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Sample records for mystery zone mt

  1. A PIXE/PIGE study of lateritic gold mineralization from the regolith of the Mystery Zone, Mt Percy, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Van Moort, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    PIXE/PIGE have been utilized extensively in the search for gold and volcanic hosted massive sulphide deposits, using rock powders from relatively fresh rock. The present study uses regolith samples, from which weathering products (oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, sulphates and clay) have been removed by sequential treatment with aqua regia and sulphuric acid. The samples come from the Mystery Zone, Mt Percy, Kalgoorlie, comprising both mineralized and barren samples. The acid insoluble residue consist essentially of quartz with minor sericite. The PlXE/PIGE data from the acid insoluble residue shows that the geochemical character of W, Al, K, Ca, V, Ga, Rb, Rb/K and Rb/Al could correctly define the location of underlying mineralization at depth. The ratio of Ti/Zr remained relatively constant in different geological units and can be used to distinguish lithologies. (authors)

  2. A PIXE/PIGE study of lateritic gold mineralization from the regolith of the Mystery Zone, Mt Percy, Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Van Moort, J.C. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1998-06-01

    PIXE/PIGE have been utilized extensively in the search for gold and volcanic hosted massive sulphide deposits, using rock powders from relatively fresh rock. The present study uses regolith samples, from which weathering products (oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, sulphates and clay) have been removed by sequential treatment with aqua regia and sulphuric acid. The samples come from the Mystery Zone, Mt Percy, Kalgoorlie, comprising both mineralized and barren samples. The acid insoluble residue consist essentially of quartz with minor sericite. The PlXE/PIGE data from the acid insoluble residue shows that the geochemical character of W, Al, K, Ca, V, Ga, Rb, Rb/K and Rb/Al could correctly define the location of underlying mineralization at depth. The ratio of Ti/Zr remained relatively constant in different geological units and can be used to distinguish lithologies. (authors). Extended abstract. 5 refs.

  3. MT2D Inversion to Image the Gorda Plate Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Y. K.; Niasari, S. W.; Hartantyo, E.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetotelluric method is applicable for studying complicated geological structures because the subsurface electrical properties are strongly influenced by the electric and magnetic fields. This research located in the Gorda subduction zone beneath the North American continental plate. Magnetotelluric 2D inversion was used to image the variation of subsurface resistivity although the phase tensor analysis shows that the majority of dimensionality data is 3D. 19 MT sites were acquired from EarthScope/USArray Project. Wepresent the image of MT 2D inversion to exhibit conductivity distribution from the middle crust to uppermost asthenosphere at a depth of 120 kilometers. Based on the inversion, the overall data misfit value is 3.89. The Gorda plate subduction appears as a high resistive zone beneath the California. Local conductive features are found in the middle crust downward Klamath Mountain, Bonneville Lake, and below the eastern of Utah. Furthermore, mid-crustal is characterized by moderately resistive. Below the extensional Basin and Range province was related to highly resistive. The middle crust to the uppermost asthenosphere becomes moderately resistive. We conclude that the electrical parameters and the dimensionality of datain the shallow depth(about 22.319 km) beneath the North American platein accordance with surface geological features.

  4. Adapting Better Interpolation Methods to Model Amphibious MT Data Along the Cascadian Subduction Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, B. A.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) is an electromagnetic technique used to model the inner Earth's electrical conductivity structure. MT data can be analyzed using iterative, linearized inversion techniques to generate models imaging, in particular, conductive partial melts and aqueous fluids that play critical roles in subduction zone processes and volcanism. For example, the Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment provides amphibious data useful for imaging subducted fluids from trench to mantle wedge corner. When using MOD3DEM(Egbert et al. 2012), a finite difference inversion package, we have encountered problems inverting, particularly, sea floor stations due to the strong, nearby conductivity gradients. As a work-around, we have found that denser, finer model grids near the land-sea interface produce better inversions, as characterized by reduced data residuals. This is partly to be due to our ability to more accurately capture topography and bathymetry. We are experimenting with improved interpolation schemes that more accurately track EM fields across cell boundaries, with an eye to enhancing the accuracy of the simulated responses and, thus, inversion results. We are adapting how MOD3DEM interpolates EM fields in two ways. The first seeks to improve weighting functions for interpolants to better address current continuity across grid boundaries. Electric fields are interpolated using a tri-linear spline technique, where the eight nearest electrical field estimates are each given weights determined by the technique, a kind of weighted average. We are modifying these weights to include cross-boundary conductivity ratios to better model current continuity. We are also adapting some of the techniques discussed in Shantsev et al (2014) to enhance the accuracy of the interpolated fields calculated by our forward solver, as well as to better approximate the sensitivities passed to the software's Jacobian that are used to generate a new

  5. 78 FR 39707 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) Zone 44-Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... (Fragrance and Flavor Products); Mt. Olive, New Jersey Givaudan Fragrances Corporation (Givaudan) submitted a... materials and components and specific finished products described in the submitted notification (as... production equipment. The components and materials sourced from abroad include: cocoa beans extract (duty...

  6. Diagnosis of time of increased probability of volcanic earthquakes at Mt. Vesuvius zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotwain, I.; Kuznetsov, I.; De Natale, G.; Peresan, A.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-06-01

    The possibility of intermediate-term earthquake prediction at Mt. Vesuvius by means of the algorithm CN is explored. CN was originally designed to identify the Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) for the occurrence of strong tectonic earthquakes, with magnitude M ≥ M 0 , within a region a priori delimited. Here the algorithm CN is applied, for the first time, to the analysis of volcanic seismicity. The earthquakes recorded at Mt. Vesuvius, during the period from February 1972 to October 2002, are considered and the magnitude threshold M 0 , selecting the events to be predicted, is varied within the range: 3.0 - 3.3. Satisfactory prediction results are obtained, by retrospective analysis, when a time scaling is introduced. In particular, when the length of the time windows is reduced by a factor 2.5 - 3, with respect to the standard version of CN algorithm, more than 90% of the events with M ≥ M 0 occur within the TIP intervals, with TIPs occupying about 30% of the total time considered. The control experiment 'Seismic History' demonstrates the stability of the obtained results and indicates that the algorithm CN can be applied to monitor the preparation of impending earthquakes with M ≥ 3.0 at Mt. Vesuvius. (author)

  7. Diagnosis of time of increased probability of volcanic earthquakes at Mt. Vesuvius zone

    CERN Document Server

    Rotwain, I; Kuznetsov, I V; Panza, G F; Peresan, A

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of intermediate-term earthquake prediction at Mt. Vesuvius by means of the algorithm CN is explored. CN was originally designed to identify the Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) for the occurrence of strong tectonic earthquakes, with magnitude M >= M sub 0 , within a region a priori delimited. Here the algorithm CN is applied, for the first time, to the analysis of volcanic seismicity. The earthquakes recorded at Mt. Vesuvius, during the period from February 1972 to October 2002, are considered and the magnitude threshold M sub 0 , selecting the events to be predicted, is varied within the range: 3.0 - 3.3. Satisfactory prediction results are obtained, by retrospective analysis, when a time scaling is introduced. In particular, when the length of the time windows is reduced by a factor 2.5 - 3, with respect to the standard version of CN algorithm, more than 90% of the events with M >= M sub 0 occur within the TIP intervals, with TIPs occupying about 30% of the total time considered. The co...

  8. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  9. Vascular plants of Mt. Dosolsan in the Demilitarized Zone Civilian Control Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Bin An

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at identifying the distribution of vascular plants growing at Mt. Dosolsan in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do. Field surveys were conducted for each season from March 2014 to November 2016. The flora of study area is found to consist of 516 taxa, 91 families, 296 genus, 455 species, four subspecies, 50 varieties, and seven forma. Rare plants were found to be of 31 taxa. Among them, rare plant species consisted of critically endangered species (CR degree: 2 (Lilium dauricum Ker Gawl., Cypripedium macranthos Sw., endangered species (EN degree: 5 (Loranthus tanakae Franch. & Sav. etc., vulnerable species (VU degree: 7 (Dryopteris laeta (Kom. C.Chr. etc., and least concerned (LC degree: 17 (Botrychium virginianum (L. Sw. etc.. In all the surveyed areas, a total of 20 taxa (Pseudostellaria setulosa Ohwi etc. were found to be endemic to Korea. The floristic special plants found in the surveyed areas were two taxa of grade V, 24 taxa of grade IV, and 31 taxa of grade III. The naturalized plants were identified as 15 taxa and included Chenopodium album L., Lotus corniculatus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. etc.

  10. Mystery and Horror: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Billie R.; Troilo, Vivian

    This quinmester course guide focuses upon a course that explores various kinds of mysteries, including the detective story, the Gothic mystery, and stories of the supernatural. Discussion of specific criteria for evaluating the mystery story is emphasized. By capitalizing on the wide appeal of the mystery, it is hoped that students who seldom read…

  11. Java Performance Mysteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldikar Pranita

    2016-01-01

    The contributions of this paper are (1 Observing Java performance mysteries in the cloud, (2 Identifying the sources of performance mysteries, and (3 Obtaining optimal and reproducible performance data.

  12. Migration and interaction in a contact zone: mtDNA variation among Bantu-speakers in Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barbieri

    Full Text Available Bantu speech communities expanded over large parts of sub-Saharan Africa within the last 4000-5000 years, reaching different parts of southern Africa 1200-2000 years ago. The Bantu languages subdivide in several major branches, with languages belonging to the Eastern and Western Bantu branches spreading over large parts of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. There is still debate whether this linguistic divide is correlated with a genetic distinction between Eastern and Western Bantu speakers. During their expansion, Bantu speakers would have come into contact with diverse local populations, such as the Khoisan hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of southern Africa, with whom they may have intermarried. In this study, we analyze complete mtDNA genome sequences from over 900 Bantu-speaking individuals from Angola, Zambia, Namibia, and Botswana to investigate the demographic processes at play during the last stages of the Bantu expansion. Our results show that most of these Bantu-speaking populations are genetically very homogenous, with no genetic division between speakers of Eastern and Western Bantu languages. Most of the mtDNA diversity in our dataset is due to different degrees of admixture with autochthonous populations. Only the pastoralist Himba and Herero stand out due to high frequencies of particular L3f and L3d lineages; the latter are also found in the neighboring Damara, who speak a Khoisan language and were foragers and small-stock herders. In contrast, the close cultural and linguistic relatives of the Herero and Himba, the Kuvale, are genetically similar to other Bantu-speakers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated by resampling tests, the genetic divergence of Herero, Himba, and Kuvale is compatible with a common shared ancestry with high levels of drift, while the similarity of the Herero, Himba, and Damara probably reflects admixture, as also suggested by linguistic analyses.

  13. Hunting the mysterious Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    Parker, Andy

    1996-01-01

    The Higgs boson is the most mysterious of all the fundamental particles. It accounts for how other particles acquired mass just after the beginning of the Universe. LEP-2 and the LHC at CERN will hunt it down between them

  14. Genetic diversity of the Chinese goat in the littoral zone of the Yangtze River as assessed by microsatellite and mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Guang-Xin; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Chen, Li-Peng; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chu, Ming-Xing; Li, Xiang-Long; Hong, Qiong-Hua; Li, Lan-Hui; Guo, Ji-Jun; Zhu, Lan; Han, Yan-Guo; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Jiang, Huai-Zhi; Jiang, Cao-De; Wang, Gao-Fu; Ren, Hang-Xing; Jin, Mei-Lan; Sun, Yuan-Zhi; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of goats in the Yangtze River region using microsatellite and mtDNA to better understand the current status of those goat genetic diversity and the effects of natural landscape in fashion of domestic animal genetic diversity. The genetic variability of 16 goat populations in the littoral zone of the Yangtze River was estimated using 21 autosomal microsatellites, which revealed high diversity and genetic population clustering with a dispersed geographical distribution. A phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop region (482 bp) was conducted in 494 goats from the Yangtze River region. In total, 117 SNPs were reconstructed, and 173 haplotypes were identified, 94.5% of which belonged to lineages A and B. Lineages C, D, and G had lower frequencies (5.2%), and lineage F haplotypes were undetected. Several high-frequency haplotypes were shared by different ecogeographically distributed populations, and the close phylogenetic relationships among certain low-frequency haplotypes indicated the historical exchange of genetic material among these populations. In particular, the lineage G haplotype suggests that some west Asian goat genetic material may have been transferred to China via Muslim migration.

  15. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  16. Higgs : the mystery of mass Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    What causes particles to have mass? Why do the masses of fundamental particles differ so enormously -the top quark is more than 200,000 times heavier than the electron? A solution has been developed by several physicists and takes the name of Peter Higgs. According to this, the whole of space is permeated by a field, similar in some ways to the electromagnetic field. As particles move through space they travel through this field. The interaction between the particles and the field is similar to the action of a viscous force felt by a particle moving through a thick liquid. The stronger the interaction of the particles with the Higgs field, the more mass they appear to have. We know from quantum theory that fields have particles associated with them, so if the Higgs idea is right, there must be a Higgs particle. Finding it is the key to verifying whether our best hypothesis for the origin of mass is indeed correct.

  17. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization. Posi....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  18. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R

    2016-10-19

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often 'weird' features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. The mystery of reincarnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence.

  20. The mystery of reincarnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of “reincarnation” which literally means “to take on the flesh again.” As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was “East” and “West.” The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  1. The mystery of consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    1997-01-01

    It has long been one of the most fundamental problems of philosophy, and it is now, John Searle writes, "the most important problem in the biological sciences": What is consciousness? Is my inner awareness of myself something separate from my body? In what began as a series of essays in The New York Review of Books, John Searle evaluates the positions on consciousness of such well-known scientists and philosophers as Francis Crick, Gerald Edelman, Roger Penrose, Daniel Dennett, David Chalmers, and Israel Rosenfield. He challenges claims that the mind works like a computer, and that brain functions can be reproduced by computer programs. With a sharp eye for confusion and contradiction, he points out which avenues of current research are most likely to come up with a biological examination of how conscious states are caused by the brain. Only when we understand how the brain works will we solve the mystery of consciousness, and only then will we begin to understand issues ranging from artificial intelligence...

  2. Preservation of Permian allanite within an Alpine eclogite facies shear zone at Mt Mucrone, Italy: Mechanical and chemical behaviour of allanite during mylonitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenki-Tok, Benedicte; Oliot, E.; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the mechanical and cehmical behavior of allanite during shear zone formation under high-pressure metamorphism. Understanding physico-chemical processes related to the retention or resetting of Pb isotopes in allanite during geological processes is essential for robust......, and they were thus chemically and mechanically shielded during Alpine mylonitization. In undeformed samples (8a and 8b), two populations of epidote group minerals were found. Allanite forms either coronas around Permianmonazite or individual grains with patchy zoning. Both types yield Permian ages (208Pb/232Th...... age: 291±5 Ma). On the other hand, grains of REE-rich clinozoisite of Cretaceous age are found in undeformed rocks. These grains appear as small fragments with embayed surface outlines and minute satellites or rims around Permian allanite. These (re)crystallized grains are Sr-rich and show mosaic...

  3. Maximum Entropy: Clearing up Mysteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Grendár

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There are several mystifications and a couple of mysteries pertinent to MaxEnt. The mystifications, pitfalls and traps are set up mainly by an unfortunate formulation of Jaynes' die problem, the cause célèbre of MaxEnt. After discussing the mystifications a new formulation of the problem is proposed. Then we turn to the mysteries. An answer to the recurring question 'Just what are we accomplishing when we maximize entropy?' [8], based on MaxProb rationale of MaxEnt [6], is recalled. A brief view on the other mystery: 'What is the relation between MaxEnt and the Bayesian method?' [9], in light of the MaxProb rationale of MaxEnt suggests that there is not and cannot be a conflict between MaxEnt and Bayes Theorem.

  4. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...... the putative differences between the rat brain MT isoforms, namely MT-I+II and MT-III, in the freeze lesion model of brain damage, and for developing an ELISA for MT-III suitable for brain samples. In the normal rat brain, MT-III was mostly present primarily in astrocytes. However, lectin staining indicated...

  5. Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

  6. The mystery of the antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    The big bang created equal parts matter and antimatter. So what happened to all the antimatter?After years and years, matter and antimatter have turned out identical in every property tested. But there is one more particle, so little understood, that might harbour the secret behind our matter-dominated Universe - the mysterious neutrino.

  7. The Mysterious Southern Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. S.

    2004-05-01

    Something weird happened to twist the southern hemisphere out of alignment with the northern, as evidenced by the positions of the mountain ranges of North and South America, the Atlantic MAR, and the closure of West Africa to North America - all smooth were the torque reversed. What happened, and when, and why? We identify a number of global "cracks" of almost exactly the same length and direction, with some, even more peculiarly, turning the same angle, and proceeding an equal distance in the new direction. The Emperor-Hawaiian chain, the Louisville chain and the west coast of North America, as examples, are essentially parallel. Their northerly legs follow the angle of the axis of orbital ellipse. But then they all make equal 45 degree easterly bends, to 17.5 NW, and continue on, still parallel, for very similar distances. It is the same at the north coast of South America, and the mid-section of the MAR from 46W to 12W. It is the distance from the Cameroons to Kenya, from the south end of the Red Sea to the SE Indian Ridge at the Nema Fracture zone, from west to east of the Nazca plate.What is all this? Coincidence? Seeing things? Researchers have attributed plate motion or hot spot motion or both or absolutely none, to all of the above. Geophysicists have dated the surfaces from Archean to Pleistocene by all possible scientific means, certainly no possible correlation can be made. Yet we postulate the physical reality can be demonstrated. It is so global a phenomenon that it is well beyond what a hot spot or a plate could do. Even a really tremendous impact would have trouble making such precise geometric arrangements. So what is it - perhaps the angle of rotation, or the inertia of northern hemisphere mass above the geoid? And if so, then, what changed it? It would seem that some huge imbalance occurred. Suppose the whole bottom blew out of the southern hemisphere, and the center of mass drastically altered. Suppose some unknown universal force changed our

  8. Groundwater: from mystery to management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, T N

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science became recognized in its own right. Over the past two centuries, groundwater has lost its shroud of mystery, and its scientific understanding has gradually grown hand-in-hand with its development for human use. Groundwater is a component of the hydrological cycle, vital for human sustenance. Its annual renewability from precipitation is limited, and its chemical quality is vulnerable to degradation by human action. In many parts of the world, groundwater extraction is known to greatly exceed its renewability. Consequently, its rational management to benefit present and future generations is a matter of deep concern for many nations. Groundwater management is a challenging venture, requiring an integration of scientific knowledge with communal will to adapt to constraints of a finite common resource. As scientists and policy makers grapple with the tasks of groundwater management, it is instructive to reflect on the evolution of groundwater knowledge from its initial phase of demystification at the beginning of the nineteenth century, through successive phases of technological conquest, scientific integration, discovery of unintended consequences and the present recognition of an imperative for judicious management. The following retrospective provides a broad context for unifying the technical contributions that make up this focus issue on groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability.

  9. The mystery of the quantum world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, E.

    1986-01-01

    Quantum Physics is about the mysterious behaviour of the micro-world and the strange properties of the quantum theory which predicts this behaviour. An understanding of the quantum world goes beyond physics to philosophy, cosmology, psychology and theology. There are chapters on reality in the quantum world, quantum theory, quantum theory and external reality, consciousness, hidden variables and non-locality and, finally, the mysteries of the quantum world. It is intended for a non-specialised readership. (U.K.)

  10. Mystery photos: challenge No. 3!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen, Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    In recent weeks, we have been asking Bulletin readers to help us identify mystery pictures from the CERN archive.   Over 23,000 pictures have now been uploaded, more than 16,000 of which have been matched to some 1,100 albums. We have checked over 500 of these albums to make sure they contain the right pictures, improving and translating their titles as we go along. But we still need help in getting picture-level information.  The public response has kept up at a steady pace and we are still receiving many useful e-mails every day from all around the world (if you have sent us an e-mail, we promise to answer it as soon as possible). Especially helpful contributions have come from the many CERN retirees contacting us to share their memories, especially in terms of recognising individual people. But we are also very glad of the contributions from people who have experience working in similar technical fields who recognise pieces of equipment, or even people with no connection to CERN at a...

  11. The mystery of language evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D Hauser

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, 1 studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; 2 the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; 3 our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; 4 all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language’s origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward.

  12. The mystery of language evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

  13. The mystery of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marc D; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward.

  14. Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux, Natalie M.; Gresham, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Class-wide interventions such as the Mystery Motivator are an easy and effective way to remediate problematic behavior in the classroom and increase the level of classroom management. Multiple procedural variations to the Mystery Motivator intervention have successfully changed student behavior, but a systematic comparison of two procedural…

  15. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y; Takakura, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  16. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

  17. Radioactivity a history of a mysterious science

    CERN Document Server

    Malley, Marjorie C

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with an obscure discovery in 1896, radioactivity led researchers on a quest for understanding that ultimately confronted the intersection of knowledge and mystery. This book tells the story of a new science that profoundly changed physics and chemistry, as well as areas such as medicine, geology, meteorology, archaeology, industry, politics, and popular culture.

  18. Order and Mystery in Negotiation Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Linda L.; Bullis, Connie

    A preliminary study investigating the perceptions of intergroup relations in the bargaining process supports Kenneth Burke's concepts of order and mystery. Questionnaires, interviews, and direct observations of teachers' and school boards' teams involved in contract negotiations show that people closest to the bargaining saw more order in the…

  19. Mysterious quantum Cheshire cat: an illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, K.; Lippert, Th.; De Raedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We provide a mystery-free explanation for the experimentally observed facts in the neutron interferometry quantum Cheshire cat experiment of Denkmayr et al. [Nat. Comm. 5, 4492, 2014] in terms of a discrete-event simulation model, demonstrating that the quantum Cheshire cat is an illusion.

  20. The Cheops mystery targeted with neutrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.; Van de Graaf, A.

    2005-01-01

    How the ancient Egyptians managed to raise a seven million tonne pyramid in a time span of only twenty years remains a mystery. Every now and then discussions flare up as to how exactly the pyramids at Giza in Egypt were constructed. How could they cut stone without the necessary chisels? How did

  1. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  2. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  3. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  4. Tiny galaxies help unravel dark matter mystery

    CERN Multimedia

    O'Hanlon, Larry

    2007-01-01

    "The 70-year effort to unravel the mysteries of dark matter just got a big boost from some very puny galaxies. In the pas few years, a score of dwarf galaxies have been discovered hanging about the fringes of the Milky way. Now new measurements of the few stars int hese dwarfs reveal them to be dark mater distilleries, with upwards of 1'000 times more dark than normal matter." (3 pages)

  5. Naming the Mystery: An Augustinian Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Fitzgerald

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, by noticing Augustine’s constant questioning, shows that he often talks about not knowing and about his need for God’s help to know more. It is therefore better to see how he identifies the mystery than to focus on his answers, because he too recognizes his limits. His intellectual prowess can be seen more clearly when he “names the mystery” than by thinking that he has solved it.

  6. The fundamental constants a mystery of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist

  7. DNA analysis for mysteries buried in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Kanchan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the years DNA technology has proved to be a path breaking invention and this technological advancement in modern investigations will hopefully solve many more mysteries in the time to come. However, the developing world is lagging far behind owing to financial constraints and has resorted to relatively less reliable methods during investigations. Hopefully, developing nations too will follow suit in utilizing this technology to its potential.

  8. Ettore Majorana unveiled genius and endless mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    This biography sheds new light on the life and work of physicist Ettore Majorana (including unpublished contributions), as well as on his mysterious disappearance in March 1938. Majorana is held by many, including Nobel Laureate, Enrico Fermi, to have been a genius of the rank of Galilei and Newton. In this intriguing story, the author, himself a leading expert on the work of Majorana, supplements the existing literature with new insights, anecdotes and personal accounts of contemporaries of Majorana.

  9. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  10. The Pleasures of Reading Mystery Fiction and Mystery Readers’ Book Selection Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yen Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The mystery fiction is a popular pleasure reading genre in Taiwan. This article describes a grounded theory study that explored the reading pleasures and selection behavior of mystery fans. Based on the in-depth interview with 21 engaged mystery readers, this study identified seven types of reading pleasures, i.e., a sense of achievement from puzzle solving, feelings of amazement from the revelation of truths, satisfaction of curiosity for the unknown, a sense of compensation from seeing justice, senses of empathy and sympathy from identifying with the story characters, and the reflection of the social issues and values raised in the stories. The charms of mystery fiction may be systematically described by following four of Hudson’s (1910 conceptualization of fiction elements: i.e. the plot, characters, time and place, and the author’s view of life prevailed in the stories. In regards to readers’ selection behavior, this study identified four selection approaches commonly used by the experienced readers to discover works that possibly meet their expectations, i.e., the subgenre-oriented, author-oriented, series-oriented, and story-oriented approaches. In addition, six factors may influence readers’ selection of works, i.e., availability of expert comments, trust and confidence in the publishers, book award information, adaptation into movies or television, quality of translation, and first impression of the physical books.

  11. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  12. The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Helen R

    2008-01-01

    In the first fractions of a second after the Big Bang lingers a question at the heart of our very existence: why does the universe contain matter but almost no antimatter? The laws of physics tell us that equal amounts of matter and antimatter were produced in the early universe--but then, something odd happened. Matter won out over antimatter; had it not, the universe today would be dark and barren. But how and when did this occur? Helen Quinn and Yossi Nir guide readers into the very heart of this mystery--and along the way offer an exhilarating grand tour of cutting-edge physics. They explain both the history of antimatter and recent advances in particle physics and cosmology. And they discuss the enormous, high-precision experiments that particle physicists are undertaking to test the laws of physics at their most fundamental levels--and how their results reveal tantalizing new possibilities for solving this puzzle at the heart of the cosmos. The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter is at once a history of i...

  13. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    point scale evaluate the sentence from the point of view of the post-editor. The post-editor profile defined by the LSP is based on the experiences of introducing MT in the LSP workflow. The relation between the Translation Edit Rate (TER) scores and “Usability” scores is tested. We find TER a candidate......The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three...

  14. The problem of mystery in science and technology: a philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But now the contemporary man because of science and technology thinks he/she knows everything which leads to pride and arrogance - the ills of our society. Our method is textual analysis; it is a critical look at the works written on mysteries in order to learn from the mysteries, since we cannot understand it all through ...

  15. The Mystery Tour; Exploring the Designed Environment with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Richard C.; St. Clair, Alison Igo

    The Mystery Tour is a multi-sensory approach to the man-made environment. It is designed to acquaint children with historical significance of buildings and architecture and thus prepare them to participate in decisions concerning historical preservation. Developed through a grant from the national Endowment for the Arts, the Mystery Tour guides…

  16. Quantum physics and the beam splitter mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault, François

    2015-09-01

    Optical lossless beam splitters are frequently encountered in fundamental physics experiments regarding the nature of light, including "which-way" determination or the EPR paradox and their measurement apparatus. Although they look as common optical components at first glance, their behaviour remains somewhat mysterious since they apparently exhibit stand-alone particle-like features, and then wave-like characteristics when inserted into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In this communication are examined and discussed some basic properties of these beamssplitters, both from a classical optics and quantum physics point of view. Herein the most evident convergences and contradictions are highlighted, and the results of a few emblematic experiments demonstrating photon existence are discussed. Alternative empirical models are also proposed in order to shed light on some remaining issues.

  17. Patterns in Seismicity at Mt St Helens and Mt Unzen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Previous work on Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico) revealed broad-scale similarities in behaviour implying the potential to develop general physical models of sub-surface processes [1]. Using volcano-seismic data from Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Unzen (Japan) this study explores parallels in long-term behaviour of seismicity at two dome-forming systems. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes. Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1.5km from the 2004-2008 vent at Mt St Helens. A total of 714 826 individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October 2004 to 28 February 2006 (average 60.2 events per hour) using a short-term/long-term average algorithm. An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the 1991-1995 eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity. Preliminary analysis of seismicity from Mt St Helens suggests cyclic behaviour of subannual timescale, similar to that described at Volcán de Colima and Soufrière Hills volcano [1]. Frequency Index and waveform correlation tools will be implemented to analyse changes in the frequency content of the seismicity and to explore their relations to different phases of activity at the volcano. A single station approach is used to gain a fine-scale view of variations in

  18. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  19. Three Modes of Hydrogeophysical Investigation: Puzzles, Mysteries, and Conundrums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    In an article in the New Yorker in 2007, Malcolm Gladwell discussed the distinction that national security expert Gregory Treverton has made between puzzles and mysteries. Specifically, puzzles are problems that we understand and that will eventually be solved when we amass enough information. (Think crossword puzzles.) Mysteries are problems for which we have the necessary information, but it is often overwhelmed by irrelevant or misleading input. To solve a mystery, we require improved analysis. (Think find-a-word.) Gladwell goes on to explain that, in the national security realm, the Cold War was a puzzle while the current national security condition is a mystery. I will discuss the past, current, and future trajectories of hydrogeophysics in terms of puzzles and mysteries. I will also add a third class of problem: conundrums - those for which we lack sufficient information about their structure to know how to solve them. A conundrum is a mystery with an unexpected twist. I hope to make the case that the future growth of hydrogeophysics lies in our ability to address this more challenging and more interesting class of problem.

  20. The Mysteries of the Quantum World

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    As part of the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each of the lectures will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The sixth lecture, entitled 'Einstein's objections to the quantum computer', tackles a mysterious subject, one which Einstein had numerous doubts about. The lecture will be given by Professor Alain Aspect of the Orsay Institute for Optics. In 1935 Einstein discovered a mind-boggling property of quantum mechanics: entanglement, which conflicted with his realist and localised vision of the world. This led him into a heated debate with Niels Bohr. We now know that entangled 'twin photons', even when separated by distances of dozens of kilometres, have this extraordinary proper...

  1. Facts and mysteries in elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, Martinus J G

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern particle physics accessible to anyone with a true passion for wanting to know how the universe works. We are introduced to the known particles of the world we live in. An elegant explanation of quantum mechanics and relativity paves the way for an understanding of the laws that govern particle physics. These laws are put into action in the world of accelerators, colliders and detectors found at institutions such as CERN and Fermilab that are in the forefront of technical innovation. Real world and theory meet using Feynman diagrams to solve the problems of infinities and deduce the need for the Higgs boson. Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics offers an incredible insight from an eyewitness and participant in some of the greatest discoveries in 20th century science. From Einstein's theory of relativity to the spectacular discovery of the Higgs particle, this book will fascinate and educate anyone interested in the world of quarks, leptons an...

  2. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  3. Special report: Mt. St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mt. St Helens Volcano, Cascade Range, Southern Washington, USA (46.20°N, 122.18°W.) All times are local (GMT - 7 h through October 24, GMT - 8 h thereafter. Lava extrusion that probably began October 30 added a new lobe to the composite dome in the crater of Mt. St. Helens. After lava extrusion ended September 10 (see September 22 Eos), rates of deformation in the crater remained low for several weeks, as they had after earlier extrusion episodes. Sulfur dioxide emission ranged from 70 to 190 tons per day between October 9 and 24, but showed no particular trends. Inflation of the dome has caused small thrust faults to form in the surrounding crater floor. In early October the most active thrust, south of the dome, was moving at about 1.5 cm/d, and stations on the north crater rampart showed outward movement of about 0.5 cm/d. By October 24 these rates had increased to 14.5 and 3.5-4 cm/d, respectively, and leveling profiles perpendicular to the dome showed that crater floor tilt rates had reached 400-500 μrad/d, prompting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to issue an advisory prediction of renewed lava extrusion within the next two weeks.

  4. Modeling variably saturated subsurface solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and MT3DMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Langevin, Christian D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Healy, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    The MT3DMS groundwater solute transport model was modified to simulate solute transport in the unsaturated zone by incorporating the unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package developed for MODFLOW. The modified MT3DMS code uses a volume-averaged approach in which Lagrangian-based UZF1 fluid fluxes and storage changes are mapped onto a fixed grid. Referred to as UZF-MT3DMS, the linked model was tested against published benchmarks solved analytically as well as against other published codes, most frequently the U.S. Geological Survey's Variably-Saturated Two-Dimensional Flow and Transport Model. Results from a suite of test cases demonstrate that the modified code accurately simulates solute advection, dispersion, and reaction in the unsaturated zone. Two- and three-dimensional simulations also were investigated to ensure unsaturated-saturated zone interaction was simulated correctly. Because the UZF1 solution is analytical, large-scale flow and transport investigations can be performed free from the computational and data burdens required by numerical solutions to Richards' equation. Results demonstrate that significant simulation runtime savings can be achieved with UZF-MT3DMS, an important development when hundreds or thousands of model runs are required during parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and transport simulations revealed UZF-MT3DMS to have runtimes that are less than one tenth of the time required by models that rely on Richards' equation. Given its accuracy and efficiency, and the wide-spread use of both MODFLOW and MT3DMS, the added capability of unsaturated-zone transport in this familiar modeling framework stands to benefit a broad user-ship.

  5. New VLA Images Unlocking Galactic Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Astronomers have produced a scientific gold mine of detailed, high-quality images of nearby galaxies that is yielding important new insights into many aspects of galaxies, including their complex structures, how they form stars, the motions of gas in the galaxies, the relationship of "normal" matter to unseen "dark matter," and many others. An international team of scientists used more than 500 hours of observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to produce detailed sets of images of 34 galaxies at distances from 6 to 50 million light-years from Earth. Their project, called The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey, or THINGS, required two years to produce nearly one TeraByte of data. HI ("H-one") is an astronomical term for atomic hydrogen gas. The astronomers presented their initial findings to the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Austin, Texas. "Studying the radio waves emitted by atomic hydrogen gas in galaxies is an extremely powerful way to learn what's going on in nearby galaxies. The THINGS survey uses that tool to provide sets of images of the highest quality and sensitivity for a substantial sample of galaxies of different types," said Fabian Walter, of the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. IC2574M74 Dwarf galaxy IC2574, left, and spiral galaxy M74, in THINGS images. Credit: Walter et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click images for high-resolution files (33 KB & 25 KB) Spiral Galaxies in THINGS Most of the galaxies studied in the THINGS survey also have been observed at other wavelengths, including Spitzer space telescope infrared images and GALEX ultraviolet images. This combination provides an unprecedented resource for unravelling the mystery of how a galaxy's gaseous material influences its overall evolution. Analysis of THINGS data already has yielded numerous scientific payoffs. For example, one study has shed new light on astronomers' understanding of the gas-density threshold required to

  6. The mystery of Morgellons disease: infection or delusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savely, Virginia R; Leitao, Mary M; Stricker, Raphael B

    2006-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described more than 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in conjunction with various dermatologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this respect, Morgellons disease resembles and may be confused with delusional parasitosis. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibacterial therapy suggest that Morgellons disease may be linked to an undefined infectious process. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease.

  7. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...... guideline covering the themes of map, smoke and mirror as metaphors) has been extended to comprise a larger group of engineers and may be taken up in a company-wide way. The experiment was deemed effective in developing both a procedure for mystery shopping and a new way to train the consultants....

  8. Design and Testing of an Air Force Services Mystery Shopping Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Justin

    1998-01-01

    .... Other service quality measurement methods such as mystery shopping are rarely used. Bases do not consider using mystery shopping programs because of the significant resources required to start the program...

  9. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-01-01

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  10. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  11. Towards Uncovering the Mysterious World of Math Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    Homework has been a mysterious world to educators due to the fact that it is hard to collect data with regard to homework behaviors. Little is known about when a student works on homework, how long it takes him to complete the homework, how much time he spends on a problem and whether and where he has struggled, etc. Such information not only have…

  12. Effects of teaching with mysteries on students' geographical thinking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karkdijk, J.; van der Schee, J.A.; Admiraal, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Thinking Through Geography (TTG) strategies are popular in secondary education. Geography teachers see these strategies to be powerful to stimulate thinking geographically. However, empirical evidence is scarce. Based on a quasi-experimental design, effects of mysteries, one of the more famous TTG

  13. Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Left, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to…

  14. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  15. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARTICLE. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses. T Chandrasekhar is with the Astronomy and ..... Specialized instruments called coronagraphs, lo- cated at mountaintop ... Scientific studies of the solar eclipses began with the eclipse of. 1842 which ... a method simultaneously evolved by English spectroscopist.

  16. Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…

  17. Ordinary Dark Matter versus Mysterious Dark Matter in Galactic Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C. F.; Feng, James

    2008-04-01

    To theoretically describe the measured rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies, there are two different approaches and conclusions. (1) ORDINARY DARK MATTER. We assume Newtonian gravity/dynamics and successfully find (via computer) mass distributions in bulge/disk configurations that duplicate the measured rotational velocities. There is ordinary dark matter within the galactic disk towards the cooler periphery which has lower emissivity/opacity. There are no mysteries in this scenario based on verified physics. (2) MYSTERIOUS DARK MATTER. Others INaccurately assume the galactic mass distributions follow the measured light distributions, and then the measured rotational velocity curves are NOT duplicated. To alleviate this discrepancy, speculations are invoked re ``Massive Peripheral Spherical Halos of Mysterious Dark Matter.'' But NO matter has been detected in this UNtenable Halo configuration. Many UNverified ``Mysteries'' are invoked as necessary and convenient. CONCLUSION. The first approach utilizing Newtonian gravity/dynamics and searching for the ordinary mass distributions within the galactic disk simulates reality and agrees with data.

  18. Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 Classroom Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina

    2014-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…

  19. Internet Investigations: Solving Mysteries on the Information Superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracy; Brown, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a group of gifted primary-school children in New Zealand explored the Internet in a workshop project organized around solving the mystery of what happened to the Titanic. Insets include the student "contract," a listing of Web sites, and the evaluation instrument. (DB)

  20. Mystery shopping på Møn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter; Smed, Karina Madsen

    2005-01-01

    betragtninger ud af, som vil blive præsenteret i løbet af efteråret 2005 sammen med de øvrige resulatater fra den store undersøgelse af turisters og lokales opfattelse af de mønske oplevelser. Men hvad er mystery shopping egentlig, hvordan kan instrumentet bruges, og kan det bruges i destinationsudvikling? Det...

  1. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  2. The Mystery of Matter, World of the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, William G.

    This booklet is one in the "World of the Atome Series" for junior high school students and their teachers. It describes the fascinating story of the search for the key to the structure of matter. These topics are reviewed: the chemical atom of the 19th century, the planetary atom, the wave atom, inside the elementary particles, and the mystery of…

  3. Mammalian Prolactin – An Ancient But Still A Mysterious Hormone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Mammalian Prolactin – An Ancient But Still A Mysterious Hormone · Prolactin inhibits LHRH action during lactational ammenorrhoea · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · REDUCTIONIST VIEW OF HORMONES · CONCERN · PURIFICATION PROTOCOLS · CHARACTERIZATION OF HORMONES · Slide 9 · Slide 10.

  4. Teaching the TEMI way how using mysteries supports science learning

    CERN Document Server

    Olivotto, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In this booklet, you will be introduced to an exciting new way to teach science in your classroom. The TEMI project (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated) is an EU-funded project that brings together experts in teacher training from across Europe to help you introduce enquiry-based learning successfully in the classroom and improve student engagement and skills.

  5. Climate change projections: past and future mysteries of climate science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The history of climate change has been wrapped in mysteries. Some have been solved, and we await the outcome of others. The major mystery of 20th century climate was why did temperatures rise in the early part of the century, level off, and then rise rapidly again after the 1970s? It has only been in the past seven years that advances in climate modelling have allowed us to deconstruct 20th century climate to pull apart the separate influences of natural and human-caused factors. This has allowed us to understand the subtle interplay between these various influences that produced the temperature time evolution. Another mystery has involved extreme weather and climate events. Again, climate models have allowed us to quantify how the small changes in average climate translate into much larger changes of regional extremes. The biggest remaining mysteries in climate science involve the future, and how the climate will evolve over the coming century. Up until now, various scenarios postulating different possible outcomes for 21st century climate, assuming different types of human activities, have been run in the climate models to provide a wide range of possible futures. However, more recently the outlook for global warming is being framed as a combination of mitigation and adaptation. If policy actions are taken to mitigate part of the problem of global warming, then climate models must be relied on to quantify the time-evolving picture of how much regional climate change we must adapt to. Solving this mystery will be the biggest and most important challenge ever taken on by the climate modelling community

  6. Shallow to intermediate resistivity features of the Colfiorito Fault System inferred by DC and MT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade electromagnetic (EM measurements have provided new constraints on the upper-crustal structure of the major fault zones in the world, both when they act as conduit and as a barrier, due to strong sensitivity of resistivity to fluids circulation and mineralization. On the track of a high impact magnetotelluric (MT study performed across the San Andreas Fault, high resolution EM data were collected in the Colfiorito epicentral area along profiles crossing some main fault lineaments. Being the study focussed both on shallow that on intermediate resistivity distribution in the brittle upper-crust, a MT profile was integrated by several electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT. The latter were successful in locating faults even where the structures are buried by a wide covering of Quaternary deposits and in the recognition of different electrical signatures of the faults. MT resistivity model crossing Mt. Prefoglio normal fault clearly imaged the typical thrust structures of the area and a high conductive zone spatially related to the fault. Seismicity seems to be located outside such conductive area, whose behaviour suggests a fluidised and altered zone incapable of supporting significant stress internally.

  7. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  8. A sense of the mysterious science and the human spirit

    CERN Document Server

    Lightman, Alan

    2006-01-01

    From the bestselling author of Einstein's Dreams comes this lyrical and insightful collection of science writing that delves into the mysteries of the scientific process and exposes its beauty and intrigue.In these brilliant essays, Lightman explores the emotional life of science, the power of imagination, the creative moment, and the alternate ways in which scientists and humanists think about the world. Along the way, he provides in-depth portraits of some of the great geniuses of our time, including Albert Einstein, Richard Feynman, Edward Teller, and astronomer Vera Rubin. Thoughtful, beautifully written, and wonderfully original, A Sense of the Mysterious confirms Alan Lightman's unique position at the crossroads of science and art.

  9. The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, James E [University of Oregon

    2010-11-23

    The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

  10. Microcosm: Mysteries of the Universe and of computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the first week of December, two new exhibitions open in Microcosm: "Mysteries of the Universe" and "Computing@CERN". Ever wondered why the Universe is habitable? How many dimensions there are? Or indeed, where matter comes from? In Microcosm's new "Mysteries of the Universe" exhibition 20 CERN researchers reveal the question that intrigues them the most and why they find the search for answers so fascinating. The exhibition consists of 20 stories, told by the researchers themselves in one of 4 languages (English, French, German or Italian). Through their tales, the visitor can discover the essence of CERN - a curiosity to understand the mechanisms of a universe full of surprises, where many fundamental questions remain unresolved. With their diverse nationalities and experience, the participants reveal not only the variety of physics research underway at CERN, but also the experiments yet to come and indeed an element of the international collaboration so essential to the laboratory. In the words of on...

  11. Active dendrites: colorful wings of the mysterious butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Daniel; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2008-06-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal had referred to neurons as the 'mysterious butterflies of the soul.' Wings of these butterflies--their dendrites--were traditionally considered as passive integrators of synaptic information. Owing to a growing body of experimental evidence, it is now widely accepted that these wings are colorful, endowed with a plethora of active conductances, with each family of these butterflies made of distinct hues and shades. Furthermore, rapidly evolving recent literature also provides direct and indirect demonstrations for activity-dependent plasticity of these active conductances, pointing toward chameleonic adaptability in these hues. These experimental findings firmly establish the immense computational power of a single neuron, and thus constitute a turning point toward the understanding of various aspects of neuronal information processing. In this brief historical perspective, we track important milestones in the chameleonic transmogrification of these mysterious butterflies.

  12. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  13. Book review: Bats: A world of science and mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book has something for everyone, from casual seekers of fascinating eye candy to professional scientists interested in the latest discoveries. Without losing sight of how mysterious bats remain despite decades of research, the authors deftly introduce readers to bats and the people who study them. The book is nice to look at, easy to understand, and interesting in many ways. These stories stick in the reader's memory long after being read—a sign of great scientific communication.

  14. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  15. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and areas...

  16. Three-dimensional interpretation of MT data in volcanic environments (computer simulation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spichak, V. [Geoelectromagnetic Research Institute RAS, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-04-01

    The research is aimed, first, to find components of MT-fields and their transforms, which facilitate the imaging of the internal structure of volcanoes and, second, to study the detectability of conductivity variations in a magma chamber due to alterations of other physical parameters. The resolving power of MT data with respect to the electric structure of volcanic zones is studied using software developed by the author for three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling, analysis and imaging. A set of 3D volcano models are constructed and synthetic MT data on the relief Earth's surface are analysed. It is found that impedance phases as well as in-phase and quadrature parts of the electric field type transforms enable the best imaging of the volcanic interior. The determinant impedance is, however, the most suitable for adequate interpretation of measurements carried out for the purpose of monitoring conductivity variations in a magma chamber. The way of removing the geological noise from the MT data by means of its upward analytical continuation to the artificial reference plane is discussed. Interpretation methodologies are suggested aimed at 3D imaging and monitoring volcanic interiors by MT data.

  17. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...... and m.15482T>C; p.S246P were identified. Modeling showed that the p.C93Y mutation leads to disruption of the tertiary structure of Cytb by helix displacement, interfering with protein-heme interaction. The p.S246P mutation induces a diproline structure, which alters local secondary structure and induces...... of HCM patients. We propose that further patients with HCM should be examined for mutations in MT-CYB in order to clarify the role of these variants....

  18. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  19. Reconstitutions of the evangelical text in the Mysteries of the Orthodox Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuca Nicusor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The miracles performed by Jesus Christ are primary forms of practice of the Holy Mysteries. Therefore, every one of the seven Holy Mysteries finds its correspondent in the healings performed by our Savior: for the Mystery of Baptism, we have highlighted as paradigms the healing of the man born blind, but also the resurrections from the dead; for the Chrismation Mystery, the paradigms are the healing of the woman who had been suffering from a hemorrhage for 12 years and the healing of the deaf man who could hardly speak, while for the Mystery of Confession we have highlighted as defining examples the public confession of the father of the lunatic child, the blind men of Jericho and Bethsaida and the leper of Galilee. The Mystery of the Holy Eucharist has as special paradigms the parable of the emperor’s son’s wedding and the parable of the people invited to supper, while the Mystery of Priesthood (or Ordination is prefigured by the second wonderful fishing and the first multiplication of the loaves of bread. As far as the Mystery of Marriage is concerned, beside the miracle of Cana in Galilee, suggestive is also the “salvation of Zacchaeus’ house”, while the healings of the devil-possessed are eloquent for the illustration of the Mystery of the Holy Unction.

  20. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Suissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mt

  1. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  2. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  3. Slow light invisibility, teleportation, and other mysteries of light

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Slow Light is a popular treatment of today's astonishing breakthroughs in the science of light. Even though we don't understand light's quantum mysteries, we can slow it to a stop and speed it up beyond its Einsteinian speed limit, 186,000 miles/sec; use it for quantum telecommunications; teleport it; manipulate it to create invisibility; and perhaps generate hydrogen fusion power with it. All this is lucidly presented for non-scientists who wonder about teleportation, Harry Potter invisibility cloaks, and other fantastic outcomes. Slow Light shows how the real science and the fantasy inspire

  4. Investigation of "mysterious" disease in livestock: hydrocyanic acid poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, L; Katoch, R C

    1989-12-01

    An investigation of "mysterious" disease due to hydrocyanic acid (HCN) poisoning in livestock in this state was carried out. Detailed clinicopathological and pathological studies were conducted. Characteristic signs of acute tympany followed with profuse frothing, convulsions and dyspnea were recorded. Cynosis of the mucosa with characteristic anoxemic tissue changes and a high concentration of HCN in rumen content, feed and skeletal muscles were recorded. These were sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Successful treatment with a specific antidote was achieved, and further morbidity and mortality was checked.

  5. Cles: Etes-vous bon detective?; Enigmes grammaticales; Problemes policiers; Kidnapping (Keys: Are You a Good Detective?; Grammatical Puzzles; Detective Mysteries; Kidnapping).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debyser, Francis; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of French classroom activities are presented: a mystery whose clues include two postcard messages; three puzzles with grammar-related clues; a mystery contained in three comic strip frames; and the solving of a kidnapping mystery. (MSE)

  6. The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water: Some recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Kumar, P.; Xu, L.; Yan, Z.; Mazza, M. G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Chen, S.-H.; Mallamace, F.

    2007-12-01

    Water is perhaps the most ubiquitous, and the most essential, of any molecule on earth. Indeed, it defies the imagination of even the most creative science fiction writer to picture what life would be like without water. Despite decades of research, however, water's puzzling properties are not understood and 63 anomalies that distinguish water from other liquids remain unsolved. We introduce some of these unsolved mysteries, and demonstrate recent progress in solving them. We present evidence from experiments and computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water displays a special transition point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell). The general idea is that when the liquid is near this “tipping point,” it suddenly separates into two distinct liquid phases. This concept of a new critical point is finding application to other liquids as well as water, such as silicon and silica. We also discuss related puzzles, such as the mysterious behavior of water near a protein.

  7. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  8. Contrasting expression of membrane metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP, suggests distinct functions in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maozhou; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Liang; Gibson, Gary

    2008-07-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is the most ubiquitous and widely studied of the membrane-type metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). It was thus surprising to find no published data on chicken MT1-MMP. We report here the characterization of the chicken gene. Its low sequence identity with the MT1-MMP genes of other species, high GC content, and divergent catalytic domain explains the absence of data and our difficulties in characterizing the gene. The absence of structural features in the chicken gene that have been suggested to be critical for the activation of MMP-2 by MT1-MMP; for the effect of MT1-MMP on cell migration and for the recycling of MT1-MMP suggest these features are either not essential or that MT1-MMP does not perform these functions in chickens. Comparison of the expression of chicken MT1-MMP with MT3-MMP and with MMP-2 and MMP-13 has confirmed the previously recognized co-expression of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and MMP-13 in fibrous and vascular tissues, particularly those surrounding the developing long bones in other species. By contrast, MT3-MMP expression differs markedly from that of MT1-MMP and of both MMP-2 and MMP-13. MT3-MMP is expressed by chondrocytes of the developing articular surface. Similar expression patterns of this group of MT-MMPs and MMPs have been observed in mouse embryos and suggest distinct and specific functions for MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP in skeletal development.

  9. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8393] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  10. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  11. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing... the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 West Yellowstone, MT [Amended] West Yellowstone, Yellowstone Airport...

  12. Medicago truncatula copper transporter 1 (MtCOPT1) delivers copper for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Marta; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Abreu, Isidro; Escudero, Viviana; Kryvoruchko, Igor; Udvardi, Michael K; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This element is delivered by the host plant to the nodule, where membrane copper (Cu) transporter would introduce it into the cell to synthesize cupro-proteins. COPT family members in the model legume Medicago truncatula were identified and their expression determined. Yeast complementation assays, confocal microscopy and phenotypical characterization of a Tnt1 insertional mutant line were carried out in the nodule-specific M. truncatula COPT family member. Medicago truncatula genome encodes eight COPT transporters. MtCOPT1 (Medtr4g019870) is the only nodule-specific COPT gene. It is located in the plasma membrane of the differentiation, interzone and early fixation zones. Loss of MtCOPT1 function results in a Cu-mitigated reduction of biomass production when the plant obtains its nitrogen exclusively from symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutation of MtCOPT1 results in diminished nitrogenase activity in nodules, likely an indirect effect from the loss of a Cu-dependent function, such as cytochrome oxidase activity in copt1-1 bacteroids. These data are consistent with a model in which MtCOPT1 transports Cu from the apoplast into nodule cells to provide Cu for essential metabolic processes associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. The hunt for FOXP5 a genomic mystery novel

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Genetics professor Michelle Murphy loses her husband under mysterious circumstances and without warning, while their brilliant eight year old daughter Avalon, adopted in Kazakhstan, stubbornly believes she is a mutant. As if this were not enough she soon finds herself thrown into the middle of a quickly thickening plot, where the legacy of Genghis Khan meets the hunt for FOXP5, a genetic transcription factor that could herald the dawn of new human species. Initially caught helplessly between well-meaning fellow scientists, the government and more sinister agents, Michelle, with the help of a host of unlikely heroes, eventually takes control and finds the courage to confront the decision of whether to save human lives or humanity. The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot - in particular aspects of FOX proteins, genetic mutations, viruses and cancer as well as the relation between intelligence and cortical complexity - are introduced and discussed by the authors in an extensive non-technical a...

  14. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Majhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in Fetu (FIF is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass resembling a fetus of 585 gm was removed. It had a trunk and four limbs with fingers and toes, umbilical stump, intestinal loops and abundant scalp hairs but was devoid of brain and heart. Histology showed various well-differentiated tissues in respective sites. FIF is a mystery in reproduction and it is scarce in literature in such well-developed stage.

  15. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  16. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J. E. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  17. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko G Malovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  18. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malović Marko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery.

  19. Periodic disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    1988-11-01

    Disruptive instabilities are common phenomena in toroidal devices, especially in tokamaks. Three types can be distinguished: internal, minor and major disruptions. Periodic minor disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak were measured systematically with values of the limiter safety factor between 4 and 10. The density limit as a function of plasma current and horizontal displacement was investigated. Precursor oscillations always appear before the instability with increasing amplitude but can be observed at the density limit with quasi-stationary amplitude. Phase correlation between precursor oscillations were measured with Mirnov coils and x-ray detectors, and they show good agreement with a simple magnetic island model. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 6 figs

  20. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nosjean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues.

  1. The 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: new constraints on the intrusive mechanism from ground deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.

    2013-04-01

    The occurrence of seismic swarms beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna, often observed just a few months before an eruption, has been considered as the fragile response to a magma intrusion (Bonanno et al., 2011 and reference therein). These intrusions and/or pressurization of deep magmatic bodies, have been able to significantly affect the seismic pattern within the volcano edifice, leading to a changes in the local stress field. For example, during the months preceding the 1991-1993 Mt. Etna eruption, shallow intense seismic swarms (4-6 km deep) occurring in the SW flank (e.g. Cocina et al., 1998), related to the magma intrusion before the eruption onset, were observed contemporaneously with a rotation of stress field of about 90°. A similar scenario was observed during January 1998, when a magma recharging phases induced a local rotation of stress tensor, forcing a buried fault zone located beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna to slip as a right-lateral strike-slip fault (Bonanno et al., 2011). This fault system was forced to slip again, during late April 2001 (more than 200 events in less than 5 days; maximum Magnitude = 3.6) by the pressurization of the magmatic bodies feeding the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Here we analyzed in detail the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption as well as the dynamics preceding this event, by using a large dataset of geodetic data (GPS and synthetic aperture radar interferometry) collected between July 2000 and August 2001. References Cocina, O., Neri, G., Privitera, E. and Spampinato S., 1998. Seismogenic stress field beneath Mt. Etna South Italy and possible relationships with volcano-tectonic features. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 83, 335-348. Bonanno A., Palano M., Privitera E., Gresta S., Puglisi G., 2011. Magma intrusion mechanisms and redistribution of seismogenic stress at Mt. Etna volcano (1997-1998). Terra Nova, 23, 339-348, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.01019.x, 2011.

  2. Keeping mtDNA in shape between generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Stewart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing.

  3. Consolidity: Mystery of inner property of systems uncovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uncovers the mystery of consolidity, an inner property of systems that was amazingly hidden. Consolidity also reveals the secrecy of why strong stable and highly controllable systems are not invulnerable of falling and collapsing. Consolidity is measured by its Consolidity Index, defined as the ratio of overall changes of output parameters over combined changes of input and system parameters, all operating in fully fuzzy environment. Under this notion, systems are classified into consolidated, quasi-consolidated, neutrally consolidated, unconsolidated, quasi-unconsolidated and mixed types. The strategy for the implementation of consolidity is elaborated for both natural and man-made existing systems as well as the new developed ones. An important critique arises that the by-product consolidity of natural or built-as-usual system could lead to trapping such systems into a completely undesired unconsolidity. This suggests that the ample number of conventional techniques that do not take system consolidity into account should gradually be changed, and adjusted with improved consolidity-based techniques. Four Golden Rules are highlighted for handling system consolidity, and applied to several illustrative case studies. These case studies cover the consolidity analysis of the Drug Concentration problem, Predator-Prey Population problem, Spread of Infectious Disease problem, AIDS Epidemic problem and Arm Race model. It is demonstrated that consolidity changes are contrary (opposite in sign to changes of both stability and controllability. This is a very significant result showing that our present practice of stressing on building strong stable and highly controllable systems could have already jeopardized the consolidity behavior of an ample family of existing real life systems. It is strongly recommended that the four Golden Rules of consolidity should be enforced as future strict regulations of systems modeling, analysis, design and

  4. Design and Testing of an Air Force Services Mystery Shopping Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Justin

    1998-01-01

    .... Background The use of mystery shoppers to evaluate customer service experiences is widely used in commercial foodservice and hotel industries. Many companies "shop" their properties with inhouse programs while others contract an independent company to perform the shopping.

  5. Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels And The Making Of Modern Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels and the Making of Modern Societies. By Luc Boltanski (trans. C Porter). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. xviii+340 pp. £18.99/€23.80. ISBN: 9780745664057.......Book review of: Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels and the Making of Modern Societies. By Luc Boltanski (trans. C Porter). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. xviii+340 pp. £18.99/€23.80. ISBN: 9780745664057....

  6. Emanations and 'induced' radioactivity: from mystery to (mis)use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Z.I.

    1999-01-01

    The natural Rn isotopes were discovered within the period 1899-1902 and at that time referred to as emanations because they came out (emanated) of sources/materials containing actinium, thorium and radium, respectively. The (somewhat mysterious) emanations appeared to disintegrate into radioactive decay products which by depositing at solid surfaces gave rise to 'induced' radioactivity i.e. radioactive substances with various half-lives. Following the discovery of the emanations the volume of the research involving them and their disintegration products grew steeply. The identity of a number of these radioactive products was soon established. Radium emanation was soon used as a source of RaD ( 210 Pb) to be applied as an 'indicator' (radiotracer) for lead in a study on the solubility of lead sulphide and lead chromate. Moreover, radium and its emanation were introduced into the medical practice. Inhaling radon and drinking radon-containing water became an accepted medicinal use (or misuse?) of that gas. Shortly after the turn of the century, the healing (?) action of natural springs (spas) was attributed to their radium emanation, i.e. radon. Bathing in radioactive spring water and drinking it became very popular. Even today, bathing in radon-containing water is still a common medical treatment in Jachymov, Czech Republic. (author)

  7. No wonder you wonder! great inventions and scientific mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2016-01-01

    This book explores and explains scientific mysteries and principles, leavened with tongue-in-cheek humor and an abundance of illustrations. Chapters are short, but give an understanding of technology and science not available elsewhere. Questions include: • What holds a satellite up while it goes around the Earth? • Why is the sky (made out of clear air!) blue instead of green, or just black as night like the sky that high altitude jumper Felix Baumgartner saw? • How is laser light different from “normal” light? • Did Columbus really discover that the Earth is round? • Which one invention will assuredly survive our civilization? • Why can’t you travel back in time?  If you often feel embarrassed because you don’t have a clue about lasers, the difference between volts, amps and watts, or how jet planes really work – but you would like to understand the physical principles of our modern world, whether you’re a teen or a parent – this book is for you! To understand the basics of quantu...

  8. The cosmic web mysterious architecture of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gott, J Richard

    2016-01-01

    J. Richard Gott was among the first cosmologists to propose that the structure of our universe is like a sponge made up of clusters of galaxies intricately connected by filaments of galaxies—a magnificent structure now called the "cosmic web" and mapped extensively by teams of astronomers. Here is his gripping insider’s account of how a generation of undaunted theorists and observers solved the mystery of the architecture of our cosmos. The Cosmic Web begins with modern pioneers of extragalactic astronomy, such as Edwin Hubble and Fritz Zwicky. It goes on to describe how, during the Cold War, the American school of cosmology favored a model of the universe where galaxies resided in isolated clusters, whereas the Soviet school favored a honeycomb pattern of galaxies punctuated by giant, isolated voids. Gott tells the stories of how his own path to a solution began with a high-school science project when he was eighteen, and how he and astronomer Mario Jurič measured the Sloan Great Wall of Galaxies, a fi...

  9. A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-01-01

    More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with ℑω/T_B_H≫1 (here ω and T_B_H are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).

  10. A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2016-08-30

    More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with ℑω/T{sub BH}≫1 (here ω and T{sub BH} are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).

  11. Staging Icons, Performing Storyworlds – From Mystery Play to Cosplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domsch Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest complex forms of intermediality is the static live-performance adaptation of the iconographic qualities of well-known stories. Early examples of this phenomenon are the depictions of biblical scenes in the form of grand (and largely static tableaux in medieval Mystery Plays, very popular until the emergence of the professional entertainment stage. The nineteenth century had its fascination with the tableaux vivants - not coincidentally during the time that photography was introduced - and the late twentieth century saw the beginning of the newest variety with cosplay, which has by now become a global cultural phenomenon. Cosplay, the activity of fans dressing up and posing in a visually recognizable way as characters from popular media franchises such as manga, anime, or TV series, developed from role-playing activities into its current, highly ritualized static form through its symbiosis with amateur photography. This paper wants to first analyse the underlying art form in its historical varieties from an intermedial perspective, and in connection with that, it will explore the deeper philosophical significance of this practice, looking particularly at the role of embodiment.

  12. Citizen Sky, Solving the Mystery of epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca; Price, A.; Kloppenborg, B.; Henden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen Sky is a multi-year, NSF funded citizen science project involving the bright star eps Aur. The project was conceived by the IYA 2009 working group on Research Experiences for Students, Teachers, and Citizen-Scientists. Citizen Sky goes beyond simple observing to include a major data analysis component. The goal is to introduce the participant to the full scientific process from background research to paper writing for a peer-reviewed journal. It begins with a 10 Star Training Program of several types of binary and transient variable stars that are easy to observe from suburban locations with the naked eye. Participants then move on to monitoring the rare and mysterious 2009-2011 eclipse (already underway) of epsilon Aurigae. This object undergoes eclipses only every 27.1 years and each eclipse lasts nearly two years. The star is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye from most urban areas. Training will be provided in observing techniques as well as basic data analysis of photometric and visual datasets (light curve and period analysis). The project also involves two public workshops, one on observing (already held in August of 2009) and one on data analysis and scientific paper writing (to be held in 2010.) This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  13. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  14. The mysterious world of plutonium metallurgy: Past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, S.S.; Hammel, E.F.

    1998-01-01

    The first atomic bomb detonated at the Trinity Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945, used plutonium, a man-made element discovered < 5 yr earlier. The story of how Manhattan Project scientists and engineers tackled the mysteries of this element and fabricated it into the first atomic bomb is one of the most fascinating in the history of metallurgy and materials. The authors are currently trying to generate renewed interest in plutonium metallurgy because of the challenge posed by President Clinton, i.e., to keep the nuclear stockpile of weapons safe and reliable without nuclear testing. The stockpile stewardship challenge requires either a lifetime extension of the plutonium components or a remanufacture--neither of which can be verified by testing. In turn, this requires that one achieve a better fundamental understanding of plutonium. Of special interest is the effect of self-irradiation on the properties and on the long-term stability of plutonium and its alloys. Additional challenges arise from long-term concerns about disposing of plutonium and dealing with its environmental legacy. It is imperative to interest the next generation of students in these plutonium challenges

  15. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  16. The mysteries of leptons. New physics and unexplained phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander

    2009-12-09

    This doctoral thesis deals with the mysteries of the leptonic sector of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics. After giving a short overview about the Standard Model itself, the text starts with introducing the so-called ''GSI anomaly'', the observation of a periodic modulation of the exponential decay law, which is still unexplained and has erroneously been attributed to neutrino oscillations. It is argued why this interpretation is incorrect and several further aspects of the phenomenon are discussed. Afterwards two topics of New Physics beyond the Standard Model are treated, double beta processes and lepton flavour violation. Some important phenomenological aspects of the former are discussed before performing a detailed calculation of the radiative process of neutrino-less double electron capture. In spite of the tiny rates, a detailed understanding of this process is important for setting proper experimental limits. The last part of the thesis starts with very general (and nearly model-independent) constraints for lepton flavour conservation, before discussing the interplay of structure and freedom in the Yukawa sector when a model is confronted with phenomenology. We also comment on a new mechanism that can indeed introduce some realistic structures leading to lepton flavour violating effects. (orig.)

  17. The mysteries of leptons. New physics and unexplained phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This doctoral thesis deals with the mysteries of the leptonic sector of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics. After giving a short overview about the Standard Model itself, the text starts with introducing the so-called ''GSI anomaly'', the observation of a periodic modulation of the exponential decay law, which is still unexplained and has erroneously been attributed to neutrino oscillations. It is argued why this interpretation is incorrect and several further aspects of the phenomenon are discussed. Afterwards two topics of New Physics beyond the Standard Model are treated, double beta processes and lepton flavour violation. Some important phenomenological aspects of the former are discussed before performing a detailed calculation of the radiative process of neutrino-less double electron capture. In spite of the tiny rates, a detailed understanding of this process is important for setting proper experimental limits. The last part of the thesis starts with very general (and nearly model-independent) constraints for lepton flavour conservation, before discussing the interplay of structure and freedom in the Yukawa sector when a model is confronted with phenomenology. We also comment on a new mechanism that can indeed introduce some realistic structures leading to lepton flavour violating effects. (orig.)

  18. Overexposure measurement on microtron MT-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Thanh Luong; Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    On 11 November 1992, the Radiation accident happened at the channel of the high energy photon beam generated by stopping 15 MeV accelerated electron on the tungsten target of Microtron MT-17. One physicist has been exposed to the high energy photon beam. The purposes of this work are the determination of overexposure from backscatter and primary beams to estimate the whole body and hand doses received by the victim. It was found that the upper parts of his body may be received the dose from 1.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy per 4 min. of the exposure; the dose received by victim's hands is in interval of 30 - 50 Gy. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Visual Virtual MT: relato de una pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA BRANDÃO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir a la discusión acerca de las artes visuales en la sociedad contemporánea y de los dispositivos que operan la colonialidad del arte, sus mecanismos y efectos, cuya urgente desactivación nos impone enormes retos, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación titulada: “Artes Visuales en Mato Grosso: recopilación, difusión y crítica” encargada de crear el sitio Visual Virtual MT (VVMT. El VVMT reúne producciones aestésicas visuales de artistas individuales y colectivos que operan en diferentes soportes y medios, trabajando con una variedad de materiales que configuran, actualmente, la mayor colección catalogada y digital disponible en el Estado de Mato Grosso, en Brasil.

  20. Preliminary geothermal study of Mt. Etna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongelli, F; Morelli, C

    1964-01-01

    The geothermal status of Italy's Mt. Etna region was studied via borehole thermometry at eight experimental sites. The mathematical principles and other criteria used in borehole site and well depth selection are discussed. The soil temperature is regulated by external temperature variations to a certain depth. The minimum drilling distance which would provide accurate temperature determinations was calculated to be 30 m. The geothermal gradient was determined by the application of a Fourier series to three measurements made at different depths using resistance thermometers. The results are presented in tables and the gradients are plotted on graphs. Geothermal gradient determinations were corrected for topographic effects. Two major groups of gradients were discovered, those having linear gradients were interpreted as being due to the effect of meteoric waters. Other possible disturbances are those caused by surface temperature effects and the influence of nearby bodies of water.

  1. Land Cover Change in the Vicinity of MT. Qomolangma (everest), Central High Himalayas Since 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Nie, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, Z.; Ding, M.; Zhang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Under the background of global environmental change, the Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) region becomes the ideal place for the research of earth-atmosphere system, water and energy change, ecosystem patterns and processes change due to its sensitive and fragile natural environment. Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research. In this paper, geography, spatial information, climate science and other related theories and methods were applied, with the help of remote sensing, GIS, GPS, combining with a large number of RS data, field survey data and meteorological observation data to build 3 periods (1976, 1988 and 2006) of land cover, 30 periods (1970-2009) of major lakes data and long time-series NDVI change data from 1982 to 2009 in the Mt. Qomolangma region. The main results are as follows: 1. The land cover types in Mt. Qomolangma region are rich and with distinctive alpine features. The main land cover types include: closed to open grassland, alpine sparse vegetation, bare rock, closed grassland, forbs and glaciers (each percentage larger than 7%) with the area of 8274.27 km2, 7515.15 km2, 5450.82 km2, 5215.85 km2, 2782.66 km2 and 2710.17 km2 respectively in 2006. 2. The distribution of the main cover types are of obvious vertical zonallity. The transition of land cover types is forest→shrubland→grassland→meadow→sparse grassland→bare rock →glacier in order as the altitude arises with basically Gaussian distribution and assending peak in each elevation zone of types. The dominant natural zones distributed from bottom to top are: forest dominated zone (1500 ~ 3900 m), shrubland dominated zone (3900 ~ 4100 m), grassland dominated zone (4100 ~ 5000 m), sparse vegetation dominated zone (5000 ~ 5600 m), bare land dominated zone (5600 ~ 5900 m) and glacier (>5900 m). The altitude distribution of forest, shrubland and grassland in north and south slope are generally consistent. The range of

  2. The Miocene "Pteropod event" in the SW part of the Central Paratethys (Medvednica Mt., northern Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, Marija; Sremac, Jasenka; Vrsaljko, Davor; Aščić, Šimun; Bosak, Luka

    2017-08-01

    Deep marine Miocene deposits exposed sporadically in the Medvednica Mt. (northern Croatia) comprise pelagic organisms such as coccolithophores, planktic foraminifera and pteropods. The pteropod fauna from yellow marls at the Vejalnica locality (central part of Medvednica Mt.) encompasses abundant specimens of Vaginella austriaca Kittl, 1886, accompanied with scarce Clio fallauxi (Kittl, 1886). Calcareous nannoplankton points to the presence of NN5 nannozone at this locality. Highly fossiliferous grey marls at the Marija Bistrica locality (north-eastern area of Medvednica Mt.) comprise limacinid pteropods: Limacina valvatina (Reuss, 1867), L. gramensis (Rasmussen, 1968) and Limacina sp. Late Badenian (NN5 to NN6 nannozone) age of these marls is presumed on the basis of coccolithophores. Most of the determined pteropods on species level, except V. austriaca have been found and described from this region for the first time. New pteropod records from Croatia point to two pteropod horizons coinciding with the Badenian marine transgressions in Central Paratethys. These pteropod assemblages confirm the existence of W-E marine connection ("Transtethyan Trench Corridor") during the Badenian NN5 nannozone. Limacinids point to the possible immigration of the "North Sea fauna" through a northern European marine passage during the Late Badenian (end of NN5-beginning of NN6 zone), as previously presumed by some other authors.

  3. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  4. Construct Validity of the MMPI-2 College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlow, Deanna L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L

    2004-01-01

    The construct validity of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale was examined using 376 student clients at a university psychological clinic. A principal components analysis and correlations of Mt scale scores with clients' and therapists' ratings of symptoms and functioning showed that the Mt…

  5. Characterization and identification of Detroit River mystery oil spill (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Lambert, P.

    2003-01-01

    The authors described the mysterious oil spill which occurred in the Detroit River in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were conducted on spill samples collected by Environment Canada, Ontario Region, to determine the chemical composition of the oil and find out where it came from. The objective was to gather information concerning the nature, type, and components of the spill samples. The authors checked if the samples were identical to determine if they originated from the same source. They used a tiered analytical approach which facilitates the detailed compositional analysis by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection (FID). A wide range of diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds for interpreting chemical data was determined and analyzed. The results proved that: (1) the spill samples were largely composed of lube oil mixed with a smaller portion of diesel fuel, (2) sample number 3 collected from N. Boblo Island was more weathered than samples 1 and 2, (3) the oil in three samples was the same and originated from the same source, as shown by fingerprinting results, (4) most PAH compounds were from the diesel portion in the spill samples, and the biomarker compounds were mostly from the lube oil, (5) the diesel in the samples had been weathered and degraded, and the lube oil in the spill samples was waste lube oil, and (6) input of pyrogenic PAHs to the spill samples was clearly proven. The spill likely came from a place where both combustion and motor lubrication processes occur. 46 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  6. A New Clue in the Mystery of Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the mysterious fast radio bursts has eluded us for more than a decade. With the help of a particularly cooperative burst, however, scientists may finally be homing in on the answer to this puzzle.A Burst RepeatsThe host of FRB 121102 is placed in context in this Gemini image. [Gemini Observatory/AURA/NSF/NRC]More than 20 fast radio bursts rare and highly energetic millisecond-duration radio pulses have been observed since the first was discovered in 2007. FRB 121102, however, is unique in its behavior: its the only one of these bursts to repeat. The many flashes observed from FRB 121102 allowed us for the first time to follow up on the burst and hunt for its location.Earlier this year, this work led to the announcement that FRB 121102s host galaxy has been identified: a dwarf galaxy located at a redshift of z = 0.193 (roughly 3 billion light-years away). Now a team of scientists led by Cees Bassa (ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy) has performed additional follow-up to learn more about this host and what might be causing the mysterious flashes.Hubble observation of the host galaxy. The object at the bottom right is a reference star. The blue ellipse marks the extended diffuse emission of the galaxy, the red circle marks the centroid of the star-forming knot, and the white cross denotes the location of FRB 121102 ad the associated persistent radio source. [Adapted from Bassa et al. 2017]Host ObservationsBassa and collaborators used the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telecsope, and the Gemini North telecsope in Hawaii to obtain optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of FRB 121102s host galaxy.The authors determined that the galaxy is a dim, irregular, low-metallicity dwarf galaxy. Its resolved, revealing a bright star-forming region roughly 4,000 light-years across in the galaxys outskirts. Intriguingly, the persistent radio source associated with FRB 121102 falls directly within that star-forming knot

  7. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73... Helena, Montana. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,381 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of...

  8. Low-temperature thermochronology of the Mt Painter Province, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.M.; Kohn, B.P.; O'Sullivan, P.B.; Hartley, M.J.; University of Florida, FL

    2002-01-01

    Apatite fission track results are reported for 26 outcrop samples from the Mt Painter Inlier, Mt Babbage Inlier and adjacent Neoproterozoic rocks of the northwestern Curnamona Craton of South Australia. Forward modelling of the data indicates that the province experienced variable regional cooling from temperatures >110deg C during the Late Palaeozoic (Late Carboniferous to Early Permian). The timing of this cooling is similar to that previously reported from elsewhere in the Adelaide Fold Belt and the Curnamona Craton, suggesting that the entire region underwent extensive Late Palaeozoic cooling most likely related to the waning stages of the Alice Springs or Kanimblan Orogenies. Results from the Paralana Fault Zone indicate that the eastern margin of the Mt Painter Inlier experienced a second episode of cooling (∼40-60deg C) during the Paleocene to Eocene. The entire region also experienced significant cooling (less than ∼40deg C) during the Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene in response to unroofing and/or a decrease in geothermal gradient. Regional cooling/erosion during this time is supported by: geomorphological and geophysical evidence indicating Tertiary exhumation of at least 1 km; Eocene sedimentation initiated in basins adjacent to the Flinders and Mt Lofty Ranges sections of the Adelaide Fold Belt; and Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary cooling previously reported from apatite fission track studies in the Willyama Inliers and the southern Adelaide Fold Belt. Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene cooling is probably related to a change in stress field propagated throughout the Australian Plate, and driven by the initiation of sea-floor spreading in the Tasman Sea in the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene global plate reorganisation. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  9. Evaluation of asbestos exposures during firewood-harvesting simulations in Libby, MT, USA--preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Julie F; Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Crispen, Kelly; Zolnikov, Tara R

    2007-11-01

    Research was conducted in order to assess potential exposure to asbestos while harvesting firewood from amphibole-contaminated trees near Libby, MT, USA. Three firewood-harvesting simulations took place in the summer and fall of 2006 in the Kootenai Forest inside the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restricted zone surrounding the former W.R. Grace vermiculite mine. Another simulation was conducted near Missoula, MT, USA, which served as the control. The work practices following each simulation were consistent throughout each trial. Personal breathing zone (PBZ) asbestos concentrations were measured by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface wipe samples of personal protective clothing were measured by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ PCM sample time-weighted average (TWA) concentration was 0.29 fibers per milliliter, standard deviation (SD = 0.54). A substantial portion (more than five fibers per sample) of non-asbestos fibers (cellulose) was reported on all PBZ samples (excluding field blanks) when analyzed by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ TEM sample TWA concentration for amphibole fibers 5-microm long was 0.07 fibers per milliliter (SD = 0.08). Substantial amphibole fiber concentrations were revealed on Tyvek clothing wipe samples. The mean concentration (n = 12) was 29 826 fibers per square centimeter (SD = 37 555), with 91% (27 192 fibers per square centimeter) comprised fibers firewood-harvesting activities in asbestos-contaminated areas and that the potential for exposure exists during such activities.

  10. MT3DMS: Model use, calibration, and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Hill, Mary C.; Cao, G.; Ma, R.

    2012-01-01

    MT3DMS is a three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model for solving advection, dispersion, and chemical reactions of contaminants in saturated groundwater flow systems. MT3DMS interfaces directly with the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW for the flow solution and supports the hydrologic and discretization features of MODFLOW. MT3DMS contains multiple transport solution techniques in one code, which can often be important, including in model calibration. Since its first release in 1990 as MT3D for single-species mass transport modeling, MT3DMS has been widely used in research projects and practical field applications. This article provides a brief introduction to MT3DMS and presents recommendations about calibration and validation procedures for field applications of MT3DMS. The examples presented suggest the need to consider alternative processes as models are calibrated and suggest opportunities and difficulties associated with using groundwater age in transport model calibration.

  11. Viscosity controlled magma-carbonate interaction: a comparison of Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) and Mt. Merapi (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, L. S.; Misiti, V.; Masotta, M.; Taddeucci, J.; Freda, C.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Jolis, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Magma-carbonate interaction is increasingly seen as a viable and extremely important cause of magma contamination, and the generation of a crustally sourced CO2 phase (Goff et al., 2001; Freda et al., 2010). Even though the process is well recognized at certain volcanoes e.g. Popocatépetl, (Mexico); Merapi, (Indonesia); and Colli Albani, (Italy) (Goff et al., 2001; Deegan et al., 2010; Freda et al., 2010), neither the kinetics of carbonate assimilation nor its consequences for controlling the explosivity of eruptions have been constrained. Here we show the results of magma-carbonate interaction experiments conducted at 1200 °C and 0.5 GPa for varying durations (0 s, 60 s, 90 s and 300 s) for the Mt. Merapi (Indonesia) and Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) volcanic systems. We performed experiments using glassy starting materials specific to each volcano (shoshonite for Mt. Vesuvius, basaltic-andesite for Mt. Merapi) with different degrees of hydration (anhydrous vs hydration with ~ 2 wt % water) and using carbonate fragments of local origin; see Deegan et al., (2010) and Jolis et al., (2011). Experimental products include a gas phase (CO2-rich) and two melt phases, one pristine (Ca-normal) and one contaminated (Ca-rich) separated by a 'contamination front' which propagates outwards from the carbonate clast. Vesicles appear to nucleate in the contaminated glass and then migrate into the pristine one. Both contamination front propagation and bubble migration away from the carbonate are slower in anhydrous basaltic-andesite (Merapi anhydrous series) than in hydrated basaltic-andesite and shoshonite (Merapi and Vesuvius hydrated series), suggesting that assimilation speed is strongly controlled by the degree of hydration and the SiO2 content, both of which influence melt viscosity and hence diffusivity. As the carbonate dissolution proceeds in our experiments, initially dissolved and eventually exsolved CO2 builds up in the contaminated Ca-rich melt phase. Once melt volatile

  12. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  13. A 'mystery shopper' project to evaluate sexual health and contraceptive services for young people in Croydon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Susie; O'Sullivan, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accessibility of, and advice provided by, sexual health and advice services for young people in Croydon, UK using a 'mystery shopper' approach. Nineteen young people aged 13-21 years were trained as mystery shoppers. The group developed a set of standards, based in part on existing guidelines of best practice, that should be met when working with young people. The group accessed local sexual health services in pairs posing as genuine patients. Using one of four scenarios, the mystery shoppers assessed the service they received against the predefined standards. The main access difficulties occurred in the reception area. Confidentiality was a major concern and was frequently not explained. The advice and information received was generally clearly given and with an appropriate level of detail. Additional training and support needs to be offered to receptionists. Confidentiality policies and statements need to be more effectively communicated.

  14. Dark Matter Mystery Deepens in Cosmic "Train Wreck"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Astronomers have discovered a chaotic scene unlike any witnessed before in a cosmic "train wreck" between giant galaxy clusters. NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical telescopes revealed a dark matter core that was mostly devoid of galaxies, which may pose problems for current theories of dark matter behavior. "These results challenge our understanding of the way clusters merge," said Dr. Andisheh Mahdavi of the University of Victoria, British Columbia. "Or, they possibly make us even reexamine the nature of dark matter itself." There are three main components to galaxy clusters: individual galaxies composed of billions of stars, hot gas in between the galaxies, and dark matter, a mysterious substance that dominates the cluster mass and can be detected only through its gravitational effects. Illustration of Abell 520 System Illustration of Abell 520 System Optical telescopes can observe the starlight from the individual galaxies, and can infer the location of dark matter by its subtle light-bending effects on distant galaxies. X-ray telescopes like Chandra detect the multimillion-degree gas. A popular theory of dark matter predicts that dark matter and galaxies should stay together, even during a violent collision, as observed in the case of the so-called Bullet Cluster. However, when the Chandra data of the galaxy cluster system known as Abell 520 was mapped along with the optical data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, HI, a puzzling picture emerged. A dark matter core was found, which also contained hot gas but no bright galaxies. "It blew us away that it looks like the galaxies are removed from the densest core of dark matter," said Dr. Hendrik Hoekstra, also of University of Victoria. "This would be the first time we've seen such a thing and could be a huge test of our knowledge of how dark matter behaves." Animation of Galaxy Cluster Animation of Galaxy Cluster In addition to the dark matter core, a

  15. Porous aerosol in degassing plumes of Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shcherbakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols of the volcanic degassing plumes from Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli were probed with in situ instruments on board the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT in September 2011. Aerosol properties were analyzed using angular-scattering intensities and particle size distributions measured simultaneously with the Polar Nephelometer and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer probes (FSSP series 100 and 300, respectively. Aerosols of degassing plumes are characterized by low values of the asymmetry parameter (between 0.6 and 0.75; the effective diameter was within the range of 1.5–2.8 µm and the maximal diameter was lower than 20 µm. A principal component analysis applied to the Polar Nephelometer data indicates that scattering features of volcanic aerosols of different crater origins are clearly distinctive from angular-scattering intensities of cirrus and contrails. Retrievals of aerosol properties revealed that the particles were "optically spherical" and the estimated values of the real part of the refractive index are within the interval from 1.35 to 1.38. The interpretation of these results leads to the conclusion that the degassing plume aerosols were porous with air voids. Our estimates suggest that aerosol particles contained about 18 to 35 % of air voids in terms of the total volume.

  16. Two-dimensional inversion of MT (magnetotelluric) data; MT ho no nijigen inversion kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S; Okuno, M; Ushijima, K; Mizunaga, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    A program has been developed to conduct inversion analysis of two-dimensional model using MT data, accurately. For the developed program, finite element method (FEM) was applied to the section of sequential analysis. A method in which Jacobian matrix is calculated only one first time and is inversely analyzed by fixing this during the repetition, and a method in which Jacobian matrix is corrected at each repetition of inversion analysis, were compared mutually. As a result of the numerical simulation, it was revealed that the Jacobian correction method provided more stable convergence for the simple 2D model, and that the calculation time is almost same as that of the Jacobian fixation method. To confirm the applicability of this program to actually measured data, results obtained from this program were compared with those from the Schlumberger method analysis by using MT data obtained in the Hatchobara geothermal area. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the both are well coincided mutually. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Searle's New Mystery, or, How not to Solve the Problem of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo de Freitas Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John Searle repeatedly claims to have offered a solution to the mind-brain problem, especially as regards the mystery of consciousness. The aim of this paper is to present and analyse Searle’s theory of biological naturalism, from its earliest expression in the 1980s to his most recent works. Our analysis shows that Searle’s biological naturalism suffers from many theoretical difficulties and logical inconsistencies, which disqualify it as a sound explanation for consciousness and the mind-brain problem. We conclude that, far from offering a solution to the problem of consciousness, Searle ended up creating a new mystery of consciousness.

  18. 76 FR 35967 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., Gallatin Field Airport, Bozeman, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS... 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth...

  19. MT Lajpatrai blow-out studies at Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    The area around the tanker MT Lajpatrai was monitored for oil pollution studies. Measurements were carried out on the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples along with visual observations on oil slicks...

  20. [MT-45--a dangerous and potentially ototoxic internet drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Erik; Bäckberg, Matilda; Personne, Mark; Helander, Anders

    2014-09-11

    During the last years several synthetic opioids have been introduced on Internet sites selling new psychoactive substances (NPS). One of these, called MT-45, a piperazine derivative originally synthesized as a therapeutic drug candidate in the 1970s, has recently been detected in 21 deaths, according to unpublished data from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. We present clinical data from 12 analytically confirmed hospital cases of MT-45 poisoning. The cases demonstrate that MT-45, like other opioids, can induce potentially life threatening respiratory depression and loss of consciousness in users and that symptoms are usually reversed by standard doses of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Significant auditory symptoms with transient tinnitus and hearing loss occurred in two cases and a pronounced sensorineural hearing loss still present at two weeks follow-up in one case. This indicates that MT-45 may be an ototoxic substance, illustrating the ubiquitous risk of unintended adverse effects NPSs pose to users.

  1. The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Sally

    In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

  2. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank geothermal field imaged by 3-D full-tensor MT inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern; Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2–5 Ohm m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT data set as well as the degree of modelling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60†) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modelling to test the best-fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  3. α -decay chains of superheavy Mt-279265 isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Nithya, C.

    2017-10-01

    The α -decay chains of the isotopes Mt-279265 are predicted by comparing the α half-lives calculated within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei of Santhosh et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 850, 34 (2011)], 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.12.002 with the spontaneous fission half-lives using the shell-effect-dependent formula of Santhosh and Nithya [Phys. Rev. C 94, 054621 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.94.054621. α half-lives also are calculated using different theoretical formalisms for comparison. The predicted half-lives and decay modes match well with the experimental results. The use of four different mass tables for calculating the α - decay energies indicates that the mass table of Wang et al. [Chin. Phys. C 41, 030003 (2017)], 10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030003, which is based on the AME2016 atomic mass evaluation, is in better agreement with experimental results. The paper predicts long α chains from 265,267-269,271-273MT with half-lives within experimental limits. The isotopes 274-276,278Mt exhibit 2α chains followed by spontaneous fission. The 2α chain of 266Mt and the 4α chain of 270Mt end with electron capture. The isotopes Mt,279277 decay via spontaneous fission. We hope that the paper will open up new areas in this field.

  4. Venus Express en route to probe the planet's hidden mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    mechanics of the planetary atmosphere in general terms. With Mars Express, we are studying the Martian atmosphere. With Huygens, we have explored that of Saturn's satellite Titan. And now with Venus Express, we are going to add a further specimen to our collection. Originally, Venus and the Earth must have been very similar planets. So we really do need to understand why and how they eventually diverged to the point that one became a cradle for life while the other developed into a hostile environment." The Venus Express mission is planned to last at least two Venusian days (486 Earth days) and may be extended, depending on the spacecraft's operational state of health. Twin sister of Mars Express Venus Express largely reuses the architecture developed for Mars Express. This has reduced manufacturing cycles and halved the mission cost, while still targeting the same scientific goals. Finally approved in late 2002, Venus Express was thereby developed fast, indeed in record time, to be ready for its 2005 launch window. However, Venusian environmental conditions are very different to those encountered around Mars. Solar flux is four times higher and it has been necessary to adapt the spacecraft design to this hotter environment, notably by entirely redesigning the thermal insulation. Whereas Mars Express sought to retain heat to enable its electronics to function properly, Venus Express will in contrast be aiming for maximum heat dissipation in order to stay cool. The solar arrays on Venus Express have been completely redesigned. They are shorter and are interspersed with aluminium strips to help reject some solar flux to protect the spacecraft from temperatures topping 250ºC. It has even been necessary to protect the rear of the solar arrays - which normally remain in shadow - in order to counter heat from solar radiation reflected by the planet's atmosphere. An atmosphere of mystery Following on from the twenty or so American and Soviet missions to the planet carried out

  5. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  6. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  7. Case Study: The Mystery of the Seven Deaths--A Case Study in Cellular Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdik, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Cellular respiration, the central component of cellular metabolism, can be a difficult concept for many students to fully understand. In this interrupted, problem-based case study, students explore the purpose of cellular respiration as they play the role of medical examiner, analyzing autopsy evidence to determine the mysterious cause of death…

  8. Capitalists in the Myst: The Mystery and the Joys in the Free Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... The Joys of Motherhood, a rebuttal of the liberal prescriptions of Western economic institutions as contained in Hernando de Soto's The Mystery of Capital, and his explanation of the causes of poverty and governmental inefficiency among the poor peoples of the world. Having used literature to debunk the myth of the joys ...

  9. Landscape and Social Values in Popular Children's Literature: Nancy Drew Mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker-Gross, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the covert lessons in moral social geography found in a set of popular juvenile fiction published between 1924 and 1978--the Nancy Drew mystery stories. Topics discussed include landscape symbolism, urban environments, uses of geographical elements in the stories, rural settings, wilderness settings, social stereotypes, and landscape…

  10. The book of science mysteries classroom science activities to support student enquiry-based learning

    CERN Document Server

    McOwan, Peter; Olivotto, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In this booklet, you will be introduced to an exciting new way to teach science in your classroom. The TEMI project (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated) is an EU-funded project that brings together experts in teacher training from across Europe to help you introduce enquiry-based learning successfully in the classroom and improve student engagement and skills.

  11. Atomic Force Microscopy - A Tool to Unveil the Mystery of Biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Atomic Force Microscopy - A Tool to Unveil the Mystery of Biological Systems ... Transcription and Disease Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 ...

  12. The Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention in an Urban Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeks, Amirah; Graves, Scott, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the effect of the implementation of the Mystery Motivator intervention as an interdependent group contingency to decrease disruptive behavior in an urban eighth-grade general education science classroom. The study was conducted using an A-B changing criterion design. The effectiveness of the intervention…

  13. Did Kanner Actually Describe the First Account of Autism? The Mystery of 1938

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Kanner opens his pioneering 1943 paper on autism by making a mysterious mention of the year 1938. Recent letters to the editor of this journal have disagreed over a particular interpretation--does 1938 refer to an early paper by Asperger, effectively meaning Kanner plagiarised Asperger? I argue 1938 refers to a paper by Louise Despert. This was…

  14. The First Amendment: The Finished Mystery Case and World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Introduces the censorship, and imprisonment of Jehovah's Witnesses who distributed, "The Finished Mystery," which contained antiwar statements deemed seditious during World War I. Asks students to examine a Justice Department document pertaining to the case. Helps students decide whether national security needs should override First…

  15. Global Learning in a Geography Course Using the Mystery Method as an Approach to Complex Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applis, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the study which is the foundation of this essay, the question is examined of whether the complexity of global issues can be solved at the level of teaching methodology. In this context, the first qualitative and constructive study was carried out which researches the Mystery Method using the Thinking-Through-Geography approach (David Leat,…

  16. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  17. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA

  18. mtDNA, Metastasis, and the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response (UPRmt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Timothy C; Germain, Doris

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have confirmed a link between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and cancer cell metastasis, much debate remains regarding the nature of the alternations in mtDNA leading to this effect. Meanwhile, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR mt ) has gained much attention in recent years, with most studies of this pathway focusing on its role in aging. However, the UPR mt has also been studied in the context of cancer. More recent work suggests that rather than a single mutation or alternation, specific combinatorial mtDNA landscapes able to activate the UPR mt may be those that are selected by metastatic cells, while mtDNA landscapes unable to activate the UPR mt do not. This review aims at offering an overview of the confusing literature on mtDNA mutations and metastasis and the more recent work on the UPR mt in this setting.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600 bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm=4.622.

  20. Lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol layer after the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi.

    1992-01-01

    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser

  1. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer After the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser.

  2. Nuclear collapse observed during the eruption of Mt. Usu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Taka-aki

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Usu which was located about 70 km southwest from Sapporo in Hokkaido (the north island of Japan) began to erupt on March 31 in 2000. A nuclear emulsion was placed on a foot of Mt. Usu to catch small atomic clusters which were expected to be emitted during the eruption. Curious atomic clusters and their reaction products were successfully observed on surfaces of the nuclear emulsion. By comparing them with similar products which were obtained in previous experiments of discharge and electrolysis, it was concluded that micro Ball Lightning was really emitted during the eruption of Mt. Usu and that explosive reactions by nuclear collapse could have been involved to contribute to energy of the eruption. (author)

  3. Influence of filling-drawdown cycles of the Vajont reservoir on Mt. Toc slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Rigo, Elia; Bolla, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, the 1963 Vajont landslide has been back-analyzed in detail to examine the influence of reservoir operations (filling and drawdown) on Mt. Toc slope stability. The combined seepage-slope stability analyses carried out show that the main destabilizing factor that favored the 1963 Vajont landslide was the reservoir-induced water table that formed as a consequence of rapid seepage inflow within the submerged toe of the slope — decrease in the factor of safety (FOS) up to 12% compared to the initial slope stability condition, i.e., in the absence of the Vajont reservoir. Rainfall would only have been a decisive factor if the initial stability condition of the Mt. Toc slope had already been very close to failure (decrease in FOS caused by heavy or prolonged rainfall is about 3-4%, for the worst case scenario analyzed). The permeability of the shear zone material occurring at the base of the prehistoric Vajont rockslide has been evaluated at 5 × 10- 4 m/s, and back-calculated values of the friction angles Φ range from 17.5° to 27.5°. When considering mountain reservoirs, slope failures can occur during both filling and drawdown phases. In the Vajont case, owing to the highly permeable materials of the shear zone, slope stability decreased during filling and increased during drawdown. Another displacement-dependent phenomenon of a mechanical nature - progressive failure of the NE landslide constraint - has to be considered to understand the slope collapse that occurred during the last drawdown (26 September-9 October 1963). The results of the combined seepage-slope stability models indicate that permeability of bank-forming material and filling-drawdown rates of reservoirs can strongly influence slope stability. Slow lowering of the reservoir level is a necessary measure to reduce the occurrence of very dangerous transient negative peaks of FOS.

  4. Alterations in mtDNA, gastric carcinogenesis and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N

    2018-05-26

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.

  5. Expression of the MT1 Melatonin Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jablonska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC is the leading cause of death among women with genital tract disorders. Melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties which it may effect through binding to its membrane receptor, MT1. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT1 in OC cells and to correlate this with clinical and pathological data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 84 cases of OC. Normal ovarian epithelial (IOSE 364 and OC (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 cell lines were used to examine the MT1 expression at protein level using the western blot and immunofluorescence technique. The expression of MT1 was observed as cytoplasmic-membrane (MT1CM and membrane (MT1M reactions. A positive correlation between MT1CM and MT1M was found in all the studied cases. There were no significant differences between the expression of MT1CM, MT1M, and histological type, staging, grading, presence of residual disease, or overall survival time. Immunofluorescence showed both MT1M and MT1CM expression in all the tested cell lines. Western blot illustrated the highest protein level of MT1 in IOSE 364 and the lowest in the OVCAR-3. The results indicate the limited prognostic significance of MT1 in OC cells.

  6. Ezra Pound and Du Fu: Gazing at Mt. Tai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Confined to a six-by-six-foot outdoor steel cage, Ezra Pound saw a series of mountain hills from a few miles to the east of Pisa. The poet compared one of these small 800-metre hills to the sacred Chinese Mt. Tai, which becomes the most common geographical name in The Pisan Cantos. Pound’s poetic summoning of this particular mountain is related to the fact that Mt. Tai is historically and culturally connected to the philosophy of Confucius, who personally ascended the mountain several times. Pound, as a devout Confucian disciple, closely follows the philosophical doctrines and attempts to mentally trace the footsteps of Confucius. This paper will argue how Pound’s poetic evocation of the mountain shares a striking similarity to an eighth-century Chinese poem called “Gazing at Mt. Tai,” which was written by the famous literatus - Du Fu 杜甫(712 – 770 . In spite of living in two completely different eras and countries, Pound’s and Du Fu’s reference to Mt. Tai demonstrates the confluence of their poetic spirits. Neither of them ascended mountain personally. They instead made use of their poetic imagination to follow the paths of Confucius and perceived the mountain as an earthly paradise, one which represents tranquillity and serenity away from the moral and physical corruption of the external world.

  7. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. ... The whole plant (1.8%), seed (1.2%), fruit (1.2%), sap (1.2%), flower (0.6%) ... as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.

  8. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Association (NBAA). The NBAA comments recommended that the FAA lower some of the adjacent Class E airspace...-0274; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-4] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace...

  9. MtDNA T4216C variation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    MtDNA T4216C variation has frequently been investigated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients; nonetheless, controversy has existed about the evidence of association of this variation with susceptibility to MS. The present systematic review and meta-analysis converge the results of the preceding pu...

  10. Deep underground multiple muons at the Mt. Blanc station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; Bilokon, H; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Castagnoli, C; Picchi, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1979-12-29

    Results on multiple events recorded at the Mt. Blanc station in the last 3 years are presented. The integral energy spectrum of muons is obtained for Esub(..mu..)>1 TeV in the size range 10/sup 6/ - 10/sup 7/ which favours a multiplicity law for hadronic interactions of the form eta approximately Esup(1/4).

  11. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... aid, Glasgow, MT. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) was.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History The FAA published a final rule in the Federal Register establishing Class E..., pursuant to the authority delegated to me, the description under the History heading, as published in the...

  12. Conflicting Values: Spirituality and Wilderness at Mt. Shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Lynn Huntsinger; Catherine Phillips; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    1992-01-01

    Many people from a variety of backgrounds believe that Mt. Shasta is a major spiritual center. Although these "spiritual users" value the area's natural features, their spiritual and social activities, including construction of sweat lodges, medicine wheels, altars, meditation pads, trails, and campsites, are leading to rapid ecological degradation. This...

  13. 77 FR 55690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dillon, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach... Airport, Dillon, MT, to accommodate IFR aircraft executing new RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach.... Steven L. Vale, Acting Manager, Operations Support Group, Western Service Center. [FR Doc. 2012-22269...

  14. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  15. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-224; MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  16. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619, DA 11-750] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). [[Page 27915

  17. Mysteries and unknowns of single bubble sonoluminescence from viewpoint of plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrov, B.P.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the present work is to propose and consider electronically excited H 2 * (a 3 Σ g + ) molecules (and possibly hydrides of rare gases like ArH*(A 2 Σ)) as light emitters responsible for continua observed in both MBSL and SBSL experiments with hydrogen-containing liquids. This provides new sight on the well known ''mysteries and unknowns'' of the SBSL phenomenon

  18. Methodology of intervention during a mystery spill: The example of the Baie-des-Sables case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.

    1993-01-01

    A mystery spill, or an oil spill of unknown origin, is one whose source cannot be identified at the time the environmental impact of the spill is noted. Unlike a known incident during which preventive action may be taken, mystery spills are often assessed based on the damages they have caused. In Canada, the coast guard regularly reports many spills with unidentified sources, and the most frequently reported sign of a spill is the presence of an oily film on the water surface. The smell of oil is also an important indication of a recent spill. The spill at Baie-des-Sables, Quebec, is presented as an illustrative example of a mystery spill. The size of the spill was estimated at 25 tons of bunker oil. The first indication of the spill was a number of contaminated ducks from the Rimouski region, reported by hunters to the appropriate government agency. Two days later, an oil slick was reported in the channel between Baie-Comeau and Rimouski; this provided sufficient information to trigger an alert. The next day an aerial inspection of the slick was carried out and a dispersion model was made. Contamination of seagulls and the south shore of the St. Lawrence River were noted. Over the next week response measures were organized and more inspections of shorelines were undertaken. Of the shoreline studied, 50 km were contaminated and 14 km were restored. Lack of precise early observations of the slick precluded identification of the vessel responsible for the spill. Recommendations are made for improving assessment of mystery spills and ensuring faster response times. 1 fig

  19. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) types in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, L.H.; Koh, C.L.; Lim, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Each human cell contains hundreds of mitochondria and thousands of double-stranded circular mtDNA. The delineation of human mtDNA variation and genetics over the past decade has provided unique and often startling insights into human evolution, degenerative diseases, and aging. Each mtDNA of 16,569 base pairs, encodes 13 polypeptides essential to the enzymes of the mitochondrial energy generating pathway, plus the necessary tRNAs and rRNAs. The highly polymorphic noncoding D-(displacement) loop region, also called the control region, is approximately 1.2 kb long. It contains two well-characterized hypervariable (HV-) regions, HV1 and HV2. MtDNA identification is usually based on these sequence differences. According to the TWTGDAM (Technical Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods), the minimum requirement for a mtDNA database for HV1 is from positions 16024 to 16365 and for HV2, from positions 00073 to 00340. The targeted Malaysian population subgroups for this study were mainly the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and indigenous Ibans, Bidayuhs, Kadazan-Dusuns, and Bajaus. Research methodologies undertaken included DNA extraction of samples from unrelated individuals, amplification of the specific regions via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and preparation of template DNA for sequencing by using an automated DNA sequencer. Sufficient nucleotide sequence data were generated from the mtDNA analysis. When the sequences were analyzed, sequence variations were found to be caused by nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Of the three causes of the sequence variations, nucleotide substitutions (86.1%) accounted for the vast majority of polymorphism. It is noted that transitions (83.5%) were predominant when compared to the significantly lower frequencies of transversions (2.6%). Insertions (0.9%) and deletions (13.0%) were rather rare and found only in HV2. The data generated will also form the basis of a Malaysian DNA sequence database of mtDNA D

  20. Patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness along elevational gradients in Mt. Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALONZA, Patrick Kinyatta

    2015-01-01

    Faunal species richness is traditionally assumed to decrease with increasing elevation and decreasing primary productivity. Species richness is reported to peak at mid-elevation. This survey examines the herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Mt. Kenya (central Kenya) by testing the hypothesis that changes in species richness with elevation relate to elevation-dependent changes in climate. Sampling along transects from an elevation of approximately 1 700 m in Chogoria forest block (wind-ward side) and approximately 2 600 m in Sirimon block (rain shadow zone) upwards in March 2009. This starts from the forest to montane alpine zones. Sampling of reptiles and amphibians uses pitfall traps associated with drift fences, time-limited searches and visual encounter surveys. The results show that herpetofaunal richness differs among three vegetation zones along the elevation gradient. Chogoria has higher biodiversity than Sirimon. More species occur at low and middle elevations and few exist at high elevations. The trends are consistent with expected optimum water and energy variables. The lower alpine montane zone has high species richness but low diversity due to dominance of some high elevations species. Unambiguous data do not support a mid-domain effect (mid-elevation peak) because the observed trend better fits a model in which climatic variables (rainfall and temperature) control species richness, which indirectly measures productivity. It is important to continue protection of all indigenous forests, especially at low to mid elevations. These areas are vulnerable to human destruction yet are home to some endemic species. Firebreaks can limit the spread of the perennial wildfires, especially on the moorlands. PMID:26646571

  1. Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  2. Developing a Mystery Shopping Measure to Operate a Sustainable Restaurant Business: The Power of Integrating with Corporate Executive Members’ Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mystery shopping has been used to objectively measure whether employees follow the visions of a company’s quality service standards. It then creates a feedback loop that allows companies to train their employees to consistently deliver quality services. The main purposes of this project are aimed at examining (1 the overall benefits of mystery shopper projects in the hospitality business through literature reviews; and (2 the importance of how a company can work with an outside agency (consultant, academic institution, etc. to develop a mystery shopping program that can enhance and complement ongoing service quality programs. A casual steakhouse restaurant in the Eastern U.S. was selected as our pilot project. The basic concept of using secret shoppers is to have individuals experience real-time and onsite quality of services and record how the mystery shoppers felt about the quality of services and if the employees met or exceeded the company’s standards. For this reason, the authors believe that mystery shopping, especially in hospitality, is an important means of developing and maintaining a sustainable business. While the sustainability of a business is largely dependent upon “people, profits and planet” in the hospitality industry, it is also dependent upon meeting service standards and developing a feedback loop. Mystery shopping programs have demonstrated their ability to contribute to organizations in this regard.

  3. Coupling ANIMO and MT3DMS for 3D regional-scale modeling of nutrient transport in soil and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, G.; Del Val Alonso, L.; Groenendijk, P.; Griffioen, J.

    2012-12-01

    We developed an on-line coupling between the 1D/quasi-2D nutrient transport model ANIMO and the 3D groundwater transport model code MT3DMS. ANIMO is a detailed, process-oriented model code for the simulation of nitrate leaching to groundwater, N- and P-loads on surface waters and emissions of greenhouse gasses. It is the leading nutrient fate and transport code in the Netherlands where it is used primarily for the evaluation of fertilization related legislation. In addition, the code is applied frequently in international research projects. MT3DMS is probably the most commonly used groundwater solute transport package worldwide. The on-line model coupling ANIMO-MT3DMS combines the state-of-the-art descriptions of the biogeochemical cycles in ANIMO with the advantages of using a 3D approach for the transport through the saturated domain. These advantages include accounting for regional lateral transport, considering groundwater-surface water interactions more explicitly, and the possibility of using MODFLOW to obtain the flow fields. An additional merit of the on-line coupling concept is that it preserves feedbacks between the saturated and unsaturated zone. We tested ANIMO-MT3DMS by simulating nutrient transport for the period 1970-2007 in a Dutch agricultural polder catchment covering an area of 118 km2. The transient groundwater flow field had a temporal resolution of one day and was calculated with MODFLOW-MetaSWAP. The horizontal resolution of the model grid was 100x100m and consisted of 25 layers of varying thickness. To keep computation times manageable, we prepared MT3DMS for parallel computing, which in itself is a relevant development for a large community of groundwater transport modelers. For the parameterization of the soil, we applied a standard classification approach, representing the area by 60 units with unique combinations of soil type, land use and geohydrological setting. For the geochemical parameterization of the deeper subsurface, however, we

  4. Modified Mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian Method Based on Numerical Framework of MT3DMS on Cauchy Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2016-07-01

    MT3DMS, a modular three-dimensional multispecies transport model, has long been a popular model in the groundwater field for simulating solute transport in the saturated zone. However, the method of characteristics (MOC), modified MOC (MMOC), and hybrid MOC (HMOC) included in MT3DMS did not treat Cauchy boundary conditions in a straightforward or rigorous manner, from a mathematical point of view. The MOC, MMOC, and HMOC regard the Cauchy boundary as a source condition. For the source, MOC, MMOC, and HMOC calculate the Lagrangian concentration by setting it equal to the cell concentration at an old time level. However, the above calculation is an approximate method because it does not involve backward tracking in MMOC and HMOC or allow performing forward tracking at the source cell in MOC. To circumvent this problem, a new scheme is proposed that avoids direct calculation of the Lagrangian concentration on the Cauchy boundary. The proposed method combines the numerical formulations of two different schemes, the finite element method (FEM) and the Eulerian-Lagrangian method (ELM), into one global matrix equation. This study demonstrates the limitation of all MT3DMS schemes, including MOC, MMOC, HMOC, and a third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme under Cauchy boundary conditions. By contrast, the proposed method always shows good agreement with the exact solution, regardless of the flow conditions. Finally, the successful application of the proposed method sheds light on the possible flexibility and capability of the MT3DMS to deal with the mass transport problems of all flow regimes. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  5. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  6. Resistivity structure and geochemistry of the Jigokudani Valley hydrothermal system, Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kaori; Kanda, Wataru; Tanbo, Toshiya; Ohba, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Takakura, Shinichi; Nogami, Kenji; Ushioda, Masashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Saito, Zenshiro; Matsunaga, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    This study clarifies the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley near Mt. Tateyama volcano in Japan by using a combination of audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey and hot-spring water analysis in order to assess the potential of future phreatic eruptions in the area. Repeated phreatic eruptions in the area about 40,000 years ago produced the current valley morphology, which is now an active solfatara field dotted with hot springs and fumaroles indicative of a well-developed hydrothermal system. The three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure of the hydrothermal system was modeled by using the results of an AMT survey conducted at 25 locations across the valley in 2013-2014. The model suggests the presence of a near-surface highly conductive layer of falling largely on a mixing line between magmatic fluids and local meteoric water (LMW). The geochemical analysis suggests that the hydrothermal system includes a two-phase zone of vapor-liquid. A comparison of the resistivity structure and the geochemically inferred structure suggests that a hydrothermal reservoir is present at a depth of approximately 500 m, from which hot-spring water differentiates into the three observed types. The two-phase zone appears to be located immediately beneath the cap rock structure. These findings suggest that the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley exhibits a number of factors that could trigger a future phreatic eruption.

  7. A groundwater salinity hotspot and its connection to an intermittent stream identified by environmental tracers (Mt Lofty Ranges, South Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas A.; Bestland, Erick A.; Soloninka, Lesja; Wallis, Ilka; Banks, Edward W.; Pichler, Markus

    2017-12-01

    High and variable levels of salinity were investigated in an intermittent stream in a high-rainfall area (˜800 mm/year) of the Mt. Lofty Ranges of South Australia. The groundwater system was found to have a local, upslope saline lens, referred to here as a groundwater salinity `hotspot'. Environmental tracer analyses (δ18O, δ2H, 87/86Sr, and major elements) of water from the intermittent stream, a nearby permanent stream, shallow and deep groundwater, and soil-water/runoff demonstrate seasonal groundwater input of very saline composition into the intermittent stream. This input results in large salinity increases of the stream water because the winter wet-season stream flow decreases during spring in this Mediterranean climate. Furthermore, strontium and water isotope analyses demonstrate: (1) the upslope-saline-groundwater zone (hotspot) mixes with the dominant groundwater system, (2) the intermittent-stream water is a mixture of soil-water/runoff and the upslope saline groundwater, and (3) the upslope-saline-groundwater zone results from the flushing of unsaturated-zone salts from the thick clayey regolith and soil which overlie the metamorphosed shale bedrock. The preferred theory on the origin of the upslope-saline-groundwater hotspot is land clearing of native deep-rooted woodland, followed by flushing of accumulated salts from the unsaturated zone due to increased recharge. This cause of elevated groundwater and surface-water salinity, if correct, could be widespread in Mt. Lofty Ranges areas, as well as other climatically and geologically similar areas with comparable hydrogeologic conditions.

  8. 76 FR 19281 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The... extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Bozeman, MT...

  9. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  10. MT-ADRES: Multithreading on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high-ILP archi......The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high......-ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl’s law, this paper proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (Multi-Threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned in multiple...

  11. 77 FR 41939 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...-0379; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-7 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT... System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT...

  12. Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar-like Seq in mt Genome Data detail Data name Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome DOI 10...e Site Policy | Contact Us Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RMG Nucle

  13. Exchangeable cations in some soils of Mt. Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanović Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use in forest and pasture ecosystems requires the respecting of ecological and economic interactions between the individual components of these ecosystems. The content of nutrition elements in the soil solution depends on soil types, climate conditions and vegetation species, i.e., it is conditioned by their cycling in the ecosystem. This paper studies the cation exchange capacity in pasture and forest soils of Mt. Stara Planina.

  14. MT survey in the Minaminoshiro oil field; Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru MT ho ni yoru sekiyu tanko (sanjigen MT ho chosa no kento). 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, K; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Preliminary experiment, investigation, and study are conducted prior to an experimental 3-D MT (magnetotelluric) survey planned to be carried out in the Minaminoshiro district, Akita Prefecture. In the preliminary investigation, MT measurements were performed at nine locations. It was anticipated that national highways, waste treatment plants, high-voltage power lines, and railways in presence in the district would act as noise sources. Although the impact of such noise was detected in the single site treatment result, yet it was found that it would be mostly eliminated by use of the remote reference treatment. It was learned that the resistivity structure in this district was quite low in contrast or 1 ohm/m against 30 ohm/m, but the result of 3-D model calculation indicated that a sufficient analysis would be possible even in such a low contrast case. Furthermore, as the result of the study of the density of observation stations in the magnetic field, it was found that changes in the response of magnetic field to the resistivity structure would be approximately 2% at the maximum and that the ill effect on the result of measurement would be of the negligible magnitude even when a single magnetic field observation station is deployed against plural electric field observation stations. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Mt. Graham: optical turbulence vertical distribution with standard and high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Stoesz, Jeff; Hagelin, Susanna; Lascaux, Franck

    2010-07-01

    A characterization of the optical turbulence vertical distribution and all the main integrated astroclimatic parameters derived from the C2N and the wind speed profiles above Mt. Graham is presented. The statistic includes measurements related to 43 nights done with a Generalized Scidar (GS) used in standard configuration with a vertical resolution of ~1 km on the whole 20-22 km and with the new technique (HVR-GS) in the first kilometer. The latter achieves a resolution of ~ 20-30 m in this region of the atmosphere. Measurements done in different periods of the year permit us to provide a seasonal variation analysis of the C2N. A discretized distribution of the typical C2N profiles useful for the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) simulations is provided and a specific analysis for the LBT Laser Guide Star system ARGOS case is done including the calculation of the 'gray zones' for J, H and K bands. Mt. Graham confirms to be an excellent site with median values of the seeing without dome contribution equal to 0.72", the isoplanatic angle equal to 2.5" and the wavefront coherence time equal to 4.8 msec. We provide a cumulative distribution of the percentage of turbulence developed below H* where H* is included in the (0,1 km) range. We find that 50% of the whole turbulence develops in the first 80 m from the ground. The turbulence decreasing rate is very similar to what has been observed above Mauna Kea.

  16. Cognate xenoliths in Mt. Etna lavas: witnesses of the high-velocity body beneath the volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Rotolo, Silvio Giuseppe; Cocina, Ornella; Tumbarello, Gianvito

    2014-01-01

    Various xenoliths have been found in lavas of the 1763 ("La Montagnola"), 2001, and 2002-03 eruptions at Mt. Etna whose petrographic evidence and mineral chemistry exclude a mantle origin and clearly point to a cognate nature. Consequently, cognate xenoliths might represent a proxy to infer the nature of the high-velocity body (HVB) imaged beneath the volcano by seismic tomography. Petrography allows us to group the cognate xenoliths as follows: i) gabbros with amphibole and amphibole-bearing mela-gabbros, ii) olivine-bearing leuco-gabbros, iii) leuco-gabbros with amphibole, and iv) Plg-rich leuco gabbros. Geobarometry estimates the crystallization pressure of the cognate xenoliths between 1.9 and 4.1 kbar. The bulk density of the cognate xenoliths varies from 2.6 to 3.0 g/cm3. P wave velocities (V P ), calculated in relation to xenolith density, range from 4.9 to 6.1 km/s. The integration of mineralogical, compositional, geobarometric data, and density-dependent V P with recent literature data on 3D V P seismic tomography enabled us to formulate the first hypothesis about the nature of the HVB which, in the depth range of 3-13 km b.s.l., is likely made of intrusive gabbroic rocks. These are believed to have formed at the "solidification front", a marginal zone that encompasses a deep region (>5 km b.s.l.) of Mt. Etna's plumbing system, within which magma crystallization takes place. The intrusive rocks were afterwards fragmented and transported as cognate xenoliths by the volatile-rich and fast-ascending magmas of the 1763 "La Montagnola", 2001 and 2002-03 eruptions.

  17. Lahar flow simulation using Laharz_py program: Application for the Mt. Halla volcano, Jeju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Yun, S. H.; Yi, W.

    2017-12-01

    Lahar, one of catastrophic events, has the potential to cause the loss of life and damage to infrastructure over inhabited areas. This study using Laharz_py, was performed schematic prediction on the impact area of lahar hazards at the Mt. Halla volcano, Jeju island. In order to comprehensively address the impact of lahar for the Mt. Halla, two distinct parameters, H/L ratio and lahar volume, were selected to influence variable for Laharz_py simulation. It was carried out on the basis of numerical simulation by estimating a possible lahar volumes of 30,000, 50,000, 70,000, 100,000, 300,000, 500,000 m3 according to H/L ratios (0.20, 0.22 and 0.25) was applied. Based on the numerical simulations, the area of the proximal hazard zone boundary is gradually decreased with increasing H/L ratio. The number of streams which affected by lahar, tended to decrease with increasing H/L ratio. In the case of H/L ratio 0.20, three streams (Gwangryeong stream, Dogeun stream, Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and six streams (Gungsan stream, Hogeun stream, Seohong stream, Donghong stream, Bomok stream, Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. In the case of H/L ratio 0.22, two streams (Gwangryeong stream and Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and five streams (Gungsan stream, Seohong stream, Donghong stream, Bomok stream, Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. And in the case of H/L ratio 0.25, two streams (Gwangryeong stream and Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and one stream (Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. The results of this study will be used as basic data to create a risk map for the direct damage that can be caused due to volcanic hazards arising from Mt. Halla. This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-81] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  18. How the nucleus and mitochondria communicate in energy production during stress: nuclear MtATP6, an early-stress responsive gene, regulates the mitochondrial F₁F₀-ATP synthase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Ali Asghar; Ebrahimie, Eemaeil; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Niazi, Ali; Babgohari, Mahbobeh Zamani; Deihimi, Tahereh; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Ramezani, Amin

    2013-07-01

    A small number of stress-responsive genes, such as those of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase complex, are encoded by both the nucleus and mitochondria. The regulatory mechanism of these joint products is mysterious. The expression of 6-kDa subunit (MtATP6), a relatively uncharacterized nucleus-encoded subunit of F0 part, was measured during salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivated wheat genotypes, as well as in the wild wheat genotypes, Triticum and Aegilops using qRT-PCR. The MtATP6 expression was suddenly induced 3 h after NaCl treatment in all genotypes, indicating an early inducible stress-responsive behavior. Promoter analysis showed that the MtATP6 promoter includes cis-acting elements such as ABRE, MYC, MYB, GTLs, and W-boxes, suggesting a role for this gene in abscisic acid-mediated signaling, energy metabolism, and stress response. It seems that 6-kDa subunit, as an early response gene and nuclear regulatory factor, translocates to mitochondria and completes the F1F0-ATP synthase complex to enhance ATP production and maintain ion homeostasis under stress conditions. These communications between nucleus and mitochondria are required for inducing mitochondrial responses to stress pathways. Dual targeting of 6-kDa subunit may comprise as a mean of inter-organelle communication and save energy for the cell. Interestingly, MtATP6 showed higher and longer expression in the salt-tolerant wheat and the wild genotypes compared to the salt-sensitive genotype. Apparently, salt-sensitive genotypes have lower ATP production efficiency and weaker energy management than wild genotypes; a stress tolerance mechanism that has not been transferred to cultivated genotypes.

  19. b-value distribution in and around Mt. Tarumae, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mt. Tarumae is an active volcano located in southeastern Shikotsu caldera, Hokkaido, Japan. Recently, crustal expansion occurred in 1999-2000 and 2013 near the summit of Mt. Tarumae, with a M5.6 earthquake recorded west of the summit on 8 July 2014. In this study, I determined hypocenter distributions and then performed b-value analysis for the period between 1 August 2014 and 12 August 2016 to improve our understanding of the magma system geometry beneath the summit of Mt. Tarumae. Hypocenters are mainly distributed in two regions: 3 - 5 km west of Mt. Tarumae, and beneath the volcano. I then determined b-value distributions. Regions with relatively high b-values ( 1.3) are located at depths of -0.5 to 2.0 km beneath the summit and at depths greater than 6.0 km in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the summit, while a region with relatively low b-values ( 0.6) is located at depths of 2.0 - 6.0 km beneath the summit. Compared the b-value distributions with other geophysical observations, it was found that the high b-value region from -0.5 to 2.0 km depth corresponds to regions of lower resistivity, positive self-potential anomaly, and an inflation source observed in 1999-2000. It is thus inferred that this region is generated by crustal heterogeneity, a decrease in effective normal stress, and change of a frictional property due to the development of faults and fissures, and the circulation of hydrothermal fluids. On the other hand, the inflation source observed in 2013 was located near the boundary between the low b-value region beneath the summit and the deeper high b-value region in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the summit. Studies of other volcanoes suggest that such a high-b-value region likely corresponds to a magma chamber. From the deeper high b-value region estimated in this study, I am able to point out that the magma chamber is located to depths greater than 6.0 km in the northwestern part at about 1.5 - 3.0 km from the

  20. FY 1997 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Primary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, age determination of rocks, alteration age determination by thermoluminescence method, geochemical survey (hot spring gas, hot spring water), gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were made. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. The geothermal system in this area seems to be controlled by the Mt. Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, folding zone along the fault and Graben-state structure extending southeast of the zone. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction and volcanic effluences from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  1. Palmitoylation at Cys574 is essential for MT1-MMP to promote cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anilkumar, Narayanapanicker; Uekita, Takamasa; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    of the palmitoylated cysteine relative to LLY573, a motif that interacts with mu2 subunit of adaptor protein 2, is critical for the cell motility-promoting activity of MT1-MMP and its clathrin-mediated internalization. Taken together, palmitoylation of MT1-MMP is one of the key posttranslational modifications......MT1-MMP is a type I transmembrane proteinase that promotes cell migration and invasion. Here, we report that MT1-MMP is palmitoylated at Cys574 in the cytoplasmic domain, and this lipid modification is critical for its promotion of cell migration and clathrin-mediated internalization...... that determines MT1-MMP-dependent cell migration....

  2. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  3. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  4. The Authenticity of the Document at Andocides On the Mysteries 95-98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Monroe Harris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This essays studies the document inserted into the text of Andocides' speech On the Mysteries (96-98 and shows that it is not a genuine copy of the decree of Demophantus from an analysis of its contents and a comparison with the formulas and language of decrees from the late fifth and fourth centuries BCE preserved on stone. The final part of the essay analyzes the historical context of the decree of Demophantus and shows that it belongs in the period where Lycurgus (Against Leocrates 124-127 places it, that is, after the overthrow of the Thirty in 403 BCE.

  5. Narração e Storytelling em Mysterious Object at Noon, de Apichatpong Weerasethakul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bértolo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a close analysis of Mysterious Object at Noon, directed by Apichatpong Weerasethakul, in which are considered questions of narration motivated by the central place the act of storytelling holds in the film structure. Problems such as the nonexistence of a script and the way the film seems structured by oral narration, in loco, as if the film were being written as it is told, will be analyzed. Finally, I describe how, through this structure, the film reflects upon the specificity of cinema as a way of telling/showing stories.

  6. HEXAMETER IN "THE MYSTERIOUS DROP" BY F. GLINKA (POETIC TRANSPOSITION OF THE "PATER NOSTER"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov I. V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The author focuses on the last large work by F. Glinka The Mysterious Drop (1861 dedicated to the matters of religion. Special features of the poetic version of the apocryphal story about the Penitent Thief are analyzed here. The conclusion is that the semantic core of the poem is the Lord's Prayer made in hexameter. This meter is used nowhere else in the polirhythmic structure of the poem. A rhymed prayer with rhythmic accents plays a special harmonizing role in the artistic concept of the universe.

  7. New Eyes on the Universe Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "New Eyes on the Universe -- Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them" gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Uni

  8. Between rules and mysteries, of the sea and of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Forte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We  highlight the mysterious liquidity that oversees the interpretation of the nature of the relation sea and cities, using to hyperbole from James Conrad in " Heart of Darkness ", while the reference to Saskia Sassen highlights the need of strong policies in the governance of reciprocity relationships. The heart of darkness continues to envelop the sea-land relations , as witnessed by the suffering of migrants on the sea and also the new faces of the suffering city ( migrant's reception centers in Italy . It is believed that culture has a role in unraveling the mystery. And we employ codes in plans design, derived from culture in an attempt to delineate the nature of the mysterious liquidity; but the outcomes were so different to believe ineffective a recourse to theoretical generalizations, and always adventurous the understanding of the singularity of the specific condition. The mysteries of the sea and of cities ask open connections, contamination of knowledges, in the ' task of deciding. Within  globalization change the Europe, its nations, roles and positions of cities. The things "Shape" and their "Substance" still appear as the essence of the decision. From history we know that the nation trolls the city, but the effectiveness of the national policies on local development depends on the quality of local politics.  Searching coherences, has been tried to reinforce the urban government, connecting strategic visions - structure - form - rules; but  the dissociation between form and substance had little impact on the outcome of these paths. The urban crisis can not be minimized connecting its reasons to the scarcity of capital for investment, that still  there are (European Union. A more interconnected and complex world requires a more intense need of future. In the search of "hope settling", we should shape a future bleu networks, organizing systems which could constitute the complex relationships sea - land - inland waters,  and

  9. West meets East: psychophysics studies for understanding mysterious Oriental health promoting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen

    2008-04-01

    Based on his early graduated studies in psychophysics, the author has, in recent years, applied psychophysics for studying organic and motor senses (the two sensory systems deeply embedded inside of human body), and tried to understand the scientific foundation of the oriental health promoting practices. The preliminary results are promising and are discussed in detail in this paper. Psychophysics studies of organic and motor senses may be the tool to provide the connection between Western and Eastern medicines to form a balanced holistic medicine approach, and may help us to understand the scientific foundation of mysterious oriental health Promoting practices that serve as alternative medicines for promoting human wellness against illness.

  10. Celestial sleuth using astronomy to solve mysteries in art, history and literature

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Donald W

    2013-01-01

    For a general audience interested in solving mysteries in art, history, and literature using the methods of science, 'forensic astronomy'  is a thrilling new field of exploration. Astronomical calculations are the basis of the studies, which have the advantage of bringing to readers both evocative images and a better understanding of the skies. Weather facts, volcano studies, topography, tides, historical letters and diaries, famous paintings, military records, and the friendly assistance of experts in related fields add variety, depth, and interest to the work. The chosen topics are selected

  11. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  12. Mysterious Subtractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Amy F.; Watanabe, Tad

    2013-01-01

    Recent documents suggest that all students, even young children, should have opportunities to engage in reasoning and proof (CCSSI 2010; NCTM 2000, 2006, 2009). One mathematical practice that is central to reasoning and proof is making conjectures (CCSSI 2010; NCTM 2000; Stylianides 2008). In the elementary grades, "formulating conjectures…

  13. Quantum mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Rajat

    1997-01-01

    The book discusses the laws of quantum mechanics, several amazing quantum phenomena and some recent progress in understanding the connection between the quantum and the classical worlds. We show how paradoxes arise and how to resolve them. The significance of Bell's theorem and the remarkable experimental results on particle correlations are described in some detail. Finally, the current status of our understanding of quantum theory is summerised.

  14. Sky Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David P.

    2017-01-01

    I saw something extraordinary on Wednesday, 25 September 2013, at about 10:10AM local time, while in a parking lot at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland USA (located in the suburbs of Washington, D.C., about 20 km northeast of the White House). I looked northeast at about a 45 degree angle at a cirrus cloud. The cloud was elongated horizontally from my perspective. T o my surprise I saw a band of ripples rapidly pass from right to left along the axis of the cloud. The ripples appeared dark, like a bar code, with the bars being almost vertical (see Figure 1). There appeared to be approximately 10 bars in the band. Each bar was a few degrees in length. I estimate that each bar was about 1/10 to 1/4 degree in width and the white spaces between them about the same width. I guessed that the angular speed of the band passing along the cloud was about 1/2 to 1 degree per second. A half-moon was in another part of the sky; looking at the Moon later helped me make the estimates. After a few seconds at most the band disappeared. Then a second band repeated the performance. I kept watching to see if this was going to be a periodic phenomenon, but no further bands appeared; just the two. Of course there may have been other bands passing across the cloud before I started looking. About 30 seconds to a minute after the bands disappeared, a low-flying jetliner on the usual northeast to southwest route passed almost exactly through the spot where I had seen the bands. I estimate the jetliner was a bit bigger than the full moon. My first thought was that maybe there was something wrong inside my eyes. But looking at other clouds revealed no bands. So what caused the bands? They do not seem to have been due to the exhausts on top of the nearby building, with the cloud acting as a backdrop: one would expect a continuous, disorganized shimmering instead of two separate organized bands. Moreover, there would be no reason for bands to stop unless the exhausts suddenly stopped right while I was looking at the cloud. Hence the explanation does not seem to be local. This or a similar phenomenon was photographed in France during World War II, apparently produced by distant artillery. Jones (1947) proffered the explanation that shock waves from the guns were made visible in the sky by a process akin to Schlieren photography, with the cloud apparently acting as a screen against which to view the waves. The photograph shows 3 bars, compared to the 10 or so I saw. Rather than the cloud just being a backdrop, Andrew T. Young of San Diego State University and my colleague Coerte Voorhies (private communications) point out that the bands may have been made in the cloud itself. A passing disturbance jostling the ice crystals in the cloud would change the reflection of sunlight to the observer, giving the light and dark pattern. Assuming Young and Voorhies are correct, what made the disturbance? Cirrus clouds range from approximately 4 km to approximately 13 km in height. A cloud at a 45 degree angle would be 5.7 km to 18.4 km away. For my estimated angular speeds of 1/2 to 1 degree per second and the range of cirrus heights, the linear speeds range from approximately 100 m s(exp -1)-1 to approximately 642 m s(exp -1), which is subsonic to supersonic. Supersonic speed is unlikely. Young suggests that if the disturbance was subsonic, then it may have been due to the twin vortices produced, not by the jet I saw a half-minute to a minute later, but by a previous jet on the populous route. Twin vortices would explain two bands. On the other hand, if the bands were sound waves traveling at the speed of sound, approximately 343 m s(exp -1), Voorhies notes that the range of estimated distances to the cloud and the estimated center-to-center spacing of 1/5 to 1/2 degrees between the bars give frequencies between approximately 5 Hz and approximately 17 Hz. This is in the infrasound range. Possibly a jet or other man-made disturbance produced infrasound. Another possibility is the passage of a large meteorite. The American Meteor Society reported that September 2013 was a busy month for bright meteors (http://earthsky.org/earth/u-smidwest- sees-another-bright-fireball). However, no daylight meteor was noticed near the appropriate place and time, and such a large meteor going undetected except for a lucky sighting of its infrasound signature in a cirrus cloud seems unlikely. I thank Andrew T. Young and Coerte Voorhies for their input.

  15. Mysterious bruises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old man presented with multiple spontaneous bruises in the past 2 weeks. Several large-sized hematomas were found on examination. The initial investigation revealed a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT with normal platelet count and international normalized ratio. Further investigation revealed a low factor VIII activity secondary to presence of factor VIII inhibitor, making the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A. Further work-up revealed that pernicious anemia was present and acted as an associated disease. After steroids therapy, his aPTT was normalized and the factor VIII inhibitor titer became undetectable. 2 months later, a relapse occurred and new hematomas appeared at his retropharyngeal space and left arm. His bleeding was controlled by administration of recombinant factor VIIa, and a combined therapy of intravenous steroids and rituximab was given to eradicate the inhibitor. The approach to workup of bleeding disorders as well as treatment of acquired hemophilia A are herein discussed.

  16. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  17. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  18. The Effect of Mystery Shopper Reports on Age Verification for Tobacco Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    KREVOR, BRAD S.; PONICKI, WILLIAM R.; GRUBE, JOEL W.; DeJONG, WILLIAM

    2011-01-01

    Mystery shops (MS) involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been employed to monitor retail stores’ performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that MS visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the impact of monthly and twice-monthly MS reports on age verification. Forty-five Walgreens stores were each visited 20 times by mystery shoppers. The stores were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas two treatment groups received feedback communications every visit (twice monthly) or every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Post-baseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement than control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all three groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the MS program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging inter-store communication might extend the benefits of MS programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. PMID:21541874

  19. Community in Panic: Perceptions, impacts and lessons at risk communication on Pangasinan Mysterious Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lawrence Carvajal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicating information about possible life threatening concerns can be very delicately difficult, and if it is not done well, the communicator can put the affected public at greater risk by creating misunderstanding or possibly inciting unwarranted panic. On February 24, 2014, a late night news program reported that a “mysterious flesh-eating illness is slowly” spreading in Pangasinan, a province in the Philippines with a population of more than three million.The news report connected two case studies from the towns of Villasis and Santa Barbara, Pangasinan to a prophecy by a self-titled prophet who forewarns of a flesh-eating disease in the said province. Just hours after the report came out that night, the hashtag #PrayForPangasinan trended on Twitter, and link of the video have been boundlessly shared on Facebook and other online social media. Anchored on the mental noise and risk perception theories, the study delves into the perceptions of risk of the affected public and determines the risk communication impacts and lessons of the Pangasinan Mysterious Disease. The findings of the study on the perceptions of risk by the affected public, the risk communication impacts and lessons on the news report is significant as the fundamental goal of risk communication is to provide meaningful, relevant and accurate information, in clear and understandable terms targeted to the concerned and affected publicand spur all concerned to a higher degree of consensus and support for a beneficial action.

  20. Top Mysteries of the Mind: Insights From the Default Space Model of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Jerath

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aside from the nature of consciousness itself, there are still many unsolved problems in the neurosciences. Despite the vast and quickly growing body of work in this field, we still find ourselves perplexed at seemingly simple qualities of our mental being such as why we need to sleep. The neurosciences are at least beginning to take a hold on these mysteries and are working toward solving them. We hold a perspective that metastable consciousness models, specifically the Default Space Model (DSM, provide insights into these mysteries. In this perspective article, we explore some of these curious questions in order to elucidate the interesting points they bring up. The DSM is a dynamic, global theory of consciousness that involves the maintenance of an internal, 3D simulation of the external, physical world which is the foundation and structure of consciousness. This space is created and filled by multiple frequencies of membrane potential oscillations throughout the brain and body which are organized, synchronized and harmonized by the thalamus. The veracity of the DSM is highlighted here in its ability to further understanding of some of the most puzzling problems in neuroscience.

  1. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI, has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57% or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%; 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  2. DNA Barcoding the Medusozoa using mtCOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortman, Brian D.; Bucklin, Ann; Pagès, Francesc; Youngbluth, Marsh

    2010-12-01

    The Medusozoa are a clade within the Cnidaria comprising the classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Cubozoa. Identification of medusozoan species is challenging, even for taxonomic experts, due to their fragile forms and complex, morphologically-distinct life history stages. In this study 231 sequences for a portion of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (mtCOI) gene were obtained from 95 species of Medusozoans including; 84 hydrozoans (61 siphonophores, eight anthomedusae, four leptomedusae, seven trachymedusae, and four narcomedusae), 10 scyphozoans (three coronatae, four semaeostomae, two rhizostomae, and one stauromedusae), and one cubozoan. This region of mtCOI has been used as a DNA barcode (i.e., a molecular character for species recognition and discrimination) for a diverse array of taxa, including some Cnidaria. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distances between sequence variants within species ranged from 0 to 0.057 (mean 0.013). Within the 13 genera for which multiple species were available, K2P distance between congeneric species ranged from 0.056 to 0.381. A cluster diagram generated by Neighbor Joining (NJ) using K2P distances reliably clustered all barcodes of the same species with ≥99% bootstrap support, ensuring accurate identification of species. Intra- and inter-specific variation of the mtCOI gene for the Medusozoa are appropriate for this gene to be used as a DNA barcode for species-level identification, but not for phylogenetic analysis or taxonomic classification of unknown sequences at higher taxonomic levels. This study provides a set of molecular tools that can be used to address questions of speciation, biodiversity, life-history, and population boundaries in the Medusozoa.

  3. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  4. Mt. Apo geothermal project : a learning experience in sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ote, Leonardo M.; De Jesus, Agnes C.

    1997-01-01

    The Mt. Apo geothermal project, a critical component of the Philippine energy program met stiff opposition from 1988-1991. Seemingly unresolvable legal, environmental and cultural issues between the government developer, the Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) and various affected sectors delayed the project for two years. The paper discusses the efforts undertaken by the developer to resolve these conflicts through a series of initiatives that transformed the project into a legally, environmentally and socially acceptable project. Lastly, the PNOC-EDC experience has evolved a new set of procedures for the environmental evaluation of development project in the Philippines. (author)

  5. Sidereal anisotropy of small air showers observed at Mt. Norikura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujii, Z.; Ueno, H.; Kondo, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observation of small air showers has been continued from August 1970, using a part of the multidirectional cosmic ray telescope at Mt. Norikura. Most significant result obtained from this observation was a sidereal diurnal anisotropy of amplitude 0.051 +- 0.004% with maximum at 1.0 +- 0.5 h, which showed a persistent trend over six years. Based on the results of the observation together with those obtained by Gombosi et al. and Fenton et al., a tentative model of sidereal anisotropies is presented. (author)

  6. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  7. Food-induced reinforcement is abrogated by the genetic deletion of the MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptor in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Shannon J; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2018-05-02

    Palatable food is known for its ability to enhance reinforcing responses. Studies have suggested a circadian variation in both drug and natural reinforcement, with each following its own time course. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the MT 1 and MT 2 melatonin receptors in palatable snack food-induced reinforcement, as measured by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm during the light and dark phases. C3H/HeN wild-type mice were trained for snack food-induced CPP at either ZT 6 - 8 (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT 0 = lights on), when endogenous melatonin levels are low, or ZT 19 - 21, when melatonin levels are high. These time points also correspond to the high and low points for expression of the circadian gene Period1, respectively. The amount of snack food (chow, Cheetos®, Froot Loops® and Oreos®) consumed was of similar magnitude at both times, however only C3H/HeN mice conditioned to snack food at ZT 6 - 8 developed a place preference. C3H/HeN mice with a genetic deletion of either the MT 1 (MT 1 KO) or MT 2 (MT 2 KO) receptor tested at ZT 6 - 8 did not develop a place preference for snack food. Although the MT 2 KO mice showed a similar amount of snack food consumed when compared to wild-type mice, the MT 1 KO mice consumed significantly less than either genotype. We conclude that in our mouse model snack food-induced CPP is dependent on time of day and the presence of the MT 1 or MT 2 receptors, suggesting a role for melatonin and its receptors in snack food-induced reinforcement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of melatonin receptor MT1 in cells of human invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Karolina; Pula, Bartosz; Zemla, Agata; Owczarek, Tomasz; Wojnar, Andrzej; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    In humans, two main types of membrane melatonin receptors have been identified, MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 in neoplastic cells seems to increase the efficacy of melatonin's oncostatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and the intensity of MT1 expression in breast cancer cells and to correlate it with clinicopathological factors. Immunohistochemical studies (IHC) were conducted on 190 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDC) and molecular studies were performed on 29 cases of frozen tumor fragments and selected breast cancer cell lines. Most of the studied tumors manifested a membranous/cytoplasmic IHC expression of MT1. In IDC, the MT1 expression was higher than in fibrocystic breast disease. MT1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and HER2 positive (HER2+) tumors. Triple negative tumors (TN) manifested the lowest MT1 expression level. The lowest MT1 protein expression level was noted in the TN breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 compared with ER+ cell lines MCF-7 and SK-BR-3. MT1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the malignancy grade of the studied IDC cases. Moreover, higher MT1 expression was associated with patients' longer overall survival (OS) in the group of ER+ breast cancers and treated with tamoxifen. Multivariate analysis indicated that MT1 was an independent prognostic factor in the ER+ tumors for OS and event-free survival in the ER+ tumors. The results of this study may point to a potential prognostic and therapeutic significance of MT1 in IDC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. 78 FR 33047 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe-Atoma Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe--Atoma Area Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... the effects of a proposal from Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe (Mt. Rose) to expand its lift and terrain network. The project is located approximately 12 miles west of the intersection of Mt. Rose Highway (Nevada...

  10. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  11. Natural radioactivity in volcanic ash from Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Garcia, T.Y.; Dela Cruz, F.M.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Last June 15, 1991, a major pyroclastic eruption occurred from Mt. Pinatubo volcano located in Zambales, Central Luzon. The radiological impact of this eruption was assessed based on the concentrations of the principal naturally occurring radionuclides observed in volcanic ash. The volcanic ash samples were collected from locations which are within 50-km radius of Mt. Pinatubo at various times after the eruption. The mean activity concentrations in Bq/kg wet weight of the natural radionuclides in volcanic ash were as follows: 12.6 for 238 U, 14.0 for 232 Th and 330 for 40 K. These values are significantly higher than the mean activity concentrations of these radionuclides observed in topsoil in the same provinces before the eruption. This suggests that with the deposition of large quantities of volcanic ash and lahar in Central Luzon and concomitant topographic changes, the distribution and quantities of radionuclides which gave rise to terrestrial radiation may have also changed. Outdoor radon concentrations measured three days and later after the eruption were within normal background values. (auth.). 4 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 fig

  12. Spatial structure of soil properties at different scales of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Anna; Huwe, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Soils of tropical mountain ecosystems provide important ecosystem services like water and carbon storage, water filtration and erosion control. As these ecosystems are threatened by global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes, it is important to understand the implications of these changes. Within the DFG Research Unit "Kilimanjaro ecosystems under global change: Linking biodiversity, biotic interactions and biogeochemical ecosystem processes", we study the spatial heterogeneity of soils and the available water capacity for different land use systems. In the savannah zone of Mt. Kilimanjaro, maize fields are compared to natural savannah ecosystems. In the lower montane forest zone, coffee plantations, traditional home gardens, grasslands and natural forests are studied. We characterize the soils with respect to soil hydrology, emphasizing on the spatial variability of soil texture and bulk density at different scales. Furthermore soil organic carbon and nitrogen, cation exchange capacity and the pH-value are measured. Vis/Nir-Spectroscopy is used to detect small scale physical and chemical heterogeneity within soil profiles, as well as to get information of soil properties on a larger scale. We aim to build a spectral database for these soil properties for the Kilimanjaro region in order to get rapid information for geostatistical analysis. Partial least square regression with leave one out cross validation is used for model calibration. Results for silt and clay content, as well as carbon and nitrogen content are promising, with adjusted R² ranging from 0.70 for silt to 0.86 for nitrogen. Furthermore models for other nutrients, cation exchange capacity and available water capacity will be calibrated. We compare heterogeneity within and across the different ecosystems and state that spatial structure characteristics and complexity patterns in soil parameters can be quantitatively related to biodiversity and functional diversity

  13. Reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of open hole well log analyses, core analyses and pressure transient analyses was used for reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon sandstone. Characterization of the injection interval provides the basis for a geologic model to support the baseline MVA model, specify pressure design requirements of surface equipment, develop completion strategies, estimate injection rates, and project the CO2 plume distribution.The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone overlies the Precambrian granite basement of the Illinois Basin. The Mt. Simon is relatively thick formation exceeding 800 meters in some areas of the Illinois Basin. In the deeper part of the basin where sequestration is likely to occur at depths exceeding 1000 m, horizontal core permeability ranges from less than 1 ?? 10-12 cm 2 to greater than 1 ?? 10-8 cm2. Well log and core porosity can be up to 30% in the basal Mt. Simon reservoir. For modeling purposes, reservoir characterization includes absolute horizontal and vertical permeability, effective porosity, net and gross thickness, and depth. For horizontal permeability, log porosity was correlated with core. The core porosity-permeability correlation was improved by using grain size as an indication of pore throat size. After numerous attempts to identify an appropriate log signature, the calculated cementation exponent from Archie's porosity and resistivity relationships was used to identify which porosity-permeability correlation to apply and a permeability log was made. Due to the relatively large thickness of the Mt. Simon, vertical permeability is an important attribute to understand the distribution of CO2 when the injection interval is in the lower part of the unit. Only core analyses and specifically designed pressure transient tests can yield vertical permeability. Many reservoir flow models show that 500-800 m from the injection well most of the CO2 migrates upward depending on the magnitude of the vertical permeability and CO2 injection

  14. Reconstructing the origin of the Lapita Cultural Complex: mtDNA analyses of East Sepik Province, PNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Miguel G; Kaneko, Akira; Hombhanje, Francis W; Tsukahara, Takahiro; Hwaihwanje, Ilomo; Lum, J Koji

    2008-01-01

    The colonization of Oceania occurred in two waves. By 32,000 BP, humans had reached New Guinea and settled all intervisible islands east to the Solomon Islands. Around 3,500 BP, a distinct intrusive group from Southeast Asia reached coastal New Guinea, integrated their components with indigenous resources, and gave rise to the Lapita Cultural Complex. Within 2,500 years, Lapita and its descendant cultures colonized the Pacific. To uncover the origin of the Lapita Cultural Complex, we analyzed the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) in 219 individuals from eight East Sepik Province villages: two villages in each of four environmental zones. Same-zone villages spoke different languages: one Austronesian and three Papuan (Arapesh, Abelam, and Boiken). Our analysis examined whether language or geography better predicted gene flow. In general, language better predicted genetic affinities. Boiken villages across all four zones showed no significant genetic difference (F(ST) P value > 0.05). In contrast, the Austronesian village was significantly different to most other villages (P 0.05). We interpret the data to reflect limited gene flow inland by Austronesians overshadowed by a regional displacement by inland Boiken speakers migrating seaward. These results are consistent with oral histories and ethnographic accounts.

  15. Myopathic mtDNA Depletion Syndrome Due to Mutation in TK2 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Rodríguez-García, María Elena; Rivera, Henry; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Coca-Robinot, David; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the disease gene(s) in a Spanish girl with failure to thrive, muscle weakness, mild facial weakness, elevated creatine kinase, deficiency of mitochondrial complex III and depletion of mtDNA. With whole-exome sequencing data, it was possible to get the whole mtDNA sequencing and discard any pathogenic variant in this genome. The analysis of whole exome uncovered a homozygous pathogenic mutation in thymidine kinase 2 gene ( TK2; NM_004614.4:c.323 C>T, p.T108M). TK2 mutations have been identified mainly in patients with the myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes. This patient presents an atypical TK2-related myopathic form of mtDNA depletion syndromes, because despite having a very low content of mtDNA (TK2 gene in mtDNA depletion syndromes and expanded the phenotypic spectrum.

  16. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  17. Exercise Intolerance and Myoglobinuria Associated with a Novel Maternally Inherited MT-ND1 Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Jabin; Duno, Morten; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2016-01-01

    The most common clinical phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. We report a family with a novel maternally inherited homoplasmic mtDNA m.4087A>G mutation in the ND1 gene (MT-ND1) associated with isolated...... myopathy, recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria, and rhabdomyolysis. DNA from blood in seven family members and muscle from four family members were PCR amplified and sequenced directly and assessed for the m.4087A>G variation in MT-ND1. Mitochondrial enzyme activity in all muscle biopsies was measured. PCR...... myoglobinuria is a rare phenotype of mitochondrial myopathies. We report this phenotype in a family affected by a novel homoplasmic mutation in MT-ND1. It is the first time such a phenotype has been associated with complex I gene mutations and a homoplasmic mutation of mtDNA....

  18. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Mystery Montage: A Holistic, Visual, and Kinesthetic Process for Expanding Horizons and Revealing the Core of a Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Kim; Priebe, Carly; Sharipova, Mayya; West, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the core of a teaching philosophy is the key to a concise and meaningful philosophy statement, but it can be an elusive goal. This paper offers a visual, kinesthetic, and holistic process for expanding the horizons of self-reflection, self-analysis, and self-knowledge. Mystery montage, a variation of visual mapping, storyboarding, and…

  20. Availability and provision of misoprostol and other medicines for menstrual regulation among pharmacies in Bangladesh via mystery client survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fauzia A; Ngo, Thoai D; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Alam, Anadil; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To explore the availability and provision of misoprostol and other medicines for menstrual regulation (MR) among pharmacies in Bangladesh. Between March and November 2011, a cross-sectional study using mystery client visits was conducted among pharmacy workers in Dhaka and Gazipur Districts, Bangladesh. Mystery clients were trained to present 1 of 4 pre-developed situations to pharmacy workers to elicit information on the regimen, adverse effects, and complications of misoprostol use. Mystery clients visited 331 pharmacies. Among the 331 pharmacy workers, 45.8% offered the mystery clients misoprostol and/or other medicines for MR; 25.7% referred them to private clinics or hospitals. Only 7% recommended an effective regimen of misoprostol for MR; 65% suggested administering vaginal and oral misoprostol together. Overall, 72.4% did not provide any advice on complications; the remainder suggested visiting trained providers for complications. Counseling on excessive bleeding as a danger sign was provided by 46% of pharmacy workers. Most (94%) did not provide or refer for post-MR family planning. Pharmacy workers in urban Bangladesh are providing ineffective drugs and regimens for MR. A training package is needed to strengthen service delivery by providing accurate information, high-quality products, and referral mechanisms for women seeking MR through pharmacies. © 2013.

  1. Dr. Earl N. Meyer, in the Lab, with a Scalpel: A Murder Mystery as a Biochemistry Recruitment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcu, Felicia; Heirwegh, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student participation in science is an ongoing challenge for many universities. In this active learning workshop, centered on inquiry and teamwork, we introduce high-school students to biochemistry and molecular biology techniques using a murder mystery activity. During this intensive 3 hr workshop, we engage students in a murder…

  2. Characterization of pancreatic lesions from MT-tgf alpha, Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc single and double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dezhong Joshua; Wang, Yong; Wu, Jiusheng; Adsay, Nazmi Volkan; Grignon, David; Khanani, Fayyaz; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-07-05

    In order to identify good animal models for investigating therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer, we analyzed pancreatic lesions from several transgenic models and made a series of novel findings. Female MT-tgf alpha mice of the MT100 line developed pancreatic proliferation, acinar-ductal metaplasia, multilocular cystic neoplasms, ductal adenocarcinomas and prominent fibrosis, while the lesions in males were less severe. MT-tgf alpha-ES transgenic lines of both sexes developed slowly progressing lesions that were similar to what was seen in MT100 males. In both MT100 and MT-tgf alpha-ES lines, TGF alpha transgene was expressed mainly in proliferating ductal cells. Ela-myc transgenic mice with a mixed C57BL/6, SJL and FVB genetic background developed pancreatic tumors at 2-7 months of age, and half of the tumors were ductal adenocarcinomas, similar to what was reported originally by Sandgren et al 1. However, in 20% of the mice, the tumors metastasized to the liver. MT100/Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha-ES/Ela-myc double transgenic mice developed not only acinar carcinomas and mixed carcinomas as previously reported but also various ductal-originated lesions, including multilocular cystic neoplasms and ductal adenocarcinomas. The double transgenic tumors were more malignant and metastasized to the liver at a higher frequency (33%) compared with the Ela-myc tumors. Sequencing of the coding region of p16ink4, k-ras and Rb cDNA in small numbers of pancreatic tumors did not identify mutations. The short latency for tumor development, the variety of tumor morphology and the liver metastases seen in Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc mice make these animals good models for investigating new therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer.

  3. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  5. Metabolic rescue in pluripotent cells from patients with mtDNA disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Folmes, Clifford D L; Wu, Jun; Morey, Robert; Mora-Castilla, Sergio; Ocampo, Alejandro; Ma, Li; Poulton, Joanna; Wang, Xinjian; Ahmed, Riffat; Kang, Eunju; Lee, Yeonmi; Hayama, Tomonari; Li, Ying; Van Dyken, Crystal; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Koski, Amy; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Huang, Taosheng; Terzic, Andre; Laurent, Louise C; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-08-13

    Mitochondria have a major role in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, which is dependent on the expression of critical genes encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA. Mutations in mtDNA can cause fatal or severely debilitating disorders with limited treatment options. Clinical manifestations vary based on mutation type and heteroplasmy (that is, the relative levels of mutant and wild-type mtDNA within each cell). Here we generated genetically corrected pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) from patients with mtDNA disease. Multiple induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines were derived from patients with common heteroplasmic mutations including 3243A>G, causing mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and 8993T>G and 13513G>A, implicated in Leigh syndrome. Isogenic MELAS and Leigh syndrome iPS cell lines were generated containing exclusively wild-type or mutant mtDNA through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in proliferating fibroblasts. Furthermore, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enabled replacement of mutant mtDNA from homoplasmic 8993T>G fibroblasts to generate corrected Leigh-NT1 PSCs. Although Leigh-NT1 PSCs contained donor oocyte wild-type mtDNA (human haplotype D4a) that differed from Leigh syndrome patient haplotype (F1a) at a total of 47 nucleotide sites, Leigh-NT1 cells displayed transcriptomic profiles similar to those in embryo-derived PSCs carrying wild-type mtDNA, indicative of normal nuclear-to-mitochondrial interactions. Moreover, genetically rescued patient PSCs displayed normal metabolic function compared to impaired oxygen consumption and ATP production observed in mutant cells. We conclude that both reprogramming approaches offer complementary strategies for derivation of PSCs containing exclusively wild-type mtDNA, through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in individual iPS cell lines or mitochondrial replacement by SCNT in homoplasmic mtDNA-based disease.

  6. Machine translation (MT): qualità, produttività, customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fellet, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the impact of recent technological developments in machine translation (MT) in the language industry. The objectives are: 1. To define the value of MT in terms of suitability and convenience in meeting expressed requirements in those cases where MT is demanded; 2. To examine the potential increase in productivity through a conscious use of the tool; 3. To analyse those activities aimed at satisfying the customer’s explicit and impli...

  7. FY 1991 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Electromagnetic exploration (High accuracy MT method) (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa - Denji tansa (Koseido MT ho) hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1991, electromagnetic exploration by the high accuracy MT method was conducted to acquire the information on the geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso, Kumamoto Prefecture. The electromagnetic exploration was made in the area of about 65km{sup 2} at 52 measuring points for 3 measuring components in the magnetic field/2 measuring components in the electric field at 20 measuring frequencies or more in the range of 0.01Hz-20kHz for 4 hours or more. As a result of the survey, the resistivity structure indicated a 3-layer structure inside the Aso caldera. It was thought that the lowest layer was correspondent to the geological basement (Pre-tertiary system). As to the resistivity discontinuous lines extracted from sudden changes in depth distribution and resistivity distribution of the resistivity basement, those in NS direction are conspicuous and those in EW direction also exist inside the caldera. Around the part where these resistivity discontinuous lines of both NS and EW systems cross each other inside the caldera, the Yunoya hot spring and Tarutama hot spring which indicate the geothermal manifestation are located, and acid alteration zones were seen on the earth's surface in the periphery. (NEDO)

  8. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  9. Volcanic geothermal system in the Main Ethiopian Rift: insights from 3D MT finite-element inversion and other exploration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrock, F.; Grayver, A.; Eysteinsson, H.; Saar, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    In search for geothermal resources, especially in exploration for high-enthalpy systems found in regions with active volcanism, the magnetotelluric (MT) method has proven to be an efficient tool. Electrical conductivity of the subsurface, imaged by MT, is used for detecting layers of electrically highly conductive clays which form around the surrounding strata of hot circulating fluids and for delineating magmatic heat sources such as zones with partial melting. We present a case study using a novel 3-D inverse solver, based on adaptive local mesh refinement techniques, applied to decoupled forward and inverse mesh parameterizations. The flexible meshing allows accurate representation of surface topography, while keeping computational costs at a reasonable level. The MT data set we analyze was measured at 112 sites, covering an area of 18 by 11 km at a geothermal prospect in the Main Ethiopian Rift. For inverse modelling, we tested a series of different settings to ensure that the recovered structures are supported by the data. Specifically, we tested different starting models, regularization functionals, sets of transfer functions, with and without inclusion of topography. Several robust subsurface structures were revealed. These are prominent features of a high-enthalpy geothermal system: A highly conductive shallow clay cap occurs in an area with high fumarolic activity, and is underlain by a more resistive zone, which is commonly interpreted as a propylitic reservoir and is the main geothermal target for drilling. An interesting discovery is the existence of a channel-like conductor connecting the geothermal field at the surface with an off-rift conductive zone, whose existence was proposed earlier as being related to an off-rift volcanic belt along the western shoulder of the Main Ethiopian Rift. The electrical conductivity model is interpreted together with results from other geoscientific studies and outcomes from satellite remote sensing techniques.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA copy number threshold in mtDNA depletion myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, S E; Bonilla, E; Samuels, D C; DiMauro, S; Chinnery, P F

    2005-08-09

    The authors measured the absolute amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within single muscle fibers from two patients with thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency and two healthy controls. TK2 deficient fibers containing more than 0.01 mtDNA/microm3 had residual cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. This defines the minimum amount of wild-type mtDNA molecules required to maintain COX activity in skeletal muscle and provides an explanation for the mosaic histochemical pattern seen in patients with mtDNA depletion syndrome.

  11. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ancestry inferences made by mtDNA-haplogroup membership to those made by autosomal SNPs in ∼940 samples of the Human Genome Diversity Panel and recently admixed populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Continental-ancestry proportions often varied widely among individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup. For only half of mtDNA haplogroups did the highest average continental-ancestry proportion match the highest continental-ancestry proportion of a majority of individuals with that haplogroup. Prediction of an individual’s mtDNA haplogroup from his or her continental-ancestry proportions was often incorrect. Collectively, these results indicate that for most individuals in the worldwide populations sampled, mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin. PMID:25620206

  12. 77 FR 60137 - Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Ravalli County, MT; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... during regular business hours at 4567 Wildfowl Lane, Stevensville, MT. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... habitats and has created and modified wetlands. Riverfront forest includes early succession tree species...

  13. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  14. Nuclear DNA but not mtDNA controls tumor phenotypes in mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Miho; Niikura, Mamoru; Ichikawa, Masami; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Honma, Yoshio; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies showed high frequencies of homoplasmic mtDNA mutations in various human tumor types, suggesting that the mutated mtDNA haplotypes somehow contribute to expression of tumor phenotypes. We directly addressed this issue by isolating mouse mtDNA-less (ρ 0 ) cells for complete mtDNA replacement between normal cells and their carcinogen-induced transformants, and examined the effect of the mtDNA replacement on expression of tumorigenicity, a phenotype forming tumors in nude mice. The results showed that genome chimera cells carrying nuclear DNA from tumor cells and mtDNA from normal cells expressed tumorigenicity, whereas those carrying nuclear DNA from normal cells and mtDNA from tumor cells did not. These observations provided direct evidence that nuclear DNA, but not mtDNA, is responsible for carcinogen-induced malignant transformation, although it remains possible that mtDNA mutations and resultant respiration defects may influence the degree of malignancy, such as invasive or metastatic properties

  15. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrelli, S.

    The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it / Fax: 02 72001600 / Phone: +39 02 72320337) "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held both at the Perugia (2004) and the Genova Science Festival (2005), obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives in-charge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherd-moons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and

  16. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2012-04-23

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  17. The Mystery Shopper Technique as a way of improving hotel gastronomy services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wszendybył-Skulska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems connected with the issue of service quality is an important aspect in the service industry, however it is difficult to measure. It may be quite difficult to estimate it unequivocally and objectively due to the fact that each service includes more or fewer materi-al elements. It is impossible to improve something that has not been measured and estimated before and one does not know whether it fulfils the requirements. Hotel gastronomy services are a kind of service that are partly materialized which makes the quality estimation easier. Nevertheless, one ought to remember that they are also shaped by non-material elements that influence the final quality estimation which seems to be problematic. The so-called Mystery Shopper Technique as a way of improving the quality of hotel gastronomy services is pre-sented in the article.

  18. Legal terms in general dictionaries of English: The civil procedure mystery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    examines four general dictionaries of English to see how they treat civil procedure terms used in England and Wales in the light of the change of structure of and terminology used in civil proceedings that took place in 1999. Despite being based on large, up-to-date corpora the dictionaries contain some......Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms, including legal terms relating to civil lawsuits. The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and technical terms in ordinary dictionaries but does not specifically address the inclusion of legal terms. This study...... of the old terms but fail to include the new terms that have been in use for more than 15 years. Why this is the case is a mystery. However, some clues indicate that if they pay more attention to the link between dictionary functions, corpora and the data presented in dictionaries, lexicographers may be able...

  19. An Explanation of the Missing Flux from Boyajian's Mysterious Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foukal, Peter [192 Willow Road, Nahant, MA 01908 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    A previously unremarkable star in the constellation Cygnus has, in the past year, become known as the most mysterious object in our Galaxy. Boyajian’s star exhibits puzzling episodes of sporadic, deep dimming discovered in photometry with the Kepler Mission. Proposed explanations have focused on its obscuration by colliding exoplanets, exocomets, and even intervention of alien intelligence. These hypotheses have considered only phenomena external to the star because the radiative flux missing in the dimmings was believed to exceed the star’s storage capacity. We point out that modeling of variations in solar luminosity indicates that convective stars can store the required fluxes. It also suggests explanations for (a) a reported time-profile asymmetry of the short, deep dimmings and (b) a slower, decadal scale dimming reported from archival and Kepler photometry. Our findings suggest a broader range of explanations of Boyajian’s star that may produce new insights into stellar magneto-convection.

  20. Hanny and the Mystery of the Voorwerp: Citizen Science in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, K.; Reilly, E.; Bracey, G.; Gay, P.

    2012-08-01

    The highly engaging graphic comic Hanny and the Mystery of the Voorwerp is the focus of an eight-day educational unit geared to middle level students. Activities in the unit link national astronomy standards to the citizen science Zooniverse website through tutorials that lead to analysis of real data online. NASA resources are also included in the unit. The content of the session focused on the terminology and concepts - galaxy formation, types and characteristics of galaxies, use of spectral analysis - needed to classify galaxies. Use of citizen science projects as tools to teach inquiry in the classroom was the primary focus of the workshop. The session included a hands-on experiment taken from the unit, including a NASA spectral analysis activity called "What's the Frequency, Roy G Biv?" In addition, presenters demonstrated the galaxy classification tools found in the "Galaxy Zoo" project at the Zooniverse citizen science website.

  1. [The frieze of the "Mystery villa" in Pompeii. Contribution to the development of female psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, G

    1979-01-01

    The large frieze of the "Villa of the Mysteries" at Pompeji is interpreted on the base of the psychology of C. G. Jung, especially of his student Erich Neumann. According to his psychological theories the frieze is depicting the development of the female principle to individuation, arranged with extraordinary artistic inspiration. Through the myth of Ariadne-Theseus-Dionysus the change of the woman, disappointed from the personal man and hero is shown. Through the experience of the transpersonal male principle in herself she is entering in a new level of conscience, the patriarchism, and so coming to the highest development, to the "Selbst". The experience of the male principle is made through Dionysus, a symbol of change in the theory of the "Archetypen" found by C. G. Jung.

  2. Gesture as the Expresion of the Pascal Mystery in the Central European Medieval Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tabor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paschal Mystery is the central reality of the Christianity. This is a series of historical events, presented in the canonical Gospels, in which Jesus from Nazaret was submit to the suffering, death, but was revived and bas ascend 10 the glory. These events was full of meanings and significations. This significations of paschal event has been meditated and analyzed in the Christian text, - in Gospels, in Paul’s Letters, but in the sermon of Fathers of the Church. Meliton of Sardes, Orygenes, Pseudo-Hypolite, and others are known as the interpreters of paschal events. The liturgical texts - Exultet and Victimae Paschali explain the profound sense of the Death and the resurrection of Christ All these works inspired the iconography. This presentation has to review the some works of art in Central Europeand interpretations their theological sense. The gestures will be the key to discovery of meaning.

  3. TRANSALPINA CAN EASILY BE CONSIDERED THE DIAMOND COUNTRY LANDSCAPES, ADVENTURE AND MYSTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta ENEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available If Transfăgărăşan is pearl Romanian mountains, the road easily qill be considered the diamond country landscapes, adventure and mystery. Hell 's Kitchen has developed and evolved naturally. Have no certainty of success and money required to carry out the infrastructure first and then see if investors come, so we can not blame the local authorities find here. The difficulties encountered in implementing funding programs made for funds to obtain hard enough. In this paper, I will briefly mention some ideas that could make the two cities, the holder of administratively to Rancière, the burgeoning tourist development area of Gorj County. I sincerely hope uhat there is among us and other people with vision who want to stand up and take action to provide a decent future for our children.

  4. Male access to emergency contraception in pharmacies: a mystery shopper survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David L; Camacho, Elvis J; Velasquez, Andrew B

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacy access to emergency contraception (EC) could involve men in pregnancy prevention. The objectives were to assess the availability and cost of EC. Male mystery shoppers visited 158 pharmacies in three neighborhoods in New York City. They asked for EC and its cost and noted weekend hours. Twenty-two (73.3%) of 30 pharmacies created barriers to get EC. The cost of EC was higher in the higher-socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhood (p<.001), and the higher-SES neighborhood pharmacies had a greater number of weekend hours (p<.001). Overall, males had a 20% probability of not being able to access EC. The national dialogue should include males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  6. The SAPPHIRE and 50 MT projects at BWXT, Lynchburg, VA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, R.; Horn, B.; Coates, C.W.; Stainback, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: When the SAPPHIRE project for the down-blending of HEU material of Khazak origin was initiated in 1996 at BWX Technologies (BWXT) formally Babcock and Wilcox in Lynchburg, VA and the Agency was requested to apply its specially designed safeguards measures to the process with a view to provide assurance to the international community that down-blending had actually taken place as stipulated in the USA-Khazak agreement a learning process was initiated from this effort culminating in the current 50 MT downblending process at the same facility with BWXT, the USA Authorities, and the Agency as partners in this technologically advanced enterprise aimed at the downgrading of a substantial quantity of weapons grade material. In the present paper an overview is provided of the road leading to an effective, and mutually agreeable safeguards approach for carrying out verifications in the sensitive environment of a facility devoted to HEU uranium processing. (author)

  7. Mt. St. Helens' aerosols: some tropospheric and stratospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Stokes, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth measurements based on the attenuation of direct solar radiation before and after the six major explosive eruptions of Mt. St. Helens during 1980 are presented. These automated measurements are from a site 200 km mostly east and slightly north of the volcano. From the analysis it was concluded that in several cases the conversion of sulfur gases to sulfates proceeded much more rapidly (hours) than is usually found for tropospheric conditions. A possible explanation may be the greater availability of OH due to the presence of substantial water in the plume. The second major result of the analysis was that there was no evidence of a residual aerosol burden. Turbidity data taken between eruptions in 1980 were virtually identical in terms of magnitude and wavelength dependence to 1979 turbidity

  8. Atmospheric mercury sources in the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, R.; Mazzolai, B.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Wallinder, E.

    1998-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is part of the geologic anomaly of the Mediterranean basin, which contains about 65% of the world's cinnabar (HgS) deposits. Atmospheric mercury emissions from the main sources (geothermal power plants, abandoned mine structures and spoil banks of roasted cinnabar ore) were determined by flux chamber and by LIDAR remote sensing. Mercury emissions from five geothermal power plants were on the order of 24 g h -1 for each plant, a value that remains constant throughout the year. In the month of July, the mine spoils (covering an area of =200000 m 2 ) emit a few grams of mercury per hour, while the abandoned mine structures give off 100-110 g h -1 . These two mercury sources were strongly influenced by ambient temperature. The area affected by mercury sources displays an average air mercury concentration of 20 ng m -3 during the summer and 10 ng m -3 in winter

  9. QUALITY CONTROL OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLETS MARKETED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Órfão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thiazide diuretics are of the classes of drugs most frequently used for the treatment of hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is the representative of this class and is found in tablet form in doses of 25 and 50 mg. It is marketed in three different categories of drugs: reference, similar and generic. According to the regulator in Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, before pharmaceuticals are released for use, the pharmaceutical industry must meet product quality specifications, but the consumption of counterfeit drugs, contraband or without registration with government laws It is growing in Brazil, which affect the entire drug production chain affecting the health of those who use these medicines. In view of the reported problems about the quality of marketed drugs and being the state of Mato Grosso considered a fake gateway drug, due to its proximity to Bolivia, this study aimed to assess the quality of tablets containing hydrochlorothiazide is already one of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of hypertension in Sinop-MT municipality according local search. Samples from five laboratories that produce hydrochlorothiazide tablets at a dose of 25 mg, and the most market in the municipality of Sinop / MT were analyzed as stablished in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. It was found that four of the five samples of drugs in Mato Grosso, performed all the requirements for approval in quality testing, with the exception of a product that has lower hardness values than recommended, which can lead to problems drug presentation as well as directly affect the absorption, bioavailability and action of the therapeutic drug. It was concluded that medicinal products containing hydrochlorothiazide showed adequate quality, ensuring their effectiveness.

  10. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species, construction (42 species, tools (31 species, food (29 species and ceremonial use (19 species ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a

  11. 3D Marine MT Modeling for a Topographic Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B., Sr.; Yin, C.; Ren, X.; Liu, Y.; Huang, X.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    As an effective geophysical tool, marine magnetotelluric (MMT) exploration has been widely used in offshore oil and gas exploration. Accordingly, the MMT forward modelling has made big progress. However, most of the researches are focused on a flat seafloor. In this paper, we present a 3D finite-element (FE) algorithm for marine MT forward modelling based on unstructured grids that can accurately model the MMT responses for a topographic seafloor. The boundary value problem for the forward modelling is described by an Helmholtz equation together with the boundary conditions derived by assuming the electrical polarizations respectively along the x- and y-direction on the top surface of the modelling domain. Applying the Galerkin method to the boundary value problem and substituting the unstructured finite-element vector shape function into the equation, we derive the final large linear system for the two polarizations, from which the EM fields is obtained for the calculation of impedance apparent resistivities and phases. To verify the effectiveness of our algorithm, we compare our modelling results with those by Key's (2013) 2D marine MT open source code of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Figure 1). From Figure 1, one sees that the two agree well, implying that our 3D modelling method based unstructured FE is an effective modelling tool for topographic seafloor. From the MMT modelling responses for other topographic seafloor models (not shown here), we further observe that 1) the apparent resistivities have a similar profile pattern to the topography at the seafloor; 2) at the edges of the topography, there exist sharp changes; 3) the seafloor topography may dominate the responses from the abnormal bodies under the seafloor. This paper is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900)

  12. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  13. MtCAS31 Aids Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Protecting the Leghemoglobin MtLb120-1 Under Drought Stress in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF in legume root nodules injects millions of tons of nitrogen into agricultural lands and provides ammonia to non-legume crops under N-deficient conditions. During plant growth and development, environmental stresses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stress are unavoidable. This raises an interesting question as to how the legumes cope with the environmental stress along with SNF. Under drought stress, dehydrin proteins are accumulated, which function as protein protector and osmotic substances. In this study, we found that the dehydrin MtCAS31 (cold-acclimation-specific 31 functions in SNF in Medicago truncatula during drought stress. We found that MtCAS31 is expressed in nodules and interacts with leghemoglobin MtLb120-1. The interaction between the two proteins protects MtLb120-1 from denaturation under thermal stress in vivo. Compared to wild type, cas31 mutants display a lower nitrogenase activity, a lower ATP/ADP ratio, higher expression of nodule senescence genes and higher accumulation of amyloplasts under dehydration conditions. The results suggested that MtCAS31 protects MtLb120-1 from the damage of drought stress. We identified a new function for dehydrins in SNF under drought stress, which enriches the understanding of the molecular mechanism of dehydrins.

  14. Hypervariable region polymorphism of mtDNA of recurrent oral ulceration in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MtDNA haplogroups could have important implication for understanding of the relationship between the mutations of the mitochondrial genome and diseases. Distribution of a variety of diseases among these haplogroups showed that some of the mitochondrial haplogroups are predisposed to disease. To examine the susceptibility of mtDNA haplogroups to ROU, we sequenced the mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 in Chinese ROU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MtDNA haplogroups were analyzed in the 249 cases of ROU patients and the 237 cases of healthy controls respectively by means of primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing. Haplogroups G1 and H were found significantly more abundant in ROU patients than in healthy persons, while haplogroups D5 and R showed a trend toward a higher frequency in control as compared to those in patients. The distribution of C-stretch sequences polymorphism in mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 regions was found in diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the first time, the relationship of mtDNA haplogroups and ROU in Chinese was investigated. Our results indicated that mtDNA haplogroups G1 and H might constitute a risk factor for ROU, which possibly increasing the susceptibility of ROU. Meanwhile, haplogroups D5 and R were indicated as protective factors for ROU. The polymorphisms of C-stretch sequences might being unstable and influence the mtDNA replication fidelity.

  15. Infantile presentation of the mtDNA A3243G tRNA(Leu (UUR)) mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okhuijsen-Kroes, E.J.; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Wendel, U.A.H.; Koch, G.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders are clinically very heterogeneous, ranging from single organ involvement to severe multisystem disease. One of the most frequently observed mtDNA mutations is the A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the tRNA(Leu (UUR)) gene. This mutation is often related to

  16. 77 FR 61248 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ...-0379; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANM-7 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY: Federal... at Deer Lodge-City- County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate... procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  17. Oxidants and not alkylating agents induce rapid mtDNA loss and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furda, Amy M.; Marrangoni, Adele M.; Lokshin, Anna; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for proper mitochondrial function and encodes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 13 polypeptides that make up subunits of complex I, III, IV, in the electron transport chain and complex V, the ATP synthase. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in processes such as premature aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer, it has not been shown whether persistent mtDNA damage causes a loss of oxidative phosphorylation. We addressed this question by treating mouse embryonic fibroblasts with either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and measuring several endpoints, including mtDNA damage and repair rates using QPCR, levels of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded proteins using antibody analysis, and a pharmacologic profile of mitochondria using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. We show that a 60 min treatment with H2O2 causes persistent mtDNA lesions, mtDNA loss, decreased levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, a loss of ATP-linked oxidative phosphorylation and a loss of total reserve capacity. Conversely, a 60 min treatment with 2 mM MMS causes persistent mtDNA lesions but no mtDNA loss, no decrease in levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, and no mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that persistent mtDNA damage is not sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22766155

  18. The Regulatory Mechanism of MLT/MT1 Signaling on the Growth of Antler Mesenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT plays an important role in regulating the physiological cycle of seasonal breeding animals. Melatonin receptor I (MT1 is effectively expressed in the cambium layer of deer antler. However, the function and metabolic mechanism of MLT/MT1 signaling in the mesenchymal cells of sika deer remain to be further elucidated. In this work, we detected the effects of MLT/MT1 signaling on mesenchymal cells proliferation and the interaction between MLT/MT1 and IGF1/IGF1-R signaling. The results show that (1 deer antler mesenchymal cells actually express MT1; (2 exogenous melatonin significantly promotes mesenchymal cells proliferation, while MT1 knock-down significantly impairs the positive effects of melatonin; and (3 melatonin significantly enhanced IGF1/IGF1-R signaling, as both the expression of IGF1 and IGF-1R increased, while MT1 knock-down significantly decreased IGF1-R expression and IGF1 synthesis. In summary, these data verified that MLT/MT1 signaling plays a crucial role in antler mesenchymal proliferation, which may be mediated by IGF1/IGF1-R.

  19. [Whole Genome Sequencing of Human mtDNA Based on Ion Torrent PGM™ Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Zou, K N; Huang, J P; Ma, K; Ping, Y

    2017-08-01

    To analyze and detect the whole genome sequence of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by Ion Torrent PGM™ platform and to study the differences of mtDNA sequence in different tissues. Samples were collected from 6 unrelated individuals by forensic postmortem examination, including chest blood, hair, costicartilage, nail, skeletal muscle and oral epithelium. Amplification of whole genome sequence of mtDNA was performed by 4 pairs of primer. Libraries were constructed with Ion Shear™ Plus Reagents kit and Ion Plus Fragment Library kit. Whole genome sequencing of mtDNA was performed using Ion Torrent PGM™ platform. Sanger sequencing was used to determine the heteroplasmy positions and the mutation positions on HVⅠ region. The whole genome sequence of mtDNA from all samples were amplified successfully. Six unrelated individuals belonged to 6 different haplotypes. Different tissues in one individual had heteroplasmy difference. The heteroplasmy positions and the mutation positions on HVⅠ region were verified by Sanger sequencing. After a consistency check by the Kappa method, it was found that the results of mtDNA sequence had a high consistency in different tissues. The testing method used in present study for sequencing the whole genome sequence of human mtDNA can detect the heteroplasmy difference in different tissues, which have good consistency. The results provide guidance for the further applications of mtDNA in forensic science. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  20. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  1. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  2. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  3. The expression characteristics of mt-ND2 gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Hou, Lingling; Wang, Ting; Lu, Weiwei; Tao, Yafei; Chen, Wen; Du, Xiaohui; Huang, Yanqun

    2016-09-01

    Subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND2) is encoded by the mt-ND2 gene and plays a critical role in controlling the production of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Our study focused on exploring the mt-ND2 tissue expression patterns and the effects of energy restriction and dietary fat (linseed oil, corn oil, sesame oil or lard) level (2.5% and 5%) on its expression in chicken. The results showed that mt-ND2 gene was expressed in the 15 tissues of hybrid chickens with the highest level in heart and lowest level in pancreas tissue; 30% energy restriction did not significantly affect mt-ND2 mRNA level in chicken liver tissue. Both the mt-ND2 mRNA levels in chicken pectoralis (p chicken age (p chicken age (p chicken age.

  4. No variation and low synonymous substitution rates in coral mtDNA despite high nuclear variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellberg Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of most animals evolves more rapidly than nuclear DNA, and often shows higher levels of intraspecific polymorphism and population subdivision. The mtDNA of anthozoans (corals, sea fans, and their kin, by contrast, appears to evolve slowly. Slow mtDNA evolution has been reported for several anthozoans, however this slow pace has been difficult to put in phylogenetic context without parallel surveys of nuclear variation or calibrated rates of synonymous substitution that could permit quantitative rate comparisons across taxa. Here, I survey variation in the coding region of a mitochondrial gene from a coral species (Balanophyllia elegans known to possess high levels of nuclear gene variation, and estimate synonymous rates of mtDNA substitution by comparison to another coral (Tubastrea coccinea. Results The mtDNA surveyed (630 bp of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was invariant among individuals sampled from 18 populations spanning 3000 km of the range of B. elegans, despite high levels of variation and population subdivision for allozymes over these same populations. The synonymous substitution rate between B. elegans and T. coccinea (0.05%/site/106 years is similar to that in most plants, but 50–100 times lower than rates typical for most animals. In addition, while substitutions to mtDNA in most animals exhibit a strong bias toward transitions, mtDNA from these corals does not. Conclusion Slow rates of mitochondrial nucleotide substitution result in low levels of intraspecific mtDNA variation in corals, even when nuclear loci vary. Slow mtDNA evolution appears to be the basal condition among eukaryotes. mtDNA substitution rates switch from slow to fast abruptly and unidirectionally. This switch may stem from the loss of just one or a few mitochondrion-specific DNA repair or replication genes.

  5. mtDNA mutation C1494T, haplogroup A, and hearing loss in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengye; Kong Qingpeng; Yao Yonggang; Zhang Yaping

    2006-01-01

    Mutation C1494T in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was recently reported in two large Chinese families with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss (AINHL) and was claimed to be pathogenic. This mutation, however, was first reported in a sample from central China in our previous study that was aimed to reconstruct East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. All these three mtDNAs formed a subclade defined by mutation C1494T in mtDNA haplogroup A. It thus seems that mutation C1494T is a haplogroup A-associated mutation and this matrilineal background may contribute a high risk for the penetrance of mutation C1494T in Chinese with AINHL. To test this hypothesis, we first genotyped mutation C1494T in 553 unrelated individuals from three regional Chinese populations and performed an extensive search for published complete or near-complete mtDNA data sets (>3000 mtDNAs), we then screened the C1494T mutation in 111 mtDNAs with haplogroup A status that were identified from 1823 subjects across China. The search for published mtDNA data sets revealed no other mtDNA besides the above-mentioned three carrying mutation C1494T. None of the 553 randomly selected individuals and the 111 haplogroup A mtDNAs was found to bear this mutation. Therefore, our results suggest that C1494T is a very rare event. The mtDNA haplogroup A background in general is unlikely to play an active role in the penetrance of mutation C1494T in AINHL

  6. The Mysteries and Curiosities of Mars: A Tour of Unusual and Unexplained Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, L.

    2017-12-01

    The large amount of data available from orbiting satellites around Mars has provided a wealth of information about the Martian surface and geological history. The published literature tends to focus on regions of Mars for which there are ready explanations; however, many regions of Mars remain mysterious. In this contribution, we present some of the strangest and least explained terrains on Mars: The Taffy Terrain: This complex terrain, consisting of swirling layers with variably sized bands, is present mostly at the bottom of Hellas Basin, but versions of it can also be found on the floor of Melas Chasma and in the Medusae Fossae Formation near Apollinaris Sulci. While little has been written about the taffy terrain, hypotheses include "glacial features" and salt domes. The taffy terrain bears some resemblance to submarine salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico, glacial deposits with mixed ash and ice in Iceland, or chalk formations in Egypt's White Desert. The Fishscale Terrain: At the northern edge of Lucus Planum, the friable Medusae Fossae Formation transitions into a chaos-like terrain with hundreds of mesas forming a pattern like the scales of a fish. While chaos terrains are mysterious in general, this morphologically fresh, near-equatorial chaos is especially unusual. Polygonal Ridges in Gordii Dorsum: Also a part of the Medusae Fossae Formation, the ridges in Gordii Dorsum represent a negative image of the fishscale terrain—a intricate lattice of slender black ridges. These are thought to form via the embayment of the fishscale terrain with lava and the subsequent erosion of the original mesas. Horseshoe Features: These geomorphological features look like inverted barchan dunes, but they are actually pits eroded into the surface of the Medusae Fossae Formation. Channels surrounding Elysium Mons: These channel systems are among the most complex on Mars, but they appear on a young Amazonian lava surface. The channels cut through topography, anastomose, and

  7. Physical and chemical characteristics of Mt. St. Helens airborne debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Heiken, G.H.; Mroz, E.J.; Gladney, E.S.; Perrin, D.R.; Leifer, R.; Fisenne, I.; Hinchliffe, L.; Chuan, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Tephra and aerosols from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens, Washington were sampled in the lower stratosphere with a WB-57F aircraft. The main body of the plume was intercepted over western Kansas on May 20, 48 hours after the eruption, at an altitude of 15.2 km. Concentrations on filter samples were 26 ng of SO 4 /g of air and 579 ng of ash/g of air. Angular glass pyroclasts ranged in size from 0.5 to 10 μm, with a mean grain size of 2 μm. Samples collected at altitudes of 16.7 and 12.5 km had only traces of SO 4 and ash. A second flight was flown, 72 hours after the eruption, on May 21. From north Texas to central Wyoming, at an altitude of 15.2 km, 4 /g of air were sampled. At an altitude of 18.3 km, from central Wyoming to NW New Mexico, the plume density and character were variable. Glassy pyroclasts similar to those sampled on the first flight range in size from 0.5 to 4 μm dia. Trace element analysis revealed some volatile element enrichment, but far less than previously observed in the plume from St. Augustine Volcano, 1976. Values of 210 Po/ 210 Pb were 0.7 to 1.32 comparable to the secular equilibrium value of 1.0 and far less than ratios previously reported by Lambert

  8. Urania in the Marketplace: The Selling of Mt. Palomar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.

  9. Magma reservoir at Mt. Vesuvius: Deeper than 10 km

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, M.; Luongo, G.; Nunziata, C.; Panza, G.F.

    2005-07-01

    One- and two-dimensional Vp models were obtained by TomoVes experiment, all characterized by low Vp in the uppermost 500 m and a sharp discontinuity at about 2-3 km beneath the volcano. Large amplitude late arrivals were identified as P- to S-phases converted at the top, between 8 and 10 km deep, of a low velocity layer with a dramatic drop of Vs, from approximately 3.6 km/s to less than 1.0 km/s. Here we synthesize the interpretation of Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements, made by several authors, to delineate the extent of such anomalous layer of hot, partially molten, crust material. Our non-linear inversion of broad-band dispersion measurements, gives a thickness not greater than 0.35 km, if we assume Vs equal to 1.0 km/s. The volume occupied by this very low velocity layer, sill shaped, is compatible with the size of Mt. Vesuvius cone, but it develops above a much larger hot mass which could be the parental source as the erupted products are only few percent of magma chamber. (author)

  10. Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and climate of Syowa Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Kaneto

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last year of the Antarctic Climate Research (ACR period, two large volcanos erupted. In June 1991,the volcano Pinatubo in the Philippines Islands (15°N, 120°E erupted and injected a large volcanic cloud in to the lower and middle stratosphere. In August 1991,Mt. Hudson in southern Chile (46°S, 73°W erupted; its volcanic cloud reached to 18km. From NOAA/AVHRR data, within 1991,the volcanic aerosol of Pinatubo dispersed mainly in tropical latitudes and that of Hudson spread in the area south of 40°S. The eruption effects are investigated here by comparing meteorological observation results at Syowa Station (69°S, 39°E with global analyses. The optical observations which measure direct effects of eruption materials, show a large effect from late 1991. Abnormal deviations were detected in surface temperature and total ozone amount but the occurrence is retarded relative to global average occurrence. Effects on stratospheric temperature were not detected.

  11. Pedagoginės krypties slėpinys: konstruktyvus-destruktyvus konfliktas = Mystery of pedagogical trend: constructive-destructive conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Targamadzė, Vilija

    2010-01-01

    The pedagogical mystery is a phenomenon, containing values and essentially consisting of pedagogical interaction, in which actors of education foresee (self-)education goals and scenarios of their endeavour in a unique way. Based on theoretical insights and interpretations of empirical researches, the article discloses the pedagogical mystery in the context of constructive-destructive conflict, demonstrates the meaning of its discovery, disclosure and alternation.

  12. Ig Nobel Prize-winning episode: Trip from a slip on a banana peel to the mysterious world of mucus

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mabuchi; R. Sakai; M. Honna; M. Ujihira

    2016-01-01

    Slip on a banana peel is not only a gag seed but also a genuinely tribological phenomenon. We measured the frictional coefficient under banana skin on floor material. The measured frictional coefficient was much lower than the value on common materials and similar one on well lubricated surfaces. Some deductions on mystery of organics were leaded from the similarity of gel function in banana peels and in articular joints. Every polymers are only synthesized by organisms. Furthermore, viscous ...

  13. Resistivity Image from 2D Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data in the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, F. B.; Niasari, S. W.; Hartantyo, E.

    2018-04-01

    Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) lies between Pacific margin and North America plate. The purpose of this research is to identify the CSZ along Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming from conductivity (σ) contrast in the subsurface by using the magnetotelluric (MT) method. MT is an electromagnetic method that use frequency between 10-4 Hz and 104 Hz. We obtained the MT data from the EarthScope USArray in the form of EDI-File (five components of the electromagnetic field). We analyzed the MT data using phase tensor and modeled the data using 2D inversion. From the phase tensor analysis, the 3D data dominated the eastern regions. Global data misfit is 6,88, where WYI18 (close to Yellowstone) contributes misfit of 29,3. This means that the model response does not fit the data, which implies the data is not fully 2D. The 2D inversion results are found high resistivity anomalies (more than 500 ohm.m) at shallow depth beneath Oregon and Wyoming, which coresspond to high density anomalies. This high resistivity anomalies might correspond to the north American plate. Thus, it can be concluded that 2D inversion model can be used for most 3D MT data to illustrate the resistivity distribution in the Cascadia Subduction Zone.

  14. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-6. Mt. Tsujinodake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Mt. Tsujinodake area' which was carried out at Yamagawa town, Ibusuki county, Kagoshima prefecture, from FY 1997 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration, and geothermal fluid survey by drilling 4 structural testing boreholes. In the Mt. Tsujinodake area, active fumarolic activities are still now continuing around the Unagi hot spring in the north, and the acidic alteration zone is distributed in the peripheral surface area. In Borehole N11-TD-2 in the north, it is assumed that there exists the hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 230 degrees C in the depth of 400-800m, which is comparatively shallow, and that the stored geothermal water flows laterally. In the central area, a hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 130 degrees C was confirmed in N11-TD-1, but it is judged that chances of the existence of high temperature hydrothermal bed are not very good. In N11-TD-3 in the south, the existence of promising heat sources is expected in the deeper part since the remarkable alteration was seen in the depth of 1,435m or deeper, and the sharp rise in temperature was recognized. (NEDO)

  15. Spatial distribution of soil radon as a tool to recognize active faulting on an active volcano: the example of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Marco, E-mail: marco.neri@ct.ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma, 2 - 95123 Catania (Italy); Giammanco, Salvatore [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma, 2 - 95123 Catania (Italy); Ferrera, Elisabetta; Patane, Giuseppe [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dip. Scienze della Terra, Corso Italia, 52 - 95129 Catania (Italy); Zanon, Vittorio [Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliacao de Riscos Geologicos - Universidade dos Acores, Rua Mae de Deus, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    This study concerns measurements of radon and thoron emissions from soil carried out in 2004 on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna, in a zone characterized by the presence of numerous seismogenic and aseismic faults. The statistical treatment of the geochemical data allowed recognizing anomaly thresholds for both parameters and producing distribution maps that highlighted a significant spatial correlation between soil gas anomalies and tectonic lineaments. The seismic activity occurring in and around the study area during 2004 was analyzed, producing maps of hypocentral depth and released seismic energy. Both radon and thoron anomalies were located in areas affected by relatively deep (5-10 km depth) seismic activity, while less evident correlation was found between soil gas anomalies and the released seismic energy. This study confirms that mapping the distribution of radon and thoron in soil gas can reveal hidden faults buried by recent soil cover or faults that are not clearly visible at the surface. The correlation between soil gas data and earthquakes depth and intensity can give some hints on the source of gas and/or on fault dynamics. - Highlights: > We performed measurements of radon from soil carried out on Mt. Etna. > The sampled zone is characterized by the presence of numerous active faults. > Radon mapping reveal dangerous hidden faults buried by recent soil cover. > Our study gives some hints on the source of gas and on fault dynamics. > We recognized areas where radon activity represents a hazard to the population.

  16. A study of soil erosion on a steep cultivated slope in the Mt. Gongga region near Luding, Sichuan, China, using the 137Cs technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.B.; Wen, A.B.; Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation of soil erosion on a steep cultivated slope in the Mt Gongga region of the Upper Yangtze River Basin, Southwest China, using the 137 Cs technique. The effective 137 Cs reference inventory for the study field, estimated from the bottom layer of a 137 Cs depth profile at the deposition zones, is 2373.9 Bq/m2, accounting for 65.8% the local 137 Cs reference inventory of 3607.7 Bq/m2. It strongly indicates that a considerable amount of 137 Cs input was lost prior to incorporation into the ploughing layer from the study field during the nuclear weapons testing period because of 137 Cs surface enrichment. The average erosion rate is estimated to be 4914 t/km 2 yr for a typical cultivated steep slope with an angle of 34 deg at the subtropical zone in the Mt Gongga region. It can reach to 22856 t/km 2 yr for a failure slope under cultivation. (author)

  17. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  18. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  19. Hydrothermal fault zone mapping using seismic and electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onacha, Stephen Alumasa

    This dissertation presents a new method of using earthquakes and resistivity data to characterize permeable hydrothermal reservoirs. The method is applied to field examples from Casa Diablo in the Long Valley Caldera, California; Mt. Longonot, Kenya; and Krafla, Iceland. The new method has significant practical value in the exploration and production of geothermal energy. The method uses P- and S-wave velocity, S-wave polarization and splitting magnitude, resistivity and magnetotelluric (MT) strike directions to determine fracture-porosity and orientation. The conceptual model used to characterize the buried, fluid-circulating fault zones in hydrothermal systems is based on geological and fracture models. The method has been tested with field earthquake and resistivity data; core samples; temperature measurements; and, for the case of Krafla, with a drilled well. The use of resistivity and microearthquake measurements is based on theoretical formulation of shared porosity, anisotropy and polarization. The relation of resistivity and a double porosity-operator is solved using a basis function. The porosity-operator is used to generate a correlation function between P-wave velocity and resistivity. This correlation is then used to generate P-wave velocity from 2-D resistivity models. The resistivity models are generated from magnetotelluric (MT) by using the Non-Linear Conjugate Gradient (NLCG) inversion method. The seismic and electrical measurements used come from portable, multi station microearthquake (MEQ) monitoring networks and multi-profile, MT and transient electromagnetic (TEM) observation campaigns. The main conclusions in this dissertation are listed below: (1) Strong evidence exists for correlation between MT strike direction and anisotropy and MEQ S-wave splitting at sites close to fluid-filled fracture zones. (2) A porosity operator generated from a double porosity model has been used to generate valid P-wave velocity models from resistivity data. This

  20. INTEGRATION OF THE SAP CONCEPT IN THE EMPLOYEE ASSESSMENT OF TRAVEL AGENCIES IN SUCEAVA COUNTY THROUGH MYSTERY SHOPPING TYPE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Valentin HAPENCIUC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Being on a positive trend and addressing to a market that is less willing to compromise, the tourism industry develops a highly complex content, represented by various organizations and services, having as a main objective meeting the expectations of consumers of tourism services and reporting to the challenges of contemporary dynamics generated by the emergence of new information technologies. To respond effectively to these issues, tourism requires among other things a modern HR management. For travel agencies, human resources are the main asset of the company that serves to implement the entity's objectives. The most important qualities of the travel agent are polite attitude, promptness, sagacity and firmness. However, the ability to display with celerity their own capabilities - intellectual, psycho-motivational and persuasive - represents the quintessence of the travel agent profession. When we refer to these features, in the universal tourism language we talk about SAP concept: Speed, Accuracy, Politeness. Therefore, the major objective of this study aims to assess the employees of travel agencies from Suceava County in terms of SAP components using three different methods of qualitative research: Mystery Shopping, Mystery Calling and Mystery Emailing.

  1. Further adventures of the celestial sleuth using astronomy to solve more mysteries in art, history, and literature

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Donald W

    2018-01-01

    From the author of "Celestial Sleuth" (2014), yet more mysteries in art, history, and literature are solved by calculating phases of the Moon, determining the positions of the planets and stars, and identifying celestial objects in paintings. In addition to helping to crack difficult cases, these studies spark our imagination and provide a better understanding of the skies. Weather archives, vintage maps, tides, historical letters and diaries, military records and the assistance of experts in related fields help with this work. For each historical event influenced by astronomy, there is a different kind of mystery to be solved. How did the changing tides affect an army's battle plans? How did the phases of the moon affect how an artist painted a landscape? Follow these exciting investigations with a master “celestial sleuth” as he tracks down the truth and helps unravel mysteries as far back as the Middle Ages and as recent as the iconic 1945 photograph of a kiss in Times Square on VJ Day. Topics or "case...

  2. Mortality estimate of Chinese mystery snail, Bellamya chinensis (Reeve, 1863) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.

  3. Investigating the mysteries of groundwater in the Badain Jaran Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Zhou, Yanyi

    2018-03-01

    The Badain Jaran Desert (BJD) in China is a desert with impressive sand dunes and a groundwater situation that has attracted numerous researchers. This paper gives an overview of the mysteries of groundwater in the BJD that are exhibited as five key problems identified in previous studies. These problems relate to the origin of the groundwater, the hydrological connection between the BJD and the Heihe River Basin (HRB), the infiltration recharge, the lake-groundwater interactions, and the features of stable isotope analyses. The existing controversial analyses and hypotheses have caused debate and have hindered effective water resources management in the region. In recent years, these problems have been partly addressed by additional surveys. It has been revealed that the Quaternary sandy sediments and Neogene-Cretaceous sandstones form a thick aquifer system in the BJD. Groundwater flow at the regional scale is dominated by a significant difference in water levels between the surrounding mountains and lowlands at the western and northern edges. Discharge of groundwater from the BJD to the downstream HRB occurs according to the regional flow. Seasonal fluctuations of the water level in lakes are less than 0.5 m due to the quasi-steady groundwater discharge. The magnitude of infiltration recharge is still highly uncertain because significant limitations existed in previous studies. The evaporation effect may be the key to interpreting the anomalous negative deuterium-excess in the BJD groundwater. Further investigations are expected to reveal the hydrogeological conditions in more detail.

  4. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  5. Modern mysteries of the Moon what we still don’t know about our lunar companion

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Vincent S

    2016-01-01

    There are still many questions that remain about the Moon. From concentric craters to lunar swirls, water vapor and lunar reverberations on impact, Foster collects it all for a fascinating tour that will illuminate the backyard observer's understanding of this easily viewed, yet also imperfectly understood, celestial object. Data from Apollo and a flotilla of unmanned Moon orbiters, crashers, and landers have all contributed to our understanding of the Moon, but these mysteries linger despite decades of research. When Project Apollo brought back lunar rocks and soil samples, it opened a new chapter of understanding Earth's lone natural satellite, a process that continues to this day, as old results are revisited and new techniques are used on existing samples. Topics such as the origin, evolution, structure and composition of the Moon, however, are still under debate. Lunar research is still an active field of study. New technologies make it possible to continue to learn. But even so, the Moon continues to h...

  6. Graphic Description: The Mystery of Ibn Khafaja\\'s Success in Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جواد رنجبر

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphic Description:   The Mystery of Ibn Khafaja's Success in Description    Ali Bagher Taheriniya *  Javad Ranjbar **      Abstract Ibn Khafaja is one of the poets and men of letters in Spain. He is titled to Sanobari of Spain. He is one of the masters of description. Hence, the analysis of successful techniques he has used in the descriptive art could illuminate the way for others. Al-Taswir al-harfi (graphic description is a term which denotes the highest and most detailed poems. On this basis, the best descriptive poem is one which is closer to a painting. He has used some elements called conforming elements of description which contain: imagination, feeling, faculty, and dialogue as well as three other elements: to be inborn in description, enchanting nature and convenient life. This article is going to give an analysis of the reasons for Ibn Khafaja’s success in description and portrait making.   Key words: Ibn Khafaja, poetry, description, portrait   * Associate Professor, Bu Ali Sina University of Hamadan E-mail: bTaheriniya@yahoo.com  ** M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature

  7. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: THE MYSTERY OF NEON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Trump, Jonathan R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: grzeimann@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We use near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne III] λ3869 relative to Hβ, [O II] λ3727, and [O III] λ5007 in 236 low-mass (7.5 ≲ log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≲ 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne III]/[O II] ratios of the z ∼ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, and that [Ne III]/[O III] is enhanced by ∼0.2 dex. We consider the possible explanations for this ∼4σ result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas phase, denser H II regions, higher production of {sup 22}Ne via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 2 compared to z ∼ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne III] emission.

  8. Unraveling the mystery of music: music as an evolved group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loersch, Chris; Arbuckle, Nathan L

    2013-11-01

    As prominently highlighted by Charles Darwin, music is one of the most mysterious aspects of human nature. Despite its ubiquitous presence across cultures and throughout recorded history, the reason humans respond emotionally to music remains unknown. Although many scientists and philosophers have offered hypotheses, there is little direct empirical evidence for any perspective. Here we address this issue, providing data which support the idea that music evolved in service of group living. Using 7 studies, we demonstrate that people's emotional responses to music are intricately tied to the other core social phenomena that bind us together into groups. In sum, this work establishes human musicality as a special form of social cognition and provides the first direct support for the hypothesis that music evolved as a tool of social living. In addition, the findings provide a reason for the intense psychological pull of music in modern life, suggesting that the pleasure we derive from listening to music results from its innate connection to the basic social drives that create our interconnected world. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Biotrophy at Its Best: Novel Findings and Unsolved Mysteries of the Arabidopsis-Powdery Mildew Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Hannah; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Kusch, Stefan; Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Wu, Hongpo; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted in plant-microbe interactions research that disease is the exception rather than a common outcome of pathogen attack. However, in nature, plants with symptoms that signify colonization by obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungi are omnipresent. The pervasiveness of the disease and the fact that many economically important plants are prone to infection by powdery mildew fungi drives research on this interaction. The competence of powdery mildew fungi to establish and maintain true biotrophic relationships renders the interaction a paramount example of a pathogenic plant-microbe biotrophy. However, molecular details underlying the interaction are in many respects still a mystery. Since its introduction in 1990, the Arabidopsis-powdery mildew pathosystem has become a popular model to study molecular processes governing powdery mildew infection. Due to the many advantages that the host Arabidopsis offers in terms of molecular and genetic tools this pathosystem has great capacity to answer some of the questions of how biotrophic pathogens overcome plant defense and establish a persistent interaction that nourishes the invader while in parallel maintaining viability of the plant host.

  10. Unravelling the Mystery of the Atomic Nucleus A Sixty Year Journey 1896 — 1956

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Unravelling the Mystery of the Atomic Nucleus tells the story of how, in the span of barely sixty years, we made a transition from the belief that matter was composed of indivisible atoms, to the discovery that in the heart of each atom lies a nucleus which is ten thousand times smaller than the atom, which nonetheless carries almost all its mass, and the transformations of which involve energies that could never be reached by chemical reactions. It was not a smooth transition. The nature of nuclei, their properties, the physical laws which govern their behaviour, and the possibility of controlling to some extent their transformations, were discovered in discontinuous steps, following paths which occasionally led to errors which in turn were corrected by further experimental discoveries. The story begins in 1896 when radioactivity was unexpectedly discovered and continues up to the nineteen-sixties. The authors describe the spectacular progress made by physics during that time, which not only revealed a new f...

  11. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Joseph Carpue's file drawer experiment – A murder mystery from 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Felix Freshwater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today unpublished or “file drawer” experiments are the impetus for trial registration and reporting of all results. In 1801, Joseph Carpue, the father of modern plastic surgery, did a file drawer experiment for Benjamin West, who was President of the Royal Academy of Arts. George III had commissioned West to create the largest stained glass window ever created whose theme, the Crucifixion, was based upon Michelangelo's drawing. Subsequently, West suffered a series of political, professional and economic setbacks. In the summer of 1801, West's project was delayed. By the fall, West hoped that independent scientific confirmation of his design could salvage the project. West approached Carpue who obtained a murderer's fresh corpse that he crucified and documented the results with plaster casts created by sculptor Thomas Banks. Carpue's experiment showed that West's window design wrongly depicted the Crucifixion because West had posed the hands and shoulders incorrectly. West died in 1820 without ever being associated with Carpue's experiment. Carpue's obituary in The Lancet in 1846 contained Carpue's handwritten note that described the experiment but not West's Royal commission. As no records or publications associate the cast with West project, this can be considered to be a file drawer experiment. After 1801, West made further drawings of the Crucifixion that showed the figures in the same position as the cast. Nineteenth century auction catalogues suggest that West made a corrected Crucifixion painting, but its current location remains a mystery.

  13. Origin of the mysterious Yin-Shang bronzes in China indicated by lead isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-dong; Zhang, Li-peng; Guo, Jia; Li, Cong-ying; Jiang, Yu-hang; Zartman, Robert E; Zhang, Zhao-feng

    2016-03-18

    Fine Yin-Shang bronzes containing lead with puzzlingly highly radiogenic isotopic compositions appeared suddenly in the alluvial plain of the Yellow River around 1400 BC. The Tongkuangyu copper deposit in central China is known to have lead isotopic compositions even more radiogenic and scattered than those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Most of the Yin-Shang bronzes are tin-copper alloys with high lead contents. The low lead and tin concentrations, together with the less radiogenic lead isotopes of bronzes in an ancient smelting site nearby, however, exclude Tongkuangyu as the sole supplier of the Yin-Shang bronzes. Interestingly, tin ingots/prills and bronzes found in Africa also have highly radiogenic lead isotopes, but it remains mysterious as to how such African bronzes may have been transported to China. Nevertheless, these African bronzes are the only bronzes outside China so far reported that have lead isotopes similar to those of the Yin-Shang bronzes. All these radiogenic lead isotopes plot along ~2.0-2.5 Ga isochron lines, implying that deposits around Archean cratons are the most likely candidates for the sources. African cratons along the Nile and even micro-cratons in the Sahara desert may have similar lead signatures. These places were probably accessible by ancient civilizations, and thus are the most favorable suppliers of the bronzes.

  14. Mysteries of Mind and Matter in the Perspective of Colin McGinn’s Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Sepetyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the approach to the mind-body problem that was developed by Colin McGinn and is known as “mysterianism”. The basic thesis of this approach, which McGinn opposes to both materialism and dualism, is that consciousness and its relationship to physical reality is an inscrutable mystery that cannot be get over in principle, because of insurmountable, constitutive limitations of human mind. In this paper, the critical analysis of McGinn’s approach is given. It is pointed out that McGinn’s thesis of the inscrutablility of the mind-body relationship is based on the ungrounded idea that a mediating substance is necessary. An argument is made that the mind-body relationship is better understood as interaction that is mediated only by natural psychophysical laws. McGinn’s hypothesis of the origin of physical space in a non-spatial reality that has the same nature as consciousness is explained in the context of different interpretations of the Big Bang theo- ry. It is argued that McGinn’s hypothesis does not provide a solution to the problem of the origin of human consciousness, because consciousness belongs to mental individuals whose emergence is just as unexplainable by the hypothesis of non-spatial reality as it is by physical processes.

  15. Brightness Variations of Sun-like Stars: The Mystery Deepens - Astronomers facing Socratic "ignorance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    An extensive study made with ESO's Very Large Telescope deepens a long-standing mystery in the study of stars similar to the Sun. Unusual year-long variations in the brightness of about one third of all Sun-like stars during the latter stages of their lives still remain unexplained. Over the past few decades, astronomers have offered many possible explanations, but the new, painstaking observations contradict them all and only deepen the mystery. The search for a suitable interpretation is on. "Astronomers are left in the dark, and for once, we do not enjoy it," says Christine Nicholls from Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia, lead author of a paper reporting the study. "We have obtained the most comprehensive set of observations to date for this class of Sun-like stars, and they clearly show that all the possible explanations for their unusual behaviour just fail." The mystery investigated by the team dates back to the 1930s and affects about a third of Sun-like stars in our Milky Way and other galaxies. All stars with masses similar to our Sun become, towards the end of their lives, red, cool and extremely large, just before retiring as white dwarfs. Also known as red giants, these elderly stars exhibit very strong periodic variations in their luminosity over timescales up to a couple of years. "Such variations are thought to be caused by what we call 'stellar pulsations'," says Nicholls. "Roughly speaking, the giant star swells and shrinks, becoming brighter and dimmer in a regular pattern. However, one third of these stars show an unexplained additional periodic variation, on even longer timescales - up to five years." In order to find out the origin of this secondary feature, the astronomers monitored 58 stars in our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud, over two and a half years. They acquired spectra using the high resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope and combined them with images from other telescopes [1

  16. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  17. The medical mystery of Napoleon Bonaparte: an interdisciplinary exposé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Corso, Philip E; di Costanzo, Jacques; Dirnhofer, Richard; Fiorini, Ettore; Herborg, Costanza; Hindmarsh, John Thomas; Orvini, Edoardo; Piazzoli, Adalberto; Previtali, Ezio; Santagostino, Angela; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2011-03-01

    Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 to 1821) is one of the most studied historical figures in European history. Not surprisingly, amongst the many mysteries still surrounding his person is the cause of his death, and particularly the suspicion that he was poisoned, continue to intrigue medical historians. After the defeat of the Napoleonic Army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815, Napoleon was exiled to the small island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died 6 years later. Although his personal physician, Dr François Carlo Antommarchi, stated in his autopsy report that stomach cancer was the cause of death, this diagnosis was challenged in 1961 by the finding of an elevated arsenic concentration in one of Napoleon's hair samples. At that time it was suggested that Napoleon had been poisoned by one of his companions in exile who was allegedly supported by the British Government. Since then Napoleon's cause of death continues to be a topic of debate. The aim of this review is to use a multidisciplinary approach to provide a systematic and critical assessment of Napoleon's cause of death.

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: THE MYSTERY OF NEON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Trump, Jonathan R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    We use near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne III] λ3869 relative to Hβ, [O II] λ3727, and [O III] λ5007 in 236 low-mass (7.5 ≲ log (M * /M ☉ ) ≲ 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne III]/[O II] ratios of the z ∼ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, and that [Ne III]/[O III] is enhanced by ∼0.2 dex. We consider the possible explanations for this ∼4σ result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas phase, denser H II regions, higher production of 22 Ne via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 2 compared to z ∼ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne III] emission

  19. Community pharmacists providing emergency contraception give little advice about future contraceptive use: a mystery shopper study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, Anna; Manners, Rachel; Loudon, Joanna C; Muir, Aileen

    2010-12-01

    UK women increasingly prefer to attend a pharmacy for emergency contraception (EC) rather than a doctor. Most women who use EC do not conceive and remain at risk of pregnancy unless they start regular contraception. We undertook a study to evaluate the quality of service provision in community pharmacies in Lothian, Scotland, and to determine what advice is given about contraception after EC use. Mystery shopper study. EC was unobtainable from 5/40 pharmacies (12.5%), refused because of "contraindications" in 7 (17.5%) and offered in 28 (70%). Most pharmacists appeared nonjudgemental, over 75% asked appropriate questions about eligibility, and over 90% gave appropriate advice about use. EC was universally refused beyond 72 h after sex but universally provided when the date of the last menstrual period was uncertain. Ongoing contraception after EC use was discussed in only 32.5% of all pharmacies and only 43% of those issuing EC. The quality of consultations for EC in pharmacies is generally good but only a minority discuss ongoing contraception after EC use. The implications for contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy rates are worrying. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mystery of Hepatitis E Virus: Recent Advances in Its Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mysterious aspects of the long presumed to be well-known hepatitis E virus (HEV have recently surfaced that distinguish it from other hepatotropic viruses. It is a cause of chronic hepatitis in immunosuppressed patients. It has human to human transmission through blood and mantains high seroprevalence in blood donors. HEV has also been found to occur more frequently in the West in those without a history of travel to endemic countries. It has varied extrahepatic manifestations and has multiple non-human reservoirs including pigs and rats. Considering these recent discoveries, it appears odd that HEV is not sought more frequently when working up acute and chronic hepatitis patients. The disease is particularly severe among pregnant women and has a high attack rate in young adults. What adds to its ambiguity is the absence of a well-established diagnostic criteria for its detection and that there is no specific antiviral drug for hepatitis E, except for isolated cases where ribavirin or pegylated interferon alpha has been used with occasional success. This review paper discusses the recent advances in the knowledge of the virus itself, its epidemiology, diagnostic approach and prevention, and the treatment options available.

  1. Joint 1D inversion of TEM and MT data and 3D inversion of MT data in the Hengill area, SW Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnason, Knutur; Eysteinsson, Hjalmar; Hersir, Gylfi Pall [ISOR-Iceland GeoSurvey, Grensasvegi 9, 108 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2010-03-15

    An extensive study of the resistivity structure of the Hengill area in SW Iceland was carried out by the combined use of TEM and MT soundings. Joint inversion of the collected data can correct for static shifts in the MT data, which can be severe due to large near-surface resistivity contrasts. Joint 1D inversion of 148 TEM/MT sounding pairs and a 3D inversion of a 60 sounding subset of the MT data were performed. The 3D inversion was based on full MT impedance tensors previously corrected for static shift. Both inversion approaches gave qualitatively similar results, and revealed a shallow resistivity layer reflecting conductive alteration minerals at temperatures of 100-240 C. They also delineated a deep conductor at 3-10 km depth. The reason for this deep-seated high conductivity is not fully understood. The distribution of the deep conductors correlates with a positive residual Bouguer gravity anomaly, and with transform tectonics inferred from seismicity. One model of the Hengill that is consistent with the well temperature data and the deep conductor that does not attenuate S-waves, is a group of hot, solidified, but still ductile magmatic intrusions that are closely associated with the heat source for the geothermal system. (author)

  2. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Type of featural attention differentially modulates hMT+ responses to illusory motion aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Kozak, Lajos R; Formisano, Elia; Teixeira, João; Xavier, João; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-11-01

    Activity in the human motion complex (hMT(+)/V5) is related to the perception of motion, be it either real surface motion or an illusion of motion such as apparent motion (AM) or motion aftereffect (MAE). It is a long-lasting debate whether illusory motion-related activations in hMT(+) represent the motion itself or attention to it. We have asked whether hMT(+) responses to MAEs are present when shifts in arousal are suppressed and attention is focused on concurrent motion versus nonmotion features. Significant enhancement of hMT(+) activity was observed during MAEs when attention was focused either on concurrent spatial angle or color features. This observation was confirmed by direct comparison of adapting (MAE inducing) versus nonadapting conditions. In contrast, this effect was diminished when subjects had to report on concomitant speed changes of superimposed AM. The same finding was observed for concomitant orthogonal real motion (RM), suggesting that selective attention to concurrent illusory or real motion was interfering with the saliency of MAE signals in hMT(+). We conclude that MAE-related changes in the global activity of hMT(+) are present provided selective attention is not focused on an interfering feature such as concurrent motion. Accordingly, there is a genuine MAE-related motion signal in hMT(+) that is neither explained by shifts in arousal nor by selective attention.

  4. Stimulatory Effects of Melatonin on Porcine In Vitro Maturation Are Mediated by MT2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a multifunctional molecule with numerous biological activities. The fact that melatonin modulates the functions of porcine granulosa cells via the MT2 receptor suggests the possibility of MT2 receptor-mediation for melatonin to promote cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of MT2 in porcine COCs, and the effects of melatonin with or without selective MT2 antagonists (luzindole and 4-P-PDOT on this process; COCs underwent in vitro maturation culturing with six different conditions (control, melatonin, luzindole, 4-P-PDOT, melatonin + luzindole or melatonin + 4-P-PDOT. Cumulus expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development after parthenogenetic activation (PA were evaluated. In experiment 1, MT2 was expressed in both oocytes and cumulus cells. In experiment 2, melatonin significantly increased the proportion of complete cumulus expansion (degree 4, which was inhibited by simultaneous addition of either luzindole or 4-P-PDOT. A similar pattern was observed in the expression of genes related to cumulus expansion, apoptosis, and MT2. In experiment 3, no significant difference was observed in immature, degenerate, and MII oocyte rates among the groups. In experiment 4, melatonin significantly increased blastocyst formation rates and total blastocyst cell numbers after PA, but these effects were abolished when either luzindole or 4-P-PDOT was added concomitantly. In conclusion, our results indicate that the MT2 receptor mediated the stimulatory effects of melatonin on porcine cumulus expansion and subsequent embryo development.

  5. Regulation of bone mass through pineal-derived melatonin-MT2 receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Kunal; Lewis, Kirsty; Furukawa, Takahisa; Yadav, Vijay K

    2017-09-01

    Tryptophan, an essential amino acid through a series of enzymatic reactions gives rise to various metabolites, viz. serotonin and melatonin, that regulate distinct biological functions. We show here that tryptophan metabolism in the pineal gland favors bone mass accrual through production of melatonin, a pineal-derived neurohormone. Pineal gland-specific deletion of Tph1, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the melatonin biosynthesis lead to a decrease in melatonin levels and a low bone mass due to an isolated decrease in bone formation while bone resorption parameters remained unaffected. Skeletal analysis of the mice deficient in MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptors showed a low bone mass in MT2-/- mice while MT1-/- mice had a normal bone mass compared to the WT mice. This low bone mass in the MT2-/- mice was due to an isolated decrease in osteoblast numbers and bone formation. In vitro assays of the osteoblast cultures derived from the MT1-/- and MT2-/- mice showed a cell intrinsic defect in the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization abilities of MT2-/- osteoblasts compared to WT counterparts, and the mutant cells did not respond to melatonin addition. Finally, we demonstrate that daily oral administration of melatonin can increase bone accrual during growth and can cure ovariectomy-induced structural and functional degeneration of bone by specifically increasing bone formation. By identifying pineal-derived melatonin as a regulator of bone mass through MT2 receptors, this study expands the role played by tryptophan derivatives in the regulation of bone mass and underscores its therapeutic relevance in postmenopausal osteoporosis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 75 FR 70691 - World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently Known as Quad/Graphics, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,142] World Color Mt. Morris... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on May 24, 2010, applicable to workers of World Color Mt... that on July 2, 2010, World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC was purchased by Quad/Graphics, Inc. and is...

  7. Multi-temporal Soil Erosion Modelling over the Mt Kenya Region with Multi-Sensor Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Higginbottom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is the principal cause of soil degradation across the world. In Africa, it is seen as a serious problem creating negative impacts on agricultural production, infrastructure and water quality. Regarding the Mt Kenya region, specifically, soil erosion is a serious threat mainly due to unplanned and unsustainable practices linked to tourism, agriculture and rapid population growth. The soil types roughly correspond with different altitudinal zones and are generally very fertile due to their volcanic origin. Some of them have been created by eroding glaciers while others are due to millions of years of fluvial erosion. The soils on the mountain are easily eroded once exposed: when vegetation is removed, the soil quickly erodes down to bedrock by either animals or humans, as tourists erode paths and local people clear large swaths of forested land for agriculture, mostly illegally. It is imperative, therefore, that a soil erosion monitoring system for the Mt Kenya region is in place in order to understand the magnitude of, and be able to respond to, the increasing number of demands on this renewable resource. In this paper, we employ a simple regional-scale soil erosion modelling framework based on the Thornes model and suggest an operational methodology for quantifying and monitoring water runoff and soil erosion using multi-sensor and multi-temporal remote sensing data in a GIS framework. We compare the estimates of this study with general data on the severity of soil erosion over Kenya and with measured rates of soil loss at different locations over the area of study. The results show that the measured and estimated rates of erosion are generally similar and within the same order of magnitude. They also show that, over the last years, erosion rates are increasing in large parts of the region at an alarming rate, and that mitigation measures are needed to reverse the negative effects of uncontrolled socio-economic practices.

  8. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  9. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Future climate characteristics of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, will be governed by two superior processes: (i) global climate change and (ii) local land cover transformation. Whilst precipitation amounts remained stable throughout the last climate normals, recent studies revealed distinctly increasing air temperatures in the study region between 1973 and 2013, resulting in a gradual reduction of available moisture. In addition, climate predictions show rising temperatures over East Africa throughout the 21st century. Modifications of the local hydrological cycle resulting from land cover transformation will either favor or counteract the thus induced, increasing dryness. Considering that the local-scale climate is a key parameter for ecosystem processes and biodiversity, quantifying the driving components on the credit (precipitation, through-fall, fog) and debit side of the local-scale water balance is of outstanding (biogeo-)scientific importance. In this context, a multidisciplinary German research unit investigates the interrelationship between climate, land use and biodiversity along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. A total of 65 climate stations have been installed to record rainfall and estimate potential evaporation across different land cover types ranging from savanna (880 m a.s.l.) to the upper mountain Helichrysum sites (4,550 m a.s.l.). The associated data is used for both the area-wide interpolation of meteorological parameters and as input for satellite-based retrievals of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an extensive field campaign employing a surface-layer scintillometer in order to gain insights into ET dynamics over different land cover types following elevational and disturbance gradients. Scintillometer measurements are available for study sites below (savanna, maize, grassland, coffee plantations) and above the forest belt (natural and disturbed ericaceous forest, Helichrysum), covering a period of 4-7 days

  10. Biothermal conditions on Mt. Zlatibor based on thermophysiological indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecelj Milica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents part of the research in the field of human bioclimatology and refers to biothermal conditions in different geographical environments in Serbia: an urban area and a mountain of medium height. The goal of the paper was to show bioclimatic differences during the summer between the city of Belgrade (116 m a.s.l. and the mountain resort of Zlatibor (1498 m a.s.l.. The basic principle of bioclimatic analysis is the human heat balance between man and environment. This methodological approach is a combination of physiological and meteorological parameters that result in thermophysiological bioclimatic indices: heat load (HL in man and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI. For this analysis, weather data for July, as the warmest month, was obtained, using daily meteorological data for the decade from 2000 to 2010. Results for July indicate a considerable difference between the two abovementioned environments. HL in Belgrade was dominated by degrees of comfort “hot” and “extremely hot, with the highest value of 4.540, while for Zlatibor the dominant degree of comfort was “warm”. The UTCI in Belgrade has dominated by strong heat stress and moderate heat stress, compared to Zlatibor where the UTCI is dominated by moderate heat stress. In addition, a significant part of the monitored decade on Mt. Zlatibor was without heat stress, with the exception of 2006 and 2007, indicating favorable biothermal characteristics. Therefore, compared to Belgrade, with its considerably lower overall heat stress Zlatibor has the characteristics of a site with favorable bioclimatic qualities.

  11. Geology of Mt. Taylor uranium mine, Grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alief, M.H.; Kern, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor uranium mine is located 25 mi due northeast of Grants, New Mexico. Gulf Mineral Resources attained interest in the property in 1971. Surface drilling outlined several orebodies extending for 7 mi and containing over 120 million lb of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ). Gulf sank two shafts and developed the orebody in Sec. 24, T13N, R8W. Due to depressed markets, the mine was shut down in 1982. Chevron reopened the mine in 1985 following the 1984 Gulf-Chevron merger. The uranium ore occurs in the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. The Westwater Canyon member was deposited as part of a braided-stream channel system. Mineralization was emplaced following the deposition and possibly prior to consolidation of the host. Uranium is intimately associated with carbonaceous matter that may have been deposited as humates prior to and/or contemporaneous with the uranium mineralization. Mineralization coats sand grains and fills intergranular voids. Since 1985, Chevron has produced more than 5 million lb of U 3 O 8 , most of it from Sec. 24 and Sec. 19 (T13N, R7W). Plans are to complete extraction in these sections and to continue southeasterly into Sec. 25 (T13N, R8W) and Sec. 30 (T13N, R7W). More than 40 million lb of U 3 O 8 may be mined from the present facilities. At the current mining rate of 1.5 million lb/year, supplies should take them well beyond the year 2000

  12. Ophthalmodynamometry for ICP prediction and pilot test on Mt. Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querfurth, Henry W; Lieberman, Philip; Arms, Steve; Mundell, Steve; Bennett, Michael; van Horne, Craig

    2010-11-01

    A recent development in non-invasive techniques to predict intracranial pressure (ICP) termed venous ophthalmodynamometry (vODM) has made measurements in absolute units possible. However, there has been little progress to show utility in the clinic or field. One important application would be to predict changes in actual ICP during adaptive responses to physiologic stress such as hypoxia. A causal relationship between raised intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness (AMS) is suspected. Several MRI studies report that modest physiologic increases in cerebral volume, from swelling, normally accompany subacute ascent to simulated high altitudes. 1) Validate and calibrate an advanced, portable vODM instrument on intensive patients with raised intracranial pressure and 2) make pilot, non-invasive ICP estimations of normal subjects at increasing altitudes. The vODM was calibrated against actual ICP in 12 neurosurgical patients, most affected with acute hydrocephalus and monitored using ventriculostomy/pressure transducers. The operator was blinded to the transducer read-out. A clinical field test was then conducted on a variable data set of 42 volunteer trekkers and climbers scaling Mt. Everest, Nepal. Mean ICPs were estimated at several altitudes on the ascent both across and within subjects. Portable vODM measurements increased directly and linearly with ICP resulting in good predictability (r = 0.85). We also found that estimated ICP increases normally with altitude (10 ± 3 mm Hg; sea level to 20 ± 2 mm Hg; 6553 m) and that AMS symptoms did not correlate with raised ICP. vODM technology has potential to reliably estimate absolute ICP and is portable. Physiologic increases in ICP and mild-mod AMS are separate responses to high altitude, possibly reflecting swelling and vasoactive instability, respectively.

  13. Ophthalmodynamometry for ICP prediction and pilot test on Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent development in non-invasive techniques to predict intracranial pressure (ICP termed venous ophthalmodynamometry (vODM has made measurements in absolute units possible. However, there has been little progress to show utility in the clinic or field. One important application would be to predict changes in actual ICP during adaptive responses to physiologic stress such as hypoxia. A causal relationship between raised intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness (AMS is suspected. Several MRI studies report that modest physiologic increases in cerebral volume, from swelling, normally accompany subacute ascent to simulated high altitudes. Objectives 1 Validate and calibrate an advanced, portable vODM instrument on intensive patients with raised intracranial pressure and 2 make pilot, non-invasive ICP estimations of normal subjects at increasing altitudes. Methods The vODM was calibrated against actual ICP in 12 neurosurgical patients, most affected with acute hydrocephalus and monitored using ventriculostomy/pressure transducers. The operator was blinded to the transducer read-out. A clinical field test was then conducted on a variable data set of 42 volunteer trekkers and climbers scaling Mt. Everest, Nepal. Mean ICPs were estimated at several altitudes on the ascent both across and within subjects. Results Portable vODM measurements increased directly and linearly with ICP resulting in good predictability (r = 0.85. We also found that estimated ICP increases normally with altitude (10 ± 3 mm Hg; sea level to 20 ± 2 mm Hg; 6553 m and that AMS symptoms did not correlate with raised ICP. Conclusion vODM technology has potential to reliably estimate absolute ICP and is portable. Physiologic increases in ICP and mild-mod AMS are separate responses to high altitude, possibly reflecting swelling and vasoactive instability, respectively.

  14. Seismic Activity Related to the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Volcano Eruption (Italy): Fault Plane Solutions and Stress Tensor Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, G.; Cammarata, L.; Cocina, O.; Maiolino, V.; Musumeci, C.; Privitera, E.

    2003-04-01

    Late on the night of October 26, 2002, a bi-lateral eruption started on both the eastern and the southeastern flanks of Mt. Etna. The opening of the eruptive fracture system on the NE sector and the reactivation of the 2001 fracture system, on the S sector, were accompanied by a strong seismic swarm recorded between October 26 and 28 and by sharp increase of volcanic tremor amplitude. After this initial phase, on October 29 another seismogenetic zone became active in the SE sector of the volcano. At present (January 2003) the eruption is still in evolution. During the whole period a total of 862 earthquakes (Md≫1) was recorded by the local permanent seismic network run by INGV - Sezione di Catania. The maximum magnitude observed was Md=4.4. We focus our attention on 55 earthquakes with magnitude Md≫ 3.0. The dataset consists of accurate digital pickings of P- and S-phases including first-motion polarities. Firstly earthquakes were located using a 1D velocity model (Hirn et alii, 1991), then events were relocated by using two different 3D velocity models (Aloisi et alii, 2002; Patane et alii, 2002). Results indicate that most of earthquakes are located to the east of the Summit Craters and to northeast of them. Fault plane solutions (FPS) obtained show prevalent strike-slip rupture mechanisms. The suitable FPSs were considered for the application of Gephart and Forsyth`s algorithm in order to evaluate seismic stress field characteristics. Taking into account the preliminary results we propose a kinematic model of the eastern flank eastward movement in response of the intrusion processes in the central part of the volcano. References Aloisi M., Cocina O., Neri G., Orecchio B., Privitera E. (2002). Seismic tomography of the crust underneath the Etna volcano, Sicily. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 4154, pp. 1-17 Hirn A., Nercessian A., Sapin M., Ferrucci F., Wittlinger G. (1991). Seismic heterogeneity of Mt. Etna: structure and activity. Geophys. J

  15. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  16. Lava-flow hazard on the SE flank of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; Iovine, G.; Di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, V.

    2008-11-01

    considering its elevation, location with respect to the volcanic edifice, and proximity to its main weakness zones. Similarly, different probabilities can be assigned to the simulated event types (combinations of durations and lava volumes, and to the effusion-rate functions considered). In such a way, an implicit assumption is made that the volcanic style will not dramatically change in the near future. Depending on adopted criteria for probability evaluation, different maps of lava-flow hazard can be compiled, by taking into account both the overlapping of the simulated lava flows and their assumed probabilities, and by finally ranking computed values into few relative classes. The adopted methodology allows to rapidly exploring changes in lava-flow hazard as a function of varying probabilities of occurrence, by simply re-processing the database of the simulations stored in the GIS. For Civil Protection purposes, in case of expected imminent opening of a vent in a given sector of the volcano, re-processing may help in real-time forecasting the presumable affected areas, and thus in better managing the eruptive crisis. Moreover, further simulations can be added to the GIS data base at any time new different event types were recognised to be of interest. In this paper, three examples of maps of lava-flow hazard for the SE flank of Mt. Etna are presented: the first has been realised without assigning any probability to the performed simulations, by simply counting the frequencies of lava flows affecting each site; in the second map, information on past eruptions is taken into account, and probabilities are empirically attributed to each simulation based on location of vents and types of eruption; in the third one, a stronger role is ascribed to the main SSE-trending weakness zone, which crosses the study area between Nicolosi and Trecastagni, associated with the right flank of the above-cited deep-seated deformation. Despite being only preliminary (as based on a sub-set of the

  17. The blueschits from the Kopina Mt., West Sudetes, Poland - what do they tell us about accretion of the Variscides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Jarosław; Mazur, Stanisław; Kośmińska, Karolina; Dudek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Blueschists are tracers of sutures, thus marking fossil subduction zones at convergent plate boundaries and providing important constraints on plate tectonic reconstructions. Their occurrences are scarce in the Variscan belt owing to a strong collisional overprint but just because of that each locality deserves particular attention. The Variscan blueschists must have formed during the early stage of the Variscan Orogeny and may represent a vestige of missing marginal basins fringing the Rheic Ocean at the onset of subduction. The studied rocks from the Kopina Mt. consist mainly of garnet, glaucophane, clinozoisite-epidote, chlorite-I, titanite, hematite and quartz. The original high-pressure assemblage is overprinted by later, lower pressure paragenesis, which comprises mostly Ca-amphiboles, chlorite-II, albite and K-feldspar. The latter occurs in polymineral inclusions in other phases together with albite and chlorite that are interpreted as phengite breakdown products. Garnet shows chemical compositional variation from Alm54Prp3Grs30Sps13 in the cores to Alm66Prp4Grs29Sps1 in the rims. The almandine zoning is bowl-shaped, whereas spessartine profiles show bell-shaped trends. The grossular and pyrope contents are generally constant throughout the grain. Rather gradual changes in the chemical zoning suggest a progressive, one-step garnet growth pattern. Glaucophane, although commonly well preserved, in some cases disintegrates to the albite-chlorite assemblage. The pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions were estimated using the phase equilibrium modelling in the NCKFMMnASHTO system using the PerpleX software. The compositional isopleths cross cut in the stability field of Grt+Gln+Ep+Chl+Pheng+Ttn+Hem+Q. P-T estimates indicate that the peak conditions occur at c. 14-17 kbar and 470-500°C, which corresponds to quite a low geothermal gradient in the range of 8-10°C/km. The P-T conditions estimated lie on a low temperature geotherm that is typical for a relatively

  18. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  19. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  20. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  1. 76 FR 3569 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... accommodate aircraft using the Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach... airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5...

  2. mtDNA point and length heteroplasmy in high- and low radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, L.; Forster, P.; Gurney, S.M.; Spencer, M.; Huang, C.; Röhl, A.; Brinkmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal peninsula in Kerala (India) contains the world's highest level of natural radioactivity in a densely populated area, offering an opportunity to characterize radiation-associated DNA mutations. Here, we focus on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which are passed exclusively from the mother to her children. To analyse point mutations, we sampled 248 pedigrees (988 individuals) in the high-radiation peninsula and in nearby low-radiation islands as a control population. Then, in an extended sample of 1,172 mtDNA sequences (containing some non-Indians for comparison), we also analysed length mutations, which in mtDNA can lead to the phenomenon of length heteroplasmy, i.e. the existence of different DNA types in the same cell. We wished to find out how fast mtDNA mutates between generations, and whether the mutation rate is increased in radioactive conditions compared to the low-irradiation sample

  3. The size distribution of 210Po in the atmosphere around Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikawa, N.; Matsuoka, N.; Takashima, Y.; Syojo, N.; Imamura, H.; Fujisaki, M.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of 210 Po in particulate matters in the atmosphere were measured around the active volcano, Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. The samples were collected eight times at four sampling points for the period from June 1994 to January 1996. The highest concentration of 210 Po was 2940 μBq/m 3 at Akamizu located 2 km away from the crater of Mt. Sakurajima. The 210 Po concentrations decreased with the increase of distance form Mt. Sakurajima. The size distribution curves of 210 Po in the particulate matters showed that 210 Po is usually condensed to fine particles smaller than 2 μm in diameter. In addition, it was suggested that the 210 Po concentration in particulate matters collected at Akamizu was affected by the wind direction over Mt. Sakurajima. (author)

  4. Applicability of Daily Solar Radiation Estimated by Mountain Microclimate Simulation Model (MT-CLIM) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, K.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, D.B.; Kang, K.K.; So, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy of daily solar radiation estimated from a Mountain Microclimate Simulation Model (MT-CLIM) was assessed for seven observation sites with complex topography in Uiseong County. The coefficient of determination () between the observed and the estimated daily solar radiation was 0.52 for 7 sites for the study period from 1 August to 30 September 2009. Overall, the MT-CLIM overestimated the solar radiation with root mean square error (RMSE) of which is about 25% of the mean daily solar radiation () for the study period. Considering that the pyranometer's tolerance is of standard sensor, the RMSE of MT-CLIM was too large to accept for a direct application for agricultural sector. The reliability of solar radiation estimated by MT-CLIM must be improved by considering additional ways such as using a topography correction coefficient

  5. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for .... possible by the use of a microscope with UV optics that ... Abiotic stress factors that induced the expression of the ..... Arabidopsis mutant.

  6. Synthetic Modeling of A Geothermal System Using Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega Saputra, Rifki; Widodo

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia has 40% of the world’s potential geothermal resources with estimated capacity of 28,910 MW. Generally, the characteristic of the geothermal system in Indonesia is liquid-dominated systems, which driven by volcanic activities. In geothermal exploration, electromagnetic methods are used to map structures that could host potential reservoirs and source rocks. We want to know the responses of a geothermal system using synthetic data of Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT). Due to frequency range, AMT and MT data can resolve the shallow and deeper structure, respectively. 1-D models have been performed using AMT and MT data. The results indicate that AMT and MT data give detailed conductivity distribution of geothermal structure.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Yunis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequencies of four mitochondrial Native American DNA haplogroups were determined in 1526 unrelated individuals from 11 Departments of Colombia and compared to the frequencies previously obtained for Amerindian and Afro-Colombian populations. Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups ranged from 74% to 97%. The lowest frequencies were found in Departments on the Caribbean coast and in the Pacific region, where the frequency of Afro-Colombians is higher, while the highest mtDNA Amerindian haplogroup frequencies were found in Departments that historically have a strong Amerindian heritage. Interestingly, all four mtDNA haplogroups were found in all Departments, in contrast to the complete absence of haplogroup D and high frequencies of haplogroup A in Amerindian populations in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Our results indicate that all four Native American mtDNA haplogroups were widely distributed in Colombia at the time of the Spanish conquest.

  8. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery ? An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu K Akhilender

    2003-08-01

    17th century, the exact role of this vitamin/nutraceutical in human biology and health is still a mystery in view of many beneficial claims and controversies.

  9. The Mysterious Noh Mask: Contribution of Multiple Facial Parts to the Recognition of Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background A Noh mask worn by expert actors when performing on a Japanese traditional Noh drama is suggested to convey countless different facial expressions according to different angles of head/body orientation. The present study addressed the question of how different facial parts of a Noh mask, including the eyebrows, the eyes, and the mouth, may contribute to different emotional expressions. Both experimental situations of active creation and passive recognition of emotional facial expressions were introduced. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, participants either created happy or sad facial expressions, or imitated a face that looked up or down, by actively changing each facial part of a Noh mask image presented on a computer screen. For an upward tilted mask, the eyebrows and the mouth shared common features with sad expressions, whereas the eyes with happy expressions. This contingency tended to be reversed for a downward tilted mask. Experiment 2 further examined which facial parts of a Noh mask are crucial in determining emotional expressions. Participants were exposed to the synthesized Noh mask images with different facial parts expressing different emotions. Results clearly revealed that participants primarily used the shape of the mouth in judging emotions. The facial images having the mouth of an upward/downward tilted Noh mask strongly tended to be evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that Noh masks express chimeric emotional patterns, with different facial parts conveying different emotions This appears consistent with the principles of Noh which highly appreciate subtle and composite emotional expressions, as well as with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western art. It was further demonstrated that the mouth serves as a diagnostic feature in characterizing the emotional expressions. This indicates the superiority of biologically-driven factors over the traditionally

  10. Taming the Data Deluge to Unravel the Mysteries of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Hollitt, M.

    2017-04-01

    Modern Astrophysics is one of the most data intensive research fields in the world and is driving many of the required innovations in the "big data" space. Foremost in astronomy in terms of data generation is radio astronomy, and in the last decade an increase in global interest and investment in the field had led to a large number of new or upgraded facilities which are each currently generating petabytes of data per annum. The peak of this so-called 'radio renaissance' will be the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) - a global observatory designed to uncover the mysteries of the Universe. The SKA will create the highest resolution, fastest frame rate movie of the evolving Universe ever and in doing so will generate 160 terrabytes of data a second, or close to 5 zettabytes of data per annum. Furthermore, due to the extreme faintness of extraterrestrial radio signals, the telescope elements for the SKA must be located in radio quite parts of the world with very low population density. Thus the project aims to build the most data intensive scientific experiment ever, in some of the most remote places on Earth. Generating and serving scientific data products of this scale to a global community of researchers from remote locations is just the first of the "big data" challenges the project faces. Coordination of a global network of tiered data resources will be required along with software tools to exploit the vast sea of results generated. In fact, to fully realize the enormous scientific potential of this project, we will need not only better data distribution and coordination mechanisms, but also improved algorithms, artificial intelligence and ontologies to extract knowledge in an automated way at a scale not yet attempted in science. In this keynote I will present an overview of the SKA project, outline the "big data" challenges the project faces and discuss some of the approaches we are taking to tame the astronomical data deluge we face.

  11. The provision of emergency contraception in Kinshasa's private sector pharmacies: experiences of mystery clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julie H; Mbadu, Muanda Fidèle; Garcia, Mélissa; Glover, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Recent programmatic and research efforts on addressing gaps in health systems of low-income countries increasingly see task shifting, i.e. the provision of healthcare by non-medically trained personnel, as a possible solution to increase the availability of specific services and commodities. In Kinshasa, private-sector pharmacies are the primary and preferred provider of family planning (FP) methods, and thus constitute a potential resource for expanding access to specific contraceptives. The objective of this study is to explore selected pharmacies' readiness to serve women seeking emergency contraception (EC). This study used a mystery client (MC) methodology to visit 73 pharmacies in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Trained interviewers posed as novice EC users and asked specific questions to evaluate the pharmacy staff's technical knowledge of EC and their attitudes towards EC clients. The results of the MC visit were recorded immediately after the MC left the pharmacy. Findings indicate that more than two-thirds of EC providers were knowledgeable about EC dosage, timeframe, and side effects, and 90% were deemed helpful towards novice EC users. Rare but glaring misconceptions about EC timeframe (20% of providers) and long-term side effects (4% of providers), as well as frequent stock-out (22%) and cost issues highlight priorities for programmatic improvements. As new service delivery strategies are explored to complement the uneven network of health structures in DRC, this study suggests that, given proper training and integration in FP programming, private-sector pharmacies have the potential to meet specific contraceptive needs for women living in Kinshasa. Private pharmacies included in study sample in Kinshasa (DRC) have adequate family planning (FP) service skills to provide clients with emergency contraceptive pills. These higher-end outlets constitute an opportunity for expanding access to FP, although, under total market approaches, a more

  12. A collaborative EDNAP exercise on SNaPshot™-based mtDNA control region typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiler, NEC; Baca, K; Ballard, D

    2017-01-01

    A collaborative European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group exercise was undertaken to assess the performance of an earlier described SNaPshot™-based screening assay (denoted mini-mtSNaPshot) (Weiler et al., 2016) [1] that targets 18 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) positions in the mitochondrial (m...... and derived from a subset of the participants, indicating a need for training and guidelines regarding mini-mtSNaPshot data interpretation....

  13. MT-ComparEval: Graphical evaluation interface for Machine Translation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klejch Ondřej

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The tool described in this article has been designed to help MT developers by implementing a web-based graphical user interface that allows to systematically compare and evaluate various MT engines/experiments using comparative analysis via automatic measures and statistics. The evaluation panel provides graphs, tests for statistical significance and n-gram statistics. We also present a demo server http://wmt.ufal.cz with WMT14 and WMT15 translations.

  14. Metallothionein (MT) response after chronic palladium exposure in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Sabrina N.; Singer, Christoph; Sures, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different exposure concentrations of palladium (Pd) on relative metallothionein (MT) response and bioaccumulation were investigated in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The mussels were exposed to 0.05, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L Pd 2+ for 10 weeks under controlled temperature and fasting conditions. Relative MT contents were assessed by a modified Ag-saturation method, which allows to discriminate between MT bound to Pd (Pd-MT) and MT bound to unidentified metals (Ag-MT). Determination of metal contents resulted from atomic absorption spectrometry following a microwave digestion. For unexposed mussels and mussels exposed to 0.05 μg/L Pd no metal accumulation could be detected. All other exposure concentrations resulted in detectable Pd accumulation in mussels with final tissue concentrations of 96 μg/g (500 μg/L), 45 μg/g (50 μg/L), and 9 μg/g (5 μg/L). Compared with initial levels Pd-MT concentrations at the end of the exposure period were 600 (500 μg/L), 160 (50 μg/L), and 27 (5 μg/L) times higher. These results show that an increase in MTs in D. polymorpha already occurs at relatively low aqueous Pd concentrations indicating that there is the need for detoxification of Pd in the mussel. Furthermore, correlations between Ag-MT and Pd accumulation indicate that higher exposure concentrations are associated with adverse effects on the mussels. Thus, harmful effects of chronic Pd exposure of organisms even in lowest concentrations cannot be excluded in the environment

  15. Clast comminution during pyroclastic density current transport: Mt St Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, B.; Brand, B. D.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic clasts within pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) tend to be more rounded than those in fall deposits. This rounding reflects degrees of comminution during transport, which produces an increase in fine-grained ash with distance from source (Manga, M., Patel, A., Dufek., J. 2011. Bull Volcanol 73: 321-333). The amount of ash produced due to comminution can potentially affect runout distance, deposit sorting, the volume of ash lofted into the upper atmosphere, and increase internal pore pressure (e.g., Wohletz, K., Sheridan, M. F., Brown, W.K. 1989. J Geophy Res, 94, 15703-15721). For example, increased pore pressure has been shown to produce longer runout distances than non-comminuted PDC flows (e.g., Dufek, J., and M. Manga, 2008. J. Geophy Res, 113). We build on the work of Manga et al., (2011) by completing a pumice abrasion study for two well-exposed flow units from the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens (MSH). To quantify differences in comminution from source, sampling and the image analysis technique developed in Manga et al., 2010 was completed at distances proximal, medial, and distal from source. Within the units observed, data was taken from the base, middle, and pumice lobes within the outcrops. Our study is unique in that in addition to quantifying the degree of pumice rounding with distance from source, we also determine the possible range of ash sizes produced during comminution by analyzing bubble wall thickness of the pumice through petrographic and SEM analysis. The proportion of this ash size is then measured relative to the grain size of larger ash with distance from source. This allows us to correlate ash production with degree of rounding with distance from source, and determine the fraction of the fine ash produced due to comminution versus vent-fragmentation mechanisms. In addition we test the error in 2D analysis by completing a 3D image analysis of selected pumice samples using a Camsizer. We find that the roundness of PDC

  16. Data Mining in the Context of Monitoring Mt Etna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; D'Agostino, Marcello; Falsaperla, Susanna; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Langer, Horst; Messina, Alfio; Montalto, Placido; Reitano, Danilo; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The persistent volcanic activity of Mt Etna makes the continuous monitoring of multidisciplinary data a first-class issue. Indeed, the monitoring systems rapidly accumulate huge quantity of data, arising specific problems of andling and interpretation. In order to respond to these problems, the INGV staff has developed a number of software tools for data mining. These tools have the scope of identifying structures in the data that can be related to volcanic activity, furnishing criteria for the identification of precursory scenarios. In particular, we use methods of clustering and classification in which data are divided into groups according to a-priori-defined measures of similarity or distance. Data groups may assume various shapes, such as convex clouds or complex concave bodies.The "KKAnalysis" software package is a basket of clustering methods. Currently, it is one of the key techniques of the tremor-based automatic alarm systems of INGV Osservatorio Etneo. It exploits both Self-Organizing Maps and Fuzzy Clustering. Beside seismic data, the software has been applied to the geochemical composition of eruptive products as well as a combined analysis of gas-emission (radon) and seismic data. The "DBSCAN" package exploits a concept based on density-based clustering. This method allows discovering clusters with arbitrary shape. Clusters are defined as dense regions of objects in the data space separated by regions of low density. In DBSCAN a cluster grows as long as the density within a group of objects exceeds some threshold. In the context of volcano monitoring, the method is particularly promising in the recognition of ash particles as they have a rather irregular shape. The "MOTIF" software allows us to identify typical waveforms in time series, outperforming methods like cross-correlation that entail a high computational effort. MOTIF can recognize the non-imilarity of two patterns on a small number of data points without going through the whole length of

  17. Chuva de sementes em remanescentes florestais de Campo Verde, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Pietro-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar sazonalmente a produção de sementes provenientes de fragmentos florestais presentes na zona rural de Campo Verde, MT. Essa caracterização ocorreu em termos de produção de sementes e riqueza de espécies vegetais. Foram selecionados três fragmentos florestais caracterizados como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Em cada fragmento, cinco coletores foram instalados e confeccionados com canos de PVC (1 m²; malha de náilon de 0,001 m e 0,15 m de profundidade do bojo. O material foi coletado mensalmente, cujas sementes foram quantificadas e separadas conforme a síndrome de dispersão, etapa sucessional e forma de vida. Houve a determinação da densidade, frequência absoluta, índice de diversidade e equitabilidade. Ao todo, foram obtidas 3.622 sementes, pertencentes a 74 táxons. Maiores densidades de sementes foram observadas durante os meses de setembro, outubro e novembro. As lianas Gouania sp., Fridericia speciosa, Heteropterys sp. e Distictella sp. responderam com 55,95% do total de sementes aportadas. Das espécies que compuseram a chuva de sementes, 74% não são dispersas pelo vento. Todavia, quando se verificou a quantidade de diásporos coletados, formas dispersas pelo vento foram predominantes, representando 76% do total. Citam-se como táxons arbóreos importantes para a recomposição florestal na região de Campo Verde, situada no Sudeste de Mato Grosso: Tachigali rubiginosa, Siparuna guianensis, Nectandra sp., Cordia alliodora, Alibertia sp., Terminalia brasiliensis e Myrcia sp. Essas espécies devem ser alvo de estudos mais específicos relacionados ao seu potencial para recuperação de ambientes degradados, considerando-se as Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reservas Legais.

  18. Cloud chemistry in eastern China: Observations from Mt. Tai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L.; Shen, X.; Lee, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.

    2010-07-01

    Until recently, studies of fog and cloud chemistry in China have been rare - even though the fate of China’s large sulfur dioxide emissions depends, in part, on the ability of regional clouds to support rapid aqueous oxidation to sulfate. Sulfur dioxide oxidized in regional clouds is more likely to be removed by wet deposition while sulfur dioxide that undergoes slower gas phase oxidation is expected to survive longer in the atmosphere and be transported over a much broader spatial scale. Two 2008 field campaigns conducted at Mt. Tai, an isolated peak on the NE China plain, provide insight into the chemical composition of regional clouds and the importance of various aqueous phase sulfur oxidation pathways. Single and two-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors were used to collect bulk and drop size-resolved samples of cloudwater. Collected cloudwater was analyzed for key species that influence in-cloud sulfate production, including pH, S(IV), H2O2, Fe and Mn. Other major cloud solutes, including inorganic ions, total organic carbon (TOC), formaldehyde, and organic acids were also analyzed, as were gas phase concentrations of SO2, O3, and H2O2. A wide range of cloud pH was observed, from below 3 to above 6. High concentrations of cloudwater sulfate were consistent with abundant sulfur dioxide emissions in the region. Sampled clouds were also found to contain high concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic carbon. Peak TOC concentrations reached approximately 200 ppmC, among the highest concentrations ever measured in cloudwater. Hydrogen peroxide was found to be the dominant aqueous phase S(IV) oxidant when cloud pH was less than approximately 5.4. Despite its fast reaction with sulfur dioxide in cloud droplets, high concentrations of residual hydrogen peroxide were measured in some clouds implying a substantial additional capacity for sulfate production. Ozone was found to be an important S(IV) oxidant when cloud pH was high. Oxidation of S

  19. Thermodynamics of Pb(ii) and Zn(ii) binding to MT-3, a neurologically important metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, M C; Shami Shah, A; DeSilva, S; Gleaton, A; Su, A; Goundie, B; Croteau, M L; Stevenson, M J; Wilcox, D E; Austin, R N

    2016-06-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to quantify the thermodynamics of Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) binding to metallothionein-3 (MT-3). Pb(2+) binds to zinc-replete Zn7MT-3 displacing each zinc ion with a similar change in free energy (ΔG) and enthalpy (ΔH). EDTA chelation measurements of Zn7MT-3 and Pb7MT-3 reveal that both metal ions are extracted in a tri-phasic process, indicating that they bind to the protein in three populations with different binding thermodynamics. Metal binding is entropically favoured, with an enthalpic penalty that reflects the enthalpic cost of cysteine deprotonation accompanying thiolate ligation of the metal ions. These data indicate that Pb(2+) binding to both apo MT-3 and Zn7MT-3 is thermodynamically favourable, and implicate MT-3 in neuronal lead biochemistry.

  20. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  1. Biochemical signatures mimicking multiple carboxylase deficiency in children with mutations in MT-ATP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Austin A; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Christodoulou, John; Burrage, Lindsay C; Marom, Ronit; Graham, Brett H; Diaz, George A; Glamuzina, Emma; Hauser, Natalie; Heese, Bryce; Horvath, Gabriella; Mattman, Andre; van Karnebeek, Clara; Lane Rutledge, S; Williamson, Amy; Estrella, Lissette; Van Hove, Johan K L; Weisfeld-Adams, James D

    2018-01-04

    Elevations of specific acylcarnitines in blood reflect carboxylase deficiencies, and have utility in newborn screening for life-threatening organic acidemias and other inherited metabolic diseases. In this report, we describe a newly-identified association of biochemical features of multiple carboxylase deficiency in individuals harboring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in MT-ATP6 and in whom organic acidemias and multiple carboxylase deficiencies were excluded. Using retrospective chart review, we identified eleven individuals with abnormally elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) or hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) with mutations in MT-ATP6, most commonly m.8993T>G in high heteroplasmy or homoplasmy. Most patients were ascertained on newborn screening; most had normal enzymatic or molecular genetic testing to exclude biotinidase and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiencies. MT-ATP6 is associated with some cases of Leigh disease; clinical outcomes in our cohort ranged from death from neurodegenerative disease in early childhood to clinically and developmentally normal after several years of follow-up. These cases expand the biochemical phenotype associated with MT-ATP6 mutations, especially m.8993T>G, to include acylcarnitine abnormalities mimicking carboxylase deficiency states. Clinicians should be aware of this association and its implications for newborn screening, and consider mtDNA sequencing in patients exhibiting similar acylcarnitine abnormalities that are biotin-unresponsive and in whom other enzymatic deficiencies have been excluded. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Geant4-MT: bringing multi-threading into Geant4 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S.; Apostolakis, J.; Cosmo, G.; Nowak, A.; Asai, M.; Brandt, D.; Dotti, A.; Coopermann, G.; Dong, X.; Jun, Soon Yung

    2013-01-01

    Geant4-MT is the multi-threaded version of the Geant4 particle transport code. The key goals for the design of Geant4-MT have been a) the need to reduce the memory footprint of the multi-threaded application compared to the use of separate jobs and processes; b) to create an easy migration of the existing applications; and c) to use efficiently many threads or cores, by scaling up to tens and potentially hundreds of workers. The first public release of a Geant4- MT prototype was made in 2011. We report on the revision of Geant4-MT for inclusion in the production-level release scheduled for end of 2013. This has involved significant re-engineering of the prototype in order to incorporate it into the main Geant4 development line, and the porting of Geant4-MT threading code to additional platforms. In order to make the porting of applications as simple as possible, refinements addressed the needs of standalone applications. Further adaptations were created to improve the fit with the frameworks of High Energy Physics experiments. We report on performances measurements on Intel Xeon TM , AMD Opteron TM the first trials of Geant4-MT on the Intel Many Integrated Cores (MIC) architecture, in the form of the Xeon Phi TM co-processor. These indicate near-linear scaling through about 200 threads on 60 cores, when holding fixed the number of events per thread. (authors)

  3. Mitochondrial depolarization in yeast zygotes inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavaeva, Iuliia E; Golyshev, Sergey A; Smirnova, Ekaterina A; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S; Severin, Fedor F; Knorre, Dmitry A

    2017-04-01

    Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the ultimate variant of mtDNA present depends on their relative replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild-type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild-type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repression of the autophagy-related genes ATG8 , ATG32 or ATG33 , implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization. Moreover, the rate of mitochondrially targeted GFP turnover was higher in zygotes treated with uncoupler than in haploid cells or untreated zygotes. Finally, we showed that vacuoles of zygotes with uncoupler-activated autophagy contained DNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitochondrial depolarization inhibits clonal expansion of selfish mtDNA and this effect depends on mitochondrial fission and autophagy. These observations suggest an activation of mitochondria quality control mechanisms in heteroplasmic yeast zygotes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Strengthening MT6D Defenses with LXC-Based Honeypot Capabilities

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    Dileep Basam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving Target IPv6 Defense (MT6D imparts radio-frequency hopping behavior to IPv6 networks by having participating nodes periodically hop onto new addresses while giving up old addresses. Our previous research efforts implemented a solution to identify and acquire these old addresses that are being discarded by MT6D hosts on a local network besides being able to monitor and visualize the incoming traffic on these addresses. This was essentially equivalent to forming a darknet out of the discarded MT6D addresses, but the solution presented in the previous research effort did not include database integration for it to scale and be extended. This paper presents a solution with a new architecture that not only extends the previous solution in terms of automation and database integration but also demonstrates the ability to deploy a honeypot on a virtual LXC (Linux Container on-demand based on any interesting traffic pattern observed on a discarded address. The proposed architecture also allows an MT6D host to query the solution database for network activity on its relinquished addresses as a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON object. This allows an MT6D host to identify suspicious activity on its discarded addresses and strengthen the MT6D scheme parameters accordingly. We have built a proof-of-concept for the proposed solution and analyzed the solution’s feasibility and scalability.

  5. Random mtDNA mutations modulate proliferation capacity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukat, Alexandra; Edgar, Daniel; Bratic, Ivana; Maiti, Priyanka; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Increased mtDNA mutations in MEFs lead to high level of spontaneous immortalization. → This process is independent of endogenous ROS production. → Aerobic glycolysis significantly contributes to spontaneous immortalization of MEFs. -- Abstract: An increase in mtDNA mutation load leads to a loss of critical cells in different tissues thereby contributing to the physiological process of organismal ageing. Additionally, the accumulation of senescent cells that display changes in metabolic function might act in an active way to further disrupt the normal tissue function. We believe that this could be the important link missing in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of premature ageing in the mtDNA mutator mice. We tested proliferation capacity of mtDNA mutator cells in vitro. When cultured in physiological levels of oxygen (3%) their proliferation capacity is somewhat lower than wild-type cells. Surprisingly, in conditions of increased oxidative stress (20% O 2 ) mtDNA mutator mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit continuous proliferation due to spontaneous immortalization, whereas the same conditions promote senescence in wild-type cells. We believe that an increase in aerobic glycolysis observed in mtDNA mutator mice is a major mechanism behind this process. We propose that glycolysis promotes proliferation and allows a fast turnover of metabolites, but also leads to energy crisis due to lower ATP production rate. This could lead to compromised replication and/or repair and therefore, in rare cases, might lead to mutations in tumor suppressor genes and spontaneous immortalization.

  6. Individual Variations in Inorganic Arsenic Metabolism Associated with AS3MT Genetic Polymorphisms

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    Haruo Takeshita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual variations in inorganic arsenic metabolism may influence the toxic effects. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state methyltransferase (AS3MT that can catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet to trivalent arsenical, may play a role in arsenic metabolism in humans. Since the genetic polymorphisms of AS3MT gene may be associated with the susceptibility to inorganic arsenic toxicity, relationships of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AS3MT with inorganic arsenic metabolism have been investigated. Here, we summarize our recent findings and other previous studies on the inorganic arsenic metabolism and AS3MT genetic polymorphisms in humans. Results of genotype dependent differences in arsenic metabolism for most of SNPs in AS3MT were Inconsistent throughout the studies. Nevertheless, two SNPs, AS3MT 12390 (rs3740393 and 14458 (rs11191439 were consistently related to arsenic methylation regardless of the populations examined for the analysis. Thus, these SNPs may be useful indicators to predict the arsenic metabolism via methylation pathways.

  7. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda; Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  8. The amount and integrity of mtDNA in maize decline with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Delene J; Kumar, Rachana A; Bendich, Arnold J

    2013-02-01

    In maize and other grasses there is a developmental gradient from the meristematic cells at the base of the stalk to the differentiated cells at the leaf tip. This gradient presents an opportunity to investigate changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that accompany growth under light and dark conditions, as done previously for plastid DNA. Maize mtDNA was analyzed by DAPI-DNA staining of individual mitochondria, gel electrophoresis/blot hybridization, and real-time qPCR. Both the amount and integrity of the mtDNA were found to decline with development. There was a 20-fold decline in mtDNA copy number per cell from the embryo to the light-grown leaf blade. The amount of DNA per mitochondrial particle was greater in dark-grown leaf blade (24 copies, on average) than in the light (2 copies), with some mitochondria lacking any detectable DNA. Three factors that influence the demise of mtDNA during development are considered: (1) the decision to either repair or degrade mtDNA molecules that are damaged by the reactive oxygen species produced as byproducts of respiration; (2) the generation of ATP by photophosphorylation in chloroplasts, reducing the need for respiratory-competent mitochondria; and (3) the shift in mitochondrial function from energy-generating respiration to photorespiration during the transition from non-green to green tissue.

  9. No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans.

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    David Serre

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

  10. Automatic Grader of MT Outputs in Colloquial Style by Using Multiple Edit Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Kenji; Sumita, Eiichiro; Nakaiwa, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    This paper addresses the challenging problem of automating the human's intelligent ability to evaluate output from machine translation (MT) systems, which are subsystems of Speech-to-Speech MT (SSMT) systems. Conventional automatic MT evaluation methods include BLEU, which MT researchers have frequently used. BLEU is unsuitable for SSMT evaluation for two reasons. First, BLEU assesses errors lightly at the beginning or ending of translations and heavily in the middle, although the assessments should be independent from the positions. Second, BLEU lacks tolerance in accepting colloquial sentences with small errors, although such errors do not prevent us from continuing conversation. In this paper, the authors report a new evaluation method called RED that automatically grades each MT output by using a decision tree (DT). The DT is learned from training examples that are encoded by using multiple edit distances and their grades. The multiple edit distances are normal edit dista nce (ED) defined by insertion, deletion, and replacement, as well as extensions of ED. The use of multiple edit distances allows more tolerance than either ED or BLEU. Each evaluated MT output is assigned a grade by using the DT. RED and BLEU were compared for the task of evaluating SSMT systems, which have various performances, on a spoken language corpus, ATR's Basic Travel Expression Corpus (BTEC). Experimental results showed that RED significantly outperformed BLEU.

  11. Vegetation, climate and fire-dynamics in East Africa inferred from the Maundi crater pollen record from Mt Kilimanjaro during the last glacial-interglacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Lisa; Hemp, Andreas; Zech, Wolfgang; Behling, Hermann

    2012-04-01

    The pollen, charcoal and sedimentological record from the Maundi crater, located at 2780 m elevation on the south-eastern slope of Mt Kilimanjaro, is one of the longest terrestrial records in equatorial East Africa, giving an interesting insight into the vegetation and climate dynamics back to the early last Glacial period. Our sediment record has a reliable chronology until 42 ka BP. An extrapolation of the age-depth model, as well as matching with other palaeo-records from tropical East Africa, suggest a total age of about 90 ka BP at the bottom of the record. During the last Glacial the distribution as well as the composition of the vegetation belts classified as colline savanna, submontane woodland, montane forest, ericaceous belt, and alpine vegetation changed. The early last Glacial is characterized by high amounts of Poaceae and Asteraceae pollen suggesting a climatically dry but stable phase. Based on the absence of pollen grains in samples deposited around 70 ka BP, we assume the occurrence of distinct drought periods. During the pre-LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) a higher taxa diversity of the ericaceous and montane zone is recorded and suggests a spread of forest and shrub vegetation, thus indicating a more humid period. The taxa diversity increases steadily during the recorded time span. The decent of vegetation zones indicate dry and cold conditions during the LGM and seem to have been detrimental for many taxa, especially those of the forest vegetation; however, the early last Glacial seems to have been markedly drier than the LGM. The reappearance of most of the taxa (most importantly Alchemilla, Araliaceae, Dodonea, Hagenia, Ilex, Myrsine, Moraceae, Piperaceae) during the deglacial and Holocene period suggest a shift into humid conditions. An increase in ferns and the decrease in grasses during the Holocene also indicate increasing humidity. Fire played an important role in controlling the development and elevation of the ericaceous zone and the tree

  12. Ancient drainages divide cryptic species in Australia's arid zone: morphological and multi-gene evidence for four new species of Beaked Geckos (Rhynchoedura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Mitzy; Doughty, Paul; Hutchinson, Mark N; Scott Keogh, J

    2011-12-01

    Deserts and other arid zones remain among the least studied biomes on Earth. Emerging genetic patterns of arid-distributed biota suggest a strong link between diversification history and both the onset of aridification and more recent cycles of severe aridification. A previous study based on 1 kb of mtDNA of the monotypic gecko genus Rhynchoedura identified five allopatric clades across the vast Australian arid zone. We supplemented this data with 2.2kb from three nuclear loci and additional mtDNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships estimated from the mtDNA data with ML and Bayesian methods were largely concordant with relationships estimated with the nDNA data only, and mtDNA and nDNA data combined. These analyses, and coalescent-based species-tree inference methods implemented with (∗)BEAST, largely resolve the relationships among them. We also carried out an examination of 19 morphological characters for 268 museum specimens from across Australia, including all 197 animals for which we sequenced mtDNA. The mtDNA clades differ subtly in a number of morphological features, and we describe three of them as new species, raise a fourth from synonymy, and redescribe it and the type species, Rhynchoedura ornata. We also describe a morphologically distinctive new species from Queensland based on very few specimens. The distribution of arid zone clades across what is now relatively homogeneous sand deserts seems to be related to a topographic divide between the western uplands and eastern lowlands, with species' distributions correlated with dryland rivers and major drainage divides. The existence of five cryptic species within the formerly monotypic Rhynchoedura points to ancient divergences within the arid zone that likely were driven by wet phases as well as dry ones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  14. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and migration in a fence lizard hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Leaché

    Full Text Available A hybrid zone between two species of lizards in the genus Sceloporus (S. cowlesi and S. tristichus on the Mogollon Rim in Arizona provides a unique opportunity to study the processes of lineage divergence and merging. This hybrid zone involves complex interactions between 2 morphologically and ecologically divergent subspecies, 3 chromosomal groups, and 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA clades. The spatial patterns of divergence between morphology, chromosomes and mtDNA are discordant, and determining which of these character types (if any reflects the underlying population-level lineages that are of interest has remained impeded by character conflict. The focus of this study is to estimate the number of populations interacting in the hybrid zone using multi-locus nuclear data, and to then estimate the migration rates and divergence time between the inferred populations. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and gene flow were obtained from 12 anonymous nuclear loci sequenced for 93 specimens of Sceloporus. Population structure estimates support two populations, and this result is robust to changes to the prior probability distribution used in the Bayesian analysis and the use of spatially-explicit or non-spatial models. A coalescent analysis of population divergence suggests that gene flow is high between the two populations, and that the timing of divergence is restricted to the Pleistocene. The hybrid zone is more accurately described as involving two populations belonging to S. tristichus, and the presence of S. cowlesi mtDNA haplotypes in the hybrid zone is an anomaly resulting from mitochondrial introgression.

  15. Gravitational slope-deformation of a resurgent caldera: New insights from the mechanical behaviour of Mt. Nuovo tuffs (Ischia Island, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmoni, G. M.; Martino, S.; Heap, M. J.; Reuschlé, T.

    2017-10-01

    Ischia Island (Italy) is an impressive example of the rare phenomenon of caldera resurgence. The emplacement and replenishment of magmas at shallow depth resulted in a vertical uplift of about 900 m, concentrated in the western portion of Mt. Epomeo (789 m a.s.l.). As a consequence of this uplift, the island has experienced several slope instabilities at different scales since the Holocene, from shallow mass movements to large rock and debris avalanches. These mass wasting events, which mobilised large volumes of greenish alkali-trachytic tuff (the Mt. Epomeo Green Tuff, MEGT), were strictly related to volcano-tectonic activity and the interaction between the volcanic slopes and the hydrothermal system beneath the island. Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) at Mt. Nuovo, located adjacent to densely populated coastal villages, is an ongoing process that covers an area of 1.6 km2. The Mt. Nuovo DSGSD involves a rock mass volume of 190 Mm3 and is accommodated by a main shear zone and a series of sub-vertical fault zones associated with high-angle joint sets. To improve our understanding of this gravity-induced process, we performed a physical (porosity and permeability) and mechanical (uniaxial and triaxial deformation experiments) characterisation of two ignimbrite deposits - both from the MEGT - that form a significant component of the NW sector of Mt. Epomeo. The main conclusions drawn from our experiments are twofold. First, the presence of water dramatically reduces the strength of the tuffs, suggesting that the movement of fluids within the hydrothermal system could greatly impact slope stability. Second, the transition from brittle (dilatant) to ductile (compactant) behaviour in the tuffs of the MEGT occurs at a very low effective pressure, analogous to a depth of a couple of hundred metres, and that this transition is likely moved closer to the surface in the presence of water. We hypothesise that compactant (porosity decreasing) behaviour at

  16. Full-wave Ambient Noise Tomography of Mt Rainier volcano, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Ashton; Shen, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Mount Rainier towers over the landscape of western Washington (USA), ranking with Fuji-yama in Japan, Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Mt Vesuvius in Italy, as one of the great stratovolcanoes of the world. Notwithstanding its picturesque stature, Mt Rainier is potentially the most devastating stratovolcano in North America, with more than 3.5 million people living beneath is shadow in the Seattle-Tacoma area. The primary hazard posed by the volcano is in the form of highly destructive debris flows (lahars). These lahars form when water and/or melted ice erode away and entrain preexisting volcanic sediment. At Mt Rainier these flows are often initiated by sector collapse of the volcano's hydrothermally rotten flanks and compounded by Mt Rainier's extensive snow and glacial ice coverage. It is therefore imperative to ascertain the extent of the volcano's summit hydrothermal alteration, and determine areas prone to collapse. Despite being one of the sixteen volcanoes globally designated by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior as warranting detailed and focused study, Mt Rainier remains enigmatic both in terms of the shallow internal structure and the degree of summit hydrothermal alteration. We image this shallow internal structure and areas of possible summit alteration using ambient noise tomography. Our full waveform forward modeling includes high-resolution topography allowing us to accuratly account for the effects of topography on the propagation of short-period Rayleigh waves. Empirical Green's functions were extracted from 80 stations within 200 km of Mt Rainier, and compared with synthetic greens functions over multiple frequency bands from 2-28 seconds.

  17. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immobilization of metallothionein to carbon paste electrode surface via anti-MT antibodies and its use for biosensing of silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Krizkova, Sona; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, heavy metal biosensor based on immobilization of metallothionein (MT) to the surface of carbon paste electrode (CPE) via anti-MT-antibodies is reported. First, the evaluation of MT electroactivity was done. The attention was focused on the capturing of MT to the CPE surface. Antibodies incorporated and mixed into carbon paste were stable; even after two weeks the observed changes in signal height were lower than 5%. Further, the interaction of MT with polyclonal chicken antibodies incorporated in carbon paste electrode was determined by square-wave voltammetry. In the voltammogram, two signals--labelled as cys(MT) and W(a)--were observed. The cys(MT) corresponded to -SH moieties of MT and W(a) corresponded to tryptophan residues of chicken antibodies. Time of interaction (300 s) and MT concentration (125 μg/ml) were optimized to suggest a silver(I) ions biosensor. Biosensor (CPE modified with anti-MT antibody) prepared under the optimized conditions was then used for silver(I) ions detection. The detection limit (3 S/N) for silver(I) ions was estimated as 0.5 nM. The proposed biosensor was tested by detection spiking of silver(I) ions in various water samples (from very pure distilled water to rainwater). Recoveries varied from 74 to 104%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope: unraveling the mysteries the Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R.; Pillet, Valentin; Goode, Philip R.; Knoelker, Michael; Kuhn, Jeffrey Richard; Rosner, Robert; Casini, Roberto; Lin, Haosheng; von der Luehe, Oskar; Woeger, Friedrich; Tritschler, Alexandra; Fehlmann, Andre; Jaeggli, Sarah A.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; De Wijn, Alfred; Rast, Mark; Harrington, David M.; Sueoka, Stacey R.; Beck, Christian; Schad, Thomas A.; Warner, Mark; McMullin, Joseph P.; Berukoff, Steven J.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; DKIST Team

    2018-06-01

    The 4m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui will be the world’s largest solar telescope. Designed to meet the needs of critical high resolution and high sensitivity spectral and polarimetric observations of the sun, this facility will perform key observations of our nearest star that matters most to humankind. DKIST’s superb resolution and sensitivity will enable astronomers to address many of the fundamental problems in solar and stellar astrophysics, including the origin of stellar magnetism, the mechanisms of coronal heating and drivers of the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in solar and stellar output. DKIST will also address basic research aspects of Space Weather and help improve predictive capabilities. In combination with synoptic observations and theoretical modeling DKIST will unravel the many remaining mysteries of the Sun.The construction of DKIST is progressing on schedule with 80% of the facility complete. Operations are scheduled to begin early 2020. DKIST will replace the NSO facilities on Kitt Peak and Sac Peak with a national facility with worldwide unique capabilities. The design allows DKIST to operate as a coronagraph. Taking advantage of its large aperture and infrared polarimeters DKIST will be capable to routinely measure the currently illusive coronal magnetic fields. The state-of-the-art adaptive optics system provides diffraction limited imaging and the ability to resolve features approximately 20 km on the Sun. Achieving this resolution is critical for the ability to observe magnetic structures at their intrinsic, fundamental scales. Five instruments will be available at the start of operations, four of which will provide highly sensitive measurements of solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere – from the photosphere to the corona. The data from these instruments will be distributed to the world wide community via the NSO/DKIST data center

  20. Specular Reflections from Titan's Equatorial Region: Solving the Decade Old Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Campbell, D. B.; Hayes, A.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    Specular reflections from Titan's equatorial region have been detected using the Arecibo Observatory's (AO) 13 cm wavelength radar system (Campbell et al., 2003, Science, 302, 431). Fitting the echo spectra to radar scattering models indicated that they originated from smooth surfaces with root-mean-square slopes of only a few degrees; on this basis they were interpreted as evidence for liquid surfaces. The Cassini Saturn Orbiter however has detected stable surface liquids only in the polar regions and not in the southern tropical regions covered by the AO tracks. High resolution Cassini imagery that overlaps with the AO tracks between the years 2000 and 2008 does not suggest the presence of hydrocarbon liquids and exhibits no apparent correlation with the 13 cm scattering (Black et al., 2011, Icarus, 212, 300). In this work in progress, we explore alternative explanations for the origin of these low latitude specular reflections and attempt to resolve this now decade old mystery. In particular, we use the accumulating Cassini RADAR altimetry coverage to compare the nadir backscatter at 2.2 cm to that at 13 cm. This nadir-to-nadir comparison allows us to constrain whether the southern tropical regions are also smooth and specular at smaller scales. We also plan to constrain whether these regions are representative of Titan in general or have unusually smooth surface by utilizing the complete Cassini altimetry dataset that includes observations dispersed around the globe. Distant Cassini RADAR scatterometry-mode observations suggest that Titan exhibits a greater nadir backscatter than expected from traditional quasi-specular plus diffuse backscattering models (L. Wye, 2011, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University), hinting that unusually specular radar echoes may be the general behavior for Titan. Additionally, we employ the long baseline of Cassini observations over nearly half a Titan year, to constrain the possible temporal evolution in backscatter that was suggested

  1. Profile: Mistress of the mysteries of Russian oil and Faberge egg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2002-10-07

    A book, entitled 'The Russian oil economy', co-authored by Jennifer Considine and William A. Kerr, is reviewed. This singularly instructive book, based on Considine's doctoral dissertation and published by Edward Elger Publishing, Cheltenham, is intended as essential reading for anyone planning to invest in the Russian petroleum industry. The book is also an example of how will-power and discipline will overcome personal tragedy. It is based on a thorough study of how Russia's economy descended to its current decrepit state. The conclusion reached from that study is that the Russian petroleum industry has never been guided by market forces as they are understood in the West. Rather, the Russian industry has been shaped by historical forces and therefore cannot be approached from a market economy perspective. Accordingly, the reader is guided through the turbulent history of the Soviet era, focusing on economic policies affecting the petroleum industry, the forces that were brought to bear on the industry and that guided its development under each of the presidents and party chairmen, Stalin, Kruschev, Brezhnev, Yeltsin. The authors capture the ineptitude -- but also the drama and the fleeting moments of brilliance -- that characterize Russia's petroleum industry, and through painstaking analysis arrive at the conclusion that even today the Russian Federation is not a market economy, and may never become one. As a sideline to the main theme, but at the same time an integral part of the forces that shaped Considine's own personal development, runs the story of her difficult youth, the struggle to continue her studies while looking after her gravely ill mother and while trying also to be part of an investigation of the disappearance of a $3 million Faberge egg from her mother's home, allegedly stolen by a trusted friend. The mystery of the Faberge egg is still unresolved, but Considine completed her studies, the book has been

  2. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...... is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  3. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  4. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  5. Dike zones on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  6. IFPE/MT4-MT6A-LOCA, Large-break LOCA in-reactor fuel bundle materials tests at NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Turnbull, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Description - Objectives - Results: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted a series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding mechanical deformation tests in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River National Laboratory in Canada. The objective of these tests was to perform simulated loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) experiments using full-length light-water reactor fuel rods to study mechanical deformation, flow blockage, and coolability. Three phases of a LOCA (i.e., heat-up, reflood, and quench) were performed in situ using nuclear fissioning to simulate the low-level decay power during a LOCA after shutdown. All tests used PWR-type, non-irradiated fuel rods. Provided here is information on two materials tests, MT-6A and MT-4, which PNNL considers the better characterized for the purposes of setting up computer cases. The NRU reactor is a heterogeneous, thermal, tank-type research reactor. It has a power level of 135 MWth and is heavy-water moderated and cooled. The coolant has an inlet temperature of 310 K at a pressure of 0.65 MPa. The MT tests were conducted in a specially designed test train to supply the specified coolant conditions of flowing steam, stagnant steam, and then reflood. Typical instrumentation for the MT tests included fuel centerline thermocouples, cladding inner surface thermocouples, cladding outer surface thermocouples, rod internal gas pressure transducers or pressure switches, coolant channel steam probes, and self-powered neutron detectors. This instrumentation allowed for determining rupture times and cladding temperature. The test rods for the LOCA cases in the NRU reactor were irradiated in flowing steam prior to the transient, stagnant steam during the transient and prior to reflood, and then reflood conditions to complete the transient. Both cladding inner surface and outer surface temperatures were measured, in addition to coolant temperatures. However, only cladding inner surface temperatures were

  7. Do mtDNA Deletions Play a Role in the Development of Nasal Polyposis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Tatar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nasal polyposis (NP is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. Mitochondria are the cellular organelles which produce cellular energy by Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS, and they have own inheritance material, mtDNA. mtDNA is affected by reactive oxygen samples (ROS which are produced by both OXPHOS and the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the 4977 bp and 7400 bp deletions of mtDNA in nasal polyposis tissue, and to indicate the possible association of mtDNA deletions with NP. Methods:Thirty-three patients, aged 15 to 65 years, with nasal polyposis were selected to be assessed for mitochondrial DNA deletions. The patients with possible mtDNA mutations due to mitochondrial disease, being treated with radiotherapy, of advanced age, with a familiar history, aspirin hypersensitivity, or a history of asthma, were excluded. Polyp excision surgery was applied to the treatment of the NP, and after histopathological diagnosis 1x1 cm of polyp tissue samples were used to isolate mtDNA. The 4977 bp and 7400 bp deletion regions, and two control regions of mtDNA were assessed by using four pairs of primers. DNA extractions from the NP tissues and peripheral blood samples of the patients were made, and then Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR were made. PCR products were separated in 2% agarose gel.Results:No patient had either the 4977 bp deletion or the 7400 bp deletion in their NP tissue, and neither were these deletions evident in their peripheral blood. Two control sequences, one of them from a non-deleted region, and the other from a possible deletion region, were detected in the NP tissues and peripheral blood of all the patients.Conclusions:We had anticipated that some mtDNA deletion might have occurred in NP tissue due to the increased ROS levels caused by chronic inflammation, but we did not detect any deletion. Probably, the duration of inflammation in NP is insufficient to form mt

  8. Re-interpreting the Oxbridge stransverse mass variable MT2 in general cases

    CERN Document Server

    Mahbubani, Rakhi; Park, Myeonghun

    2013-01-01

    We extend the range of possible applications of MT2 type analyses to decay chains with multiple invisible particles, as well as to asymmetric event topologies with different parent and/or different children particles. We advocate two possible approaches. In the first, we introduce suitably defined 3+1-dimensional analogues of the MT2 variable, which take into account all relevant on-shell kinematic constraints in a given event topology. The second approach utilizes the conventional MT2 variable, but its kinematic endpoint is suitably reinterpreted on a case by case basis, depending on the specific event topology at hand. We provide the general prescription for this reinterpretation, including the formulas relating the measured MT2 endpoint (as a function of the test masses of all the invisible particles) to the underlying physical mass spectrum. We also provide analytical formulas for the shape of the differential distribution of the doubly projected MT2(perp) variable for the ten possible event topologies wi...

  9. Impact of Sleeping Altitude on Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Tadashi; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2018-05-09

    Horiuchi, Masahiro, Tadashi Uno, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, and Tatsuya Hasegawa. Impact of sleeping altitude on symptoms of acute mountain sickness on Mt. Fuji. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. We sought to investigate the factors influencing acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Mt. Fuji in Japan, in particular, to assess the effects of sleeping altitude, by means of a questionnaire survey. This study involved 1932 participants who climbed Mt. Fuji, and obtained information regarding sex, age, and whether participants stayed at the mountain lodges. The AMS survey excluded the perceived sleep difficulties assessed with the Lake Louise Scoring (LLS) system for all climbers. The overall prevalence of AMS was 31.6% for all participants (LLS score ≥3 with headache, excluding sleep difficulties). A univariate analysis revealed that overnight stay at Mt. Fuji was associated with an increased prevalence of AMS, but that sex and age were not. For overnight lodgers, the mean sleeping altitude in participants with AMS was slightly higher than that in participants without AMS (p lodge, especially one above 2870 m, may be associated with an increased prevalence of AMS on Mt. Fuji.

  10. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A; Coble, Michael D; Parson, Walther

    2011-03-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The past, present and future of mitochondrial genomics: have we sequenced enough mtDNAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Roy

    2016-01-01

    The year 2014 saw more than a thousand new mitochondrial genome sequences deposited in GenBank-an almost 15% increase from the previous year. Hundreds of peer-reviewed articles accompanied these genomes, making mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) the most sequenced and reported type of eukaryotic chromosome. These mtDNA data have advanced a wide range of scientific fields, from forensics to anthropology to medicine to molecular evolution. But for many biological lineages, mtDNAs are so well sampled that newly published genomes are arguably no longer contributing significantly to the progression of science, and in some cases they are tying up valuable resources, particularly journal editors and referees. Is it time to acknowledge that as a research community we have published enough mitochondrial genome papers? Here, I address this question, exploring the history, milestones and impacts of mitochondrial genomics, the benefits and drawbacks of continuing to publish mtDNAs at a high rate and what the future may hold for such an important and popular genetic marker. I highlight groups for which mtDNAs are still poorly sampled, thus meriting further investigation, and recommend that more energy be spent characterizing aspects of mitochondrial genomes apart from the DNA sequence, such as their chromosomal and transcriptional architectures. Ultimately, one should be mindful before writing a mitochondrial genome paper. Consider perhaps sending the sequence directly to GenBank instead, and be sure to annotate it correctly before submission. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  14. Investigation report on promotion of geothermal development. No. A-4, Mt. Kunbetsu area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of investigations in the Mt. Kunbetsu area out of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development having been performed during the period from 1998 to 1999. The investigated area is an area located in the eastern Hokkaido with an area of about 300 km{sup 2}. The wide area investigation has discussed possibilities of existence of geothermal resources mainly from existence of high-temperature anomalies. The investigation has performed the following activities: fluid geochemical investigations on ten spring water sources, three spring gas sources, and five surface water points; gravity exploration at 153 measuring points; electromagnetic exploration at 52 measuring points; excavation of two heat flow rate wells (to depths of 997m and 995m), temperature logging, core cuttings tests, thermal hot water survey; other fluid inclusions tests, rock alteration age measurement; and temperature logging at Ryuun Shiretoko Spa. As a result of the investigations, it was estimated that, as the geothermal system model, the heat source is assumed to exist at a great depth below Mt. Kaibetsu; the spring water and the mineral spring water show diverse spring qualities because of mixing of meteoric water with fossil sea water; the fossil sea water and the meteoric water have been heated by thermal conduction; and the high-temperature zone is not spread to the positions of the investigation wells. (NEDO)

  15. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  17. Navigating ECA-Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Hendriksen, Christian

    This report examines the effect that ECA-zone regulation has on the optimal vessel fuel strategies for compliance. The findings of this report are trifold, and this report is coupled with a calculation tool which is released to assist ship-owners in the ECA decision making. The first key insight...... much time their operated vessels navigate the ECA in the future....

  18. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  19. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  20. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  1. An Attempt to Interpret the Concept of «Mystery» in Relation to the Divine Liturgy and Church Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Aleksiejuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to look at the most important events in the history of salvation from a liturgical perspective. This reflection begins with an etymological and theological interpretation of the concept of «anamnesis» (ανάμνησις and «mystery» (μυστήρὶα, which have fundamental significance in the liturgical practice of the Orthodox Church. This reflection also serves as an occasion to emphasise the necessity of a continual search for answers to questions which have always had crucial importance for the life and experience of the Church as a human-divine community of the faithful: for Christians, what is the liturgical commemoration of the life and death of the Saviour Jesus Christ, from His Incarnation to Ascension into Heaven to be seated at the Right Hand of the Father? Although the liturgical gift of commemoration is a mystery, it takes place in the Temple Church. This is therefore a visible sign of the invisible, deifying and saving grace of the Triune God, which loves mankind and the world which He created and longs to be “all in all”.

  2. Membrane-type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP functions as a matrix composition-dependent effector of melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tatti

    Full Text Available In primary human melanoma, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, MT3-MMP, is overexpressed in the most aggressive nodular-type tumors. Unlike MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, which promote cell invasion through basement membranes and collagen type I-rich tissues, the function of MT3-MMP in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MT3-MMP inhibits MT1-MMP-driven melanoma cell invasion in three-dimensional collagen, while yielding an altered, yet MT1-MMP-dependent, form of expansive growth behavior that phenocopies the formation of nodular cell colonies. In melanoma cell lines originating from advanced primary or metastatic lesions, endogenous MT3-MMP expression was associated with limited collagen-invasive potential. In the cell lines with highest MT3-MMP expression relative to MT1-MMP, collagen-invasive activity was increased following stable MT3-MMP gene silencing. Consistently, MT3-MMP overexpression in cells derived from less advanced superficially spreading melanoma lesions, or in the MT3-MMP knockdown cells, reduced MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion. Rather than altering MT1-MMP transcription, MT3-MMP interacted with MT1-MMP in membrane complexes and reduced its cell surface expression. By contrast, as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme, MT3-MMP induced efficient invasion of the cells in fibrin, a provisional matrix component frequently found at tumor-host tissue interfaces and perivascular spaces of melanoma. Since MT3-MMP was significantly upregulated in biopsies of human melanoma metastases, these results identify MT3-MMP as a matrix-dependent modifier of the invasive tumor cell functions during melanoma progression.

  3. Eva Rossmann’s mystery novel «Russen kommen». The Russians Are Coming. New Crimes, Old Fears, and Intercultural Alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Henderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eva Rossmann’s mystery novel Russen kommen, the tenth in a popular series, takes up a hot topic in Austria’s tourism industry: the tensions surrounding the recent influx of newly rich Russian visitors. This article uses Rossmann’s mystery as a case study to examine the impact of global culture and transnational investments on Austrian society. Trapped between provincialism and globalization, Austrians are forced to revisit old fears and find new ways of dealing with contemporary challenges. Due to its wide appeal, popular culture can lead the way in these negotiations.

  4. Evidence of animal mtDNA recombination between divergent populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Recombination is typically assumed to be absent in animal mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). However, the maternal mode of inheritance means that recombinant products are indistinguishable from their progenitor molecules. The majority of studies of mtDNA recombination assess past recombination events, where patterns of recombination are inferred by comparing the mtDNA of different individuals. Few studies assess contemporary mtDNA recombination, where recombinant molecules are observed as direct mosaics of known progenitor molecules. Here we use the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, to investigate past and contemporary recombination. Past recombination was assessed within and between populations of G. pallida, and contemporary recombination was assessed in the progeny of experimental crosses of these populations. Breeding of genetically divergent organisms may cause paternal mtDNA leakage, resulting in heteroplasmy and facilitating the detection of recombination. To assess contemporary recombination we looked for evidence of recombination between the mtDNA of the parental populations within the mtDNA of progeny. Past recombination was detected between a South American population and several UK populations of G. pallida, as well as between two South American populations. This suggests that these populations may have interbred, paternal mtDNA leakage occurred, and the mtDNA of these populations subsequently recombined. This evidence challenges two dogmas of animal mtDNA evolution; no recombination and maternal inheritance. No contemporary recombination between the parental populations was detected in the progeny of the experimental crosses. This supports current arguments that mtDNA recombination events are rare. More sensitive detection methods may be required to adequately assess contemporary mtDNA recombination in animals.

  5. Matriptase/MT-SP1 is required for postnatal survival, epidermal barrier function, hair follicle development, and thymic homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Karin; Haudenschild, Christian C; Szabo, Roman

    2002-01-01

    of Matriptase/MT-SP1 also seriously affected hair follicle development resulting in generalized follicular hypoplasia, absence of erupted vibrissae, lack of vibrissal hair canal formation, ingrown vibrissae, and wholesale abortion of vibrissal follicles. Furthermore, Matriptase/MT-SP1-deficiency resulted...... in dramatically increased thymocyte apoptosis, and depletion of thymocytes. This study demonstrates that Matriptase/MT-SP1 has pleiotropic functions in the development of the epidermis, hair follicles, and cellular immune system....

  6. Three-Dimensional Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Cascadia Subduction Zone with an Amphibious Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, G. D.; Yang, B.; Bedrosian, P.; Kelbert, A.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.; Parris, B. A.; Schultz, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional inversion of an amphibious magnetotelluric (MT) array consisting of 71 offshore and 75 onshore sites in the central part of Cascadia, to image down-dip and along strike variations of electrical conductivity, and to constrain the 3D distribution of fluids and melt in the subduction zone. The array is augmented by EarthScope TA MT data and legacy 2D profiles providing sparser coverage of western WA, OR, and northern CA. The prior model for the inversion includes ocean bathymetry, conductive marine sediments, and a resistive subducting plate, with geometry derived from the model of McCrory et al. (2012) and seismic tomography. Highly conductive features appear just above the interface with the a priori resistive plate in three zones. (1) In the area with marine MT data a conductive layer, which we associate with fluid-rich decollement and subduction channel sediments, extends eastward from the trench to underthrust the seaward edge of Siletzia, which is clearly seen as a thick crustal resistor. The downdip extent of the underthrust conductive layer is a remarkably uniform 35 km. (2) High conductivities, consistent with metamorphic fluids associated with eclogitization, occur near the forearc mantle corner. Conductivity is highly variable along strike, organized in a series of E-W to diagonal elongated conductive/resistive structures, whose significance remains enigmatic. (3) High conductivities associated with fluids and melts are found in the backarc, again exhibiting substantial along strike variability.

  7. Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Chiarantini, L.; Lattanzi, P.; Benvenuti, M.; Beutel, M.; Colica, A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Gabbani, G.; Gray, John E.; Pandeli, E.; Pattelli, G.; Paolieri, M.; Ruggieri, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Mt. Amiata mining district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) is a world class Hg district, with a cumulate production of more than 100,000 tonnes of Hg, mostly occurring between 1870 and 1980. The Hg mineralization at Mt. Amiata is younger than 0.3 Ma, and is directly related to shallow hydrothermal systems similar to present-day geothermal fields of the region. There is likely a continuum of Hg deposition to present day, because Hg emission from geothermal power plants is on-going. In this sense, the Mt. Amiata deposits present some analogies with “hot-spring type” deposits of western USA, although an ore deposit model for the district has not been established. Specifically, the source of Hg remains highly speculative. The mineralizing hydrothermal fluids are of low temperature, and of essentially meteoric origin.

  8. Land, language, and loci: mtDNA in Native Americans and the genetic history of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M; Tito, Raúl Y; Lizárraga, Beatriz; Stone, Anne C

    2005-07-01

    Despite a long history of complex societies and despite extensive present-day linguistic and ethnic diversity, relatively few populations in Peru have been sampled for population genetic investigations. In order to address questions about the relationships between South American populations and about the extent of correlation between genetic distance, language, and geography in the region, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I sequences and mtDNA haplogroup markers were examined in 33 individuals from the state of Ancash, Peru. These sequences were compared to those from 19 American Indian populations using diversity estimates, AMOVA tests, mismatch distributions, a multidimensional scaling plot, and regressions. The results show correlations between genetics, linguistics, and geographical affinities, with stronger correlations between genetics and language. Additionally, the results suggest a pattern of differential gene flow and drift in western vs. eastern South America, supporting previous mtDNA and Y chromosome investigations. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  9. Special issue “The phreatic eruption of Mt. Ontake volcano in 2014”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Koshun; Geshi, Nobuo; Hashimoto, Tasheki; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Oikawa, Teruki

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Ontake volcano erupted at 11:52 on September 27, 2014, claiming the lives of at least 58 hikers. This eruption was the worst volcanic disaster in Japan since the 1926 phreatic eruption of Mt. Tokachidake claimed 144 lives (Table 1). The timing of the eruption contributed greatly to the heavy death toll: near midday, when many hikers were near the summit, and during a weekend of clear weather conditions following several rainy weekends. The importance of this timing is reflected by the fact that a somewhat larger eruption of Mt. Ontake in 1979 resulted in injuries but no deaths. In 2014, immediate precursors were detected with seismometers and tiltmeters about 10 min before the eruption, but the eruption started before a warning was issued.

  10. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    and pathological events, has been complicated by the lack of specific inhibitors and the fact that some of the potent MMPs are multifunctional enzymes. These factors have also hampered the setup of therapeutic strategies targeting MMP activity. A tempting target is the membrane-associated MT1-MMP, which has well......-documented importance in matrix degradation but which takes part in more than one pathway in this regard. In this report, we describe the selective targeting of a single function of this enzyme by means of a specific monoclonal antibody against MT1-MMP, raised in an MT1-MMP knock-out mouse. The antibody blocks...... matrix in vitro, as well as in lymphatic vessel sprouting assayed ex vivo. This is the first example of the complete inactivation of a single function of a multifunctional MMP and the use of this strategy to pursue its role....

  11. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  12. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  13. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  14. Accumulation of pathogenic ΔmtDNA induced deafness but not diabetic phenotypes in mito-mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Kazuto; Sato, Akitsugu; Sone, Hideyuki; Kasahara, Atsuko; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kagawa, Yasuo; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2004-01-01

    Mito-mice carrying various proportions of deletion mutant mtDNA (ΔmtDNA) were generated by introduction of the ΔmtDNA from cultured cells into fertilized eggs of C57BL/6J (B6) strain mice. Great advantages of mito-mice are that they share exactly the same nuclear-genome background, and that their genetic variations are restricted to proportions of pathogenic ΔmtDNA. Since accumulation of ΔmtDNA to more than 75% induced respiration defects, the disease phenotypes observed exclusively in mito-mice carrying more than 75% ΔmtDNA should be due to accumulated ΔmtDNA. In this study, we focused on the expressions of hearing loss and diabetic phenotypes, since these common age-associated abnormalities have sometimes been reported to be inherited maternally and to be associated with pathogenic mutant mtDNAs. The results showed that accumulation of exogenously introduced ΔmtDNA was responsible for hearing loss, but not for expression of diabetic phenotypes in mito-mice

  15. Targeted transgenic overexpression of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) alters mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial polypeptide abundance: transgenic TK2, mtDNA, and antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed H; Kohler, James J; Haase, Chad P; Tioleco, Nina; Stuart, Tami; Keebaugh, Erin; Ludaway, Tomika; Russ, Rodney; Green, Elgin; Long, Robert; Wang, Liya; Eriksson, Staffan; Lewis, William

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity limits nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. NRTI triphosphates, the active moieties, inhibit human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA polymerase pol-gamma. NRTI phosphorylation seems to correlate with mitochondrial toxicity, but experimental evidence is lacking. Transgenic mice (TGs) with cardiac overexpression of thymidine kinase isoforms (mitochondrial TK2 and cytoplasmic TK1) were used to study NRTI mitochondrial toxicity. Echocardiography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging defined cardiac performance and structure. TK gene copy and enzyme activity, mitochondrial (mt) DNA and polypeptide abundance, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, and electron microscopy correlated with transgenesis, mitochondrial structure, and biogenesis. Antiretroviral combinations simulated therapy. Untreated hTK1 or TK2 TGs exhibited normal left ventricle mass. In TK2 TGs, cardiac TK2 gene copy doubled, activity increased 300-fold, and mtDNA abundance doubled. Abundance of the 17-kd subunit of complex I, succinate dehydrogenase histochemical activity, and cristae density increased. NRTIs increased left ventricle mass 20% in TK2 TGs. TK activity increased 3 logs in hTK1 TGs, but no cardiac phenotype resulted. NRTIs abrogated functional effects of transgenically increased TK2 activity but had no effect on TK2 mtDNA abundance. Thus, NRTI mitochondrial phosphorylation by TK2 is integral to clinical NRTI mitochondrial toxicity.

  16. Comparison of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM-3, MCM-7) and metallothioneins (MT-I/II, MT-III) expression in relation to clinicopathological data in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobierzycki, Christopher; Pula, Bartosz; Skiba, Mateusz; Jablonska, Karolina; Latkowski, Krzysztof; Zabel, Maciej; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczynski, Marek; Kedzia, Witold; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Despite great progress in the understanding of ovarian cancer biology, clinicopathological data (i.e. grade, stage, histological type and residual disease after surgery) seem to be the most important prognostic factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between expression of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM-3, MCM-7), metallothioneins (MT-I/II, MT-III), and Ki-67 in 103 ovarian cancer cases, mostly of the serous histological type. Statistical analysis revealed strong positive correlations in the expression of MCM-3 vs. Ki-67 (r=0.492), MCM-7 vs. Ki-67 (r=0.651), and MCM-3 vs. MCM-7 (r=0.515) (all pMCM-3 and Ki-67 with increasing grade of histological malignancy (p=0.0011, p=0.029, respectively). Regarding clinical progression, cytoplasmic MT-I/II expression was significantly higher in more advanced disease stages (III+IV vs. I+II; p=0.0247). Due to the correlations shown here, the determination of MCM proteins as proliferation markers of ovarian cancer, should be strongly considered.

  17. Static shift correction of MT data in Tohoku district using TEM soundings; TEM ho data wo mochiita Tohoku chiho MT ho data no statistic shift hosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N; Kumekawa, Y; Miura, Y; Takasugi, S [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    There is a possibility that the wide-band MT observation data obtained in the central part of Tohoku district include the static shift effect. To grasp the static shift effect in the MT data, the TEM soundings were conducted at all the site where the MT data were measured. The TEM sounding system was developed for the shallow survey depth ranging from 5 m to 150 m. When showing the measured results on the histogram, it was found that the static shifts were concentrated in the vicinity of zero. About 70% of the data was below 0.2 decade. Only a slight static shift effect was observed. This means that the results obtained by the two-dimensional analysis are plausible. Especially, the static shift around plain was small. Therefore, the current results around the plain were trustful. On the other hand, the static shift in the mountainous area was rather large. Accordingly, the results around the mountainous area should be carefully treated. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  18. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMaresca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1. DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is

  19. A Signal, from Human mtDNA, of Postglacial Recolonization in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin; Cruciani, Fulvio; Rengo, Chiara; Martinez-Cabrera, Vicente; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Parik, Jüri; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Tambets, Kristiina; Forster, Peter; Karger, Bernd; Francalacci, Paolo; Rudan, Pavao; Janicijevic, Branka; Rickards, Olga; Savontaus, Marja-Liisa; Huoponen, Kirsi; Laitinen, Virpi; Koivumäki, Satu; Sykes, Bryan; Hickey, Eileen; Novelletto, Andrea; Moral, Pedro; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Al-Zaheri, Nadia; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Semino, Ornella; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial HVS-I sequences from 10,365 subjects belonging to 56 populations/geographical regions of western Eurasia and northern Africa were first surveyed for the presence of the T→C transition at nucleotide position 16298, a mutation which has previously been shown to characterize haplogroup V mtDNAs. All mtDNAs with this mutation were then screened for a number of diagnostic RFLP sites, revealing two major subsets of mtDNAs. One is haplogroup V proper, and the other has been termed “pre*V,” since it predates V phylogenetically. The rather uncommon pre*V tends to be scattered throughout Europe (and northwestern Africa), whereas V attains two peaks of frequency: one situated in southwestern Europe and one in the Saami of northern Scandinavia. Geographical distributions and ages support the scenario that pre*V originated in Europe before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), whereas the more recently derived haplogroup V arose in a southwestern European refugium soon after the LGM. The arrival of V in eastern/central Europe, however, occurred much later, possibly with (post-)Neolithic contacts. The distribution of haplogroup V mtDNAs in modern European populations would thus, at least in part, reflect the pattern of postglacial human recolonization from that refugium, affecting even the Saami. Overall, the present study shows that the dissection of mtDNA variation into small and well-defined evolutionary units is an essential step in the identification of spatial frequency patterns. Mass screening of a few markers identified using complete mtDNA sequences promises to be an efficient strategy for inferring features of human prehistory. PMID:11517423

  20. Episodic weakness due to mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auré, Karine; Dubourg, Odile; Jardel, Claude; Clarysse, Lucie; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Laforêt, Pascal; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Petiot, Philippe; Gervais-Bernard, Hélène; Vial, Christophe; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Vandier, Christophe; Fontaine, Bertrand; Lombès, Anne

    2013-11-19

    To report that homoplasmic deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 genes may be responsible for acute episodes of limb weakness mimicking periodic paralysis due to channelopathies and dramatically responding to acetazolamide. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing and restriction PCR, oxidative phosphorylation functional assays, reactive oxygen species metabolism, and patch-clamp technique in cultured skin fibroblasts. Occurrence of a typical MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome in a single member of a large pedigree with episodic weakness associated with a later-onset distal motor neuropathy led to the disclosure of 2 deleterious mitochondrial DNA mutations. The MT-ATP6 m.9185T>C p.Leu220Pro mutation, previously associated with Leigh syndrome, was present in all family members, while the MT-TL1 m.3271T>C mutation, a known cause of MELAS syndrome, was observed in the sole patient with MELAS presentation. Significant defect of complexes V and I as well as oxidative stress were observed in both primary fibroblasts and cybrid cells with 100% m.9185T>C mutation. Permanent plasma membrane depolarization and altered permeability to K(+) in fibroblasts provided a link with the paralysis episodes. Screening of 9 patients, based on their clinical phenotype, identified 4 patients with similar deleterious MT-ATP6 mutations (twice m.9185T>C and once m.9176T>C or m.8893T>C). A fifth patient presented with an original potentially deleterious MT-ATP8 mutation (m.8403T>C). All mutations were associated with almost-normal complex V activity but significant oxidative stress and permanent plasma membrane depolarization. Homoplasmic mutations in the MT-ATP6/8 genes may cause episodic weakness responding to acetazolamide treatment.

  1. Joint inversion of marine MT and CSEM data over Gemini prospect, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S.; Orange, A. S.; Key, K.

    2013-12-01

    In 2003 we tested a prototype marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) transmitter over the Gemini salt body in the Gulf of Mexico, collecting one line of data over 15 seafloor receiver instruments using the Cox waveform with a 0.25 Hz fundamental, yielding 3 usable frequencies. Transmission current was 95 amps on a 150 m antenna. We had previously collected 16 sites of marine magnetotelluric (MT) data along this line during the development of broadband marine MT as a tool for mapping salt geometry. Recently we commissioned a finite element code capable of joint CSEM and MT 2D inversion incorporating bathymetry and anisotropy, and this heritage data set provided an opportunity to explore such inversions with real data. We reprocessed the CSEM data to obtain objective error estimates and inverted single frequency CSEM, multi-frequency CSEM, MT, and joint MT and CSEM data sets for a variety of target misfits, using the Occam regularized inversion algorithm. As expected, MT-only inversions produce a smoothed image of the salt and a resistive basement at 9 km depth. The CSEM data image a conductive cap over the salt body and have little sensitivity to the salt or structure at depths beyond about 1500 m below seafloor. However, the joint inversion yields more than the sum of the parts - the outline of the salt body is much sharper and there is much more structural detail even at depths beyond the resolution of the CSEM data. As usual, model complexity greatly depends on target misfit, and even with well-estimated errors the choice of misfit becomes a somewhat subjective decision. Our conclusion is a familiar one; more data are always good.

  2. Joint 3D Inversion of ZTEM Airborne and Ground MT Data with Application to Geothermal Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Maris, V.; Kordy, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    ZTEM is an airborne electromagnetic (EM) geophysical technique developed by Geotech Inc® where naturally propagated EM fields originating with regional and global lightning discharges (sferics) are measured as a means of inferring subsurface electrical resistivity structure. A helicopter-borne coil platform (bird) measuring the vertical component of magnetic (H) field variations along a flown profile is referenced to a pair of horizontal coils at a fixed location on the ground in order to estimate a tensor H-field transfer function. The ZTEM method is distinct from the traditional magnetotelluric (MT) method in that the electric (E) fields are not considered because of the technological challenge of measuring E-fields in the dielectric air medium. This can lend some non-uniqueness to ZTEM interpretation because a range of conductivity structures in the earth depending upon an assumed background earth resistivity model can fit ZTEM data to within tolerance. MT data do not suffer this particular problem, but they are cumbersome to acquire in their common need for land-based transport often in near-roadless areas and for laying out and digging the electrodes and H coils. The complementary nature of ZTEM and MT logistics and resolution has motivated development of schemes to acquire appropriate amounts of each data type in a single survey and to produce an earth image through joint inversion. In particular, consideration is given to surveys where only sparse MT soundings are needed to drastically reduce the non-uniqueness associated with background uncertainty while straining logistics minimally. Synthetic and field data are analysed using 2D and 3D finite element platforms developed for this purpose. Results to date suggest that indeed dense ZTEM surveys can provide detailed heterogeneous model images with large-scale averages constrained by a modest number of MT soundings. Further research is needed in determining the allowable degree of MT sparseness and the

  3. Young Star Cluster Found Aglow With Mysterious X-Ray Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A mysterious cloud of high-energy electrons enveloping a young cluster of stars has been discovered by astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These extremely high-energy particles could cause dramatic changes in the chemistry of the disks that will eventually form planets around stars in the cluster. Known as RCW 38, the star cluster covers a region about 5 light years across. It contains thousands of stars formed less than a million years ago and appears to be forming new stars even today. The crowded environment of a star cluster is thought to be conducive to the production of hot gas, but not high-energy particles. Such particles are typically produced by exploding stars, or in the strong magnetic fields around neutron stars or black holes, none of which is evident in RCW 38. "The RCW 38 observation doesn't agree with the conventional picture," said Scott Wolk of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, lead author of an Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing the Chandra observation. "The data show that somehow extremely high-energy electrons are being produced there, although it is not clear how." RCW 38 RCW 38 X-ray, Radio, Infrared Composite Electrons accelerated to energies of trillions of volts are required to account for the observed X-ray spectrum of the gas cloud surrounding the ensemble of stars, which shows an excess of high-energy X-rays. As these electrons move in the magnetic field that threads the cluster, they produce X-rays. One possible origin for the high-energy electrons is a previously undetected supernova that occurred in the cluster. Although direct evidence for the supernova could have faded away thousands of years ago, a shock wave or a rapidly rotating neutron star produced by the outburst could be acting in concert with stellar winds to produce the high-energy electrons. "Regardless of the origin of the energetic electrons," said Wolk, "their presence would change the chemistry of proto

  4. RESPONSIBLE OWNERSHIP OF DOGS AND CATS FROM SINOP-MT: DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. De Carli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to raise information on the relationship among owners from Sinop/MT and their pets, and also to diagnose the practice of responsible ownership. For this purpose, we developed a questionnaire, which was applied to 77 dog’s and cat’s owners, attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Sinop, MT. The obtained results showed the majority of the owners miss information and knowledge about how to take good care of their pets. Most of them foster animals for emotional reasons but, despite this, we can’t conclude they are able to practice responsible ownership.

  5. Experiment operations plan for the MT-4 experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.; Wilson, C.L.; Parchen, L.J.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Webb, B.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1983-06-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding materials deformation experiments were conducted using light-water reactor fuel bundles as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program. This report is the formal operations plan for MT-4 - the fourth materials deformation experiment conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. A major objective of MT-4 was to simulate a pressurized water reactor LOCA that could induce fuel rod cladding deformation and rupture due to a short-term adiabatic transient and a peak fuel cladding temperature of 1200K (1700 0 F)

  6. When probabilistic seismic hazard climbs volcanoes: the Mt. Etna case, Italy - Part 1: Model components for sources parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, Raffaele; Barberi, Graziella; D'Amico, Salvatore; Pace, Bruno; Peruzza, Laura; Tuvè, Tiziana

    2017-11-01

    The volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) represents a perfect lab for testing innovative approaches to seismic hazard assessment. This is largely due to the long record of historical and recent observations of seismic and tectonic phenomena, the high quality of various geophysical monitoring and particularly the rapid geodynamics clearly demonstrate some seismotectonic processes. We present here the model components and the procedures adopted for defining seismic sources to be used in a new generation of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), the first results and maps of which are presented in a companion paper, Peruzza et al. (2017). The sources include, with increasing complexity, seismic zones, individual faults and gridded point sources that are obtained by integrating geological field data with long and short earthquake datasets (the historical macroseismic catalogue, which covers about 3 centuries, and a high-quality instrumental location database for the last decades). The analysis of the frequency-magnitude distribution identifies two main fault systems within the volcanic complex featuring different seismic rates that are controlled essentially by volcano-tectonic processes. We discuss the variability of the mean occurrence times of major earthquakes along the main Etnean faults by using an historical approach and a purely geologic method. We derive a magnitude-size scaling relationship specifically for this volcanic area, which has been implemented into a recently developed software tool - FiSH (Pace et al., 2016) - that we use to calculate the characteristic magnitudes and the related mean recurrence times expected for each fault. Results suggest that for the Mt. Etna area, the traditional assumptions of uniform and Poissonian seismicity can be relaxed; a time-dependent fault-based modeling, joined with a 3-D imaging of volcano-tectonic sources depicted by the recent instrumental seismicity, can therefore be implemented in PSHA maps

  7. Special zone territory decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Special zone is the Chernobyl' NPP operating site (OS). OS decontamination is described including reactor ruins from the accident moment. The process was begun from reactor bombardment with absorbing and filtering materials (sand, clay, lead, boron compounds). Then were produced soil shovelling, territory filling by dry concrete and laying concrete layer with thickness up to 300 mm. NPP room and equipment decontamination is described. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  9. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  10. VT Data - Zoning 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Marlboro, Vermont. Surface water buffer overlay is in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created by WRC in 2005. Marlboro's zoning bylaw...

  11. Investigating the influence of DNAPL spill characteristics on source zone architecture and mass removal in pool-dominated source zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K. A.; Abriola, L.; Chen, M.; Ramsburg, A.; Pennell, K. D.; Christ, J.

    2009-12-01

    Multiphase, compositional simulators were employed to investigate the spill characteristics and subsurface properties that lead to pool-dominated, dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone architectures. DNAPL pools commonly form at textural interfaces where low permeability lenses restrict the vertical migration of DNAPL, allowing for DNAPL to accumulate, reaching high saturation. Significant pooling has been observed in bench-scale experiments and field settings. However, commonly employed numerical simulations rarely predict the pooling suspected in the field. Given the importance of pooling on the efficacy of mass recovery and the down-gradient contaminant signal, it is important to understand the predominant factors affecting the creation of pool-dominated source zones and their subsequent mass discharge. In this work, contaminant properties, spill characteristics and subsurface permeability were varied to investigate the factors contributing to the development of a pool-dominated source zone. DNAPL infiltration and entrapment simulations were conducted in two- and three-dimensional domains using the University of Texas Chemical Compositional (UTCHEM) simulator. A modified version of MT3DMS was then used to simulate DNAPL dissolution and mass discharge. Numerical mesh size was varied to investigate the importance of numerical model parameters on simulations results. The temporal evolution of commonly employed source zone architecture metrics, such as the maximum DNAPL saturation, first and second spatial moments, and fraction of DNAPL mass located in pools, was monitored to determine how the source zone architecture evolved with time. Mass discharge was monitored to identify the link between source zone architecture and down-gradient contaminant flux. Contaminant characteristics and the presence of extensive low permeability lenses appeared to have the most influence on the development of a pool-dominated source zone. The link between DNAPL mass

  12. Identification and dynamics of a cryptic suture zone in tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, C.; Hoskin, C.J.; MacKenzie, J.B.; Phillips, B.L.; Tonione, M.; Silva, N.; VanDerWal, J.; Williams, S.E.; Graham, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Suture zones, shared regions of secondary contact between long-isolated lineages, are natural laboratories for studying divergence and speciation. For tropical rainforest, the existence of suture zones and their significance for speciation has been controversial. Using comparative phylogeographic evidence, we locate a morphologically cryptic suture zone in the Australian Wet Tropics rainforest. Fourteen out of 18 contacts involve morphologically cryptic phylogeographic lineages, with mtDNA sequence divergences ranging from 2 to 15 per cent. Contact zones are significantly clustered in a suture zone located between two major Quaternary refugia. Within this area, there is a trend for secondary contacts to occur in regions with low environmental suitability relative to both adjacent refugia and, by inference, the parental lineages. The extent and form of reproductive isolation among interacting lineages varies across species, ranging from random admixture to speciation, in one case via reinforcement. Comparative phylogeographic studies, combined with environmental analysis at a fine-scale and across varying climates, can generate new insights into suture zone formation and to diversification processes in species-rich tropical rainforests. As arenas for evolutionary experimentation, suture zones merit special attention for conservation. PMID:19203915

  13. Hydrocarbon Reservoir Identification in Volcanic Zone by using Magnetotelluric and Geochemistry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firda, S. I.; Permadi, A. N.; Supriyanto; Suwardi, B. N.

    2018-03-01

    The resistivity of Magnetotelluric (MT) data show the resistivity mapping in the volcanic reservoir zone and the geochemistry information for confirm the reservoir and source rock formation. In this research, we used 132 data points divided with two line at exploration area. We used several steps to make the resistivity mapping. There are time series correction, crosspower correction, then inversion of Magnetotelluric (MT) data. Line-2 and line-3 show anomaly geological condition with Gabon fault. The geology structure from the resistivity mapping show the fault and the geological formation with the geological rock data mapping distribution. The geochemistry information show the maturity of source rock formation. According to core sample analysis information, we get the visual porosity for reservoir rock formation in several geological structure. Based on that, we make the geological modelling where the potential reservoir and the source rock around our interest area.

  14. Habitable Zones in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review...

  15. Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination with suppressed and unsuppressed MT in humans: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    Full Text Available The middle temporal area of the extrastriate visual cortex (area MT is integral to motion perception and is thought to play a key role in the perceptual learning of motion tasks. We have previously found, however, that perceptual learning of a motion discrimination task is possible even when the training stimulus contains locally balanced, motion opponent signals that putatively suppress the response of MT. Assuming at least partial suppression of MT, possible explanations for this learning are that 1 training made MT more responsive by reducing motion opponency, 2 MT remained suppressed and alternative visual areas such as V1 enabled learning and/or 3 suppression of MT increased with training, possibly to reduce noise. Here we used fMRI to test these possibilities. We first confirmed that the motion opponent stimulus did indeed suppress the BOLD response within hMT+ compared to an almost identical stimulus without locally balanced motion signals. We then trained participants on motion opponent or non-opponent stimuli. Training with the motion opponent stimulus reduced the BOLD response within hMT+ and greater reductions in BOLD response were correlated with greater amounts of learning. The opposite relationship between BOLD and behaviour was found at V1 for the group trained on the motion-opponent stimulus and at both V1 and hMT+ for the group trained on the non-opponent motion stimulus. As the average response of many cells within MT to motion opponent stimuli is the same as their response to non-directional flickering noise, the reduced activation of hMT+ after training may reflect noise reduction.

  16. A monoclonal antibody interferes with TIMP-2 binding and incapacitates the MMP-2-activating function of multifunctional, pro-tumorigenic MMP-14/MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiryaev, S A; Remacle, A G; Golubkov, V S

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and, especially membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP/MMP-14, are promising drug targets in malignancies. In contrast with multiple small-molecule and protein pan-inhibitors of MT1-MMP cleavage activity, the murine 9E8 monoclonal antibody targets the MMP-2-activating function...... of cellular MT1-MMP alone, rather than the general proteolytic activity and the pro-migratory function of MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the antibody does not interact in any detectable manner with other members of the membrane type (MT)-MMP family. The mechanism of this selectivity remained unknown. Using mutagenesis......, binding and activity assays, and modeling in silico, we have demonstrated that the 9E8 antibody recognizes the MT-loop structure, an eight residue insertion that is specific for MT-MMPs and that is distant from the MT1-MMP active site. The binding of the 9E8 antibody to the MT-loop, however, prevents...

  17. Monument of nature? An ethnography of the world heritage of Mt. Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the World Heritage status of Mt. Kenya, an alpine area in Central Kenya. The mountain joined the World Heritage List in 1997 and in 2013 the original designation expanded to cover a larger area. Both events were formulated exclusively in natural scientific language. This

  18. 76 FR 28065 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT, that meets the definition of a sacred object under 25 U.S.C. 3001... donated it to the Society's collections in 1900. Consultation with Blackfeet tribal and religious leaders... religious society, and it is required for the practice of a traditional religion by contemporary adherents...

  19. Endurance exercise rescues progeroid aging and induces systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation in mtDNA mutator mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Adeel; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M.; Ogborn, Daniel I.; Little, Jonathan P.; Hettinga, Bart P.; Akhtar, Mahmood; Thompson, James E.; Melov, Simon; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A causal role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies demonstrating that the mtDNA mutator mouse, harboring a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial polymerase gamma, exhibits accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, multisystem pathology, and reduced lifespan. Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that endurance training reduces the risk of chronic diseases and extends life expectancy. Whether endurance exercise can attenuate the cumulative systemic decline observed in aging remains elusive. Here we show that 5 mo of endurance exercise induced systemic mitochondrial biogenesis, prevented mtDNA depletion and mutations, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiratory chain assembly, restored mitochondrial morphology, and blunted pathological levels of apoptosis in multiple tissues of mtDNA mutator mice. These adaptations conferred complete phenotypic protection, reduced multisystem pathology, and prevented premature mortality in these mice. The systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation through endurance exercise promises to be an effective therapeutic approach to mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and related comorbidities. PMID:21368114

  20. Allozyme and mtDNA variation of white seabream Diplodus sargus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results can be explained by the chaotic genetic patchiness hypothesis. In contrast, the mtDNA data indicated genetic homogeneity among localities showing the absence of structure in white seabream populations across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait. Historical demography of this species suggests that it has undergone ...

  1. Regulation of MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis in human placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent ZL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Zoë L Vincent,1,2 Murray D Mitchell,l,3 Anna P Ponnampalam1,2 1Liggins Institute, 2Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and specific endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs mediate rupture of the fetal membranes in both physiological and pathological conditions. MMPs and TIMPs are subject to regulation by DNA methylation in human malignancies and pre-eclampsia. To determine if membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP, MMP2, and TIMP2 are regulated by DNA methylation in human placentas, we employed an in vitro model where human placental tissues were collected at term gestation and cultured with methylation inhibiting agent 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine (AZA and lipopolysaccharide. The results suggest that DNA methylation is not directly involved in the regulation of MT1-MMP in placental tissue; however, remodeling of chromatin by a pharmacologic agent such as AZA potentiates an infection-related increase in MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP is a powerful activator of MMP2 and this action, coupled with either no change or a decrease in TIMP2 concentrations, favors a gelatinolytic state leading to extracellular matrix degradation, which could predispose fetal membranes to rupture prematurely during inflammation. Keywords: placenta, epigenetic regulation, DNA methylation, MMPs, labor

  2. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun; Zhao, Xuna; Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R"2 = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of mtDNA haplogroups in 14 Mexican indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Arenas-Aranda, Diego; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; González-Valencia, Gerardo; Torres, Javier; Alvarez, Berenice; Mendoza, Irma; Flores, Mario; Sandoval, Lucila; Loeza, Francisco; Ramos, Irma; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Salamanca, Fabio

    2007-06-01

    In this descriptive study we investigated the genetic structure of 513 Mexican indigenous subjects grouped in 14 populations (Mixteca-Alta, Mixteca-Baja, Otomi, Purépecha, Tzeltal, Tarahumara, Huichol, Nahua-Atocpan, Nahua-Xochimilco, Nahua-Zitlala, Nahua-Chilacachapa, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Necoxtla, and Nahua-Coyolillo) based on mtDNA haplogroups. These communities are geographically and culturally isolated; parents and grandparents were born in the community. Our data show that 98.6% of the mtDNA was distributed in haplogroups A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, and D2. Haplotype X6 was present in the Tarahumara (1/53) and Huichol (3/15), and haplotype L was present in the Nahua-Coyolillo (3/38). The first two principal components accounted for 95.9% of the total variation in the sample. The mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in the Purépecha and Zitlala were intermediate to cluster 1 (Otomi, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Xochimilco, Mixteca-Baja, and Tzeltal) and cluster 2 (Nahua-Necoxtla, Nahua-Atocpan, and Nahua-Chilacachapa). The Huichol, Tarahumara, Mixteca-Alta, and Nahua-Coyolillo were separated from the rest of the populations. According to these findings, the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups found in Mexican indigenous groups is similar to other Amerindian haplogroups, except for the African haplogroup found in one population.

  4. 75 FR 54381 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N078; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability: Draft comprehensive conservation plan and draft...

  5. Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in Southern Arabia from the perspective of human mtDNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Al-Abri, A.-R.; Podgorná, E.; Rose, J. I.; Pereira, L.; Mulligan, C. J.; Silva, N. M.; Bayoumi, R.; Soares, P.; Černý, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2012), s. 291-298 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA variation * Arabian Peninsula * migrations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.481, year: 2012

  6. Mutations of mtDNA polymerase-γ and hyperlactataemia in the HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutations of mtDNA polymerase-γ and hyperlactataemia in the HIV-infected Zulu population of South Africa. ... D B A Ojwach, C Aldous, P Kocheleff, B Sartorius ... of their capacity to impede human mitochondrial DNA polymerase-γ (POLG), ...

  7. Comprehensive view of the population history of Arabia as inferred by mtDNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Čížková, M.; Poloni, E. S.; Al-Meeri, A.; Mulligan, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 4 (2016), s. 607-616 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : mtDNA variation * Arabian Peninsula * migrations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2016

  8. New and noteworthy bird records from the Mt. Wilhelm elevational gradient, Papua New Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marki, Petter Zahl; Sam, Katerina; Koane, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    The elevational gradient of Mt. Wilhelm, the highest peak in Papua New Guinea, represents one of the best-surveyed elevational gradients in the Indo-Pacific region. Based on field work undertaken in 2013 and 2015, we report range extensions, new elevational records and add 24 species to the list...

  9. Kleptoparasitic behavior and species richness at Mt. Graham red squirrel middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Edelman; John L. Koprowski; Jennifer L. Edelman

    2005-01-01

    We used remote photography to assess the frequency of inter- and intra-specific kleptoparasitism and species richness at Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) middens. Remote cameras and conifer cones were placed at occupied and unoccupied middens, and random sites. Species richness of small mammals was higher at red squirrel...

  10. Propagation of dikes at Vesuvio (Italy) and the effect of Mt. Somma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, V.; Porreca, M.; Neri, M.; Massimi, E.; Mattei, M.

    2006-04-01

    Dikes provide crucial information on how magma propagates within volcanoes. Somma-Vesuvio (Italy) consists of the active Vesuvio cone, partly bordered by the older Mt. Somma edifice. Historical chronicles on the fissure eruptions in 1694-1944 are matched with an analytical solution to define the propagation path of the related dikes and to study any control of the Mt. Somma relief. The fissures always consisted of the downslope migration of vents from an open summit conduit, indicating lateral propagation as the predominant mechanism for shallow dike emplacement. No fissure emplaced beyond Mt. Somma, suggesting that its buttressing hinders the propagation of the radial dikes. An analytical solution is defined to describe the mechanism of formation of the laterally propagating dikes and to evaluate the effect of topography. The application to Somma-Vesuvio suggests that, under ordinary excess magmatic pressures, the dikes should not propagate laterally at depths >240-480 m below the surface, as the increased lithostatic pressure requires magmatic pressures higher than average. This implies that, when the conduit is open, the lateral emplacement of dikes is expectable on the S, W and E slopes. The lack of fissures N of Mt. Somma is explained by its buttressing, which hinders dike propagation.

  11. Somatic mtDNA mutation spectra in the aging human putamen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siôn L Williams

    Full Text Available The accumulation of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA deletions and single nucleotide variants (SNVs is a well-accepted facet of the biology of aging, yet comprehensive mutation spectra have not been described. To address this, we have used next generation sequencing of mtDNA-enriched libraries (Mito-Seq to investigate mtDNA mutation spectra of putamen from young and aged donors. Frequencies of the "common" deletion and other "major arc" deletions were significantly increased in the aged cohort with the fold increase in the frequency of the common deletion exceeding that of major arc deletions. SNVs also increased with age with the highest rate of accumulation in the non-coding control region which contains elements necessary for translation and replication. Examination of predicted amino acid changes revealed a skew towards pathogenic SNVs in the coding region driven by mutation bias. Levels of the pathogenic m.3243A>G tRNA mutation were also found to increase with age. Novel multimeric tandem duplications that resemble murine control region multimers and yeast ρ(- mtDNAs, were identified in both young and aged specimens. Clonal ∼50 bp deletions in the control region were found at high frequencies in aged specimens. Our results reveal the complex manner in which the mitochondrial genome alters with age and provides a foundation for studies of other tissues and disease states.

  12. Digital compilation bedrock geologic map of the Mt. Ellen quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG95-6A Stanley, RS, Walsh, G, Tauvers, PR, DiPietro, JA, and DelloRusso, V, 1995,�Digital compilation bedrock geologic map of the Mt. Ellen...

  13. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne

    1995-01-01

    hMt-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice (U. Rüther, D. Komitowski, F. R. Schubert, and E. F. Wagner. Oncogene 4, 861–865, 1989) developed bone sarcomas in 20% (3/15) of females at 448 ± 25 days and in 8% (1/12) of males at 523 days. After infection of newborns with Akv, an infectious retrovirus derived from...

  14. MT-ND5 Mutation Exhibits Highly Variable Neurological Manifestations at Low Mutant Load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, Y.S.; Lax, N.Z.; Maddison, P.; Alston, C.L.; Blakely, E.L.; Hepplewhite, P.D.; Riordan, G.; Meldau, S.; Chinnery, P.F.; Pierre, G.; Chronopoulou, E.; Du, A.; Hughes, I.; Morris, A.A.; Kamakari, S.; Chrousos, G.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Saris, C.G.J.; Feeney, C.; Hardy, S.A.; Sakakibara, T.; Sudo, A.; Okazaki, Y.; Murayama, K.; Mundy, H.; Hanna, M.G.; Ohtake, A.; Schaefer, A.M.; Champion, M.P.; Turnbull, D.M.; Taylor, R.W.; Pitceathly, R.D.S.; McFarland, R.; Gorman, G.S.

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the m.13094T>C MT-ND5 gene have been previously described in three cases of Leigh Syndrome (LS). In this retrospective, international cohort study we identified 20 clinically affected individuals (13 families) and four asymptomatic carriers. Ten patients were deceased at the time of

  15. HMEC-1 adopt the mixed amoeboid-mesenchymal migration type during EndMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryczka, Jakub; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Bogusz, Helena; Boncela, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    The contribution of endothelial cells to scar and fibrotic tissue formation is undisputedly connected to their ability to undergo the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) towards fibroblast phenotype-resembling cells. The migration model of fibroblasts and fibroblast-resembling cells is still not fully understood. It may be either a Rho/ROCK-independent, an integrin- and MMP-correlated ECM degradation-dependent, a mesenchymal model or Rho/ROCK-dependent, integrin adhesion- and MMP activity-independent, an amoeboid model. Here, we hypothesized that microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) undergoing EndMT adopt an intermediate state of drifting migration model between the mesenchymal and amoeboid protrusive types in the early stages of fibrosis. We characterized the response of HMEC-1 to TGF-β2, a well-known mediator of EndMT within the microvasculature. We observed that TGF-β2 induces up to an intermediate mesenchymal phenotype in HMEC-1. In parallel, MMP-2 is upregulated and is responsible for most proteolytic activity. Interestingly, the migration of HMEC-1 undergoing EndMT is dependent on both ECM degradation and invadosome formation associated with MMP-2 proteolytic activity and Rho/ROCK cytoskeleton contraction. In conclusion, the transition from mesenchymal towards amoeboid movement highlights a molecular plasticity mechanism in endothelial cell migration in skin fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentrations of tritium in atmospheric moisture and precipitation of Mt. Hakkoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideki; Kon, Takezumi; Sasaki, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now under construction in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture. The 3 H will be one of the major radionuclides released from the plant. To grasp the behavior of 3 H in the environment in Aomori Prefecture, we surveyed 3 H concentrations in the atmospheric moisture and the precipitation samples at Mt. Hakkoda. Additional atmospheric moisture samples were collected at Rokkasho Village and Aomori City. The relatively high 3 H concentration in the atmospheric moisture and the precipitation samples at Mt. Hakkoda were observed from spring to summer. The 3 H concentrations in the precipitation were similar to those in the atmospheric moisture. The temporal variation patterns of 3 H concentrations in the atmospheric moisture were similar in relatively wide region that covers from Mt. Hakkoda to Aomori City and Rokkasho Village. The 3 H concentration in atmospheric moisture at the top of Mt. Hakkoda positively correlated with the ozone concentration. It suggested that 3 H originated from the stratosphere, and showed that ozone might be used as an indictor of background 3 H. (author)

  17. 75 FR 6597 - Determination to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... to Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, MT Landfill; Opportunity for Public... for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake... operating criteria for MSWLFs, including landfill location restrictions, operating standards, design...

  18. MT1 melatonin receptors and their role in the oncostatic action of melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Danielczyk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, strongly inhibits the growth of cancer cells [i]in vitro[/i] and [i]in vivo[/i]. Some publications indicate that the addition of melatonin to culture medium slows the proliferation of some cancer cell lines. It is also suggested that melatonin used as an adjuvant benefits the effectiveness and tolerance of chemotherapy. The mechanisms of this are not fully understood, but melatonin receptors might be one of the most important elements. Two distinct types of membrane-bound melatonin receptors have been identified in humans: MT1 (Mel1a and MT2 (Mel1b receptors. These subtypes are 60�0homologous at the amino-acid level. MT1 receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors. Through the α subunit of G protein, melatonin receptors stimulate an adenylate cyclase and decrease the level of cAMP. This has a significant influence on cell proliferation and has been confirmed in many tests on different cell lines, such as S-19, B-16 murine melanoma cells, and breast cancer cells. It seems that expression of the MT1 melatonin receptors benefits the efficacy of melatonin treatment. Melatonin and its receptors may provide a promising way to establish new alternative therapeutic approaches in human cancer prevention.

  19. The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soares, P.; Alshamali, F.; Pereira, J. B.; Fernandes, V.; Silva, N. M.; Afonso, C.; Costa, M. D.; Musilová, E.; Macaulay, V.; Richards, M. B.; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2012), s. 915-927 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA * complete genomes * haplogroup L3 * out of Africa * modern human expansions Sub ject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 10.353, year: 2012

  20. MT71x: Multi-Temperature Library Based on ENDF/B-VII.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lee, Mary Beth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-16

    The Nuclear Data Team has released a multitemperature transport library, MT71x, based upon ENDF/B-VII.1 with a few modifications as well as additional evaluations for a total of 427 isotope tables. The library was processed using NJOY2012.39 into 23 temperatures. MT71x consists of two sub-libraries; MT71xMG for multigroup energy representation data and MT71xCE for continuous energy representation data. These sub-libraries are suitable for deterministic transport and Monte Carlo transport applications, respectively. The SZAs used are the same for the two sub-libraries; that is, the same SZA can be used for both libraries. This makes comparisons between the two libraries and between deterministic and Monte Carlo codes straightforward. Both the multigroup energy and continuous energy libraries were verified and validated with our checking codes checkmg and checkace (multigroup and continuous energy, respectively) Then an expanded suite of tests was used for additional verification and, finally, verified using an extensive suite of critical benchmark models. We feel that this library is suitable for all calculations and is particularly useful for calculations sensitive to temperature effects.

  1. Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashan, Daniela; Fehr, Thorsten; Kreiter, Andreas K; Herrmann, Manfred

    2014-07-11

    Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion.In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance.

  2. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun [Beijing Children' s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Xuna [Philips Healthcare, Beijing (China); Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R{sup 2} = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  3. mtDNA sequence diversity of Hazara ethnic group from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Fatima; Peng, Min-Sheng; Adan, Atif; Bi, Rui; Yasmin, Memona; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2017-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of Hazaras from Pakistan, so as to generate mtDNA reference database for forensic casework in Pakistan and to analyze phylogenetic relationship of this particular ethnic group with geographically proximal populations. Complete mtDNA control region (nt 16024-576) sequences were generated through Sanger Sequencing for 319 Hazara individuals from Quetta, Baluchistan. The population sample set showed a total of 189 distinct haplotypes, belonging mainly to West Eurasian (51.72%), East & Southeast Asian (29.78%) and South Asian (18.50%) haplogroups. Compared with other populations from Pakistan, the Hazara population had a relatively high haplotype diversity (0.9945) and a lower random match probability (0.0085). The dataset has been incorporated into EMPOP database under accession number EMP00680. The data herein comprises the largest, and likely most thoroughly examined, control region mtDNA dataset from Hazaras of Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  5. El Chichon and 'mystery cloud' aerosols between 30 and 55 km Global observations from the SME visible spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Visible limb radiances measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) are used to obtain volume scattering ratios for aerosol loading in the 30-55 km altitude range of the stratosphere. Global maps of these ratios are presented for the period January 1982 to August 1984. Significant aerosol scattering from the 'mystery cloud' and El Chichon aerosol layers are found above 30 km. A timescale of approximately 2 months between the appearance of the aerosol at 30.5 km and at 37.5 km is consistent with vertical transport of aerosol or vapor by eddy diffusion above 30 km. An anticorrelation exists between aerosol scattering and stratospheric temperatures. Periods of lower stratospheric temperatures may account for the formation of aerosol between 40 and 55 km altitude.

  6. 76 FR 28418 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 33C; Sony Corporation of America, Mt. Pleasant, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...-Trade Subzone 33C; Sony Corporation of America, Mt. Pleasant, PA Pursuant to the authority granted in... Industrial Development Corporation of Southwestern Pennsylvania, (grantee of FTZ 33) authorizing the establishment of Foreign-Trade Subzone 33C at the Sony Corporation of America plant in Mt. Pleasant...

  7. Mechanisms of mtDNA segregation and mitochondrial signalling in cells with the pathogenic A3243G mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir Tafrechi, Roshan Sakineh

    2008-01-01

    Using newly developed single cell A3243G mutation load assays a novel mechanism of mtDNA segregation was identified in which the multi-copy mtDNA nucleoid takes a central position. Furthermore, likely due to low level changes in gene expression, no genes or gene sets could be identified with gene

  8. Abnormal Skeletal Growth in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Associated with Abnormal Quantitative Expression of Melatonin Receptor, MT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Moreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The defect of the melatonin signaling pathway has been proposed to be one of the key etiopathogenic factors in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. A previous report showed that melatonin receptor, MT2, was undetectable in some AIS girls. The present study aimed to investigate whether the abnormal MT2 expression in AIS is quantitative or qualitative. Cultured osteoblasts were obtained from 41 AIS girls and nine normal controls. Semi-quantification of protein expression by Western blot and mRNA expression by TaqMan real-time PCR for both MT1 and MT2 were performed. Anthropometric parameters were also compared and correlated with the protein expression and mRNA expression of the receptors. The results showed significantly lower protein and mRNA expression of MT2 in AIS girls compared with that in normal controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.019, respectively. No differences were found in the expression of MT1. When dichotomizing the AIS girls according to their MT2 expression, the group with low expression was found to have a significantly longer arm span (p = 0.036. The results of this study showed for the first time a quantitative change of MT2 in AIS that was also correlated with abnormal arm span as part of abnormal systemic skeletal growth.

  9. Messenger RNA for membrane-type 2 matrix metalloproteinase, MT2-MMP, is expressed in human placenta of first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, S F; Hastrup, N; Larsen, J F; Lund, L R; Pyke, C

    2000-01-01

    An intimately regulated cell surface activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is believed to be of critical importance for the control of trophoblast invasion. A histological investigation of the expression and localization of three different MMPs, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (MT1-MMP, MT2-MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2/gelatinase A) was performed by in situ hybridization on consecutive sections from human placentae of first trimester pregnancies. Cytokeratin immunostaining identified trophoblast cells. Both normal and tubal implantation sites were studied. We observed a high degree of coexpression of MT2-MMP, MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs in single extravillous cytotrophoblasts that had invaded the endometrium and tubal wall. Furthermore, mRNAs for all three genes were also seen in cytotrophoblasts of cell islands. In contrast to this coexpression pattern, MT2-MMP expression was absent from cell columns and decidual cells, in which signals for MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNAs were seen. The present data on the cellular expression of MT2-MMP mRNA in placenta extend our knowledge of the proteolytic events that take place during early pregnancy. The data suggest that MT2-MMP, capable of activating MMP-2 in vitro, is involved in the invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblast, possibly related to the physiological activation of MMP-2. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. Global gene expression profiles of MT knockout and wild-type mice in the condition of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yi; Guo, Jun; Dong, Yansheng; Zhong, Weijian; Xiao, Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Lishi; Peng, Shuangqing

    2011-01-15

    Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies has indicated that MT exerts protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity; however the underlying precise mechanisms still remain an enigma. Therefore, the present study was designed using MT knockout mice in concert with genomic approaches to explore the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms in terms of the genetic network changes. MT-I/II null (MT⁻/⁻) mice and corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+) were administrated with a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or equal volume of saline. Animals were sacrificed on the 4th day after DOX administration and samples were collected for further analyses. Global gene expression profiles of cardiac mRNA from two genotype mice revealed that 381 characteristically MT-responsive genes were identified between MT+/+ mice and MT⁻/⁻ mice in response to DOX, including fos, ucp3, car3, atf3, map3k6, etc. Functional analysis implied MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, etc. might be involved to mediate the protection of DOX cardiomyopathy by MT. Results from the present study not only validated the previously reported possible mechanisms of MT protection against DOX toxicity, but also provided new clues into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stutterheim’s enigma: The mystery of his mapping of the Majapahit kraton at Trowulan in 1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Carey

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For over a century archaeologists have been trying to unravel the mystery of the location of the fourteenth-century kraton (palace of the rulers of the Majapahit kingdom which held power in Java from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century. It has been long known that the royal city and its palace was located at Trowulan about 50 kilometres southwest of Surabaya, the present-day capital of East Java. Today, unfortunately, all that remains of its former glory are isolated piles of broken bricks and an archaeologically mutilated landscape littered with craters dug by colonial-era asset strippers and treasure hunters. Knowledge of its exact position seemed to have vanished. In 1365 AD, however, the Javanese author Prapañca, had described the Majapahit capital and its royal palace in an extant Old Javanese text, called the N?garakr?t?gama or De?awarn?ana. Based upon this description, several scholars published reconstructions of the lay-out of the kraton of Majapahit, but none of them have been able to offer an identification of its exact location. In 1941, however, the then Head of the Netherlands Indies Archaeological Service (Oudheidkundige Dienst, W.F. Stutterheim, made a detailed reconstruction of the kraton of Majapahit, which the present authors are convinced correctly identified its precise location. The mystery is that Stutterheim himself did not reveal that location. This article sheds new light on the accuracy of Stutterheim’s reconstruction and his seemingly intentional obfuscation of the site identifications in Prapañca’s monumental work.

  12. Emergency contraception supply in Australian pharmacies after the introduction of ulipristal acetate: a mystery shopping mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack Charles; Schneider, Carl Richard; Moles, Rebekah Jane

    2018-05-09

    To explore the supply of emergency contraception (EC) from Australian community pharmacies after the introduction of ulipristal acetate (UPA) and to explore pharmacists' knowledge, decision-making, attitudes and beliefs surrounding supplying EC. A mixed-methods approach of mystery shopping with structured interview was employed. From August to November 2017, 20 pharmacy students mystery-shopped 10 community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia, requesting "the morning after pill." Each pharmacy was visited five times with varying scenarios. Structured interviews were conducted immediately postvisit. Visit data were analyzed descriptively and comparatively. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and categorically analyzed. Of 50 planned visits, 43 were analyzed. EC was supplied in 38 requests by pharmacists (54% male). Levonorgestrel (LNG) was more frequently supplied than UPA (74% vs. 26%). UPA was only supplied when intercourse occurred >72 h prior. Directions for use were provided in 35 supplies. No difference in questioning or counseling was found based on sex of requester. Female pharmacists provided more counseling points (MED=4 [IQR=4-5] vs. MED=3 [IQR=0-4]; p<.01). Two pharmacists asked all guideline questions, and no pharmacist provided all guideline counseling points. Interviews elicited supply guidelines, regulatory and clinical knowledge, financial considerations, privacy and stock availability as factors influencing EC supply. EC was supplied in accordance with local legislation in all instances, with the majority supplied within the licensed timeframe for each EC formulation. LNG was supplied more frequently than UPA. UPA was only supplied in the 72-120-h timeframe. Clinical and regulatory knowledge, availability and cost to consumer were identified as factors influencing supply. This study found that despite the introduction of ulipristal acetate to the Australian market, it is not frequently supplied. Interviews identified the need for

  13. High-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken from MT-COI and ATP-6 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan

    2016-09-01

    The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.

  14. Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis l,d-Transpeptidase LdtMt1 by Carbapenems and Cephalosporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Gutmann, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Dubost, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptidoglycan is atypical since it contains a majority of 3→3 cross-links synthesized by l,d-transpeptidases that replace 4→3 cross-links formed by the d,d-transpeptidase activity of classical penicillin-binding proteins. Carbapenems inactivate these l,d-transpeptidases, and meropenem combined with clavulanic acid is bactericidal against extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. Here, we used mass spectrometry and stopped-flow fluorimetry to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of inactivation of the prototypic M. tuberculosis l,d-transpeptidase LdtMt1 by carbapenems (meropenem, doripenem, imipenem, and ertapenem) and cephalosporins (cefotaxime, cephalothin, and ceftriaxone). Inactivation proceeded through noncovalent drug binding and acylation of the catalytic Cys of LdtMt1, which was eventually followed by hydrolysis of the resulting acylenzyme. Meropenem rapidly inhibited LdtMt1, with a binding rate constant of 0.08 μM−1 min−1. The enzyme was unable to recover from this initial binding step since the dissociation rate constant of the noncovalent complex was low (carbapenem side chains affected both the binding and acylation steps, ertapenem being the most efficient LdtMt1 inactivator. Cephalosporins also formed covalent adducts with LdtMt1, although the acylation reaction was 7- to 1,000-fold slower and led to elimination of one of the drug side chains. Comparison of kinetic constants for drug binding, acylation, and acylenzyme hydrolysis indicates that carbapenems and cephems can both be tailored to optimize peptidoglycan synthesis inhibition in M. tuberculosis. PMID:22615283

  15. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hoffmann, K.-P.; Albright, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color). PMID:22170961

  16. Pivotal role of hMT+ in long-range disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion signals, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher signal changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that long-range interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  17. Association of AS3MT polymorphisms and the risk of premalignant arsenic skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Drobna, Zuzana; Hernandez-Castellanos, Erika; Sanchez-Pena, Luz C.; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Styblo, Miroslav; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring inorganic arsenic (iAs), primarily from contaminated drinking water, is considered one of the top environmental health threats worldwide. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the key enzyme in the biotransformation pathway of iAs. AS3MT catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to trivalent arsenicals, resulting in the production of methylated (MAs) and dimethylated arsenicals (DMAs). MAs is a susceptibility factor for iAs-induced toxicity. In this study, we evaluated the association of the polymorphism in AS3MT gene with iAs metabolism and with the presence of arsenic (As) premalignant skin lesions. This is a case-control study of 71 cases with skin lesions and 51 controls without skin lesions recruited from a iAs endemic area in Mexico. We measured urinary As metabolites, differentiating the trivalent and pentavalent arsenical species, using the hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, the study subjects were genotyped to analyze three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), A-477G, T14458C (nonsynonymus SNP; Met287Thr), and T35587C, in the AS3MT gene. We compared the frequencies of the AS3MT alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in individuals with and without skin lesions. Marginal differences in the frequencies of the Met287Thr genotype were identified between individuals with and without premalignant skin lesions (p = 0.055): individuals carrying the C (TC+CC) allele (Thr) were at risk [odds ratio = 4.28; 95% confidence interval (1.0-18.5)]. Also, individuals with C allele of Met287Thr displayed greater percentage of MAs in urine and decrease in the percentage of DMAs. These findings indicate that Met287Thr influences the susceptibility to premalignant As skin lesions and might be at increased risk for other adverse health effects of iAs exposure.

  18. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower

  19. Non-destructive investigations at the Dionisiac Frieze in the Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Luigia; Erkul, Ercan; Jepsen, Kalle; Meier, Thomas; Vanacore, Stefano; Stefani, Grete

    2014-05-01

    The Villa of Mysteries with its Dionisiac Frieze is one of the well-known buildings of ancient Pompeii. It has been excavated in the early 20th century. Since then many initiatives have been taken for its preservation. Currently, the Frieze is investigated in detail and tests have been made to clean the wall paintings. Non-destructive investigations as infrared thermography (IR), Ground penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic measurements have been performed in order to test if these methods are well suited to reveal the walls' and paintings' structure and to identify the detachments or cracks. IR, GPR and ultrasonic measurements have different penetration capabilities and resolution in depths. So, using these three methods simultaneously can improve the knowledge of the investigated structures at several depths from millimetres and centimetres to metres. It has been tested if detachments of the paintings, cracks, or alterations of the paintings can be detected by passive and active IR measurements. 6 passive and 3 active measurements have been conducted on the Dionisiac Frieze. Lateral temperature differences present at the Frieze are mapped by passive measurements. Here, we show that temperature differences up to about 0.3°C are present and detectable. These small changes in temperature may be related to detachments, cracks, or wet areas. By active IR measurements the paintings are artificially heated by about 1°C and the cooling to normal temperature is observed and analyzed. Lateral differences in the heating and cooling behavior are related to variability in the heat absorption properties and in thermal conductivity. It is shown that detachments as well as restorative treatments are associated with changes in the thermal behavior. In order to image the construction and the condition of the investigated walls, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was measured with a 2 GHz antenna. Each profile was 1.2 m long, the spacing cross-line was 3 cm and in-line 1 mm. The

  20. Radio Telescopes Extend Astronomy's Best "Yardstick," Provide Vital Tool for Unraveling Dark Energy Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Radio astronomers have directly measured the distance to a faraway galaxy, providing a valuable "yardstick" for calibrating large astronomical distances and demonstrating a vital method that could help determine the elusive nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that pervades the Universe. Galaxy UGC 3789 Visible-light image of UGC 3789 CREDIT: STScI "We measured a direct, geometric distance to the galaxy, independent of the complications and assumptions inherent in other techniques. The measurement highlights a valuable method that can be used to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe, which is essential in our quest to find the nature of Dark Energy," said James Braatz, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), who presented the work to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, California. Braatz and his colleagues used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany to determine that a galaxy dubbed UGC 3789 is 160 million light-years from Earth. To do this, they precisely measured both the linear and angular size of a disk of material orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. Water molecules in the disk act as masers to amplify, or strengthen, radio waves the way lasers amplify light waves. The observation is a key element of a major effort to measure the expansion rate of the Universe, known as the Hubble Constant, with greatly improved precision. That effort, cosmologists say, is the best way to narrow down possible explanations for the nature of Dark Energy. "The new measurement is important because it demonstrates a one-step, geometric technique for measuring distances to galaxies far enough to infer the expansion rate of the Universe," said Braatz. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The VLBA Very Long Baseline Array CREDIT: NRAO