. The most rich in proteins is Boletus edulis (white mushroom, and total protein contains all the essential amino acids. The low bioavailability of proteins Boletus edulis stimulates the search for ways to improve. One way to improve the bioavailability of nutrients of Boletus edulis is an extraction. This article presents the results of studies of extracts of white mushroom (Boletus edulis, obtained using different methods of processing the chopped dry fruiting body. The effect of physical and biotechnological parameters on the efficiency of the extraction of proteins was studied. The spectral characteristics and protein content of the obtained extracts were determined. It is shown that the ultrasonic extraction activation leads to the most efficient protein extraction(an increase of 9.5%. It is also significantly affected by the duration of extraction. The use of the enzyme preparation in the investigated ratios do not have a positive impact, however, enzymatic treatment in conjunction with ultrasound treatment increased the efficiency of 13.5%, showing the complex diffusion processes in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms. Increasing the length of the extraction, despite the high content of protein in the extract, is impractical because of the risk of bacterial contamination of high-nutritive extract. Increasing the temperature of the process has no significant effect on the protein content, but it reduces the value of the extract, due to the destruction of heat-labile components, which include vitamins and secondary metabolites. The extract application rate for curd product was determined. For the test samples organoleptic characteristics and titratable acidity were determined. The most appropriate dose of the extract in the manufacture of making curd product is 15% by weight of the finished product.

  9. Studies on the Paint Forming Properties of Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes Edulis) Seed Oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Otaigbe, J.O.E; Oriji, O.G; Ekerenam, G.E

    2016-01-01

    Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) seed oils were investigated for their suitability as base materials for oil paint production. Soxhlet extraction of the oils from the powdered seeds using n-hexane gave 3.63% and 10.40% yields for Avocado and African Pear respectively. Proximate analysis and chemical characterization of the seed oils were carried out using standard procedures according to the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS) and the American Society for Testing ...

  10. Effects if 60Co γ rays radiation on seed vigor and young seedling growth of phyllostachys edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chunju; Gao Jian; Mu Shaohua

    2007-01-01

    The dry seeds of Phyllostachys edulis were irradiated by different doses of 60 Co γ rays, the effects of the radiation on seed vigor and seedling growth characters were investigated by four testing methods, i.e. germination testing indoor, electrical conductivity, TTC vigor testing and growth classification of saddling. Results showed that the germination process and germination rate could be accelerated by doses of 60 Co γ rays (≤100 Gy), and higher doses of 60 Co γ rays (>100 Gy) could obviously inhibit the germination process and reduce seed vigor, while induce seed embryo broken, cell division, growth restrained, the height of young seedling and length of root decreasing. The inhibition effects were significantly increased with radiation dose increase. The optimal range of radiation dose for radiation breeding of Phyllostachys edulis dry seeds was 100 to 175 Gy. Linear relationships were existed in electrical conductivity after dipping in water for 24h in germination rate (G), germination index (GI), vigor index (VI), height of seedlings and length of root. EC after 24h and height of seedlings were chosen to test the change of seeds vigor and the effect of the radiation of 60 Co γ rays on Phyllostachys edulis. (authors)

  11. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Peñas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  12. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  13. Proteomic and metabolomic responses in hepatopancreas of Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged by Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifeng; Ji, Chenglong; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin; Lu, Hongjian

    2013-12-06

    The outbreak of pathogens can induce diseases and lead to massive mortalities of aquaculture animals including fish, mollusk and shrimp. In this work, the responses induced by Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio anguillarum were investigated in hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomics and metabolomics. Metabolic biomarkers demonstrated that M. luteus and V. anguillarum injections could induce osmotic stress and disturbance in energy metabolism. And the uniquely and more markedly altered metabolic biomarkers (glutamine, succinate, aspartate, glucose, ATP, homarine and tyrosine) indicated that V. anguillarum could cause more severe disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism. The differentially altered proteins meant that M. luteus and V. anguillarum induced different effects in mussels. However, the common proteomic biomarkers, arginine kinase and small heat shock protein, demonstrated that these two bacteria induced similar effects including oxidative stress and disturbance in energy metabolism in M. galloprovincialis. In addition, some metabolic biomarkers, ATP and glutamine, were confirmed by related proteins including arginine kinase, ATP synthase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase and glutamine synthetase in bacteria-challenged mussels. This study demonstrated that proteomics and metabolomics could provide an insightful view into the effects of environmental pathogens to the marine mussel M. galloprovincialis. The outbreak of pathogens can lead to diseases and massive mortalities of aquaculture animals including fish, mollusk and shrimp. The mussel M. galloprovincialis distributes widely along the Bohai coast and is popularly consumed as delicious seafood by local residents. This bivalve has become one of the important species in marine aquaculture industry in China. Therefore a study on pathogen-induced effects is necessary. In the present study, an integrated metabolomic and proteomic approach was used to elucidate the

  14. New insights into the apoptotic process in mollusks: characterization of caspase genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an essential biological process in the development and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Caspase proteins constitute the core of the apoptotic machinery and can be categorized as either initiators or effectors of apoptosis. Although the genes encoding caspase proteins have been described in vertebrates and in almost all invertebrate phyla, there are few reports describing the initiator and executioner caspases or the modulation of their expression by different stimuli in different apoptotic pathways in bivalves. In the present work, we characterized two initiator and four executioner caspases in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Both initiators and executioners showed structural features that make them different from other caspase proteins already described. Evaluation of the genes' tissue expression patterns revealed extremely high expression levels within the gland and gills, where the apoptotic process is highly active due to the clearance of damaged cells. Hemocytes also showed high expression values, probably due to of the role of apoptosis in the defense against pathogens. To understand the mechanisms of caspase gene regulation, hemocytes were treated with UV-light, environmental pollutants and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and apoptosis was evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry and qPCR techniques. Our results suggest that the apoptotic process could be tightly regulated in bivalve mollusks by overexpression/suppression of caspase genes; additionally, there is evidence of caspase-specific responses to pathogens and pollutants. The apoptotic process in mollusks has a similar complexity to that of vertebrates, but presents unique features that may be related to recurrent exposure to environmental changes, pollutants and pathogens imposed by their sedentary nature.

  15. Vibrio cholerae interactions with Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes mediated by serum components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eCanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible bivalves (e.g., mussels, oysters can accumulate large amount of bacteria in their tissues and act as passive carriers of pathogens to humans. Bacterial persistence inside bivalves depends, at least in part, on hemolymph anti-bacterial activity that is exerted by both serum soluble factors and phagocytic cells (i.e., the hemocytes. It was previously shown that Mytilus galloprovincialis hemolymph serum contains opsonins that mediate D-mannose-sensitive interactions between hemocytes and V. cholerae O1 El Tor bacteria that carry the Mannose–Sensitive Hemagglutinin (MSHA. These opsonins enhance phagocytosis and killing of vibrios by facilitating their binding to hemocytes. Since V. cholerae strains not carrying the MSHA ligand (O1 classical, non O1/O139 are present in coastal water and can be entrapped by mussels, we studied whether in mussel serum, in addition to opsonins directed towards MSHA, other components can mediate opsonization of these bacteria. By comparing interactions of O1 classical and non O1/O139 strains with hemocytes in ASW and serum, it was found that M. galloprovincialis serum contains components that increase by at approximately two fold their adhesion to, association with and killing by hemocytes. Experiments conducted with high and low molecular mass fractions obtained by serum ultrafiltration indicated that these compounds have molecular mass higher than 5000 Da. Serum exposure to high temperature (80°C abolished its opsonizing capability suggesting that the involved serum active components are of protein nature. Further studies are needed to define the chemical properties and specificity of both the involved bacterial ligands and hemolymph opsonins. This information will be central not only to better understand V. cholerae ecology, but also to improve current bivalve depuration practices and properly protect human health.

  16. Toxicity assessment and comparison between two types of iron oxide nanoparticles in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taze, Chrysa; Panetas, Ioannis [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogiannis, Stavros [Alexander Technological Educational Institution of Thessaloniki, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Feidantsis, Konstantinos [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Gallios, George P. [Laboratory of General & Inorganic Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kastrinaki, Georgia [Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 60361, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G. [Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 60361, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, PO. Box 1517, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Václavíková, Miroslava; Ivanicova, Lucia [Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 45, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Kaloyianni, Martha, E-mail: kaloyian@bio.auth.gr [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The impact of two types of iron oxide nanoparticles on the physiological status of mussels was studied. • Oxidative parameters significantly changed after 1, 3, 7 days of exposure. • The nanoparticles induced oxidative stress to the animals. • All the parameters measured could be applied in biomonitoring studies. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their increased application and production, are being released into the environment with unpredictable impact on the physiology of marine organisms, as well as on entire ecosystems and upcoming effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the oxidative responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to iron oxide NPs and to iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite for 1, 3 and 7 days. Our results showed that both effectors induced changes on animal physiology by causing oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels compared to control animals. This was shown by the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and DNA damage. In addition an increase in prooxidant levels as measured by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay was observed in exposed mussels’ hemolymph. The results show that ROS, DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and PAB could constitute, after further investigation, reliable biomarkers for the evaluation of pollution or other environmental stressors. In addition, more studies are needed in order to ensure the safety of these NPs on various biomedical applications, since it is critical to design NPs that they meet the demands of application without causing cellular toxicity.

  17. Impact of ocean acidification and warming on the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eGazeau

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, specimens were reared in aquarium tanks and exposed to elevated conditions of temperature (+3 °C and acidity (-0.3 pH units for a period of 10 months. The whole system comprised a factorial experimental design with 4 treatments (3 aquaria per treatment: control, lowered pH, elevated temperature and lowered pH/elevated temperature. Mortality was estimated on a weekly basis and every 2 months, various biometrical parameters and physiological processes were measured: somatic and shell growth, metabolic rates and body fluid acid-base parameters. Mussels were highly sensitive to warming, with 100 % mortality observed under elevated temperature at the end of our experiment in October. Mortality rates increased drastically in summer, when water temperature exceeded 25 °C. In contrast, our results suggest that survival of this species will not be affected by a pH decrease of ~0.3 in the Mediterranean Sea. Somatic and shell growth did not appear very sensitive to ocean acidification and warming during most of the experiment, but were reduced, after summer, in the lowered pH treatment. This was consistent with measured shell net dissolution and observed loss of periostracum, as well as uncompensated extracellular acidosis in the lowered pH treatment indicating a progressive insufficiency in acid-base regulation capacity. However, based on the present dataset, we cannot elucidate if these decreases in growth and regulation capacities after summer are a consequence of lower pH levels during that period or a consequence of a combined effect of acidification and warming. To summarize, while ocean acidification will potentially contribute to lower growth rates, especially in summer when mussels are exposed to sub-optimal conditions, ocean warming will likely pose more serious threats to Mediterranean mussels in this region in the coming

  18. Transcriptional response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam. following exposure to heat stress and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Negri

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.. Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C. In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and "microtubule-based movement" proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change.

  19. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Banni

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC at 1 and 100 μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS, a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat and glutathione-S-transferase (gst and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27 were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA. CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters.

  20. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Torre, Camilla; Balbi, Teresa; Grassi, Giacomo; Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Smerilli, Arianna; Guidi, Patrizia; Canesi, Laura; Nigro, Marco; Monaci, Fabrizio; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rocco, Lucia; Focardi, Silvano; Monopoli, Marco; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO 2 modulate CdCl 2 cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced CdCl 2 -induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl 2 was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO 2 , CdCl 2 , alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO 2 alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO 2 reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO 2 and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO 2 in sea water media

  1. Systematic Radioactivity Monitoring of Adriatic Coastal Waters Using Mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) as a Bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Rogic, M.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Benedik, Lj.; Strok, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW) is a project for radioactivity monitoring of Mediterranean coastal waters using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bioindicator. Mussels are sessile marine organisms able to filter up to 80 L of sea water daily. Possibility of absorption and accumulation of dissolved/particulate matter from sea water makes them a good bioindicator for environmental pollution studies. Laboratory for Radioecelogy systematically monitores Adriatic coastal waters as a part of MMW project, which includes determination of 7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra,238U and 137Cs, as well as highly radiotoxic naturally occuring radionuclides 210Po and 210Pb. The mussels were collected in spring and autumn periods of 2010 and 2011 at 13 stations including areas under significant fresh water discharges (Rasa, Zrnovnica, Neretva and Ombla Rivers) or areas under potential antropogenic influence (Kastela Bay). After sample preparation 7Be, 40K, 232Th, 226Ra, 238U and 137Cs were determined gamma-spectrometrically, while 210Po and 210Pb were separated on Sr resin. 210Po was determined on an alpha spectrometer after self-deposition on Ag disc, while 210Pb was determined via 210Bi on a gas proportional counter after PbSO 4 precipitation. 7Be, 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations were higher in spring than in autumn periods for all locations, with the highest activities in the areas under heavy fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of 40K were practically the same at all locations with no seasonal changes, while 137Cs activities varied significantly. Activities of 232Th, 238U and 226Ra were mostly below the detection limit of gamma-spectrometric measurements.(author)

  2. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Mohamed; Sforzini, Susanna; Franzellitti, Silvia; Oliveri, Caterina; Viarengo, Aldo; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluatedthe interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C) and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) at 1 and 100μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst)) and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27) were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA). CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters. PMID:26067465

  3. Biochemical impacts of Hg in Mytilus galloprovincialis under present and predicted warming scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Francesca; Almeida, Ângela; Henriques, Bruno; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Pereira, Eduarda; Freitas, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    The interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological and biochemical functioning of marine organisms is increasing, but the indirect and interactive effects resulting from warming on bioconcentration and responsiveness to pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular responses. The present study investigated the impacts of Hg in Mytilus galloprovincialis under control (17°C) and warming (21°C) conditions, assessing mussels Hg bioconcentration capacity, metabolic and oxidative status after 14 and 28days of exposure. Results obtained showed greater impacts in mussels exposed for 28days in comparison to 14days of exposure. Furthermore, our findings revealed that the increase in temperature from 17 to 21°C reduced the bioconcentration of Hg by M. galloprovincialis, which may explain higher mortality rates at 17°C in comparison to 21°C. Lower Hg concentration at 21°C in mussels tissue may result from valves closure for longer periods, identified by reduced energy reserves consumption at higher temperature, which in turn might also contributed to higher oxidative stress in organisms exposed to this condition. The highest LPO levels observed in mussels exposed to higher temperatures alone indicate that warming conditions will greatly affect M. galloprovincialis. Furthermore, the present study showed that the impacts induced by the combination of Hg and warming were similar to the ones caused by increased temperature acting alone, mainly due to increased antioxidant defenses in organisms under combined effects of Hg and warming, suggesting that warming was the factor that mostly contributed to oxidative stress in mussels. Although higher mortality was observed in individuals exposed to 17°C and Hg compared to organisms exposed to Hg at 21°C, the oxidative stress induced at higher temperature may generate negative consequences on mussels reproductive and feeding capacity, growth and, consequently, on population

  4. Molecular characterisation of noroviruses detected in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from harvesting areas in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henigman, Urška; Biasizzo, Majda; Vadnjal, Stanka; Toplak, Ivan; Gombač, Mitja; Steyer, Andrej; Poljšak Prijatelj, Mateja; Ambrožič, Mateja; Fonda, Irena; Kirbiš, Andrej; Barlič-Maganja, Darja

    2015-04-01

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and are responsible for many outbreaks worldwide. Mussels are one of the most important foodstuffs connected with norovirus outbreaks, also resulting in multinational dimensions. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were collected in periods between the years 2006-2008 and 2010-2012 to study the prevalence of noroviruses (NoVs) from harvesting areas along the Adriatic coast of Slovenia. Between 2006 and 2008, 9.1% to 24.6% of mussel samples tested by specific GI and/or GII real-time RT-PCR methods were found to be positive for NoVs while between 2010 and 2012 the percentage of NoV positive samples varied from 12.5% to 22.2%. At the nucleotide level within the RdRp gene fragment the genetic diversity of NoVs detected in mussels ranged between 78.8-81.0% nucleotide identity among GII strains (92.1-99.6% within the GII.P4 genotype), 100% nucleotide identity among GI and 58.4-60.2% among GI and GII strains. Nine of the NoV strains detected from mussels were genotyped as GII.4, while two samples were within GI.P2 and one was a positive sample within genotype GII.P21. This study confirmed that mussels are a potential source of the NoV infection. The detected NoVs share the same topology on the phylogenetic tree within the NoV strains detected in water samples and human patients, not only from Slovenia but also from many different countries worldwide. We can assume that mussels in harvesting areas are not only contaminated from the surrounding area but also by contaminated water and sewage from large transport ships, which are regularly present in the area.

  5. Toxicity assessment and comparison between two types of iron oxide nanoparticles in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taze, Chrysa; Panetas, Ioannis; Kalogiannis, Stavros; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Gallios, George P.; Kastrinaki, Georgia; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G.; Václavíková, Miroslava; Ivanicova, Lucia; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of two types of iron oxide nanoparticles on the physiological status of mussels was studied. • Oxidative parameters significantly changed after 1, 3, 7 days of exposure. • The nanoparticles induced oxidative stress to the animals. • All the parameters measured could be applied in biomonitoring studies. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their increased application and production, are being released into the environment with unpredictable impact on the physiology of marine organisms, as well as on entire ecosystems and upcoming effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the oxidative responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to iron oxide NPs and to iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite for 1, 3 and 7 days. Our results showed that both effectors induced changes on animal physiology by causing oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels compared to control animals. This was shown by the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and DNA damage. In addition an increase in prooxidant levels as measured by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay was observed in exposed mussels’ hemolymph. The results show that ROS, DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and PAB could constitute, after further investigation, reliable biomarkers for the evaluation of pollution or other environmental stressors. In addition, more studies are needed in order to ensure the safety of these NPs on various biomedical applications, since it is critical to design NPs that they meet the demands of application without causing cellular toxicity.

  6. A novel toll-like receptor from Mytilus coruscus is induced in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengshan; Wu, Jiong; Ge, Delong; Wu, Changwen; Changfeng Chi; Lv, Zhenming; Liao, Zhi; Liu, Huihui

    2018-07-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) is considered to be an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein which promotes the Toll signal pathway to active the expression of transcription factors in the innate immunity of the organism. In this study, a full length of TLR homologue of 2525bp in Mytilus coruscus (named as McTLR-a, GenBank accession no: KY940571) was characterized. Its ORF was 1815 bp with a 5'untranslated region (UTR) of 128 bp and a 3'UTR of 582 bp, encoding 602 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 70.870 kDa (pI = 6.10). BLASTn analysis and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested that this cDNA sequence was a member of TLR family. Quantitative real time RT-PCR showed that constitutive expression of McTLR-a was occurred, with increasing order in hemocyte, gonad, mantle, adducter, gill and hepatopancreas. Bacterial infection and heavy metals stimulation up-regulated the expression of McTLR-a mRNA in hepatopancreas with time-dependent manners. The maximum expression appeared at 12 h after pathogenic bacteria injection, with approximately 22-fold in Aeromonas hydrophila and 17-fold in Vibrio parahemolyticus higher than that of the blank group. In heavy metals stress group, they all reached peaks at 3d, while the diverse concentration caused the maximum expression were different. The highest expression reached approximately 7-fold higher than the blank in low concentration of Pb 2+ exposure. In Cu 2+ treated group, it reached the peak (approximately 12-fold higher than the blank)in middle concentration. These results indicated that McTLR-a might be involved in the defense response and had a significant role in mediating the environmental stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal variability of free amino acids in two marine bivalves, Macoma balthica and Mytilus spp., in relation to environmental and physiological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kube, S.; Sokolowski, A.; Jansen, J.M.; Schiedek, D.

    2007-01-01

    The seasonal variability of the intracellular free amino acid (FAA) concentration was studied in 5 Macoma balthica populations and 7 Mytilus spp. populations along their European distribution. Because of the well known physiological role of FAA as organic osmolytes for salinity induced cell volume

  9. Variabilidade genética de acessos silvestres e comerciais de Passiflora edulis Sims. com base em marcadores RAPD Genetic variability of wild and commercial passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. accessions using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Bellon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available No Cerrado brasileiro, há uma grande diversidade de cores, tamanhos e aromas de frutos em acessos silvestres de P. edulis. Estes acessos também são importantes fontes de resistência a doenças, podendo ser incorporados em programas de melhoramento genético do maracujazeiro azedo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estimar a variabilidade genética existente em acessos silvestres e comerciais de P. edulis utilizando-se de marcadores RAPD. O DNA genômico de cada acesso foi extraído e amplificado com treze iniciadores decâmeros (OPD-04, OPD-07, OPD-08, OPD-16, OPE-18, OPE-20, OPF-01, OPF-14, OPG-05, OPG-08, OPH-04, OPH-12 e OPH-16 para a obtenção dos marcadores RAPD. Os marcadores obtidos foram convertidos em uma matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Um total de 187 marcadores foi gerado, sendo que apenas 28 (14,97% deles foram monomórficos. As distâncias genéticas entre os 15 acessos de maracujazeiro variaram de 0,091 a 0,496. Os marcadores moleculares demonstraram a alta variabilidade genética dos acessos de P. edulis, sendo que os acessos de frutos amarelos apresentaram maior distanciamento em relação aos de frutos roxos. Menores distâncias genéticas foram verificadas entre os acessos de mesma origem geográfica.There are a great diversity of colors, sizes and aromas of fruits in wild accessions of P. edulis in Brazilian Savannah. These accessions are also important resistance sources against illness which can be incorpored in passionfruit breeding programs. In this work, the objetive was to evaluate the genetic variability in wild and commercial P. edulis accessions using RAPD markers. The genomic DNA of each accession was extracted and amplified using thirteen decamer primers (OPD-04, OPD-07, OPD-08, OPD-16, OPE-18, OPE-20, OPF-01, OPF-14, OPG-05, OPG-08, OPH-04, OPH-12 and OPH-16 to obtain RAPD markers

  10. POTENSI BUAH SALAK (Salacca edulis, R. SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN HIPOLIPIDEMIK DITINJAU DARI GAMBARAN HISTOPATOLOGI JANTUNG DAN HEPAR MENCIT YANG DIBERI DIET RENDAH LEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hardjana

    2016-10-01

      This study aims to study the structure of the heart histopathologic and the liver of white rat given the Salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet. This research used experimental research with the aim to measure the response of an object that appears as a result of the change in a factor that is about it. Place of research did in animal house of Yogyakarta State University and observation of preparations did in the laboratory of biological, faculty of mathematics and natural science, at Yogyakarta State University during the months of June to October 2015. Independent study variables such as salacca edulis, R extract, while the dependent variable is the description of liver histopathology includes damaged cells and fat cell infiltration, while the heart includes endothelial damage and infiltration of fat cells. Data were analyzed descriptively to present the frequency distribution, Linkages between these variables are presented in table format and analyzed with cross descriptive statistics. The results are (1 the structure of the heart histopathologic white rat given salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet have endotel defect and fat infiltration less than structure of the heart histopahologic white rat given animal fat diet. (2 the structure of the liver histopathologic white rat given salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet have endotel defect and fat infiltration more  than structure of the heart histopahologic white rat given animal fat diet. Keywords: Salacca edulis, R, fat, histopathology, liver, heart

  11. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of stem barks of Coula edulis Baill. Pseudospondias longifolia Engl. and Carapa klaineana Pierre. from Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sima Obiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts of Coula edulis (C. edulis, Pseudospondia longifolia (P. longifolia and Carapa klaineana (C. klaineana. Methods: Presence of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins was evaluated to estimate the effects of plants on microbial diseases. Water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts were examined for antioxidant activities. All plant extracts were evaluated against six reference strains, eleven clinical isolates and two fungal strains. Results: The contents of total phenols [(12 857.56 ± 1.00 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g], flavonoids [(1 634.13 ± 1.88 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g], tannins [(2 672.00 ± 1.59 mg tannic acid equivalent/100 g] and proanthocyanidins [(395.11 ± 0.83 mg apple procyanidin equivalent/100 g] were highest in the water-acetone and water-ethanol extracts from C. edulis in comparison with P. longifolia and C. klaineana. The water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts from C. edulis presented the highest antimicrobial activities against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103907, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp. The tested microorganisms showed sensitivity to all extracts of P. longifolia and C. klaineana with the exception of Shigella dysenteriae CIP 5451, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Conclusions: Our results suggest that C. edulis extracts contain greater antioxidant and antimicrobial properties than P. longifolia and C. klaineana extracts.

  12. A novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of CAT from Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Miaomiao; Huo, Liping; Wu, Jiong; Ge, Delong; Lv, Zhenming; Chi, Changfeng; Liao, Zhi; Liu, Huihui

    2018-02-01

    Bivalves use anti-oxidative enzyme systems to defend themselves against excessive reactive oxygen species, which are often catalyzed by environmental pollution. As a key member of anti-oxidative enzyme family, catalase plays a crucial role in scavenging the high level of reactive oxygen species to protect organisms against various oxidative stresses. In this study, a catalase homologue was identified from Mytilus coruscus (named McCAT, KX957929). The open reading frame of McCAT was 1844bp with a 5' untranslated region of 341bp and a 3' untranslated region of 927bp. The deduced amino acid sequence was 512 residues in length with theoretical pI/MW 8.02/57.91kDa. BLASTn and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggested that it was a member of catalase, also known as CAT family for its conserved catalytic site motif and proximal heme-ligand signature motif. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that constitutive expression of McCAT was occurred, with increasing order in mantle, adductor, gill, hemocyte, gonad and hepatopancreas. It was observed that bacterial infection and heavy metals stimulation up-regulated McCAT mRNA expression in hepatopancreas with time-dependent manners. The maximum expression appeared at 8h after pathogenic bacteria injecting, with 15-fold in Vibrio parahemolyticus and 60-fold in Aeromonas hydrophila than that of 0h. The highest point of McCAT mRNA appeared at different times for exposure to heavy metals with copper at day 5 (0.1mg/L 30-fold, 0.5mg/L 15-fold, 1.5mg/L 6-fold) and plumbum at day 3 (3.0mg/L 20-fold). The enzymatic activity analysis found that McCAT activity in the gill of M. coruscus was affected by heavy metals concentration. The results suggested that McCAT plays a significant role in antioxidation and the expression of McCAT can be used as a biomarker for detection of marine environmental pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  14. Differential protein expression in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to nano and ionic Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina G.; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Different protein expression profiles between tissues and Ag forms. •Ag NPs and Ag + presented different mechanisms of toxic action. •Ag NPs toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress-induced cell signalling cascades. •New biomarkers for Ag NPs were proposed, i.e. MVP, ras partial and precol-P. -- Abstract: Ag NPs are one of the most commonly used NPs in nanotechnology whose environmental impacts are to date unknown and the information about bioavailability, mechanisms of biological uptake and toxic implications in organisms is scarce. So, the main objective of this study was to investigate differences in protein expression profiles in gills and digestive gland of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Ag NPs and Ag + (10 μg L −1 ) for a period of 15 days. Protein expression profiles of exposed gills and digestive glands were compared to those of control mussels using two–dimensional electrophoresis to discriminate differentially expressed proteins. Different patterns of protein expression were obtained for exposed mussels, dependent not only on the different redox requirements of each tissue but also to the Ag form used. Unique sets of differentially expressed proteins were affected by each silver form in addition to proteins that were affected by both Ag NPs and Ag + . Fifteen of these proteins were subsequently identified by MALDI–TOF–TOF and database search. Ag NPs affected similar cellular pathways as Ag + , with common response mechanisms in cytoskeleton and cell structure (catchin, myosin heavy chain), stress response (heat shock protein 70), oxidative stress (glutathione s-transferase), transcriptional regulation (nuclear receptor subfamily 1G), adhesion and mobility (precollagen-P) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2). Exposure to Ag NPs altered the expression of two proteins associated with stress response (major vault protein and ras partial) and one protein involved in

  15. Purification and characterisation of ferritin from the Baltic blue mussel Mytilus trossulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrykus Joanna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic blue mussels Mytilus trossulus were collected from the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea in order to isolate ferritin from its soft tissues, as well as to purify and characterise this protein.     Proteins were isolated from the inner organs of M. trossulus (hepatopancreas, gills and soft tissue residue by thermal denaturation(70°C and acidification (pH 4.5 of the homogenates, followed by ammonium sulphate ((NH42SO4 fractionation.The ferritin was then separated by ultracentrifugation (100 000 × g, 120 min.. The protein content in thepurified homogenates was determined by the Lowry method using bovine serum albumin(BSA and horse spleen ferritin (HSF as standards. PAGE-SDS and Western blotting analysis permitted identification of ferritinin the purified preparations. Additionally, the purified homogenates and mussel soft tissue were analysed for their heavy metal contents(especially cadmium and iron in a Video 11 E atomic absorption spectrophotometer, following wet digestion of the samples (HNO3/HClO4.     The electrophoregrams showed that the inner organs of M. trossulus contained ferritin, which, like plant ferritin, is characterised by thepresence of subunits in the electrophoregram in the 26.6-28.0 kDa range. The highest ferritin content was recorded in the hepatopancreas,followed by the gills and the soft tissue residue. With regard to the sampling stations, the highest content of ferritin wasnoted in the animals sampled off Sopot (station D3, and in those collected by a diver off Jastarnia (W1 and Gdynia (W4. Ferritinisolated from the inner organs of mussels collected from these stations also contained the largest quantities of heavy metals(Cd and Fe. Ferritin isolated from the inner organs of mussels collected by a diver from wrecks - sites where the concentrationsof iron and other trace metals in the sea water are high - contained higher quantities of heavy metals (Cd and Fe than the ferritinisolated from the inner organs

  16. Does pre-exposure to warming conditions increase Mytilus galloprovincialis tolerance to Hg contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Coppola, Francesca; Henriques, Bruno; Wrona, Fredrick; Figueira, Etelvina; Pereira, Eduarda; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which marine invertebrate populations can tolerate extreme weather events, such as short-term exposure to high temperatures, and the underlying biochemical response mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, scarce information is available on how marine organisms respond to the presence of pollutants after exposure to heat stress conditions. Therefore, the present study aimed to understand how the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis responds to Hg pollution after pre-exposure to warming conditions. Mussels were exposed to control (17°C) and warming (21°C) conditions during 14days, followed by Hg contamination during 28days under different temperature regimes (17 and 21°C). The results obtained demonstrated significantly higher Hg concentrations in mussels under 17°C during the entire experiment than in organisms exposed to 21°C during the same period, which resulted in higher oxidative stress in mussels under control temperature. Significantly higher Hg concentrations were also observed in mussels pre-exposed to 21°C followed by a 17°C exposure comparing with organisms maintained the entire experiment at 21°C. These results may be explained by higher metabolic capacity in organisms exposed to 17°C after pre-exposure to 21°C that although induced antioxidant defences were not enough to prevent oxidative stress. No significant differences in terms of Hg concentration were found between mussels exposed to 17°C during the entire experiment and organisms pre-exposed to 21°C followed by a 17°C exposure, leading to similar oxidative stress levels in mussels exposed to both conditions. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that pre-exposure to warming conditions did not change mussels' accumulation and tolerance to Hg in comparison to Hg contaminated mussels maintained at control temperature. Furthermore, the present study indicate that organisms maintained under warming conditions for long periods may prevent the accumulation of

  17. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Camilla [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Balbi, Teresa [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Grassi, Giacomo [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Smerilli, Arianna [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Guidi, Patrizia [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Canesi, Laura [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Nigro, Marco [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Monaci, Fabrizio [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Scarcelli, Vittoria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Rocco, Lucia [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Focardi, Silvano [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Monopoli, Marco [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Corsi, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.corsi@unisi.it [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} modulate CdCl{sub 2} cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced CdCl{sub 2}-induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO{sub 2} alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO{sub 2} and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO{sub 2} in sea water media.

  18. Tissue specific responses to cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Tânia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Mestre, Nélia C.; Cardoso, Cátia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Mussel gills are the main target for oxidative stress induced by Cd-based QDs. • Antioxidants responses induced by Cd-based QDs and dissolved Cd are mediated by different mechanisms. • CdTe QDs are more pro-oxidant Cd form when compared to dissolved Cd. • Differential tissue response indicated nano-specific effects. - Abstract: In recent years, Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) have generated interest from the life sciences community due to their potential applications in nanomedicine, biology and electronics. However, these engineered nanomaterials can be released into the marine environment, where their environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigated the tissue-specific responses related to alterations in the antioxidant defense system induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, using the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd for 14 days at 10 μgCd L{sup −1} and biomarkers of oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (total, Se-independent and Se-dependent GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities] were analyzed along with Cd accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of mussels. Results show that both Cd forms changed mussels’ antioxidant responses with distinct modes of action (MoA). There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the biochemical responses to each Cd form, wherein QDs are more pro-oxidant when compared to dissolved Cd. The gills are the main tissue affected by QDs, with effects related to the increase of SOD, GST and GPx activities, while those of dissolved Cd was associated to the increase of CAT activity, Cd accumulation and exposure time. Digestive gland is a main tissue for accumulation of both Cd forms, but changes in antioxidant enzyme activities are smaller than in gills. A multivariate analysis revealed that the antioxidant patterns are tissue dependent

  19. Differential protein expression in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to nano and ionic Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina G.; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Different protein expression profiles between tissues and Ag forms. •Ag NPs and Ag{sup +} presented different mechanisms of toxic action. •Ag NPs toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress-induced cell signalling cascades. •New biomarkers for Ag NPs were proposed, i.e. MVP, ras partial and precol-P. -- Abstract: Ag NPs are one of the most commonly used NPs in nanotechnology whose environmental impacts are to date unknown and the information about bioavailability, mechanisms of biological uptake and toxic implications in organisms is scarce. So, the main objective of this study was to investigate differences in protein expression profiles in gills and digestive gland of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Ag NPs and Ag{sup +} (10 μg L{sup −1}) for a period of 15 days. Protein expression profiles of exposed gills and digestive glands were compared to those of control mussels using two–dimensional electrophoresis to discriminate differentially expressed proteins. Different patterns of protein expression were obtained for exposed mussels, dependent not only on the different redox requirements of each tissue but also to the Ag form used. Unique sets of differentially expressed proteins were affected by each silver form in addition to proteins that were affected by both Ag NPs and Ag{sup +}. Fifteen of these proteins were subsequently identified by MALDI–TOF–TOF and database search. Ag NPs affected similar cellular pathways as Ag{sup +}, with common response mechanisms in cytoskeleton and cell structure (catchin, myosin heavy chain), stress response (heat shock protein 70), oxidative stress (glutathione s-transferase), transcriptional regulation (nuclear receptor subfamily 1G), adhesion and mobility (precollagen-P) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2). Exposure to Ag NPs altered the expression of two proteins associated with stress response (major vault protein and ras partial) and one

  20. Assessing the health status of farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) through histological, microbiological and biomarker analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Ercolini, Carlo; Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Granato, Giulia; Quaglieri, Elisabetta; Perolo, Alberto; Finos, Livio; Arcangeli, Giuseppe; Bertotto, Daniela; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Chollet, Bruno; Arzul, Isabelle; Quaglio, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    The Gulf of La Spezia (northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) is a commercially important area both as a shipping port and for mussel farming. Recently, there has been increased concern over environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic activities such as ship traffic and dredging and the effects they have on the health of farmed mussels. This paper reports the results of microbiological and histological analyses, as well as of measurement of several biomarkers which were performed to assess the health status of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from four rearing sites in the Gulf of La Spezia. Mussels were collected between October 2015 and September 2016 and histological analyses (including gonadal maturation stage), as well as the presence of pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio splendidus clade, V. aestuarianus and V. harveyi), viruses (Herpes virus and ostreid Herpes virus 1) and protozoa (Marteilia spp., in the summer season only) were carried out on a monthly basis. Conversely, biomarker responses in haemocyte/haemolymph (total haemocyte count, haemocyte diameter and volume, lysozyme and lactate dehydrogenase activities in cell-free haemolymph, and micronuclei frequency) and in gills and digestive gland (cortisol-like steroids and lipid peroxidation levels), were evaluated bimonthly. Microbiological data indicated that mussels contain a reservoir of potentially pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa that in certain environmental conditions may cause a weakening of the immune system of animals leading to mortality episodes. The percentage of parasites detected in the mussels was generally low (9.6% for Steinhausia mytilovum, that is 17 samples out of 177 examined females; 3.4% for Proctoeces maculatus; 0.9% for Mytilicola intestinalis and 2% for ciliated protozoa), while symbiont loads were higher (31% for Eugymnanthea inquilina and Urastoma cyprinae). Interestingly, a previously undescribed haplosporidian was detected in a single mussel sample (0.2%) and was

  1. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF Salacca Edulis REINW FRUIT IN SLEMAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RACT Yogyakarta Special Province decided Salak Pondohs (Salacca edulis Reinw as excellent commodity, particularly in Sleman. To support successful strategy, development of salak pondoh cultivation in terms of its post harvest, namely character of salah pondoh, is required. Purpose: to study physical and chemical properties of various types salak pondoh from farmers, wholesalers and retailers at three levels of quality. Samples were taken by using Purposive Random Sampling method. Aspects to observe involved physical properties of fruit flesh and chemical properties of fruit flesh Results: salak pondoh among various market players showed, teksture, water content, total acid, and tanine content of fruit flesh were significantly different. While color, thickness, edible section percentage, and total sugar content of fruit flesh were not significantly different. Characteristics of salak pondoh at various levels of quality indicated that color and textures of flesh fruits were significantly different. Edible section percentage, thickness, water content, total sugar, total acid and tanine content of fruit flesh not significantly different. Characters of various types salak pondoh showed that edible section percentage, water content, total acid, and tanine content of fruit flesh significantly different. While color, thickness, textures and total sugar content of fruit flesh not significantly different.

  3. Molecular identification of a new begomovirus infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca-Vaca, Juan Carlos; Carrasco-Lozano, Emerson Clovis; López-López, Karina

    2017-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in the state of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) has been determined. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined to be 2600 and 2572 nt in length, respectively. The DNA-A showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (87.2 %) to bean dwarf mosaic virus (M88179), a begomovirus found in common bean crops in Colombia, and only 77.4 % identity to passion fruit severe leaf distortion virus (FJ972767), a begomovirus identified infecting passion fruit in Brazil. Based on its sequence identity to all other begomoviruses known to date and in accordance with the ICTV species demarcation criterion for the genus Begomovirus (≥91 % sequence identity for the complete DNA-A), the name passion fruit leaf distortion virus is proposed for this new begomovirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bipartite begomovirus affecting passion fruit in Colombia and the second report of a geminivirus affecting this crop worldwide.

  4. The protective effects of piceatannol from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Kurita, Ikuko; Sugiyama, Kenkichi; Sai, Masahiko; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity to prevent photoageing is receiving increasing attention. We have previously identified piceatannol and scirpusin B, which is a dimer of piceatannol, as strong antioxidants that are present in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds. In the present study, the effects of passion fruit seed extract, piceatannol, and scirpusin B on human keratinocytes were investigated. The passion fruit seed extract and piceatannol upregulated the glutathione (GSH) levels in keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that piceatannol is an active component of the passion fruit seed extract in keratinocytes. The pretreatment with piceatannol also suppressed the UVB-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the keratinocytes. In addition, the transfer of the medium from the UVB-irradiated keratinocytes to non-irradiated fibroblasts enhanced matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity, and this MMP-1 induction was reduced when the keratinocytes were pretreated with piceatannol. These results suggest that piceatannol attenuates the UVB-induced activity of MMP-1 along with a reduction of ROS generation in keratinocytes. Thus, piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract containing high amounts of piceatannol are potential anti-photoageing cosmetic ingredients.

  5. Structural investigation of a novel heteropolysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-qiang; Liu, Ye; Xiao, Nan-nan; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Pei-long

    2014-03-01

    A novel water-soluble heteropolysaccharide, BEPF1, was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Boletus edulis with boiling water extraction and purified by Sephacryl S-300, with a molecular weight of 1.08×10(4)Da. Sugar composition of BEPF1 showed that it was composed of l-fucose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose in the ratio of 0.21:0.23:1.17:1.00. Methylation analysis together with (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectroscopy established that BEPF1 was consisted of α-d-(1→6)-galactopyranan backbone with a terminal of α-l-fucosyl unit on O-2 of the 2-d-(2→6)-galactosyl units, β-d-(1→6)-4-O-Me-glucopyranan and β-d-(1→6)-glucopyranan backbone with a terminal β-d-glucosyl unit and it also contained a minor of 2,6-β-d-Mannopyranan residues. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraction of pectin from passion fruit rind (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener) for edible coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayati, Puspita, Rifka Intan; Fajrin, Vika Latifiana

    2018-02-01

    One of fruit preservation method is by applying the edible coating. Rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener), which is kind of waste, can be utilized as edible coating through pectin extraction process. The purposes of this work were to determine the suitable solvent for the pectin extraction and techniques for applying the produced edible coating on strawberry, to produce edible coating from the pectin, and the test the performance of the edible coating which was applied to strawberries. Pectin from passion fruit rind was collected through conventional extraction method using two types of solvent, i.e. acetic acid solution and hydrochloric acid solution with concentration of 0.01 N, 0.015 N, 0.02 N, 0.025 N, and 0.03 N. The results showed that chloric acid solution was more suitable for the pectin extraction from passion fruit. Maximum yield of 30.78% was obtained at hydrochloric acid concentration of 0.02 N. Obtained pectin from the extraction was then processed into the edible coating by adding plasticizers and calcium chloride dihydrate. Storability of the coated strawberry was observed to measure the performance of the edible coating

  7. Isolation and evaluation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial ability from Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi (30 isolates from bamboo branches were categorized into 12 genera, based on the blast analyses of ITS nrDNA sequence in GenBank and microscopic examination. The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of endophytic fungi. Inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens have been screened for all the isolates preliminarily and strains tentatively identified as Cladosporium sphaerospermum (PE106, Simplicillium lanosoniveum (PE120, Curvularia sp. (PE127, Didymella sp. (PE128 and Penicillium cf. raistrickii (PE130 presented bioactivity against at least four tested pathogens using the agar diffusion method. Crude extracts of PE106, PE120, PE127 and PE130 displayed broad-spectrum activity against plant pathogenic fungi by mycelial radial growth test. All of the four isolates were found to have high bioactivity against the frequent plant pathogenic fungus Botryotinia fuckeliana, and two of the isolates (PE120 and PE130 also inhibited the growth of phytopathogen Thanatephorus cucumeris noteworthily. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with branches of Ph. edulis.

  8. Is Khat (Catha edulis) chewing a risk factor for periodontal diseases? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Al-Maweri, Sadeq-Ali; Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Ijaz, Anum; Gamal, Shukri; Dhaifullah, Esam

    2017-10-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is a highly prevalent habit in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, and has recently spread to Western countries. The association between khat chewing and oral mucosal lesions is well documented in the literature. However, there is no concrete evidence on the association between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the influence of khat chewing on periodontal health. A literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Sciences databases was carried out to identify relevant articles published from 1990 to May 2017. The inclusion criteria were all clinical studies that assessed the relationship between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The search yielded 122 articles, of which 10 were included in this systematic review. Most of the studies exhibited a positive correlation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Altogether, the analysis of the current evidence reveals that khat chewing is destructive to the periodontium and enhances the risk of periodontal disease progression. However, due to variability of studies, more longitudinal case-controlled studies are highly warranted to establish a causal relation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Key words: Khat chewing, periodontal health, periodontal disease, risk factor.

  9. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10 to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. Results. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P<0.02, frequency of Khat chewing (OR = 4.8, P<0.01, age of starting Khat chewing (OR = 1.15, P<0.01, and time of Khat effect (OR = 1.15, P<0.04. Conclusion. Our study provides important information on the pattern of Khat use and its potential to cause dependence.

  10. Branchial lesions associated with abundant apoptotic cells in oysters Ostrea edulis of Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirella da Silva, P; Villalba, Antonio; Sunila, Inke

    2006-06-12

    An experiment to evaluate differences in growth, mortality and disease susceptibility among Ostrea edulis stocks was performed. Five families were produced from each of 4 oyster populations (Irish, Greek and 2 Galician). The spat were transferred to a raft in the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, Spain) for grow-out. Monthly samples of each family were histologically processed from 2001 to 2003. One of the pathological conditions discovered by this study was the occurrence of extensive branchial lesions characterized by haemocytic infiltration and loss of branchial architecture. Furthermore, abundant atypical cells occurred among the haemocytes in the lesions in the branchial connective and epithelial tissues, but rarely in the mantle. These cells were contracted in size with nuclei showing chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Some nuclear chromatin aggregated under the nuclear membranes into crescent shapes, whereas others were uniformly dense. Those characteristics suggested that the cells were apoptotic haemocytes, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay using the Apoptag Kit on paraffin sections. A low prevalence of gill lesions was detected in some, but not all, families of every origin peaking in July 2002 and April 2003. No etiologic agent was identified by either histology or TEM; thus, the cause of the abundance of apoptotic cells remains unclear.

  11. Ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves inhibits protein glycation and restores the oxidative burst in diabetic rat macrophages after Candida albicans exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes Ribas Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis leaves on blood glucose, protein glycation, NADPH oxidase activity and macrophage phagocytic capacity after Candida albicans exposure in diabetic rats. The Passiflora edulis Sims leaves were dried to 40°C, powdered, extracted by maceration in 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilised. The biochemical tests performed were total phenolic content (TP as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, trapping potential DPPH assay and total iron-reducing potential. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection. Protein glycation was determined by AGE and fructosamine serum concentrations. Extract-treated diabetic animals demonstrated lower fructosamine concentrations compared with the diabetic group. Our results suggest that ethanolic Passiflora edulis Sims leaf extraction may have beneficial effects on diabetes and may improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats.

  12. Antioxidant Capacity and the Correlation with Major Phenolic Compounds, Anthocyanin, and Tocopherol Content in Various Extracts from the Wild Edible Boletus edulis Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7±0.23 and 56±0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and the correlation with major phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, and tocopherol content in various extracts from the wild edible Boletus edulis mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel; Nita, Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7 ± 0.23 and 56 ± 0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds.

  14. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of four edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Eskisehir - Turkey: Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Yamac, Mustafa

    2008-09-01

    The methanolic extracts of Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating activities in addition to their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid and DPPH systems, L. deterrimus and B. edulis showed the strongest activity patterns. Their activities were as strong as the positive controls. The reducing power of the species was excellent. Chelating capacity of the extracts was increased with the increasing concentration. On the other hand, B. edulis found to have the highest phenolic content. Total flavonoid content of S. collitinus found the superior to the other mushrooms.

  15. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, V.L.; Gomes, T.; Barreira, L.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L −1 (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L −1 (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear receptor

  16. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, V.L., E-mail: vmaria@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, T., E-mail: tcgomes@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Barreira, L., E-mail: lbarreir@ualg.pt [CCMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear

  17. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Potential of Fruiting Bodies of the Wild-Growing King Bolete Mushroom, Boletus edulis (Agaricomycetes), from Western Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Aleksandra; Karaman, Maja; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Radusin, Tanja; Llic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the bioactivity of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Boletus edulis prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps collected from the Prijepolje region (western Serbia). The bioactivity screening included antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH], nitric oxide, super-oxide anion*, and hydroxyl radicals and ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and antiproliferative MTT assays (human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line). In addition, all extracts were primarily characterized by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry to determine total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The highest anti-DPPH and anti-hydroxyl radical activity were observed in aqueous B. edulis extract from the caps (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 50.97 μg/ mL and 2.05 μg/mL, respectively), whereas the highest anti-nitric oxide radical activity was observed in aqueous B. edulis extract from the stipes (IC50 = 10.74 μg/mL). The ethanolic extract obtained from the mushroom stipe showed higher anti-superoxide anion radical activity (IC50 = 9.84 μg/mL) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (22.14 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry weight) compared with aqueous extracts. Total phenolic content for all extracts was similar but total flavonoid content was significantly higher in the aqueous B. edulis extract from the caps (4.5 mg quercetin equivalents/g dry weight). All crude extracts showed activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with the ethanolic extract of B. edulis prepared from stipes (IC50 = 56 μg/mL) being the most potent. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the antiproliferative effects of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps of B. edulis on the human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line.

  18. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing in Passiflora edulis Sims to Identify Genes and Signaling Pathways Involved in Cold Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims, also known as the purple granadilla, is widely cultivated as the new darling of the fruit market throughout southern China. This exotic and perennial climber is adapted to warm and humid climates, and thus is generally intolerant of cold. There is limited information about gene regulation and signaling pathways related to the cold stress response in this species. In this study, two transcriptome libraries (KEDU_AP vs. GX_AP were constructed from the aerial parts of cold-tolerant and cold-susceptible varieties of P. edulis, respectively. Overall, 126,284,018 clean reads were obtained, and 86,880 unigenes with a mean size of 1449 bp were assembled. Of these, there were 64,067 (73.74% unigenes with significant similarity to publicly available plant protein sequences. Expression profiles were generated, and 3045 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the KEDU_AP and GX_AP libraries, including 1075 (35.3% up-regulated and 1970 (64.7% down-regulated. These included 36 genes in enriched pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, and 56 genes encoding putative transcription factors. Six genes involved in the ICE1–CBF–COR pathway were induced in the cold-tolerant variety, and their expression levels were further verified using quantitative real-time PCR. This report is the first to identify genes and signaling pathways involved in cold tolerance using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing in P. edulis. These findings may provide useful insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance and genetic breeding in Passiflora spp.

  19. Prevalence of Mytilicola intestinalis (Copepoda: Mytilicolidae) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria: Hypotrichinidae) in marketable mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestri Trotti, G; Baccarani, E M; Giannetto, S; Giuffrida, A; Paesanti, F

    1998-03-05

    Marketable mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis traded with commercial certification from production sites in Italy and abroad (France, Spain) were examined for the presence of Mytilicola intestinalis (Copepoda: Mytilicolidae) and Urastoma cyprinae (Turbellaria: Hypotrichinidae) from October 1994 to February 1996. The prevalence of M. intestinalis was 4.1% and 4.7% respectively in mussels from Lerici (La Spezia) and S. Pietro in Volta (Venice), whereas it rose to 57.9% in the samples from Spain. M. intestinalis was absent in mussels from Chioggia (Venice), Ganzirri (Messina), Taranto, Trieste and France. The prevalence of U. cyprinae varied considerably, ranging from 0.3% in mussels from Trani (Bari) to 33.2% and 86.3% respectively in those from Chioggia and Trieste. It was 85.7% in samples from France and 63.7% in those from Spain.

  20. Etude systématique et écologique de la faune associée aux moules (<Mytilus galloprovincialis>)

    OpenAIRE

    Fezzani, S.; Zghal, F.; Ben Amor, Z.; El Abed, A.

    2001-01-01

    Ce travail s’intéresse non seulement à la connaissance de la faune associée aux moules notamment : Mytilus galloprovincialis, mais aussi à une étude systématique et écologique de la faune récoltée. Cette étude a été réalisée dans le lac de Bizerte, à la station de mytiliculture de Menzel Jemil. Une partie de ce travail est consacrée à un examen systématique de la faune récoltée et qui nous a permis d’inventorier 6 embranchements dont les annélides qui sont représentés par 10 espèces de Po...

  1. Trace metals in Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.1758) and in surficial sediments from Urla-Iskele/ Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunlu, U.; Egemen, O.; Kaymakci, A.

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn by the Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and bottom sediment samples were studied monthly at Aquaculture site of Urla-Iskele (Izmir Bay-Turkey). All metals showed a significant seasonal variations. The observed pattern was primarily related to the biological cycle of the mussel and only secondarily to environmental parameters. The order of enhanced metal concentrations found in mussels was Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd whereas in the sediment the order was different, i.e. Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd. In this work, the all over the metal concentrations in mussels and sediment samples from Urla-Iskele are similar to those reported for other Mediterranean regions. The soft tissues of the mussels which still contain concentrations lie just within the range given by WHO

  2. Interdisciplinary study for the evaluation of biochemical alterations on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to a tributyltin-polluted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magi, Emanuele [University of Genoa, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Liscio, Camilla; Pistarino, Erika; Santamaria, Barbara; Di Carro, Marina; Tiso, Micaela; Cosulich, M.E. [University of Genoa, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Scaloni, Andrea; Renzone, Giovanni [National Research Council, Proteomic and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, ISPAAM, Naples (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    An interdisciplinary approach was employed to monitor the concentration and the effects of butyltin compounds in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Tissues from animals exposed to a marine area (Vado Ligure harbour) with a high concentration of tributyltin (TBT) were analysed and compared with control samples. TBT concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the protein pattern in gill tissues was studied by proteomic analysis. Several proteomic signatures associated with contaminant exposure were observed; spots that were significantly increased in all contaminated samples were identified by mass spectrometry as fragments of {beta}-tubulin. The degradation of {beta}-tubulin was then confirmed by western blot analysis with specific anti-{beta}-tubulin antibody. The effects observed on mussel gills after exposure in the TBT-polluted area are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sediments and blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Port Elizabeth Harbour, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampire, E; Rubidge, G; Adams, J B

    2015-02-15

    Sediment and Mytilus galloprovincialis samples collected from the Port Elizabeth Harbour were analysed for six indicator PCB congeners to assess their contamination status. The concentrations of total PCBs in sediments and M. galloprovincialis ranged from 0.56 to 2.35 ng/g dry weight and 14.48 to 21.37 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Congeners 138 and 153 were dominant and accounted for an average of 29% and 24% of total PCBs in M. galloprovincialis; 32% and 30% in sediments, respectively. Sediments are home to a wide variety of aquatic life. None of the sediments analysed exceeded the PCB limits recommended the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline and the South African recommended sediment guidelines (21.6 ng/g). Both humans and aquatic life are sensitive to the toxic effects of PCBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florou, H.; Catsiki, A.B.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Chaloulou, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of 137 Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  5. Assessment of metals bioaccumulation and bioavailability in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to outfalls pollution in coastal areas of Casablanca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejdoub, Zineb; Zaid, Younes; Hmimid, Fouzia; Kabine, Mostafa

    2018-07-01

    The present work aims to study the metallic contamination of four sampling sites located nearby major sewage outfalls of the Casablanca coast (Morocco), using indigenous mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis as bioindicators of pollution. This research offered the opportunity to study trace metals bioaccumulation mechanisms, which represent a major factor in assessment processes of the pollution effects in coastal ecosystem health. The bioavailability and the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb) were evaluated in order to compare the metallic contamination in mussels' tissues and find a possible correlation with physiological parameters of this filter feeding species. Our results showed a significant spatiotemporal variation of bioaccumulation, compared to control. A significant correlation coefficient between metals (Zn and Pb) bioavailability and physiological index (CI) was revealed in mussels from the most polluted location. The seasonal variation of trace metal accumulation was also raised; the highest values recorded during the dry period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the natural prevalence of Vibrio spp. in Uruguayan mussels (Mytilus sp.) and their control using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, C.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria belonging to the Vibrionacea, especially Vibrio cholerae, and of Salmonella spp., was examined in fresh Uruguayan mussels (Mytilus sp.) during two annual seasons. The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) of various toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae was determined to vary in vitro between 0.11 and 0.19 kGy. These results and those from the examination of natural Vibrio spp. contamination in mussels were used to conclude that 1.0 kGy would be enough to render Uruguayan mussels Vibrio-safe. Mussels irradiated in the shell at the optical dose survived long enough to allow the eventual introduction of irradiation as an effective intervention measure without affecting local marketing practices, and making it possible to market the fresh mussels live, as required by Uruguayan legislation. (author)

  7. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  8. Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from Boletus edulis bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Aoxue; Luo, Aoshuang; Huang, Jiandong; Fan, Yijun

    2012-07-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP) was extracted from Boletus edulis Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw), IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  9. METHYL MERCURY IN GREEN MUSCLE (Mytilus viridis L. FROM FISH MARKET MUARA ANGKE : BEFORE AND AFTER COOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin K. Winarno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of methyl mercury content in green muscle (Mytilus viridis L. that were taken from Pasar Pelelangan Ikan Muara Angke, Jakarta Bay has been carried out. Sampling was taken in November 2005 and March 2006, the samples were bought from the green muscle sellers. The aim of this research is to know the effect of cooking on the content of methyl mercury in green muscle. Samples were homogenized, weighed and washed with aceton and toluene. After washing, the homogenized material was added with HCl solution, extracted with toluene, then the methyl mercury content in toluene extract was analyzed using gas chromatography. The results of this research showed that methyl mercury concentration in raw and cooked green muscle respectively were 0.803 + 0.019 mg/g and 0.443 + 0.035 mg/g (in November 2005 and 0.096 + 0.014 mg/g and 0.079 + 0.016 mg/g (in March 2006 respectively. The methyl mercury content in raw (in November 2005 was higher than in cooked green muscle as permitted concentration in the sea biota by WHO and FAO, it is 0.5 ppm (mg/g, on the other hand the result of the second sampling in March 2006 showed that methyl mercury content in green muscle was lower than permitted concentration. Cooking process of the green muscle decreased methyl mercury content 44.85% (sampling in November 2005 and 17.71% (sampling in March 2006, because methyl mercury that bonded to protein were distributed to boiling water. Methyl mercury content in green muscle after cooking was still lower than the permitted concentration.   Keywords: methyl mercury, green muscle, Mytilus viridis L., Muara Angke

  10. Immunomodulation by different types of N-oxides in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ciacci

    Full Text Available The potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs for humans and the environment represents an emerging issue. Since the aquatic environment represents the ultimate sink for NP deposition, the development of suitable assays is needed to evaluate the potential impact of NPs on aquatic biota. The immune system is a sensitive target for NPs, and conservation of innate immunity represents an useful basis for studying common biological responses to NPs. Suspension-feeding invertebrates, such as bivalves, are particularly at risk to NP exposure, since they have extremely developed systems for uptake of nano and microscale particles integral to intracellular digestion and cellular immunity. Evaluation of the effects of NPs on functional parameters of bivalve immunocytes, the hemocytes, may help understanding the major toxic mechanisms and modes of actions that could be relevant for different NP types in aquatic organisms.In this work, a battery of assays was applied to the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to compare the in vitro effects of different n-oxides (n-TiO(2, n-SiO(2, n-ZnO, n-CeO(2 chosen on the basis of their commercial and environmental relevance. Physico-chemical characterization of both primary particles and NP suspensions in artificial sea water-ASW was performed. Hemocyte lysosomal and mitochondrial parameters, oxyradical and nitric oxide production, phagocytic activity, as well as NP uptake, were evaluated. The results show that different n-oxides rapidly elicited differential responses hemocytes in relation to their chemical properties, concentration, behavior in sea water, and interactions with subcellular compartments. These represent the most extensive data so far available on the effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic organisms. The results indicate that Mytilus hemocytes can be utilized as a suitable model for screening the potential effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic invertebrates, and may

  11. Embryo sac development in yellow passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.

  12. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Marceau; Martin-Benito, Dario; von Arx, Georg; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    In the southwestern USA, recent large-scale die-offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines ( Pinus edulis ) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7-year experiment in central New Mexico with three watering treatments (irrigated, normal, and rain exclusion). We analyzed how variation in "evaporative structure" (needle length, stomatal diameter, stomatal density, stomatal conductance) responded to watering treatment and interannual climate variability. We further analyzed annual functional adjustments by comparing yearly addition of needle area (LA) with yearly addition of sapwood area (SA) and distance to tip ( d ), defining the yearly ratios SA:LA and SA:LA/ d . Needle length ( l ) increased with increasing winter and monsoon water supply, and showed more interannual variability when the soil was drier. Stomatal density increased with dryness, while stomatal diameter was reduced. As a result, anatomical maximal stomatal conductance was relatively invariant across treatments. SA:LA and SA:LA/ d showed significant differences across treatments and contrary to our expectation were lower with reduced water input. Within average precipitation ranges, the response of these ratios to soil moisture was similar across treatments. However, when extreme soil drought was combined with high VPD, needle length, SA:LA and SA:LA/ d became highly nonlinear, emphasizing the existence of a response threshold of combined high VPD and dry soil conditions. In new branch tissues, the response of annual functional ratios to water stress was immediate (same year) and does not attempt to reduce the drop of water potential. We suggest that unfavorable evaporative structural response to drought is compensated

  13. Estimating fruitpulp carotenoid content from shell color in gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Franco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims es un fruto aceptado en mercados europeos; pero, su corta vida en poscosecha limita la comercialización. Por lo tanto, es necesario, caracterizar algunos atributos de la maduración, para que el fruto mantenga las mejores condiciones de calidad. La investigación tuvo como objetivo estimar, a partir de los cambios de color del fruto y de su edad, la evolución de los carotenoides, mediante el uso de modelos que predijeran esta relación. Se utilizaron frutos con edad conocida para determinar el color con base en el espacio CIE L*, a* y b*. La colorimetría confirmó que hay evolución apreciable a partir de los 84 días después de floración (DDF, con color morado oscuro hacia los 98 DDF y púrpura muy oscuro a los 105 DDF. En frutos madurados en la planta, se apreció disminución en la luminosidad (L*, mientras que en las coordenadas a* el valor aumentó y el b* disminuyó, cambios que definen el color del fruto. Se observó una tendencia similar en frutos cosechados a partir de los 91 DDF. Tanto en los frutos madurados en la planta como en los cosechados, el contenido de carotenoides se incrementó a medida que la senescencia del fruto avanzaba. Modelos de regresión permitieron estimar el contenido de carotenoides: uno múltiple, con las coordenadas de color como predictoras y el otro polinomial, basado en la edad del fruto.

  14. Molecular imaging of alkaloids in khat (Catha edulis) leaves with MeV-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Vencelj, Matjaž; Kelemen, Mitja; Matsuo, Jiro; Kusakari, Masakazu; Siketić, Zdravko; Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Shaltout, Abdallah; Pelicon, Primož

    2017-08-01

    Imaging Mass Spectroscopy (IMS) is a unique research tool providing localization and identification of a wide range of biomolecules as essential data to understand biochemical processes in living organisms. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with high-energy heavy ions (MeV-SIMS) is emerging as a promising IMS technique for chemical imaging of biological tissue. We measured the molecular mass spatial distributions in leaves of khat (Catha edulis). Khat is a natural drug plant, native to eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In these countries, fresh leaves are being chewed by significant part of population. It was reported that 80% of the adult population in Yemen chew the khat leaves. The main stimulating effects of khat are induced by a monoamine alkaloid called cathinone. During leaf ageing, cathinone is further metabolised to cathine and norephedrine. Earlier studies identified the alkaloids in khat, however little is known on their spatial distribution, reflecting the biosynthesis and accumulation in the tissue. Chemical mapping of alkaloids on cross-sections of khat leaves by MeV-SIMS was done at JSI by a pulsed 5.8 MeV 35Cl6+ beam, focused to a diameter of 15 μm, using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a mass resolution of 500. In addition, measurements of MeV-SIMS mass spectra were performed at Kyoto University by a continuous broad beam of 6 MeV 63Cu4+ ions at an orthogonal TOF spectrometer with a high mass resolution of 11,000. Sections of leaves were analysed and mass spectra obtained at both MeV-SIMS setups were compared. Tissue-level distributions of detected alkaloids are presented and discussed.

  15. Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandari, Laxman S; Yadav, Hiranmai R; Thakur, Ashok K; Kandari, Tripti

    2014-01-01

    Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

  16. The expression of superoxide dismutase in Mytilus coruscus under various stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiong; Bao, Miaomiao; Ge, Delong; Huo, Liping; Lv, Zhenming; Chi, Changfeng; Liao, Zhi; Liu, Huihui

    2017-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs), a by-product of antioxidative defence system, protects organisms for eliminating excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining the redox balance of immune system. The complete open reading frames (ORFs) of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD were identified from Mytilus coruscus (designated as McSOD and MnSOD) by homologous cloning. The sequence lengths were 474bp and 687bp, encoding 157 and 228 amino acids respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of McSOD and MnSOD shared high identities with Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD from other mollusca. The distributions of McSOD and MnSOD were detected in six tissues including adductor, hemocyte, gill, gonad, mantle and hepatopancreas, and the highest expressions were both in gills. The temporal expression of McSOD and MnSOD were up-regulated in gills under a variety of stress factors, including Vibrio parahemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ . After being challenged with V. Parahemolyticus, the expressions of McSOD and MnSOD were increased rapidly at the initial hours, reaching the peaks of 4.9-fold and 15.3-fold respectively, and got to the highest levels of 43.5-fold and 7.1-fold after being challenged with A. hydrophila. The highest point of McSOD mRNA appeared at 15 d after being exposed to copper (7-fold at 0.5 mg/L and 13.2-fold at 1.5 mg/L), except for 0.1 mg/L group of Cu 2+ maintaining to the normal level, but plumbum at 1 d (2.4-fold at 1.0 mg/L and 4.4-fold at 3.0 mg/L) and at 15 d (2.1-fold at 0.2 mg/L). The temporal expression peaks of MnSOD appeared differently after exposing to copper of various concentrations (0.1 mg/L at 10 d with 4.7-fold, 0.5 mg/L at 1 d with 17.9-fold and 1.5 mg/L at 3 d with 13.2-fold). Whereas in plumbum exposing treatments, the 3.0 mg/L group jumped to the peak at 1 d (18.2-fold), the 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L groups had little change and maintained at the normal level throughout the experiment. The results provided several new

  17. Growth studies of Mytilus californianus using satellite surface temperatures and chlorophyll data for coastal Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Lakshmi, V.

    2013-12-01

    The advancement of remote sensing technology has led to better understanding of the spatial and temporal variation in many physical and biological parameters, such as, temperature, salinity, soil moisture, vegetation cover, and community composition. This research takes a novel approach in understanding the temporal and spatial variability of mussel body growth using remotely sensed surface temperatures and chlorophyll-a concentration. Within marine rocky intertidal ecosystems, temperature and food availability influence species abundance, physiological performance, and distribution of mussel species. Current methods to determine the temperature mussel species experience range from in-situ field observations, temperature loggers, temperature models, and using other temperature variables. However, since the temperature that mussel species experience is different from the air temperature due to physical and biological characteristics (size, color, gaping, etc.), it is difficult to accurately predict the thermal stresses they experience. Methods to determine food availability (chlorophyll-a concentration used as a proxy) for mussel species are mostly done at specific study sites using water sampling. This implies that analysis of temperature and food availability across large spatial scales and long temporal scales is not a trivial task given spatial heterogeneity. However, this is an essential step in determination of the impact of changing climate on vulnerable ecosystems such as the marine rocky intertidal system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using remotely sensed surface temperatures and chlorophyll-a concentration to better understand the temporal and spatial variability of the body growth of the ecologically and economically important rocky intertidal mussel species, Mytilus californianus. Remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), land surface temperature (LST), intertidal surface temperature (IST), chlorophyll

  18. Molecular and genotoxic effects in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to tritiated water at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, L.; Jha, A. [School of Biological Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Bean, T.; Lyons, B. [Cefas Weymouth Laboratory (United Kingdom); Turner, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    h. These stress-induced genes are known to have protective roles as molecular chaperones, as radical scavengers, in control of cell cycle checkpoints and in DNA repair. As such, the temporal shift in HTO-induced genotoxicity may be as a result of compromised defence mechanisms. The {sup 3}H concentration in tissues was highest in byssus for all time points at both temperatures. The order in which other tissues accumulated {sup 3}H varied with time and temperature, but in general digestive gland, gill and foot showed higher concentrations than other tissues. Corresponding whole organism dose rates, as calculated using the ERICA tool, ranged from 10.94 ± 0.08 to 18.72 ± 0.10 μGy h{sup -1} (with total doses of 0.13 ± 0.01 to 2.75 ± 0.03 mGy) and were temperature- and time-dependent. This study is the first to investigate temperature effects on radiation-induced genotoxicity in the ecologically representative marine invertebrate, Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is especially pertinent in the context of rising sea temperatures and thermal pollution from nuclear institutions. From an ecological perspective, this research suggests that mussels (or similar marine species) exposed to increased temperature and HTO may have a compromised ability to defend against genotoxic insult. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Contenido energetico de algunos invertebrados bentonicos de la costa de Chile y fluctuación anual em Mytilus chilensis Hupe 1854

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Duarte

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric values, ash and hydric percentages were obtained from the most abundant benthic invertebrates of Corral Bay, from which this information was not previously available. The range of these values is not different to those of related taxonomic groups of other oceans. Annual fluctuations of these paramenters were studied in Mytilus chilensis so as to obtain a quantitative estimation of the variation of these values.

  20. Investigations of the effects of UV and X-ray radiation and the repair of radiation damage in the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, F.N.

    1978-01-01

    Using the example of Stylomychia mytilus, the effects of UV-radiation and ionizing X-ray radiation are compared. The effects on cell division and on the repair of radiation damage in DNA are compared. Sensitivity to UV radiation differs between the stages of the cell cycle while the effects of X-ray radiation are independent of phase. There is no difference in repair processes. (AJ) 891 AJ/AJ 892 MKO [de

  1. (Lamark) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 2 Mean monthly surface water temperature and salinity values ..... Excluding the effect of the flood, the progression of the .... Growth and metabolism of Mactra lilacea. Abstract ... tolerance and osmoregulation in some estuarine bivalves.

  2. Biochemical and volatile organic compound profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) cultivated in the Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houcke, van Jasper; Medina, Isabel; Linssen, Jozef; Luten, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two important different geographical cultivation areas in the Netherlands (Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen) on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea

  3. Acute Oral Mammalian Toxicity and Effect of Solvents on Efficacy of Maerua edulis (Gilg. & Ben. De Wolf against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae, Tick Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel T. Nyahangare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and organic solvents extracts of Maerua edulis against ticks and mice, respectively, were determined. Ground leaves were extracted separately using cold water, cold water plus surfactant (1% v/v liquid soap, hot water plus surfactant, hexane, or methanol to make 25% w/v stock solutions from which serial dilutions of 5, 10, 20, and 25% were made. For each concentration, 20 Rhipicephalus decoloratus tick larvae were put in filter papers impregnated with extracts and incubated for 48 h at 27°C and 85–90% RH for mortality observation after 24 h and 48 h. In the toxicity experiment, hot water plus surfactant treatments of 5, 10, 20, and 25% (w/v M. edulis were administered in suspension per os to sexually mature Balb/C mice and observed for clinical signs and mortality for 72 h. Larvae mortality was highest (>98% in methanol-extracted M. edulis treatments (20 and 25%, which was not different from the amitraz-based control (Tickbuster®. Mortality was also higher in the hot water than in cold water plus surfactant treatments (P<0.05. No postadministration adverse health effects were observed in the mice. These results suggest that M. edulis is an effective tick remedy best extracted using methanol or hot water plus surfactant.

  4. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  5. 137Caesium in samples of wild-grown Boletus edulis Bull. from Lucca province (Tuscany, Italy) and other Italian and European geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Laura; Palego, Lionella; Lucacchini, Antonio; Giannaccini, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Samples of the edible mushroom Boletus edulis Bull. were studied to assess the risk for human health related to their content of the artificial radionuclide 137 Cs. Fresh B. edulis carpophores were collected in four undeveloped microhabitats of Lucca province (Tuscany, North-Central Italy). Dried non-cultivated samples coming from this same district and 11 other Italian provinces or European countries were instead purchased fromcommercial sources. Contents of 137 Cs, reported as Bq kg ‒1 dry weight (dw), were measured by γ-spectrometry. The radionuclide concentration varied depending on the gathering site in fresh samples, with 41.8 ± 5.2 Bq kg ‒1 dw at site 1 (Tosco-Emiliani Apennine) and four-fold less, 12.8 ± 1.3 Bq kg ‒1 dw, at site 2 (Apuan Alps). Moreover, fresh or dried carpophores from Lucca province displayed among the lowest 137 Cs contents in Europe. Average 137 Cs levels in all analysed samples were substantially below the legal threshold for edible mushrooms, 600 Bq kg ‒1 dw. Conclusively, we report that 137 Cs amounts in B. edulis depend on both the distance from the Chernobyl accident and multifactorial features of collection sites. We also show that the consumption of European B. edulis does not represent a major health risk with respect to 137 Cs radio contamination.

  6. Biochemical and Molecular Study of Carpobrotus edulis Bioactive Properties and Their Effects on Dugesia sicula (Turbellaria, Tricladida) Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Emna; Charni, Mohamed; Ghazouani, Tesnime; Cozzolino, Autilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Raboudi, Faten; Nazzaro, Filomena; Fattouch, Sami

    2017-07-01

    The traditional medicinal properties of Carpobrotus edulis are well recognized, particularly in Tunisia where it is used for wound healing. Thus, in this study, biochemical and molecular properties of its leaves' bioactive aqueous-acetone extract were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was estimated to be 184 ± 5 mg/100 g of fresh matter (FM). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic profile was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and showed that chlorogenic acid was the major compound (43.7%). The extract exhibits potent antioxidant capacities with IC50 = 56.19 and 58.91 μg/ml, as accessed via the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical scavenging assays, respectively. The extract has high antibacterial properties, especially against the Gram+ Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. To investigate the extract effect on regeneration, the flatworm Dugesia sicula Lepori, 1948, was used as a model. The macroscopic analysis of planarian cultures in ordinary medium containing phenolic extract at non-toxic concentrations illustrated that the extract caused morphological changes. Additionally, the molecular study through the fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technique showed that C. edulis polyphenols can harm the stem cells' development. These results emphasize the ecotoxicological impact of phenolic rejections in the environment on flatworms' physiology.

  7. Impact of season and location on the natural radioactivity in marine macroalgae (Gracilaria edulis) of coastal Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saroja, P.M.; Raj, G.A.G.; Selvan, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Gracilaria edulis, an edible red marine macro algae from three high background radiation areas (Arockiapuram, Kadiapattinam and Kurumpanai) on the southwest coast of Tamil Nadu, and one low background radiation area (Mandapam) on the southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, in India, were studied for variations in average gross alpha and beta radiation activities. Significant variations in average gross beta activities were observed while alpha activities showed only marginal variation. The average gross alpha activity was recorded high (61.51 Bq kg -1 ) during the post southwest monsoon season, while it recorded lowest (25.48 Bq kg -1 ) during the post northeast monsoon season. Average gross beta activity varied between seasons with the lowest level (211.55 Bq Kg -1 ) during post southwest monsoon season and the highest (413.33 Bq kg -1 ) during post northeast monsoon season. Among the four locations, the gross alpha activity was high (70.95 ± 26.74 Bq Kg -1 ) in Arockiapuram and low (18.74 ± 6.32 Bq Kg -1 ) in Mandapam, while the gross beta activity was high (442.25 ± 168.53 Bq Kg -1 ) in Kurumpanai and low (158.63 ± 34.37 Bq Kg -1 ) in Mandapam. Average gross alpha activity in G. edulis was found significantly varying in terms of locations, while average gross beta activity for the same species recorded significant seasonal variation. (author)

  8. ESTIMATIVA DE REPETIBILIDADE PARA RENDIMENTO DE POLPA E CARACTERES BIOMÉTRICOS DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES DE Euterpe edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bravim Canal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae é uma espécie ameaçada de extinção, sobretudo pela exploração indiscriminada de seu palmito. O manejo do fruto surge como alternativa para contornar esta problemática, uma vez que possibilita a geração de renda e mantem os indivíduos vivos. Porém, pouco se sabe sobre os caracteres produtivos desta espécie. Objetivou-se caracterizar as variáveis relacionadas aos frutos e definir o tamanho mínimo de amostras para estas avaliações pela estimativa de repetibilidade. Foram avaliados caracteres de frutos e sementes de 138 genótipos (diâmetro equatorial e longitudinal, massa fresca, volume, intensidade de cor e o rendimento de polpa. Os caracteres avaliados apresentaram elevada variação. O rendimento de polpa de E. edulis é, em média, de 20,94%. O esforço experimental do presente trabalho foi maior que o necessário para todas as características, exceto para o rendimento de polpa, que exigiu maiores repetições para níveis de confiabilidade acima de 90%.

  9. Corydalis edulis Maxim. Promotes Insulin Secretion via the Activation of Protein Kinase Cs (PKCs) in Mice and Pancreatic β Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiao; Zhao, Yunfang; Lun, Qixing; Song, Yuelin; Shi, Shepo; Gu, Xiaopan; Pan, Bo; Qu, Changhai; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-01-16

    Corydalis edulis Maxim., a widely grown plant in China, had been proposed for the treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we found that C. edulis extract (CE) is protective against diabetes in mice. The treatment of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice with a high dose of CE reduced serum glucose by 28.84% and serum total cholesterol by 17.34% and increased insulin release. We also found that CE significantly enhanced insulin secretion in a glucose-independent manner in hamster pancreatic β cell (HIT-T15). Further investigation revealed that CE stimulated insulin exocytosis by a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling pathway and that CE selectively activated novel protein kinase Cs (nPKCs) and atypical PKCs (aPKCs) but not conventional PKCs (cPKCs) in HIT-T15 cells. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to identify the PKC pathway as a direct target and one of the major mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effect of CE. Given the good insulinotropic effect of this herbal medicine, CE is a promising agent for the development of new drugs for treating diabetes.

  10. Genetic structure, mating system, and long-distance gene flow in heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiotto, F A; Grattapaglia, D; Vencovsky, R

    2003-01-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the population genetic structure, mating system, and gene flow of heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.-Arecaceae) in central Brazil. This palm is considered a keystone species because it supplies fruits for birds and rodents all year and is intensively harvested for culinary purposes. Two populations of this palm tree were examined, using 18 microsatellite loci. The species displays a predominantly outcrossed mating system (tm = 0.94), with a probability of full sibship greater than 70% within open-pollinated families. The following estimates of interpopulation genetic variation were calculated and found significant: FIT = 0.17, FIS = 0.12, FST = 0.06, and RST = 0.07. This low but significant level of interpopulation genetic variation indicates high levels of gene flow. Two adult trees were identified as likely seed parents (P > 99.9%) of juveniles located at a distance of 22 km. Gene flow over such distances has not been reported before for tropical tree species. The establishment and management of in situ genetic reserves or ex situ conservation and breeding populations for E. edulis should contemplate the collection of several hundreds open-pollinated maternal families from relatively few distant populations to maximize the genetic sampling of a larger number of pollen parents.

  11. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  12. Evaluación del potencial reproductivo del chorito (Mytilus chilensis de dos poblaciones naturales sometidas a diferentes temperaturas de acondicionamiento Assessment of the reproductive potential of the mussel (Mytilus chilensis from two natural populations subjected to different conditioning temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lagos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus chilensis tiene ciclos reproductivos que varían latitudinalmente. Presenta reducida diferenciación genética y morfológica debido a un gran potencial de dispersión. Se acondicionaron reproductores de bahía Yaldad (Chiloé y bahía Zenteno (Punta Arenas a 9 ± 0,5°C y 15 ± 0,5°C, alimentados con dieta (1:1 de Isochrysis galbana y Chaetoceros neogracile. Se espera dilucidar si el acondicionamiento a diferentes temperaturas produce variaciones en el potencial reproductivo de las poblaciones. El menor desarrollo gonadal se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 9°C, mientras que el mayor se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 15°C provenientes de Chiloé. La fecundidad de los reproductores de Yaldad fue mayor que los de Zenteno. El diámetro de los ovocitos fue mayor en los reproductores de Zenteno y en ambas poblaciones fue mayor a 9°C. Ni el porcentaje de huevos fecundados ni el porcentaje de eclosión de larvas D mostraron diferencias significativas entre las poblaciones a ninguna de las temperaturas de acondicionamiento. De acuerdo con estos resultados, no se logra establecer diferencias en el potencial reproductivo en las poblaciones y bajo las condiciones de este estudio.The reproductive cycles of Mytilus chilensis vary latitudinally. This species has reduced genetic and morphological differentiation due to its high potential for dispersal. Broodstocks from Yaldad Bay (Chiloé and Zenteno Bay (Punta Arenas were conditioned at 9 ± 0.5°C and 15 ± 0.5°C, and were fed a diet (1:1 of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros neogracile. We expected to determine whether conditioning at different temperatures produces changes in the reproductive potential of the populations. Gonadal development was lowest in the broodstocks conditioned at 9°C, and highest in those conditioned at 15°C, from Chiloé. Fertility was greater in broodstocks from Yaldad than in those from Zenteno. Oocyte diameter was greater in broodstocks

  13. Analysis of Soil Degradation Causes in Phyllostachys edulis Forests with Different Mulching Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. is famous for its fast growth and biomass accumulation, as well as high annual output for timber and bamboo shoots. Organic mulches are widely used to improve shoots’ production in moso bamboo forests. However, continuous mulching management may cause bamboo forest degradation and affect sustainable development. The objective of this study was to identify the degradation mechanism and to provide a theoretical basis for recovery. A complete randomized block design with four treatments was conducted, including mulching for one year (M1, two years (M2, three years (M3 and no-mulching management (NM. Soil nutrient contents, enzyme activities and microbial biomass were determined. With the increase of mulching years, the soil pH value gradually reduced, causing soil acidification, but the content of soil organic matter was inclined to ascend. Soil total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP and total potassium (TK contents showed an increasing trend, and they were significantly higher in mulching stands than those in NM (p < 0.05. Contents of soil available nutrients (AN, AP and AK increased, then decreased with the increase of mulching years and peaked in M1. With the increase of mulching years, the soil stoichiometry ratio (C/N, C/P and N/P gradually increased. Soil invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities presented a single-peak curve and reached the maximum within one year after mulching. Total microbial biomass and that of individual groups changed greatly after mulching. Soil microbial biomass increased first and then decreased, and it was the largest in M1. The fungi:bacteria ratio decreased in the first year and then began to rise, while the aerobic:anaerobic ratio showed the opposite trend. According to the overall results, M3 leads to soil acidification, imbalance of the nutrients’ proportion, abnormal enzyme activity and change of soil microbial flora, and rotated mulching

  14. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant.

  15. Genetic Population Structure and Demographic History of the Widespread Common Shipworm Teredo navalis Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Teredinidae in European Waters Inferred from Mitochondrial COI Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Weigelt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first documented scientific reports of the common marine shipworm Teredo navalis (Bivalvia for Central European waters date back to the time between 1700 and 1730 in the Netherlands. During the following centuries there were several irregular mass occurrences reported for both the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These events were accompanied by massive destruction of wooden ships and coastal protection structures. In this study, the first population analysis of T. navalis is presented with the aim to detect the genetic population structure in the waters of Central Europe. The mtDNA COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I locus was found as suitable molecular marker and hence a 675 bp gene fragment was studied. A total of 352 T. navalis specimens from 13 different sampling sites distributed across Central Europe were examined. Subsequently, various population genetic indices including FST values and an AMOVA analysis were applied for the description of the population structure. To visualize the distribution of haplotypes at the different sampling sites two median-joining networks were calculated. In addition, the past demographic structure of the T. navalis population was analyzed, among others by calculating Tajima's D, Fu's F and the mismatch distribution. Finally, all computations of the population genetic indices could not reveal differentiated populations or any kind of distinct population structure in T. navalis. The network analyses revealed “star-like” patterns without differentiated substructures or demes. Therefore, it can be assumed that a sudden expansion of this species took place without any indications of neither a bottleneck nor a founder effect for the study area. The results of this study support the concept of a regional panmictic population in the waters of Central Europe with unhindered migration of individuals (e.g., via pelagic larvae between the various sampling sites as reflected by a high gene flow.

  16. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of SBP-like transcription factor genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Wang, Yue; Liu, Huanglong; Wu, Min; Chu, Wenyuan; Chen, Danmei; Xiang, Yan

    2017-06-27

    The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) that function in a variety of developmental processes including growth, flower development, and signal transduction. SPL proteins are encoded by a gene family, and these genes have been characterized in two model grass species, Zea mays and Oryza sativa. The SPL gene family has not been well studied in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), a woody grass species. We identified 32 putative PeSPL genes in the P. edulis genome. Phylogenetic analysis arranged the PeSPL protein sequences in eight groups. Similarly, phylogenetic analysis of the SBP-like and SBP proteins from rice and maize clustered them into eight groups analogous to those from P. edulis. Furthermore, the deduced PeSPL proteins in each group contained very similar conserved sequence motifs. Our analyses indicate that the PeSPL genes experienced a large-scale duplication event ~15 million years ago (MYA), and that divergence between the PeSPL and OsSPL genes occurred 34 MYA. The stress-response expression profiles and tissue-specificity of the putative PeSPL gene promoter regions showed that SPL genes in moso bamboo have potential biological functions in stress resistance as well as in growth and development. We therefore examined PeSPL gene expression in response to different plant hormone and drought (polyethylene glycol-6000; PEG) treatments to mimic biotic and abiotic stresses. Expression of three (PeSPL10, -12, -17), six (PeSPL1, -10, -12, -17, -20, -31), and nine (PeSPL5, -8, -9, -14, -15, -19, -20, -31, -32) genes remained relatively stable after treating with salicylic acid (SA), gibberellic acid (GA), and PEG, respectively, while the expression patterns of other genes changed. In addition, analysis of tissue-specific expression of the moso bamboo SPL genes during development showed differences in their spatiotemporal expression patterns, and many were expressed at high levels in flowers and

  17. Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Inhibitor of Alpha Glucosidase Isolated from Ganyong (Canna Edulis) and Kimpul (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Rifa; Miftakhussolikhah; Frediansyah, Andri; Lailatul Rachmah, Desy

    2017-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a disease that caused by the failure of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas and insulin resistance in peripheral levels. One therapy for diabetics is by inhibiting the activity of α-glucosidase. Lactic acid bacteria have the ability to inhibit of α-glucosidase activity. The aims of this research was to isolation and screening of lactic acid bacteria from ganyong tuber (Canna Edulis) and kimpul tuber (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), which has the ability to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase. Eightteen isolates were identified as lactic acid bacteria and all of them could inhibit the activity of α-glukosidase. The GN 8 isolate was perform the highest inhibition acivity.

  18. Variations in Element Levels Accumulated in Different Parts of Boletus edulis Collected from Central Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ICP-AES and microwave assisted digestion were applied to determine P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Na, Cu, Ba, Ni, V, Cd, Sr, Co, and Li in the caps and stipes of Boletus edulis collected from six spatially distant sites in Yunnan province, China. Fruiting bodies of King Bolete are abundant in P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Na, followed by Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co. Contents of P, Mg, Zn, and Cu are more abundant in caps than in stipes of King Bolete. However, elements such as Na, Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co prefer to accumulate in stipes of mushrooms from Yaoan, Chuxiong. The results of this study indicate that spatial variations of elements between caps and stipes are mainly related to different bedrock soil geochemistry and enrichment capability for various elements.

  19. A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis Frosk., (Celastraceae) on metabolic syndrome in WOKW rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Samira Abdulla; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2008-04-10

    This study investigated the effect of Catha edulis (khat) on some important parameters of the metabolic syndrome in Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (WOKW) rat. The animals were fed with the standard chow containing 5% air dried pulverized khat leaves for 14 days; followed by the standard chow for 16 days. The khat leaves were sorted into green (khat light; KL) and crimson (khat dark; KD) leaves. The control rats were fed on standard chow. Blood glucose (G), serum insulin, serum leptin and serum lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-, LDL-, and VLDL cholesterol) were determined. Feeding with khat leaves reduced the body weight and the triglyceride level of the animals. The effect of KD on these parameters was stronger than that of KL. KD lowered the blood glucose concentration and the leptin content whereas KL was inactive. The khat intake had no significant influence on serum insulin, total serum cholesterol, HDL-, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol.

  20. Effect of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) extracts on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiky, F K; Abou-Karam, M A; Afify, E A

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) on blood glucose levels both in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Treatment with both extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ diabetic rats during the first three hours of treatment. L. aegyptiaca extract decreased blood glucose level with a potency similar to that of the biguanide, metformin. The total glycaemic areas were 589.61 +/- 45.62 mg/dl/3 h and 660.38 +/- 64.44 mg/dl/3 h for L. aegyptiaca and metformin, respectively, vs. 816.73 +/- 43.21 mg/dl/3 h for the control (P < 0.05). On the other hand, in normal rats, both treatments produced insignificant changes in blood glucose levels compared to glibenclamide treatment.

  1. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The physiological effects of oil, dispersant and dispersed oil on the bay mussel, Mytilus trossulus, in Arctic/Subarctic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L

    2018-06-01

    Increasing oil development around Alaska and other Arctic regions elevates the risk for another oil spill. Dispersants are used to mitigate the impact of an oil spill by accelerating natural degradation processes, but the reduced hydrophobicity of dispersed oil may increase its bioavailability to marine organisms. There is limited research on the effect of dispersed oil on cold water species and ecosystems. Therefore, spiked exposure tests were conducted with bay mussels (Mytilus trossulus) in seawater with non-dispersed oil, Corexit 9500 and oil dispersed with different concentrations of Corexit 9500. After three weeks of exposure, acute and chronic physiological impacts were determined. The majority of physiological responses occurred during the first seven days of exposure, with mussels exhibiting significant cytochrome P450 activity, superoxide dismutase activity and heat shock protein levels. Mussels exposed to non-dispersed oil also experienced immune suppression, reduced transcription and higher levels of mortality. After 21 days, mussels in all treatments exhibited evidence of genetic damage, tissue loss and a continued stress response. Bay mussels are useful as indicators of ecosystem health and recovery, and this study was an important step in understanding how non-dispersed oil, dispersant and dispersed oil affect the physiology of this sentinel species in Arctic/subarctic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: seawater and food exposure pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Houlbrèque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhaënsli, François; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838+/-0.175 ng g(-1) (mean+/-asymptotic standard error, p food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Cytosolic Glutathione Transferases from Three Bivalve Species: Corbicula fluminea, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anodonta cygnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension-feeding bivalves are considered efficient toxin vectors with a relative insensitivity to toxicants compared to other aquatic organisms. This fact highlights the potential role of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs, in this bivalve resistance. Nevertheless, the GST system has not been extensively described in these organisms. In the present study, cytosolic GSTs isoforms (cGST were surveyed in three bivalves with different habitats and life strategies: Corbicula fluminea, Anodonta cygnea and Mytilus galloprovincialis. GSTs were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, and the collection of expressed cGST classes of each bivalve were identified using a proteomic approach. All the purified extracts were also characterized kinetically. Results reveal variations in cGST subunits collection (diversity and properties between the three tested bivalves. Using proteomics, four pi-class and two sigma-class GST subunits were identified in M. galloprovincialis. C. fluminea also yielded four pi-class and one sigma-class GST subunits. For A. cygnea, two mu-class and one pi-class GST subunits were identified, these being the first record of GSTs from these freshwater mussels. The affinity purified extracts also show differences regarding enzymatic behavior among species. The variations found in cGST collection and kinetics might justify diverse selective advantages for each bivalve organism.

  5. Where to settle--settlement preferences of Mytilus galloprovincialis and choice of habitat at a micro spatial scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available The global mussel aquaculture industry uses specialised spat catching and nursery culture ropes made of multi-filament synthetic and natural fibres to optimise settlement and retention of mussels for on-growing. However, the settlement ecology and preferences of mussels are poorly understood and only sparse information exists in a commercial context. This study quantified the settlement preferences of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis on increasingly complex surfaces and settlement locations at a micro spatial scale on and within ropes under commercial hatchery operating conditions using optical microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT. M. galloprovincialis has clear settlement preferences for more complex materials and high selectivity for settlement sites from the pediveliger through to the plantigrade stage. Pediveligers of M. galloprovincialis initially settle inside specialised culture ropes. Larger pediveligers were located close to the exterior of ropes as they increased in size over time. In contrast, smaller individuals were located deeper inside of the ropes over time. This study demonstrates that X-ray µCT is an excellent non-destructive technique for mapping settlement and attachment sites of individuals as early as one day post settlement, and quantifies the number and location of settled individuals on and within ropes as a tool to understand and optimise settlement in complex multi-dimensional materials and environments.

  6. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vihtakari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA. Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH and 7.6 (2100 level by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm. Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ≈20 °C and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71% and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%, possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70% and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%. We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.

  7. The role of temperature in determining species' vulnerability to ocean acidification: a case study using Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy J Kroeker

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is occurring across a backdrop of concurrent environmental changes that may in turn influence species' responses to OA. Temperature affects many fundamental biological processes and governs key reactions in the seawater carbonate system. It therefore has the potential to offset or exacerbate the effects of OA. While initial studies have examined the combined impacts of warming and OA for a narrow range of climate change scenarios, our mechanistic understanding of the interactive effects of temperature and OA remains limited. Here, we use the blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, as a model species to test how OA affects the growth of a calcifying invertebrate across a wide range of temperatures encompassing their thermal optimum. Mussels were exposed in the laboratory to a factorial combination of low and high pCO2 (400 and 1200 µatm CO2 and temperatures (12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 24°C for one month. Results indicate that the effects of OA on shell growth are highly dependent on temperature. Although high CO2 significantly reduced mussel growth at 14°C, this effect gradually lessened with successive warming to 20°C, illustrating how moderate warming can mediate the effects of OA through temperature's effects on both physiology and seawater geochemistry. Furthermore, the mussels grew thicker shells in warmer conditions independent of CO2 treatment. Together, these results highlight the importance of considering the physiological and geochemical interactions between temperature and carbonate chemistry when interpreting species' vulnerability to OA.

  8. Spawning and multiple end points of the embryo-larval bioassay of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resgalla, Charrid

    2016-10-01

    Since the 1960s, little has been done to improve and simulate the use of short-duration chronic bioassays of bivalve embryos, particularly in mussels. However, these test organisms offer great advantages in relation to other groups, due to the ease of obtaining breeders in cultivation systems, in the environment and any time, and due to their high sensitivity to chemicals or contaminants. To contribute some methodological aspects, this study uses techniques to stimulate spawning or improve the obtaining of gametes for use in bioassays with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. It also evaluates different criteria for determining the effect on the larvae, for estimation of EC 50 and NOEC values, based on morphological analysis of developmental delay and the biometrics of the larvae. KCl proved to be a reliable inducer of spawning, with positive responses in 10 of the 12 months of the year tested. Moreover, this chemical, in association with NH 4 Cl, demonstrated the capacity to activate immature oocytes obtained from extirpated gonads, enabling an improvement in fertilization rates. The different criteria adopted to determine the effects on the larvae in the assays with reference toxicants (SDS and K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) resulted in EC 50 and NOEC values without significant differences, indicating reliability in the results and freedom in the choice of criteria of effect to be adopted in the trials.

  9. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  10. Effects of some environmental parameters on catalase activity measured in the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to lindane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khessiba, Asma [Laboratoire de Bio-surveillance de l' Environnement, Unite d' Ecologie Cotiere, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021, Zarzouna (Tunisia); Romeo, Michele [UMR INRA-UNSA 1112, ROSE - Reponse des Organismes aux Stress Environnementaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 71, 06108, Nice Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: romeo@unice.fr; Aissa, Patricia [Laboratoire de Bio-surveillance de l' Environnement, Unite d' Ecologie Cotiere, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021, Zarzouna (Tunisia)

    2005-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), collected from the Bizerta lagoon, were acclimated for four days to various conditions of temperature, salinity, photoperiod and food supply and then exposed to lindane at a concentration of 40 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Catalase activity, which is a biomarker of exposure to an oxidative stress, was measured in the whole soft tissues of control and assay groups. In control mussels, high temperature, high salinity and light duration significantly increased catalase activity whereas this activity decreased when food, composed of freeze-dried, algae was available. When mussels were treated with lindane, catalase activities were higher than in controls. This increase was significant with temperature, salinity and light duration. The food supply did not change catalase activity, which was always higher compared to controls. Oxidative stress was shown in mussels exposed to lindane. The results highlight the need of considering abiotic parameters in biomonitoring studies, and especially when using catalase as a biomarker. - Oxidative stress in mussels exposed to lindane was also influenced by a number of abiotic parameters.

  11. Biomonitoring approach with mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk) and clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve, 1850) in the Lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Delaney, Eugenia; Meneghetti, Francesca; Ros, Luisa Da

    2011-06-01

    Transplanted Mytilus galloprovincialis and native Ruditapes philippinarum were deployed in 10 sampling stations with different pollution impact within the Lagoon of Venice to evaluate the temporal variations and the suitability of the following cytochemical and histochemical biomarkers just as indicators of environmental stress: lysosomal membrane stability, lipofuscins, neutral lipids and lysosome to cytoplasm volume ratio. The physiological status of the organisms was also investigated by determining the survival in air capability and the reburrowing rate (clams). The biological parameters were assessed in June and October. Furthermore, for a better definition of the environmental aspects of the study sites, heavy metal, PAH and PCB concentrations were also evaluated in the sediments. As a whole, the biological responses examined in both species from all the sampling sites showed significant differences between the two seasonal campaigns, only lysosomal membrane stability exhibited less variability. Pollutants in sediments generally showed low-intermediate contamination levels, few hotspots persisting mostly in the inner areas of the lagoon, the most influenced by the industrial zone. Transplanted mussels were more responsive than native clams and the biological responses of both species varied temporally. The range of the spatial variability was always narrow and reflected only partially the broader variability shown by the chemical content in the sediments. In this sense, biological responses seemed to be particularly influenced by the high temporal and spatial heterogeneity that characterise the Lagoon of Venice, as well as most of the transitional environments.

  12. Interactive effects of nutrition, reproductive state and pollution on molecular stress responses of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Sokolova, Inna

    2017-10-01

    Marine bivalves including mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis are commonly used as sentinels for pollution monitoring and ecosystem health assessment in the coastal zones. Use of biomarkers to assess the pollution effects assumes that the effects of pollutants on the biomarkers exceed the natural background variability; yet this assumption has rarely been tested. We exposed mussels at different reproductive stages and nutritive states to two concentrations of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene, 3 and 60 μg L -1 ) for three weeks. Expression levels of the molecular biomarkers related to the detoxification and general stress response [cytochrome P450 oxidase (CYP450), glutathione S-transferases (GST-α; GST-S1; GST-S2), the multixenobiotic resistance protein P-glycoprotein (PgP), metallothioneins (MT10 and MT20), heat shock proteins (HSP22, HSP70-2; HSP70-3; HSP70-4), as well as mRNA expression of two reproduction-related genes, vitellogenin (Vitel) and vitelline coat lysin M7 (VCLM7)] were measured. The mussels' nutrition and reproductive state affected the baseline mRNA levels of molecular biomarkers and modulated the transcriptional responses of biomarker genes to the pollutant exposure. Thus, mussel physiological state could act as a confounding factor in the evaluation of the response of pollution through molecular biomarkers. The biomarker baseline levels must be determined across a range of physiological states to enable the use of biomarkers in monitoring programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the pharmaceuticals gemfibrozil and diclofenac on the marine mussel (Mytilus spp.) and their comparison with standardized toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wiebke; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Hernan, Robert; Quinn, Brian

    2011-07-01

    Human pharmaceuticals, like the lipid lowering agent gemfibrozil and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac are causing environmental concern. In this study, the marine mussel (Mytilus spp.) was exposed by injection to environmentally relevant and elevated (1 μg/L and 1000 μg/L) concentrations of both compounds and biomarker expression was observed. Gemfibrozil exposure induced biomarkers of stress (glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein) at both concentrations 24h and 96 h after exposure, respectively. Biomarkers of damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage) were significantly affected, as well as the biomarker for reproduction, alkali-labile phosphate assay, indicating the potential oxidative stress and endocrine disrupting effect of gemfibrozil. Diclofenac significantly induced LPO after 96 h indicating tissue damage. Additionally standard toxicity tests using the marine species Vibrio fischeri, Skeletonema costatum and Tisbe battagliai showed differences in sensitivity to both drugs in the mg/L range. Results indicate a suite of tests should be used to give accurate information for regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between physiological measurements (SFG -scope for growth-) and the functionality of the digestive gland in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albentosa, Marina; Sánchez-Hernández, Miriam; Campillo, Juan Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier

    2012-11-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the relationship between the functionality of the digestive gland and physiological rates including SFG (scope for growth) in wild mussels, Mytilus galloprovincilis. The experimental set-up consisted in the evaluation of changes in the morphology of the gland, as well as in the activity of some key digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase and protease) within a broad range of SFG obtained through manipulation of food ration. The higher SFG values were correlated to an increase in both the size of the digestive gland and the activities of enzymes when expressed in relation to individual. In contrast, no clear relations were observed when the activity of enzymes was expressed in relation to soluble protein, with the exception to amylase. The higher protease activities measured in mussels showing lower SFG may reflect an initial stage of catabolic processes intended to compensate the energy deficit produced by food restriction. The potential use of parameters measured in digestive glands in studies of marine pollution was discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of some environmental parameters on catalase activity measured in the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khessiba, Asma; Romeo, Michele; Aissa, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), collected from the Bizerta lagoon, were acclimated for four days to various conditions of temperature, salinity, photoperiod and food supply and then exposed to lindane at a concentration of 40 μg l -1 . Catalase activity, which is a biomarker of exposure to an oxidative stress, was measured in the whole soft tissues of control and assay groups. In control mussels, high temperature, high salinity and light duration significantly increased catalase activity whereas this activity decreased when food, composed of freeze-dried, algae was available. When mussels were treated with lindane, catalase activities were higher than in controls. This increase was significant with temperature, salinity and light duration. The food supply did not change catalase activity, which was always higher compared to controls. Oxidative stress was shown in mussels exposed to lindane. The results highlight the need of considering abiotic parameters in biomonitoring studies, and especially when using catalase as a biomarker. - Oxidative stress in mussels exposed to lindane was also influenced by a number of abiotic parameters

  16. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and arsenic on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic Sea using Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Mikelic, Luka; Barisic, Delko; Matasin, Zeljka; Lulic, Stipe; Pezelj, Durdica

    2006-01-01

    Results of two years monitoring of heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in soft tissue of Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are presented. Samples were taken at six localities (five exposed to various pollution sources and one control site) on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic in October 2003 and 2004 and in April 2004 and 2005. All measurements were carried out with source excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Method (EDXRF). Measured concentrations were in the following ranges: Pb (2-7 mg/kg); As (4-30 mg/kg); Cr (1-2.9 mg/kg); Mn (2-13 mg/kg); Fe (53.4-719 mg/kg); Ni (0.8-5 mg/kg); Cu (3.7-11.1 mg/kg) and Zn (59.1-273 mg/kg). Maximum values of the most elements were measured in samples from the most polluted Vranjic region. Statistically significant difference among six localities (p = 0.05) was found for As, Fe and Zn while Mn, Fe and Cu showed significantly higher concentrations in spring period. None of the selected elements showed significant difference between the control and exposed regions

  17. Polonium-210 and selenium in tissues and tissue extracts of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Gulf of Trieste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristan, Urška; Planinšek, Petra; Benedik, Ljudmila; Falnoga, Ingrid; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms such as mussels and fish take up polonium (Po) and selenium (Se), and distribute them into different cellular components and compartments. Due to its high radiotoxicity and possible biomagnification across the marine food chain Po-210 is potentially hazardous, while selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the presence and extractability of the elements in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in the Gulf of Trieste. The levels of Po-210 in the samples ranged from 220 to 400 Bq kg(-1) and of Se from 2.6 to 8.2 mg kg(-1), both on a dry matter basis. Using various extraction types and conditions in water, buffer or enzymatic media, the best extractability was obtained with enzymatic extraction (Protease XIV, 1h shaking at 40 °C) and the worst by water extraction (24 h shaking at 37 °C). 90% of Po-210 and 70% of Se was extractable in the first case versus less than 10% of Po-210 and less than 40% of Se in the second. Such evident differences in extractability between the investigated elements point to different metabolic pathways of the two elements. In enzymatic extracts Se speciation revealed three Se compounds (SeCys2, SeMet, one undefined), while Po-210 levels were too low to allow any conclusions about speciation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis a tissue of choice for estimating cadmium exposure by means of metallothioneins?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspor, Biserka; Dragun, Zrinka; Erk, Marijana; Ivankovic, Dusica; Pavicic, Jasenka

    2004-01-01

    A study performed over 12 months with caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in the coastal marine zone, which is under urban pressure, reveals a temporal variation of digestive gland mass, which causes 'biological dilution' of cytosolic metallothionein (MT) and trace metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) concentrations. The dilution effect was corrected by expressing the cytosolic MT and metal concentrations as the tissue content. Consequently, the changes of the average digestive gland mass coincide with the changes of MT and trace metal contents. From February to June, MT contents are nearly twice and trace metal contents nearly three times higher than those of the other months. The period of increased average digestive gland mass, of MT and trace metal contents probably overlaps with the sexual maturation of mussels (gametogenesis) and enhanced food availability. Since natural factors contribute more to the MT content than the sublethal levels of Cd, the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis is not considered as a tissue of choice for estimating Cd exposure by means of MTs

  19. DNA damage as a biomarker of genotoxic contamination in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the south coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Catarina; Pereira, Catarina; Gomes, Tânia; Bebianno, Maria João; Cravo, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    DNA damage was evaluated in the haemolymph of Mytilus galloprovincialis from nine sites along the south coast of Portugal using the comet assay. DNA damage was low, in the same range of sites considered to suffer low impact from genotoxic contaminants. Even so, differences between sites, seasons and genders were found. Highest values were in mussels from the main estuaries and the fishery harbour, reflecting higher genotoxin levels, whereas the lowest values can be used as a baseline for future work. Non-contaminant related factors (e.g. temperature and oxygen) were also shown to influence DNA damage. Between seasons, highest values were in summer related not only to the increase of tourism in this region (∼10-fold), but also to temperature. Between genders, males were found to be more sensitive. The condition index was also generally higher in summer. Lipid peroxidation, another damage biomarker, was measured in gills to assess if there is any association between the responses of both biomarkers and if they are similarly affected by the same environmental conditions. LPO like DNA damage was higher in summer. This work confirms that DNA damage is a sensitive biomarker to discriminate genotoxic contamination, even in areas considered to suffer low impact from genotoxins.

  20. Assessment of pollution level using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: The case of the Gulf of Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristan, Urška; Kanduč, Tjaša; Osterc, Andrej; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Ramšak, Andreja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomarkers, stable isotopes and elements were investigated in M. galloprovincialis in successive years. • The studied locations in NE Adriatic revealed no sewage sludge pollution. • Concentrations of minor and trace elements remained constant during the last decade. • Highest concentration factors were obtained at the end of winter, except Zn. • Main As compound identified was arsenobetaine. - Abstract: A multidisciplinary approach was used to estimate the pollution level of the marine environment in the North Eastern Adriatic by measurement of the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen (δ 13 C, δ 15 N), metal/metalloids analyses (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, including As speciation) in the Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well by using metallothioneins (MT) concentrations, micronuclei (MN) in gill cells and biological parameters (condition index and gonadosomatic index). Concentrations of MT were in the range from 44 to 175 μg g −1 wet matter tissue and were higher at the end of the winter season. The frequency of MN did not indicate an elevated level. Sewage sludge pollution was not confirmed. Elevated As concentrations in mussel are related to salinity and low nutrients concentrations and not to pollution. Elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the Bay of Koper in comparison with the Bays of Strunjan and Piran

  1. The neuropsychopharmacological effects of Catha edulis in mice offspring born to mothers exposed during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedada, Worku; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2010-02-01

    Chewing fresh leaves of the khat plant (Catha edulis Forsk) is a deep rooted and widespread habit in East Africa and the Middle East. Although a body of knowledge exists about the adverse effects of khat during pregnancy, data are sparse with regard to the consequences of long-term exposure during pregnancy and lactation. The present work, therefore, was initiated to evaluate the neuropsychopharmacological effects of Catha edulis exposure during pregnancy and lactation in mice at postnatal day 28. To this effect, a lyophilized extract of khat (100 mg/kg, K100 and 200 mg/kg, K200), amphetamine (1 mg/kg, positive control, AMP), and a similar volume of 2% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water (negative control, CONT) were administered daily to pregnant mice from gestational day 6 until weaning. Neuropsychopharmacological measurements were done by making use of a battery of neurobehavioural and cognitive tests. Moreover, toxicity to liver and kidney was also evaluated by determining biochemical markers for possible tissue damage. K200 produced significant motor in-coordination and emotional instability; as revealed by impairment in both cliff avoidance (p learning and the recall tests was observed with K200 and AMP. By contrast, both doses of khat and AMP equally affected performance in the Y-maze (p < 0.05). Alterations in the biochemical indices of liver and kidney function were also noted with AMP and K200. These findings indicate that khat exposure produces dose-related central and peripheral effects during pregnancy and lactation which might pose a serious impediment to the physical and mental development of the offspring. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  3. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  4. Understanding the Use-wears on Non-retouched Shells Mytilus galloprovincialis. and Ruditapes decussatus by Performing Wood Working Experiment: An Experimental Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumung, Laxmi; Bazgir, Behrouz; Ahmadi, Kamran; Shadmehr, Abdolkarim

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an experimental attempt to understand the use-wear comes on non-retouched shells Ruditapes decussatus and Mytilus galloprovincialis. These species have been selected due to their variation in shape, size and edge type. In wood working experiment Celtus australis wood is used to perform the activities like scrapping and cutting wood. The ESEM results show the usewears in the form of linear marks, edge rounding, edge facture, polish and micro-pitting. Experiments also showed some macro-fractures.

  5. Species biology and potential for controlling four exotic plants (Ammophila arenaria, Carpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata and Gasoul crystallinum) on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants can displace native flora and modify community and ecosystem structure and function. Ammophila arenaria, Corpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata, and Gasoul crystallinum are invasive plants present on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, designated for study by the Environmental Task Force because of the perceived threat they represent to the native flora. Each plant's native habitat, how they came to be at Vandenberg, their propagation, and how they can be controlled is discussed.

  6. Short-term feeding response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis exposed to diets containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Respuesta alimentaria inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis expuesto a dietas conteniendo el dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE M NAVARRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term feeding response of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis was measured using four diets containing different proportions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. The diets containing the highest concentrations of the dinoflagellate showed the greatest effect on the feeding activity in the mussel, with clearance and ingestión rates significantly reduced during the first hours of exposure. After this period, M. chilensis demonstrated a capacity to acclimate to the toxic diets, with feeding parameters reaching values similar to those of untreated control organisms. It was not clear if the negative effect on the feeding behavior was caused by the presence of the paralytic toxin, or due to the larger size of the dinoflagellate cells in comparison with cells of Isochrysis galbana used in the control diet. However, parallel studies with diets containing the nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium affine of similar size and shape to that of A. catenella, suggested the cell size was the main cause for impairment of feeding behavior. The capacity for acclimation to either toxin or cell size by M. chilensis makes it a good indicator species for the early detection of harmful PSP events, since its relative insensitivity to the toxin allows it to quickly recover normal feeding behavior and permits it to accumulate PSP in its tissues in a short timeLa respuesta inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis fue medida bajo cuatro dietas que contenían diferentes proporciones del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella. Las dietas que contenían las concentraciones más altas de este dinoflagelado mostraron el mayor efecto durante las primeras horas de exposición. Después de este periodo inicial, M. chilensis demostró la capacidad para aclimatarse a estas dietas tóxicas, con parámetros de alimentación que alcanzaron valores similares a aquellos de los organismos controles. No fue claro si el efecto negativo sobre la conducta de alimentación fue

  7. Relación entre las capturas de Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae y la temperatura superficial del mar en la Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vázquez Hurtado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La almeja chocolate Megapitaria squalida es un recurso pesquero con creciente importancia en el noroeste de México al registrarse un incremento en los volúmenes de captura. Sin embargo, esta pesquería ha observado variaciones importantes en las capturas que podrían estar relacionadas con factores ambientales. Se obtuvieron datos mensuales de producción de M. squalida durante 2002- 2005 y se estimaron series de tiempo de temperatura superficial del mar en la Bahía de La Paz B.C.S. a partir de imágenes mensuales derivadas del sensor MODIS-Aqua. Los resultados indican una relación positiva significativa entre la temperatura superficial del mar y los volúmenes de captura, razón por la cual nuestro trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar las relaciones entre capturas de Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae y la temperatura superficial del mar en La Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México.Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae fishery landings and temperature relationship in Bahía de la Paz, México. The clam Megapitaria squalida is a fishing resource with increasing importance in Northwestern Mexico. Nevertheless, this fishery has shown important variations that could be related to environmental factors. To assess this, monthly landings of M. squalida were analyzed during 2002-2005 for Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S., and were related with monthly time series of sea surface temperature, derived from MODIS-Aqua Sensor. The results showed a positive and significant relationship between sea surface temperature and clam landings. The likely impact of anomalous conditions of sea temperature on this resource is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 151-157. Epub 2011 March 01.

  8. Phytochemical Profile, Chemotaxonomic Studies, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Two Endemisms from Madeira Archipelago: Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Vítor; Castilho, Paula C

    2016-10-01

    Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae) are two endemic plants from Madeira archipelago, phytochemical compositions of which remains little explored, despite their use in folk medicine. Using liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry analysis, their polyphenolic profile was established for the first time. Fifty-six compounds were identified with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-O-(malonyl)hexoside, luteolin diacetyl, and quercetin-O-hexoside being the major constituents in the leaves of both plant species (≥ 0.76 mg/g of dry extract). Principal component analysis provided a suitable tool to differentiate targeted plants. Naringenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside, and 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid can be used as discriminatory taxonomic/geographical markers for M. edulis subspecies from Madeira and Porto Santo populations. This methodology of using polyphenols as chemotaxonomic markers proved to be useful for identification of plant species since the results are consistent with previous taxonomical data. The free-radical scavenging activities of the M. decipiens extracts proved to be higher than those of M. edulis, which correlated well with their phenolic content (R 2  > 0.906). © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  9. New insights into the molecular mechanism of Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction (BE3) concerning antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-05-24

    One of the relatively new and promising strategies of cancer treatment is chemoprevention, which involves the use of natural or synthetic compounds to block, inhibit or reverse carcinogenesis. A valuable and still untapped source of chemopreventive compounds seems to be edible mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes. Boletus edulis biopolymers extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography showed antiproliferative activity in colon cancer cells, but only fraction BE3, mostly composed of ribonucleic acids, was able to inhibit DNA synthesis in HT-29 cells. The present work aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction and in this sense flow cytometry and western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis in HT-29 cells. We found that the antiproliferative ability of fraction BE3 observed in HT-29 cells was associated with the modulation of expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, p21 and p27) leading to cell accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, the BE3 fraction showed effective silencing of the signal transduction in an MAPK/Erk pathway in HT-29 and LS180 colon cancer cell lines. Thus, the previously and currently obtained results indicate that the BE3 fraction from Boletus edulis has great potential and needs to be further exploited through animal and clinical studies in order to develop a new efficient and safe therapeutic strategy for people who have been threatened by or suffered from colon cancer.

  10. Impact of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.) on freshwater unionids (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Detroit River of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, D.W.; Kovalak, W.P.; Longton, G.D.; Ohnesorg, K.L.; Smithee, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the impact of zebra and quagga mussel (Dreissena spp.) infestation on unionids, unionids (Bivalvia: Unionidae) were sampled in the Detroit River in 1982-1983, before mussels invaded the river, and in 1992 and 1994, after mussels invaded the river. Live unionids at four stations along the southeastern shore accounted for 97% (20 species) of all shells collected in 1982-1983, whereas live unionids accounted for only 10% (13 species) in 1992. A similar decline in live unionids occurred at nine stations along the northwestern shore, except the decline occurred over the three sampling periods: in 1982-83, 84% (22 species) were live; in 1992, 65% (26 species) were live; and, in 1994, only 3% (13 species) were live. The difference in time to near-total mortality of unionids along the southeastern and northwestern shores is attributed to differences in the time of invasion and abundance of zebra mussel veligers in distinct water masses emanating from Lake St. Clair located immediately upstream of the Detroit River. Although individuals of all species of all unionid subfamilies declined between 1982 and 1992/1994, members of the subfamilies Anodontinae and Lampsilinae declined more than Ambleminae. Between 1986 and 1992/1994, five Anodontinae, three Lampsilinae and 0 Ambleminae species have been extirpated from the river due to dreissenid mussel infestation. Numbers of individuals of commonly found species declined more than numbers of individuals of uncommonly found species. However, the number of uncommon species declined 47% (17 to 9) along both the southeastern and northwestern shores, whereas common species remained the same (3 species) along the southeastern shore and declined only 40% (5 to 3 species) along the northwestern shore. This study, and others, suggest that high mortality of unionids can occur between 4 and 6 yr after initial invasion by dreissenids or up to 8 yr depending on water current patterns. Infestation-induced mortality of unionids in the

  11. Evaluation of tissue morphology and gene expression as biomarkers of pollution in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caging experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Federica; Palombella, Silvia; Pirrone, Cristina [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università dell’Insubria, Via Dunant 3, Varese (Italy); Mancini, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e Informatica Università di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania (Italy); Bernardini, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università dell’Insubria, Via Dunant 3, Varese (Italy); “The Protein Factory” Research Center, Politecnico di Milano, ICRM-CNR Milano and Università dell' Insubria, Via Mancinelli 7, Milano (Italy); Gornati, Rosalba, E-mail: rosalba.gornati@uninsubria.it [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università dell’Insubria, Via Dunant 3, Varese (Italy); “The Protein Factory” Research Center, Politecnico di Milano, ICRM-CNR Milano and Università dell' Insubria, Via Mancinelli 7, Milano (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes how marine pollution modifies the biology of aquatic species. • Measurable parameters at different levels of biological organization are introduced. • The evaluation of mRNA is widely used as a biomarker to highlight side effects. • mRNA expression, even if transient, can anticipate morphological changes. • mRNA is a useful endpoint for an integrated evaluation of marine ecosystem pollution. - Abstract: The ecosystem is being anthropogenically disturbed, which has serious consequences for the environment and human health, having strong social and economic impacts on the community. One of the most common methods to evaluate the effects of toxic contaminants is based on biomonitoring, e.g., placing Mytilus galloprovincialis in the polluted areas investigated. In this study, we have combined two different methods, transcriptomic and morphological analysis, with the purpose of determining whether cell morphology and the ultrastructural organization of our animal model are related to gene expression in outdoor experiments. The most pronounced changes were observed in mussel gills and digestive gland for mRNA involved in protein machinery (18S, 28S and EF1), while HSP70, MT10, CYP4Y1, SOD1, and CAT mRNAs showed scattered modifications not related to the studied area. In agreement with 18S, 28S, and EF1 mRNA evaluation, optical and electron microscopy demonstrated an initial inflammatory response of the cells that can lead to apoptosis in the caged mussels in all the polluted areas. In conclusion, the application of a multi-disciplinary approach proved to be effective for assessing the biological effects of contaminations on the health of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in eco-toxicological studies. Although affected by several uncontrolled environmental variables, the assessment of mRNA can represent a useful endpoint for an integrated estimation of the overall threats to the sea environment within a field

  12. Evaluation of tissue morphology and gene expression as biomarkers of pollution in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caging experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Federica; Palombella, Silvia; Pirrone, Cristina; Mancini, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Giovanni; Gornati, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes how marine pollution modifies the biology of aquatic species. • Measurable parameters at different levels of biological organization are introduced. • The evaluation of mRNA is widely used as a biomarker to highlight side effects. • mRNA expression, even if transient, can anticipate morphological changes. • mRNA is a useful endpoint for an integrated evaluation of marine ecosystem pollution. - Abstract: The ecosystem is being anthropogenically disturbed, which has serious consequences for the environment and human health, having strong social and economic impacts on the community. One of the most common methods to evaluate the effects of toxic contaminants is based on biomonitoring, e.g., placing Mytilus galloprovincialis in the polluted areas investigated. In this study, we have combined two different methods, transcriptomic and morphological analysis, with the purpose of determining whether cell morphology and the ultrastructural organization of our animal model are related to gene expression in outdoor experiments. The most pronounced changes were observed in mussel gills and digestive gland for mRNA involved in protein machinery (18S, 28S and EF1), while HSP70, MT10, CYP4Y1, SOD1, and CAT mRNAs showed scattered modifications not related to the studied area. In agreement with 18S, 28S, and EF1 mRNA evaluation, optical and electron microscopy demonstrated an initial inflammatory response of the cells that can lead to apoptosis in the caged mussels in all the polluted areas. In conclusion, the application of a multi-disciplinary approach proved to be effective for assessing the biological effects of contaminations on the health of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in eco-toxicological studies. Although affected by several uncontrolled environmental variables, the assessment of mRNA can represent a useful endpoint for an integrated estimation of the overall threats to the sea environment within a field

  13. BaP-metals co-exposure induced tissue-specific antioxidant defense in marine mussels Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Qu, Mengjie; Ding, Jiawei; Zhang, Yifei; Wang, Yi; Di, Yanan

    2018-04-18

    Both benzo(α)pyrene (BaP) and metals are frequently found in marine ecosystem and can cause detrimental effects in marine organism, especially the filter feeder-marine mussels. Although the biological responses in mussels have been well-studied upon the single metal or BaP exposure, the information about antioxidant defense, especially in different tissues of mussels, are still limited. Considering the variety of contaminants existing in the actual marine environment, single BaP (56 μg/L) and the co-exposure with Cu, Cd and Pb (50 μg/L, 50 μg/L and 3 mg/L respectively) were applied in a 6 days exposure followed by 6 days depuration experiment. The alterations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level were assessed in haemolymph, gills and digestive glands of marine mussels, Mytilus coruscus. An unparalleled change in antioxidant biomarkers was observed in all cells/tissues, with the SOD activity showing higher sensitivity to exposure. A tissue-specific response showing unique alteration in gill was investigated, indicating the different function of tissues during stress responses. Depressed antioxidant effects were induced by BaP-metals co-exposure, indicating the interaction may alter the intact properties of BaP. To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the antioxidant defense induced by combined exposure of BaP-metals regarding to tissue-specific responses in marine mussels. The results and experimental model will provide valuable information and can be utilized in the investigation of stress response mechanisms, especially in relation to tissue functions in marine organism in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro; Houlbreque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-01-01

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109 Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109 Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109 Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g -1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109 Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109 Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  15. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  16. Development of Microsatellite Markers for the Korean Mussel, Mytilus coruscus (Mytilidae Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Suck An

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus coruscus (family Mytilidae is one of the most important marine shellfish species in Korea. During the past few decades, this species has become endangered due to the loss of habitats and overfishing. Despite this species’ importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for M. coruscus using next-generation sequencing. A total of 263,900 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on the 454 GS-FLX titanium platform, and 176,327 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 381 bp; 2569 (1.45% sequences contained a minimum of five di- to tetra-nucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 51 loci screened, 46 were amplified successfully, and 22 were polymorphic among 30 individuals, with seven of trinucleotide repeats and three of tetranucleotide repeats. All loci exhibited high genetic variability, with an average of 17.32 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.67 and 0.90, respectively. In addition, cross-amplification was tested for all 22 loci in another congener species, M. galloprovincialis. None of the primer pairs resulted in effective amplification, which might be due to their high mutation rates. Our work demonstrated the utility of next-generation 454 sequencing as a method for the rapid and cost-effective identification of microsatellites. The high degree of polymorphism exhibited by the 22 newly developed microsatellites will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of this species.

  17. Uncovering the Complex Transcriptome Response of Mytilus chilensis against Saxitoxin: Implications of Harmful Algal Blooms on Mussel Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detree, Camille; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Roberts, Steven; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis. For this, RNA-seq and RT-qPCR approaches were used to evaluate the transcriptomic response of M. chilensis to a purified STX as well as in vivo Alexandrium catenella exposure. Approximately 800 million reads were assembled, generating 138,883 contigs that were blasted against the UniProt Mollusca database. Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) involved in mussel immunity, such as Toll-like receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptors, and scavenger-like receptors were found to be strongly upregulated at 8 and 16 h post-STX injection. These results suggest an involvement of PRRs in the response to STX, as well as identifying potential, novel STX-interacting receptors in this Chilean mussel. This study is the first transcriptomic overview of the STX-response in the edible species M. chilensis. However, the most significant contribution of this work is the identification of immune receptors and pathways potentially involved in the recognition and defense against STX’s toxicity and its impact of harmful algae blooms on wild and cultivated mussel populations. PMID:27764234

  18. Depuration kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum: laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Mota, Ana M; S Simões Gonçalves, Maria de Lurdes

    2010-12-01

    The kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis, previously exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum, was studied under depuration laboratory conditions and over a declining bloom of the dinoflagellate in the field. The variation of the levels observed throughout the laboratory experiment was characterized by a fast depuration of B1, C1 + 2, dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3, possibly due to the gut evacuation of unassimilated toxins or microalgae cells, or loss during digestive mechanisms. Subsequent enhancements were observed for all compounds with emphasis to dcSTX and dcGTX2 + 3, pointing to biotransformation of the assimilated toxins. Then levels decreased gradually. A first-order depuration kinetic model fitted well to the decrease of B1, C1 + 2 and dcGTX2 + 3 concentrations, but not for dcSTX. Mussels exposed to a declining bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum exhibited a loss of toxins following the same pattern. Despite the low abundance of this dinoflagellate, a similar kinetic model was applied to the field data. The depuration rate of dcGTX2 + 3 in the field experiment (0.153 ± 0.03 day(-1)) significantly exceeded the value calculated in the laboratory (0.053 ± 0.01 day(-1)), while smaller differences were obtained for B1 (0.071 ± 0.02 and 0.048 ± 0.01 day(-1)) and similar values for C1 + 2 (0.082 ± 0.03 and 0.080 ± 0.03 day(-1)). The slower depuration rate of dcGTX2 + 3 in the heavily contaminated mussels at the laboratory may be related to a more effective contribution of C1 + 2 biotransformation.

  19. Antioxidant response of the hard shelled mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to reduced pH and oxygen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yanming; Hu, Menghong; Shang, Yueyong; Wu, Fangli; Huang, Xizhi; Dupont, Sam; Storch, Daniela; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Li, Jiale; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2017-03-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are increasing worldwide problems, their interactive effects have not been well clarified, although their co-occurrence is prevalent. The East China Sea (the Yangtze River estuary area) suffers from not only coastal hypoxia but also pH fluctuation, representing an ideal study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia on marine bivalves. We experimentally evaluated the antioxidant response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3) at two dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (2.0mgL -1 and 6.0mgL -1 ) for 72h. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase and levels of malondialdehyde were measured in gills and hemolymph. All enzymatic activities in hemolymph and gills followed a similar pattern throughout the experiment duration. Generally, low DO showed greater effects on enzyme activities than elevated CO 2 . Significant interactions between DO, pH and time were only observed at superoxide dismutase and catalase in both tissues. PCA revealed positive relationships between most enzyme activities in both gills and hemolymph with the exception of alkaline phosphatase activity and the level of malondialdehyde in the hemolymph. Overall, our results suggested that decreased pH and low DO induced similar antioxidant responses in the hard shelled mussel, and showed an additive effect on most enzyme activities. The evaluation of multiple environmental stressors, a more realistic scenario than single ones, is crucial to predict the effect of future global changes on coastal species and our results supply some insights on the potential combined effects of reduced pH and DO on marine bivalves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of digestive physiology and biochemistry in Mytilus californianus in response to feeding level acclimation and microhabitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi M. Connor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus is a critical foundation species that is exposed to fluctuations in the environment along tidal- and wave-exposure gradients. We investigated feeding and digestion in mussels under laboratory conditions and across environmental gradients in the field. We assessed whether mussels adopt a rate-maximization (higher ingestion and lower assimilation or a yield-maximization acquisition (lower ingestion and higher assimilation strategy under laboratory conditions by measuring feeding physiology and digestive enzyme activities. We used digestive enzyme activity to define resource acquisition strategies in laboratory studies, then measured digestive enzyme activities in three microhabitats at the extreme ends of the tidal- and wave-exposure gradients within a stretch of shore (<20 m projected sea-ward. Our laboratory results indicated that mussels benefit from a high assimilation efficiency when food concentration is low and have a low assimilation efficiency when food concentration is high. Additionally, enzyme activities of carbohydrases amylase, laminarinase and cellulase were elevated when food concentration was high. The protease trypsin, however, did not increase with increasing food concentration. In field conditions, low-shore mussels surprisingly did not have high enzyme activities. Rather, high-shore mussels exhibited higher cellulase activities than low-shore mussels. Similarly, trypsin activity in the high-shore-wave-sheltered microhabitat was higher than that in high-shore-wave-exposed. As expected, mussels experienced increasing thermal stress as a function of reduced submergence from low to high shore and shelter from wave-splash. Our findings suggest that mussels compensate for limited feeding opportunities and thermal stress by modulating digestive enzyme activities.

  1. A novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of pi-class glutathione S-transferase from Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; He, Jianyu; Zhao, Rongtao; Chi, Changfeng; Bao, Yongbo

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the superfamily of phase II detoxification enzymes that play crucial roles in innate immunity. In this study, a pi-class GST homolog was identified from Mytilus coruscus (named as McGST1, KC525103). The full-length cDNA sequence of McGST1 was 621bp with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 70bp and a 3'-UTR of 201bp. The deduced amino acid sequence was 206 residues in length with theoretical pI/MW of 5.60/23.72kDa, containing the conserved G-site and diversiform H-site. BLASTn analysis and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested that this cDNA sequence was a member of pi class GST family. The prediction of secondary structure displayed a preserved N-terminal and a C-terminal comprised with α-helixes. Quantitative real time RT-PCR showed that constitutive expression of McGST1 was occurred, with increasing order in mantle, muscle, gill, hemocyte, gonad and hepatopancreas. The stimulation of bacterial infection, heavy metals and 180CST could up-regulate McGST1 mRNA expression in hepatopancreas with time-dependent manners. The maximum expression appeared at 6h after pathogenic bacteria injected, with 10-fold in Vibrio alginolyticus and 16-fold in Vibrio harveyi higher than that of the control. The highest point of McGST1 mRNA appeared at different time for exposure to copper (10-fold at day 15), cadmium (9-fold at day10) and 180 CST (10-fold at day 15). These results suggested that McGST1 played a significant role in antioxidation and might potentially be used as indicators and biomarkers for detection of marine environmental pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  3. Long-term variations of man-made radionuclide concentrations in a bio-indicator Mytilus galloprovincialis from the French Mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmasson, S.; Barker, E.; Calmet, D.; Pruchon, A.S.; Thebault, H.

    1999-01-01

    Results from a 14-year monitoring (1984-1997) of man-made radionuclide (137Cs and 106Ru) levels in Mytilus galloprovincialis collected monthly on the French Mediterranean coast are presented. In this area sources of man-made radionuclides are on the one hand atmospheric fallout from both the past nuclear testings and the Chernobyl accident and on the other hand discharges from nuclear installations located on the Rhone River banks, especially those from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Marcoule. Long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations in Mytilus demonstrated seasonal variations which are linked to the reproductive cycle of these organisms as well as to variations in land-based inputs of man-made radionuclides. A comparative study of these seasonal variations has been carried out with the aid of spectral analysis. Due to differences in released activities and discharge patterns, flow rates appear to govern mainly the 137Cs variations in the Rhone waters, whereas 106Ru variations are driven by the discharges. In the area under the influence of the Rhone outflow, 137Cs variations in mussels are characterized by seasonal variations which are themselves inversely correlated with variations of 137Cs concentrations in Rhone waters. This cyclic component seems to be closely linked to the mussel reproductive cycle. The possible influence of other parameters is discussed

  4. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  5. {sup 90}Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara [Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Maritime Branch, 42 Waszyngtona Av., PL 81-342 Gdynia (Poland); Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland); Wang, Yuanzhong [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2238 Beijing Road, Panlong District, 650200 Kunming (China); Falandysz, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.falandysz@ug.edu.pl [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-02-01

    The {sup 90}Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996–2013. Measurement of {sup 90}Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed {sup 90}Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the {sup 90}Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass in 1998–2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed {sup 90}Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Concentration of {sup 90}Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. In several other species from Poland {sup 90}Sr was at < 0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (< 1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. - Highlights: • Mushrooms are an important food in some regions of the world. • Radioactive strontium ({sup 90}Sr) in mushrooms from Europe and China was measured. • Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus from Yunnan in China accumulates {sup 90}Sr.

  6. Effects of pre-treatment, freezing and frozen storage on the texture of Boletus edulis (Bull: Fr.) mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska, Grazyna; Bernas, Emilia [Department of Raw Material and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, 122 Balicka Street, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present work was to determine changes in the texture of Boletus edulis resulting from blanching or soaking and blanching, freezing and twelve months' frozen storage. The texture was examined using instrumental as well as sensory profiling methods. Instrumental textural profile analysis (TPA) showed that, there was a reduction in hardness, chewiness and gumminess of 77-100% and an increase in cohesiveness of 121-521% after frozen storage, when compared to the raw material. Measurements using a Kramer shear cell revealed that the changes occurring at all stages of the investigation were similar. The end, the work required to cut strips of mushroom decreased by 3-32%, while the force increased by 27-110%. In the evaluation of texture through sensory profiling, the greatest changes in the characteristics listed occurred as a result of pre-treatment and frozen storage. There was a decrease in hardness, brittleness, crispiness and firmness of 0.7-3.5 points, accompanied by an increase in wateriness of 1.8-4.0 points. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail a ete de determiner les changements dans la texture de Boletus edulis, sous l'effet du blanchiment ou bien du trempage avec blanchiment, de la congelation et de l'emmagasinage gele pendant douze mois. La texture des champignons a ete examinee par des methodes instrumentales et le profilage sensoriel. Apres l'emmmagasinage gele l'analyse TPA a demontre il y a une diminution de la durete, de la mastiquabilite et de la gommalite de l'ordre de 77-100% et l'augmentation de la cohesivite de l'ordre de 121-521%, qu'en comparaison avec le materiau premier. Le mesurage dans la cellule detachee de Kramer a demontre que les changements apparaissant a toutes les etapes de la recherche etaient similaires. En resultat, le travail necessaire pour couper les cossettes du champignon a diminue de 3-32% et la valeur de la force a augmente de 27-110%. Dans l'evaluation de la

  7. "9"0Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The "9"0Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996–2013. Measurement of "9"0Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed "9"0Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the "9"0Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass in 1998–2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed "9"0Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. Concentration of "9"0Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. In several other species from Poland "9"0Sr was at < 0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. Activity concentrations of "9"0Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (< 1 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. - Highlights: • Mushrooms are an important food in some regions of the world. • Radioactive strontium ("9"0Sr) in mushrooms from Europe and China was measured. • Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus from Yunnan in China accumulates "9"0Sr. • "9"0Sr was at 11 ± 0 to 12 ± 0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass in caps of

  8. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIHIPERURIKEMIA EKSTRAK ETIL ASETAT DAN ETANOL BUAH SALAK VARIETAS BONGKOK (Salacca edulis Reinw. PADA TIKUS GALUR WISTAR [Antihyperuricemic Activity of Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol Extracts of Snake Fruit var. Bongkok (Salacca edulis Reinw. on Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Herliani Afrianti1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study was to determine antihyperuricemic activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extractsof snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw. var. Bongkok on Wistar male rats. Wistar male rats administered with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w ethyl acetat extract and 200 mg/kg b.w ethanol extract and simulationsly induced with potassium oxonate peritoneally and uric acid orally showed descreased uric acid serum level significantly as compared to control group at 6th and 7thhour (p < 0.05. Meanwhile ethanol extract at 100 mg/kg bw did not affect uric acid serum level significantly. Determination of uric acid level in urine of the rats, indicated that administration ofethanol extract at 200 mg/kg bw, orprobenecid as a standard at 45 mg/kg bw, increased excretion of urine uric acid level significantly as compared to control group at 7thhour (p < 0.05. Additionally, administration of ethyl acetate extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg bw did not show an increase of uric acid excretion in urine. Mechanism of action of the ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract as an antihyperuricemic agent has been proposed by inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity wich decrease the synthesis of uric acid. Hence, the mechanism of action of antihyperuricemia of the ethanol extract was suggested to be an uricosuric i.e. increases the excretion of urine uric acid and xanthine oxidase inhibitory.

  10. MISTURAS VITAMÍNICAS NA REGENERAÇÃO DO MARACUJAZEIRO AMARELO (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas Alessandra Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotilédones obtidos a partir de sementes germinadas in vitro foram usados como explantes com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois complexos vitamínicos e de duas concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na organogênese direta do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.. Empregou-se o meio Murashige & Skoog (1962 suplementado com as vitaminas MS ou B5 (vitaminas de GAMBORG et al., 1968 e 1 ou 2 mg. -1 de BAP. Foram testados quatro tratamentos, sendo cada um constituído de 60 explantes. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. Os dados, analisados pelo teste de Tukey, demonstraram que os meios de cultura suplementados com o complexo vitamínico B5 induziram gemas em mais de 70% dos explantes, obtendo-se até 8 brotos por explante, com um enraizamento superior a 90%. A análise de ploidia das plantas regeneradas indicou um número aparentemente normal de cromossomos típicos dessa espécie (2n=18

  11. Physical and chemical characterization of composite flour from canna flour (Canna edulis) and lima bean flour (Phaseolus lunatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Tryas, Anisha Ayuning; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi; Ariyantoro, Achmad Ridwan; Minardi, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    The diversity of Indonesian local food sources has potential to be developed for supporting food security based development of local food diversification. Canna tubers (Canna edulis) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) are two local commodities in Indonesia which under is utilization and has limited assessment to its characteristics. This study aimed at determining the best formula of composite flour based on physical and chemical properties of composite flour produced. There were three formulas, F1 for 85% of canna flour and 15%of lima beans flour, F2 for 70% of canna flour and 30% of lima beans flour and F3 for 55% of canna flour and 45% of lima beans flour. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. De Garmo analysis was then used to determine the highest effectiveness index from the three formulas developed in this study and F3 demonstrated the highest effectiveness index (0.545) among three formulas evaluated. Thus, formula (F3) was selected as the best composite of the flour developed from canna flour and lima beans flour.

  12. An Improved Micropropagation Protocol by Ex Vitro Rooting of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. through Nodal Segment Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Mahipal S; Manokari, M; Ravindran, C P

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for rapid clonal propagation of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. (Passifloraceae) has been developed in this study. Nodal explants were sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The addition of 2.0 mgL(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to MS medium caused an extensive proliferation of multiple shoots (8.21 ± 1.13) primordial from the nodal meristems. Subculturing of these multiple shoots on the MS medium augmented with 1.0 mgL(-1) of each BAP and Kinetin (Kin) was successful for the multiplication of the shoots in vitro with maximum numbers of shoots (25.73 ± 0.06) within four weeks of incubation. Shoots were rooted best (7.13 ± 0.56 roots/shoots) on half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL(-1) indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). All in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted by ex vitro method, and this has achieved 6-7 roots per shoot by pulsing of cut ends of the shoots using 200 as well as 300 mgL(-1) IBA. The plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse for 4-5 weeks. The hardened plantlets were shifted to manure containing nursery polybags after five weeks and then transferred to a sand bed for another four weeks for acclimatization before field planting with 88% survival rate.

  13. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis , Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  14. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  15. Composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa in natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Sandra Regina da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo in natura (Passiflora edulis comercializado em Campinas, Brasil, foi avaliada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Em todas as amostras foram encontrados os seguintes carotenóides: beta-criptoxantina, prolicopeno, cis-zeta-caroteno, zeta-caroteno, beta-caroteno e 13-cis-beta-caroteno, além de neurosporeno e gama-caroteno em alguns lotes. Em geral, os teores de carotenóides nos diversos lotes foram significativamente diferentes. Em dois dos cinco lotes analisados, o z-caroteno foi o carotenóide principal, contribuindo com 41 e 62% do total de carotenóides, enquanto que em outros dois lotes, o beta-caroteno foi o majoritário, com 55 e 74% do total e em um dos lotes o cis-zeta-caroteno esteve presente em maior concentração, com 29%. Este tipo de inversão entre os carotenóides majoritários não é comumente encontrado em frutas e vegetais.

  16. Canna edulis Leaf Extract-Mediated Preparation of Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles: Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Toxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otari, S V; Pawar, S H; Patel, Sanjay K S; Singh, Raushan K; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jai Hyo; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-04-28

    A novel approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Canna edulis Ker-Gawl. (CELE) under ambient conditions is reported here. The as-prepared AgNPs were analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission emission microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The AgNPs showed excellent antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including bacteria and various fungi. The biocompatibility of the AgNPs was analyzed in the L929 cell line using NRU and MTT assays. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was used to determine whether the AgNPs had necrotic or apoptotic effects on L929 cells. The concentration of AgNPs required for 50% inhibition of growth of mammalian cells is far more than that required for inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, CELE is a candidate for the eco-friendly, clean, cost-effective, and nontoxic synthesis of AgNPs.

  17. Sensory and Textural Characteristics of Noodle Made of Ganyong Flour (Canna edulis Kerr.) and Arenga Starch (Arenga pinnata Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, ERN; Ariani, D.; Miftakhussolikhah; Yosieto, E.; Angwar, M.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr) is a local tuber which highest amount of starch content, but has not been fully utilized well at present. One way to improve the usefulness of canna is to process it into noodle, but it needs arenga starch which has high amylose content. The aim of this research was to study the sensory and textural properties of noodle made from canna flour and arenga starch. Research methodologies consist of: (i) characterization of canna flour and arenga starch, (ii) noodle production, and (iii) characterization sensory and textural properties of the noodle. Noodle was made with five ratio variations of canna flour and arenga starch, i.e. 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; and 0:100. Sensory analysis was done by hedonic scoring method with attributes : color, stickiness, elasticity, firmness, surface smoothness and overall liking. Textural properties analyses consist of tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements. The results showed that canna flour and arenga starch can be used in noodle making process. Noodle with 25% of canna flour was the most favored product and has the best textural properties. Factors which affect textural properties of product are the amylose and amylopectin amount in each starch. Tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements of noodle with 25% of canna flour were 0,13 N; 41,61%; and 0,0115N respectively.

  18. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenolic Compounds, Amino Acids and Mineral Elements of Representative Genotypes of Lonicera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Sochor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis. A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC–UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during one growing season.

  19. Carpobrotus edulis methanol extract inhibits the MDR efflux pumps, enhances killing of phagocytosed S. aureus and promotes immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Hohmann, Judit; Viveiros, Miguel; Viveiros, Antonio; Molnar, Joseph; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Gracio, Maria Amelia; Amaral, Leonard

    2003-05-01

    Although alkaloids from the family Aizoaceae have anticancer activity, species of this family have received little attention. Because these alkaloids also exhibit properties normally associated with compounds that have activity at the level of the plasma membrane, a methanol extract of Carpobrotus edulis, a common plant found along the Portuguese coast, was studied for properties normally associated with plasma membrane active compounds. The results of this study show that the extract is non-toxic at concentrations that inhibit a verapamil sensitive efflux pump of L5178 mouse T cell lymphoma cell line thereby rendering these multi-drug resistant cells susceptible to anticancer drugs. These non-toxic concentrations also prime THP-1 human monocyte-derived macrophages to kill ingested Staphylococcus aureus and to promote the release of lymphokines associated with cellular immune functions. The extract also induces the proliferation of THP-1 cells within 1 day of exposure to quantities normally associated with phytohaemagglutinin. The potential role of the compound(s) isolated from this plant in cancer biology is intriguing and is currently under investigation. It is supposed that the resistance modifier and immunomodulatory effect of this plant extract can be exploited in the experimental chemotherapy of cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Khat (Catha edulis: The herb with officio-legal, socio-cultural and economic uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikiru Lamina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Khat (Catha edulis is a plant of uncertain and highly controversial status grown in the countries around the Red Sea and on the eastern coast of Africa. The chewing of khat leaves has a deep-rooted religious and socio-cultural tradition. Khat is considered a cash crop and its cultivation is a source of economic value to the societies and nations involved. There have, however, been reports of negative economic effects on the individuals engaging in the habit of khat chewing.

    The increasing use of khat worldwide, along with the negative international attention that this has garnered, has led to the present status of uncertainty of the once indigenous practice of khat chewing. Scientists, mostly western Europeans, have tended to focus on problems related to khat with little attention to the positive role of khat chewing in society and the world at large. In addition, no report has directly associated khat with any organised crime, violence or antisocial activity, particularly in countries where khat is legalised.

    This paper reviewed the various areas of uncertainty and controversy relating to khat. Based on the findings of the review, further qualitative and quantitative research is required and a positive international approach to khat use at economic, religious and socio-cultural levels is advocated.

  1. Sequence-Based Analysis of Thermal Adaptation and Protein Energy Landscapes in an Invasive Blue Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarman, Norah P; Kober, Kord M; Simison, W Brian; Pogson, Grant H

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive responses to thermal stress in poikilotherms plays an important role in determining competitive ability and species distributions. Amino acid substitutions that affect protein stability and modify the thermal optima of orthologous proteins may be particularly important in this context. Here, we examine a set of 2,770 protein-coding genes to determine if proteins in a highly invasive heat tolerant blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) contain signals of adaptive increases in protein stability relative to orthologs in a more cold tolerant M. trossulus. Such thermal adaptations might help to explain, mechanistically, the success with which the invasive marine mussel M. galloprovincialis has displaced native species in contact zones in the eastern (California) and western (Japan) Pacific. We tested for stabilizing amino acid substitutions in warm tolerant M. galloprovincialis relative to cold tolerant M. trossulus with a generalized linear model that compares in silico estimates of recent changes in protein stability among closely related congeners. Fixed substitutions in M. galloprovincialis were 3,180.0 calories per mol per substitution more stabilizing at genes with both elevated dN/dS ratios and transcriptional responses to heat stress, and 705.8 calories per mol per substitution more stabilizing across all 2,770 loci investigated. Amino acid substitutions concentrated in a small number of genes were more stabilizing in M. galloprovincialis compared with cold tolerant M. trossulus. We also tested for, but did not find, enrichment of a priori GO terms in genes with elevated dN/dS ratios in M. galloprovincialis. This might indicate that selection for thermodynamic stability is generic across all lineages, and suggests that the high change in estimated protein stability that we observed in M. galloprovincialis is driven by selection for extra stabilizing substitutions, rather than by higher incidence of selection in a greater number of genes in this lineage

  2. Microplastics as Vehicles of Environmental PAHs to Marine Organisms: Combined Chemical and Physical Hazards to the Mediterranean Mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pittura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous occurrence of microplastics (MPs in the marine environment is raising concern for interactions with marine organisms. These particles efficiently adsorb persistent organic pollutants from surrounding environment and, due to the small size, they are easily available for ingestion at all trophic levels. Once ingested, MPs can induce mechanical damage, sub-lethal effects, and various cellular responses, further modulated by possible release of adsorbed chemicals or additives. In this study, ecotoxicological effects of MPs and their interactions with benzo(apyrene (BaP, chosen as a model compound for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Organisms were exposed for 4 weeks to 10 mg/L of low-density polyethylene (LDPE microparticles (2.34 * 107 particles/L, size range 20–25 μm, both virgin and pre-contaminated with BaP (15 μg/g. Organisms were also exposed for comparison to BaP dosed alone at 150 ng/L, corresponding to the amount adsorbed on microplastics. Tissue localization of microplastics was histologically evaluated; chemical analyses and a wide battery of biomarkers covering molecular, biochemical and cellular levels allowed to evaluate BaP bioaccumulation, alterations of immune system, antioxidant defenses, onset of oxidative stress, peroxisomal proliferation, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Obtained data were elaborated within a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE model which, using weighted criteria, provided synthetic hazard indices, for both chemical and cellular results, before their integration in a combined index. Microplastics were localized in hemolymph, gills, and especially digestive tissues where a potential transfer of BaP from MPs was also observed. Significant alterations were measured on the immune system, while more limited effects occurred on the oxidative status, neurotoxicity, and genotoxicity, with a different susceptibility of

  3. Variation in abundance of Pacific Blue Mussel (Mytilus trossulus) in the Northern Gulf of Alaska, 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Coletti, Heather A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esler, Daniel; Dean, Thomas A.

    2018-01-01

    Mussels are conspicuous and ecologically important components of nearshore marine communities around the globe. Pacific blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) are common residents of intertidal habitats in protected waters of the North Pacific, serving as a conduit of primary production to a wide range of nearshore consumers including predatory invertebrates, sea ducks, shorebirds, sea otters, humans, and other terrestrial mammals. We monitored seven metrics of intertidal Pacific blue mussel abundance at five sites in each of three regions across the northern Gulf of Alaska: Katmai National Park and Preserve (Katmai) (2006-2015), Kenai Fjords National Park (Kenai Fjords) (2008-2015) and western Prince William Sound (WPWS) (2007-2015). Metrics included estimates of: % cover at two tide heights in randomly selected rocky intertidal habitat; and in selected mussel beds estimates of: the density of large mussels (≥ 20 mm); density of all mussels > 2 mm estimated from cores extracted from those mussel beds; bed size; and total abundance of large and all mussels, i.e. the product of density and bed size. We evaluated whether these measures of mussel abundance differed among sites or regions, whether mussel abundance varied over time, and whether temporal patterns in abundance were site specific, or synchronous at regional or Gulf-wide spatial scales. We found that, for all metrics, mussel abundance varied on a site-by-site basis. After accounting for site differences, we found similar temporal patterns in several measures of abundance (both % cover metrics, large mussel density, large mussel abundance, and mussel abundance estimated from cores), in which abundance was initially high, declined significantly over several years, and subsequently recovered. Averaged across all sites, we documented declines of 84% in large mussel abundance through 2013 with recovery to 41% of initial abundance by 2015. These findings suggest that factors operating across the northern Gulf of

  4. Indirect effects of climate changes on cadmium bioavailability and biological effects in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Alessandro; Mincarelli, Luana Fiorella; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Regoli, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Despite the great interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological functioning of marine organisms, indirect and interactive effects of rising temperature and pCO 2 on bioaccumulation and responsiveness to environmental pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular mechanisms. According to future projections of temperature and pH/pCO 2 , this study investigated the main cellular pathways involved in metal detoxification and oxidative homeostasis in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed for 4 weeks to various combinations of two levels of pH/pCO 2 (8.2/∼400 μatm and 7.4/∼3000 μatm), temperature (20 and 25 °C), and cadmium addition (0 and 20 μg/L). Bioaccumulation was increased in metal exposed organisms but it was not further modulated by different temperature and pH/pCO 2 combinations. However, interactions between temperature, pH and cadmium had significant effects on induction of metallothioneins, responses of the antioxidant system and the onset of oxidative damages, which was tissue dependent. Multiple stressors increased metallothioneins concentrations in the digestive gland revealing different oxidative effects: while temperature and cadmium enhanced glutathione-dependent antioxidant protection and capability to neutralize peroxyl radicals, the metal increased the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products under acidified conditions. Gills did not reveal specific effects for different combinations of factors, but a general stress condition was observed in this tissue after various treatments. Significant variations of immune system were mainly caused by increased temperature and low pH, while co-exposure to acidification and cadmium enhanced metal genotoxicity and the onset of permanent DNA damage in haemocytes. Elaboration of the whole biomarker data in a cellular hazard index, corroborated the synergistic effects of temperature and acidification which increased the toxicological

  5. Variación estacional de la composición proximal del mejillón Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae del Golfo de Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fonseca Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La extracción del mejillón Tagelus peruvianus representa una actividad económica complementaria de los pescadores artesanales, es una de las especies de mayor pesca y consumo ya que son una fuente importante de proteína, minerales y vitaminas esenciales para la población humana. Por lo tanto, se estudió la variación estacional de su composición proximal, índice de condición y contenido energético. Mensualmente, entre noviembre de 2007 y octubre de 2008, se recolectaron de 35 a 40 especímenes. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología recomendada por la AOAC. Los resultados mostraron que el índice de condición disminuyó en los meses de diciembre, enero y mayo, lo que indica que hay dos periodos de desove y una fase de reposo gonadal. El componente principal del mejillón es la proteína (61.9±4.3%, seguido de carbohidratos (15.7±2.4%, cenizas (14.0±1.9% y lípidos (8.5±1.7%. El contenido calórico promedio fue de 5.0±0.1kcal/g. La disminución en los valores de proteínas, lípidos y calorías coinciden con los periodos de desove. Se puede concluir que T. peruvianus presenta valores nutricionales óptimos para el consumo humano, por su bajo contenido de grasa y su aceptable contenido proteico.Seasonal variation in proximate composition of mussels Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae from the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Marine bivalves are a very important food source for human consumption, and species that has not been of traditional use as a fishery resource are gaining interest. Seasonal va