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Sample records for mystery zone mt

  1. Application of remote sensing analysis and MT method for identification geothermal prospect zone in Mt. Endut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, A. M.; Permadi, A. N.; Wildan, D.; Sobirin, R.; Supriyanto

    2017-07-01

    Mount Endut is located at Banten Province, 40 km southward Rangkasbitung City, with geographic UTM position between 9261000-9274000 N and 639000-652000 E. Preliminary survey at Mt. Endut was geological and geochemical survey in 2006, resistivity survey and MT survey in 2007 with 27 measurement point. All survey conducted by Pusat Sumber Daya Geologi (PSDG). According to result of premilinary survey, Mt. Endut is dominated by quartenary volcanic rock produced by Mt. Endut, which breakthrough tertiary sediment layer. NE to SW normal fault produced surface manifestation, namely Cikawah (CKW) hot spring and Handeleum (HDL) hot spring. According to SiO2 and NaK geothermometer, subsurface temperature of Mt Endut is ranging from 162 to 180 °C. Apparent resistivity maps show that thermal manifestation areas coincide with pronounced high anomaly due to resistive intrusion bodies contrast to conductive sedimentary basements. In order to delineate permeability zone, fracture fault density (FFD) analysis from remote sensing image is carry out. FFD analysis from lansdat 7 image shows the area on westward flank of Mt. Endut have high fracture fault density (162-276 m/km2), higher than it's surrounding area and can be assume that area is weak zone and have high permeability. That's structure density anomaly coincide with low resistivity from Magnetotelluric data. Resistivity structure from Magnetotelluric data shows western flank have low permeability layer (14-27 Ohmm) with average thickness 250 m. Below this layer there is layer with higher resistivity (37-100 Ohmm) with ±1000 m depth and interpreted as shallow reservoir. Massive resistif intrusive bodies act controlled the surface manifestation, and act as boundary and bounded the geothermal system in western part of Mt. Endut.

  2. Modeling surface and ground water mixing in the hyporheic zone using MODFLOW and MT3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, Laura K.; Siegel, Donald I.

    2006-11-01

    We used a three-dimensional MODFLOW model, paired with MT3D, to simulate hyporheic zones around debris dams and meanders along a semi-arid stream. MT3D simulates both advective transport and sink/source mixing of solutes, in contrast to particle tracking (e.g. MODPATH), which only considers advection. We delineated the hydrochemically active hyporheic zone based on a new definition, specifically as near-stream subsurface zones receiving a minimum of 10% surface water within a 10-day travel time. Modeling results indicate that movement of surface water into the hyporheic zone is predominantly an advective process. We show that debris dams are a key driver of surface water into the subsurface along the experimental reach, causing the largest flux rates of water across the streambed and creating hyporheic zones with up to twice the cross-sectional area of other hyporheic zones. Hyporheic exchange was also found in highly sinuous segments of the experimental reach, but flux rates are lower and the cross-sectional areas of these zones are generally smaller. Our modeling approach simulated surface and ground water mixing in the hyporheic zone, and thus provides numerical approximations that are more comparable to field-based observations of surface-groundwater exchange than standard particle-tracking simulations.

  3. MT Alcudia: a magnetotelluric profile across the south-eastern part of the Central Iberian Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pous, J.; Monteiro Santos, F.; Galindo, J.; Ibarra, P.; Plancha, J.; Gonçalves, R.; Almeida, E.; Pedrera, A.; Ruiz-Constan, A.; Anahnah, F.

    2009-04-01

    The western part of the Iberian Peninsula (Iberian Massif) is the best exposed fragment of the Variscan orogen in Europe. Its southern half was generated by an oblique collision between three continental terranes belonging to the margins of Laurassia (Avalonia) - the South Portuguese Zone- and Godwana - the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) and the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ). The boundaries between them are considered to be sutures. A 210 km long magnetotelluric profile across the eastern part of the Central Iberian Zone is presented. The profile crosses the boundary between the Ossa Morena and Central Iberian zones and spans up to the Tajo basin, crossing the Sierra de Alcudia and the Toledo Mountains. The main structures investigated are: the Los Pedroches batholit, the Alcudia anticline - Domo Extremeño, the Almadén syncline, the fold structures located to the north and the Toledo fault. We present the results of this profile, which consists of 33 MT sites, with the five components of the electromagnetic field and period ranging from 1000 Hz to 1000 s. In each MT site a TEM sounding was carried out in order to characterize the shallow electrical resistivity and to control the galvanic distortion (static shift). The results of two-dimensional inversion reveal a high conductivity zone with the transition OMZ/CIZ. Apart from the sallow structure, the most striking feature is a high conductive layer at middle to lower crust in the whole CIZ, confirming the prolongation of the same layer detected in the OMZ in previous studies.

  4. Demographic history of speciation in a Senecio altitudinal hybrid zone on Mt. Etna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Dmitry A; Osborne, Owen G; Papadopulos, Alexander S T

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically form as a result of species coming into secondary contact, but can also be established in situ as an ecotonal hybrid zone, a situation which has been reported far less frequently. An altitudinal hybrid zone on Mount Etna between two ragwort species (the low elevation Senecio chrysanthemifolius and high elevation S. aethnensis) could potentially represent either of these possibilities. However, a scenario of secondary contact vs. speciation with gene flow has not been explicitly tested. Here, we test these alternatives and demonstrate that the data do not support secondary contact. Furthermore, we report that the previous analyses of speciation history of these species were based on admixed populations, which has led to inflated estimates of ongoing, interspecific gene flow. Our new analyses, based on 'pure' S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius populations, reveal gene exchange of less than one effective migrant per generation, a level low enough to allow the species to accumulate neutral, genomewide differences. Overall, our results are consistent with a scenario of speciation with gene flow and a divergence time which coincides with the rise of Mt. Etna to altitudes above 2000 m (~150 KY). Further work to quantify the role of adaptation to contrasting environments of high and low altitudes will be needed to support the scenario of recent ecological speciation in this system.

  5. Mystery Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…

  6. Mystery Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…

  7. People Attitude Toward Promotion of Agroforestry Practices in Buffer Zone Area of Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Buyinza Mukadasi; Nabalegwa Wambede

    2007-01-01

    Agroforestry is a historical practice in Uganda where people raised trees, crops and animals together traditionally on the same unit of farmland. This study was conducted to assess the attitude of people regarding the contribution of agroforestry practices in socio-economic development in the buffer zone area of Mutushet and Kortek, Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda. Primary data were collected through formal household interviews with the use of a structured questionnaire administered to fi...

  8. Mysterious Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkcombe, Josie; Ellyn, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Introduce students to humankind's mysterious beginnings with a captivating sense of mystery. Low lighting and simple percussion music will add to the mood. Allow students time to leave behind the sunshine of this modern era and crawl through the narrow tunnel of their imaginations into an immense, dark, underground cave. This is, in fact, was what…

  9. Diagnosis of time of increased probability of volcanic earthquakes at Mt. Vesuvius zone

    CERN Document Server

    Rotwain, I; Kuznetsov, I V; Panza, G F; Peresan, A

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of intermediate-term earthquake prediction at Mt. Vesuvius by means of the algorithm CN is explored. CN was originally designed to identify the Times of Increased Probability (TIPs) for the occurrence of strong tectonic earthquakes, with magnitude M >= M sub 0 , within a region a priori delimited. Here the algorithm CN is applied, for the first time, to the analysis of volcanic seismicity. The earthquakes recorded at Mt. Vesuvius, during the period from February 1972 to October 2002, are considered and the magnitude threshold M sub 0 , selecting the events to be predicted, is varied within the range: 3.0 - 3.3. Satisfactory prediction results are obtained, by retrospective analysis, when a time scaling is introduced. In particular, when the length of the time windows is reduced by a factor 2.5 - 3, with respect to the standard version of CN algorithm, more than 90% of the events with M >= M sub 0 occur within the TIP intervals, with TIPs occupying about 30% of the total time considered. The co...

  10. Growth of Fagus in transition zones of forest and soil on the western slope of Mt. Chokai, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2012-04-01

    A wide transition zone for forest structure is expected to distribute on the gentle slope of western side of Mt. Chokai ,Yamagata prefecture, northern Japan (N39° 05'57", E140°02'55"). The annual mean temperature and total precipitation at summit (2,059 m asl.) are 0.5° C and 3,285mm, respectively. The parent materials of the soils are weathered Andesite associated with non-tephric loess deposits transported from continental China. Representative sites were selected in forests of Quercus mongolica and Fagus crenata to examine characteristics of transition zones of vegetation and soil in the western slope of Mt. Chokai with concern on the growth of Fagus in transition zones. Surveys on vegetation profile and projection diagram of canopy for each site (10-10m plots) were carried out in 7 sites selected along altitudinal sequence on the western slope of Mt. Chokai; Ch1-7: 550-1,100m asl.. Growth rate of Fagus was estimated by the measurement of tree rings from increment core samples. Timber volume of Fagus at each point was calculated based on diameter of breast height; DBH as an indicator of tree biomass. Soil profiles were observed at the above 7 sites and soil samples were collected from each horizon. As for soil analyses, soil pH (H2O, KCl, NaF) values were measured by the glass electrode method in the suspension mixture of soil with a 2.5 times volume of H2O or 1N KCl and 50 times volume of 4% NaF. Pyrophosphate, acid oxalate and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (Alp, Alo, Ald), Fe (Feo, Fed) and Si (Sio, Sid) were measured by ICP-AES. The content of exchangeable Al (AlEX) was obtained by titration of extract with 1N KCl. Sclerotia formed by species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, were collected for grains of diameter larger than 0.5mm from wet samples. Sclerotia content was obtained by weight (mg g-1 soil). Due to intensive base leaching under extremely high precipitation and the mineralogical properties, Ah and Ae horizons of all profiles had low soil

  11. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  12. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  13. The Mt John University Observatory Search For Earth-mass Planets In The Habitable Zone Of Alpha Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Endl, M; Hearnshaw, J; Barnes, S I; Wittenmyer, R A; Ramm, D; Kilmartin, P; Gunn, F; Brogt, E

    2014-01-01

    The "holy grail" in planet hunting is the detection of an Earth-analog: a planet with similar mass as the Earth and an orbit inside the habitable zone. If we can find such an Earth-analog around one of the stars in the immediate solar neighborhood, we could potentially even study it in such great detail to address the question of its potential habitability. Several groups have focused their planet detection efforts on the nearest stars. Our team is currently performing an intensive observing campaign on the alpha Centauri system using the Hercules spectrograph at the 1-m McLellan telescope at Mt John University Observatory (MJUO) in New Zealand. The goal of our project is to obtain such a large number of radial velocity measurements with sufficiently high temporal sampling to become sensitive to signals of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zones of the two stars in this binary system. Over the past years, we have collected more than 45,000 spectra for both stars combined. These data are currently processed ...

  14. Resistivity Structure of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) from Multiple Magnetotelluric (MT) Profiles and Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Azeez, K. K.; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Patro, Prasanta K.; Harinarayana, T.; Sastry, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) is a major tectonic feature extending across the Indian subcontinent. It was formed in the Paleoproterozoic when the Bastar Craton and the Bundelkhand Craton were sutured together. This region is recognized in the geological record as a persistent zone of weakness with many tectonothermal events occurring over geologic time. The weakness of this region may have caused the late Cretaceous/early Tertiary Deccan volcanism to have been localized in the CITZ. The zone is still tectonically active, as evidenced by sustained levels of seismic activity. This paper presents the first systematic investigation of the resistivity structure of the CITZ using multiple magnetotelluric (MT) transects. Two-dimensional (2D) resistivity models were generated for five north-south profiles that cross the CITZ and encompass an area of ~60,000 km2. The models were based on the joint inversion of transverse electric (TE), transverse magnetic (TM) and tipper (Hz) data. All the profiles showed a low resistive (10-80 Ωm) middle to lower crust beneath the CITZ with a crustal conductance of 300-800 S. The presence of an interconnected fluid phase and/or hydrous/metallic minerals appears to be the most likely explanation for the elevated conductivity that is observed beneath the CITZ. The presence of fluids is significant because it may indicate the cause of persistent weakness at crustal depths. A northward dip of both the crustal conductive layer and coincident seismic reflections favor a northward polarity of the subduction process associated with the formation of the CITZ.

  15. People Attitude Toward Promotion of Agroforestry Practices in Buffer Zone Area of Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyinza Mukadasi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is a historical practice in Uganda where people raised trees, crops and animals together traditionally on the same unit of farmland. This study was conducted to assess the attitude of people regarding the contribution of agroforestry practices in socio-economic development in the buffer zone area of Mutushet and Kortek, Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda. Primary data were collected through formal household interviews with the use of a structured questionnaire administered to five percent households selected randomly in the Village Environmental Committees (VECs. In addition, key informant interviews and informal group discussions were also held. Altogether 146 households were interviewed. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results show that the attitude of people towards contribution of agroforestry practices is independent of VECs, ethnic group, settlement period, and family size and depends on occupation, literacy level, distance from National Park boundary, damage caused by wild animals, land holding size and number of livestock holding. The important policy recommendation drawn from these findings is that intensive extension and motivation programs should be launched in those areas where the majority of people have unfavourable attitude towards agroforestry practices.

  16. Hydrologic and geochemical dynamics of vadose zone recharge in a mantled karst aquifer: Results of monitoring drip waters in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Alexander, E. Calvin; Jameson, Roy A.; Alexander, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Caves provide direct access to flows through the vadose zone that recharge karst aquifers. Although many recent studies have documented the highly dynamic processes associated with vadose zone flows in karst settings, few have been conducted in mantled karst settings, such as that of southeastern Minnesota. Here we present some results of a long-term program of cave drip monitoring conducted within Mystery Cave, Minnesota. In this study, two perennial ceiling drip sites were monitored between 1997 and 2001. The sites were located about 90 m (300 ft) apart along the same cave passage approximately 18 m (60 ft) below the surface; 7 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft) of loess and 12 m (40 ft) of flat-lying carbonate bedrock strata overlie the cave. Records of drip rate, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were obtained at 15 minute intervals, and supplemented with periodic sampling for major ion chemistry and water stable isotopes. Patterns in flow and geochemistry emerged at each of the two drip sites that were repeated year after year. Although one site responded relatively quickly (within 2-7 hours) to surface recharge events while the other responded more slowly (within 2-5 days), thresholds of antecedent moisture needed to be overcome in order to produce a discharge response at both sites. The greatest amount of flow was observed at both sites during the spring snowmelt period. Rainfall events less than 10 mm (0.4 in) during the summer months generally did not produce a drip discharge response, yet rapid drip responses were observed following intense storm events after periods of prolonged rainfall. The chemical data from both sites indicate that reservoirs of vadose zone water with distinct chemical signatures mixed during recharge events, and drip chemistry returned to a baseline composition during low flow periods. A reservoir with elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations impacts the slow-response drip site with each recharge event, but does not similarly

  17. Mystery and Horror: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Billie R.; Troilo, Vivian

    This quinmester course guide focuses upon a course that explores various kinds of mysteries, including the detective story, the Gothic mystery, and stories of the supernatural. Discussion of specific criteria for evaluating the mystery story is emphasized. By capitalizing on the wide appeal of the mystery, it is hoped that students who seldom read…

  18. 76 FR 9320 - Foreign-Trade Zone 274-Butte-Silver Bow, MT; Application for Manufacturing Authority REC Silicon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Authority REC Silicon (Polysilicon and Silane Gas) Butte, MT An application has been submitted to the..., requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of REC Silicon, located in Butte, Montana. The application was... regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400). It was formally filed on February 11, 2011. The REC...

  19. A synthesis and review of geomorphic surfaces of the boundary zone Mt. Taylor to Lucero uplift area, West-Central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, S.G. [NEOTEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor volcanic field and Lucero uplift of west-central New Mexico occur in a transitional-boundary zone between the tectonically active Basin-and Range province (Rio Grande rift) and the less tectonically active Colorado plateau. The general geomorphology and Cenozoic erosional history has been discussed primarily in terms of a qualitative, descriptive context and without the knowledge of lithospheric processes. The first discussion of geomorphic surfaces suggested that the erosional surface underlying the Mt. Taylor volcanic rocks is correlative with the Ortiz surface of the Rio Grande rift. In 1978 a study supported this hypothesis with K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks within each physiographic province. The correlation of this surface was a first step In the regional analysis of the boundary zone; however, little work has been done to verify this correlation with numerical age dates and quantitatively reconstruct the surface for neotectonic purposes. Those geomorphic surfaces inset below and younger than the ``Ortiz`` surface have been studied. This report provides a summary of this data as well as unpublished data and a conceptual framework for future studies related to the LANL ISR project.

  20. Was ist Mystery?

    OpenAIRE

    Gläßer, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Die vorliegende Seminararbeit zeigt anhand einer breit gefächerten Analyse von Mystery die Vielfältigkeit des Mystery-Begriffes und -Genres auf, besonders im Hinblick auf die Parallelen und Unterschiede zu seinem englischen Ursprung. Es erfolgt eine detaillierte etymologisch-lexikografische Betrachtung. In dieser wird auf die verschiedenen Bedeutungsfacetten von Mystery eingegangen sowie eine Anglizismus-/Pseudoanglizismus-Debatte geführt. Ausgangspunkt bildet der ursprün...

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the endangered takin in the confluent zone of the Qinling and Minshan Mountains using mtDNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Li, Yanhong; Li, Dayong; Williams, Peter; Hu, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is an Endangered ungulate. We analyzed the variation within mtDNA control region sequences of takin populations in the Qinling Mountains, the Minshan Mountains and the confluence of these two mountain ranges. We did not find any shared haplotypes among the populations. We observed apparent variation in the control region length among the three populations, and independent population expansions in the late of Pleistocene, which suggests these populations may have independent evolutionary histories. We found only one haplotype, and the lowest measures of genetic diversity (h = 0; π = 0) in the population from the confluent zone, which suggests populations in the confluent zone may have grown from small founder populations and gene flow with other populations has ceased. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, we concluded that the takin population in the confluent zone was in the same clade as the Tangjiahe population, which suggests that these takin populations are Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana).

  2. Migration and interaction in a contact zone: mtDNA variation among Bantu-speakers in Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Barbieri

    Full Text Available Bantu speech communities expanded over large parts of sub-Saharan Africa within the last 4000-5000 years, reaching different parts of southern Africa 1200-2000 years ago. The Bantu languages subdivide in several major branches, with languages belonging to the Eastern and Western Bantu branches spreading over large parts of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. There is still debate whether this linguistic divide is correlated with a genetic distinction between Eastern and Western Bantu speakers. During their expansion, Bantu speakers would have come into contact with diverse local populations, such as the Khoisan hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of southern Africa, with whom they may have intermarried. In this study, we analyze complete mtDNA genome sequences from over 900 Bantu-speaking individuals from Angola, Zambia, Namibia, and Botswana to investigate the demographic processes at play during the last stages of the Bantu expansion. Our results show that most of these Bantu-speaking populations are genetically very homogenous, with no genetic division between speakers of Eastern and Western Bantu languages. Most of the mtDNA diversity in our dataset is due to different degrees of admixture with autochthonous populations. Only the pastoralist Himba and Herero stand out due to high frequencies of particular L3f and L3d lineages; the latter are also found in the neighboring Damara, who speak a Khoisan language and were foragers and small-stock herders. In contrast, the close cultural and linguistic relatives of the Herero and Himba, the Kuvale, are genetically similar to other Bantu-speakers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated by resampling tests, the genetic divergence of Herero, Himba, and Kuvale is compatible with a common shared ancestry with high levels of drift, while the similarity of the Herero, Himba, and Damara probably reflects admixture, as also suggested by linguistic analyses.

  3. Migration and interaction in a contact zone: mtDNA variation among Bantu-speakers in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Vicente, Mário; Oliveira, Sandra; Bostoen, Koen; Rocha, Jorge; Stoneking, Mark; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Bantu speech communities expanded over large parts of sub-Saharan Africa within the last 4000-5000 years, reaching different parts of southern Africa 1200-2000 years ago. The Bantu languages subdivide in several major branches, with languages belonging to the Eastern and Western Bantu branches spreading over large parts of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa. There is still debate whether this linguistic divide is correlated with a genetic distinction between Eastern and Western Bantu speakers. During their expansion, Bantu speakers would have come into contact with diverse local populations, such as the Khoisan hunter-gatherers and pastoralists of southern Africa, with whom they may have intermarried. In this study, we analyze complete mtDNA genome sequences from over 900 Bantu-speaking individuals from Angola, Zambia, Namibia, and Botswana to investigate the demographic processes at play during the last stages of the Bantu expansion. Our results show that most of these Bantu-speaking populations are genetically very homogenous, with no genetic division between speakers of Eastern and Western Bantu languages. Most of the mtDNA diversity in our dataset is due to different degrees of admixture with autochthonous populations. Only the pastoralist Himba and Herero stand out due to high frequencies of particular L3f and L3d lineages; the latter are also found in the neighboring Damara, who speak a Khoisan language and were foragers and small-stock herders. In contrast, the close cultural and linguistic relatives of the Herero and Himba, the Kuvale, are genetically similar to other Bantu-speakers. Nevertheless, as demonstrated by resampling tests, the genetic divergence of Herero, Himba, and Kuvale is compatible with a common shared ancestry with high levels of drift, while the similarity of the Herero, Himba, and Damara probably reflects admixture, as also suggested by linguistic analyses.

  4. Entropy and environmental mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Arthur E

    2007-06-01

    Two studies are reported regarding the effects of entropy, lighting, and occlusion on impressions of mystery in physical environments. The theoretical context of this study was the "informational theory" of environmental preference, which, among other claims, holds that mystery can be measured by the extent to which people perceive a promise of more information if they move deeper into an environment. Entropy, in the context of this article, is visual diversity as measured using information theory. Mystery was measured by a semantic differential scale. The definition of mystery was left up to each individual participant. Entropy of occluded objects was used to obtain an objective, experimentally manipulatable and operational definition of "promise of more information." Exp. 1 had 12 stimuli and 15 participants. Exp. 2 had 12 stimuli and 16 participants. Entropy of occluded objects ranged from 0 to 6 bits. Entropy of occluded objects was used to measure the promise that there would be more information if one moved deeper into an environment. Overall, amount of light had the strongest effect on responses of mystery (r = -.63, darker was more mysterious), followed by occlusion (r = .26, occluding objects made a scene seem more mysterious), and by the promise of more information if one moved about in the scene (r = .13), the more entropy in occluded objects, the greater the impression of mystery). The theoretical contribution of this work is that a relationship between subjective impressions of mystery and an objective measure of "promise of more information" was found.

  5. The Mystery Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2008-01-01

    All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses…

  6. De mystery shopper bespioneerd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, Sander; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2006-01-01

    Steeds meer ondernemingen maken gebruik van mystery shopping om de kwaliteit van de eigen dienstverlening te bepalen. Maar wat is eigenlijk de waarde van deze methode? Zijn mystery shoppers wel in staat afgewogen en gedetailleerde te oordelen? De Universiteit Twente heeft deze steeds populairdere me

  7. The Mystery Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2008-01-01

    All teachers and media specialists are looking for the "hook" that will engage their students and make them want to learn--and according to the author, mystery stories are a perfect way to create that hook. Here, she presents a unit on mysteries, intended for collaboration between media specialists and language arts teachers. The unit uses…

  8. The Mystery of Stonehenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan S.Johnston; 夏琨

    2005-01-01

    People from all over the world come to the Salisbury Plain2 in England at the summer solstice3-the time when the day is the longest and the night is the shortest. They come because Stonehenge is a mysterious monument4 from prehistory5. No one knows who put up the great megaliths6 of Stonehenge. No one knows why Stonehenge was important to those people. Yet the mystery of Stonehenge interests many people.

  9. Building Collections. Mystery and Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Mystery and Adventure travel the same path. Within every mystery is an adventure, be it a struggle for survival, network of suspense, or matching of wits. A mystery is a secret jigsaw puzzle. Its popularity lies in the author's skillful engagement of the reader in putting together the pieces by using such elements as clues, foreshadowing, and…

  10. China's Mysterious Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Green

    2009-01-01

    @@ Car sales in China are booming,but gasoline consumption seems to be stuck in the slow lane.Chart 1 illustrates this apparent mystery(it shows sales of petroleum and oil products,since.we do not have data on retail gasoline sales).

  11. Mysterious Jiana Stone Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuBingshu

    2004-01-01

    In Tibetan-inhabited areas, visitors can often find piles of stone carved with six-word mystic teaching of truth or Buddhist sutras at lakesides, mountain entrances, monasteries, roadsides or burial sites. Those ubiquitous stone piles, painted in white, red or blue, are the mysterious and world famous Manipile, or called “holy pile”.

  12. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  13. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization...

  14. Passport to Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wilda

    2010-01-01

    Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

  15. Passport to Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wilda

    2010-01-01

    Mystery and suspense fiction remain as popular as ever for as many reasons as there are readers. "Those who wish for escape or respite read cozies, historicals, or romance crossovers," says Poisoned Pen editor Barbara Peters. "Those who want to stay on the cutting edge of society read thrillers [from authors] like Daniel Silva, Alex Berenson, or…

  16. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  17. Durations Of Magma Storage And Mixing: The Record In Compositional Zoning Of Minerals And Its Connection To Surface Monitoring Data From Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, M.; Chakraborty, S.; Costa, F.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the magmatic processes that occur within the plumbing systems of active volcanoes and the duration of magma storage beneath these are some of the main objectives of igneous petrology and volcanology. Over the past years, detailed petrological (e.g. thermobarometry) and geophysical (seismicity, ground deformation, microgravity etc.) work has considerably advanced our knowledge of the depth, size and shape of magma storage systems beneath volcanoes. Continuous monitoring provides time series data from the surface, but the actual processes involved in the dynamic evolution of the storage systems and their connection to the surface observations remain elusive. Temperature-dependent partitioning of elements, on which element exchange thermometry is based, combined with our knowledge of diffusion rates of the relevant elements allow us to model the continuous record stored in the compositional variations of minerals to access the dynamic evolution of plumbing systems. We have modeled the compositional zoning in olivine crystals from the eruptive products at Mt. Etna to study the time gap between intrusion of magma and their mixing at depth, and their eventual eruption at the surface. We consider data from the 1991/1993 eruptions, the two major flank eruptions in 2001 and 2002 and the very recent eruptive episodes in 2006 and 2007. We find that the time scales of magma mixing in this highly active and continually erupting system range between a few days and 2 years and that this interval has not varied significantly over the past two decades. Eruptive products fed by different plumbing systems (e.g. some 2001 and 2002 eruptions) are characterized by different time scales. This may provide a means of identifying different plumbing systems in historic eruptive products. Our inferences on timing of magma intrusion and movement at depth for the 1991/1993 period correlate well with real time monitoring data from the surface (seismicity, ground deformation, gas

  18. The mystery of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Trusted, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    As Russell said The word matter is, in philosophy, the name of a problem and our scientific investigations and philosophical inquiries show that it becomes more and more complex and interesting as we study it. This book seeks to show how ideas of matter have developed from Democritus to Heisenberg. The problem of matter may well be insoluble but at least we can begin to appreciate the mystery of what is so often taken to be the mundane 'stuff' of common sense.

  19. Higgs : the mystery of mass Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    What causes particles to have mass? Why do the masses of fundamental particles differ so enormously -the top quark is more than 200,000 times heavier than the electron? A solution has been developed by several physicists and takes the name of Peter Higgs. According to this, the whole of space is permeated by a field, similar in some ways to the electromagnetic field. As particles move through space they travel through this field. The interaction between the particles and the field is similar to the action of a viscous force felt by a particle moving through a thick liquid. The stronger the interaction of the particles with the Higgs field, the more mass they appear to have. We know from quantum theory that fields have particles associated with them, so if the Higgs idea is right, there must be a Higgs particle. Finding it is the key to verifying whether our best hypothesis for the origin of mass is indeed correct.

  20. Mystery in Sepedi detective stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Mojalefa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to illustrate the importance of the concept “mystery” in the classification of Sepedi detective stories. Mystery is therefore first defined, and then some rules governing how mystery is created and sustained in a narrative are reviewed. Examples are given of how the writers of Sepedi detective stories mislead their readers in order to create mystery. Mystery is then examined according to five of its constituent elements, namely the real character of the detective, the name of the criminal, the identity of the victim, the evidence that reveals the mystery in the end, and the investigation that reveals the mystery. Each category is explored by citing relevant examples from Sepedi detective stories.

  1. M Dwarf Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Irwin, Jonathan; Dieterich, Sergio; Finch, Charlie T.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; Winters, Jennifer; RECONS Team

    2017-01-01

    During RECONS' 17-year (so far) astrometry/photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m, we have observed thousands of the ubiquitous red dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. During this reconnaissance, a few mysterious characters have emerged ...The Case of the Mercurial Stars: One M dwarf has been fading steadily for more than a decade, at last measure 6% fainter than when it was first observed. Another has grown brighter by 7% over 15 years. Are these brightness changes part of extremely long stellar cycles, or something else entirely?The Case of Identical Stellar Twins that Aren't: Two M dwarfs seem at first to be identical siblings traveling together through the Galaxy. They have virtually identical spectra at optical wavelengths and identical colors throughout the VRIJHK bands. Long-term astrometry indicates that they are, indeed, at the same distance via parallax measurements, and their proper motions match precisely. Yet, one of the twins is FOUR times brighter than the other. Followup work has revealed that the brighter component is a very close spectroscopic double, but no other stars are seen. So, the mystery may be half solved, but why do the close stars remain twice as bright as their widely-separated twin?The Case of the Great Kaboom!: After more than 1000 nights of observing on the reliable 0.9m telescope, with generally routine frames reading out upon the screen, one stellar system comprised of five red dwarfs flared in stunning fashion. Of the two distinct sources, the fainter one (an unresolved double) surpassed the brightness of the brighter one (an unresolved triple), increasing by more than three full magnitudes in the V filter. Which component actually flared? Is this magnificent outburst an unusual event, or in fact typical for this system and other M dwarfs?At the AAS meeting, we hope to probe the cognoscenti who study the Sun's smaller cousins to solve these intriguing M Dwarf Mysteries.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants

  2. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    well-being is key for happy and stress free life. Mind has enormous energy. Everyone has access to tre­mendous mental energies; what matters is being aware of this and to work on concentrating your energy into creative work. To achieve mental strength, C5 is a su­preme powerful exercise for the mind......Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  3. The mystery of reincarnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S M

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of "reincarnation" which literally means "to take on the flesh again." As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was "East" and "West." The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence.

  4. The mystery of reincarnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Nanjegowda, Raveesh Bevinahalli; Purushothama, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the mysteries puzzling human mind since the origin of mankind is the concept of “reincarnation” which literally means “to take on the flesh again.” As the civilizations evolved, beliefs got discriminated and disseminated into various religions. The major division manifested was “East” and “West.” The eastern religions being more philosophical and less analytical, have accepted reincarnation. However, the different eastern religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism have differed in their faith on rebirth. Further, the Islam as well as the most dominant religion of the world, Christianity, having its origin in the west, have largely denied reincarnation, though some sub-sects still show interest in it. Also many mystic and esoteric schools like theosophical society have their unique description on rebirth. This article describes reincarnation as perceived by various religions and new religious movements as well as some research evidence. PMID:23858250

  5. Reading, Writing, and Mystery Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardell, Sylvia M.

    1983-01-01

    Assesses students' responses to and production of story conventions in detective or mystery stories and explores students' responses to literature as potential connections between comprehending and composing text. (MM)

  6. Deep Earth Mysteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A geological research project around the Wenchuan earthquake site yields valuable results The fault zone responsible for the 8.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Wenchuan County,Sichuan Province on May

  7. The mystery of consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    1997-01-01

    It has long been one of the most fundamental problems of philosophy, and it is now, John Searle writes, "the most important problem in the biological sciences": What is consciousness? Is my inner awareness of myself something separate from my body? In what began as a series of essays in The New York Review of Books, John Searle evaluates the positions on consciousness of such well-known scientists and philosophers as Francis Crick, Gerald Edelman, Roger Penrose, Daniel Dennett, David Chalmers, and Israel Rosenfield. He challenges claims that the mind works like a computer, and that brain functions can be reproduced by computer programs. With a sharp eye for confusion and contradiction, he points out which avenues of current research are most likely to come up with a biological examination of how conscious states are caused by the brain. Only when we understand how the brain works will we solve the mystery of consciousness, and only then will we begin to understand issues ranging from artificial intelligence...

  8. Complex fragmentation and silicification structures in fault zones: quartz mineralization and repeated fragmentation along the Fountain Range Fault (Mt. Isa Inlier, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Lina; Blenkinsop, Tom; Heuss, Soraya; Ord, Alison; Kruhl, Jörn H.

    2015-04-01

    In large-scale fault zones fracture networks are commonly generated by high volumes of pressurized fluids, followed by quartz precipitation. In this way large amounts of quartz are formed as microcrystalline masses and as complex vein systems, with partly highly different textures, as a result of different formation processes. Based on field and microstructural data and the quantification of vein patterns, the spatial and temporal connection between fragmentation, quartz crystallization and fluid and material flow along the Fountain Range Fault at Fountain Springs was investigated. Dextral strike-slip led to up to 25 km horizontal displacement along the fault. Due to various fragmentation and quartz formation processes, a ca. 100 m high, 80 - 100 m wide and km-long quartz ridge with numerous vein systems and variable microfabrics was formed. Locally, lenses of highly altered metamorphic wall-rocks occur in the quartz zone. Where exposed, the contact to wall rocks is sharp. Millimetre- to decimetre-thick quartz veins penetrate the wall-rocks only within metre distance from the contact. Several clearly distinguishable fine-grained reddish, brownish to dark and pigment-rich quartz masses form up to 50 m wide and up to several 100 m long steep lenses that build the major part of the silicified fault zone. A chronology can be established. Some of these lenses are oriented slightly oblique to the general trend of the quartz zone, in agreement with the supposed dextral strike slip along the fault. Numerous generations of typically µm-cm thick quartz veins transect the microcrystalline quartz masses and, locally, form anisotropic networks. In the quartz masses, angular fragments often composed of quartz with, again, internal fragmentation structures, indicate earlier fracturing and silicification events. Within the veins, quartz forms geodes, locally filled with fine-grained reddish quartz and palisade structures with feathery textures and fluid-inclusion zoning

  9. Managing the mystery collection: from creation to consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Genito, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A mystery collections management description in major American university libraries. Influence of mystery collections on writers' inspiration. Relationship between booksellers / librarians / authors / readers in mystery books.

  10. Preservation of Permian allanite within an Alpine eclogite facies shear zone at Mt Mucrone, Italy: Mechanical and chemical behaviour of allanite during mylonitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenki-Tok, Benedicte; Oliot, E.; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the mechanical and cehmical behavior of allanite during shear zone formation under high-pressure metamorphism. Understanding physico-chemical processes related to the retention or resetting of Pb isotopes in allanite during geological processes is essential for robust......, and they were thus chemically and mechanically shielded during Alpine mylonitization. In undeformed samples (8a and 8b), two populations of epidote group minerals were found. Allanite forms either coronas around Permianmonazite or individual grains with patchy zoning. Both types yield Permian ages (208Pb/232Th...... age: 291±5 Ma). On the other hand, grains of REE-rich clinozoisite of Cretaceous age are found in undeformed rocks. These grains appear as small fragments with embayed surface outlines and minute satellites or rims around Permian allanite. These (re)crystallized grains are Sr-rich and show mosaic...

  11. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...

  12. Logic Mysteries. Grades 3-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Jane

    The logical mysteries in this book are designed to develop critical thinking and deductive reasoning skills, motivate children to read carefully, and develop memory skills. The mystery solutions are explained at the end of the book. The first nine mysteries are intended for third grade students to work on with their teacher or parents. The second…

  13. Mystery callers: het zijn net mensen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammeraal, Annette N.; Hoekstra, Janita; van Hijum, Arjen; Leeflang, Pieter; Bronner, Fred; Dekker, Paul; de Leeuw, Edith; Paas, Leo; de Ruyter, Ko; Smidts, Ale; Wieringa, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Mystery calling is a specific form of mystery guest-research. With this type of marketing research one can evaluate telephone contacts with customers. In this contribution we evaluate how mystery callers judge the service quality of a customer contact centre of a service organisation. We compare the

  14. Mystery callers: het zijn net mensen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammeraal, Annette N.; Hoekstra, Janita; van Hijum, Arjen; Leeflang, Pieter; Bronner, Fred; Dekker, Paul; de Leeuw, Edith; Paas, Leo; de Ruyter, Ko; Smidts, Ale; Wieringa, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Mystery calling is a specific form of mystery guest-research. With this type of marketing research one can evaluate telephone contacts with customers. In this contribution we evaluate how mystery callers judge the service quality of a customer contact centre of a service organisation. We compare the

  15. Theorem of Mystery: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Real, Francis

    2008-01-01

    While the author was searching the web, he came across an article by Michael Keyton of IMSA (Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy) called "Theorems of mystery". The phrase is Keyton's own, and he defines such a theorem as "a result that has considerable structure with minimal hypotheses." The simplest of his 10 examples is one that many…

  16. Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

  17. How To Write a Mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinhart, Larry

    Drawing on examples from the best and most popular works in mystery writing--from Raymond Chandler and Mickey Spillane to Scott Turow and Thomas Harris--this book introduces the fledgling writer to his or her most indispensable "partners in crime": character, plot, and procedure; the secrets to creating heroes and villains; the art of…

  18. Tales of Mystery and Imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poe, Edgar Allan

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most exciting and haunting stories ever written are to be found in this collection of Poe's work, ranging from the poetic to the mysterious to the darkly comic, and all with the quality of the grotesque that defined Poe's writing. 'The Tell-Tale Heart' and 'The Fall of the House of

  19. Creative Ventures: Mysteries and UFO's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1987 provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the historical, the scientific, the mysterious, the…

  20. Tales of Mystery and Imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poe, Edgar Allan

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most exciting and haunting stories ever written are to be found in this collection of Poe's work, ranging from the poetic to the mysterious to the darkly comic, and all with the quality of the grotesque that defined Poe's writing. 'The Tell-Tale Heart' and 'The Fall of the House of Usher

  1. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  2. Designs of Darkness: Why Not a Course in Mystery Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. Russel

    1993-01-01

    Describes why college English teachers should consider offering a literature elective in mystery fiction. Argues that mysteries are growing in popularity and in academic respectability. Provides methods and activities for use in courses designed around mystery literature. (HB)

  3. Teaching physics mysteries versus pseudoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttner, Fred

    2007-04-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics (and the encounter with consciousness) is contentious and has been called ``physics' skeleton in the closet.'' The reluctance of physicists to share this enigma with students and with the larger public has left the discussion open to the wild claims of purveyors of pseudoscience. The movie ``What the Bleep'' is a recent example. Bringing the enigma into the open is the best way to combat pseudoscience and share the true, deep mysteries that physics has uncovered. I will discuss my own experience and that of colleagues with ways of presenting this material to physics majors, non-majors, and the public.

  4. Welcome to Mt. Huangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The newly developed tourist city of Huangshan possesses the extremely beautiful natural scenery of Mt. Huangshan, as well as the splendid culture of its 2,300-year history, providing marvelous enjoyment for both domestic and foreign tourists. The scenery in Mt. Huangshan is lovely all year round, with its "four unique views"—the rocks, the pine trees, the sea of clouds and the hot springs. In the areas around Mt. Huangshan, people can see folk customs as well as ancient architecture in the form of bridges, residences, arch towers, streets and ancestral halls.

  5. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

  6. Teaching U.S. History as Mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, David; Zevin, Jack

    One way to engage students in grades 7 through 12 is to encourage them to investigate history as a puzzle, a set of dilemmas, a collection of conflicting viewpoints in short, a mysterious and provocative subject. In this book a collection of cases have been assembled both real mysteries and purposely constructed classroom problems with techniques…

  7. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  8. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  9. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  10. Solving the mystery of Iapetus

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of Iapetus by G. D. Cassini, in 1672, it has been known that the leading hemisphere of this Saturnian satellite is one order of magnitude darker than the trailing hemisphere. Since the Cassini spacecraft entered the Saturnian orbit, several high-quality images of the dark hemisphere of Iapetus have been obtained, in particular during the Dec 31 2004 flyby of this satellite. These images revealed the presence of a large equatorial ridge in the dark hemisphere of Iapetus. We propose that this ridge and the dark coating of the hemisphere on which it lies are intimately interlinked and are the result of a collision with the edge of a primordial Saturnian ring, ultimately caused by a sudden change in the orbit of Iapetus. The model naturally explains all of the the unique features of this satellite; it is probably the solution to one of the oldest mysteries in solar system astronomy.

  11. MT data modelling at Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico, geothermal zone. Modelado de datos magnetotelurgicos en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma Guzman, Sergio Hugo (Departamento de Exploracion, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico))

    1998-01-15

    An interpretation of MT soundings at the Las Tres Virgenes, Baja California Sur, Mexico, geothermal project, was conducted, to actualize the geoelectric model of the reservoir, with the support provided by new drilling data. MT data were collected during the Comision Federal de Electricidad 1992 and 1994 campaigns. The use of apparent resistivity maps, tipper and apparent profiles lets us to identify TE and TM modes, as well as the lateral variations related to structural geology changes. These results were used to prepare sections based on Bostick inversion of TE mode of each sounding. Results were correlated to lithology reported by recent exploratory drilling. MT comprehensive studies let us delineate the reservoir limits, and the main geologic structures related to geothermal fluids production.

  12. The Pleasures of Reading Mystery Fiction and Mystery Readers’ Book Selection Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu-Yen Wu; Chi-Shiou Lin

    2016-01-01

    The mystery fiction is a popular pleasure reading genre in Taiwan. This article describes a grounded theory study that explored the reading pleasures and selection behavior of mystery fans. Based on the in-depth interview with 21 engaged mystery readers, this study identified seven types of reading pleasures, i.e., a sense of achievement from puzzle solving, feelings of amazement from the revelation of truths, satisfaction of curiosity for the unknown, a sense of compensation from seeing just...

  13. Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Disorders Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... a teenager that took away her sense of smell. Photo courtesy of Malone University Imagine, if you ...

  14. Medical Mysteries: "Thankful They Found a Cause"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Medical Mysteries “Thankful They Found a Cause” Past Issues / ... conditions that have long eluded diagnosis, and advance medical knowledge about rare and common diseases. Accepted into ...

  15. Biology Today. Ah, Sweet Mysteries of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Mysteries of the biological past that paleontologists are trying to solve are discussed. Topics include first seeds, fossils and computers, packrat middens, charcoal clues, soft parts, Burgess shale, halkieriids, toe count, whales with feet, long necks, and changing functions. (KR)

  16. The Central Mystery of Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Partha

    2009-01-01

    A critical re-examination of the double-slit experiment and its variants is presented to clarify the nature of what Feynmann called the ``central mystery'' and the ``only mystery'' of quantum mechanics, leading to an interpretation of complementarity in which a `wave {\\em and} particle' description rather than a `wave {\\em or} particle' description is valid for the {\\em same} experimental set up, with the wave culminating in the particle sequentially in time. This interpretation is different ...

  17. The mystery of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marc D; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward.

  18. The mystery of language evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marc D.; Yang, Charles; Berwick, Robert C.; Tattersall, Ian; Ryan, Michael J.; Watumull, Jeffrey; Chomsky, Noam; Lewontin, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, (1) studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; (2) the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; (3) our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; (4) all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language's origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward. PMID:24847300

  19. The mystery of language evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D Hauser

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of language requires evidence regarding origins and processes that led to change. In the last 40 years, there has been an explosion of research on this problem as well as a sense that considerable progress has been made. We argue instead that the richness of ideas is accompanied by a poverty of evidence, with essentially no explanation of how and why our linguistic computations and representations evolved. We show that, to date, 1 studies of nonhuman animals provide virtually no relevant parallels to human linguistic communication, and none to the underlying biological capacity; 2 the fossil and archaeological evidence does not inform our understanding of the computations and representations of our earliest ancestors, leaving details of origins and selective pressure unresolved; 3 our understanding of the genetics of language is so impoverished that there is little hope of connecting genes to linguistic processes any time soon; 4 all modeling attempts have made unfounded assumptions, and have provided no empirical tests, thus leaving any insights into language’s origins unverifiable. Based on the current state of evidence, we submit that the most fundamental questions about the origins and evolution of our linguistic capacity remain as mysterious as ever, with considerable uncertainty about the discovery of either relevant or conclusive evidence that can adjudicate among the many open hypotheses. We conclude by presenting some suggestions about possible paths forward.

  20. Mystery photos: challenge No. 3!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen, Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    In recent weeks, we have been asking Bulletin readers to help us identify mystery pictures from the CERN archive.   Over 23,000 pictures have now been uploaded, more than 16,000 of which have been matched to some 1,100 albums. We have checked over 500 of these albums to make sure they contain the right pictures, improving and translating their titles as we go along. But we still need help in getting picture-level information.  The public response has kept up at a steady pace and we are still receiving many useful e-mails every day from all around the world (if you have sent us an e-mail, we promise to answer it as soon as possible). Especially helpful contributions have come from the many CERN retirees contacting us to share their memories, especially in terms of recognising individual people. But we are also very glad of the contributions from people who have experience working in similar technical fields who recognise pieces of equipment, or even people with no connection to CERN at a...

  1. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  2. Differential Effects of the Mystery Motivator Intervention Using Student-Selected and Mystery Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux, Natalie M.; Gresham, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Class-wide interventions such as the Mystery Motivator are an easy and effective way to remediate problematic behavior in the classroom and increase the level of classroom management. Multiple procedural variations to the Mystery Motivator intervention have successfully changed student behavior, but a systematic comparison of two procedural…

  3. GEOBOTANICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO JAPANESE VOLCANOES: MT. FUJI AND MT. ASAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. POLI MARCHESE

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Fuji and Mt. Asama are two of the highest Japanese volcanoes. reaching 3776 and 2542 m a.s.l. respectively. The former is dormant but the latter is an active volcano. This study is based on our own unpublished data, which inc1udes a total of 152 phytosociological relevés. and on previous studies of the vegetation of both volcanoes. On the basis of the data collected al different times a geobotanical comparison between the two vo1canoes as regards their high moutain regions was made. In this region the following belts may be distinguished on both volcanoes: - a subalpinc belt, characterized on its upper zone by shrub communities with some Ericaceae, larch (Larix leptolepis, Salix reinii and other dwarf woody species; - an alpine belt, where there is scattered herbaceous vegetation, mostly dominated by Polygonum weyrichii v. alpinum. In this belt on Mt. Fuji, the following communities may be distinguished: the Arabis serrata-Polygonum alpinum community on the lowest altitudes; the Stellaria nipponica-Polygonum alpinum community and at higher altitudes a very sparse poor community characterized by Cassiope lycopodioides. In the highest region up to the summit there are moss and lichen communities only. On the southeastern side on the 1707 ash and scoria there is pioneer vegetation dominated by Cirsium purpuratum and Campanula hondoensis. On Mt. Asama the high-mountain vegetation is dominated by the Polygonum alpinum community. It occupies a narrower belt. Here the volcanic activity doesn't allow the vegetation to reach the top. In the highest region of the volcano there is a bare sterile zone. The differences found in the altitudinal distribution of vegetation on the two volcanoes can partIy be attributed to the fact that one (Mt. Fuji is dormant, while the other (Mt. Asama is active. On active volcanoes the ecological factors related to the volcanic activity have a strong influence on the vegetation and its distribution.

  4. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  5. Unravelling the Franklin Mystery, Second Edition with David C. Woodman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This is a forthcoming book review of David C. Woodman's second edition of his book "Unravelling the Franklin Mystery."......This is a forthcoming book review of David C. Woodman's second edition of his book "Unravelling the Franklin Mystery."...

  6. The meaning of Darwin's 'abominable mystery'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's "abominable mystery" has come to symbolize just about all aspects of the origin and early evolution of flowering plants. Yet, there has never been an analysis of precisely what Darwin thought was so abominably mysterious. Here I explicate Darwin's thoughts and frustrations with the fossil record of flowering plants as revealed in correspondence with Joseph Hooker, Gaston de Saporta, and Oswald Heer between 1875 and 1881. I also examine the essay by John Ball that prompted Darwin to write his "abominable mystery" letter to Hooker in July of 1879. Contrary to what is generally believed, Darwin's abominable mystery has little if anything to do with the fossil prehistory of angiosperms, identification of the closest relatives of flowering plants, questions of the homologies (and character transformations) of defining features of flowering plants, or the phylogeny of flowering plants themselves. Darwin's abominable mystery and his abiding interest in the radiation of angiosperms were never driven primarily by a need to understand the literal text of the evolutionary history of flowering plants. Rather, Darwin was deeply bothered by what he perceived to be an abrupt origin and highly accelerated rate of diversification of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous. This led Darwin to create speculative arguments for a long, gradual, and undiscovered pre-Cretaceous history of flowering plants on a lost island or continent. Darwin also took refuge in the possibility that a rapid diversification of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous might, if real, have a biological explanation involving coevolutionary interactions between pollinating insects and angiosperms. Nevertheless, although generations of plant biologists have seized upon Darwin's abominable mystery as a metaphor for their struggle to understand angiosperm history, the evidence strongly suggests that the abominable mystery is not about angiosperms per se. On the contrary, Darwin's abominable mystery

  7. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y.; Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Interface Symbiotic Membrane Formation in Root Nodules of Medicago truncatula: the Role of Synaptotagmins MtSyt1, MtSyt2 and MtSyt3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Aleksandr; Kulikova, Olga; Bisseling, Ton; Fedorova, Elena E.

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) are maintained and conditioned to fix atmospheric nitrogen in infected cells of legume root nodules. Rhizobia are confined to the asymmetrical protrusions of plasma membrane (PM): infection threads (IT), cell wall-free unwalled droplets and symbiosomes. These compartments rapidly increase in surface and volume due to the microsymbiont expansion, and remarkably, the membrane resources of the host cells are targeted to interface membrane quite precisely. We hypothesized that the change in the membrane tension around the expanding microsymbionts creates a vector for membrane traffic toward the symbiotic interface. To test this hypothesis, we selected calcium sensors from the group of synaptotagmins: MtSyt1, Medicago truncatula homolog of AtSYT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana known to be involved in membrane repair, and two other homologs expressed in root nodules: MtSyt2 and MtSyt3. Here we show that MtSyt1, MtSyt2, and MtSyt3 are expressed in the expanding cells of the meristem, zone of infection and proximal cell layers of zone of nitrogen fixation (MtSyt1, MtSyt3). All three GFP-tagged proteins delineate the interface membrane of IT and unwalled droplets and create a subcompartments of PM surrounding these structures. The localization of MtSyt1 by EM immunogold labeling has shown the signal on symbiosome membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To specify the role of synaptotagmins in interface membrane formation, we compared the localization of MtSyt1, MtSyt3 and exocyst subunit EXO70i, involved in the tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles and operational in tip growth. The localization of EXO70i in root nodules and arbusculated roots was strictly associated with the tips of IT and the tips of arbuscular fine branches, but the distribution of synaptotagmins on membrane subcompartments was broader and includes lateral parts of IT, the membrane of unwalled droplets as well as the symbiosomes. The double silencing of synaptotagmins

  9. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annual list of adult mystery titles (in print as of September 1999) to recommend to teenagers, as well as recently published mystery readers advisory sources or nonfiction mystery-related titles that school and public libraries may want for their collections. (AEF)

  10. Hercule Poirot v. Reality: Murder Mysteries as an Epistemic Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Deborah M.

    If murder mysteries are to carry an epistemic force, it is important to examine how murder mysteries represent a unique way of knowing, of coming to view the world, for their readers. This can be accomplished by looking at the text of murder mysteries and how the nature of the text influences the reality creating process; by exploring the nature…

  11. Unravel the mystery of musical dripstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hit with a rubber mallet, a group of 12 stalactites (popularly known as dripstones), in the Kongshan Cave, central China's Hubei Province can amazingly produce various notes and complete melodies like ancient musical bells and chime stones. A three-day investigation of CAS karstologist LIU Zaihua and colleagues in early May sheds light on the mystery,

  12. Using Classic Mystery Stories in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Stephen H.; Noronha, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    One third-year clinical clerkship in pediatrics has included Sherlock Holmes mysteries in its introductory curriculum, providing students with a model clinical problem-solving process and a list of issues on which they will need information. The nonclinical cases provide an effective and entertaining vehicle for learning clinical reasoning. (MSE)

  13. Radioactivity a history of a mysterious science

    CERN Document Server

    Malley, Marjorie C

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with an obscure discovery in 1896, radioactivity led researchers on a quest for understanding that ultimately confronted the intersection of knowledge and mystery. This book tells the story of a new science that profoundly changed physics and chemistry, as well as areas such as medicine, geology, meteorology, archaeology, industry, politics, and popular culture.

  14. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

  15. Taking the "Mystery" Out of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cite, Suleyman; Hanuscin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers have developed "tried and true" lessons that they look forward to teaching-- mystery powders is one that these authors like. Originally part of the Elementary Science Study curricula in the 1960s, there are now many different versions of this well-known activity in which students examine physical and chemical properties of…

  16. A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8…

  17. Taking the "Mystery" Out of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cite, Suleyman; Hanuscin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers have developed "tried and true" lessons that they look forward to teaching-- mystery powders is one that these authors like. Originally part of the Elementary Science Study curricula in the 1960s, there are now many different versions of this well-known activity in which students examine physical and chemical properties of…

  18. From Mystery Seed to Mangrove Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a mystery object is an easy strategy to implement and allows teachers to pre-assess students' knowledge about local natural resources. Misconceptions can be noted as teachers record initial inquiries and wonderings on charts. Using the constructivist approach, students can explore and construct their learning as they continue to use…

  19. A Coprolite Mystery: Who Dung It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Discover the secrets contained in fossilized feces. Few topics in middle school classrooms capture students' enthusiasm and interest as do coprolites. These trace fossils offer classroom opportunities for integrated life and Earth sciences study, a stranger-than-fiction history of science, and an opportunity to solve mysteries. (Contains 8…

  20. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  1. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  3. An integrated magnetotelluric study of the Mt. Etna volcanic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available he results of a magnetotelluric (MT survey performed at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy are presented and discussed. The MT interpretation is preceded by the description of the data managing strategy used for the estimate of the impedance tensor and the computation of a rotationally invariant parameter. The 1D Bostick inversion of MT soundings located in the Etnean central area highlights the existence of a wide conductive zone in the depth range 15-30 km. Resistivities of a fewW×m are estimated in the southern part of this zone, while resistivities one order of magnitude higher are estimated in the northern part. In the central sector, the MT soundings are characterized by much higher resistivity values suggesting the presence of an E-W directed resistive barrier separating the two conductive deep zones. A two-feeding system is thus hypothesized as an extension of a previous 3D model deduced from regional earthquakes and teleseisms in the depth range 15-25 km. Moreover, the comparison with previous shallow seismic tomographies from local earthquakes within the first 11 km of depth allows us to distinguish inside the upper portion of the resistive barrier a central high velocity zone. This zone can likely be ascribed to a slowly cooled dike tending to become highly fractured at its western and eastern edges. Finally, the impedivity analysis based on the comparison with previous geoelectric dipole soundings allows us to exclude the existence of a permanent magma chamber within the first 5 km of depth and to argue the existence of a shallowplumbing system consisting of a medium-to-low temperature hydrothermally altered environment.

  4. Tiny galaxies help unravel dark matter mystery

    CERN Multimedia

    O'Hanlon, Larry

    2007-01-01

    "The 70-year effort to unravel the mysteries of dark matter just got a big boost from some very puny galaxies. In the pas few years, a score of dwarf galaxies have been discovered hanging about the fringes of the Milky way. Now new measurements of the few stars int hese dwarfs reveal them to be dark mater distilleries, with upwards of 1'000 times more dark than normal matter." (3 pages)

  5. DNA analysis for mysteries buried in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Kanchan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the years DNA technology has proved to be a path breaking invention and this technological advancement in modern investigations will hopefully solve many more mysteries in the time to come. However, the developing world is lagging far behind owing to financial constraints and has resorted to relatively less reliable methods during investigations. Hopefully, developing nations too will follow suit in utilizing this technology to its potential.

  6. Naming the Mystery: An Augustinian Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Fitzgerald

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, by noticing Augustine’s constant questioning, shows that he often talks about not knowing and about his need for God’s help to know more. It is therefore better to see how he identifies the mystery than to focus on his answers, because he too recognizes his limits. His intellectual prowess can be seen more clearly when he “names the mystery” than by thinking that he has solved it.

  7. The fundamental constants a mystery of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist

  8. Ettore Majorana unveiled genius and endless mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    This biography sheds new light on the life and work of physicist Ettore Majorana (including unpublished contributions), as well as on his mysterious disappearance in March 1938. Majorana is held by many, including Nobel Laureate, Enrico Fermi, to have been a genius of the rank of Galilei and Newton. In this intriguing story, the author, himself a leading expert on the work of Majorana, supplements the existing literature with new insights, anecdotes and personal accounts of contemporaries of Majorana.

  9. Solving the mystery of the human cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Henrietta C

    2010-09-01

    The mystery of the human cerebellum is this: Why did it enlarge so dramatically in the last million years of human evolution, concomitantly with the greater enlargement of the cerebral cortex? A solution to this mystery was proposed in the 20th century as a result of research by several groups of scientists who investigated the contributions of the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex. In contrast to the 19th century investigations, which were focused on the motor functions of the cerebellum, the focus of the subsequent investigations was expanded to include some mental functions because evidence was produced that the cerebellum contributes to cognition. It was proposed that the combination in the cerebellum of motor and mental capabilities enables the cerebellum to confer on humans some adaptive advantages of great value, and this ability would explain why the human cerebellum has continued to enlarge so dramatically. A valuable adaptive advantage that is included in the proposal is the possibility that the cerebellum couples the motor function of articulating speech to the mental function that selects the language to be spoken, thus helping to produce fluent human speech and language. The validity of this proposal about linguistic processing has not yet been verified. Therefore the mystery of cerebellar enlargement in humans is not yet solved and requires further research.

  10. MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors: A Therapeutic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiabei; Clough, Shannon J; Hutchinson, Anthony J; Adamah-Biassi, Ekue B; Popovska-Gorevski, Marina; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, or 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is synthesized and released by the pineal gland and locally in the retina following a circadian rhythm, with low levels during the day and elevated levels at night. Melatonin activates two high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors, termed MT1 and MT2, to exert beneficial actions in sleep and circadian abnormality, mood disorders, learning and memory, neuroprotection, drug abuse, and cancer. Progress in understanding the role of melatonin receptors in the modulation of sleep and circadian rhythms has led to the discovery of a novel class of melatonin agonists for treating insomnia, circadian rhythms, mood disorders, and cancer. This review describes the pharmacological properties of a slow-release melatonin preparation (i.e., Circadin®) and synthetic ligands (i.e., agomelatine, ramelteon, tasimelteon), with emphasis on identifying specific therapeutic effects mediated through MT1 and MT2 receptor activation. Discovery of selective ligands targeting the MT1 or the MT2 melatonin receptors may promote the development of novel and more efficacious therapeutic agents.

  11. Mystery Shopping: In-depth measurement of customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.; Wiele, Ton

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper will discuss the phenomenon Mystery Shopping in the field of customer satisfaction measurement techniques. By using the literature about Mystery Shopping definitions and restrictions of this instrument will be presented. Also, possible ways to present and use the gathered data will be shown. After the literature part of the paper some practical research will be presented. A Dutch Flexcompany introduced the instrument Mystery Shopping in addition to the already used meas...

  12. The Pleasures of Reading Mystery Fiction and Mystery Readers’ Book Selection Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yen Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The mystery fiction is a popular pleasure reading genre in Taiwan. This article describes a grounded theory study that explored the reading pleasures and selection behavior of mystery fans. Based on the in-depth interview with 21 engaged mystery readers, this study identified seven types of reading pleasures, i.e., a sense of achievement from puzzle solving, feelings of amazement from the revelation of truths, satisfaction of curiosity for the unknown, a sense of compensation from seeing justice, senses of empathy and sympathy from identifying with the story characters, and the reflection of the social issues and values raised in the stories. The charms of mystery fiction may be systematically described by following four of Hudson’s (1910 conceptualization of fiction elements: i.e. the plot, characters, time and place, and the author’s view of life prevailed in the stories. In regards to readers’ selection behavior, this study identified four selection approaches commonly used by the experienced readers to discover works that possibly meet their expectations, i.e., the subgenre-oriented, author-oriented, series-oriented, and story-oriented approaches. In addition, six factors may influence readers’ selection of works, i.e., availability of expert comments, trust and confidence in the publishers, book award information, adaptation into movies or television, quality of translation, and first impression of the physical books.

  13. Mysterious chronic urticaria caused by Blastocystis spp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyńska, Małgorzata; Chen, Wen-Chieh; Dzika, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Blastocystis, which are single-cell, intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and animals, remain mysterious, with unclear clinical and epidemiologic significance. In recent years, many researchers have suggested a possible connection between Blastocystis spp. infection and chronic urticaria. In the present article, we review the literature and discuss the possible associations between the clinical symptomatology and pathogenicity of this organism in terms of its subtypes, morphologic forms, genetic diversity, and interactions with other intestinal microbiota. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  15. On crustal movement in Mt. Qomolangma area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊勇; 王泽民; 庞尚益; 张骥; 张全德

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Qomolangma lies in the collision zone between the fringe of Eurasia plate and Indian plate. The crustal movement there is still very active so far. In the past three decades China carried out five geodetic campaigns in Mt. Qomolangma and its north vicinal area, independently or cooperatively with other countries, including triangulation, leveling, GPS positioning, atmospheric, astronomical and gravity measurements. On the basis of the observation results achieved in the campaigns the crustal movements in the area were studied and explored. A non-stationary phenomenon both in time and space of the crustal vertical movement in the area is found. There seems to be some relevance between the phenomenon of non-stationary in time and seismic episode in China. The phenomenon of non-stationary in space is possibly relevant to the no-homo- geneity of crustal medium and non-uniform absorption of terrestrial stress. The horizontal crustal movement in the area is in the direction of NEE at a speed of 6—7 cm per year, and the trend of strike slip movement is manifested evidently in the collision fringe of Indian plate and Qinghai-Xizang block.

  16. Mystery Shopping: In-depth measurement of customer satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hesselink; A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper will discuss the phenomenon Mystery Shopping in the field of customer satisfaction measurement techniques. By using the literature about Mystery Shopping definitions and restrictions of this instrument will be presented. Also, possible ways to present and use the gathered data

  17. The Mystery in Science: A Neglected Tool for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Pangratios

    2008-01-01

    Of the many valuable tools available to science education, the mystery in science is the one that is most ignored, underused, or misunderstood. whenever it is used, it is only as mere entertainment or as an attention grabber. In this article, the author discusses how the mystery in science can improve student attitudes, generate a life-long…

  18. Mystery Shopping: In-depth measurement of customer satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hesselink; A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper will discuss the phenomenon Mystery Shopping in the field of customer satisfaction measurement techniques. By using the literature about Mystery Shopping definitions and restrictions of this instrument will be presented. Also, possible ways to present and use the gathered data

  19. The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Helen R

    2008-01-01

    In the first fractions of a second after the Big Bang lingers a question at the heart of our very existence: why does the universe contain matter but almost no antimatter? The laws of physics tell us that equal amounts of matter and antimatter were produced in the early universe--but then, something odd happened. Matter won out over antimatter; had it not, the universe today would be dark and barren. But how and when did this occur? Helen Quinn and Yossi Nir guide readers into the very heart of this mystery--and along the way offer an exhilarating grand tour of cutting-edge physics. They explain both the history of antimatter and recent advances in particle physics and cosmology. And they discuss the enormous, high-precision experiments that particle physicists are undertaking to test the laws of physics at their most fundamental levels--and how their results reveal tantalizing new possibilities for solving this puzzle at the heart of the cosmos. The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter is at once a history of i...

  20. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three ...

  1. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  2. Comparison of the ELF-MT resistivity structure and the thermal structure in Takenoyu geothermal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Toru; Ehara, Sachio; Yuhara, Kozo; Asoshina, Keishi; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    1987-07-01

    Takenoyu goethermal area locates in the north-eastern part of Kumamoto Prefecture, extending at the western foot of Mt. Togai-san. Compression of specific resistance structure and thermal structure by means of ELF-MT method was made for the exploration of the geothermal areas. The results are as follows. (1) Distribution of apparent specific resistance well corresponds with the temperature distribution of the shallow zones and the distribution of the altered zone, but does not so much correspond to the temperature distribution of the deep zones. (2) ELF-MT method has only 300 m detectable depth for the low specific resistance zone with 5 ohm-cm. Its breadth into the deep zones is not known. (3) For the high specific resistance zone with 500 ohm-m, the detectable depth is as deep as 3 km. Low specific resistance layer does not exist where such a layer as above continues to the deep zone. (4) In the case when underground structure contains a low specific resistance layer in a high specific resistance layer, MT method excels in its detecting ability. It can often detect the low specific resistance layer even when the measuring frequency is wide. (10 figs, 4 refs)

  3. On the Use of Mystery Shopping to Measure Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Durugy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mystery shopping as a monitoring tool can be used for the measurement of the quality of personal sales and client service. The aim of this paper is to outline some methods and possibilities of mystery shopping conducted in respect to competence measurement. The theoretical background is supported also by an empirical survey in which 399 “shopping” acts were conducted. To measure competences we have selected 14 variables, which can be observed and evaluated in the process of mystery shopping. The objective of the study is to analyse internal structure of the related variables. To explore that, principal component (PCA and Cronbach alpha analysis were utilized.

  4. Evaluating MT systems with BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present BEER, an open source implementation of a machine translation evaluation metric. BEER is a metric trained for high correlation with human ranking by using learning-to-rank training methods. For evaluation of lexical accuracy it uses sub-word units (character n-grams while for measuring word order it uses hierarchical representations based on PETs (permutation trees. During the last WMT metrics tasks, BEER has shown high correlation with human judgments both on the sentence and the corpus levels. In this paper we will show how BEER can be used for (i full evaluation of MT output, (ii isolated evaluation of word order and (iii tuning MT systems.

  5. Medical Mysteries: "We Feel Deep Compassion for Patients..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Medical Mysteries “We feel deep compassion for patients...” Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of ... maybe even relief. As doctors, we feel deep compassion for patients who have been without hope because ...

  6. Module 2 Unit 1 Project Telling about an unexplained mystery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳辉

    2012-01-01

    To identify the main idea of each paragraph and understand the structure of the text by skimming;To get to know some brief information about Yetis by scanning;To become interested in exploring mysteries of the universe.

  7. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  8. Joan Lowery Nixon: The Grande Dame of Young Adult Mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavonetti, Linda M.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the writing of Joan Lowery Nixon, award-winning author of young adult mystery novels. Discusses telling a good story, narrative form, characterization, stereotypes, social commentary, classroom implications, and caring for an audience. (SR)

  9. Strategic Insights from Mystery Shopping in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how mystery shopping can be used to gain valuable strategic input in B2B service relationships. We account for a longitudinal case study framed as a natural experiment (duration 18 months) in a Swedish group of consultancy companies offering a wide selection of industrial...... services to large Scandinavian corporations. We account for and analyse the process of building a mystery shopping procedure to get strategic insights from engineers delivering temporary consultancy services to these clients. After a successful trial period with three mystery shoppers the experiment (a...... guideline covering the themes of map, smoke and mirror as metaphors) has been extended to comprise a larger group of engineers and may be taken up in a company-wide way. The experiment was deemed effective in developing both a procedure for mystery shopping and a new way to train the consultants....

  10. ASKAP Joins the Hunt for Mysterious Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    A new telescope, the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), has joined the search for energetic and elusive fast radio bursts. And in just a few days of looking, its already had success!Elusive TransientsThe Parkes radio telescope, which has detected all but five of the fast radio bursts published to date, has a very narrow field of view. [CSIRO]Fast radio bursts are mysterious millisecond-duration radio pulses that were first discovered around a decade ago. Since that time particularly in recent years weve made some progress toward the goal of localizing them. Were now fairly convinced that fast radio bursts come from outside of the galaxy, and yet theyre enormously bright orders of magnitude more luminous than any pulse seen from the Milky Way.Better identification of where these mysterious bursts come from would help us to determine what they are. But so far, weve discovered only around 30 such bursts, despite the fact that theyre estimated to occur at a rate of 3,000 events per day across the whole sky.Why are they so hard to find? Due to their short duration, effective detection would require instantaneous coverage of a very large fraction of the sky. The Parkes radio telescope which has detected all but five of the fast radio bursts published to date has a field of view spanning less than a square degree,significantly limiting our ability to rapidly survey for these transients.FRB 170107s band-averaged pulse (top) and dynamic spectrum (bottom). [Bannister et al. 2017]A New Array in TownA new player is now on the scene, however, and its already had huge success. ASKAP is a wide-field radio telescope made up of an array of 12-meter antennas. Using phased-array-feed technology, ASKAP is able to instantaneously observe an effective area of 160 square degrees an enormous field compared to Parkes 0.6 square degrees! This capability significantly increases our chances of being able to detect fast radio bursts.In a new study led by Keith Bannister

  11. Patterns in Seismicity at Mt St Helens and Mt Unzen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Previous work on Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico) revealed broad-scale similarities in behaviour implying the potential to develop general physical models of sub-surface processes [1]. Using volcano-seismic data from Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Unzen (Japan) this study explores parallels in long-term behaviour of seismicity at two dome-forming systems. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes. Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1.5km from the 2004-2008 vent at Mt St Helens. A total of 714 826 individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October 2004 to 28 February 2006 (average 60.2 events per hour) using a short-term/long-term average algorithm. An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the 1991-1995 eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity. Preliminary analysis of seismicity from Mt St Helens suggests cyclic behaviour of subannual timescale, similar to that described at Volcán de Colima and Soufrière Hills volcano [1]. Frequency Index and waveform correlation tools will be implemented to analyse changes in the frequency content of the seismicity and to explore their relations to different phases of activity at the volcano. A single station approach is used to gain a fine-scale view of variations in

  12. The Mysteries of the Quantum World

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    As part of the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each of the lectures will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The sixth lecture, entitled 'Einstein's objections to the quantum computer', tackles a mysterious subject, one which Einstein had numerous doubts about. The lecture will be given by Professor Alain Aspect of the Orsay Institute for Optics. In 1935 Einstein discovered a mind-boggling property of quantum mechanics: entanglement, which conflicted with his realist and localised vision of the world. This led him into a heated debate with Niels Bohr. We now know that entangled 'twin photons', even when separated by distances of dozens of kilometres, have this extraordinary proper...

  13. An investigation into the Paulding Mystery Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jeremy P.; Norkus, William; Maurer, Michael; Sims, Douglas; Middlebrook, Christopher; Roggeman, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    The Paulding Mystery Lights are a purportedly unexplained optical phenomenon, occurring nightly, deep in the woods of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The Michigan Tech Student Chapter of the SPIE initiated a project in 2008 to understand the cause of the Paulding Lights. Previous investigations by skeptics attributed the lights to headlights without explicitly identifying a source location. Our team applied a number of straightforward techniques to identify and then verify the source location of the Paulding Light. Beginning with observation through a telescope, the team moved to using tools such as detailed topographical maps and more common tools such as Google Street View to identify a candidate source location. The candidate source location was then validated by first recreating the light using a vehicle parked in that location. Additional verification was achieved by examining the correlation between the occurrence of the light and the passing of cars at the source location. A spectrometer was also used to compare the visible spectrum of the light to automotive headlamps. Our findings, presented here, indicate that the source of the Paulding light is automobile traffic on a stretch of road about 7 km from the viewing location.

  14. The Continuing Mystery of Lipid Rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Ilya; Veatch, Sarah L

    2016-12-04

    Since its initial formalization nearly 20 years ago, the concept of lipid rafts has generated a tremendous amount of attention and interest and nearly as much controversy. The controversy is perhaps surprising because the notion itself is intuitive: compartmentalization in time and space is a ubiquitous theme at all scales of biology, and therefore, the partitioning of cellular membranes into lateral subdivision should be expected. Nevertheless, the physicochemical principles responsible for compartmentalization and the molecular mechanisms by which they are functionalized remain nearly as mysterious today as they were two decades ago. Herein, we review recent literature on this topic with a specific focus on the major open questions in the field including: (1) what are the best tools to assay raft behavior in living membranes? (2) what is the function of the complex lipidome of mammalian cells with respect to membrane organization? (3) what are the mechanisms that drive raft formation and determine their properties? (4) how can rafts be modulated? (5) how is membrane compartmentalization integrated into cellular signaling? Despite decades of intensive research, this compelling field remains full of fundamental questions.

  15. Sirius B - A still mysterious white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemael, F.; Fontaine, G.

    1982-02-01

    Observations and knowledge of Sirius B, the companion star to Sirius A are reviewed, noting the solar mass and terrestrial radius of the dwarf. The system is 2.65 pc distant, with separation between the stars oscillating from 8-32 AU. Spectral observations are best obtained when the stars are at maximum distance, and redshifts which affirm the theory of relativity have been detected. Copernicus satellite observations have also revealed the emissions of UV and X rays from the dwarf. It is noted that Grecian records over 2000 yr old cite Sirius as a red star, which implies that the dwarf was then a red star since Sirius A is a main sequence star, an implication which does not correspond with the known evolution of stars. Another mystery is cited, that of the tribal records of the Sudanese Dogon, which maintains an ancient legend of Sirius A having an invisible companion called Digitaria, composed of a substance called segala, which cannot be lifted by all the humans on earth combined.

  16. The mystery of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold

    2016-09-01

    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: location, visuotopic organization, and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, M; Gattass, R; Rosa, M G; Sousa, A P

    1989-09-01

    The representation of the visual field in the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus (ST) was studied by multiunit recordings in eight Cebus apella, anesthetized with N2O and immobilized with pancuronium bromide, in repeated recording sessions. On the basis of visuotopic organization, myeloarchitecture, and receptive field size, area MT was distinguished from its neighboring areas. MT is an oval area of about 70 mm2 located mainly in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus. It contains a visuotopically organized representation of at least the binocular visual field. The representation of the vertical meridian forms the dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral borders of MT and that of the horizontal meridian runs across the posterior bank of ST. The fovea is represented at the lateralmost portion of MT, while the retinal periphery is represented medially. The representation of the central visual field is magnified relative to that of the periphery in MT. The cortical magnification factor in MT decreases with increasing eccentricity following a negative power function. Receptive field size increases with increasing eccentricity. A method to evaluate the scatter of receptive field position in multiunit recordings based on the inverse of the magnification factor is described. In MT, multiunit receptive field scatter increases with increasing eccentricity. As shown by the Heidenhain-Woelcke method, MT is coextensive with two myeloarchitectonically distinct zones: one heavily myelinated, located in the posterior bank of ST, and another, less myelinated, located at the junction of the posterior bank with the anterior bank of ST. At least three additional visual zones surround MT: DZ, MST, and FST. The areas of the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus in the diurnal New World monkey Cebus are comparable to those described for the diurnal Old World monkey, Macaca. This observation suggests that these areas are ancestral characters of the simian

  18. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  19. The Mystery of the Z-Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alexander E; Smith, Tanya A; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-08-01

    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use.

  20. Integrating Knowledge Bases and Statistics in MT

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Haines, M G; Hatzivassiloglou, V; Hovy, E; Iida, M; Luk, S K; Okumura, A; Whitney, R; Yamada, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar; Haines, Matthew; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Hovy, Eduard; Iida, Masayo; Luk, Steve K.; Okumura, Akitoshi; Whitney, Richard; Yamada, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    We summarize recent machine translation (MT) research at the Information Sciences Institute of USC, and we describe its application to the development of a Japanese-English newspaper MT system. Our work aims at scaling up grammar-based, knowledge-based MT techniques. This scale-up involves the use of statistical methods, both in acquiring effective knowledge resources and in making reasonable linguistic choices in the face of knowledge gaps.

  1. Mysterious "Monsieur Leborgne": The mystery of the famous patient in the history of neuropsychology is explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Cezary W

    2013-01-01

    As of spring 2011, 150 years have passed since the death of one of the most famous neurological patients of the nineteenth century. A Frenchman, "Monsieur Leborgne" also known by the nickname "Tan," was hospitalized due to an almost complete loss of speech. His case was presented in 1861, during a seating of the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris by a physician, Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880), who used this occasion to report that he had discovered, in the middle part of patient's left frontal lobe, the cortical speech center. This area was later named "Broca's area." Both the patient and his medical records were the subject of numerous descriptions and citations in the medical literature. The patient's full identity and social background has remained a mystery until now. This article presents biographical data concerning Leborgne and his family based on archive registers in France.

  2. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M. (eds.)

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  3. 78 FR 39435 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Magritte: The Mystery of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Exhibition; Determinations: ``Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1938'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926-1928,'' imported...

  4. Mysteries in the Theology of Dietrich Bonhoeffer. A Copenhagen Bonhoeffer Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Bonhoeffers teologi - betragtet med "hemmelighed" ("Geheimnis"/"Mystery") som samlende tema - i kritisk konfrontation med aktuelle problemstillinger.......Bonhoeffers teologi - betragtet med "hemmelighed" ("Geheimnis"/"Mystery") som samlende tema - i kritisk konfrontation med aktuelle problemstillinger....

  5. Exploring the Celiac Disease Mystery | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Celiac Disease Mystery Follow us Exploring the Celiac Disease Mystery Research looks at what’s causing the rise ... abdominal pain, rashes, and even death. Choice vs. celiac disease Dr. Murray said there are pros and cons ...

  6. Mystery Motivator: a Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz, Eva A; Coffee, Gina

    2014-06-01

    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator-an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention-as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing criterion design, and the effectiveness of the intervention was assessed for an 8-week period. The frequency of disruptive behavior in all classrooms decreased. Teacher intervention acceptability data indicated seven of eight teachers found the intervention to be acceptable. Overall, data indicated the Mystery Motivator intervention was a powerful intervention for reducing disruptive behaviors in elementary classrooms.

  7. The mystery of Morgellons disease: infection or delusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savely, Virginia R; Leitao, Mary M; Stricker, Raphael B

    2006-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described more than 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in conjunction with various dermatologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this respect, Morgellons disease resembles and may be confused with delusional parasitosis. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibacterial therapy suggest that Morgellons disease may be linked to an undefined infectious process. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease.

  8. The Siena Graben: combined interpretation of DES and MT soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The Siena Graben study area is located in Tuscany, Central Italy. The local geological structures were extensively studied in the frame of the Italian National Research Council (CNR and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC geothermal projects. Axial dipole-dipole geoelectrical soundings (DES were also performed. Recently we carried out 13 broadband magnetotelluric (MT soundings, most of which were located very close to the station sites of the mentioned DES. For six of them we made a DES-MT combined interpretation in order to put in evidence resistivity frequency dispersion effects. Indeed, four sites showed DES-MT anomalous responses, in the frequency range 1 ¸ 102 Hz, which can be properly explained as due to dispersion effects in shallow layers. Three of these anomalous sounding sites are located on the neoautochthonous clayey formation, while the fourth is located on the eastern boundary of the graben over an extensive outcrop of the «Macigno» complex. The dispersion-affected soundings are all located in the northern part of the graben, while there is no evidence of such effects in the southern part. This circumstance, together with the estimate of very low time constants of the fitting Cole-Cole dispersion model, can be tentatively explained as due to local and shallow lithological effects (clay-like membrane polarization rather than to deep geothermal effects (sulphide-like electrode polarization. Moreover, the MT soundings delineated a conductive zone in the upper crust below the resistive geoelectrical basement, located in the northern part of the graben, which appears at present difficult to interpret. Furthermore, the combined analysis of the DES and MT soundings in the same sites has allowed us to resolve one of the most intriguing ambiguities concerning the determination of the depth to the graben basement. The result is a remarkable reduction of the depth to the basement top, especially in the northern part of the

  9. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...

  10. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates

  11. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Emiko [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yana, Ikuo [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Japan Development Center, Osaka 540-8645 (Japan); Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuura, Nariaki, E-mail: Matsuura@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-03-05

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  12. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillippines - Perspective View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This perspective view looking toward the east shows the western flank of the volcano where most of these pyroclastic flows were deposited.This debris consists of ash and boulders that mix with water after heavy rains to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.The topographic data were collected by NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument on November 29, 1996. Colors are from the French SPOT satellite imaging data in both visible and infrared wavelengths collected in February 1996. Areas of vegetation appear red and areas without vegetation appear light blue. River valleys radiate out from the summit of the volcano (upper center). Since the eruption, lahars have stripped these valleys of any vegetation. The Pasig-Potrero River flows to the northeast off the summit in the upper right of the image.Scientists have been using airborne radar data collected by the AIRSAR instrument in their studies of the aftereffects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. AIRSAR collected imaging radar data over the volcano during a mission to the Pacific Rim region in late 1996 and on a follow-up mission to the area in late 2000. These data sets along with

  13. History Mystery: A Documents-Based Lesson on Women's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libresco, Andrea S.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson used with fourth and fifth graders focusing on women's rights in the 1880s in which students solve a mystery through historical research. States the lesson prepares elementary students to investigate historical questions by examining primary sources. (CMK)

  14. The Mystery of Matter, World of the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, William G.

    This booklet is one in the "World of the Atome Series" for junior high school students and their teachers. It describes the fascinating story of the search for the key to the structure of matter. These topics are reviewed: the chemical atom of the 19th century, the planetary atom, the wave atom, inside the elementary particles, and the mystery of…

  15. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  16. Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 Classroom Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina

    2014-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…

  17. Use of the Mystery Motivator for a High School Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of one interdependent group contingency intervention, the mystery motivator, as it affected three students identified as exhibiting problem behaviors, as well as the effects on nonidentified students in a ninth-grade high school biology class. An A/B/A/B single-case design was used to evaluate the effects of the…

  18. Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the…

  19. Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Left, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to…

  20. Use of the Mystery Motivator for a High School Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of one interdependent group contingency intervention, the mystery motivator, as it affected three students identified as exhibiting problem behaviors, as well as the effects on nonidentified students in a ninth-grade high school biology class. An A/B/A/B single-case design was used to evaluate the effects of the…

  1. Exploring Mystery in Fifth Grade: A Journey of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Claudia; Martinez, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    An instructional framework that included the use of a touchstone text, literature circles, and independent reading and writing created a rich context for the study of mysteries in a fifth-grade classroom. Key points include a) the complexity of the touchstone text as a key factor in shaping the instructional goals in this genre study, and b) the…

  2. Mystery Solved: One Way To Motivate Middle Schoolers To Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Deb Den

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project for middle school librarians to use to motivate students to read for pleasure. Explains activities based on the idea of a mystery at the school, and describes how clues were developed and linked to books in certain genres that students had to read. (LRW)

  3. Removing the Mystery of Entropy and Thermodynamics--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Left, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy and entropy are centerpieces of physics. Energy is typically introduced in the study of classical mechanics. Although energy in this context can be challenging, its use in thermodynamics and its connection with entropy seem to take on a special air of mystery. In this five-part series, I pinpoint ways around key areas of difficulty to…

  4. Mystery shopping på Møn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter; Smed, Karina Madsen

    2005-01-01

    betragtninger ud af, som vil blive præsenteret i løbet af efteråret 2005 sammen med de øvrige resulatater fra den store undersøgelse af turisters og lokales opfattelse af de mønske oplevelser. Men hvad er mystery shopping egentlig, hvordan kan instrumentet bruges, og kan det bruges i destinationsudvikling? Det...

  5. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  6. Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 Classroom Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina

    2014-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…

  7. Teaching the TEMI way how using mysteries supports science learning

    CERN Document Server

    Olivotto, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In this booklet, you will be introduced to an exciting new way to teach science in your classroom. The TEMI project (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated) is an EU-funded project that brings together experts in teacher training from across Europe to help you introduce enquiry-based learning successfully in the classroom and improve student engagement and skills.

  8. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audinot, Valérie; Bonnaud, Anne; Grandcolas, Line; Rodriguez, Marianne; Nagel, Nadine; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Balik, Ales; Messager, Sophie; Hazlerigg, David G; Barrett, Perry; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A

    2008-05-15

    In order to interpret the effects of melatonin ligands in rats, we need to determine their activity at the receptor subtype level in the corresponding species. Thus, the rat melatonin rMT(1) receptor was cloned using DNA fragments for exon 1 and 2 amplified from rat genomic DNA followed by screening of a rat genomic library for the full length exon sequences. The rat rMT(2) receptor subtype was cloned in a similar manner with the exception of exon 1 which was identified by screening a rat genomic library with exon 1 of the human hMT(2) receptor. The coding region of these receptors translates proteins of 353 and 364 amino acids, respectively, for rMT(1) and rMT(2). A 55% homology was observed between both rat isoforms. The entire contiguous rat MT(1) and MT(2) receptor coding sequences were cloned, stably expressed in CHO cells and characterized in binding assay using 2-[(125)I]-Iodomelatonin. The dissociation constants (K(d)) for rMT(1) and rMT(2) were 42 and 130 pM, respectively. Chemically diverse compounds previously characterized at human MT(1) and MT(2) receptors were evaluated at rMT(1) and rMT(2) receptors, for their binding affinity and functionality in [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding assay. Some, but not all, compounds shared a similar binding affinity and functionality at both rat and human corresponding subtypes. A different pharmacological profile of the MT(1) subtype has also been observed previously between human and ovine species. These in vitro results obtained with the rat melatonin receptors are thus of importance to understand the physiological roles of each subtype in animal models.

  9. Shallow to intermediate resistivity features of the Colfiorito Fault System inferred by DC and MT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade electromagnetic (EM measurements have provided new constraints on the upper-crustal structure of the major fault zones in the world, both when they act as conduit and as a barrier, due to strong sensitivity of resistivity to fluids circulation and mineralization. On the track of a high impact magnetotelluric (MT study performed across the San Andreas Fault, high resolution EM data were collected in the Colfiorito epicentral area along profiles crossing some main fault lineaments. Being the study focussed both on shallow that on intermediate resistivity distribution in the brittle upper-crust, a MT profile was integrated by several electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT. The latter were successful in locating faults even where the structures are buried by a wide covering of Quaternary deposits and in the recognition of different electrical signatures of the faults. MT resistivity model crossing Mt. Prefoglio normal fault clearly imaged the typical thrust structures of the area and a high conductive zone spatially related to the fault. Seismicity seems to be located outside such conductive area, whose behaviour suggests a fluidised and altered zone incapable of supporting significant stress internally.

  10. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  11. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  12. Microcosm: Mysteries of the Universe and of computing

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In the first week of December, two new exhibitions open in Microcosm: "Mysteries of the Universe" and "Computing@CERN". Ever wondered why the Universe is habitable? How many dimensions there are? Or indeed, where matter comes from? In Microcosm's new "Mysteries of the Universe" exhibition 20 CERN researchers reveal the question that intrigues them the most and why they find the search for answers so fascinating. The exhibition consists of 20 stories, told by the researchers themselves in one of 4 languages (English, French, German or Italian). Through their tales, the visitor can discover the essence of CERN - a curiosity to understand the mechanisms of a universe full of surprises, where many fundamental questions remain unresolved. With their diverse nationalities and experience, the participants reveal not only the variety of physics research underway at CERN, but also the experiments yet to come and indeed an element of the international collaboration so essential to the laboratory. In the words of on...

  13. The Mysterious Universe - Exploring Our World with Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, James E [University of Oregon

    2010-11-23

    The universe is dark and mysterious, more so than even Einstein imagined. While modern science has established deep understanding of ordinary matter, unidentified elements ("Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy") dominate the structure of the universe, its behavior and its destiny. What are these curious elements? We are now working on answers to these and other challenging questions posed by the universe with experiments at particle accelerators on Earth. Results of this research may revolutionize our view of nature as dramatically as the advances of Einstein and other quantum pioneers one hundred years ago. Professor Brau will explain for the general audience the mysteries, introduce facilities which explore them experimentally and discuss our current understanding of the underlying science. The presentation is at an introductory level, appropriate for anyone interested in physics and astronomy.

  14. A sense of the mysterious science and the human spirit

    CERN Document Server

    Lightman, Alan

    2006-01-01

    From the bestselling author of Einstein's Dreams comes this lyrical and insightful collection of science writing that delves into the mysteries of the scientific process and exposes its beauty and intrigue.In these brilliant essays, Lightman explores the emotional life of science, the power of imagination, the creative moment, and the alternate ways in which scientists and humanists think about the world. Along the way, he provides in-depth portraits of some of the great geniuses of our time, including Albert Einstein, Richard Feynman, Edward Teller, and astronomer Vera Rubin. Thoughtful, beautifully written, and wonderfully original, A Sense of the Mysterious confirms Alan Lightman's unique position at the crossroads of science and art.

  15. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  16. Seismic studies at the Mt. Hood Volcano, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Susan Molly; Weaver, Craig S.; Iyer, Hariharaiyer Mahadeva

    1979-01-01

    A sixteen station telemetered seismic network was established in the Mt. Hood, Oregon area to monitor local seismicity and to study crustal and upper mantle structure. The network was in operation 13 months, and recorded 10 local earthquakes, 25 regional events, and 300 teleseisms. A series of construction blasts were recorded and used to define an average upper crustal velocity of 5.4 km/s in the region. All local earthquakes occurred beneath Mt. Hood at shallow depths and roughly define a zone striking north-northwest beneath the mountain. The largest earthquake was a magnitude 3.4 event which had a strike-slip focal mechanism. The other events had magnitudes (ML) less than 2.0. P-wave travel time residuals from teleseismic events show a 0.5 second decrease in travel time from east to west across the Cascade Range. No travel time anomalies are associated directly with Mt. Hood.

  17. Mystery shopping as a quality adjunct in public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R

    1995-12-01

    Public health in Australia is undergoing unprecedented emphasis on meeting customers' needs, wants and expectations. Mystery shopping, common in the commercial world, has much to offer health organizations in their push towards quality. This paper describes this inexpensive technique and reports on its use in North West Health Service, a large rural health provider. The potential exists for its widescale adoption in health to better meet customer focus objectives.

  18. Book review: Bats: A world of science and mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book has something for everyone, from casual seekers of fascinating eye candy to professional scientists interested in the latest discoveries. Without losing sight of how mysterious bats remain despite decades of research, the authors deftly introduce readers to bats and the people who study them. The book is nice to look at, easy to understand, and interesting in many ways. These stories stick in the reader's memory long after being read—a sign of great scientific communication.

  19. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  20. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to... Billings, MT Billings Logan International Airport, MT (Lat. 45 48'28'' N., long. 108 32'34'' W.) That... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY...

  1. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  2. Three-dimensional interpretation of MT data in volcanic environments (computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Spichak

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed, first, to find components of MT-fields and their transforms, which facilitate the imaging of the internal structure of volcanoes and, second, to study the detectability of conductivity variations in a magma chamber due to alterations of other physical parameters. The resolving power of MT data with respect to the electric structure of volcanic zones is studied using software developed by the author for three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling, analysis and imaging. A set of 3D volcano models are constructed and synthetic MT data on the relief Earth's surface are analysed. It is found that impedance phases as well as in-phase and quadrature parts of the electric field type transforms enable the best imaging of the volcanic interior. The impedance determinant is, however, the most suitable for adequate interpretation of measurements carried out for the purpose of monitoring conductivity variations in a magma chamber. The way of removing the geological noise from the MT data by means of its upward analytical continuation to the artificial reference plane is discussed. Interpretation methodologies are suggested aimed at 3D imaging and monitoring volcanic interiors by MT data.

  3. Human gastroenteropancreatic expression of melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Söderquist

    Full Text Available The largest source of melatonin, according to animal studies, is the gastrointestinal (GI tract but this is not yet thoroughly characterized in humans. This study aims to map the expression of melatonin and its two receptors in human GI tract and pancreas using microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry.Gene expression data from normal intestine and pancreas and inflamed colon tissue due to ulcerative colitis were analyzed for expression of enzymes relevant for serotonin and melatonin production and their receptors. Sections from paraffin-embedded normal tissue from 42 individuals, representing the different parts of the GI tract (n=39 and pancreas (n=3 were studied with immunohistochemistry using antibodies with specificity for melatonin, MT1 and MT2 receptors and serotonin.Enzymes needed for production of melatonin are expressed in both GI tract and pancreas tissue. Strong melatonin immunoreactivity (IR was seen in enterochromaffin (EC cells partially co-localized with serotonin IR. Melatonin IR was also seen in pancreas islets. MT1 and MT2 IR were both found in the intestinal epithelium, in the submucosal and myenteric plexus, and in vessels in the GI tract as well as in pancreatic islets. MT1 and MT2 IR was strongest in the epithelium of the large intestine. In the other cell types, both MT2 gene expression and IR were generally elevated compared to MT1. Strong MT2, IR was noted in EC cells but not MT1 IR. Changes in gene expression that may result in reduced levels of melatonin were seen in relation to inflammation.Widespread gastroenteropancreatic expression of melatonin and its receptors in the GI tract and pancreas is in agreement with the multiple roles ascribed to melatonin, which include regulation of gastrointestinal motility, epithelial permeability as well as enteropancreatic cross-talk with plausible impact on metabolic control.

  4. Reconstitutions of the evangelical text in the Mysteries of the Orthodox Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuca Nicusor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The miracles performed by Jesus Christ are primary forms of practice of the Holy Mysteries. Therefore, every one of the seven Holy Mysteries finds its correspondent in the healings performed by our Savior: for the Mystery of Baptism, we have highlighted as paradigms the healing of the man born blind, but also the resurrections from the dead; for the Chrismation Mystery, the paradigms are the healing of the woman who had been suffering from a hemorrhage for 12 years and the healing of the deaf man who could hardly speak, while for the Mystery of Confession we have highlighted as defining examples the public confession of the father of the lunatic child, the blind men of Jericho and Bethsaida and the leper of Galilee. The Mystery of the Holy Eucharist has as special paradigms the parable of the emperor’s son’s wedding and the parable of the people invited to supper, while the Mystery of Priesthood (or Ordination is prefigured by the second wonderful fishing and the first multiplication of the loaves of bread. As far as the Mystery of Marriage is concerned, beside the miracle of Cana in Galilee, suggestive is also the “salvation of Zacchaeus’ house”, while the healings of the devil-possessed are eloquent for the illustration of the Mystery of the Holy Unction.

  5. Mystery solved: the identification of the two missing Romanov children using DNA analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Coble

    Full Text Available One of the greatest mysteries for most of the twentieth century was the fate of the Romanov family, the last Russian monarchy. Following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, he and his wife, Alexandra, and their five children were eventually exiled to the city of Yekaterinburg. The family, along with four loyal members of their staff, was held captive by members of the Ural Soviet. According to historical reports, in the early morning hours of July 17, 1918 the entire family along with four loyal members of their staff was executed by a firing squad. After a failed attempt to dispose of the remains in an abandoned mine shaft, the bodies were transported to an open field only a few kilometers from the mine shaft. Nine members of the group were buried in one mass grave while two of the children were buried in a separate grave. With the official discovery of the larger mass grave in 1991, and subsequent DNA testing to confirm the identities of the Tsar, the Tsarina, and three of their daughters--doubt persisted that these remains were in fact those of the Romanov family. In the summer of 2007, a group of amateur archeologists discovered a collection of remains from the second grave approximately 70 meters from the larger grave. We report forensic DNA testing on the remains discovered in 2007 using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, autosomal STR, and Y-STR testing. Combined with additional DNA testing of material from the 1991 grave, we have virtually irrefutable evidence that the two individuals recovered from the 2007 grave are the two missing children of the Romanov family: the Tsarevich Alexei and one of his sisters.

  6. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  7. The five mysteries of the mind, and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, R W

    1998-10-01

    While Western man has recognized for almost 2500 years that mind derives exclusively from brain, clothing this fact with explanatory detail still proves elusive. First, is consciousness per se, created by processes demonstrably limited to certain, but still unspecified, neuronal arrangements and activities. Then there is perception, its ineffable qualia, and the fact that it arises from neuronal activity widely dispersed in space and time within networks of vast complexity. Voluntary control is equally dispersed as to neuronal participation, and nescient as to origin. An often overlooked mystery is the unity of mind and behavior that prevails despite the potential for bihemispheric duplication of processes and experience. Finally, there is memory, which while credibly within grasp of understanding as a synaptic alteration maintained via activation of the nuclear genome, still wholly defies comprehension when viewed as commanded recall of myriad, randomly selectable details of the past, a largely effortless and 'instantaneous' flood of memories. For two centuries science has endeavored to demonstrate how these mysteries proceed from physics and chemistry, as indeed they do; but viewed from this direction alone, mind is but the babbling of a robot, chained ineluctably to crude causality. In a bold and revolutionary stroke, Roger Sperry has conceived a more credible paradigm, that the totality of neuronal action, as a richly intercommunicating system, gives rise to effects transcendent to the individual physicochemical elements that compose it. A major achievement of this position is that it is immediately consonant with everyday human experience and belief. While neither Sperry's vision. nor the reduction of the mysteries to a dance of ions can yet be proven, the vast advantage of Sperry's thesis is that it again imbues human thought and action with responsibility, and opens morality to the light of science, while the long wait for certainty unfolds.

  8. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Suissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mt

  9. Cles: Etes-vous bon detective?; Enigmes grammaticales; Problemes policiers; Kidnapping (Keys: Are You a Good Detective?; Grammatical Puzzles; Detective Mysteries; Kidnapping).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debyser, Francis; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of French classroom activities are presented: a mystery whose clues include two postcard messages; three puzzles with grammar-related clues; a mystery contained in three comic strip frames; and the solving of a kidnapping mystery. (MSE)

  10. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  11. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  12. Mystery shopping - srovnání Sephora vs. Douglas

    OpenAIRE

    Homola, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A fight for customer is nowadays a typical sign of business. There is no doubt about an importance of a customer service. If a company doesn't dispose of quality in this point of view, a dissatisfied customer will use competitor's service in future. There is plenty of sellers, who don't master their roles. However, to measure the quality of service is difficult. One of methods that are used by a modern marketing, is mystery shopping. This instrument serves for an identification of imperfectio...

  13. Slow light invisibility, teleportation, and other mysteries of light

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Slow Light is a popular treatment of today's astonishing breakthroughs in the science of light. Even though we don't understand light's quantum mysteries, we can slow it to a stop and speed it up beyond its Einsteinian speed limit, 186,000 miles/sec; use it for quantum telecommunications; teleport it; manipulate it to create invisibility; and perhaps generate hydrogen fusion power with it. All this is lucidly presented for non-scientists who wonder about teleportation, Harry Potter invisibility cloaks, and other fantastic outcomes. Slow Light shows how the real science and the fantasy inspire

  14. Gamete Recognition in Higher Plants: An Abstruse but Charming Mystery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong-Bo Peng; Meng-Xiang Sun

    2008-01-01

    Although much effort has been made to uncover the mechanism underlying double fertilization, little knowledge has been acquired for understanding the molecular base of gamete recognition, mainly because of technical limitations. Still,progress has been made in terms of the mechanism, including the identification of candidate molecules that are involved in gamete recognition in angiosperms. New cues for gamete recognition have been found by the successful separation of the gametes and construction of gamete-specific cDNA libraries in several species, and the application of molecular approaches for studying this process by mutations. Thus, the topic is considered an abstruse but charming mystery.

  15. [Mysteries of the Bourges mummy, an paleopathologic survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillaud, Pierre L

    2004-01-01

    Discovered in 1908 in a lead coffin conserved in a stone sarcophagus, the mummy of the "fin Renard" (Bourges, France), was immediately identified as that of a gallo-roman child. The circumstances of his death as the extraordinary conservation of this body were the object of many conclusions related to contemporeanous medico-historical knowledge and limited by partial investigation potentiality. The application of the most actual paleopathological methods and techniques permitted a more precise observation of this unique but surprising French specimen. However, after many radiographic, scannographic, fibroscopic and microscopic studies, the little mummy conserves many of its mysteries...

  16. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  17. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date:...

  18. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date:...

  19. Bruce Medalists at the Mt. Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenn, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The institution which succeeded the Mt. Wilson Station of Yerkes Observatory in 1904 has had six names and three sites. From 1948-1980 it was united with Caltech's Palomar Observatory, and since then its main observatory has been in Chile, though still headquartered on Santa Barbara Street in Pasadena. For more than half of the twentieth century it was the leading observatory in the world. One bit of evidence for this is the amazing number of its staff members awarded the Bruce Medal. The Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been awarded for lifetime contributions to astronomy since 1898. It is an international award. It wasn't until 1963 that the number of medalists who had worked primarily in the United States reached half the total. Yet fourteen of the first 87 medalists spent most of their careers at Mt. Wilson, including the period when it was Mt. Wilson and Palomar, and another three were Caltech observers who used the telescopes of the jointly operated observatory. Several more medalists made substantial use of the telescopes on Mt. Wilson and Palomar Mountain. We will discuss highlights of the careers of a number of these distinguished astronomers: directors George Ellery Hale, Walter Adams, Ira Bowen, and Horace Babcock; solar observer and satellite discoverer Seth Nicholson; instrument builder Harold Babcock; galactic and cosmological observers Frederick Seares, Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade, Rudolph Minkowski, and Allan Sandage; and spectroscopists Paul Merrill, Alfred Joy, Olin Wilson, Jesse Greenstein, Maarten Schmidt, and Wallace Sargent. We will touch briefly on others who used Mt. Wilson and/or Palomar, including Harlow Shapley, Joel Stebbins, Charlotte Moore Sitterly, Donald Osterbrock, and Albert Whitford.

  20. Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Tom, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

  1. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  2. Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, LaDawna

    2011-01-01

    A little imagination, a little drama, a little mystery. Using the guided inquiry model in this updated, second edition, students become detectives at Information Headquarters. They solve a mystery-and enhance their problem-solving and literacy skills. Middle school is a crucial time in the development of problem-solving, critical-thinking, and…

  3. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  4. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  5. Mystery Plays: 8 Plays for the Classroom Based on Stories by Famous Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Tom, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of grades 4-8, this book presents eight plays based on classic mysteries by famous writers such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Queen, Dashiell Hammett, and O. Henry. The excitement of mystery stories offers a great way to introduce young people to the pleasures of reading. The plays in the book have…

  6. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book... custodians. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Walters Art...

  7. A mathematical exploration of the mystery of loudness adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Kenneth H

    2010-02-01

    Loudness adaptation, or the decrease in perceived loudness of a steady, prolonged tone is rather a mysterious phenomenon. When measured by one technique (utilizing both ears), loudness of an extended tone will decrease by as much as 35 decibels; when measured by another technique (using only a single ear), loudness does not adapt at all regardless of how long the tone persists. The mystery is even more intriguing. When loudness adaptation does occur, the fractional reduction in the loudness of a tone (adaptation dB/sound level of extended tone dB SL) provides a good measure of the Stevens exponent, n, for loudness, an exponent which depends on sound frequency. When we analyze mathematically the two methods for measuring loudness adaptation, the reason for the apparent difference in adaptation emerges. Moreover, we derive the approximate equation showing that n equals fractional adaptation, and a method for improving the derivation of n from adaptation data. These results, derived mathematically, compare well with measured data, both our own and those obtained from the literature.

  8. Unraveling the Mysteries of Turbulence Transport in a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj K. Jha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A true physical understanding of the mysteries involved in the recovery process of the wake momentum deficit, downstream of utility-scale wind turbines in the atmosphere, has not been obtained to date. Field data are not acquired at sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions to dissect some of the mysteries of wake turbulence. It is here that the actuator line method has evolved to become the technology standard in the wind energy community. This work presents the actuator line method embedded into an Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM large-eddy simulation solver and applies it to two small wind farms, the first one consisting of an array of two National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 Megawatt (NREL 5-MW turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in neutral and unstable atmospheric boundary-layer flow and the second one consisting of five NREL 5-MW wind turbines in unstable atmospheric conditions arranged in two staggered arrays of two and three turbines, respectively. Detailed statistics involving power spectral density (PSD of turbine power along with standard deviations reveal the effects of atmospheric turbulence and its space and time scales. High-resolution surface data extracts provide new insight into the complex recovery process of the wake momentum deficit governed by turbulence transport phenomena.

  9. The Mystery of the Electronic Spectrum of Ruthenium Monophosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Allan G.; Christensen, Ryan M.; Dore, Jacob M.; Konder, Ricarda M.; Tokaryk, Dennis W.

    2016-06-01

    Using PH3 as a reactant gas and ruthenium as the target metal in the UNB laser ablation spectrometer, the ruthenium monophosphide molecule (RuP) has been detected. Dispersed fluorescence experiments have been performed to determine ground state vibrational frequencies and the presence of any low-lying electronic states. Rotationally resolved spectra of two vibrational bands at 577nm and 592nm have been taken; the bands have been identified as 1-0 and 0-0 bands based on isotopic shifts. Ruthenium has seven stable isotopes and rotational transitions have been observed for six of the RuP isotopologues. RuP is isoelectronic to RuN so it is expected that RuP will have a 2Σ+ ground state and low resolution spectra indicated a likely 2Σ+ - 2Σ+ electronic transition. Further investigation has led us to believe we are observing a 2Π - 2Σ+ transition but mysteriously some important rotational branches are missing. It is hoped that new data to be recorded on a second electronic system we have observed at 535nm will help shed light on this mystery.

  10. The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water: Some recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Kumar, P.; Xu, L.; Yan, Z.; Mazza, M. G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Chen, S.-H.; Mallamace, F.

    2007-12-01

    Water is perhaps the most ubiquitous, and the most essential, of any molecule on earth. Indeed, it defies the imagination of even the most creative science fiction writer to picture what life would be like without water. Despite decades of research, however, water's puzzling properties are not understood and 63 anomalies that distinguish water from other liquids remain unsolved. We introduce some of these unsolved mysteries, and demonstrate recent progress in solving them. We present evidence from experiments and computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water displays a special transition point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell). The general idea is that when the liquid is near this “tipping point,” it suddenly separates into two distinct liquid phases. This concept of a new critical point is finding application to other liquids as well as water, such as silicon and silica. We also discuss related puzzles, such as the mysterious behavior of water near a protein.

  11. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Si, M S

    2010-01-01

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4% to 72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As far as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of ...

  12. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M S; Zhang, G P, E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.ed [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that, depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4%-72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of the laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As long as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of the transition frequencies, but not whether the demagnetization can happen or not.

  13. Melatonin MT1 and MT2 Receptors in the Ram Reproductive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Arto, Marta; Aguilar, David; Gaspar-Torrubia, Elena; Gallego, Margarita; Carvajal-Serna, Melissa; Herrera-Marcos, Luis V.; Serrano-Blesa, Edith; Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A.; Casao, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT1 and MT2 receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis, accessory glands and ductus deferens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed higher levels of m-RNA for both receptors in the testis, ampulla, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens, than in the other organs of the reproductive tract (p < 0.05). Western blot analyses showed protein bands compatible with the MT1 in the testis and cauda epididymis, and for the MT2 in the cauda epididymis and deferent duct. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed the presence of MT1 receptors in spermatogonias, spermatocytes, and spermatids, and MT2 receptors in the newly-formed spermatozoa in the testis, whereas both receptors were located in the epithelial cells of the ampulla, seminal vesicles, and ductus deferens. Indirect immunofluorescence showed significant differences in the immunolocation of both receptors in spermatozoa during their transit in the epididymis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that melatonin receptors are present in the ram reproductive tract. These results open the way for new studies on the molecular mechanism of melatonin and the biological significance of its receptors. PMID:28335493

  14. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  15. MT3D-USGS version 1: A U.S. Geological Survey release of MT3DMS updated with new and expanded transport capabilities for use with MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Vivek; Morway, Eric D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Tonkin, Matthew J.

    2016-09-30

    MT3D-USGS, a U.S. Geological Survey updated release of the groundwater solute transport code MT3DMS, includes new transport modeling capabilities to accommodate flow terms calculated by MODFLOW packages that were previously unsupported by MT3DMS and to provide greater flexibility in the simulation of solute transport and reactive solute transport. Unsaturated-zone transport and transport within streams and lakes, including solute exchange with connected groundwater, are among the new capabilities included in the MT3D-USGS code. MT3D-USGS also includes the capability to route a solute through dry cells that may occur in the Newton-Raphson formulation of MODFLOW (that is, MODFLOW-NWT). New chemical reaction Package options include the ability to simulate inter-species reactions and parent-daughter chain reactions. A new pump-and-treat recirculation package enables the simulation of dynamic recirculation with or without treatment for combinations of wells that are represented in the flow model, mimicking the above-ground treatment of extracted water. A reformulation of the treatment of transient mass storage improves conservation of mass and yields solutions for better agreement with analytical benchmarks. Several additional features of MT3D-USGS are (1) the separate specification of the partitioning coefficient (Kd) within mobile and immobile domains; (2) the capability to assign prescribed concentrations to the top-most active layer; (3) the change in mass storage owing to the change in water volume now appears as its own budget item in the global mass balance summary; (4) the ability to ignore cross-dispersion terms; (5) the definition of Hydrocarbon Spill-Source Package (HSS) mass loading zones using regular and irregular polygons, in addition to the currently supported circular zones; and (6) the ability to specify an absolute minimum thickness rather than the default percent minimum thickness in dry-cell circumstances.Benchmark problems that implement the new

  16. Domain Tuning of Bilingual Lexicons for MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    vocabulary—a set of words or terms from a document that indicate the topic or primary content of the text—is nec- essary for many NLP tasks. In monolingual ...specificity impacts the accuracy of text classification (Saku- rai, 1999). In multilingual processing, appropriate translation choices cannot be made...System A statistical MT system has 3 basic components, a language model, a translation model, and a decoder. The language model is a monolingual

  17. A meteorite crater on Mt. Ararat?

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, V G

    2010-01-01

    We briefly report on a crater on the western slope of Mt.Ararat . It is located in an area closed to foreigners at an altitude around 2100m with geographic coordinates 39\\deg 47' 30"N, 44\\deg 14' 40"E. The diameter of the crater is around 60-70m, the depth is up to 15m. The origin of the crater, either of meteorite impact or volcanic, including the evaluation of its age, will need detailed studies.

  18. Novel Scalable 3-D MT Inverse Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvshinov, A. V.; Kruglyakov, M.; Geraskin, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new, robust and fast, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. As a forward modelling engine a highly-scalable solver extrEMe [1] is used. The (regularized) inversion is based on an iterative gradient-type optimization (quasi-Newton method) and exploits adjoint sources approach for fast calculation of the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT (single-site and/or inter-site) responses, and supports massive parallelization. Different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow for optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem set up. To parameterize an inverse domain a mask approach is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to high-performance clusters demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes. 1. Kruglyakov, M., A. Geraskin, A. Kuvshinov, 2016. Novel accurate and scalable 3-D MT forward solver based on a contracting integral equation method, Computers and Geosciences, in press.

  19. Modeling the Geologic History of Mt. Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, A.; Allen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gale is an approximately 155 km diameter crater located on the martian dichotomy boundary (5 deg S 138 deg E). Gale is estimated to have formed 3.8 - 3.5 Gya, in the late Noachian or early Hesperian. Mt. Sharp, at the center of Gale Crater, is a crescent shaped sedimentary mound that rises 5.2 km above the crater floor. Gale is one of the few craters that has a peak reaching higher than the rim of the crater wall. The Curiosity rover is currently fighting to find its way across a dune field at the northwest base of the mound searching for evidence of habitability. This study used orbital images and topographic data to refine models for the geologic history of Mt. Sharp by analyzing its morphological features. In addition, it assessed the possibility of a peak ring in Gale. The presence of a peak ring can offer important information to how Mt. Sharp was formed and eroded early in Gale's history.

  20. Integrating TDEM and MT methods for characterization and delineation of the Santa Catarina aquifer (Chalco Sub-Basin, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivochieva, Stefi; Chouteau, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys were undertaken in the region of Santa Catarina, located in the Chalco Sub-Basin of the Mexico Basin. The objective was to constrain the geometry of the fresh water aquifer and confirm the continuity of the basaltic flows between the volcano and the sedimentary basin. In order to define the stratification at depth with an emphasis on the geometry of the main aquifer, 11 MT and 5 TDEM soundings were recorded along a north-south profile. Interpretation of MT soundings show that the bedrock is located at a depth of at least 800-1000 m. Using TDEM apparent resistivity curves to constrain the high frequency MT data, three main layers were defined overlying the bedrock. These layers are, from the surface to bottom, a 20- to 40-m-thick layer of sands, ash and clay, followed by a very conductive 200-m-thick layer of sand and ash, saturated with highly mineralized water and, finally, a zone with gradually increasing resistivities, corresponding to the main aquifer. The TDEM data, the magnetic transfer functions and the 2D MT model also indicate that a shallow resistive structure is dipping, from the northwest, into the lacustrine deposits of the basin. This feature is likely to be highly permeable fractured basaltic flows, evidenced also in one of the water wells. To verify the presence of fractured basalts below the volcano ranges, 38 TDEM soundings were collected on the flanks of the Santa Catarina range. Layered models obtained from the TDEM soundings enabled an assessment of a major conductive zone (1-10 Ω m) at depth. Two hypothesis are envisaged and the nature of this zone is attributed either to a clayey layer or to fractured basaltic flows. If the latter possibility is confirmed, this continuous zone could provide a channel by which the water contaminated by the Santa Catarina landfill may leak into the basin.

  1. P1 peptidase – a mysterious protein of family Potyviridae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jana Rohožková; Milan Navrátil

    2011-03-01

    The Potyviridae family, named after its type member, Potato virus Y (PVY), is the largest of the 65 plant virus groups and families currently recognized. The coding region for P1 peptidase is located at the very beginning of the viral genome of the family Potyviridae. Until recently P1 was thought of as serine peptidase with RNA-binding activity and with possible influence in cell-to-cell viral spreading. This N-terminal protein, among all of the potyviruses, is the most divergent protein: varying in length and in its amino acid sequence. Nevertheless, P1 peptidase in many ways is still a mysterious viral protein. In this review, we would like to offer a comprehensive overview, discussing the proteomic, biochemical and phylogenetic views of the P1 protein.

  2. Mystery of the First Russian Rifle Naval Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1859 France completed the first ocean-going ironclad warship, «La Gloire», and changed the definition of naval power completely. Russia, as all the other Powers, found that her most powerful naval gun, the 60-pdr, was insufficient for modern warfare, and realized the future naval armament relied on heavy rifled artillery. Both the Army and Navy began purchasing such cannon from foreign providers until a suitable domestic weapon could be produced. The relationship between the Russian military and Krupp is well known. But there was another provided, the Blakely Ordnance Company in England sold many guns to the Army and Navy, beginning with 8-inch MLR in early 1863 to a large number of 9- and 11-inch guns. Deliveries began in November 1863 and continued until mid-1866. But no sources on the armament of Russian ships and fortresses mentions these guns. What happened to them is a mystery.

  3. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Majhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in Fetu (FIF is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass resembling a fetus of 585 gm was removed. It had a trunk and four limbs with fingers and toes, umbilical stump, intestinal loops and abundant scalp hairs but was devoid of brain and heart. Histology showed various well-differentiated tissues in respective sites. FIF is a mystery in reproduction and it is scarce in literature in such well-developed stage.

  4. On the mysterious Hylobius huguenini Reitter, 1891 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Germann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During verifications of museum material for the Catalogue of the Palaearctic Coleoptera, the type specimen of Hylobius huguenini Reitter, 1891 conserved in the Hungarian National Museum was examined. The type specimen had been found by Gustav Huguenin in the Emmental region in Switzerland. The species was never found again and remained therefore mysterious. After the examination of the type specimen, it became clear that Hylobius huguenini belongs to the American genus Heilipodus Kuschel, 1955 (comb. nov., and there it ranks as a good species next to Heilipodus goeldii sp. nov., described here, and H. polyspilus (Pascoe, 1889, both from Brazil. The type specimens of Heilipodus goeldii sp. nov. were found in the Emil August Göldi-collection in the Natural History Museum of the Burgergemeinde Bern. 

  5. Mystery and realities of phalloplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıkaya, Selçuk; Ralph, David John

    2017-09-01

    The neophallus creation is still a mystery and it remains challenging even today. In this article, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature regarding phalloplasty and penile reconstructive surgery between January 2008 and May 2016. In this review, we have included 15 research articles and the results of 276 patients were examined. Studies revealed several indications and when indications were reviewed, 191 patients were female-to-male transgender, 9 patients had disorder of sex development/micropenis, 16 had penile amputation/trauma, 9 had ambiguus genitalia, 40 had exstrophy and/or epispadias, 11 had other problems. As a result of this review, phalloplasty is a reliable and useful operation with good functional and aesthetical results.

  6. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a mystery solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The permeability transition (PT) denotes an increase of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability to solutes with molecular masses up to about 1500 Da. It is presumed to be mediated by opening of a channel, the permeability transition pore (PTP), whose molecular nature remains a mystery. Here I briefly review the history of the PTP, discuss existing models, and present our new results indicating that reconstituted dimers of the FOF1 ATP synthase form a channel with properties identical to those of the mitochondrial megachannel (MMC), the electrophysiological equivalent of the PTP. Open questions remain, but there is now promise that the PTP can be studied by genetic methods to solve the large number of outstanding problems. PMID:23675351

  7. The Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Budget: Mystery or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Newman, Paul A.; Daniel, John S.; Reimann, Stefan; Hall, Bradley; Dutton, Geoff; Kuijpers, Lambert J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major anthropogenic ozone-depleting substance and greenhouse gas and has been regulated under the Montreal Protocol. However, atmospheric observations show a very slow decline in CCl4 concentrations, inconsistent with the nearly zero emissions estimate based on the UNEP reported production and feedstock usage in recent years. It is now apparent that there are either unidentified industrial leakages, an unknown production source of CCl4, or large legacy emissions from CCl4 contaminated sites. In this paper we use a global chemistry climate model to assess the budget mystery of atmospheric CCl4. We explore various factors that affect the global trend and the gradient between the Northern and Southern hemispheres or interhemispheric gradient (IHG): emissions, emission hemispheric partitioning, and lifetime variations. We find a present-day emission of 30-50 Gg per yr and a total lifetime 25 - 36 years are necessary to reconcile both the observed CCl4 global trend and IHG.

  8. $\\pi$ a biography of the world's most mysterious number

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S

    2004-01-01

    This enlightening and stimulating approach to mathematics will entertain lay readers while improving their mathematical literacy. We all learned that the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is called pi and that the value of this algebraic symbol is roughly 3.14. What we weren't told, though, is that behind this seemingly mundane fact is a world of mystery, which has fascinated mathematicians from ancient times to the present. Simply put, pi is weird. Mathematicians call it a "transcendental number" because its value cannot be calculated by any combination of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and square root extraction. This elusive nature has led intrepid investigators over the years to attempt ever-closer approximations. In 2002, a Japanese professor using a supercomputer calculated the value to 1.24 trillion decimal places! Nonetheless, in this huge string of decimals there is no periodic repetition. In this delightful layperson's introduction to one of math's most interes...

  9. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  10. The mysterious multi-modal repellency of DEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGennaro, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    DEET is the most effective insect repellent available and has been widely used for more than half a century. Here, I review what is known about the olfactory and contact mechanisms of DEET repellency. For mosquitoes, DEET has at least two molecular targets: Odorant Receptors (ORs) mediate the effect of DEET at a distance, while unknown chemoreceptors mediate repellency upon contact. Additionally, the ionotropic receptor Ir40a has recently been identified as a putative DEET chemosensor in Drosophila. The mechanism of how DEET manipulates these molecular targets to induce insect avoidance in the vapor phase is also contested. Two hypotheses are the most likely: DEET activates an innate olfactory neural circuit leading to avoidance of hosts (smell and avoid hypothesis) or DEET has no behavioral effect on its own, but instead acts cooperatively with host odors to drive repellency (confusant hypothesis). Resolving this mystery will inform the search for a new generation of insect repellents. PMID:26252744

  11. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malović Marko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery.

  12. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko G Malovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Pain mystery score beliefs: a comparison of fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony Science

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the mysteriousness scores of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory in fibromyalgia. Methods. Two cohorts of patients, one with fibromyalgia (FM) and one with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), completed the Mystery Scale component of the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory to determine whether subjects in the two diagnostic groups had significantly different scores on the Mystery Scale. Results. A total of 126 subjects (64 FM, 62 RA) completed all questionnaires. The FM group had a greater percentage of female subjects, more severe pain, more severe anxiety, more severe depression, and a higher perceived injustice score. When the RA and FM group scores for the Mystery Scale were adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, HADS scores, and perceived injustice scores, the FM group still had a higher Mystery Scale score. Discussion. Fibromyalgia is associated with a higher level of perception of mysteriousness in the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory than is seen with rheumatoid arthritis. This difference appears to be independent of levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and perceived injustice. This sense of mysteriousness may reflect a lack of understanding of pain in fibromyalgia as previously reported and may be an area to be addressed in therapy.

  14. Metallothionein (MT -I and MT-II expression are induced and cause zinc sequestration in the liver after brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Pankhurst

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Experiments with transgenic over-expressing, and null mutant mice have determined that metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I/II are protective after brain injury. MT-I/II is primarily a zinc-binding protein and it is not known how it provides neuroprotection to the injured brain or where MT-I/II acts to have its effects. MT-I/II is often expressed in the liver under stressful conditions but to date, measurement of MT-I/II expression after brain injury has focused primarily on the injured brain itself. In the present study we measured MT-I/II expression in the liver of mice after cryolesion brain injury by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with the UC1MT antibody. Displacement curves constructed using MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II(-/- mouse tissues were used to validate the ELISA. Hepatic MT-I and MT-II mRNA levels were significantly increased within 24 hours of brain injury but hepatic MT-I/II protein levels were not significantly increased until 3 days post injury (DPI and were maximal at the end of the experimental period, 7 DPI. Hepatic zinc content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and was found to decrease at 1 and 3 DPI but returned to normal by 7DPI. Zinc in the livers of MT-I/II(-/- mice did not show a return to normal at 7 DPI which suggests that after brain injury, MT-I/II is responsible for sequestering elevated levels of zinc to the liver. CONCLUSION: MT-I/II is up-regulated in the liver after brain injury and modulates the amount of zinc that is sequestered to the liver.

  15. Investigation of geothermal structures by magnetotellurics (MT): an example from the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpi, G. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy); Manzella, A. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Fiordelisi, A. [ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    During 1999 a magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out on the southern margin of the Mt. Amiata geothermal region (Tuscany, Italy), with the aim of defining the shallow and deep electric structures related to the local geothermal reservoirs and system heat recharge. Local and remote data were collected along a SW-NE profile and processed with two different robust algorithms. After a detailed study of the EM strike, the data were inverted and two-dimensional (2D) models of electrical resistivity and impedance phase were computed. The interpretation revealed a good correlation between the features of the geothermal field and resistivity distribution at depth. In particular, a shallow conductor (0.5-4 km) detected by the MT survey shows a good correlation with the areal extension of the geothermal reservoirs. (Author)

  16. Stability analysis of the Ischia Mt. Nuovo block, Italy, under extreme seismic shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate the equilibrium conditions of the Mt. Nuovo block, a unit that is found on the northwestern flank of Mt. Epomeo in the Ischia Island, Italy, using the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation Method (Tinti and Manucci 2006, 2008; Paparo et al. 2013). The block, involved in a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD, Della Seta et al., 2012) process, forms an interesting scenario to study earthquake-induced instability because i) Ischia is a seismically active volcanic island; ii) the slopes of Mt. Epomeo are susceptible to mass movements; iii) there exist an abundant literature on historical local seismicity and on slope geology. In our slope stability analysis, we account for seismic load by means of peak ground acceleration (PGA) values taken from Italian seismic hazard maps (Gruppo di Lavoro MPS, 2004), and integrated with estimates based on local seismicity and suitable (MCS) I - PGA regression laws. We find that the Mt Nuovo block could not be destabilised by the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake (that is the largest known historical earthquake in the island taking place on a fault to the north of the block), but we find also that if an earthquake of the same size occurred in the Mt. Nuovo zone, the block would be mobilised and therefore generate a tsunami (Zaniboni et al, 2013), with disastrous consequences not only for Ischia, but also for the surrounding region. This work was carried out in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  17. My Pilgrimage To Mt.Khawah Gepoh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    澤仁平措

    2004-01-01

    Why ethnic Tibetans are never daunted by the hardships they suffer while making pilgrimages to sacred mountains and lakes by walking round them? I put this question to a man who had walked round the sacred Mt. Khawah Gepoh in eastern Tibet 28 times. Here is his answer: "To endure those hardships during the pilgrimages, I mean to punish myself for the sins I have committed, in order to gain freedom from anxiety and increase the virtues in my soul, my inner world." With help from some lamas, I learned by heart the words of prayer pilgrims keep uttering while walking round the sacred mountain:

  18. Carbonate rocks of Mt. Peca, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Bole

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbonate massif of Mt. Peca consists of Ladinian-Carnian Wetterstein limestone and dolomite of backreef and reef development. The backreef limestone is bedded and with intrabiomicrite, intrabiopelmicrite and loferite textures. It was deposited in shallow and quiet sedimentation environment with short periodic emergences. The reef facies is characterized by corals, algae, spongians and other reefbuilding organisms. Te larger part of the Peca limestone is slightly dolomitized, and its reef part is in addition strongly recrystallized.With respect to fossil assemblage the reef limestone is attributed to Carnian, mainly to Cordevol.

  19. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73,381D, Helena, MT; Amended... applicable to TA-W-73,381 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Montana Rail Link, Inc.,...

  20. The 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: new constraints on the intrusive mechanism from ground deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.

    2013-04-01

    The occurrence of seismic swarms beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna, often observed just a few months before an eruption, has been considered as the fragile response to a magma intrusion (Bonanno et al., 2011 and reference therein). These intrusions and/or pressurization of deep magmatic bodies, have been able to significantly affect the seismic pattern within the volcano edifice, leading to a changes in the local stress field. For example, during the months preceding the 1991-1993 Mt. Etna eruption, shallow intense seismic swarms (4-6 km deep) occurring in the SW flank (e.g. Cocina et al., 1998), related to the magma intrusion before the eruption onset, were observed contemporaneously with a rotation of stress field of about 90°. A similar scenario was observed during January 1998, when a magma recharging phases induced a local rotation of stress tensor, forcing a buried fault zone located beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna to slip as a right-lateral strike-slip fault (Bonanno et al., 2011). This fault system was forced to slip again, during late April 2001 (more than 200 events in less than 5 days; maximum Magnitude = 3.6) by the pressurization of the magmatic bodies feeding the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Here we analyzed in detail the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption as well as the dynamics preceding this event, by using a large dataset of geodetic data (GPS and synthetic aperture radar interferometry) collected between July 2000 and August 2001. References Cocina, O., Neri, G., Privitera, E. and Spampinato S., 1998. Seismogenic stress field beneath Mt. Etna South Italy and possible relationships with volcano-tectonic features. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 83, 335-348. Bonanno A., Palano M., Privitera E., Gresta S., Puglisi G., 2011. Magma intrusion mechanisms and redistribution of seismogenic stress at Mt. Etna volcano (1997-1998). Terra Nova, 23, 339-348, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.01019.x, 2011.

  1. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nosjean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues.

  2. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Céline; Matthey, Ulrich; Grelak, Teresa; Pedragona-Moreau, Sandrine; Hassler, Werner; Yous, Saïd; Thomas, Emmanuel; Suzenet, Franck; Folleas, Benoît; Lefoulon, François; Berthelot, Pascal; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Guillaumet, Gérald; Delagrange, Philippe; Brayer, Jean-Louis; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPγS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues. PMID:23698757

  3. Local magnitude estimate at Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maiolino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the duration magnitude MD we calculated local magnitude ML values of 288 earthquakes occurring from October 2002 to April 2003 at Mt. Etna. The analysis was computed at three digital stations of the permanent seismic network of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia of Catania, using the relationship ML = logA+alog?-b, where A is maximum half-amplitude of the horizontal component of the seismic recording measured in mm and the term «+alog?-b» takes the place of the term «-logA0» of Richter relationship. In particular, a = 0.15 for ?<200 km, b=0.16 for ?<200 km. Duration magnitude MD values, moment magnitude MW values and other local magnitude values were compared. Differences between ML and MD were obtained for the strong seismic swarms occurring on October 27, during the onset of 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption, characterized by a high earthquake rate, with very strong events (seismogram results clipped in amplitude on drum recorder trace and high level of volcanic tremor, which not permit us to estimate the duration of the earthquakes correctly. ML and MD relationships were related and therefore a new relationship for MD is proposed. Cumulative strain release calculated after the eruption using ML values is about 1.75E+06 J1/2 higher than the one calculated using MD values.

  4. Mystery Shopping in Improving Salesperson Performance - Case Group and Conference Business

    OpenAIRE

    Pehkonen, Taija

    2014-01-01

    Managers in the service industry are interested in using cost-effective ways for evaluating and observing the customer experience, and the overall quality of the service. Mystery shopping has become a popular tool in evaluating the quality of service. Yet, only little research has been conducted to ensure that a true measure of service performance is obtained. This master’s thesis explores the sales agents’ perceptions of the functionality of mystery shopping as a tool in improving salesp...

  5. Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels And The Making Of Modern Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels and the Making of Modern Societies. By Luc Boltanski (trans. C Porter). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. xviii+340 pp. £18.99/€23.80. ISBN: 9780745664057.......Book review of: Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels and the Making of Modern Societies. By Luc Boltanski (trans. C Porter). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. xviii+340 pp. £18.99/€23.80. ISBN: 9780745664057....

  6. Consolidity: Mystery of inner property of systems uncovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uncovers the mystery of consolidity, an inner property of systems that was amazingly hidden. Consolidity also reveals the secrecy of why strong stable and highly controllable systems are not invulnerable of falling and collapsing. Consolidity is measured by its Consolidity Index, defined as the ratio of overall changes of output parameters over combined changes of input and system parameters, all operating in fully fuzzy environment. Under this notion, systems are classified into consolidated, quasi-consolidated, neutrally consolidated, unconsolidated, quasi-unconsolidated and mixed types. The strategy for the implementation of consolidity is elaborated for both natural and man-made existing systems as well as the new developed ones. An important critique arises that the by-product consolidity of natural or built-as-usual system could lead to trapping such systems into a completely undesired unconsolidity. This suggests that the ample number of conventional techniques that do not take system consolidity into account should gradually be changed, and adjusted with improved consolidity-based techniques. Four Golden Rules are highlighted for handling system consolidity, and applied to several illustrative case studies. These case studies cover the consolidity analysis of the Drug Concentration problem, Predator-Prey Population problem, Spread of Infectious Disease problem, AIDS Epidemic problem and Arm Race model. It is demonstrated that consolidity changes are contrary (opposite in sign to changes of both stability and controllability. This is a very significant result showing that our present practice of stressing on building strong stable and highly controllable systems could have already jeopardized the consolidity behavior of an ample family of existing real life systems. It is strongly recommended that the four Golden Rules of consolidity should be enforced as future strict regulations of systems modeling, analysis, design and

  7. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  8. Keeping mtDNA in shape between generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Stewart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing.

  9. Keeping mtDNA in Shape between Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing. PMID:25299061

  10. The benefits of mystery in nature on attention: assessing the impacts of presentation duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolosi, Andrew M; Watson, Jason M; Ruddell, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Although research has provided prodigious evidence in support of the cognitive benefits that natural settings have over urban settings, all nature is not equal. Within nature, natural settings that contain mystery are often among the most preferred nature scenes. With the prospect of acquiring new information, scenes of this type could more effectively elicit a person's sense of fascination, enabling that person to rest the more effortful forms of attention. The present study examined the direct cognitive benefits that mystery in nature has on attention. Settings of this sort presumably evoke a form of attention that is undemanding or effortless. In order to investigate that notion, participants (n = 144) completed a Recognition Memory Task (RMT) that evaluated recognition performance based on the presence of mystery and presentation duration (300 ms, 1 s, 5 s, and 10 s). Results revealed that with additional viewing time, images perceived high in mystery achieved greater improvements in recognition performance when compared to those images perceived low in mystery. Tests for mediation showed that the effect mystery had on recognition performance occurred through perceptions of fascination. Implications of these and other findings are discussed in the context of Attention Restoration Theory.

  11. The effect of mystery shopper reports on age verification for tobacco purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, Brad S; Ponicki, William R; Grube, Joel W; DeJong, William

    2011-09-01

    Mystery shops involving attempted tobacco purchases by young buyers have been implemented in order to monitor retail stores' performance in refusing underage sales. Anecdotal evidence suggests that mystery shop visits with immediate feedback to store personnel can improve age verification. This study investigated the effect of monthly and twice-monthly mystery shop reports on age verification. Mystery shoppers visited 45 Walgreens stores 20 times. The stores were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions. Control group stores received no feedback, whereas 2 treatment groups received feedback communications on every visit (twice monthly) or on every second visit (monthly) after baseline. Logit regression models tested whether each treatment group improved verification rates relative to the control group. Postbaseline verification rates were higher in both treatment groups than in the control group, but only the stores receiving monthly communications had a significantly greater improvement compared with the control group stores. Verification rates increased significantly during the study period for all 3 groups, with delayed improvement among control group stores. Communication between managers regarding the mystery shop program may account for the delayed age-verification improvements observed in the control group stores. Encouraging interstore communication might extend the benefits of mystery shop programs beyond those stores that receive this intervention. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  12. The benefits of mystery in nature on attention: Assessing the impacts of presentation duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Martin Szolosi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although research has provided prodigious evidence in support of the cognitive benefits that natural settings have over urban settings, all nature is not equal. Within nature, natural settings that contain mystery are often among the most preferred nature scenes. With the prospect of acquiring new information, scenes of this type could more effectively elicit a person’s sense of fascination, enabling that person to rest the more effortful forms of attention. The present study examined the direct cognitive benefits that mystery in nature has on attention. Settings of this sort presumably evoke a form of attention that is undemanding or effortless. In order to investigate that notion, participants (n=144 completed a Recognition Memory Task (RMT that evaluated recognition performance based on the presence of mystery and presentation duration (300 ms, 1 sec, 5 sec, and 10 sec. Results revealed that with additional viewing time, images perceived high in mystery achieved greater improvements in recognition performance when compared to those images perceived low in mystery. Tests for mediation showed that the effect mystery had on recognition performance occurred through perceptions of fascination. Implications of these and other findings are discussed in the context of Attention Restoration Theory.

  13. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-01-01

    Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs), and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefit...

  14. Nanoscale surface modification of Mt. Etna volcanic ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Corsaro, R. A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Ciliberto, E.; Gimeno, D.; Bongiorno, C.; Spinella, C.

    2016-02-01

    Ashes emitted during volcanic explosive activity present peculiar surface chemical and mineralogical features related in literature to the interaction in the plume of solid particles with gases and aerosols. The compositional differences of magmas and gases, the magnitude, intensity and duration of the emission and the physical condition during the eruption, strongly influence the results of the modification processes. Here we report the characterization of the products emitted during the 2013 paroxysmal activity of Mt. Etna. The surface features of the ash particles were investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowing the analysis at nanometer scale. TEM images showed on the surface the presence of composite structures formed by Ca, Mg and Na sulphates and halides and of droplets and crystals of chlorides; nanometric magnesioferrite and metallic iron dendrites are observable directly below the surface. From the chemical point of view, the most external layer of the volcanic glassy particles (XPS, presents depletion in Si, Mg, Ca, Na and K and strong enrichment in volatile elements especially F and S, with respect to the inner zone, which represents the unaltered counterpart. Below this external layer, a transition glassy shell (thick 50-100 nm) is characterized by Fe, Mg and Ca enrichments with respect to the inner zone. We propose that the ash particle surface composition is the result of a sequence of events which start at shallow depth, above the exsolution surface, where gas bubbles nucleate and the interfaces between bubbles and melt represent proto-surfaces of future ash particles. Enrichment of Ca, Mg and Fe and halides may be due to the early partition of F and Cl in the gas phase and their interaction with the melt layer located close to the bubbles. Furthermore the formation of volatile SiF4 and KF explain the observed depletion of Si and K. The F enrichment in the external ∼50 nm thick

  15. Staging Icons, Performing Storyworlds – From Mystery Play to Cosplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domsch Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest complex forms of intermediality is the static live-performance adaptation of the iconographic qualities of well-known stories. Early examples of this phenomenon are the depictions of biblical scenes in the form of grand (and largely static tableaux in medieval Mystery Plays, very popular until the emergence of the professional entertainment stage. The nineteenth century had its fascination with the tableaux vivants - not coincidentally during the time that photography was introduced - and the late twentieth century saw the beginning of the newest variety with cosplay, which has by now become a global cultural phenomenon. Cosplay, the activity of fans dressing up and posing in a visually recognizable way as characters from popular media franchises such as manga, anime, or TV series, developed from role-playing activities into its current, highly ritualized static form through its symbiosis with amateur photography. This paper wants to first analyse the underlying art form in its historical varieties from an intermedial perspective, and in connection with that, it will explore the deeper philosophical significance of this practice, looking particularly at the role of embodiment.

  16. The mysteries of leptons. New physics and unexplained phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander

    2009-12-09

    This doctoral thesis deals with the mysteries of the leptonic sector of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics. After giving a short overview about the Standard Model itself, the text starts with introducing the so-called ''GSI anomaly'', the observation of a periodic modulation of the exponential decay law, which is still unexplained and has erroneously been attributed to neutrino oscillations. It is argued why this interpretation is incorrect and several further aspects of the phenomenon are discussed. Afterwards two topics of New Physics beyond the Standard Model are treated, double beta processes and lepton flavour violation. Some important phenomenological aspects of the former are discussed before performing a detailed calculation of the radiative process of neutrino-less double electron capture. In spite of the tiny rates, a detailed understanding of this process is important for setting proper experimental limits. The last part of the thesis starts with very general (and nearly model-independent) constraints for lepton flavour conservation, before discussing the interplay of structure and freedom in the Yukawa sector when a model is confronted with phenomenology. We also comment on a new mechanism that can indeed introduce some realistic structures leading to lepton flavour violating effects. (orig.)

  17. No wonder you wonder! great inventions and scientific mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2016-01-01

    This book explores and explains scientific mysteries and principles, leavened with tongue-in-cheek humor and an abundance of illustrations. Chapters are short, but give an understanding of technology and science not available elsewhere. Questions include: • What holds a satellite up while it goes around the Earth? • Why is the sky (made out of clear air!) blue instead of green, or just black as night like the sky that high altitude jumper Felix Baumgartner saw? • How is laser light different from “normal” light? • Did Columbus really discover that the Earth is round? • Which one invention will assuredly survive our civilization? • Why can’t you travel back in time?  If you often feel embarrassed because you don’t have a clue about lasers, the difference between volts, amps and watts, or how jet planes really work – but you would like to understand the physical principles of our modern world, whether you’re a teen or a parent – this book is for you! To understand the basics of quantu...

  18. A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-08-01

    More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with Im ω/TBH gg 1 (here ω and TBH are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).

  19. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  20. Disease patterns in vasculitis-still a mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary S

    2008-01-01

    In the field of autoimmunity, much has been learned from studying circulating and tissue bound immune-reactive cells, cytokines and antibodies. However, what has brought those cells to the site of injury, for most forms of vasculitis remains a mystery. Might the etiology of at least certain forms of vasculitis be related to generation of neoantigens in the native vessel, making that vessel the target of a pathogenic immune response? How might one explain organ targeting and patterns of disease that are so critical to the diagnostic process? Embryologists have demonstrated great diversity in the vasculature of different organs. Unique quantitative and qualitative features become apparent in vascular territories as early as the third week of gestation. These differences are later amplified by the effects of further development, aging, infection, spontaneous mutations and other co-morbidities. Based on data from these observations a testable hypothesis would be that many forms of vasculitis may begin with emergence of new antigens within affected vessel walls and the resulting immune response may in fact be a normal reaction to perceived foreign protein(s).

  1. A Medical Mystery: Unexplained Renal Failure in Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lands, Harrison M; Drake, David B

    The objective of this study was to review the investigation that uncovered the medical mystery of burn patients developing unexpected renal failure. The authors examined published and unpublished manuscripts and case reports, as well as conducted personal interviews with primary sources. In the late 1970s, emergence of resistant bacterial strains to the topical antimicrobial silver sulfadiazine occurred at the University of Virginia Medical Center. In the search for an alternative topical antimicrobial with known coverage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Furacin Soluble Dressing was substituted. However, Furacin Soluble Dressing produced an unexpected toxicity syndrome of hyperosmolality, metabolic gap acidosis, hypercalcemia, and ultimately renal failure. In a search for an antimicrobial with an improved spectrum against Pseudomonas, a Federal Drug Administration-approved product was used to treat large surface area burns. An unexpected toxicity syndrome developed which was traced to the polyethylene glycol base of Furacin Soluble Dressing. This substance was absorbed through the burn wounds, metabolized, and resulted in a toxicity syndrome leading to renal failure. The burn community should be cautious when using products that may be approved as nontoxic for small surface area application, as they may have unexpected medical side effects when used with large surface area burns.

  2. A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2016-08-30

    More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with ℑω/T{sub BH}≫1 (here ω and T{sub BH} are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequency of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).

  3. The "mystery" of cutaneous sarcoidosis: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernev, G; Cardoso, J C; Chokoeva, A A; Verma, S B; Tana, C; Ananiev, J; Gulubova, M; Philipov, S; Kanazawa, N; Nenoff, P; Lotti, T; Wollina, U

    2014-01-01

    The reason why the cutaneous form of sarcoidosis is well known in the literature is because of its spectrum of manifestations granting it the fame of a Great Imitator. The mystery shrouding the pathogenesis of this rare cutaneous disease is still there (in spite of the fundamental progress of the various diagnostic methods in current day medicine). The production of the morphological substrate - the epithelioid cell granuloma - which is considered to be characteristic of skin sarcoidosis, could, however, also be the end result of a reaction to i) various specific infectious agents such as Leishmaniasis cutis, coccidioidomycosis, etc., ii) certain residual bacterial or other mycobacterial antigens which, at the moment of setting the diagnosis are - by definition - non-infectious but still immunogenic, as well as iii) different tumor antigens in lesional tissue or other location. Often, differentiating between sarcodiosis and a sarcoid-like reaction, based on the updated criteria for cutaneous sarcoidosis, is problematic to downright impossible. A future characterization of the genetic signature of the two conditions, as well as the implementation of additional mandatory panels for i) the identification of certain infectious or ii) non-infectious but immunogenic and iii) tumor antigens in the epithelioid cell granuloma (or in another location in the organism), could be a considerable contribution to the process of differentiating between the two above-mentioned conditions. This will create conditions for greater accuracy when setting the subsequent therapeutic approaches.

  4. Movement mysteries unveiled: spatial ecology of juvenile green sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Lutterschmidt, William I.

    2013-01-01

    Locations of important foraging areas are not well defined for many marine species. Unraveling these mysteries is vital to develop conservation strategies for these species, many of which are threatened or endangered. Satellite-tracking is a tool that can reveal movement patterns at both broad and fine spatial scales, in all marine environments. This chapter presents records of the longest duration track of an individual juvenile green turtle (434 days) and highest number of tracking days in any juvenile green turtle study (5483 tracking days) published to date. In this chapter, we use spatial modeling techniques to describe movements and identify foraging areas for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) captured in a developmental habitat in south Texas, USA. Some green turtles established residency in the vicinity of their capture and release site, but most used a specific habitat feature (i.e., a jettied pass) to travel between the Gulf of Mexico and a nearby bay. Still others moved southward within the Gulf of Mexico into Mexican coastal waters, likely in response to decreasing water temperatures. These movements to waters off the coast of Mexico highlight the importance of international cooperation in restoration efforts undertaken on behalf of this imperiled species.

  5. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  6. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  7. The cosmic web mysterious architecture of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gott, J Richard

    2016-01-01

    J. Richard Gott was among the first cosmologists to propose that the structure of our universe is like a sponge made up of clusters of galaxies intricately connected by filaments of galaxies—a magnificent structure now called the "cosmic web" and mapped extensively by teams of astronomers. Here is his gripping insider’s account of how a generation of undaunted theorists and observers solved the mystery of the architecture of our cosmos. The Cosmic Web begins with modern pioneers of extragalactic astronomy, such as Edwin Hubble and Fritz Zwicky. It goes on to describe how, during the Cold War, the American school of cosmology favored a model of the universe where galaxies resided in isolated clusters, whereas the Soviet school favored a honeycomb pattern of galaxies punctuated by giant, isolated voids. Gott tells the stories of how his own path to a solution began with a high-school science project when he was eighteen, and how he and astronomer Mario Jurič measured the Sloan Great Wall of Galaxies, a fi...

  8. Mountain Residence at Mt.Fuchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Yuan Dynasty paintings laid stress on landscape with literary interest. Poems, calligraphy and painting were consciously arranged in perfect harmony so as to form the style of mountains-and-water painting with the "scholars’ painting" as its main theme. Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) was learned. Proficient in tonality and good at calligraphy, he began to paint mountains and streams when he was in his 50s. With his magnificent,refined and elegant style, Huang Gongwang’s paintings gained important position among artists of the time. The scroll Mountain Residence at Mt. Fuchun is his most popular piece. As a paper wash painting scroll, it is divided into two sections with the previous section 31.8 cm tall and 51.4 cm long,owned by the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, and the latter section 33 cm tall and 636.9 cm long, owned by the Palace Museum in Taiwan.

  9. WPA Omnibus Award MT Wind Power Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Spangler, Manager Energy Planning and Renewables

    2012-01-30

    The objective of this grant was to further the development of Montana's vast wind resources for small, medium, and large scale benefits to Montana and the nation. This was accomplished through collaborative work with wind industry representatives, state and local governments, the agricultural community, and interested citizens. Through these efforts MT Dept Environmental Quality (DEQ) was able to identify development barriers, educate and inform citizens, as well as to participate in regional and national dialogue that will spur the development of wind resources. The scope of DEQ's wind outreach effort evolved over the course of this agreement from the development of the Montana Wind Working Group and traditional outreach efforts, to the current focus on working with the state's university system to deliver a workforce trained to enter the wind industry.

  10. Structural and heat-flow implications of infrared anomalies at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, J.D.; Frank, D.

    1977-01-01

    Surface thermal features occur in an area of 9700 m/sup 2/ at Mt. Hood, on the basis of an aerial line-scan survey made April 26, 1973. The distribution of the thermal areas below the summit of Mt. Hood, shown on planimetrically corrected maps at 1 : 12,000, suggests structural control by a fracture system and brecciated zone peripheral to a hornblende-dacite plug dome (Crater Rock), and by a concentric fracture system that may have been associated with development of the present crater. The extent and inferred temperature of the thermal areas permits a preliminary estimate of a heat discharge of 10 megawatts, by analogy with similar fumarole and thermal fields of Mt. Baker, Washington. This figure includes a heat loss of 4 megawatts (MW) via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation to the atmosphere, and a somewhat less certain loss of 6 MW via fumarolic mass transfer of vapor and advective heat loss from runoff and ice melt. The first part of the estimate is based on two-point models for differential radiant exitance and differential flux via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation from heat balance of the ground surface. Alternate methods for estimating volcanogenic geothermal flux that assume a quasi-steady state heat flow also yield estimates in the 5-11 MW range. Heat loss equivalent to cooling of the dacite plug dome is judged to be insufficient to account for the heat flux at the fumarole fields.

  11. Structural and heat-flow implications of infrared anomalies at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jules D.; Frank, David

    1977-01-01

    Surface thermal features occur in an area of 9700 m2 at Mt. Hood, on the basis of an aerial line-scan survey made April 26, 1973. The distribution of the thermal areas below the summit of Mt. Hood, shown on planimetrically corrected maps at 1:12,000, suggests structural control by a fracture system and brecciated zone peripheral to a hornblende-dacite plug dome (Crater Rock), and by a concentric fracture system that may have been associated with development of the present crater. The extent and inferred temperature of the thermal areas permits a preliminary estimate of a heat discharge of 10 megawatts, by analogy with similar fumarole and thermal fields of Mt. Baker, Washington. This figure includes a heat loss of 4 megawatts (MW) via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation to the atmosphere, and a somewhat less certain loss of 6MW via fumarolic mass transfer of vapor and advective heat loss from runoff and ice melt. The first part of the estimate is based on two-point models for differential radiant exitance and differential flux via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation from heat balance of the ground surface. Alternate methods for estimating volcanogenic geothermal flux that assume a quasi-steady state heat flow also yield estimates in the 5-11 MW range. Heat loss equivalent to cooling of the dacite plug dome is judged to be insufficient to account for the heat flux at the fumarole fields.

  12. The mutation rate of the human mtDNA deletion mtDNA4977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Navidi, W; Tavaré, S; Dang, M H; Chomyn, A; Attardi, G; Cortopassi, G; Arnheim, N

    1996-10-01

    The human mitochondrial mutation mtDNA4977 is a 4,977-bp deletion that originates between two 13-bp direct repeats. We grew 220 colonies of cells, each from a single human cell. For each colony, we counted the number of cells and amplified the DNA by PCR to test for the presence of a deletion. To estimate the mutation fate, we used a model that describes the relationship between the mutation rate and the probability that a colony of a given size will contain no mutants, taking into account such factors as possible mitochondrial turnover and mistyping due to PCR error. We estimate that the mutation rate for mtDNA4977 in cultured human cells is 5.95 x 10(-8) per mitochondrial genome replication. This method can be applied to specific chromosomal, as well as mitochondrial, mutations.

  13. The mutation rate of the human mtDNA deletion mtDNA{sup 4977}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenkar, R. [Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, CO (United States); Navidi, W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Tavare, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The human mitochondrial mutation mtDNA{sup 4977} is a 4,977-bp deletion that originates between two 13-bp direct repeats. We grew 220 colonies of cells, each from a single human cell. For each colony, we counted the number of cells and amplified the DNA by PCR to test for the presence of a deletion. To estimate the mutation rate, we used a model that describes the relationship between the mutation rate and the probability that a colony of a given size will contain no mutants, taking into account such factors as possible mitochondrial turnover and mistyping due to PCR error. We estimate that the mutation rate for mtDNA{sup 4977} in cultured human cells is 5.95 x 10{sup {minus}8} per mitochondrial genome replication. This method can be applied to specific chromosomal, as well as mitochondrial, mutations. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Management of common ailments requiring referral in the pharmacy: a mystery shopping intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack Charles; Schneider, Carl Richard; Faraj, Renee; Wilson, Frances; de Almeida Neto, Abilio Cesar; Moles, Rebekah Jane

    2017-08-01

    Background Pharmacists can play a key role in managing ailments through their primary roles of supplying over-the-counter (non-prescription) medicines and advice-giving. It must be ensured that pharmacy staff practise in an evidence-based, guideline-compliant manner. To achieve this, mystery shopping can be used as an intervention to assess and train pharmacy staff. Objective To determine if repeated student pharmacist mystery shopping with immediate feedback affected the outcome of scenarios requiring referral to a medical practitioner. To determine what, if any, factors may influence whether referral occurred. Setting Thirteen community pharmacies across metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Methods Sixty-one student pharmacist mystery shoppers visited 13 community pharmacies across metropolitan Sydney once weekly over nine weeks between March-October 2015 to conduct audio-recorded mystery shopping visits with assigned scenarios (asthma, dyspepsia, diarrhoea). Students returned to the pharmacy immediately to provide staff members with feedback. Pharmacy staff were scored by mystery shoppers according to a standardised scoresheet. Score data and other characteristics, such as the assigned scenario, were analysed via correlation and logistic regression modelling. Main outcome measure Whether a student mystery shopper was appropriately referred to a medical practitioner based on the presenting symptoms. Results 158 visits were eligible for analysis. Referral to a medical practitioner was appropriately made in 66% of visits. The regression model provided an R2 value of 0.73; the questioning score of the interaction and if a pharmacist was involved in the interaction were significant predictor of appropriate outcome (p 0.05). Conclusions Mystery shopping with feedback did not improve pharmacy staff performance over time. Increased questioning and involvement of a pharmacist in the interaction were significant predictors of referral to a medical practitioner occurring.

  15. Construct Validity of the MMPI-2 College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlow, Deanna L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L

    2004-01-01

    The construct validity of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale was examined using 376 student clients at a university psychological clinic. A principal components analysis and correlations of Mt scale scores with clients' and therapists' ratings of symptoms and functioning showed that the Mt…

  16. SignMT: An Alternative Language Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditcharoen, Nadh; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled; the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form. We present the SignMT, Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text. In the translation process, SignMT takes into…

  17. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs, and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefits from music Quality of medical services is evaluated by benchmarks of benefit that are also economical and efficient. NICU-MT is underutilized and improves both medical and developmental outcomes for infants while reducing medical costs. For these reasons, it is an important new benchmark of quality NICU care. It behooves the profession to describe and promulgate specialized NICU-MT treatment techniques. Because of the extreme fragility and unique needs of premature infants still undergoing fetal development, it is also timely that the music therapy profession begins to develop specialized training for clinical treatment in this area. This article offers a perspective on NICU-MT by integrating music research with developmental theory, medical treatment, and MT clinical practice. It also provides suggestions for development of the specialization of NICU-MT.

  18. THE MYSTERY OF THE COSMIC DIFFUSE ULTRAVIOLET BACKGROUND RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Richard Conn [Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Murthy, Jayant [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru (India); Overduin, James; Tyler, Joshua, E-mail: henry@jhu.edu, E-mail: jmurthy@yahoo.com, E-mail: joverduin@towson.edu, E-mail: 97tyler@cardinalmail.cua.edu [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic background radiation in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1300-1700 Å) is deduced to originate only partially in the dust-scattered radiation of FUV-emitting stars: the source of a substantial fraction of the FUV background radiation remains a mystery. The radiation is remarkably uniform at both far northern and far southern Galactic latitudes and increases toward lower Galactic latitudes at all Galactic longitudes. We examine speculation that this might be due to interaction of the dark matter with the nuclei of the interstellar medium, but we are unable to point to a plausible mechanism for an effective interaction. We also explore the possibility that we are seeing radiation from bright FUV-emitting stars scattering from a ''second population'' of interstellar grains—grains that are small compared with FUV wavelengths. Such grains are known to exist, and they scatter with very high albedo, with an isotropic scattering pattern. However, comparison with the observed distribution (deduced from their 100 μm emission) of grains at high Galactic latitudes shows no correlation between the grains' location and the observed FUV emission. Our modeling of the FUV scattering by small grains also shows that there must be remarkably few such ''smaller'' grains at high Galactic latitudes, both north and south; this likely means simply that there is very little interstellar dust of any kind at the Galactic poles, in agreement with Perry and Johnston. We also review our limited knowledge of the cosmic diffuse background at ultraviolet wavelengths shortward of Lyα—it could be that our ''second component'' of the diffuse FUV background persists shortward of the Lyman limit and is the cause of the reionization of the universe.

  19. A New Clue in the Mystery of Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the mysterious fast radio bursts has eluded us for more than a decade. With the help of a particularly cooperative burst, however, scientists may finally be homing in on the answer to this puzzle.A Burst RepeatsThe host of FRB 121102 is placed in context in this Gemini image. [Gemini Observatory/AURA/NSF/NRC]More than 20 fast radio bursts rare and highly energetic millisecond-duration radio pulses have been observed since the first was discovered in 2007. FRB 121102, however, is unique in its behavior: its the only one of these bursts to repeat. The many flashes observed from FRB 121102 allowed us for the first time to follow up on the burst and hunt for its location.Earlier this year, this work led to the announcement that FRB 121102s host galaxy has been identified: a dwarf galaxy located at a redshift of z = 0.193 (roughly 3 billion light-years away). Now a team of scientists led by Cees Bassa (ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy) has performed additional follow-up to learn more about this host and what might be causing the mysterious flashes.Hubble observation of the host galaxy. The object at the bottom right is a reference star. The blue ellipse marks the extended diffuse emission of the galaxy, the red circle marks the centroid of the star-forming knot, and the white cross denotes the location of FRB 121102 ad the associated persistent radio source. [Adapted from Bassa et al. 2017]Host ObservationsBassa and collaborators used the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telecsope, and the Gemini North telecsope in Hawaii to obtain optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of FRB 121102s host galaxy.The authors determined that the galaxy is a dim, irregular, low-metallicity dwarf galaxy. Its resolved, revealing a bright star-forming region roughly 4,000 light-years across in the galaxys outskirts. Intriguingly, the persistent radio source associated with FRB 121102 falls directly within that star-forming knot

  20. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  1. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  2. Quality of service in banks by applying the mystery shopping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our present times the quality of service is beyond any doubt the most significant category in the banking sector. Focus on consumers, i.e. clients over the last few years is experiencing an expansion in the services oriented activities especially in banks. The needs of users of financial services have also experienced a dynamic change and it is necessary for the banks to develop their long-term business relationship with their clients, in order to satisfy their needs and render their own business profitable. In addition, a robust competition prevails on the banking market, and very often quality of service appears to be the competitive advantage of a bank. One of the ways to measure quality of service is also its mystery shopping. Mystery shopping is measuring the conduct of staff employed in an organisation. Bank employees are being judged during their service offering interaction. Staff employed is also the first link in the chain of communication between the client and the bank. The paper is based on the presentation of the manner in which the mystery shopping is conducted in banks, and also on the presentation of results of the mystery shopping in the major banks operating in Novi Sad. The objective of this research work is to present the significance that the mystery shopping has in banks, and the problem thus resolved is the quality of services offered in banks. Methodology applied was interviewing of the staff employed, and the research and analysis of the internal materials received from banks. We are pointing out, based on the result obtained from the research, at the ways in which mystery shopping is affecting satisfaction of clients, and the ways in which through mystery shopping the high quality of service can be achieved, the one that is beyond expectations in the banking sector. Emphasis is also made at the importance that the human factor has, i.e. staff employed as an important category in measuring quality of service offered

  3. Elastostatic effects around a magma reservoir and pathway due to historic earthquakes: a case study of Mt. Fuji, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Masaki; Mitsui, Yuta; Ishibashi, Hidemi; Kataoka, Jun

    2016-12-01

    We discuss elastostatic effects on Mt. Fuji, the tallest volcano in Japan, due to historic earthquakes in Japan. The 1707 Hoei eruption, which was the most explosive historic eruption of Mt. Fuji, occurred 49 days after the Hoei earthquake (Mw 8.7) along the Nankai Trough. It was previously suggested that the Hoei earthquake induced compression of a basaltic magma reservoir and unclamping of a dike-intruded region at depth, possibly triggering magma mixing and the subsequent Plinian eruption. Here, we show that the 1707 Hoei earthquake was a special case of induced volumetric strain and normal stress changes around the magma reservoir and pathway of Mt. Fuji. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9), along the Japan Trench, dilated the magma reservoir. It has been proposed that dilation of a magma reservoir drives the ascent of gas bubbles with magma and further depressurization, leading to a volcanic eruption. In fact, seismicity notably increased around Mt. Fuji during the first month after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, even when we statistically exclude aftershocks, but the small amount of strain change (< 1 μ strain) may have limited the ascent of magma. For many historic earthquakes, the magma reservoir was compressed and the magma pathway was wholly clamped. This type of interaction has little potential to mechanically trigger the deformation of a volcano. Thus, Mt. Fuji may be less susceptible to elastostatic effects because of its location relative to the sources of large tectonic earthquakes. As an exception, a possible local earthquake in the Fujikawa-kako fault zone could induce a large amount of magma reservoir dilation beneath the southern flank of Mt. Fuji.

  4. The geochemical evolution of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paone, A.

    2006-05-01

    This work integrates new geochemical data with the numerous published analyses on rocks from the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano. New quantitative models for the evolution of magma source regions and magma at different depths are proposed. The origin of the Somma-Vesuvius parental magma is modeled as 0.05-0.1 melt fractions of a MORB-type source composed of 54% olivine, 30% orthopyroxene, 10% clinopyroxene, 1% garnet, and 4% amphibole, and 1-5% sediment introduced through the adjacent arc system. The excess concentrations of Rb, Ba, K, and Sr are attributed to a subduction-related fluid phase. Major and trace element concentrations, coupled with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope signatures suggest that the bulk composition of sediments being subducted below southern Italy is similar to that of the carbonate rich sediment columns described by Plank and Langmuir (1998) and Vroon et al. (1995). Furthermore, it appears that the sediment contribution was introduced as a partial melt, which would account for some geochemical patterns, such as 143Nd/144Nd versus Th/Ce. The EC-AFC model ( Spera and Bohrson, 2001) is then used to track the evolution of Somma-Vesuvius magmas. The results are consistent with the melting of crustal Hercynian basement at depths of 12 and >20 km ( De Natale et al., 2001). Such a model is also consistent with the thermal model of Annen and Sparks (2002) for the evolution of magmatic provinces. Here, magmas from the upper mantle form a melt intrusion and storage zone at 12 to >20 km allowing for crustal melting to take place. At Vesuvius, Plinian eruptions involve the first magma withdrawn from a deep magma reservoir. Interplinian eruptions involve reduced volumes of magma stored over a larger depth range until the volcanic activity stops. This suggests that little magma is left in the melt intrusion and storage zone. A new cycle is started by a Plinian event when new magma rises from the upper mantle and is emplaced in the lower crust.

  5. The History of the Mysterious Eclipses of KH 15D II. Asiago, Kiso, Kitt Peak, Mt. Wilson, Palomar, Tautenburg and Rozhen Observatories, 1954-97

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, J A; Rampazzi, F; Barbieri, C; Mito, H; Tarusawa, K; Tsvetkov, M; Borisova, A; Meusinger, H; Johnson, John Asher; Winn, Joshua N.; Rampazzi, Francesca; Barbieri, Cesare; Mito, Hiroyuki; Tarusawa, Ken-ichi; Tsvetkov, Milcho; Borisova, Ana; Meusinger, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The unusual pre-main-sequence binary star named KH 15D undergoes remarkably deep and long-lasting periodic eclipses. Some clues about the reason for these eclipses have come from the observed evolution of the system's light curve over the last century. Here we present UBVRI photometry of KH 15D based on photographic plates from various observatories, ranging in time from 1954 to 1997. The system has been variable at the ~1 mag level since at least 1965. There is no evidence for color variations, with a typical limit of Delta(B-V) < 0.2 mag. We confirm some previously published results that were based on a smaller sample of plates: from approximately 1965 to 1990, the total flux was modulated with the 48-day orbital period of the binary, but the maximum flux was larger, the fractional variations were smaller, and the phase of minimum flux was shifted by almost a half-cycle relative to the modern light curve. All these results are consistent with the recently proposed theory that KH 15D is being occulted by ...

  6. A Great Basin-wide dry episode during the first half of the Mystery Interval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; McGee, David; Adams, Kenneth D.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Oviatt, Charles G.; Quade, Jay

    2009-12-01

    The existence of the Big Dry event from 14.9 to 13.8 14C kyrs in the Lake Estancia New Mexico record suggests that the deglacial Mystery Interval (14.5-12.4 14C kyrs) has two distinct hydrologic parts in the western USA. During the first, Great Basin Lake Estancia shrank in size and during the second, Great Basin Lake Lahontan reached its largest size. It is tempting to postulate that the transition between these two parts of the Mystery Interval were triggered by the IRD event recorded off Portugal at about 13.8 14C kyrs which post dates Heinrich event #1 by about 1.5 kyrs. This twofold division is consistent with the record from Hulu Cave, China, in which the initiation of the weak monsoon event occurs in the middle of the Mystery Interval at 16.1 kyrs (i.e., about 13.8 14C kyrs).

  7. Stoichiometric expression of mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 modulates mitochondrial morphology and cristae structure via Opa1L cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungchun; Ahn, Younghee; Kang, Sung-Myung; Park, Youngjin; Jeon, You-Jin; Rho, Jong M; Kim, Sung-Woo

    2015-06-15

    Deregulation of mitochondrial heat-shock protein 40 (mtHsp40) and dysfunction of mtHsp70 are associated with mitochondrial fragmentation, suggesting that mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 may play roles in modulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial fragmentation induced by mtHsp40 deregulation and mtHsp70 dysfunction remains unclear. In addition, the functional link between mitochondrial morphology change upon deregulated mtHsp40/mtHsp70 and mitochondrial function has been unexplored. Our coimmunoprecipitation and protein aggregation analysis showed that both overexpression and depletion of mtHsp40 accumulated aggregated proteins in fragmented mitochondria. Moreover, mtHsp70 loss and expression of a mtHsp70 mutant lacking the client-binding domain caused mitochondrial fragmentation. Together the data suggest that the molecular ratio of mtHsp40 to mtHsp70 is important for their chaperone function and mitochondrial morphology. Whereas mitochondrial translocation of Drp1 was not altered, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) short isoform accumulated in fragmented mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondrial fragmentation in this study results from aberration of mitochondrial inner membrane fusion. Finally, we found that fragmented mitochondria were defective in cristae development, OXPHOS, and ATP production. Taken together, our data suggest that impaired stoichiometry between mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 promotes Opa1L cleavage, leading to cristae opening, decreased OXPHOS, and triggering of mitochondrial fragmentation after reduction in their chaperone function.

  8. Adapting of marketing research methodology “Mystery Shopping” to the specifics of retail self-service shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.K. Antipona

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the innovational approaches of carrying out marketing research of the service quality in the retail self-service shops with the help of Mystery Shopping method. The algorithm of making marketing research Mystery Shopping in the self-service shops was developed.

  9. The Mysterious Case of the Detective as Child Hero: Sherlock Holmes, Encyclopedia Brown and Nancy Drew as Role Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Sally

    In the mystery genre, the one characteristic that the enduring figures of Sherlock Holmes, Nancy Drew, and Encyclopedia Brown have in common is a rational mind. The source of their strength is their ability to think and think well. A study examined some typical examples of the mystery genre in young adult literature and surveyed children and…

  10. Searle's New Mystery, or, How not to Solve the Problem of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo de Freitas Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available John Searle repeatedly claims to have offered a solution to the mind-brain problem, especially as regards the mystery of consciousness. The aim of this paper is to present and analyse Searle’s theory of biological naturalism, from its earliest expression in the 1980s to his most recent works. Our analysis shows that Searle’s biological naturalism suffers from many theoretical difficulties and logical inconsistencies, which disqualify it as a sound explanation for consciousness and the mind-brain problem. We conclude that, far from offering a solution to the problem of consciousness, Searle ended up creating a new mystery of consciousness.

  11. Dark Matter Mystery Deepens in Cosmic "Train Wreck"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Astronomers have discovered a chaotic scene unlike any witnessed before in a cosmic "train wreck" between giant galaxy clusters. NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical telescopes revealed a dark matter core that was mostly devoid of galaxies, which may pose problems for current theories of dark matter behavior. "These results challenge our understanding of the way clusters merge," said Dr. Andisheh Mahdavi of the University of Victoria, British Columbia. "Or, they possibly make us even reexamine the nature of dark matter itself." There are three main components to galaxy clusters: individual galaxies composed of billions of stars, hot gas in between the galaxies, and dark matter, a mysterious substance that dominates the cluster mass and can be detected only through its gravitational effects. Illustration of Abell 520 System Illustration of Abell 520 System Optical telescopes can observe the starlight from the individual galaxies, and can infer the location of dark matter by its subtle light-bending effects on distant galaxies. X-ray telescopes like Chandra detect the multimillion-degree gas. A popular theory of dark matter predicts that dark matter and galaxies should stay together, even during a violent collision, as observed in the case of the so-called Bullet Cluster. However, when the Chandra data of the galaxy cluster system known as Abell 520 was mapped along with the optical data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, HI, a puzzling picture emerged. A dark matter core was found, which also contained hot gas but no bright galaxies. "It blew us away that it looks like the galaxies are removed from the densest core of dark matter," said Dr. Hendrik Hoekstra, also of University of Victoria. "This would be the first time we've seen such a thing and could be a huge test of our knowledge of how dark matter behaves." Animation of Galaxy Cluster Animation of Galaxy Cluster In addition to the dark matter core, a

  12. The mysteries of the sea: How magnetics can help to solve them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, Udo

    2015-04-01

    Determination of the Earth's magnetic field over the oceans played a key role in understanding plate tectonics in the 1960s and has helped to answer many geodynamic questions since then. Satellite missions have nicely charted the Earth's magnetic field over its entire surface during the last 20 years. However, at the altitude of satellite orbits merely wavelengths greater than ~ 100 km can be resolved, thus, implying that most of the geologically interesting anomalies with sources in the Earth's crust can only be measured on the ground. For a long time these ground measurements have been carried out with the robust and easy-to-use Proton Precession magnetometers towed astern of research vessels. By using oriented Vector Magnetometers we are now returning to the Gaussian roots of measurements, quantifying the magnetic field in its components. This is realised either with towed instruments or with sensors mounted to the superstructure of research vessels. Applications for the use of modern instruments and methods applicable to vector data range from large scale analysis of seafloor spreading anomalies over addressing long standing tectonic questions in isolated ocean basins to high resolution investigations of mineral deposits at the seafloor. In the equatorial Eastern Pacific it was possible to precisely date the age of the oceanic crust over large areas between the Clarion and Galapagos fracture zones, where differences to existing global age models of more than 10 m.y. in some places could be found. In the Colombia Basin of the Caribbean, the analysis of vector data provides an unexpected new insight into the tectonic origin of at least one part of the Caribbean platform. High-resolution magnetic mapping at the sea surface and deep tow profiles reveal hydrothermally-altered rocks near active spreading centres and associated polymetallic sulphide deposits. During marine survey expeditions, magnetic measurements can be carried out almost any time and in combination

  13. A detailed East Asian monsoon history surrounding the ‘Mystery Interval’ derived from three Chinese speleothem records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihong; Wu, Jiangying; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yongjin; Cheng, Hai; Kong, Xinggong; Duan, Fucai

    2014-07-01

    The ‘Mystery Interval’ (MI, 17.5-14.5 ka) was the first stage of the last deglaciation, a key interval for understanding mechanisms of glacial-interglacial cycles. To elucidate possible causes of the MI, here we present three high-resolution, precisely dated oxygen-isotope records of stalagmites from Qingtian and Hulu Caves in China, reflecting changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) then. Based on well-established chronologies using precise 230Th dates and annual-band counting results, the two-cave δ18O profiles of ~ 7-yr resolution match well at decadal timescales. Both of the two-cave records document an abrupt weakening (2‰ of δ18O rise within 20 yr) in the EASM at ~ 16.1 ka, coinciding with the transition of the two-phased MI reconstructed from New Mexico's Lake Estancia. Our results indicate that the maximum southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and associated southward shift of polar jet stream may generate this two-phase feature of the MI during that time. We also discover a linear relationship among decreasing EASM intensity, rising atmospheric CO2 and weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation between the MI and Younger Dryas episodes, suggesting a strong coupling of atmospheric/oceanic circulations in response to the millennial-scale forcing, which in turn regulates global climate changes and carbon cycles.

  14. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank Geothermal Field Imaged by 3-D Full-tensor MT Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern Ole; Davatzes, Nicholas; Newman, Gregory A.

    2016-11-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2 - 5 Ohm-m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT dataset as well as the degree of modeling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60o) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modeling to test the best fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally-controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  15. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank geothermal field imaged by 3-D full-tensor MT inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern Ole; Davatzes, Nicholas; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-02-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2-5 Ohm m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT data set as well as the degree of modelling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60†) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modelling to test the best-fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  16. Two-dimensional inversion of MT (magnetotelluric) data; MT ho no nijigen inversion kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Okuno, M.; Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    A program has been developed to conduct inversion analysis of two-dimensional model using MT data, accurately. For the developed program, finite element method (FEM) was applied to the section of sequential analysis. A method in which Jacobian matrix is calculated only one first time and is inversely analyzed by fixing this during the repetition, and a method in which Jacobian matrix is corrected at each repetition of inversion analysis, were compared mutually. As a result of the numerical simulation, it was revealed that the Jacobian correction method provided more stable convergence for the simple 2D model, and that the calculation time is almost same as that of the Jacobian fixation method. To confirm the applicability of this program to actually measured data, results obtained from this program were compared with those from the Schlumberger method analysis by using MT data obtained in the Hatchobara geothermal area. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the both are well coincided mutually. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Porous aerosol in degassing plumes of Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Valery; Jourdan, Olivier; Voigt, Christiane; Gayet, Jean-Francois; Chauvigne, Aurélien; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Minikin, Andreas; Klingebiel, Marcus; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Febvre, Guy; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Frey, Wiebke; Molleker, Sergej; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-09-01

    Aerosols of the volcanic degassing plumes from Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli were probed with in situ instruments on board the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT in September 2011. Aerosol properties were analyzed using angular-scattering intensities and particle size distributions measured simultaneously with the Polar Nephelometer and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer probes (FSSP series 100 and 300), respectively. Aerosols of degassing plumes are characterized by low values of the asymmetry parameter (between 0.6 and 0.75); the effective diameter was within the range of 1.5-2.8 µm and the maximal diameter was lower than 20 µm. A principal component analysis applied to the Polar Nephelometer data indicates that scattering features of volcanic aerosols of different crater origins are clearly distinctive from angular-scattering intensities of cirrus and contrails. Retrievals of aerosol properties revealed that the particles were "optically spherical" and the estimated values of the real part of the refractive index are within the interval from 1.35 to 1.38. The interpretation of these results leads to the conclusion that the degassing plume aerosols were porous with air voids. Our estimates suggest that aerosol particles contained about 18 to 35 % of air voids in terms of the total volume.

  18. Altered MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors expression in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar; de Lima, Eliangela; Amaral, Fernanda; Peres, Rafael; Cipolla-Neto, José; Amado, Débora

    2017-06-01

    Clinical and experimental findings show that melatonin may be used as an adjuvant to the treatment of epilepsy-related complications by alleviates sleep disturbances, circadian alterations and attenuates seizures alone or in combination with AEDs. In addition, it has been observed that there is a circadian component on seizures, which cause changes in circadian system and in melatonin production. Nevertheless, the dynamic changes of the melatoninergic system, especially with regard to its membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2) in the natural course of TLE remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-hour profile of MT1 and MT2 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus of rats submitted to the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model analyzing the influence of the circadian rhythm in the expression pattern during the acute, silent, and chronic phases. Melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 mRNA expression levels were increased in the hippocampus of rats few hours after SE, with MT1 returning to normal levels and MT2 reducing during the silent phase. During the chronic phase, mRNA expression levels of both receptors return to levels close to control, however, presenting a different daily profile, showing that there is a circadian change during the chronic phase. Also, during the acute and silent phase it was possible to verify MT1 label only in CA2 hippocampal region with an increased expression only in the dark period of the acute phase. The MT2 receptor was present in all hippocampal regions, however, it was reduced in the acute phase and it was found in astrocytes. In chronic animals, there is a reduction in the presence of both receptors especially in regions where there is a typical damage derived from epilepsy. Therefore, we conclude that SE induced by pilocarpine is able to change melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 protein and mRNA expression levels in the hippocampus of rats few hours after SE as well as in silent and chronic phases. Copyright © 2017

  19. Schizophrenia: maternal inheritance and heteroplasmy of mtDNA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tomoe; Arai, Makoto; Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Mayumi; Obata, Nanako; Nohara, Izumi; Oshima, Kenichi; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Okazaki, Yuji; Doi, Nagafumi; Itokawa, Masanari

    2012-01-01

    Role of mitochondrial pathology in schizophrenia has not been fully clarified. We searched for distinctive variants in mtDNA extracted from the gray matter of postmortem brains and from peripheral blood samples. We screened mtDNA region containing 5 genes encoding subunits of cytochrome c oxidase and ATPases. Polymorphisms not already reported in databases are recorded as unregistered rare variants. Four unregistered, non-synonymous rare variants were detected in 4 schizophrenic samples. Seven registered non-synonymous variants were not previously detected in non-psychotic Japanese samples registered in the mtSNP database. These variants may contribute to disease pathophysiology. In one family, compound mutations showed co-segregation with schizophrenia. MtDNA mutations could confer a risk for schizophrenia in the Japanese population, although further analyses are needed.

  20. MT Lajpatrai blow-out studies at Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    The area around the tanker MT Lajpatrai was monitored for oil pollution studies. Measurements were carried out on the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples along with visual observations on oil slicks...

  1. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  2. 神秘的金星%Mysterious Planet Venus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡中为

    2012-01-01

    Venus is the Earth's nearest neighbor "sister planet" with comparative size and mass,and it is very early to be speculated that Venus may be similar in the earth's life environment, there is even creatures. But nearly half a century of detection show that Venus is more mysterious strange world what is different with the Earth. For example, the rotation of Venus is slow in opposite directions of the Earth (retrograde rotation) one night and day of Venus equals to 116.75 of earth days, less than two night and day of Venus will spend the one year of Venus-----as "one day seems like a year". Its dense atmosphere and cloud enveloped the global,and it is hard to see the true appearance. The atmospheric pressure at its surface is 93 times that at the earth surface, and strong greenhouse effect makes surface temperature of 467 TC , where hot and dry environment obviously does not exist biological. 60% surface elevation difference is less than 500 meters and only 5% higher than 2 km above the surface. Different from the Moon and the Mercury with old and serious meteorite impact, the entire surface of Venus seems to be the same age and geologic young with less impact crater, and dominated by volcanic geology with an average age of less than 500 million years, where nearly 90% of the surface of the consolidation is basaltic magma, all lava flows and all kinds of volcanoes, faults and fracture, but without the earth's delivery landscape with plate tectonic characteristics, it also do not have the ocean and river. A lot of secrets of Venus need further exploration.%金星是地球的近邻“姐妹行星”,它们的大小和质量相当.早先曾推想金星有类似于地球的生机环境,甚至存在生物.但近半个世纪的探测表明,金星是跟地球差异甚多的神秘奇特世界.例如,金星与地球的自转方向相反(逆向自转),且特缓慢,金星的一昼夜相当于116.75(地球)日,不到两昼夜就度过一金星年——“度日(昼夜)如年”

  3. Magnetotelluric imaging of a fossil paleozoic intraoceanic subduction zone in western Junggar, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yixian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Lupei; Huang, Rong; Chen, Chao; Li, Yongtao; Luo, Yinhe

    2016-06-01

    The fate of subducted oceanic slabs can provide important clues to plate reconstruction through Earth history. Since oceanic slabs in continental collision zones are typically not well preserved, ancient subduction zones have rarely been imaged by geophysical techniques. Here we present an exception from the Darbut belt in the Junggar accretionary collage in the southern Altaids of Asia. We deployed a 182 km long magnetotelluric (MT) profile including 60 broadband sounding sites across the belt. Quality off-diagonal impedances were inverted by a three-dimensional scheme to image resistivities beneath the profile. The resistivity model along with MT impedance phase ellipses and induction vectors were tested and interpreted in detail. Combining geological and geophysical observations, mineral physical experiment, and geodynamic modeling results, the MT transect suggests a fossil intraoceanic subduction zone during the Late Paleozoic in the western Junggar that has been well preserved due to lack of significant subsequent tecto-thermal events.

  4. Pitfalls in the analysis of ancient human mtDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The retrieval of DNA from ancient human specimens is not always successful owing to DNA deterioration and contamination although it is vital to provide new insights into the genetic structure of ancient people and to reconstruct the past history. Normally, only short DNA fragments can be retrieved from the ancient specimens. How to identify the authenticity of DNA obtained and to uncover the information it contained are difficult. We employed the ancient mtDNAs reported from Central Asia (including Xinjiang, China) as an example to discern potentially extraneous DNA contamination based on the updated mtDNA phylogeny derived from mtDNA control region, coding region, as well as complete sequence information. Our results demonstrated that many mtDNAs reported are more or less problematic. Starting from a reliable mtDNA phylogeney and combining the available modern data into analysis, one can ascertain the authenticity of the ancient DNA, distinguish the potential errors in a data set, and efficiently decipher the meager information it harbored. The reappraisal of the mtDNAs with the age of more than 2000 years from Central Asia gave support to the suggestion of extensively (pre)historical gene admixture in this region.

  5. Inversion of magnetotelluric data using integral equation approach with variable sensitivity domain: Application to EarthScope MT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuma, Martin; Gribenko, Alexander; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2017-09-01

    We have developed a multi-level parallel magnetotelluric (MT) integral equation based inversion program which uses variable sensitivity domain. The limited sensitivity of the data, which decreases with increasing frequency, is exploited by a receiver sensitivity domain, which also varies with frequency. We assess the effect of inverting principal impedances, full impedance tensor, and full tensor jointly with magnetovariational data (tipper). We first apply this method to several models and then invert the EarthScope MT data. We recover well the prominent features in the area including resistive structure associated with the Juan de Fuca slab subducting beneath the northwestern United States, the conductive zone of partially melted material above the subducting slab at the Cascade volcanic arc, conductive features in the Great Basin and in the area of Yellowstone associated with the hot spot, and resistive areas to the east corresponding to the older and more stable cratons.

  6. Mysteries of TGF-β Paradox in Benign and Malignant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Nengwang; Lee, Chung

    2014-01-01

    TGF-β regulates a wide range of biological functions including embryonic development, wound healing, organogenesis, immune modulation, and cancer progression. Interestingly, TGF-β is known to inhibit cell growth in benign cells but promote progression in cancer cells; this phenomenon is known as TGF-β paradox. To date, the mechanism of this paradox still remains a scientific mystery. In this review, we present our experience, along with the literature, in an attempt to answer this mystery. First, we observed that, on TGF-β engagement, there is a differential activation of Erk between benign and cancer cells. Since activated Erk is a major mediator in tumor progression and metastasis, a differentially activated Erk represents the answer to this mystery. Second, we identified a key player, PP2A-B56α, which is differentially recruited by the activated type I TGF-β receptor (TBRI) in benign and tumor cells, resulting in differential Erk activation. Finally, TGF-β stimulation leads to suppressed TBRs in tumor cells but not in benign cells. This differentially suppressed TBRs triggers differential recruitment of PP2A-B56α and, thus, differential activation of Erk. The above three events explain the mysteries of TGF-β paradox. Understanding the mechanism of TGF-β paradox will help us to predict indolent from aggressive cancers and develop novel anti-cancer strategies.

  7. Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

  8. Mysteries of TGF-β paradox in benign and malignant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung eLee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β regulates a wide range of biological functions including embryonic development, wound healing, organogenesis, immune modulation, and cancer progression. Interestingly, TGF-β is known to inhibit cell growth in benign cells but promote progression in cancer cells, a phenomenon known as TGF-β paradox. To date, the mechanism of this paradox still remains as a scientific mystery. In this review, we present our experience, alone with the literature, in an attempt to offer answers to this mystery. First, we observed that, upon TGF-β engagement, there is a differential activation of Erk between benign and cancer cells. Since activated Erk is a major mediator in tumor progression and metastasis, a differentially activated Erk represents the answer to this mystery. Second, we identified a key player, PP2A-B56α, which is differentially recruited by the activated type I TGF-β receptor (TBRI in benign and tumor cells, resulting in differential Erk activation. Finally, TGF-β stimulation leads to a suppressed TBRs in tumor cells but not in benign cells. This differentially suppressed TBRs triggers differential recruitment of PP2A-B56α and, thus, differential activation of Erk. The above three events offer the explanation to the mysteries

  9. Veiled EGM Jackpots: The Effects of Hidden and Mystery Jackpots on Gambling Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Phillip; Langham, Erika; Rockloff, Matthew J; Browne, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the impact of EGM Jackpots on gambling intensity may allow targeted strategies to be implemented that facilitate harm minimisation by acting to reduce losses of gamblers who play frequently, while maintaining the enjoyment and excitement of potential jackpots. The current study investigated the influences of Hidden and Mystery Jackpots on EGM gambling intensity. In a Hidden Jackpot, the prize value is not shown to the player, although the existence of a jackpot prize is advertised. In a Mystery Jackpot, the jackpot triggering state of the machine is unknown to players. One hundred and seven volunteers (males = 49, females = 58) played a laptop-simulated EGM with a starting $20 real-money stake and a chance to win a Jackpot ($500). Participants played for either a Hidden or Known Jackpot Value, with either a Mystery or Known winning symbol combination in a crossed design. Lastly, a control condition with no jackpot was included. Gambling intensity (speed of bets, persistence) was greater when the Jackpot value was unknown, especially when a winning-symbol combination suggested that a win was possible. While there is no evidence in the present investigation to suggest that Hidden or Mystery jackpots contribute to greater player enjoyment, there is some evidence to suggest a marginal positive contribution of hidden jackpots to risky playing behaviour.

  10. Teaching and Writing Popular Fiction: Horror, Adventure, Mystery and Romance in the American Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Karen M.

    This book, intended for teachers who want to expand their secondary-level writing curricula, examines the possibilities for using popular fiction in the classroom to encourage reading and to teach writing skills. Chapters include discussions of the genre approach, the horror story, the adventure story, the mystery story, the popular love story,…

  11. Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

  12. Studies in Scarlet: An Approach to Mystery Fiction as a Literature Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Stephan P.

    This 20-week course in mystery fiction for high school students is designed to provide experiences in logical thinking, reasoned written presentation, the nature of literary analysis via the crime story, and the tools of research. Students should be able to (1) use their language well, (2) read critically with attention to detail, and (3) meet and…

  13. Case Study: The Mystery of the Seven Deaths--A Case Study in Cellular Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdik, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Cellular respiration, the central component of cellular metabolism, can be a difficult concept for many students to fully understand. In this interrupted, problem-based case study, students explore the purpose of cellular respiration as they play the role of medical examiner, analyzing autopsy evidence to determine the mysterious cause of death…

  14. The Mysterious Death: An HPLC Lab Experiment. An Undergraduate Forensic Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment based on the separation of four prescription drugs (disopyramide, lidocaine, procainamide, and quinidine) is presented. The experiment is set within the forensic science context of the discovery of a patient's mysterious death where a drug overdose is suspected. Each lab group…

  15. Teaching and Writing Popular Fiction: Horror, Adventure, Mystery and Romance in the American Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Karen M.

    This book, intended for teachers who want to expand their secondary-level writing curricula, examines the possibilities for using popular fiction in the classroom to encourage reading and to teach writing skills. Chapters include discussions of the genre approach, the horror story, the adventure story, the mystery story, the popular love story,…

  16. Fame after Life: The Mystery of Edgar Allan Poe’s Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Møllegaard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although contemporary legends often deal with the trials and anx-ieties of everyday life, a considerable body of folk narratives deals with famous historical people and the mysteries, rumors, and anecdotes ascribed to them. American author Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849 was a trend-setting author of gothic horror and dark mysteries. His short, difficult life and strange death have fueled both academic and folkloristic narratives. Where the academic narratives often analyze his fiction biographically as reflections of his life such as his impoverishment, alcoholism, and frustrated ambition, the folk narratives typically focus on his death at the age of forty. By straddling literary and popular fame, Poe-lore occupies a dynamic Spielraum in contemporary folklore because his haunted life and mysterious death, similar to the literary conventions for the gothic in literature, collapse ‘high’ and ‘low’ culture. The folklore of famous people is intimately – perhaps even mysteriously – tied to the perception of individual identity and the social experience of city crowds, strangers, and alienation. In Poe’s case, the intertwining of his fiction with his real-life struggles has made Poe scholarship the most biographically centered of any American writer, past or present, and produced Poe not only as a towering legend in American literature, but also as a legendary figure in the popular imagination.

  17. The Mysterious Death: An HPLC Lab Experiment. An Undergraduate Forensic Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment based on the separation of four prescription drugs (disopyramide, lidocaine, procainamide, and quinidine) is presented. The experiment is set within the forensic science context of the discovery of a patient's mysterious death where a drug overdose is suspected. Each lab group…

  18. The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Pregnancy The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta Past Issues / Fall 2016 Table of Contents Understanding its role in health and disease The Human Placenta Project is a long-term research ...

  19. The book of science mysteries classroom science activities to support student enquiry-based learning

    CERN Document Server

    McOwan, Peter; Olivotto, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In this booklet, you will be introduced to an exciting new way to teach science in your classroom. The TEMI project (Teaching Enquiry with Mysteries Incorporated) is an EU-funded project that brings together experts in teacher training from across Europe to help you introduce enquiry-based learning successfully in the classroom and improve student engagement and skills.

  20. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  1. Micrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis Glacier, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Nicholson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lewis Glacier on Mt Kenya is one of the best-studied tropical glaciers, but full understanding of the interaction of the glacier mass balance and its climatic drivers has been hampered by a lack of long-term meteorological data. Here we present 2.5 yr of meteorological data collected from the glacier surface from October 2009 to February 2012. The location of measurements is in the upper portion of Lewis Glacier, but this location experiences negative annual mass balance, and the conditions are comparable to those experienced in the lower ablation zones of South American glaciers in the inner tropics. In the context of other glaciated mountains of equatorial East Africa, the summit zone of Mt Kenya shows strong diurnal cycles of convective cloud development as opposed to the Rwenzoris, where cloud cover persists throughout the diurnal cycle, and Kilimanjaro, where clear skies prevail. Surface energy fluxes were calculated for the meteorological station site using a physical mass- and energy-balance model driven by measured meteorological data and additional input parameters that were determined by Monte Carlo optimization. Sublimation rate was lower than those reported on other tropical glaciers, and melt rate was high throughout the year, with the glacier surface reaching the melting point on an almost daily basis. Surface mass balance is influenced by both solid precipitation and air temperature, with radiation providing the greatest net source of energy to the surface. Cloud cover typically reduces the net radiation balance compared to clear-sky conditions, and thus the frequent formation of convective clouds over the summit of Mt Kenya and the associated higher rate of snow accumulation are important in limiting the rate of mass loss from the glacier surface. The analyses shown here form the basis for future glacier-wide mass and energy balance modeling to determine the climate proxy offered by the glaciers of Mt Kenya.

  2. Structural controls, alteration, permeability and thermal regime of Dixie Valley from new-generation MT/galvanic array profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. Wannamaker

    2007-11-30

    State-of-the-art MT array measurements in contiguous bipole deployments across the Dixie Valley thermal area have been integrated with regional MT transect data and other evidence to address several basic geothermal goals. These include 1), resolve a fundamental structural ambiguity at the Dixie Valley thermal area (single rangefront fault versus shallower, stepped pediment; 2), delineate fault zones which have experienced fluid flux as indicated by low resistivity; 3), infer ultimate heat and fluid sources for the thermal area; and 4), from a generic technique standpoint, investigate the capability of well-sampled electrical data for resolving subsurface structure. Three dense lines cross the Senator Fumaroles area, the Cottonwood Creek and main producing area, and the low-permeability region through the section 10-15 area, and have stand-alone MT soundings appended at one or both ends for local background control. Regularized 2-D inversion implies that shallow pediment basement rocks extend for a considerable distance (1-2 km) southeastward from the topographic scarp of the Stillwater Range under all three dense profiles, but especially for the Senator Fumaroles line. This result is similar to gravity interpretations in the area, but with the intrinsic depth resolution possible from EM wave propagation. Low resistivity zones flank the interpreted main offsetting fault especially toward the north end of the field which may be due to alteration from geothermal fluid outflow and upflow. The appended MT soundings help to substantiate a deep, subvertical conductor intersecting the base of Dixie Valley from the middle crust, which appears to be a hydrothermal conduit feeding from deep crustal magmatic underplating. This may supply at least part of the high temperature fluids and explain enhanced He-3 levels in those fluids.

  3. Kinetic evidence for different mechanisms of interaction of black mamba toxins MT alpha and MT beta with muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolkkonen, M; Oras, A; Toomela, T; Karlsson, E; Järv, J; Akerman, K E

    2001-01-01

    By studying the influence of two toxins from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis on the kinetics of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from rat cerebral cortex, it was revealed that these toxins, MT alpha and MT beta, interact with the receptors via kinetically distinct mechanisms. MT beta bound to receptors in a one-step, readily reversible process with the dissociation constant K(d)=5.3 microM. The binding mechanism of MTalpha was more complex, involving at least two consecutive steps. A fast receptor-toxin complex formation (K(T)=3.8 microM) was followed by a slow process of isomerisation of this complex (k(i)=1.8 x 10(-2) s(-1), half-time 39 s). A similar two-step interaction mechanism has been established for a related toxin, MT2 from the green mamba D. angusticeps (K(T)=1.4 microM, k(i)=8.3 x 10(-4) s(-1), half-time 840 s). The slow isomerisation process delays the effect of MT alpha and MT2, but increases their apparent potency compared to toxins unable to induce the isomerisation process.

  4. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  5. Cumulate xenoliths from Mt. Overlord, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: A window into high pressure storage and differentiation of mantle-derived basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinelli, Cristina; Gaeta, Mario; Armienti, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The alkaline basaltic magmas at Mt. Overlord (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) entrained abundant ultramafic xenoliths (wehrlites, clinopyroxenites and hornblendites). Textures, bulk rock compositions, mineral chemistry and thermobarometric calculations indicate that the xenoliths represent cumulates that crystallised at the mantle-crust boundary. In particular, the major and trace element compositions of the bulk rocks and minerals indicate that the Mt. Overlord cumulates were formed through processes of crystal fractionation that affected hydrous basanitic magmas. Some of the xenoliths have textural features that suggest a lengthy (> 13 Myr) post-emplacement history at relatively low temperatures (1050-1100 °C) and high pressures (0.8 to 1.4 GPa) and that their primary parental melts were therefore related to the earliest phases of Cenozoic magmatism. These processes produced a ;wet and hot deep zone; that had a strong influence on the thermochemical evolution of the lower crust beneath Mt. Overlord.

  6. Thermo Hot Springs: MT and Gravity observations of a producing geothermal field in Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, C.; Chapman, D. S.; Gettings, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermo Hot Springs, an existing 10 MW geothermal resource in southern Utah, is poorly understood with little constraint on subsurface extent and capacity. In an effort to expand geothermal production, the subsurface extent of the system is being explored by gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. Since summer of 2010 we have added 108 gravity stations and 90 MT stations in the study area. Complete Bouguer anomaly shows a prominent north-south regional trend of 10 to 15 mGal amplitude which is interpreted as a large Basin-and-Range normal fault. Northeast of the hot springs there is an east-west trending gravity low of 4 mGal amplitude which is interpreted as a fault with down throw to the north. These two trends intersect adjacent to the hot spring, and are interpreted to be the structural control of the fluid flow. Preliminary results from 2-dimensional inversion models of gravity and MT profiles provide depth-to-basement values as shallow as 200 m near the hot spring and as deep as 2 km in the southwest of the study area. We believe that the low resistivities observed in the southwest indicate the existence of hot fluids and/or clay rich sediments at a thickness of more than 1.5 km overlying hot, saturated basement rock. A deep, stratigraphically hosted geothermal system could be present in the southwest and may be connected to the hot springs through a north trending, deeply penetrating fracture zone. With the addition of regional borehole data, thermal gradient wells and water chemistry we aim to constrain the extent of the geothermal system, identify its source and quantify its total production potential.

  7. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  8. The Formation and Erosion History of Mt. Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Dapremont, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring 155 km diameter Gale crater and Mt. Sharp, Gale's 5 km high central mound (Fig. 1). This study addresses the formation and erosion history of Mt. Sharp. Gale lies on the topographic dichotomy between the southern highlands and the northern plains - a drop of over 2 km [1,2]. Altitude differences between the north and south rim reflect this regional slope, as do altitude differences between the deep annulus north of Mt. Sharp and the southern crater floor. Orbiter and rover images demonstrate that most exposed areas on Mt. Sharp consist of thin, sub-parallel units interpreted as sedimentary layers [3]. Gale is typical of the 50 large martian craters that have been totally or partially filled with such layers [4,5]. In many craters these sediments have been deeply eroded. Central Peak and Peak Ring: The highest point on Mt. Sharp, near the crater's center, is interpreted as a central peak [6]. The peak has a massive lower portion and a thin, smooth capping deposit (Fig. 2). Gale's size is transitional between martian craters with single central peaks and craters with peak rings approximately half the crater's diameter [2,6]. The boundaries of Mt. Sharp, as well as an arc of hills to the southeast of the mountain, closely match a circle approximately 80 km in diameter (Fig. 3). This morphology suggests that the Gale impact may have formed both a central peak and a partial peak ring, which is covered by the sediments of Mt. Sharp in the north and possibly exposed in the arc of eroded hills in the southeast quadrant (Figs. 3,4).

  9. 77 FR 20747 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT, to... feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Billings, MT Billings Logan... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY...

  10. MtDNA mutagenesis impairs elimination of mitochondria during erythroid maturation leading to enhanced erythrocyte destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlqvist, K.J.; Leoncini, S.; Pecorelli, A.; Wortmann, S.B.; Ahola, S.; Forsstrom, S.; Guerranti, R.; Felice, C. De; Smeitink, J.; Ciccoli, L.; Hamalainen, R.H.; Suomalainen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Haematopoietic progenitor cells show special sensitivity to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis, which suggests that increased mtDNA mutagenesis could underlie anemias. Here we show that elevated mtDNA mutagenesis in mice with a proof-reading deficient mtDNA polymerase (PolG) leads to incomplete m

  11. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA

  12. Rosetta - a new target to solve planetary mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This delay meant that the original mission's target, Comet Wirtanen, could no longer be reached. Instead, a new target has been selected, Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which Rosetta will encounter in 2014 after a ‘billiard ball’ journey through the Solar System lasting more than ten years. Rosetta’s name comes from the famous ‘Rosetta Stone’, from which Egyptian hieroglyphics were deciphered almost 200 years ago. In a similar way, scientists hope that the Rosetta spacecraft will unlock the mysteries of the Solar System. Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. In orbiting Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and landing on it, Rosetta will collect information essential to an understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules that, delivered to Earth through impacts, perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, ‘volatile’ light elements carried by comets might also have played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions undertaken so far,” says Professor David Southwood, ESA Director of Science. “No one has ever attempted such a mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres.” Before reaching its target in 2014, Rosetta will circle the Sun four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; the spacecraft will then closely orbit the comet, and

  13. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer After the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tomohiro; Uchino, Osamu; Fujimoto, Toshifumi

    1992-01-01

    The volcano Mt. Pinatubo located on the Luzon Island, Philippines, had explosively erupted on June 15, 1991. The volcanic eruptions such as volcanic ash, SO2 and H2O reached into the stratosphere over 30 km altitude by the NOAA-11 satellite observation and this is considered one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in this century. A grandiose volcanic eruption influences the atmosphere seriously and causes many climatic effects globally. There had been many impacts on radiation, atmospheric temperature and stratospheric ozone after some past volcanic eruptions. The main cause of volcanic influence depends on stratospheric aerosol, that stay long enough to change climate and other meteorological conditions. Therefore it is very important to watch stratospheric aerosol layers carefully and continuously. Standing on this respect, we do not only continue stratospheric aerosol observation at Tsukuba but also have urgently developed another lidar observational point at Naha in Okinawa Island. This observational station could be thought valuable since there is no lidar observational station in this latitudinal zone and it is much nearer to Mt. Pinatubo. Especially, there is advantage to link up these two stations on studying the transportation mechanism in the stratosphere. In this paper, we present the results of lidar observations at Tsukuba and Naha by lidar systems with Nd:YAG laser.

  14. A GIS tool for Integrated Hazard Evaluation on the faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, G.; Bonforte, A.; Neri, M.

    2012-04-01

    A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active fault systems affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referred arc-features and associated Database. Arc-type features, geo-referred into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, are represented by the four fault systems that develop in the analyzed region and other vector layers (i.e. the main lifelines) specifically added for the hazard evaluation. In any case, the backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us length, location, slip rate etc. Although the system has been constructed according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the Database represent a powerful tool in modeling hazard at Mt. Etna. On the other hand, layering different geographic information and managing Database (topological querying) achieved information can easily and quickly be represented in a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps which can be produced following the implementation of specific predicting models.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600 bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm=4.622.

  16. Mt. Graham: Optical turbulence vertical distribution at standard and high vertical resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Hagelin, S; S.,; Lascaux, F; di Arcetri, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico; 10.1117/12.856904

    2010-01-01

    A characterization of the optical turbulence vertical distribution and all the main integrated astroclimatic parameters derived from the CN2 and the wind speed profiles above Mt. Graham is presented. The statistic includes measurements related to 43 nights done with a Generalized Scidar (GS) used in standard configuration with a vertical resolution of ~1 km on the whole 20-22 km and with the new technique (HVR-GS) in the first kilometer. The latter achieves a resolution of ~ 20-30 m in this region of the atmosphere. Measurements done in different periods of the year permit us to provide a seasonal variation analysis of the CN2. A discretized distribution of the typical CN2 profiles useful for the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) simulations is provided and a specific analysis for the LBT Laser Guide Star system ARGOS case is done including the calculation of the 'gray zones' for J, H and K bands. Mt. Graham confirms to be an excellent site with median values of the seeing without dome contribution equal to...

  17. MtDNA haplogroups and elite Korean athlete status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K C; Cho, H I; Kim, W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has recently been suggested to have an association with athletic performance or physical endurance. Since mtDNA is haploid and lacks recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and remain in particular genetic backgrounds referred to as haplogroups. To assess the possible contribution of mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants to differences in elite athletic performance, we performed a population-based study of 152 Korean elite athletes [77 sprint/power athletes (SPA) and 75 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA)] and 265 non-athletic controls (CON). The overall haplogroup distribution of EMA differed significantly from CON (p<0.01), but that of SPA did not. The EMA have an excess of haplogroups M* (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.63-11.79, p=0.003) and N9 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.92-5.81, p=0.042), but a dearth of haplogroup B (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, p=0.003) compared with the CON. Thus, our data imply that specific mtDNA lineages may provide a significant effect on elite Korean endurance status, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.

  18. Coevolution of Drosophila melanogaster mtDNA and Wolbachia genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Ilinsky

    Full Text Available Maternally inherited microorganisms can influence the mtDNA pattern of variation in hosts. This influence is driven by selection among symbionts and can cause the frequency of mitochondrial variants in the population to eventually increase or decrease. Wolbachia infection is common and widespread in Drosophila melanogaster populations. We compared genetic variability of D. melanogaster mitotypes with Wolbachia genotypes among isofemale lines associated with different geographic locations and time intervals to study coevolution of the mtDNA and Wolbachia. Phylogenetic analysis of D. melanogaster mtDNA revealed two clades diverged in Africa, each associated with one of the two Wolbachia genotype groups. No evidence of horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between maternal lineages has been found. All the mtDNA variants that occur in infected isofemale lines are found in uninfected isofemale lines and vice versa, which is indicative of a recent loss of infection from some maternal fly lineages and confirms a significant role of Wolbachia in the D. melanogaster mtDNA pattern of variation. Finally, we present a comparative analysis of biogeographic distribution of D. melanogaster mitotypes all over the world.

  19. mtDNA Mutagenesis Disrupts Pluripotent Stem Cell Function by Altering Redox Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Ahlqvist, Kati J.; Ellonen, Pekka; Lepistö, Maija; Logan, Angela; Otonkoski, Timo; Murphy, Michael P.; Suomalainen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Summary mtDNA mutagenesis in somatic stem cells leads to their dysfunction and to progeria in mouse. The mechanism was proposed to involve modification of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/redox signaling. We studied the effect of mtDNA mutagenesis on reprogramming and stemness of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and show that PSCs select against specific mtDNA mutations, mimicking germline and promoting mtDNA integrity despite their glycolytic metabolism. Furthermore, mtDNA mutagenesis is associate...

  20. Nuclear collapse observed during the eruption of Mt. Usu

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T A

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Usu which was located about 70 km southwest from Sapporo in Hokkaido (the north island of Japan) began to erupt on March 31 in 2000. A nuclear emulsion was placed on a foot of Mt. Usu to catch small atomic clusters which were expected to be emitted during the eruption. Curious atomic clusters and their reaction products were successfully observed on surfaces of the nuclear emulsion. By comparing them with similar products which were obtained in previous experiments of discharge and electrolysis, it was concluded that micro Ball Lightning was really emitted during the eruption of Mt. Usu and that explosive reactions by nuclear collapse could have been involved to contribute to energy of the eruption. (author)

  1. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-06-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  2. First determination of dissolved volatiles in magmas of Mt Garet (Vanuatu arc). Origin of sulfur emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floury, P.; Metrich, N.; Bertagnini, A.; Garaebiti, E.; Hidalgo, S.; Beaumais, A.; Neuville, D.

    2012-12-01

    Mt Garet, on Gaua island, is one of the active volcanoes of the Vanuatu arc in the Southwest Pacific. This 360 m high cone emerges from the lake Letas in the summit caldera of a composite volcano. Since 1962, Mt Garet produced ash and gas plumes recurrently, the last explosive events being documented in 2009 - 2010. Airborne measurements of SO2 emission rates, the only data set presently available for this volcano, were realized in 2009 and revealed a high SO2 flux of, on average, 2955 tons per day [1]. We report here the very first data on the geochemistry of the scoriae emitted in January 2010, together with analyses of major elements and volatiles (H2O, Cl, S) in crystal-hosted melt inclusions and a detailed mineralogy of the samples. The 2010 scoriae are basaltic-andesites and are more evolved that the pre-1962 basaltic lava flows of Mt Garet. Their major and trace element evolution cannot be reconciled with a single process of fractional crystallization, but suggest mixing between a pre-1962 like basalt and an evolved trachydacitic end-member. This observation strongly suggests the recent development of a small reservoir beneath Mt Garet. The plagioclases (An89-73) and clinopyroxenes (Fs5-16) display a significant chemical range but do not clearly evidence reverse zoning. The paragenesis is complemented by Fe-Ti oxides (USP39-40) and scarce olivines (Fo72.7). Some crystals are obviously inherited (e.g., An-poor plagioclase). The melt inclusions are ubiquitous but of small size in each mineral phase. Their H2O content was specifically determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy (IPGP), with a series of basaltic glass standards previously developed for Raman calibration [2]. Data and spectrum are treated following [3]. As a whole melt inclusion compositions cover the whole chemical spectrum from basalt to trachydacite. Their contents in H2O (2.7-0.8 wt%), S (1570 - Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 211-212, 36-46 [2] Mercier et al., (2009) and (2010

  3. MT-ADRES: Multithreading on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan;

    2007-01-01

    -ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl’s law, this paper proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (Multi-Threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned in multiple...... smaller arrays that can execute threads in parallel. Because the partition can be changed dynamically, this extension provides more flexibility than a multi-core approach. This article presents details of the enhanced architecture and results obtained from an MPEG-2 decoder implementation that exploits...... a mix of thread-level parallelism and instruction-level parallelism....

  4. Pattern Recognition of mtDNA with Associative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we applied an associative memory for the pattern recognition of mtDNA that can be useful to identify bodies and human remains. In particular, we used both morphological hetroassociative memories: max and min. We process the problem of pattern recognition as a classification task. Our proposal showed a correct recall, we obtained the 100% of recalling of all the learned patterns. We simulated a corrupted sample of mtDNA by adding noise of two types: additive and subtractive. The memory showed a correct recall when we applied less or equal than 55% of both types of noise.

  5. MT6575:Android智能手机平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    联发科技股份有限公司推出专为主流智能手机市场而设计的第三代智能手机解决方案MT6575。联发科技MT6575高度整合主频1GHz的ARM Codex-A9处理器和联发科技优越的3G/HSPA Modem,并支持Android4.0新Ice Cream Sandwich操作平台。

  6. Depletion of mtDNA: syndromes and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberio, Simona; Mineri, Rossana; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) requires the concerted activity of several nuclear-encoded factors that participate in its replication, being part of the mitochondrial replisome or ensuring the balanced supply of dNTPs to mitochondria. In the past decade, a growing number of syndromes associated with dysfunction due to tissue-specific depletion of mtDNA (MDS) have been reported. This article reviews the current knowledge of the genes responsible for these disorders, the impact of different mutations in the epidemiology of MDS and their role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the different clinical presentations.

  7. Passive monitoring of Mt. Etna and Mt. Yasur to probe the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assink, J. D.; Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present two case studies in which the influence of atmospheric dynamics on infrasound propagation is studied. We make use of a volcanic infrasound data set that has been recorded at infrasound arrays in the vicinity of Mount Etna, Italy (37 N). In addition, we revisit the Mt. Yasur (22 S) dataset. Respectively, over 6 and 10 years of infrasound observables are compared to theoretical estimates obtained from propagation modeling using existing European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric databases. Long-term detail comparisons such as presented in this study have been unprecedented and are useful for atmospheric modeling and infrasound propagation studies. While a first-order agreement is found, we report on significant discrepancies around the equinox period and during intervals during which anomalous detections occur during the winter, such as during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs). We present an inversion study in which we make use of measured trace velocity estimates to predict effective sound speed model updates in a Bayesian framework. Such estimates will be compared to independent wind and temperature measurements that are available through the Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE) network.

  8. Potentially harmful side-effects: medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and the insufficient illness narrative for viewers of mystery diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Carol-Ann

    2013-09-01

    Illness narrative has often been found to play a positive role in both patients' and providers' efforts to find meaning in the illness experience. However, illness narrative can sometimes become counterproductive, even pathological, particularly in cases of medical mystery--cases wherein biopsychosocial factors blur the distinction between bodily dysfunction and somatizing behavior. In this article, the author draws attention to two examples of medical mystery, the clinical presentation of medically unexplained symptoms, and the popular reality television program Mystery Diagnosis, to demonstrate the potentially harmful effects of illness narrative. The medical mystery's complex narrative structure reflects and tends to reinforce providers' and patients' mistaken assumptions, anxieties, and conflicts in ways which obstruct, rather than facilitate, healing.

  9. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  10. Mt. Etna: rationale and implementation of a Supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Mt. Etna is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth and, in the past few decades, has erupted virtually every year. The volcanism of Mt. Etna results from the interaction between magma ascent in the rather complex plumbing feeding system and the local tectonic regime controlled by the volcano edifice's eastern flank instability, whose driving conditions (e.g., structural setting, tectonic forces) and cause-effect relationships are not yet completely understood. At the surface, the combination of the two factors produces eruptions that might consist of either strongly explosive (e.g., 2002; 2011) and produce volcanic ash plumes likely to disrupt air traffic for hours to weeks (e.g., 5 January 2012), including powerful summit paroxysms in the 2012-2013 time span or lava flows capable of invading the populated sectors, that can threat human property and vital infrastructures. Mt. Etna presents many characteristics that make it prone to be a Geohazard Supersite. The volcano consists of an open-vent system characterised by continuous degassing from the volcano summit craters and frequent eruptive summit and flank eruptions. Eruptions can be of different kinds passing from violent short-lasting explosive events to long-lasting lava output, thus producing different kinds of impacts on the surrounding environment, and especially on the large number of people living around the volcano foot. Over time, the frequency and variety of Mt. Etna's eruptive activity have made the volcano one of the most well-studied and monitored worldwide. At Mt. Etna volcanic activity produces a wide spectrum of signals, spanning from seismic and geodetic to geochemical and radiometric signals, which are tracked in continuous and in real-and quasi-real time by the automatic multi-disciplinary monitoring systems deployed by INGV. The huge amount of ground-based collected data sets enforces the vision of Mt. Etna supersite as a Geohazard Supersite where applying the overarching criteria of the

  11. Developing a Mystery Shopping Measure to Operate a Sustainable Restaurant Business: The Power of Integrating with Corporate Executive Members’ Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel J. C. Chen; Clayton W. Barrows

    2015-01-01

    Mystery shopping has been used to objectively measure whether employees follow the visions of a company’s quality service standards. It then creates a feedback loop that allows companies to train their employees to consistently deliver quality services. The main purposes of this project are aimed at examining (1) the overall benefits of mystery shopper projects in the hospitality business through literature reviews; and (2) the importance of how a company can work with an outside agency (con...

  12. The mystery of square root of minus one in quantum mechanics, and its demystification

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, C P

    2009-01-01

    To most physicists, quantum mechanics must embrace the imaginary number i = square root of minus one is at least a common belief if not a mystery. We use the famous example pq -qp = h/(2 pi i) to demonstrate the possible elimination of i when constructing this noncommutative relationship. We then discuss the role of i in the formulation of Schroedinger's wave equation. Common to the original development of these two quantum theories was the use of complex exponential to represent the fundamental variables (i.e., p, q, and the wave function). Understanding this complex function from the right perspective, as we suggest in this essay, removes the mysteries surrounding the complex nature of quantum mechanics.

  13. Patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness along elevational gradients in Mt. Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick Kinyatta

    2015-11-18

    Faunal species richness is traditionally assumed to decrease with increasing elevation and decreasing primary productivity. Species richness is reported to peak at mid-elevation. This survey examines the herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Mt. Kenya (central Kenya) by testing the hypothesis that changes in species richness with elevation relate to elevation-dependent changes in climate. Sampling along transects from an elevation of approximately 1 700 m in Chogoria forest block (wind-ward side) and approximately 2 600 m in Sirimon block (rain shadow zone) upwards in March 2009. This starts from the forest to montane alpine zones. Sampling of reptiles and amphibians uses pitfall traps associated with drift fences, time-limited searches and visual encounter surveys. The results show that herpetofaunal richness differs among three vegetation zones along the elevation gradient. Chogoria has higher biodiversity than Sirimon. More species occur at low and middle elevations and few exist at high elevations. The trends are consistent with expected optimum water and energy variables. The lower alpine montane zone has high species richness but low diversity due to dominance of some high elevations species. Unambiguous data do not support a mid-domain effect (mid-elevation peak) because the observed trend better fits a model in which climatic variables (rainfall and temperature) control species richness, which indirectly measures productivity. It is important to continue protection of all indigenous forests, especially at low to mid elevations. These areas are vulnerable to human destruction yet are home to some endemic species. Firebreaks can limit the spread of the perennial wildfires, especially on the moorlands.

  14. Melatonin influences somatostatin secretion from human pancreatic δ-cells via MT1 and MT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibolka, Juliane; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Peschke, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Melatonin is an effector of the diurnal clock on pancreatic islets. The membrane receptor-transmitted inhibitory influence of melatonin on insulin secretion is well established and contrasts with the reported stimulation of glucagon release from α-cells. Virtually, nothing is known concerning the melatonin-mediated effects on islet δ-cells. Analysis of a human pancreatic δ-cell model, the cell line QGP-1, and the use of a somatostatin-specific radioimmunoassay showed that melatonin primarily has an inhibitory effect on somatostatin secretion in the physiological concentration range. In the pharmacological range, melatonin elicited slightly increased somatostatin release from δ-cells. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is the major second messenger dose-dependently stimulating somatostatin secretion, in experiments employing the membrane-permeable 8-Br-cAMP. 8-Br-cyclic guanosine monophosphate proved to be of only minor relevance to somatostatin release. As the inhibitory effect of 1 nm melatonin was reversed after incubation of QGP-1 cells with the nonselective melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole, but not with the MT2-selective antagonist 4-P-PDOT (4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline), an involvement of the MT1 receptor can be assumed. Somatostatin release from the δ-cells at low glucose concentrations was significantly inhibited during co-incubation with 1 nm melatonin, an effect which was less pronounced at higher glucose levels. Transient expression experiments, overexpressing MT1, MT2, or a deletion variant as a control, indicated that the MT1 and not the MT2 receptor was the major transmitter of the inhibitory melatonin effect. These data point to a significant influence of melatonin on pancreatic δ-cells and on somatostatin release.

  15. Did Kanner Actually Describe the First Account of Autism? The Mystery of 1938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellowes, Sam

    2015-07-01

    Kanner opens his pioneering 1943 paper on autism by making a mysterious mention of the year 1938. Recent letters to the editor of this journal have disagreed over a particular interpretation-does 1938 refer to an early paper by Asperger, effectively meaning Kanner plagiarised Asperger? I argue 1938 refers to a paper by Louise Despert. This was not plagiarism but a case of building on Despert's ideas. Additionally, I suggest his motives for not mentioning her by name were not dishonourable.

  16. Early artificial ventilation: the mystery of "Truehead of Galveston"--was he Dr Charles William Trueheart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubuhovich, Ronald V

    2008-12-01

    It seems strange that the medical literature from the United States has only a single original source of reference for a device (from circa 1870) for artificial ventilation in neonatal resuscitation. The invention is attributed to "Dr Truehead of Galveston, Texas". I argue that this mystery arises from two separate misspellings of the inventor's name, and propose that the correct name is Dr Charles William Trueheart (1837-1914), also of Galveston.

  17. Totally Tubular: The Mystery behind Function and Origin of the Brain Ventricular System

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Laura Anne; Sive, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    A unique feature of the vertebrate brain is the brain ventricular system, a series of connected cavities which are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and surrounded by neuroepithelium. While CSF is critical for both adult brain function and embryonic brain development, neither development nor function of the brain ventricular system is fully understood. In this review, we discuss the mystery of why vertebrate brains have ventricles, and whence they originate. The brain ventricular system d...

  18. Mysteries and unknowns of single bubble sonoluminescence from viewpoint of plasma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, B.P. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Physics

    2001-07-01

    The main goal of the present work is to propose and consider electronically excited H{sub 2}{sup *}(a{sup 3}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}) molecules (and possibly hydrides of rare gases like ArH*(A{sup 2}{sigma})) as light emitters responsible for continua observed in both MBSL and SBSL experiments with hydrogen-containing liquids. This provides new sight on the well known ''mysteries and unknowns'' of the SBSL phenomenon.

  19. Expression of the MT1 Melatonin Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jablonska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC is the leading cause of death among women with genital tract disorders. Melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties which it may effect through binding to its membrane receptor, MT1. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT1 in OC cells and to correlate this with clinical and pathological data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 84 cases of OC. Normal ovarian epithelial (IOSE 364 and OC (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 cell lines were used to examine the MT1 expression at protein level using the western blot and immunofluorescence technique. The expression of MT1 was observed as cytoplasmic-membrane (MT1CM and membrane (MT1M reactions. A positive correlation between MT1CM and MT1M was found in all the studied cases. There were no significant differences between the expression of MT1CM, MT1M, and histological type, staging, grading, presence of residual disease, or overall survival time. Immunofluorescence showed both MT1M and MT1CM expression in all the tested cell lines. Western blot illustrated the highest protein level of MT1 in IOSE 364 and the lowest in the OVCAR-3. The results indicate the limited prognostic significance of MT1 in OC cells.

  20. Developing a Mystery Shopping Measure to Operate a Sustainable Restaurant Business: The Power of Integrating with Corporate Executive Members’ Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. C. Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mystery shopping has been used to objectively measure whether employees follow the visions of a company’s quality service standards. It then creates a feedback loop that allows companies to train their employees to consistently deliver quality services. The main purposes of this project are aimed at examining (1 the overall benefits of mystery shopper projects in the hospitality business through literature reviews; and (2 the importance of how a company can work with an outside agency (consultant, academic institution, etc. to develop a mystery shopping program that can enhance and complement ongoing service quality programs. A casual steakhouse restaurant in the Eastern U.S. was selected as our pilot project. The basic concept of using secret shoppers is to have individuals experience real-time and onsite quality of services and record how the mystery shoppers felt about the quality of services and if the employees met or exceeded the company’s standards. For this reason, the authors believe that mystery shopping, especially in hospitality, is an important means of developing and maintaining a sustainable business. While the sustainability of a business is largely dependent upon “people, profits and planet” in the hospitality industry, it is also dependent upon meeting service standards and developing a feedback loop. Mystery shopping programs have demonstrated their ability to contribute to organizations in this regard.

  1. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Kill, Robert A.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Allen, Craig R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.

  2. Gothic and Grotesque in James Hogg’s The Mysterious Bride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The word Gothic refers back to the Dark ages in England. The Roman civilization was ruined by the Goths who were the barbarians at that time. As a result of the destruction of Roman Empire, the whole civilization underwent ignorance and darkness. Nowadays, the word Gothic has a variety of meaning and applications. Gothic novels portray exaggerated scenes, haunted castles, monsters and vampires. Scottish Gothic literature started after 1800. This paper will focus on one of the Scottish short stories by James Hogg, “The Mysterious Bride”. Some elements of Gothic and grotesque such as transgression of boundaries, suspense, uncanny and supernatural being are discussed within this short story in order to indicate Hogg’s main intention to use Gothic and grotesque elements in “The Mysterious Bride”. Among all the elemnts in Gothic and grotesque, this paper will mainly apply the presence of the opposites, uncanny, abnormal beings and supernatural events to James Hogg’s “The Mysterious Bride”.

  3. MtDNA T4216C variation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    MtDNA T4216C variation has frequently been investigated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients; nonetheless, controversy has existed about the evidence of association of this variation with susceptibility to MS. The present systematic review and meta-analysis converge the results of the preceding...

  4. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius (Italy). The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice and with external geomagnetic field. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard. Reference: Mazzarella, A., Scafetta, N., 2016. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 321, 102-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.04.026

  5. Measurement of cosmic ray chemical composition at Mt. Chacaltaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogio, S.; Kakimoto, F.; Harada, D.; Tokunou, H.; Burgoa, O.; Tsunesada, Y. [Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, Tokuo (Japan); Shirasaki, Y. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Gotoh, E.; Nakatani, H.; Shimoda, S.; Nishi, K.; Tajima, N.; Yamada, Y. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Okayama University, Dept. of Physics, Oakayama (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Nagoya University, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Miranda, P.; Velarde, A. [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Institute de Investigaciones Fisicas, La Paz (Bolivia); Mizumoto, T. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshii, H.; Morizawa, A. [Ehime University, Dept. of Physics, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Murakami, K. [Nagoya University of Foreign Studies, Nissin, Aichi (Japan); Toyoda, Y. [Fukui University of Technology, Faculty of General Education, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    BASJE group has measured the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around the knee with several methods. These measurements show that the averaged mass number of cosmic ray particles increases with energy up to the knee. In order to measure the chemical composition in much wider energy range, it was started a new experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya in 2000.

  6. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For...

  7. Coupling ANIMO and MT3DMS for 3D regional-scale modeling of nutrient transport in soil and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, G.; Del Val Alonso, L.; Groenendijk, P.; Griffioen, J.

    2012-12-01

    We developed an on-line coupling between the 1D/quasi-2D nutrient transport model ANIMO and the 3D groundwater transport model code MT3DMS. ANIMO is a detailed, process-oriented model code for the simulation of nitrate leaching to groundwater, N- and P-loads on surface waters and emissions of greenhouse gasses. It is the leading nutrient fate and transport code in the Netherlands where it is used primarily for the evaluation of fertilization related legislation. In addition, the code is applied frequently in international research projects. MT3DMS is probably the most commonly used groundwater solute transport package worldwide. The on-line model coupling ANIMO-MT3DMS combines the state-of-the-art descriptions of the biogeochemical cycles in ANIMO with the advantages of using a 3D approach for the transport through the saturated domain. These advantages include accounting for regional lateral transport, considering groundwater-surface water interactions more explicitly, and the possibility of using MODFLOW to obtain the flow fields. An additional merit of the on-line coupling concept is that it preserves feedbacks between the saturated and unsaturated zone. We tested ANIMO-MT3DMS by simulating nutrient transport for the period 1970-2007 in a Dutch agricultural polder catchment covering an area of 118 km2. The transient groundwater flow field had a temporal resolution of one day and was calculated with MODFLOW-MetaSWAP. The horizontal resolution of the model grid was 100x100m and consisted of 25 layers of varying thickness. To keep computation times manageable, we prepared MT3DMS for parallel computing, which in itself is a relevant development for a large community of groundwater transport modelers. For the parameterization of the soil, we applied a standard classification approach, representing the area by 60 units with unique combinations of soil type, land use and geohydrological setting. For the geochemical parameterization of the deeper subsurface, however, we

  8. Moisture Sources for Snowfall to Mt. Logan, Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, S. R.; Steig, E. J.

    2002-05-01

    Accumulation and isotopic data from an ice core obtained at Mt. Logan, Yukon Territory (Holdsworth et al, 1992) are used to determine possible sources of precipitation at the site, an important prerequisite to the use of Mt. Logan data as quantitative measures of past North Pacific climate variability. Annual accumulation at Logan is poorly correlated with Gulf of Alaska sea level pressure (SLP), but well correlated with Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The latter correlation forms a horseshoe pattern of warmer than average SSTs in the eastern North Pacific around colder than average SSTs in the central Pacific similar to the dominant EOF of SSTs (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation). Back-trajectory calculations show that most air reaching Mt. Logan follows a high-altitude pathway along the upper limb of the horseshoe pattern from the western Pacific. However, further analyses suggest that the moisture source changes according to the strength of the Aleutian Low. Mean SSTs are highest along the west coast of North America and lowest in the central North Pacific and Japan during years when the Aleutian Low is strong. During weak Aleutian Low years, accumulation is most highly correlated with SSTs around Japan and the Philippines (r ~ 0.5), while when the Aleutian Low is strong, it is most highly correlated with SSTs along the west coast of North America and the northern most part of the Pacific (r ~ 0.7). Finally, \\delta18O ratios at Mt. Logan are negatively correlated with sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies in the Gulf of Alaska (r ~ -0.4). Together, these results suggest that during years in which the Aleutian Low is weak, the west and central Pacific are the moisture sources for Mt. Logan while advection of local moisture dominates precipitation when the Aleutian Low is strong.

  9. Modified Mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian Method Based on Numerical Framework of MT3DMS on Cauchy Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2016-07-01

    MT3DMS, a modular three-dimensional multispecies transport model, has long been a popular model in the groundwater field for simulating solute transport in the saturated zone. However, the method of characteristics (MOC), modified MOC (MMOC), and hybrid MOC (HMOC) included in MT3DMS did not treat Cauchy boundary conditions in a straightforward or rigorous manner, from a mathematical point of view. The MOC, MMOC, and HMOC regard the Cauchy boundary as a source condition. For the source, MOC, MMOC, and HMOC calculate the Lagrangian concentration by setting it equal to the cell concentration at an old time level. However, the above calculation is an approximate method because it does not involve backward tracking in MMOC and HMOC or allow performing forward tracking at the source cell in MOC. To circumvent this problem, a new scheme is proposed that avoids direct calculation of the Lagrangian concentration on the Cauchy boundary. The proposed method combines the numerical formulations of two different schemes, the finite element method (FEM) and the Eulerian-Lagrangian method (ELM), into one global matrix equation. This study demonstrates the limitation of all MT3DMS schemes, including MOC, MMOC, HMOC, and a third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme under Cauchy boundary conditions. By contrast, the proposed method always shows good agreement with the exact solution, regardless of the flow conditions. Finally, the successful application of the proposed method sheds light on the possible flexibility and capability of the MT3DMS to deal with the mass transport problems of all flow regimes.

  10. A groundwater salinity hotspot and its connection to an intermittent stream identified by environmental tracers (Mt Lofty Ranges, South Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas A.; Bestland, Erick A.; Soloninka, Lesja; Wallis, Ilka; Banks, Edward W.; Pichler, Markus

    2017-07-01

    High and variable levels of salinity were investigated in an intermittent stream in a high-rainfall area (˜800 mm/year) of the Mt. Lofty Ranges of South Australia. The groundwater system was found to have a local, upslope saline lens, referred to here as a groundwater salinity `hotspot'. Environmental tracer analyses (δ18O, δ2H, 87/86Sr, and major elements) of water from the intermittent stream, a nearby permanent stream, shallow and deep groundwater, and soil-water/runoff demonstrate seasonal groundwater input of very saline composition into the intermittent stream. This input results in large salinity increases of the stream water because the winter wet-season stream flow decreases during spring in this Mediterranean climate. Furthermore, strontium and water isotope analyses demonstrate: (1) the upslope-saline-groundwater zone (hotspot) mixes with the dominant groundwater system, (2) the intermittent-stream water is a mixture of soil-water/runoff and the upslope saline groundwater, and (3) the upslope-saline-groundwater zone results from the flushing of unsaturated-zone salts from the thick clayey regolith and soil which overlie the metamorphosed shale bedrock. The preferred theory on the origin of the upslope-saline-groundwater hotspot is land clearing of native deep-rooted woodland, followed by flushing of accumulated salts from the unsaturated zone due to increased recharge. This cause of elevated groundwater and surface-water salinity, if correct, could be widespread in Mt. Lofty Ranges areas, as well as other climatically and geologically similar areas with comparable hydrogeologic conditions.

  11. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  12. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  13. Triassic beds in the basement of the Adriatic-Dinaric carbonate platform of Mt. Svilaja (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Jelaska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On the southwestern slope of Mt. Svilaja a Triassic sequence is exposed. It is composed of Lower Triassic carbonate siliciclastic shelf beds that are unconformably overlain by Anisian breccia. The overlying pelagic Anisian and Ladinian strata with pyroclastic rockscan be interpreted as a result of rift tectonics of Adria micro-plate. A 500 m thick sequence is capped by an emersion surface by karstification and terrigenous sediments including conglomerate as a result of Late Triassic transgression and marking the lower boundaryof a new, Late Mesozoic, megasequence of the External Dinarides.By means of conodont study, in the lowermost part of the studied Mesozoic sequence, a Lower Triassic shallow-water conodont fauna yielding Pachycladina obliqua apparatus was recorded. Pelagic limestone beds overlying the »Otarnik breccia« are marked byconodont elements of the Anisian constricta Zone. The Ladinian interval is characterized (from bottom to top: trammeri A. Z., hungaricus A. Z. and mungoensis A. Z. The uppermost part of the section below the emersion surface is identified by Pseudofurnishiusmurchianus, indicating the Upper Ladinian-Lower Carnian murchianus Zone.

  14. Enzymatic mechanisms of soil-carbon response to temperature on Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition by increasing temperature contradicts the acclimation observed in long-term studies. We used the unique altitudinal gradient (from colline tropical zone to subalpine zone) on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of short- and long-term acclimation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that decompose polymers (cellulose, chitin, phytate) and oxidize monomers (14C-glucose). Basing on Michaelis-Menten kinetics we determined the enzymes affinity to substrate (Km) and mineralization potential of heterotrophic microorganisms (Vmax) 1) for three hydrolytic enzymes: β-1,4-glucosidase, N-acetyl- β -D-glucosaminidase and phosphatase by the application of fluorogenically labeled substrates and 2) for mineralization of 14C-labeled glucose by substrate-dependent respiratory response. Here we show that the amount of available substrate is responsible for temperature sensitivity of hydrolysis of polymers in soil, whereas monomers oxidation to CO2 does not depend on substrate amount and is mainly temperature governed. We also found that substrate affinity of enzymes (which is usually decreases with the temperature) differently responded to warming for the process of depolymerisation versus monomers oxidation. We suggest the mechanism to temperature acclimation based on different temperature sensitivity of enzymes kinetics for hydrolysis of polymers and for monomers oxidation

  15. Functional physiology of lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) luminescent pattern: differential hormonal regulation of luminous zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2010-06-01

    Lantern sharks are small deep-sea sharks that harbour complex species-specific luminescent photophore patterns. The luminescent pattern of one of these sharks, Etmopterus spinax, is made up of nine luminous zones. Previous experiments revealed that in the largest of these zones (ventral zone), photophores are under hormonal control, light being triggered by both melatonin (MT) and prolactin (PRL). In this study, we analysed the luminescent responses to MT and PRL in five other luminous zones from 12 female and eight male E. spinax specimens. The results showed that all luminous zones respond to both hormones, with each zone having its own kinetic parameters (maximum light intensity, L(max); total light emitted, L(tot); time from stimulation to L(max), TL(max)), which confirms the multifunctional character of this shark's luminescence. L(tot) and L(max) were found to be directly dependent on the photophore density (P(D)) of the luminous zone, while TL(max) varied independently from P(D). In addition, we demonstrate a sexual dimorphism in the luminescent response to PRL, with male specimens having smaller L(tot) and TL(max) in the luminous zones from the pelvic region. As this region also harbours the sexual organs of this species, this strongly suggests a role for the luminescence from these zones in reproduction.

  16. An improved method with a wider applicability to isolate plant mitochondria for mtDNA extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform a principal role in eukaryotic cells. Mutations in mtDNA can cause mitochondrial dysfunction and are frequently associated with various abnormalities during plant development. Extraction of plant mitochondria and mtDNA is the basic requirement for the characterization of mtDNA mutations and other molecular studies. However, currently available methods for mitochondria isolation are either tissue specific or species specific. Extracted mtDNA may contain substant...

  17. Multilingual lexicon design tool and database management system for MT

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevičius, G

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the design and development of English-Lithuanian-English dictionarylexicon tool and lexicon database management system for MT. The system is oriented to support two main requirements: to be open to the user and to describe much more attributes of speech parts as a regular dictionary that are required for the MT. Programming language Java and database management system MySql is used to implement the designing tool and lexicon database respectively. This solution allows easily deploying this system in the Internet. The system is able to run on various OS such as: Windows, Linux, Mac and other OS where Java Virtual Machine is supported. Since the modern lexicon database managing system is used, it is not a problem accessing the same database for several users.

  18. Random Genetic Drift Determines the Level of Mutant mtDNA in Human Primary Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, D T; Samuels, D C; Michael, E. M.; Turnbull, D.M.; Chinnery, P F

    2000-01-01

    We measured the proportion of mutant mtDNA (mutation load) in 82 primary oocytes from a woman who harbored the A3243G mtDNA mutation. The frequency distribution of mutation load indicates that random drift is the principal mechanism that determines the level of mutant mtDNA within individual oocytes.

  19. 77 FR 67829 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    .... Montana State University- 1500 University Drive, 406-657-2011 Billings. Billings, MT 59101. Montana State... Refuge, MT; Availability of Record of Decision for the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Final... of the message. U.S. mail: Charles M. Russell NWR, P.O. Box 110, Lewistown, MT 59457....

  20. Plant Hormone Resistance and Agronomic Characteristics of the MT10 Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The MT10 mutant plants had resistances to auxin. Under light and dark culture,the roots of MT10 seedlings had shown less lateral roots and short lateral roots. In soil ,MT10 seedlings had shown not only no changed agronomic characteristics but also no significant difference with WT.

  1. Numerical modeling of 3-D terrain effect on MT field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世浙; 阮百尧; 周辉; 陈乐寿; 徐师文

    1997-01-01

    Using the boundary element method, the numerical modeling problem of three-dimensional terrain effect on magnetotelluric (MT) field is solved. This modeling technique can be run on PC in the case of adopting special net division. The result of modeling test for 2-D terrain by this modeling technique is basically coincident with that by 2-D modeling technique, but there is a great difference between the results of 3-D and 2-D modeling for 3-D terrain.

  2. How the nucleus and mitochondria communicate in energy production during stress: nuclear MtATP6, an early-stress responsive gene, regulates the mitochondrial F₁F₀-ATP synthase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Ali Asghar; Ebrahimie, Eemaeil; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Niazi, Ali; Babgohari, Mahbobeh Zamani; Deihimi, Tahereh; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Ramezani, Amin

    2013-07-01

    A small number of stress-responsive genes, such as those of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase complex, are encoded by both the nucleus and mitochondria. The regulatory mechanism of these joint products is mysterious. The expression of 6-kDa subunit (MtATP6), a relatively uncharacterized nucleus-encoded subunit of F0 part, was measured during salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivated wheat genotypes, as well as in the wild wheat genotypes, Triticum and Aegilops using qRT-PCR. The MtATP6 expression was suddenly induced 3 h after NaCl treatment in all genotypes, indicating an early inducible stress-responsive behavior. Promoter analysis showed that the MtATP6 promoter includes cis-acting elements such as ABRE, MYC, MYB, GTLs, and W-boxes, suggesting a role for this gene in abscisic acid-mediated signaling, energy metabolism, and stress response. It seems that 6-kDa subunit, as an early response gene and nuclear regulatory factor, translocates to mitochondria and completes the F1F0-ATP synthase complex to enhance ATP production and maintain ion homeostasis under stress conditions. These communications between nucleus and mitochondria are required for inducing mitochondrial responses to stress pathways. Dual targeting of 6-kDa subunit may comprise as a mean of inter-organelle communication and save energy for the cell. Interestingly, MtATP6 showed higher and longer expression in the salt-tolerant wheat and the wild genotypes compared to the salt-sensitive genotype. Apparently, salt-sensitive genotypes have lower ATP production efficiency and weaker energy management than wild genotypes; a stress tolerance mechanism that has not been transferred to cultivated genotypes.

  3. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M > 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M > 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during day-time. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction that should also stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasin...

  4. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Adriano; Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction, which stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard.

  5. Gas analyses of fumaroles from Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Johnston, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The eruptive activity of Mt. St. Helens beginning in March 1980, coupled with earthquake activity on Mt. Hood in early July, has generated increased interest in the fumaroles near the summit of Mt. Hood. These fumaroles are associated with Crater Rock, a hornblende dacite plug, extruded 200 to 300 years ago (Crandell, 1980). A major eruption in about 1700 and lesser eruptions in 1805, 1859, and 1865 (Harris, 1976) were centered near Crater Rock. It is likely that future eruptions will occur in this area. Changes in the surficial characteristics of the fumaroles or changes in the composition of the gas emitted by the fumaroles could precede an eruption by a sufficient length of time to help predict the eruption. In 1935, K.N. Phillips and G.R. Collins collected and analyzed the first samples of gases from the fumaroles (Phillips, 1936). F.D. Ayres and A.E. Creswell (1951) collected and analyzed gas samples from orifices they considered to be equivalent to those sampled by Phillips and Collins, and these (or orifices in the same area) were re-sampled in 1977 and 1978. The results of the 1978 sampling are presented.

  6. Properties of MT2 in the massless limit

    CERN Document Server

    Lally, Colin H

    2012-01-01

    Although numerical methods are required to evaluate the stransverse mass, MT2, for general input momenta, non-numerical methods have been proposed for some special clases of input momenta. One special case, considered in this note, is the so-called `massless limit' in which all four daughter objects (comprising one invisible particle and one visible system from each `side' of the event) have zero mass. This note establishes that it is possible to construct a stable and accurate implementation for evaluating MT2 based on an analytic expression valid in that massless limit. Although this implementation is found to have no significant speed improvements over existing evaluation strategies, it leads to an unexpected by-product: namely a secondary variable, that is found to be very similar to MT2 for much of its input-space and yet is much faster to calculate. This is potentially of interest for hardware applications that require very fast estimation of a mass scale (or QCD background discriminant) based on a hypo...

  7. Chemical compositions of snow from Mt. Yulong, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hewen Niu; Yuanqing He; Shichang Kang; Xixi Lu; Xiaoyi Shi; Shijin Wang

    2016-03-01

    The snow and ice in Mt. Yulong offer a unique opportunity to investigate changes in climate and large scale atmospheric circulations over Asia. During February and April 2012, surface snow samples were collected from the Baishui Glacier No. 1 at different altitudes along the eastern slope of Mt. Yulong.Two snowpits were also excavated from Mt. Yulong at altitudes of 4780 and 4730 m a.s.l. in February 2012. The concentrations of inorganic ions were higher at an elevation of 4506 m a.s.l. in the glacier with significant contribution of anthropogenic (mainly NH$^{+}_{4}$ , SO$^{2−}_4$ , NO$^{−}_3$) and crustal (mainly Ca$^{2+}$)constituents. Concentration of HCOO$^{−}$ in surface snow exhibited large variability, ranging from 0.04 to 6.8 eq L$^{−1}$, attributed to dominant contribution from biomass burning emissions. Ion balance (C) and Na$^{+}$/Cl$^{−}$ calculations indicated an excess of cations (particularly higher Ca$^{2+}$ concentrations) and Cl$^{−}$ in snow, considering the sea-salt ratio, respectively. Monsoon season (June–September) ion concentrations in snowpit samples were generally two-fold lower than in other seasons. Principal component analysis was used to identify different sources of ions. Three main factors, accounting for more than 80% of the total variance, were related to different sources, including agricultural activities, biomass burning, and crustal aerosols.

  8. The making of the African mtDNA landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Richards, Martin; De la Fe, Tomás; Lareu, María-Victoria; Sobrino, Beatriz; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Macaulay, Vincent; Carracedo, Angel

    2002-11-01

    Africa presents the most complex genetic picture of any continent, with a time depth for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages >100,000 years. The most recent widespread demographic shift within the continent was most probably the Bantu dispersals, which archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest originated in West Africa 3,000-4,000 years ago, spreading both east and south. Here, we have carried out a thorough phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA variation in a total of 2,847 samples from throughout the continent, including 307 new sequences from southeast African Bantu speakers. The results suggest that the southeast Bantu speakers have a composite origin on the maternal line of descent, with approximately 44% of lineages deriving from West Africa, approximately 21% from either West or Central Africa, approximately 30% from East Africa, and approximately 5% from southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. The ages of the major founder types of both West and East African origin are consistent with the likely timing of Bantu dispersals, with those from the west somewhat predating those from the east. Despite this composite picture, the southeastern African Bantu groups are indistinguishable from each other with respect to their mtDNA, suggesting that they either had a common origin at the point of entry into southeastern Africa or have undergone very extensive gene flow since.

  9. Magnetotelluric Investigations of Convergent Margins and of Incipient Rifting: Preliminary Results from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array and MT FlexArray Deployments in Cascadia and in the North American Mid-Continent Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bedrosian, P.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.; Egbert, G. D.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Wannamaker, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on preliminary analyses of data from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array, and from two high-resolution EarthScope MT studies in Cascadia. The first of these, iMUSH, is acquiring wideband MT data at 150 sites, as well as active and passive seismic data in SW Washington (including Mounts Saint Helens, Adams and Rainier). iMUSH seeks to determine details of crustal magma transport and storage, and to resolve major tectonic controls on volcanism along the arc. iMUSH may help to settle a debate over the origin of the SW Washington Crustal Conductor (SWCC), which covers ~5000 km2and that has alternately been attributed to accreted Eocene metasediments or to an extensive region of partial melt in the lower crust beneath the three volcanoes. The iMUSH array is continguous with an amphibious ~150 station MT experiment (MOCHA) onshore and offshore of the Washington and Oregon forearc. MOCHA iwill image the crust and upper mantle of the subduction system in 3D, constraining the fluid input to the system from offshore and the distribution of fluids released from the down-going slab, including along the transitional zone where Episodic Tremor and Slip occurs. Our goal is to refine our understanding of the segmentation, structure and fluid distribution along the convergent margin segments, and their relationship to the spatial pattern of ETS. In contrast to the active Cascadia margin, the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) is the trace of a massive igneous event that nearly split North America 1.1 billion years ago. Initial results from 3D inversion of MT Transportable Array data show less fine-scale heterogeneity in the upper mantle (250 km depth) than is evident in western, tectonic North America, but a division at the base of thick lithosphere, with higher conductivities beneath and immediately south of the Great Lakes, than to the south. From the base of the lithosphere to the Moho, this high conductivity feature narrows, ultimately disappearing in the mid-crust. In the

  10. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  11. The mystery of the "North of the North" in Ibsen's works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Nygaard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an exaggeration to claim that several of the protagonists in Ibsen’s dramatic works are from the north, or have lived there. The few characters in Ibsen’s drama related to the North are, however, given a special emphasis in his works. They are, like the landscape and the light of the North, mysterious, strange, strong and untamed. Or they have been exiled, suppressed or forgotten – and then suddenly arrive unexpectedly and challenge the established order and open new tension and ambition. Ibsen only visited Northern Norway once, on a trip to North Cape in 1891. His only experience of the “North” before that was actually of Central Norway, Trondheim and Molde. The North in Ibsen’s dramas is accordingly just fiction, imagination – and an expression of the general Southern Norwegian understanding of the “others” living in the North and the “otherness” of the North. Especially people from the North of the North, such as Finnmark, who represent a mysterious, bewitching and magic power, like Rebekka West in Rosmersholm and the foreign sailor in Lady from the Sea. This is explained by the magic nature of the North, such as the midnight sun, the Polar light or the overwhelming and irresistible winter storms over the sea.  But Ibsen has also given other clues for the understanding of the mysterious characters from Finnmark, the North of the North. These clues are related to the cultural otherness of the characters as Sami and Kvääni.

  12. The Authenticity of the Document at Andocides On the Mysteries 95-98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Monroe Harris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This essays studies the document inserted into the text of Andocides' speech On the Mysteries (96-98 and shows that it is not a genuine copy of the decree of Demophantus from an analysis of its contents and a comparison with the formulas and language of decrees from the late fifth and fourth centuries BCE preserved on stone. The final part of the essay analyzes the historical context of the decree of Demophantus and shows that it belongs in the period where Lycurgus (Against Leocrates 124-127 places it, that is, after the overthrow of the Thirty in 403 BCE.

  13. New Eyes on the Universe Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "New Eyes on the Universe -- Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them" gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Uni

  14. Between rules and mysteries, of the sea and of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Forte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We  highlight the mysterious liquidity that oversees the interpretation of the nature of the relation sea and cities, using to hyperbole from James Conrad in " Heart of Darkness ", while the reference to Saskia Sassen highlights the need of strong policies in the governance of reciprocity relationships. The heart of darkness continues to envelop the sea-land relations , as witnessed by the suffering of migrants on the sea and also the new faces of the suffering city ( migrant's reception centers in Italy . It is believed that culture has a role in unraveling the mystery. And we employ codes in plans design, derived from culture in an attempt to delineate the nature of the mysterious liquidity; but the outcomes were so different to believe ineffective a recourse to theoretical generalizations, and always adventurous the understanding of the singularity of the specific condition. The mysteries of the sea and of cities ask open connections, contamination of knowledges, in the ' task of deciding. Within  globalization change the Europe, its nations, roles and positions of cities. The things "Shape" and their "Substance" still appear as the essence of the decision. From history we know that the nation trolls the city, but the effectiveness of the national policies on local development depends on the quality of local politics.  Searching coherences, has been tried to reinforce the urban government, connecting strategic visions - structure - form - rules; but  the dissociation between form and substance had little impact on the outcome of these paths. The urban crisis can not be minimized connecting its reasons to the scarcity of capital for investment, that still  there are (European Union. A more interconnected and complex world requires a more intense need of future. In the search of "hope settling", we should shape a future bleu networks, organizing systems which could constitute the complex relationships sea - land - inland waters,  and

  15. Celestial sleuth using astronomy to solve mysteries in art, history and literature

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Donald W

    2013-01-01

    For a general audience interested in solving mysteries in art, history, and literature using the methods of science, 'forensic astronomy'  is a thrilling new field of exploration. Astronomical calculations are the basis of the studies, which have the advantage of bringing to readers both evocative images and a better understanding of the skies. Weather facts, volcano studies, topography, tides, historical letters and diaries, famous paintings, military records, and the friendly assistance of experts in related fields add variety, depth, and interest to the work. The chosen topics are selected

  16. The invasive Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis (Gastropoda: Viviparidae expands its European range to Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Neucker Tom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the first Belgian records of the invasive Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis. A walkover-survey along the Laak, a small lowland river, yielded a total of 20 live B. chinensis. The presence of both juvenile and adult individuals, with a shell height ranging from 16.6 to 47.5 mm, indicates that the species is firmly established. The most probable source of introduction is a nearby garden center that specializes in ornamental fish and plants for garden ponds.

  17. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Ledesma, Marta; Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn.

  18. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn. PMID:27736919

  19. Three Alkali-Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Newly Discovered in the Mt. Kunlun-Mt. Altun Region, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 毕华; 王中刚

    2002-01-01

    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt. Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive rock belt,the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt. The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period, and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period, which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China. The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  20. Three Alkali—Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Bewly Discovered in the Mt.Kunlkun—Mt.Altun Region,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 等

    2002-01-01

    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt.Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive fock belt, the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beeilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt.The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period,and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period,which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China.The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  1. Magma transfer and degassing budget: Application to the 2009-2010 eruptive crisis of Mt Garet (Vanuatu arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métrich, N.; Bertagnini, A.; Garaebiti, E.; Vergniolle, S.; Bani, P.; Beaumais, A.; Neuville, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    Mt Garet, on Gaua Island, is one of the active volcanoes of the Vanuatu arc. We report here a new dataset on lapilli and lava erupted during Mt Garet unrest in 2009-2010 and on products of the older activity of Gaua composite volcano. The present-day magma of Mt Garet is a trachy-andesite (52 wt.% SiO2) with relatively high Rb/Th (14.6) and Ba/La (41) ratios compared to the Gaua pre- and syn-caldera series, but typical of the central part of Vanuatu arc. Its mineral assemblage is mainly composed of plagioclase (An86-56) and clinopyroxene (Fs5-16) which display significant chemical variations, patchy zones, surface dissolution, and oscillatory zoning that imply episodes of high undercooling and growth rates. The paragenesis is complemented by Fe-Ti oxides and scarce olivine (Fo72-73). The melt inclusions are ubiquitous and their compositions cover a chemical spectrum from basalt to trachy-andesite. Volatile-rich basaltic inclusions (H2O: 2.7 wt.%, S: 0.15 wt.%, and Cl: 0.22 wt.%) are preserved in Mg-rich clinopyroxene whereas the majority of the melt inclusions is volatile poorer with, ≤ 1.0 wt.% of H2O, ≤ 0.05 wt.% of S, and 0.25-0.27 wt.% of Cl. At 1100 °C the measured viscosity of anhydrous magma of Mt Garet is 103.5 Pa s. Adding 0.8 to 2.5 wt.% of H2O decreases the melt viscosity by 0.5 to two orders of magnitude. Combining data on bulk rocks, minerals, and their melt inclusions together with the very first published gas fluxes acquired during the same period of activity, we propose that the high sulfur outgassing in 2009-2010 was produced by the degassing of a basaltic magma batch ( 0.027 km3) emplaced in a shallow reservoir. This scenario would require temperature and H2O-loss driven resorption/crystallization, magma mixing, and exsolution of an early gas phase rich in H2O, and S. We suggest here the 2009-2010 activity to be sustained by the existence of thermal convection driven at the bottom of the magma reservoir by cooling, and in which the bubbles

  2. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, JA; Kinote, A; Ignacio-Souza, LM; de Araujo, TM; Razolli, DS; Doneda, DL; Paschoal, LB; Lellis-Santos, C; Bertolini, GL; Velloso, LA; Bordin, S.; Anhe, GF

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT)...

  3. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  4. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  5. Simplified qPCR method for detecting excessive mtDNA damage induced by exogenous factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureev, Artem P; Shaforostova, Ekaterina A; Starkov, Anatoly A; Popov, Vasily N

    2017-05-01

    Damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a meaningful biomarker for evaluating genotoxicity of drugs and environmental toxins. Existing PCR methods utilize long mtDNA fragments (∼8-10kb), which complicates detecting exact sites of mtDNA damage. To identify the mtDNA regions most susceptible to damage, we have developed and validated a set of primers to amplify ∼2kb long fragments, while covering over 95% of mouse mtDNA. We have modified the detection method by greatly increasing the enrichment of mtDNA, which allows us solving the problem of non-specific primer annealing to nuclear DNA. To validate our approach, we have determined the most damage-susceptible mtDNA regions in mice treated in vivo and in vitro with rotenone and H2O2. The GTGR-sequence-enriched mtDNA segments located in the D-loop region were found to be especially susceptible to damage. Further, we demonstrate that H2O2-induced mtDNA damage facilitates the relaxation of mtDNA supercoiled conformation, making the sequences with minimal damage more accessible to DNA polymerase, which, in turn, results in a decrease in threshold cycle value. Overall, our modified PCR method is simpler and more selective to the specific sites of damage in mtDNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement and Check on the mtDNA extract techniques for termites%白蚁 mtDNA 提取方法改良及检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽红; 邹湘武; 宁涤非; 席在星

    2013-01-01

      利用mtDNA多态性进行种类鉴定是一种分子生物学常用方法,从DNA水平对白蚁进行物种鉴别并探讨物种的进化,其必要前提是提取到一定数量和质量的mtDNA.在分离得到线粒体后,分别采用CTAB、SDS 2种方法提取mtDNA.紫外分光光度计检测DNA纯度及浓度,用mtDNA 特异性引物进行PCR 扩增检测.试验证明2种方法均能成功提取白蚁的mtDNA, SDS法提取效果较好.%Species identification with mtDNA polymorphisms is an usual method in molecular biology. To identify the species and to explore the evolution of the termites from the DNA level, it is necessary to extract the mtDNA with enough quantity and good quality. In this study, mitochondria of termites is firstly isolated, then CTAB and SDS methods were employed for the extraction of mtDNA, respectively. Purity and concentration of mtDNA were determined by UV spectrophotometer. PCR amplification of mtDNA was executed by specific primers. Results shows that both CTAB the SDS methods can successfully extracted termite mtDNA, but SDS method shows better performance than CTAB method.

  7. Monitoring and Inhibiting MT1-MMP during Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pahwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP is a zinc-dependent type-I transmembrane metalloproteinase involved in pericellular proteolysis, migration and invasion. Numerous substrates and binding partners have been identified for MT1-MMP, and its role in collagenolysis appears crucial for tumor invasion. However, development of MT1-MMP inhibitors must consider the substantial functions of MT1-MMP in normal physiology and disease prevention. The present review examines the plethora of MT1-MMP activities, how these activities relate to cancer initiation and progression, and how they can be monitored in real time. Examination of MT1-MMP activities and cell surface behaviors can set the stage for the development of unique, selective MT1-MMP inhibitors.

  8. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of human MT+ reduces apparent motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-12-18

    We investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the human cerebral cortex on apparent motion perception. Previous studies have shown that human extrastriate visual area MT+ (V5) processes not only real but also apparent motion. However, the functional relevance of MT+ on long-range apparent motion perception remains unclear. Here, we show direct evidence for the involvement of MT+ in apparent motion perception using rTMS, which is known to temporarily inhibit a localized region in the cerebral cortex. The results showed that apparent motion perception decreased after applying rTMS over MT+, but not after applying rTMS over the control region (inferior temporal gyrus). The decrease in performance caused by applying rTMS to MT+ suggests that MT+ is a causally responsible region for apparent motion perception, and thus, further supports the idea that MT+ plays a major role in the perception of motion.

  9. Nutrient Enrichment in Estuaries from Discharge of Shallow Ground Water, Mt. Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park because of the potential problem of water-quality degradation and eutrophication in its estuaries. Water-quality degradation has been observed at the Park?s Bass Harbor Marsh estuary but not in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, but the importance of shallow ground water that may contain nutrients derived from domestic or other sources is unknown. Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries were studied to (1) identify shallow ground-water seeps, (2) assess the chemistry of the water discharged from selected seeps, and (3) assess the chemistry of ground water in shallow ground-water hyporheic zones. The hyporheic zone is defined here as the region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow ground water and surface water. This study also provides baseline chemical data for ground water in selected bedrock monitoring wells and domestic wells on Mt. Desert Island. Water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, wastewater compounds, dissolved organic carbon, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and specific conductance. Samples from bedrock monitoring wells also were analyzed for alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. Shallow ground-water seeps to Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh estuaries at Acadia National Park were identified and georeferenced using aerial infrared digital imagery. Monitoring included the deployment of continuously recording temperature and specific conductance sensors in the seep discharge zone to access marine or freshwater signatures related to tidal flooding, gradient-driven shallow ground-water flow, or shallow subsurface flow related to precipitation events. Many potential shallow ground-water discharge zones were

  10. How did the hydrologic cycle respond to the two-phase mystery interval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, Wally; Putnam, Aaron E.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Estancia's transition from a Big Dry episode during the first half of the Mystery Interval to a Big Wet episode during the second half has equivalents in records from across the planet. At the time of this transition, Chinese monsoons experienced pronounced weakening, closed-basin lakes in both the Great Basin of the western United States and in the southern Altiplano of South America underwent a major expansion, mountain glaciers in Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes had retreated, and the rates of increase of CO2 and of δ18O in Antarctic ice underwent a decrease. Finally, the precipitous drop in dust rain over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean terminated as did a similar drop in the 13C to 12C ratio in atmospheric CO2. These changes are consistent with a southward shift of the thermal equator. The cause of such a shift is thought to be an expansion of sea ice caused by a shutdown in deep water production in the northern Atlantic. This creates a dilemma because a similar southward shift is an expected consequence of the Heinrich event #1 which initiated the Mystery Interval.

  11. Evaluation of pharmacists' services for dispensing emergency contraceptive pills in Delhi, India: A mystery shopper study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI, has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57% or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%; 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  12. Mysterious ionization in cooling flow filaments: a test with deep COS FUV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant

    2013-10-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph is capable of unraveling a two decade old mystery regarding the filamentary emission line nebulae found in the brightest cluster galaxies {BCGs} of cool core {CC} clusters. These kpc-scale filaments are characterized by elevated H-alpha luminosities and puzzling ionization states that cannot be accounted for by recombination or photionization alone, and are instead excited by an unknown ionization mechanism. The most hotly debated proposed solutions invoke thermal conduction, shocks, or cosmic-ray heating, but progress toward consensus awaits unambiguous spectral discriminants between these models that can only be found in the FUV. We propose deep {9 orbit}, off-nuclear observations of two strategically selected BCGs in well-studied cool core clusters with cross-spectrum archival datasets. We also propose a shorter {5 orbit} on-nuclear observation for one of our targets to assess possible AGN contributions to the spectra. These proposed observations represent critical tests that can unambiguously discriminate between the various candidate ionziation models. Constraining the mechanisms by which CC BCG filaments are excited remains one of the most important roadblocks to a better understanding of cooling from hot ambient medium to cold star forming clouds and filaments, a process important for both galaxy and black hole growth. It is therefore important that, before HST ends its mission and we lose FUV capability, we advance our understanding of this decades old mystery.

  13. Requests for emergency contraception in community pharmacy: an evaluation of services provided to mystery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Samantha J; Hattingh, H Laetitia

    2013-01-01

    Requests for supply of the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) through community pharmacies require consideration of a range of factors and the application of professional judgment. Pharmacists should therefore be able to follow a structured reasoning process. The research involved an assessment of history taking and counseling by pharmacy staff through mystery patient emergency contraception product requests. Two challenging ECP request case scenarios were developed with assessment tools. Mystery patients were trained to present the scenarios to pharmacies. A project information package and expression of interest form was posted to 135 pharmacies in the Gold Coast, Australia; 23 (17%) pharmacies agreed to participate. Pharmacy staff was exposed to 1 of 2 scenarios during December 2010. Staff interactions were recorded, analyzed, and rated to evaluate the management of ECP requests. The results identified practice gaps among pharmacy staff with respect to information gathering and the provision of advice. Ongoing training is required to enhance the skills, competence, and confidence of pharmacy staff in managing complicated requests for nonprescription medicines, such as the ECP. The impact of time pressures and financial burdens on the provision of pharmaceutical services needs to be acknowledged. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. To weave the forms of Mystery: Travel, mystical and metaphysical in Sufi poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Del Percio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mystery is not just an enigma but a force, an impulse that gives emphasis to the real. And the ways in which this mystery unfolds are probably endless. In Sufism, travel literature is established as the quintessential poetic mysticism, where the description of incessant movement throughout the world invariably takes the value of metaphysical experience, freedom of spirit, understanding of the presence of the divine in every aspect and at every step of the journey. A mystic is a “nomadic metaphysics”, able to describe the man, the cosmos and God himself as travelers. Among the Sufi mystic poets, stands the figure of Ibn ‘Arabi, Andalusian born in Murcia in 1165 and died in Damascus in 1240. His particular metaphysics, Neoplatonist undeniable base, conceived not as a system but as a poetic movement, is a unique interface between East and West philosophies. This is observable in his works The Seals of Wisdom (Fusus al-Hikam and, especially, The splendor of the fruits of the trip (Kitab al-Isfar ‘an al-asfar nata’iy, which we will study in this work.

  15. Characterizing Mystery Cell Lines: Student-driven Research Projects in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Michele L

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based projects promote discovery and retention of key concepts, increase student engagement, and stimulate interest in research. Described here are a series of lab exercises within an undergraduate upper level neuroscience course that train students to design, execute and analyze their own hypothesis-driven research project. Prior to developing their own projects, students learn several research techniques including aseptic cell culture, cell line maintenance, immunocytochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. Working in groups, students choose how to use these techniques to characterize and identify a "mystery" cell line. Each lab group is given a unique cell line with either a neural, astrocyte, or Schwann cell origin. Working together, students plan and execute experiments to determine the cellular origin and other unique characteristics of their mystery cell line. Students generate testable hypotheses, design interpretable experiments, generate and analyze data, and report their findings in both oral and written formats. Students receive instructor and peer feedback throughout the entire project. In summary, these labs train students the process of scientific research. This series of lab exercises received very strong positive feedback from the students. Reflections on student feedback and plans for future improvements are discussed.

  16. Institutional mysteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney W. Mintz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Africa and the Americas: Interconnections During the Slave Trade. José C. Curto & Renenée Soulodrere-La France (eds.. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 2005. vii + 338 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas. Gwenendolyn Midlo Hall. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. xxii + 225 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95 The forced movement of enslaved Africans to the New World – before the nineteenth century, surely the largest and longest such uprooting and transfer of people in global history – resulted over time in a vast corpus of research and publication, of which these two books are a part. The first is an edited collection of twelve essays, preceded by a slightly giddy preface; the second is its author’s attempt to widen her research on African ethnic groups in the Americas, so as to demonstrate their existence. The themes of both books exemplify recent thinking among scholars of the African-American experience.

  17. Mysterious bruises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old man presented with multiple spontaneous bruises in the past 2 weeks. Several large-sized hematomas were found on examination. The initial investigation revealed a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT with normal platelet count and international normalized ratio. Further investigation revealed a low factor VIII activity secondary to presence of factor VIII inhibitor, making the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A. Further work-up revealed that pernicious anemia was present and acted as an associated disease. After steroids therapy, his aPTT was normalized and the factor VIII inhibitor titer became undetectable. 2 months later, a relapse occurred and new hematomas appeared at his retropharyngeal space and left arm. His bleeding was controlled by administration of recombinant factor VIIa, and a combined therapy of intravenous steroids and rituximab was given to eradicate the inhibitor. The approach to workup of bleeding disorders as well as treatment of acquired hemophilia A are herein discussed.

  18. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  19. Transcriptional response of two metallothionein genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) and histological changes in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) exposed to three trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Zhitao; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the transcriptional responses of two metallothionein (MT) genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) in various tissues (brain, optic lobe, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, foregut, gastric caeca, midgut and hindgut) of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) after exposed to the trace metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) for 48h. The study revealed that the exposure of O. chinensis to each of the three metals at the median lethal concentration (LC50) or lower concentration(s) up-regulated the transcriptions of both OcMT1 and OCMT2 in the eight tissues except for OcMT1 and OcMT2 with Cd in brain and gastric caeca, respectively, and OcMT2 with Cu in gastric caeca. These results suggested that the exposure of O. chinensis to the metals may enhance MT biosynthesis that protects tissues by binding these metals in various tissues. To examine possible histopathological effect of the metals, we examined the histological changes in the fat bodies after O. chinensis was exposed to each of these metals at LC50. The exposure of Cd significantly reduced the size and number of adipocytes as compared with the control. However, such an effect was not observed in O. chinensis exposed to either Cu or Zn. These results suggested that fat bodies might be either significantly affected by Cd or play a crucial role in detoxification of excessive trace metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Similar patterns of clonally expanded somatic mtDNA mutations in the colon of heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice and ageing humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Holly L.; Stewart, James B.; Stamp, Craig; Zupanic, Anze; Kirkwood, Thomas B.L.; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Greaves, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Clonally expanded mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations resulting in focal respiratory chain deficiency in individual cells are proposed to contribute to the ageing of human tissues that depend on adult stem cells for self-renewal; however, the consequences of these mutations remain unclear. A good animal model is required to investigate this further; but it is unknown whether mechanisms for clonal expansion of mtDNA mutations, and the mutational spectra, are similar between species. Here we show that mice, heterozygous for a mutation disrupting the proof-reading activity of mtDNA polymerase (PolgA+/mut) resulting in an increased mtDNA mutation rate, accumulate clonally expanded mtDNA point mutations in their colonic crypts with age. This results in focal respiratory chain deficiency, and by 81 weeks of age these animals exhibit a similar level and pattern of respiratory chain deficiency to 70-year-old human subjects. Furthermore, like in humans, the mtDNA mutation spectrum appears random and there is an absence of selective constraints. Computer simulations show that a random genetic drift model of mtDNA clonal expansion can accurately model the data from the colonic crypts of wild-type, PolgA+/mut animals, and humans, providing evidence for a similar mechanism for clonal expansion of mtDNA point mutations between these mice and humans. PMID:24915468

  1. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  2. The Magmatic Structure of Mt. Vesuvius: Isotopic and Thermal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, L.; D'Antonio, M.; de Lorenzo, S.; Gasparini, P.

    2002-12-01

    Mt. Vesuvius is an active volcano famous for the AD 79 eruption that destroyed Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae. Because of the intense urbanization around and on the volcano, the risk today is very high. Therefore, the knowledge of the structure and behavior of the magmatic system is fundamental both for the interpretation of any change in the dynamics of the volcano and for prediction of eruptions. A review of available and new isotopic data on rocks from Mt. Vesuvius, together with mineralogical and geochemical data and recent geophysical results, allow us to constrain a thermal modeling that describes history and present state of Mt. Vesuvius magmatic system. This system is formed by a "deep", complex magmatic reservoir where mantle-derived magmas arrive, stagnate and differentiate. The reservoir extends discontinuously between 10 and 20 km of depth, is hosted in densely fractured crustal rocks, where magmas and crust can interact, and has been fed more than once since 400 ka. The hypothesis of crustal contamination is favored by the high temperatures reached by crustal rocks as a consequence of repetitive intrusions of magma. From the "deep" reservoir magmas of K-basaltic to K-tephritic to K-phonotephritic composition rise to shallow depths where they stagnate at 3-5 km of depth before plinian eruptions, and through crystallization and mixing processes with the residual portion of the feeding systems, generate isotopically and geochemically layered reservoirs. Alternatively, during "open conduit" conditions deep, volatile-rich magma batches rise from the "deep" reservoir to less than 1 km of depth and mix with the crystal-rich, volatile-poor resident magma, triggering eruptions.

  3. Modeling sulfur dioxide concentrations in Mt. Rainier area during prevent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Reuven; Flocchini, Robert G.; Cahill, Thomas A.

    The MATHEW/ADPIC models (a diagnostic wind model and a particle model) which were developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, were used to compute SO 2 concentrations in the Mt Rainier area during PREVENT (Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment Using Natural Tracers, June to September 1990). The modeled concentrations were compared to measured concentrations at two sampling locations (Tahoma Woods and Paradise near Mt Rainier) which are located in a valley. The SO 2 sources considered are located along the Puget Sound (Everett, Seattle and Tacoma area) and south of it. New formulations were included in the models for the oxidation of SO 2 and the interpolation of the wind field. Because of the paucity of the meteorological data near the sampling points, an estimation was made of the wind values in the valley, based on the phenomena of wind channeling, mountain and valley winds, and historical wind observations near Mt Rainier. The models were run for several non-rainy days during the PREVENT period when large SO 2 concentrations were observed, and for other special cases. Out of 14 days for which the emissions of the previous night were taken into account, for 12 days the ratio of the modeled to the measured SO 2 concentrations at Tahoma Woods during the daytime, was in the interval 0.45-2.00, considered a good agreement. However, the agreement at Tahoma Woods during the night, and at Paradise during the day and the night, were not as good. It seems that the wind flow near Tahoma Woods under the stable conditions at night, and near the steep terrain of Paradise, were not modeled correctly, with the limited input of available meteorological observations.

  4. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  5. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  6. Movement of a Hybrid Zone Between Lineages of the Australian Glass Shrimp (Paratya australiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeremy D; Schmidt, Daniel J; Hughes, Jane M

    2016-09-01

    In 1993, a population of freshwater glass shrimp (Paratya australiensis) was translocated from Kilcoy Creek to Branch Creek in the Conondale Range, Queensland. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed that the translocated and resident shrimp belonged to different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages that were capable of hybridizing. Monitoring of the pools along Branch Creek up until 2002 suggested that the translocated lineage had an advantage in upstream pools and the resident lineage dominated downstream. Differential temperature tolerance and hybridization barriers such as hybrid inviability and mate selection were factors proposed to explain hybrid zone structure. The major objective of this study was to combine nuclear and mtDNA markers to identify the structure of the hybrid zone in 2013 and identify any changes that had occurred since 2002. Specifically, we used genetic data to test for evidence of hybrid zone movement and used the inbreeding coefficient (F IS) to investigate whether mating was random in the contact zone where hybridization barriers could be present. The results revealed that the hybrid zone center has shifted 510 m downstream since 2002. Increased rainfall in the region since 2010 could have facilitated this. Secondly, mating appears significantly nonrandom in the pools where both lineages occur, supporting the existence of partial hybridization barriers. This study reveals a complex and dynamic hybrid zone and exemplifies why multiple temporal studies are necessary to understand hybrid zone structure.

  7. Coupled Reactive Transport Modeling of CO2 Injection in Mt. Simon Sandstone Formation, Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Lu, P.; Zhu, C.; Xiao, Y.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 sequestration in deep geological formations is one of the promising options for CO2 emission reduction. While several large scale CO2 injections in saline aquifers have shown to be successful for the short-term, there is still a lack of fundamental understanding on key issues such as CO2 storage capacity, injectivity, and security over multiple spatial and temporal scales that need to be addressed. To advance these understandings, we applied multi-phase coupled reactive mass transport modeling to investigate the fate of injected CO2 and reservoir responses to the injection into Mt. Simon Formation. We developed both 1-D and 2-D reactive transport models in a radial region of 10,000 m surrounding a CO2 injection well to represent the Mt. Simon sandstone formation, which is a major regional deep saline reservoir in the Midwest, USA. Supercritical CO2 is injected into the formation for 100 years, and the modeling continues till 10,000 years to monitor both short-term and long-term behavior of injected CO2 and the associated rock-fluid interactions. CO2 co-injection with H2S and SO2 is also simulated to represent the flue gases from coal gasification and combustion in the Illinois Basin. The injection of CO2 results in acidified zones (pH ~3 and 5) adjacent to the wellbore, causing progressive water-rock interactions in the surrounding region. In accordance with the extensive dissolution of authigenic K-feldspar, sequential precipitations of secondary carbonates and clay minerals are predicted in this zone. The vertical profiles of CO2 show fingering pattern from the top of the reservoir to the bottom due to the density variation of CO2-impregnated brine, which facilitate convection induced mixing and solubility trapping. Most of the injected CO2 remains within a radial distance of 2500 m at the end of 10,000 years and is sequestered and immobilized by solubility and residual trapping. Mineral trapping via secondary carbonates, including calcite, magnesite

  8. A miniature VGA SWIR camera using MT6415CA ROIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Yilmaz, S. Gokhan; Kocak, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new miniature VGA SWIR camera called NanoCAM-6415, which is developed to demonstrate the key features of the MT6415CA ROIC such as high integration level, low-noise, and low-power in a small volume. The NanoCAM-6415 uses an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) with a format of 640 × 512 and pixel pitch of 15 μm built using MT6415CA ROIC. MT6415CA is a low-noise CTIA ROIC, which has a system-on-chip architecture, allows generation of all the required timing and biases on-chip in the ROIC without requiring any external components or inputs, thus enabling the development of compact and low-noise SWIR cameras, with reduced size, weight, and power (SWaP). NanoCAM-6415 camera supports snapshot operation using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The camera has three gain settings enabled by the ROIC through programmable Full-Well-Capacity (FWC) values of 10.000 e-, 20.000 e-, and 350.000 e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. The camera has an input referred noise level of 10 e- rms in the VHG mode at 1 ms integration time, suitable for low-noise SWIR imaging applications. In order to reduce the size and power of the camera, only 2 outputs out of 8 of the ROIC are connected to the external Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in the camera electronics, providing a maximum frame rate of 50 fps through a 26-pin SDR type Camera Link connector. NanoCAM-6415 SWIR camera without the optics measures 32 mm × 32 mm × 35 mm, weighs 45gr, and dissipates less than 1.8 W using a 5 V supply. These results show that MT6415CA ROIC can successfully be used to develop cameras for SWIR imaging applications where SWaP is a concern. Mikro-Tasarim has also developed new imaging software to demonstrate the functionality of this miniature VGA camera. Mikro-Tasarim provides tested ROIC wafers and also offers compact and easy-to-use test electronics, demo cameras, and hardware

  9. Climbing Mt. Sharp: Maximizing Curiosity's Science Over Traversable Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bellutta, P.; Sletten, R. S.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    As Curiosity transitions from the plains of Gale Crater to the flanks of Mt. Sharp, the rover will begin to encounter material and terrains that could present greater mobility challenges. These challenges include the presence of significantly steeper slopes and large dunes that have the potential to embed the vehicle. Strategic path planning during this phase of the mission will therefore require carefully selecting a traversable route that is both time-efficient and that will provide access to the most scientifically rewarding targets. We consider possible solutions to this optimization problem by examining multiple orbital data sets in order to locate likely mobility hazards and to select potential science waypoints for future in situ investigation. High resolution HiRISE monochromatic images and digital elevation models show filled craters, rock fields, areas with slopes too steep for the rover to traverse, and other possible mobility obstacles on the northwest flank of Mt. Sharp. Using this context, we review accessibility to scientific targets on Mt. Sharp that have been previously discussed in landing site workshop presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Additionally, we identify new targets using detailed geologic maps combined with oversampled CRISM observations that provide mineralogical information at unprecedented high spatial resolutions (up to 6 m/pixel). For example, the spatially sharpened CRISM spectral data show a localized hematite deposit that is associated with the upper-most stratum of a ridge which is located ~3km from the rover's entry point to Mt. Sharp. This deposit may represent a previously habitable environment and is therefore a high priority target for in situ investigation. In order to study the hematite and also to eventually access the phyllosilicate-bearing trough that is located directly behind the ridge, Curiosity will have to cross this ridge, but the ridge edges are often defined by regions with slopes that are too steep

  10. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  11. Revisiting Combinatorial Ambiguities at Hadron Colliders with MT2

    CERN Document Server

    Baringer, Philip; McCaskey, Mathew; Noonan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to resolve combinatorial issues in multi-particle final states at hadron colliders. The use of kinematic variables such as MT2 and invariant mass significantly reduces combinatorial ambiguities in the signal, but at a cost of losing statistics. We illustrate this idea with gluino pair production leading to 4 jets $+\\met$ in the final state as well as $t\\bar{t}$ production in the dilepton channel. Compared to results in recent studies, our method provides greater efficiency with similar purity

  12. Paleomagnetic Evidence for the Tectono-Stratigraphic Evolution of the Mt.Galili Area / MER / Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, F.; Scholger, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Mt.Galili area (N 9,77°, E 040,55°) is the focus of current anthropological studies on early hominid evolution *[4]. The Mount Galili Formation (MGF)*[5] is subdivided into seven Members, each representing a sedimentary cycle, sustaining temporally interruptions by volcanic activity. Our paleomagnetic investigation concentrates on ascertaining primary magnetisation vectors (PMV) of volcanic layers embodied within the MGF, applying alternating field and thermal magnetic cleaning methods. Magnetite and ti-magnetite are the main carriers of the NRM (basalt, ignimbrite). Hematite shares in amounts up to 20%, Goethite occasionally participates up to 30% in magnitude of the NRM components. Two events of magnetic polarity reversals terminate a magnetic inverse period designating the lot of the MGF unit. The amount of the PMV's rotation in respect to an expected paleodirection*[1] of 183°/-13° are in the range of 1°-52° . The resulting mean PMV data provide implications on (A) rift-related block rotation / tilting in relation to the stable African crust since the Pliocene and they also support (B) stratigraphic age determinations of the MGF: A: Rotational movements cluster in 4 sectors: (a) The SE sector demonstrates almost unchanged orientation of the PMVs whereas (b) it's continuation to the NW sector suffered clockwise rotational tilting (up to 12° rot / 19° tilt). (c) The SW sector (Mt.Galili area s.str.) in contrast embrace a unique counterclockwise rotation component of 7°-17°, but the modulus of vector inclination, concerning individual rift blocks, is variable in either direction. (d) The NE sector (Satkawini) sustained the major counterclockwise rotation (41°°-52° rot / 3°- 17° tilt) We consider the Mt.Galili area being the place where trans-tensional tectonics were active during the late Miocene to create the lateral off-set of magmatic segments marking the centre of the MER. This tectonics are considered to belong to a arcuate accommodation

  13. Functional conservation of yeast mtTFB despite extensive sequence divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrodeguas, J A; Yun, S; Shadel, G S; Clayton, D A; Bogenhagen, D F

    1996-01-01

    Transcription of mtDNA in the yeast S. cerevisiae depends on recognition of a consensus nonanucleotide promoter sequence by mtRNA polymerase acting with a 40-kDa dissociable factor known as mtTFB or Mtflp. mtTFB has been cloned and characterized in S. cerevisiae, but has not been studied in similar detail in any other organism. Although it is known that mitochondrial transcription in the dairy yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, initiates within the same consensus promoter sequence used in S. cerevisiae, no previous studies have focused on the proteins involved in transcription initiation in K. lactis. In this article, we report the cloning of mtTFB from K. lactis and from a yeast more closely related to S. cerevisiae, S. kluyveri. Both novel mtTFB genes were able to substitute for the MTF1 gene in S. cerevisiae. Both proteins purified following expression in E. coli were able to support specific transcription initiation in vitro with the S. cerevisiae mtRNA polymerase. The S. kluyveri and K. lactis mtTFB proteins share only 56% and 40% identity with S. cerevisiae mtTFB, respectively. Alignments of the three mtTFB sequences did not reveal any regions larger than 30 amino acids with greater than 60% amino acid identity. In particular, regions proposed to show sequence similarity to bacterial sigma factors were not more highly conserved than other regions of the mtTFB proteins. All three yeast mtTFB genes lack conventional amino-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences, suggesting that all three proteins may be imported into mitochondria by the same unusual mechanism reported for S. cerevisiae mtTFB.

  14. CrypticspeciescompositionandgeneticdiversitywithinBemisiatabaci complex in soybean in India revealed by mtCOI DNA sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna H C; Kanakala S; Archana K; Jyothsna P; Varma R K; Malathi V G

    2015-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex, causing signiifcant loss on many agricultural y important crops worldwide. Knowledge on species composition and diversity within B. tabaci complex is critical for evolving sustainable pest management strategies. Here we investigate the whitelfy species complex in soybean in major soybean growing states of India. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian methods indicated the existence of three cryptic species namely Asia I, Asia II 1, and Asia II 7. Al the haplotypes detected in the study could be assigned to these three cryptic species fol owing the species demarcation criteria of 3.5%divergence threshold. Of these, Asia II 1 was found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions from cool temperate zones to hot and humid tropical plains. On the contrary, cryptic species Asia II 7 showed localized distribu-tion. The Asia II 1 exhibited the highest haplotype diversity and Asia I showed high level of nucleotide diversity. There was a signiifcantly high genetic differentiation among these three cryptic species. The MEAM 1, a dreadful invasive species was not detected in the specimens tested in the current study. The diversity and distribution of three cryptic species is discussed in the light of current knowledge on distribution of whitelfy species in India and yel ow mosaic disease observed during sampling survey.

  15. The carbon accumulation and dissipation features of sub—alpine woodland in Mt.Gongga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGGenwei

    2003-01-01

    Based on biomass investigations,soil respiration and plant photosynthesis measurement of dominant trees in Hailuogou valley of Mt.Gongga,Southwest China,the carbon(C) storage,absorption and release for several typical woodlands in sub-alpine zones have been discussed.For Abies fahri forest of 3,000 m above sea level,the Cstorage amount is 177.4t/ha for above-ground biomass and 143.2 t/ha for soil below-ground biomass. The annual gross C fixed by vegetation photosynthesis is 20-24 t/ha. The C release by canopy respiration is 3.0-5.5 t/ha for arbors and 10-19 t/ha for surface soil and roots.The annual net C fixed of forest ecosystem is about 6.0-7.1 t/ha.At lower elevations,the amount of C released by woodlands is higher than that of woods at higher elevations.The C fixed capacity of renewed forest with middle-aged trees is higher than that of mature forest.Before becoming over-matured forest,woodland is an important sink of C whereas bareland in woods is the source of atmospheric C.

  16. The novel high-performance 3-D MT inverse solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Geraskin, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present novel, robust, scalable, and fast 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. The solver is written in multi-language paradigm to make it as efficient, readable and maintainable as possible. Separation of concerns and single responsibility concepts go through implementation of the solver. As a forward modelling engine a modern scalable solver extrEMe, based on contracting integral equation approach, is used. Iterative gradient-type (quasi-Newton) optimization scheme is invoked to search for (regularized) inverse problem solution, and adjoint source approach is used to calculate efficiently the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT responses, and supports massive parallelization. Moreover, different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem statement. To parameterize an inverse domain the so-called mask parameterization is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to HPC Piz Daint (6th supercomputer in the world) demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes.

  17. MT-compatible red VCSEL module for parallel optical interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, An; Van de Putte, Koen; Naessens, Kris; Dhoedt, Bart; Baets, Roel G.; Van Daele, Peter

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we present the design, fabrication and characterization of a module which directly connectorizes a 1 by 8 red VCSEL array to a small diameter polymer optical fiber array, using a standard MT ferrule. The facets of the POF are prepared by a hot knife cutting, followed by a short polishing step. First coupling results show total losses in the range of 1.1 dB/channel for a 30 cm POF link. Optical crosstalk between adjacent channels is below -45 dB. Plastic micromachined parts surrounding the VCSEL chip ensure the correct alignment of the connector, using the connector, using the connector guiding points. The parts themselves are aligned to the chip with a n index-alignment technique, using an excimer laser ablated mastertool. In a deconnectorizable version of the module, a thin, flat glue layer on the chip acts as a window between the VCSEL chip and the MT terminated POF array. Integrated in a standard ceramic package, clear eye diagrams have been measured at 150 MHz for a 10m POF link, coupled to the VCSEL array. Further efforts on higher speed measurements using dedicated drivers, will also be presented.

  18. CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DENGUE IN JUSCIMEIRA - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Marcos Moreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: dengue presents itself as a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Increased morbidity and mortality care managers, civil society and health professionals. To characterize the clinical and epidemiology of dengue in the city of Juscimeira - MT between the years 2009 to 2013. Methods: Retrospective quantitative-descriptive study was conducted from the secondary analysis of the Information System of Notifiable Diseases. Results: 391 cases were registered, with a predominance of males (51.4%, the largest number of cases in 2010 (28.14%, the classic dengue was the most prevalent type. The most affected age group was between 20-34 years. Regarding socioeconomic and geographic variables, the most affected were those living in urban areas and high school. The prevalent diagnostic method was the laboratory. The serotype of DENV-I was the most common in the city and 100% of the sample were autochthonous. Conclusion: Dengue is endemic in Juscimeira - MT. The data come from the epidemiological meeting of the current literature, reflecting the upward condition of this disease not only in the state of Mato Grosso and Brazil. It is recommended that further studies be carried forward to this subject, so that they can contribute to the process of monitoring of this disease in the city, working with the technical teams, health professionals and local managers in planning activities to be undertaken in the medium and long term to reduce the prevalence of this disease. KEYWORDS: Public Health. Epidemiological surveillance. Primary prevention.

  19. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  20. Hypocentral Relocations of the 2008 Mt. Carmel, Illinois Aftershock Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, K.; Hamburger, M. W.; Pavlis, G. L.; Horton, S. P.; Withers, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    On April 18, 2008, a moderate sized earthquake (Mw 5.2, hypocentral depth of 16 km) occurred near the Indiana-Illinois state border within 3 km of the Mt. Carmel-New Harmony fault at the northern termination of the Wabash Valley Fault System. A total of 257 aftershocks were recorded over the next month by a fourteen-station temporary network deployed by Indiana University and University of Memphis/Center of Earthquake Research and Information (CERI). The number of recorded aftershocks is greater than aftershocks recorded from previous earthquakes in the WVFS of similar magnitude within the last 50 years. The number and density of local stations allowed the generation of precise hypocentral relocations with the combination of waveform cross-correlation and joint hypocentral techniques. The relocated hypocenters indicate a well-defined near-vertical fault plane striking east-west. The fault orientation is consistent with the focal mechanism of the main shock and nearly orthogonal with respect to the trace of the neighboring Mt. Carmel-New Harmony fault. The interpreted ruptured fault orientation suggests the aftershock sequence occurred on a transfer structure at the fault termination. The structure may be related to the change in deformation styles suggested by the transition from the northeast-trending WVFS to the northwest-trending La Salle anticlinorium.

  1. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  2. Mystery Montage: A Holistic, Visual, and Kinesthetic Process for Expanding Horizons and Revealing the Core of a Teaching Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Kim; Priebe, Carly; Sharipova, Mayya; West, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the core of a teaching philosophy is the key to a concise and meaningful philosophy statement, but it can be an elusive goal. This paper offers a visual, kinesthetic, and holistic process for expanding the horizons of self-reflection, self-analysis, and self-knowledge. Mystery montage, a variation of visual mapping, storyboarding, and…

  3. China's one-child policy and "the mystery of missing women": Ethnic minorities and male-biased sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.; Heerink, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 40 million women are ‘missing’ in China. We exploit a special provision in the Chinese one-child policy (OCP; allowing for preferential treatment of ethnic minority groups) to revisit the mystery of these missing women, and in particular to explore the contri

  4. Availability and provision of misoprostol and other medicines for menstrual regulation among pharmacies in Bangladesh via mystery client survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fauzia A; Ngo, Thoai D; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Alam, Anadil; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To explore the availability and provision of misoprostol and other medicines for menstrual regulation (MR) among pharmacies in Bangladesh. Between March and November 2011, a cross-sectional study using mystery client visits was conducted among pharmacy workers in Dhaka and Gazipur Districts, Bangladesh. Mystery clients were trained to present 1 of 4 pre-developed situations to pharmacy workers to elicit information on the regimen, adverse effects, and complications of misoprostol use. Mystery clients visited 331 pharmacies. Among the 331 pharmacy workers, 45.8% offered the mystery clients misoprostol and/or other medicines for MR; 25.7% referred them to private clinics or hospitals. Only 7% recommended an effective regimen of misoprostol for MR; 65% suggested administering vaginal and oral misoprostol together. Overall, 72.4% did not provide any advice on complications; the remainder suggested visiting trained providers for complications. Counseling on excessive bleeding as a danger sign was provided by 46% of pharmacy workers. Most (94%) did not provide or refer for post-MR family planning. Pharmacy workers in urban Bangladesh are providing ineffective drugs and regimens for MR. A training package is needed to strengthen service delivery by providing accurate information, high-quality products, and referral mechanisms for women seeking MR through pharmacies. © 2013.

  5. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  6. A Comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the "Get 'Em On Task" Interventions for Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Elisabeth E.; Davies, Susan C.; Arndt, Kelli Jo; Hunley, Sawyer

    2012-01-01

    Attending to instruction is a critical behavior for academic success. Many elementary school teachers, however, identify disruptive and inattentive classroom behaviors as key barriers to students' successful educational performance. This study examined the impact of two class-wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and…

  7. A Comparison of the Mystery Motivator and the "Get 'Em On Task" Interventions for Off-Task Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Elisabeth E.; Davies, Susan C.; Arndt, Kelli Jo; Hunley, Sawyer

    2012-01-01

    Attending to instruction is a critical behavior for academic success. Many elementary school teachers, however, identify disruptive and inattentive classroom behaviors as key barriers to students' successful educational performance. This study examined the impact of two class-wide positive behavior support programs. The Mystery Motivator and…

  8. Dr. Earl N. Meyer, in the Lab, with a Scalpel: A Murder Mystery as a Biochemistry Recruitment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcu, Felicia; Heirwegh, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student participation in science is an ongoing challenge for many universities. In this active learning workshop, centered on inquiry and teamwork, we introduce high-school students to biochemistry and molecular biology techniques using a murder mystery activity. During this intensive 3 hr workshop, we engage students in a murder…

  9. Masters of time how wormholes, snakewood and assaults on the big bang have brought mystery back to the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Boslough, John

    1992-01-01

    A cosmic mystery story of blind alleys where The Answer lurks perpetually just around the corner... Masters of Time tells of the eroic quest for new, ever stranger theoretical worlds, the elusive explanation of the cat's cradle of crisscrossing forces that seem to rule the universe.

  10. Exercise Intolerance and Myoglobinuria Associated with a Novel Maternally Inherited MT-ND1 Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Jabin; Duno, Morten; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2016-01-01

    The most common clinical phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. We report a family with a novel maternally inherited homoplasmic mtDNA m.4087A>G mutation in the ND1 gene (MT-ND1) associated with isolated...... myopathy, recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria, and rhabdomyolysis. DNA from blood in seven family members and muscle from four family members were PCR amplified and sequenced directly and assessed for the m.4087A>G variation in MT-ND1. Mitochondrial enzyme activity in all muscle biopsies was measured. PCR...... myoglobinuria is a rare phenotype of mitochondrial myopathies. We report this phenotype in a family affected by a novel homoplasmic mutation in MT-ND1. It is the first time such a phenotype has been associated with complex I gene mutations and a homoplasmic mutation of mtDNA....

  11. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  12. ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Samantha C; Uchiyama, Lauren F; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-07-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis--events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria.

  13. Single-cell analysis of intercellular heteroplasmy of mtDNA in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Sharpe, H.; Brown, N.

    1994-07-01

    The authors have investigated the distribution of mutant mtDNA molecules in single cells from a patient with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). LHON is a maternally inherited disease that is characterized by a sudden-onset bilateral loss of central vision, which typically occurs in early adulthood. More than 50% of all LHON patients carry an mtDNA mutation at nucleotide position 11778. This nucleotide change converts a highly conserved arginine residue to histidine at codon 340 in the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene of mtDNA. In the present study, the authors used PCR amplification of mtDNA from lymphocytes to investigate mtDNA heteroplasmy at the single-cell level in a LHON patient. They found that most cells were either homoplasmic normal or homoplasmic mutant at nucleotide position 11778. Some (16%) cells contained both mutant and normal mtDNA.

  14. mtDNA/nDNA ratio in 14484 LHON mitochondrial mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Tomoki; Soemantri, Augustinus; Ishida, Takafumi

    2004-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. In this study, the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio was evaluated in 11 LHON patients with the 14484 mutation, 13 asymptomatic carriers and 18 non-carrier relatives as controls, to reveal possible relationships between the disease and mtDNA content. DNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes were subjected to quantitative PCR. Gender differences and age-dependent changes in the mtDNA content were not observed. Significant increase in the mtDNA content was observed only in the asymptomatic carriers (PLHON development, whereas those whose levels had not, had developed LHON. Since the asymptomatic carriers are the stock of the future LHON patients, monitoring the mtDNA content in patients and their relatives may help to predict the prognosis of the disease.

  15. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula.

  16. Characterization of pancreatic lesions from MT-tgf alpha, Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc single and double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dezhong Joshua; Wang, Yong; Wu, Jiusheng; Adsay, Nazmi Volkan; Grignon, David; Khanani, Fayyaz; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-07-05

    In order to identify good animal models for investigating therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer, we analyzed pancreatic lesions from several transgenic models and made a series of novel findings. Female MT-tgf alpha mice of the MT100 line developed pancreatic proliferation, acinar-ductal metaplasia, multilocular cystic neoplasms, ductal adenocarcinomas and prominent fibrosis, while the lesions in males were less severe. MT-tgf alpha-ES transgenic lines of both sexes developed slowly progressing lesions that were similar to what was seen in MT100 males. In both MT100 and MT-tgf alpha-ES lines, TGF alpha transgene was expressed mainly in proliferating ductal cells. Ela-myc transgenic mice with a mixed C57BL/6, SJL and FVB genetic background developed pancreatic tumors at 2-7 months of age, and half of the tumors were ductal adenocarcinomas, similar to what was reported originally by Sandgren et al 1. However, in 20% of the mice, the tumors metastasized to the liver. MT100/Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha-ES/Ela-myc double transgenic mice developed not only acinar carcinomas and mixed carcinomas as previously reported but also various ductal-originated lesions, including multilocular cystic neoplasms and ductal adenocarcinomas. The double transgenic tumors were more malignant and metastasized to the liver at a higher frequency (33%) compared with the Ela-myc tumors. Sequencing of the coding region of p16ink4, k-ras and Rb cDNA in small numbers of pancreatic tumors did not identify mutations. The short latency for tumor development, the variety of tumor morphology and the liver metastases seen in Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc mice make these animals good models for investigating new therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer.

  17. The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrelli, S.

    The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings: a critical analysis S. Sandrelli INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy (stefano.sandrelli@brera.inaf.it / Fax: 02 72001600 / Phone: +39 02 72320337) "The Lord of Rings - the mysterious case of the stolen rings" is a live astronomical role-playing game for kids aged 10 -13. Its goal is to introduce them to some of the main topics of the Solar System: a) the role of gravity; b) the distribution of mass & light; c) the effects of rotation; d) the distribution of water. The game was held both at the Perugia (2004) and the Genova Science Festival (2005), obtaining great success. Teams of about 6-8 members are introduced to Mr Schioppanelli, the astro-detective of the town (the name is a pun: it reminds Schiaparelli, the famous italian astronomer, and it is a slang expression meaning "ring-breaker"). Mr Schioppanelli has his office in an "gastronomical astronomical observatory", known as The Red Giant Pizzeria. Schioppanelli informs the kids that a mysterious Centaur succeded in stealing the rings of Saturn. The partecipants are appointed astro-detectives in-charge and asked to find the rings by browsing around the Solar System, which is scaled so as to fit the town historical centre or a pedestrian area, going from the Sun to Saturn or beyond, depending on the actual area at disposal. Great care must be taken allowing children playing only in a car-free area of the town. At the right scaled distances, the partecipants meet characters playing as the various planets. The kids can talk to them after solving a riddle, obtaining useful informations. A special characters play as a comet, timely going in and out of the inner solar system. The teams can also talk to some shepherd-moons of the rings. They easily discover that the rings were totally destroyed by the Centaur: a real disaster! They are also suggested to gather the necessary ingredients (gravity, light, rotation, inclination, dust and

  18. CIF and other mysteries of the store-operated Ca2+-entry pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotina, Victoria M; Csutora, Peter

    2005-07-01

    The molecular mechanism of the store-operated Ca2+-entry (SOCE) pathway remains one of the most intriguing and long lasting mysteries of Ca2+ signaling. The elusive calcium influx factor (CIF) that is produced upon depletion of Ca2+ stores has attracted growing attention, triggered by new discoveries that filled the gap in the chain of reactions leading to activation of store-operated channels and Ca2+ entry. Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 emerged as a target of CIF, and a major determinant of the SOCE mechanism. Here, we present our viewpoint on CIF and conformational-coupling models of SOCE from a historical perspective, trying to resolve some of the problem areas, and summarizing our present knowledge on how depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores signals to plasma membrane channels to open and provide Ca2+ influx that is required for many important physiological functions.

  19. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2012-04-23

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  20. TRANSALPINA CAN EASILY BE CONSIDERED THE DIAMOND COUNTRY LANDSCAPES, ADVENTURE AND MYSTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta ENEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available If Transfăgărăşan is pearl Romanian mountains, the road easily qill be considered the diamond country landscapes, adventure and mystery. Hell 's Kitchen has developed and evolved naturally. Have no certainty of success and money required to carry out the infrastructure first and then see if investors come, so we can not blame the local authorities find here. The difficulties encountered in implementing funding programs made for funds to obtain hard enough. In this paper, I will briefly mention some ideas that could make the two cities, the holder of administratively to Rancière, the burgeoning tourist development area of Gorj County. I sincerely hope uhat there is among us and other people with vision who want to stand up and take action to provide a decent future for our children.

  1. Totally tubular: the mystery behind function and origin of the brain ventricular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Laura Anne; Sive, Hazel

    2009-04-01

    A unique feature of the vertebrate brain is the ventricular system, a series of connected cavities which are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and surrounded by neuroepithelium. While CSF is critical for both adult brain function and embryonic brain development, neither development nor function of the brain ventricular system is fully understood. In this review, we discuss the mystery of why vertebrate brains have ventricles, and whence they originate. The brain ventricular system develops from the lumen of the neural tube, as the neuroepithelium undergoes morphogenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this ontogeny are described. We discuss possible functions of both adult and embryonic brain ventricles, as well as major brain defects that are associated with CSF and brain ventricular abnormalities. We conclude that vertebrates have taken advantage of their neural tube to form the essential brain ventricular system.

  2. ALMA Observations of Powerful AGN Jets & the Continuing Mystery of Multi-component Jet Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Breiding, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Over the past several decades, advances in telescope capabilities have enabled the sub-arcsecond-scale studies of resolved jets from Active Galaxies in the radio, optical, and X-rays. The launch of the Chandra X-ray observatory in particular led to the discovery of anomalously X-ray bright quasar jets, which were initially attributed to Inverse Compton upscattering of the CMB (the IC/CMB model). Over the past few years this model has been called into serious question as it has been ruled out in a number of individual cases based on inferred jet speeds, polarization observations, and missing gamma-ray emission, leading to some preference for an alternative, possibly synchrotron, origin for the X-ray component. Against the backdroup of this continuing mystery over the nature of the X-rays, I will discuss extremely surprising discoveries made with ALMA which suggest that our understanding of the emission from AGN jets is far from settled.

  3. Toughening mystery of natural rubber deciphered by double network incorporating hierarchical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiming; Li, Xiangyang; Lu, Jie; Huang, Ningdong; Chen, Liang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin; Liang, Haiyi

    2014-12-16

    As an indispensible material for modern society, natural rubber possesses peerless mechanical properties such as strength and toughness over its artificial analogues, which remains a mystery. Intensive experimental and theoretical investigations have revealed the self-enhancement of natural rubber due to strain-induced crystallization. However a rigorous model on the self-enhancement, elucidating natural rubber's extraordinary mechanical properties, is obscured by deficient understanding of the local hierarchical structure under strain. With spatially resolved synchrotron radiation micro-beam scanning X-ray diffraction we discover weak oscillation in distributions of strain-induced crystallinity around crack tip for stretched natural rubber film, demonstrating a soft-hard double network structure. The fracture energy enhancement factor obtained by utilizing the double network model indicates an enhancement of toughness by 3 orders. It's proposed that upon stretching spontaneously developed double network structures integrating hierarchy at multi length-scale in natural rubber play an essential role in its remarkable mechanical performance.

  4. Perchance to dream: solving the mystery of sleep through genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Paul J; Franken, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Sleep has been identified in all mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates that have been critically evaluated. In addition, sleep-like states have also been identified and described in several invertebrates. Despite this prevalence throughout the animal kingdom, the function of sleep remains a mystery. The completion of several genome sequencing projects has led to the expectation that fundamental aspects of sleep can be elucidated through genetic dissection. Indeed, studies in both the mouse and fly have begun to reveal tantalizing suggestions about the underlying principles that regulate sleep homeostasis. In this article we will review recent studies that have used genetic techniques to evaluate sleep in the fruit fly and the mouse. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Key innovations within a geographical context in flowering plants: towards resolving Darwin's abominable mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamosi, Jana C; Vamosi, Steven M

    2010-10-01

    Elucidating factors associated with diversification have been attempted in lineages as diverse as birds, mammals and angiosperms, yet has met with limited success. In flowering plants, the ambiguity of associations between traits and diversification has sparked debate since Darwin's description of angiosperm diversification as an 'abominable mystery'. Recent work has found that diversification is often diversity-dependent, suggesting that species richness depends on geographical area available more than on traits or the time available to accumulate species. Here, we undertake phylogenetic generalized least squares analyses that jointly examine the effects of age, ecoregion area and four ecological traits on diversification in 409 angiosperm families. Area explained the most variation, dwarfing the effect of traits and age, suggesting that diversity-dependent diversification is controlled by ecological limits. Within the context of area, however, traits associated with biotic pollination (zygomorphy) exhibited the greatest effect, possibly through the evolution of specialization. 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Unveil the mysterious mask of cytokine-based immunotherapy for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dixon H; Zhu, Ziwen; Xiao, Huaping; Wakefield, Mark R; Bai, Qian; Nicholl, Michael B; Ding, Vivi A; Fang, Yujiang

    2017-05-28

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death among all skin cancers and its incidence continues to rise rapidly worldwide in the past decades. The available treatment options for melanoma remain limited despite extensive clinical research. Melanoma is an immunogenic tumor and great advances in immunology in recent decades allow for the development of immunotherapeutic agents against melanoma. In recent years, immunotherapy utilizing cytokines has been particularly successful in certain cancers and holds promise for patients with advanced melanoma. In this review, an overview of the current status and emerging perspectives on cytokine immunotherapy for melanoma are discussed in details. Such a study will be helpful to unveil the mysterious mask of cytokine-based immunotherapy for melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The frieze of the "Mystery villa" in Pompeii. Contribution to the development of female psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, G

    1979-01-01

    The large frieze of the "Villa of the Mysteries" at Pompeji is interpreted on the base of the psychology of C. G. Jung, especially of his student Erich Neumann. According to his psychological theories the frieze is depicting the development of the female principle to individuation, arranged with extraordinary artistic inspiration. Through the myth of Ariadne-Theseus-Dionysus the change of the woman, disappointed from the personal man and hero is shown. Through the experience of the transpersonal male principle in herself she is entering in a new level of conscience, the patriarchism, and so coming to the highest development, to the "Selbst". The experience of the male principle is made through Dionysus, a symbol of change in the theory of the "Archetypen" found by C. G. Jung.

  8. Legal terms in general dictionaries of English: The civil procedure mystery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms, including legal terms relating to civil lawsuits. The existing literature provides general discussions of scientific and technical terms in ordinary dictionaries but does not specifically address the inclusion of legal terms. This study...... examines four general dictionaries of English to see how they treat civil procedure terms used in England and Wales in the light of the change of structure of and terminology used in civil proceedings that took place in 1999. Despite being based on large, up-to-date corpora the dictionaries contain some...... of the old terms but fail to include the new terms that have been in use for more than 15 years. Why this is the case is a mystery. However, some clues indicate that if they pay more attention to the link between dictionary functions, corpora and the data presented in dictionaries, lexicographers may be able...

  9. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  10. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Metabolic rescue in pluripotent cells from patients with mtDNA disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Folmes, Clifford D L; Wu, Jun; Morey, Robert; Mora-Castilla, Sergio; Ocampo, Alejandro; Ma, Li; Poulton, Joanna; Wang, Xinjian; Ahmed, Riffat; Kang, Eunju; Lee, Yeonmi; Hayama, Tomonari; Li, Ying; Van Dyken, Crystal; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Koski, Amy; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Huang, Taosheng; Terzic, Andre; Laurent, Louise C; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-08-13

    Mitochondria have a major role in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, which is dependent on the expression of critical genes encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA. Mutations in mtDNA can cause fatal or severely debilitating disorders with limited treatment options. Clinical manifestations vary based on mutation type and heteroplasmy (that is, the relative levels of mutant and wild-type mtDNA within each cell). Here we generated genetically corrected pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) from patients with mtDNA disease. Multiple induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines were derived from patients with common heteroplasmic mutations including 3243A>G, causing mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and 8993T>G and 13513G>A, implicated in Leigh syndrome. Isogenic MELAS and Leigh syndrome iPS cell lines were generated containing exclusively wild-type or mutant mtDNA through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in proliferating fibroblasts. Furthermore, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enabled replacement of mutant mtDNA from homoplasmic 8993T>G fibroblasts to generate corrected Leigh-NT1 PSCs. Although Leigh-NT1 PSCs contained donor oocyte wild-type mtDNA (human haplotype D4a) that differed from Leigh syndrome patient haplotype (F1a) at a total of 47 nucleotide sites, Leigh-NT1 cells displayed transcriptomic profiles similar to those in embryo-derived PSCs carrying wild-type mtDNA, indicative of normal nuclear-to-mitochondrial interactions. Moreover, genetically rescued patient PSCs displayed normal metabolic function compared to impaired oxygen consumption and ATP production observed in mutant cells. We conclude that both reprogramming approaches offer complementary strategies for derivation of PSCs containing exclusively wild-type mtDNA, through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in individual iPS cell lines or mitochondrial replacement by SCNT in homoplasmic mtDNA-based disease.

  12. Investigation of yeast genes possibly involved in mtDNA stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phelim Isichei

    function and structure on mtDNA stability in yeast, our results did not support those ... most studied model organism for acquisition of basic ... RNA interference of genes involved in mtDNA replication ... polymerase, results in reduced mtDNA copy number but .... found that RNAi of 4 genes (M01E5.2, T27F6.5, T26A5.6.

  13. Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RMG Nuclear...-like Seq in mt Genome Data detail Data name Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome Description of data co...t This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Martian CO2 icy surface mysterious evolution with insolation during spring and summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilorget, C.; Douté, S.; Vincendon, M.

    2016-12-01

    On Mars, the evolution of the CO2 reservoirs is one of the key aspects to decipher the climate changes. During winter, up to 30% of the atmosphere (composed of 95% of CO2) condenses at the surface to form seasonal polar caps, which completely sublime in spring, except in the South where a residual cap persists during summer. During spring and summer, the CO2 ice caps exhibit a mysterious evolution of their apparent albedo that looks correlated with the insolation. These radiative properties are, however, challenging to retrieve precisely on Mars, mostly because of the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. Here we use both HiRISE/MRO high resolution images and CRISM/MRO VIS-NIR multi-angular hyperspectral data from the South residual cap (6 regions), corrected from the aerosol contribution, to investigate this mysterious behavior and determine the energy budget of the icy surface through the retrieval of the directional-hemispheric albedo. In particular, CRISM multi-angular dataset enables to determine the BRDF of the surface, decoupled from the aerosol contribution, which also brings new constrains on the ice structure. Both HiRISE and CRISM data show a continuous increase of the nadir reflectance factor of the icy surface until Ls270, followed by a decrease during the summer season, at both local and regional scale. Different classes of surface spectro-photometric behaviors are observed, the variations being likely linked to the composition, grain micro-texture and surface roughness of polar materials. In particular, the directional-hemispheric albedo calculated at 750 nm is typically 10-15% higher than the reflectance factor measured at nadir and exhibits similar seasonal behavior. In the meantime ice cracking is observed in HiRISE images after Ls270, thus without being correlated with the albedo increase. We will discuss these results and their implications for the characterization of the CO2 icy surfaces of Mars and their seasonal evolution.

  15. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano

    2010-05-01

    Pumice and scoria from different eruptive layers of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic products contain mafic minerals consisting of High-Fo olivine and Diopsidic Pyroxene. These phases were crystallized in unerupted trachibasaltic to tephritic magmas, and were brought to surface by large phonolitic/tephri-phonolitic (e.g. Avellino and Pompei) and/or of tephritic and phono-tephritic (Pollena) eruptions. A large set of these mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material and measured for their chemical compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS) and 18O/16O ratios (conventional laser fluorination) to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas at Mt. Vesuvius. Uncontaminated mantle δ18O values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary melts during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). At Mt. Vesuvius, measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas. Trace element composition constrains the near primary nature of the phases. Published data on volatile content of melt inclusions hosted in these crystals reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting that crystal growth occurred in a reservoir at about 8-10 km depth. Recently, experimental data have suggested massive carbonate assimilation (up to about 20%) to derive potassic alkali magmas from trachybasaltic melts. Accordingly, the δ18O variability and the trace element content of the studied minerals suggest possible contamination of primary melts by an O-isotope enriched, REE-poor contaminant like the limestone of Vesuvius basement. Low, nearly primitive δ18O values are observed for olivine from Pompeii eruption, although still

  16. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  17. No recombination of mtDNA after heteroplasmy for 50 generations in the mouse maternal germline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Erik; Freyer, Christoph; Battersby, Brendan J.; Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Variants of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are commonly used as markers to track human evolution because of the high sequence divergence and exclusive maternal inheritance. It is assumed that the inheritance is clonal, i.e. that mtDNA is transmitted between generations without germline recombination. In contrast to this assumption, a number of studies have reported the presence of recombinant mtDNA molecules in cell lines and animal tissues, including humans. If germline recombination of mtDNA is frequent, it would strongly impact phylogenetic and population studies by altering estimates of coalescent time and branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Unfortunately, this whole area is controversial and the experimental approaches have been widely criticized as they often depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of mtDNA and/or involve studies of transformed cell lines. In this study, we used an in vivo mouse model that has had germline heteroplasmy for a defined set of mtDNA mutations for more than 50 generations. To assess recombination, we adapted and validated a method based on cloning of single mtDNA molecules in the λ phage, without prior PCR amplification, followed by subsequent mutation analysis. We screened 2922 mtDNA molecules and found no germline recombination after transmission of mtDNA under genetically and evolutionary relevant conditions in mammals. PMID:24163253

  18. Tomato EF-Ts(mt), a functional mitochondrial translation elongation factor from higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Mohamed; Li, Zhengguo; Tournier, Barthélémy; Chaves, Ana; Zegzouti, Hicham; Jauneau, Alain; Delalande, Corinne; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Spremulli, Linda L; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene-induced ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) resulted in the accumulation of a transcript designated LeEF-Ts(mt) that encodes a protein with significant homology to bacterial Ts translational elongation factor (EF-Ts). Transient expression in tobacco and sunflower protoplasts of full-length and truncated LeEF-Ts(mt)-GFP fusion constructs and confocal microscopy observations clearly demonstrated the targeting of LeEF-Ts(mt) to mitochondria and not to chloroplasts and the requirement for a signal peptide for the proper sorting of the protein. Escherichia coli recombinant LeEF-Ts(mt) co-eluted from Ni-NTA resins with a protein corresponding to the molecular weight of the elongation factor EF-Tu of E. coli, indicating an interaction with bacterial EF-Tu. Increasing the GDP concentration in the extraction buffer reduced the amount of EF-Tu in the purified LeEF-Ts(mt) fraction. The purified LeEF-Ts(mt) stimulated the poly(U)-directed polymerization of phenylalanine 10-fold in the presence of EF-Tu. Furthermore, LeEF-Ts(mt) was capable of catalysing the nucleotide exchange reaction with E. coli EF-Tu. Altogether, these data demonstrate that LeEF-Ts(mt) encodes a functional mitochondrial EF-Ts. LeEF-Ts(mt) represents the first mitochondrial elongation factor to be isolated and functionally characterized in higher plants.

  19. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D.; Targa, Adriano D.S.; Rodrigues, Lais S.; Aurich, Mariana F.; Lima, Marcelo M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD. PMID:27226821

  20. Volcanic unrest leading to the July-August 2001 lateral eruption at Mt. Etna: Seismological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicali, Simona; Barberi, Graziella; Cocina, Ornella; Musumeci, Carla; Patanè, Domenico

    2015-10-01

    A close relationship between earthquake swarms, volcanic eruptions, and ground deformation at Mt. Etna was well documented shortly before the beginning of the July-August 2001 eruption. Past experiences at this volcano suggest how magma/dike intrusion in the shallow crust or in the upper part of the volcanic pile normally occurs after several years/months of internal recharging. Since seismic investigations provide a means to study the scale and origin of stress perturbations at active volcanoes, allowing to better investigating the preparation phase of an eruption, in this paper, we performed a close examination of the seismic activity recorded at Mt. Etna in the months preceding the 2001 eruption and in particular between November 2000 and July 2001. After integrating data recorded by the two networks operating during that time and run by the Istituto Internazionale di Vulcanologia and SISTEMA POSEIDON, we relocated 522 earthquakes by using the tomoDD code in a 3D velocity model, and then we computed their fault plane solutions. The application of different selection criteria enabled obtaining a good-quality revised data set consisting of 111 fault plane solutions. The high-precision locations identified well-defined seismic clusters, in different periods, suggesting a link with the magma migration from a depth of 8-13 km b.s.l. towards shallower zones. Moreover, the computed maximum compressive stress axis, as inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms, indicated a roughly W-E-oriented σ1. This findings reflect an overpressure of the mid to shallow crust due to the progressive magma uprising in central portion of the volcano and also highlighted a rotation of the local stress field with respect to the regional one N-S trending. In addition, P-axis distribution pointed out the presence of a center of pressure located to the south of the Central Craters. These results provide particularly compelling evidence for a direct causal link between pressurization of the

  1. Decoding of visual attention from LFP signals of macaque MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esghaei, Moein; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The local field potential (LFP) has recently been widely used in brain computer interfaces (BCI). Here we used power of LFP recorded from area MT of a macaque monkey to decode where the animal covertly attended. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to learn the pattern of power at different frequencies for attention to two possible positions. We found that LFP power at both low (<9 Hz) and high (31-120 Hz) frequencies contains sufficient information to decode the focus of attention. Highest decoding performance was found for gamma frequencies (31-120 Hz) and reached 82%. In contrast low frequencies (<9 Hz) could help the classifier reach a higher decoding performance with a smaller amount of training data. Consequently, we suggest that low frequency LFP can provide fast but coarse information regarding the focus of attention, while higher frequencies of the LFP deliver more accurate but less timely information about the focus of attention.

  2. Decoding of visual attention from LFP signals of macaque MT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Esghaei

    Full Text Available The local field potential (LFP has recently been widely used in brain computer interfaces (BCI. Here we used power of LFP recorded from area MT of a macaque monkey to decode where the animal covertly attended. Support vector machines (SVM were used to learn the pattern of power at different frequencies for attention to two possible positions. We found that LFP power at both low (<9 Hz and high (31-120 Hz frequencies contains sufficient information to decode the focus of attention. Highest decoding performance was found for gamma frequencies (31-120 Hz and reached 82%. In contrast low frequencies (<9 Hz could help the classifier reach a higher decoding performance with a smaller amount of training data. Consequently, we suggest that low frequency LFP can provide fast but coarse information regarding the focus of attention, while higher frequencies of the LFP deliver more accurate but less timely information about the focus of attention.

  3. Tautinės tapatybės suvokimo raida misterijose | Development of the awareness of national identity in mystery plays

    OpenAIRE

    Aušra Martišiūtė

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with the unique genre of Lithuanian dramaturgy – mystery plays, the performance of which under the open sky became a significant phenomenon in the cultural life of independent Lithuania. The article introduces the genesis of the genre of mystery plays and focuses on the problems of national identity in the works of the end of the 19th century as well as outstanding pieces of the genre of mystery plays, written in the 1st and 3rd decades of the 20th century (Vydunas Shadows o...

  4. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species, construction (42 species, tools (31 species, food (29 species and ceremonial use (19 species ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a

  5. QUALITY CONTROL OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLETS MARKETED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Órfão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thiazide diuretics are of the classes of drugs most frequently used for the treatment of hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is the representative of this class and is found in tablet form in doses of 25 and 50 mg. It is marketed in three different categories of drugs: reference, similar and generic. According to the regulator in Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, before pharmaceuticals are released for use, the pharmaceutical industry must meet product quality specifications, but the consumption of counterfeit drugs, contraband or without registration with government laws It is growing in Brazil, which affect the entire drug production chain affecting the health of those who use these medicines. In view of the reported problems about the quality of marketed drugs and being the state of Mato Grosso considered a fake gateway drug, due to its proximity to Bolivia, this study aimed to assess the quality of tablets containing hydrochlorothiazide is already one of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of hypertension in Sinop-MT municipality according local search. Samples from five laboratories that produce hydrochlorothiazide tablets at a dose of 25 mg, and the most market in the municipality of Sinop / MT were analyzed as stablished in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. It was found that four of the five samples of drugs in Mato Grosso, performed all the requirements for approval in quality testing, with the exception of a product that has lower hardness values than recommended, which can lead to problems drug presentation as well as directly affect the absorption, bioavailability and action of the therapeutic drug. It was concluded that medicinal products containing hydrochlorothiazide showed adequate quality, ensuring their effectiveness.

  6. Remote Observing with Robotic Telescopes on Mt. Hopkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    Tennessee State University conducts remote, automatic observing with four robotic telescopes located at the Fairborn Observatory site on Mt. Hopkins, 30 miles south of Tucson. These telescopes run completely unattended; a site control computer monitors the time of day and weather conditions, opens the roof at the beginning of the night, informs each telescope's control computer when observations can begin, and shuts down the site when morning twilight or bad weather intervenes. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS) allows us to program the telescopes and to retrieve data via ASCII file transfers over the Internet. ATIS also includes a set of target selection rules that allow the telescopes to operate autonomously for many weeks or months without our intervention. Over the past several years, Tennessee State University has collaborated with Fairborn to develop precision photometers, software, observing techniques and quality control procedures that have culminated in the automatic acquisition and reduction of high volumes of data with millimagnitude precision. The telescopes are being used for a variety long-term monitoring programs that would be difficult or impossible (and prohibitively expensive) to conduct by traditional manual methods. A 10-inch telescope is dedicated to observations of semi-regular variable stars to uncover their multiple periods. A 16-inch telescope is dedicated to long-term observations of chromospherically active (single and binary) stars to search for activity cycles. Solar-type stars are being monitored by 30-inch and 32-inch telescopes to measure the subtle luminosity variations of these stars associated with their long-term magnetic variations as measured by the HK Project at Mt. Wilson Observatory. An additional project in collaboration with the NASA Ames Research Center seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques to improve the scheduling of the observations on these telescopes and to develop a software package to

  7. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  8. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  9. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  10. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  11. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, Salt and Nutrients Budgets of Two Estuaries in the. Coastal Zone of ... in destabilization of plankton communities, resulting in high ...... The water exchange time (1) was. 315 and 48 days in ..... account. Know your Milieu Series. Limbe,.

  12. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  13. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  14. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  15. Folate deficiency increases mtDNA and D-1 mtDNA deletion in aged brain of mice lacking uracil-DNA glycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Gertz, Karen; Overall, Rupert W; Harms, Christoph; Klein, Jeanette; Page, Melissa M; Stuart, Jeffrey A; Endres, Matthias

    2011-04-01

    Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence links folate deficiency and resultant hyperhomocysteinemia with cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that uracil misincorporation contributes to mitochondrial pathology in aged brain following folate deprivation. In a 2 × 2 design, 14-month-old mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung-/-) versus wild-type controls were subjected to a folate-deficient versus a regular diet for six weeks. Folate-deficient feeding significantly enhanced mtDNA content and overall abundance of the D-1 mtDNA deletion in brain of Ung-/-, but not of wild-type mice. Independent of folate status, the frequency of the D-1 mtDNA deletion in mtDNA was significantly increased in Ung-/- mice. The rate of mitochondrial biogenesis as assessed at six weeks of the experimental diet by mRNA expression levels of transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) was not affected by either Ung-/- genotype or short-term folate deficiency. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) activity in the brain did not differ across experimental groups. By contrast, independent of genotype, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly reduced in folate-deficient animals. Our results suggest that impaired uracil excision repair causes an increase in mitochondrial mutagenesis in aged brain along with a compensatory increase in mtDNA content in response to low folate status. Folate deficiency may contribute to neurodegeneration via mtDNA damage.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis: visualization and duel incorporation of BrdU and EdU into newly synthesized mtDNA in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Stephen I; Edwards, James L; Backus, Carey; McLean, Lisa L; Haines, Kristine M; Feldman, Eva L

    2010-02-01

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and are the focus of a large number of studies examining the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in healthy and diseased conditions. One approach to monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to visualize newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells to study mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and/or 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into mtDNA, together with a tyramide signal amplification protocol. Employing this technique, we visualized and measured mtDNA biogenesis in individual cells. The labeling procedure for EdU allows for more comprehensive results by allowing the comparison of its incorporation with other intracellular markers, because it does not require the harsh acid or enzyme digests necessary to recover the BrdU epitope. In addition, the utilization of both BrdU and EdU permits sequential pulse-chase experiments to follow the intracellular localization of mtDNA replication. The ability to quantify mitochondrial biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the alterations in mitochondrial dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of multiple cellular disorders, including neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Pathogenic mitochondrial mt-tRNA(Ala) variants are uniquely associated with isolated myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R; Hardy, Steven A; Tuppen, Helen A L; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L; Bamberg, Christian; Zierz, Stephan; Deschauer, Marcus; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations are associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes, often involving multiple organ systems. We report two patients with isolated myopathy owing to novel mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for both mutations (m.5631G>A and m.5610G>A) whilst single-muscle fibre segregation studies (revealing statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres), hierarchical mutation segregation within patient tissues and decreased steady-state mt-tRNA(Ala) levels all provide compelling evidence of pathogenicity. Interestingly, both patients showed very high-mutation levels in all tissues, inferring that the threshold for impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, as evidenced by COX deficiency, appears to be extremely high for these mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Previously described mt-tRNA(Ala) mutations are also associated with a pure myopathic phenotype and demonstrate very high mtDNA heteroplasmy thresholds, inferring at least some genotype:phenotype correlation for mutations within this particular mt-tRNA gene.

  18. Fungi of Mt. Babia Gora. 2: Indicative value of macromycetes in forest associations. A: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujakiewicz, A.

    1984-01-01

    The role and value of fungi in forest associations of Mt. Babia Gora massif were determined. The general physiographic characteristics of the research terrain, the distribution of the fungi sites, a list of the 618 taxons noted in the subalpine forests of Mt. Babia Gora, and the initial characteristics of the forest mycoflora of this massif are presented.

  19. Palmitoylation at Cys574 is essential for MT1-MMP to promote cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anilkumar, Narayanapanicker; Uekita, Takamasa; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    of the palmitoylated cysteine relative to LLY573, a motif that interacts with mu2 subunit of adaptor protein 2, is critical for the cell motility-promoting activity of MT1-MMP and its clathrin-mediated internalization. Taken together, palmitoylation of MT1-MMP is one of the key posttranslational modifications...

  20. To study the relationship between cadmium, zinc and mtDNA copy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Abhishek

    2016-11-18

    Nov 18, 2016 ... Variation of metals and mtDNA in Prostate cancer. 127 distribution of ... hypothesize that Cd and Zn influence distribution pattern of mtDNA ..... of dioxins and heavy metals in cancer and neurological diseases using ROS-mediated ... biomolecules, modulation of DNA repair and genotoxic consequences.