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Sample records for myo-inositol pool utilized

  1. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn; Harbo, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic dilution technique was used for determining the content of myo-inositol in human urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocyte samples. A deuterated myo-inositol, synthesized from inosose-2 by base-catalysed exchange of hydrogens by deuterium, followed by reduction of the inosose with 2H2......, was added as internal standard to the samples at an early stage in the analytical procedure. After separation and derivatization to the hexa-acetate, the gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was carried out. A 25 m fused silica capillary column coated with methyl silicone was used, and the ions...... selected for monitoring were m/z 210 and m/z 214, which are characteristic and abundant fragment ions from unlabelled and hexadeuterated myo-inositolhexa-acetate, respectively. Calibration curves from water, urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocytes show parallel, linear responses in the ratio between...

  2. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3 H in the indole and 14 C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [ 3 H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [ 3 H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumptions concerning the equilibration of applied [ 3 H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U- 14 C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indoleacetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [ 3 H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[ 14 C] galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [ 3 H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[ 14 C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14 C to the shoot and both 14 C and 3 H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm

  3. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  4. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao

    2016-11-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectroscopic and chemical reactivity analysis of D-Myo-Inositol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devendra P Mishra

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... years, the molecular mechanism of D-Myo-Inositol in the treatment of diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Diabetes mellitus is a complex ... understanding of biology space, and its synthetic deriva- tives have played significant ...

  6. Effects of myo-inositol plus alpha-lactalbumin in myo-inositol-resistant PCOS women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanino Oliva, Mario; Buonomo, Giovanna; Calcagno, Marco; Unfer, Vittorio

    2018-05-10

    Myo-inositol (MI), successfully used in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), was administered with α-LA to exploit its action of favouring the passage of other molecules through biological barriers, and also considering its anti-inflammatory effect. PCOS patients, according to the Rotterdam ESHRE-ASRM criteria, with anovulation and infertility > 1 year, were included in this open and prospective study. The preliminary phase was aimed at determining a set of MI-resistant PCOS patients. This treatment involved 2 g MI, taken twice per day by oral route, for three months. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and MI plasma levels were measured. In the main phase, previously selected MI-resistant patients received the same daily amount of MI plus 50 mg α-LA twice a day, for a further three months. Ovulation was assessed using ultrasound examination on days 12, 14 and 20 of the cycle. The HOMA index, lipid, hormone and MI plasma levels were detected at baseline and at the end of this phase. Thirty-seven anovulatory PCOS subjects were included in the study. Following MI treatment, 23 of the 37 women (62%) ovulated, while 14 (38%) were resistant and did not ovulate. In the latter group, MI plasma levels did not increase. These MI-resistant patients underwent treatment in the main phase of the study, receiving MI and α-LA. After this combined treatment, 12 (86%) of them ovulated. Their MI plasma levels were found to be significantly higher than at baseline; also, a hormone and lipid profile improvement was recorded. The combination of MI with α-LA allowed us to obtain significant progress in the treatment of PCOS MI-resistant patients. Therefore, this new formulation was able to re-establish ovulation, greatly increasing the chances of desired pregnancy. Clinical trial registration number: NCT03422289 ( ClinicalTrials.gov registry).

  7. Analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerovuo, J.; Rouvinen, J.; Hatzack, Frank-Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP(6)) hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase (PhyC) was studied. The enzyme hydrolyses only three phosphates from phytic acid. Moreover, the enzyme seems to prefer the hydrolysis of every second phosphate over that of adjacent ones. Furthermore, it is very...... a reaction mechanism different from that of other phytases. By combining the data presented in this study with (1) structural information obtained from the crystal structure of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens phytase [Ha, Oh, Shin, Kim, Oh, Kim, Choi and Oh (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 147-153], and (2) computer...

  8. Myo-inositol based nano-PCM for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Suresh, S.; Singh, H.; Rose, B.A.J.; Tassou, S.; Anantharaman, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Properties of Myo-Inositol laden with Al_2O_3 and CuO nanoparticles was studied. • The melting point was found to increase for MI-A and decrease for MI-C. • MI interacted only physically on addition of NPs. • Mass changes were <3% after thermal cycling of MI-A and MI-C. • MI-A is more suited for thermal energy storage than MI-C. - Abstract: The thermo-physical behavior of Myo-Inositol (MI), (a sugar alcohol), was investigated as a potential material for developing more compact solar thermal energy storage systems than those currently available. This latent heat storage medium could be utilized for commercial and industrial applications using solar thermal energy storage in the temperature range of 160–260 °C, if its thermal performance was modified. The objective of this investigation was to determine via experimentation, if Al_2O_3 and CuO nanoparticles dispersed in pure MI for mixtures of 1, 2 and 3% (by weight) improved the thermal performance of MI for solar thermal energy systems. Nanoparticles only physically interacted with MI, and not chemically, even after 50 thermal cycles. The distribution of CuO nanoparticles in the nano-PCM was found to be more uniform than alumina nanoparticles. After cycling, nano-MIs studied here suffered a lower decrease in heat of fusion than pure MI, which makes nano-MIs more suitable for solar thermal storage applications at 160–260 °C. Between CuO and Al_2O_3 nanoparticles, latter was found to be more suitable for compact solar thermal energy storage owing to an increase in melting point observed.

  9. Effect of myo-inositol and melatonin versus myo-inositol, in a randomized controlled trial, for improving in vitro fertilization of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Alessandro; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Antonini, Gabriele; Pacchiarotti, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) induces anovulation in women of reproductive age, and is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Indeed, PCOS women are characterized by poor quality oocytes. Therefore, a treatment for enhancing oocyte quality becomes crucial for these patients. Myo-Inositol and melatonin proved to be efficient predictors for positive IVF outcomes, correlating with high oocyte quality. We tested the synergistic effect of myo-inositol and melatonin in IVF protocols with PCOS patients in a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Five-hundred twenty-six PCOS women were divided into three groups: Controls (only folic acid: 400 mcg), Group A (Inofolic® plus, a daily dose of myo-inositol: 4000 mg, folic acid: 400 mcg, and melatonin: 3 mg), and Group B (Inofolic®, a daily dose of myo-inositol: 4000 mg, and folic acid: 400 mcg). The main outcome measures were oocyte and embryo quality, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates. The treatment lasted from the first day of the cycle until 14 days after embryo transfer. Myo-inositol and melatonin have shown to enhance, synergistically, oocyte and embryo quality. In consideration of the beneficial effect observed in our trial and on the bases of previous studies, we decided to integrate routinely MI and M supplementation in the IVF protocols. The same treatment should be taken carefully in consideration in all procedures of this kind.

  10. Modulation of hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes in diabetic rats by dietary myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Santarelli, E.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Sherman, W.R.; Williamson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the potential of myo-inositol-supplemented diets to prevent diabetes-induced vascular functional changes, we examined the effects of diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, or 2% myo-inositol on blood flow and vascular filtration function in nondiabetic control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D). After 1 mo of diabetes and dietary myo-inositol supplementation, (1) 131I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeation of vessels was assessed in multiple tissues, (2) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated as renal plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA, (3) regional blood flows were measured with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres, and (4) endogenous albumin and IgG urinary excretion rates were quantified by radial immunodiffusion assay. In STZ-D rats, 131I-BSA tissue clearance increased significantly (2- to 4-fold) in the anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, retina, sciatic nerve, aorta, new granulation tissue, diaphragm, and kidney but was unchanged in skin, forelimb muscle, and heart. myo-Inositol-supplemented diets reduced diabetes-induced increases in 131I-BSA clearance (in a dose-dependent manner) in all tissues; however, only in new granulation tissue and diaphragm did the 2% myo-inositol diet completely normalize vascular albumin permeation. Diabetes-induced increases in GFR and in urinary albumin and IgG excretion were also substantially reduced or normalized by dietary myo-inositol supplements. Increased blood flow in anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, kidney, new granulation tissue, and skeletal muscle in STZ-D rats also was substantially reduced or normalized by the 2% myo-inositol diet. myo-Inositol had minimal if any effects on the above parameters in control rats

  11. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC 50  = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU 50  = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU 50  = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  12. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  13. Crystal Structure and Product Analysis of an Archaeal myo-Inositol Kinase Reveal Substrate Recognition Mode and 3-OH Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryuhei; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Sato, Takaaki; Atomi, Haruyuki; Miki, Kunio

    2015-06-09

    The TK2285 protein from Thermococcus kodakarensis was recently characterized as an enzyme catalyzing the phosphorylation of myo-inositol. Only two myo-inositol kinases have been identified so far, the TK2285 protein and Lpa3 from Zea mays, both of which belong to the ribokinase family. In either case, which of the six hydroxyl groups of myo-inositol is phosphorylated is still unknown. In addition, little is known about the myo-inositol binding mechanism of these enzymes. In this work, we determined two crystal structures: those of the TK2285 protein complexed with the substrates (ATP analogue and myo-inositol) or the reaction products formed by the enzyme. Analysis of the ternary substrates-complex structure and site-directed mutagenesis showed that five residues were involved in the interaction with myo-inositol. Structural comparison with other ribokinase family enzymes indicated that two of the five residues, Q136 and R140, are characteristic of myo-inositol kinase. The crystal structure of the ternary products-complex, which was prepared by incubating the TK2285 protein with myo-inositol and ATP, holds 1d-myo-inositol 3-phosphate (Ins(3)P) in the active site. NMR and HPLC analyses with a chiral column also indicated that the TK2285 reaction product was Ins(3)P. The results obtained here showed that the TK2285 protein specifically catalyzes the phosphorylation of the 3-OH of myo-inositol. We thus designated TK2285 as myo-inositol 3-kinase (MI3K). The precise identification of the reaction product should provide a sound basis to further explore inositol metabolism in Archaea.

  14. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) brain cells respond to hyperosmotic challenge by inducing myo-inositol biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Alison M.; Yang, Jun; Sacchi, Romina; Fangue, Nann A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to determine the regulation of the de novo myo-inositol biosynthetic (MIB) pathway in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) brain following acute (25 ppt) and chronic (30, 60 and 90 ppt) salinity acclimations. The MIB pathway plays an important role in accumulating the compatible osmolyte, myo-inositol, in cells in response to hyperosmotic challenge and consists of two enzymes, myo-inositol phosphate synthase and inositol monophosphatase. In tilapia brain, MIB enzyme transcriptional regulation was found to robustly increase in a time (acute acclimation) or dose (chronic acclimation) dependent manner. Blood plasma osmolality and Na+ and Cl− concentrations were also measured and significantly increased in response to both acute and chronic salinity challenges. Interestingly, highly significant positive correlations were found between MIB enzyme mRNA and blood plasma osmolality in both acute and chronic salinity acclimations. Additionally, a mass spectrometry assay was established and used to quantify total myo-inositol concentration in tilapia brain, which closely mirrored the hyperosmotic MIB pathway induction. Thus, myo-inositol is a major compatible osmolyte that is accumulated in brain cells when exposed to acute and chronic hyperosmotic challenge. These data show that the MIB pathway is highly induced in response to environmental salinity challenge in tilapia brain and that this induction is likely prompted by increases in blood plasma osmolality. Because the MIB pathway uses glucose-6-phosphate as a substrate and large amounts of myo-inositol are being synthesized, our data also illustrate that the MIB pathway likely contributes to the high energetic demand posed by salinity challenge. PMID:24072790

  15. In vivo mapping of brain myo-inositol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Mohammad; Cai, Kejia; Singh, Anup; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2011-02-01

    Myo-Inositol (MI) is one of the most abundant metabolites in the human brain located mainly in glial cells and functions as an osmolyte. The concentration of MI is altered in many brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors. Currently available magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods for measuring MI are limited to low spatial resolution. Here, we demonstrate that the hydroxyl protons on MI exhibit chemical exchange with bulk water and saturation of these protons leads to reduction in bulk water signal through a mechanism known as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). The hydroxyl proton exchange rate (k=600 s(-1)) is determined to be in the slow to intermediate exchange regime on the NMR time scale (chemical shift (∆ω)>k), suggesting that the CEST effect of MI (MICEST) can be imaged at high fields such as 7 T (∆ω=1.2×10(3)rad/s) and 9.4 T (∆ω=1.6×10(3) rad/s). Using optimized imaging parameters, concentration dependent broad CEST asymmetry between ~0.2 and 1.5 ppm with a peak at ~0.6 ppm from bulk water was observed. Further, it is demonstrated that MICEST detection is feasible in the human brain at ultra high fields (7 T) without exceeding the allowed limits on radiofrequency specific absorption rate. Results from healthy human volunteers (N=5) showed significantly higher (p=0.03) MICEST effect from white matter (5.2±0.5%) compared to gray matter (4.3±0.5%). The mean coefficient of variations for intra-subject MICEST contrast in WM and GM were 0.49 and 0.58 respectively. Potential overlap of CEST signals from other brain metabolites with the observed MICEST map is discussed. This noninvasive approach potentially opens the way to image MI in vivo and to monitor its alteration in many disease conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Myo-Inositol Phosphates Produced by ASUIA279 Phytase on MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohd. Yusoff

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytate or myo-inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6 is widely distributed in plants like rice brans. The production of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates has received much attention due to the remarkable potential health benefits offered by the compounds. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the partially purified myo-inositol phosphate fractions and commercial IP1 and IP6 were investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The study showed that the commercial standard IP1 and IP6 showed good inhibition towards the MCF-7 cell line. The MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited in minimum concentration of myo-inositol phosphates (<1000 µg/ml. However, no inhibition observed on the MCF-7 cell line by the myo-inositol phosphates fractions partially purified from rice bran at concentration <1000 ?g/ml. The inhibition of MCF-7 was only observed at concentration more than 30 mg/ml with more than 40% cells were inhibited. This indicates that the partially purified rice bran myo-inositol phosphates degraded by ASUIA279 phytase on MCF-7 breast cancer cells exhibit positive results towards the inhibition of cancer cells growth at relatively high concentration..KEYWORDS: myo-inositol phosphates, phytase, MCF-7,  cancerABSTRAK: Fitat atau myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 dikenali umum teragih di dalam tumbuhan seperti dedak padi. Penghasilan perantaraan fosfat myo-inositol mendapat perhatian memandangkan ia berpotensi tinggi dalam kesihatan. Dalam kajian ini, kesitotoksikan sebahagian daripada fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen, IP1 komersil dan IP6 komersil dikaji terhadap produk yang berupa sel kekal (cell lines kanser payu dara MCF-7. Tumbesaran sel MCF-7 direncatkan dalam pekatan minima fosfat myo-inositol (<1000 μg/ml. Tetapi, tidak ada perencatan dilihat terhadap sel kekal MCF-7 oleh sebahagian fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen daripada dedak padi pada kepekatan <1000 mg/ml. Perencatan MCF-7 hanya dilihat pada kepekatan lebih daripada 30 mg/ml dengan lebih

  17. Activity of Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Rye Phytase toward Partially Phosphorylated myo-Inositol Phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ralf

    2017-11-08

    Kinetic parameters for the dephosphorylation of sodium phytate and a series of partially phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates were determined at pH 3.0 and pH 5.0 for three phytase preparations (Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, rye). The enzymes showed lower affinity and turnover numbers at pH 3 compared to pH 5 toward all myo-inositol phosphates included in the study. The number and distribution of phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring affected the kinetic parameters. Representatives of the individual phytate dephosphorylation pathways were identified as the best substrates of the phytases. Within the individual phytate dephosphorylation pathways, the pentakisphosphates were better substrates compared to the tetrakisphosphates or phytate itself. E. coli and rye phytase showed comparable activities at both pH values toward the tetrakis- and trisphosphate, whereas A. niger phytase exhibited a higher activity toward the tetrakisphosphate. A myo-inositol phosphate with alternate phosphate groups was shown to be not significantly dephosphorylated by the phytases.

  18. Myo-inositol, glucose and zinc concentrations determined in the preconceptional period, during and after pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.M.; Roes, E.M.; Peer, P.G.M.; Merkus, H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the blood concentrations of myo-inositol, glucose and zinc before, during and after normal pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Preconceptionally, at 6, 10, 20, 30 and 37 weeks amenorrhea, and 6 weeks after delivery, blood samples of 18 nulliparae and 19 multiparae were obtained and

  19. How to Achieve High-Quality Oocytes? The Key Role of Myo-Inositol and Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giovanni Vitale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have experienced growing interest from infertile patients seeking to become pregnant. The quality of oocytes plays a pivotal role in determining ART outcomes. Although many authors have studied how supplementation therapy may affect this important parameter for both in vivo and in vitro models, data are not yet robust enough to support firm conclusions. Regarding this last point, in this review our objective has been to evaluate the state of the art regarding supplementation with melatonin and myo-inositol in order to improve oocyte quality during ART. On the one hand, the antioxidant effect of melatonin is well known as being useful during ovulation and oocyte incubation, two occasions with a high level of oxidative stress. On the other hand, myo-inositol is important in cellular structure and in cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis suggests that the use of these two molecules may significantly improve the quality of oocytes and the quality of embryos: melatonin seems to raise the fertilization rate, and myo-inositol improves the pregnancy rate, although all published studies do not fully agree with these conclusions. However, previous studies have demonstrated that cotreatment improves these results compared with melatonin alone or myo-inositol alone. We recommend that further studies be performed in order to confirm these positive outcomes in routine ART treatment.

  20. Involvement of Arabidopsis Hexokinase1 in Cell Death Mediated by Myo -Inositol Accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Prunier, Florence; Mazubert, Christelle; de Bont, Linda; Garmier, Marie; Lugan, Raphaë l; Benhamed, Moussa; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cé cile; Delarue, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    of myo-inositol (MI) synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD. Here, we identified a suppressor of PCD by screening for mutations that abolish

  1. Time-series responses of swine plasma metabolites to ingestion of diets containing myo-inositol or phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowieson, Aaron J; Roos, Franz F; Ruckebusch, Jean-Paul; Wilson, Jonathan W; Guggenbuhl, Patrick; Lu, Hang; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the ingestion of diets containing either myo-inositol or exogenous phytase on plasma metabolites was examined using 29 kg barrows. The diets were: control (maize, soya, rapeseed, rice bran), control plus 2 g/kg myo-inositol, control plus 1000 phytase units (FYT)/kg or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed in a PigTurn device and blood was collected, from jugular catheters, via an automated system at -30, (30 min before feeding), 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min post-feeding. The addition of 2 g/kg myo-inositol to the basal diet resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was evident 45-60 min after diet introduction and persisted to 360 min post-feeding. Similarly, supplementation of the basal diet with either 1000 or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was still rising 360 min post-feeding. Plasma P concentration was increased over time by the addition of 1000 and 3000 FYT/kg phytase, but not by the addition of myo-inositol. Other plasma metabolites examined were not affected by dietary treatment. It can be concluded that oral delivery of myo-inositol results in rapid increase in plasma myo-inositol concentrations that peak approximately 45-60 min after feeding. Use of supplemental phytase achieves similar increases in myo-inositol concentration in plasma but the appearance is more gradual. Furthermore, supplementation of pig diets with exogenous phytase results in rapid appearance of P in plasma that may be sustained over time relative to diets with no added phytase.

  2. Crosstalks between myo-inositol metabolism, programmed cell death and basal immunity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hong Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is a crucial cellular process required for both normal development and to face stress conditions, the control of programmed cell death in plants is not fully understood. We previously reported the isolation of ATXR5 and ATXR6, two PCNA-binding proteins that could be involved in the regulation of cell cycle or cell death. A yeast two-hybrid screen using ATXR5 as bait captured AtIPS1, an enzyme which catalyses the committed step of myo-inositol (MI biosynthesis. atips1 mutants form spontaneous lesions on leaves, raising the possibility that MI metabolism may play a role in the control of PCD in plants. In this work, we have characterised atips1 mutants to gain insight regarding the role of MI in PCD regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: - lesion formation in atips1 mutants depends of light intensity, is due to PCD as evidenced by TUNEL labelling of nuclei, and is regulated by phytohormones such as salicylic acid - MI and galactinol are the only metabolites whose accumulation is significantly reduced in the mutant, and supplementation of the mutant with these compounds is sufficient to prevent PCD - the transcriptome profile of the mutant is extremely similar to that of lesion mimic mutants such as cpr5, or wild-type plants infected with pathogens. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results provide strong evidence for the role of MI or MI derivatives in the regulation of PCD. Interestingly, there are three isoforms of IPS in Arabidopsis, but AtIPS1 is the only one harbouring a nuclear localisation sequence, suggesting that nuclear pools of MI may play a specific role in PCD regulation and opening new research prospects regarding the role of MI in the prevention of tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, the significance of the interaction between AtIPS1 and ATXR5 remains to be established.

  3. Dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in women during pregnancy for treating gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Crawford, Tineke J; Alsweiler, Jane; Crowther, Caroline A

    2016-09-07

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance that first presents and is recognised during pregnancy and usually resolves after the birth of the baby. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity for the mother and her baby. Treatment usually includes lifestyle modification and/or pharmacological therapy (oral antidiabetic agents or insulin) with the aim to maintain treatment targets for blood glucose concentrations. Finding novel treatment agents which are effective, acceptable and safe for the mother and her baby are important. One such emerging potential intervention is myo-inositol which is an isomer of inositol and occurs endogenously and is found in natural dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and cereals. To assess if dietary supplementation with myo-inositol during pregnancy is safe and effective, for the mother and fetus, in treating gestational diabetes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (7 April 2016), and reference lists of retrieved studies. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials or cluster-randomised controlled trials reporting on the use of myo-inositol compared with placebo, no treatment or another intervention for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes. Quasi-randomised and cross-over studies are not eligible for inclusion. Women with pre-existing diabetes were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. For key outcomes (where data were available), we assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included two studies (142 women and infants), both were conducted in women in Italy and compared myo-inositol with a placebo control.None of the maternal primary outcomes pre-specified for this review were reported in

  4. myo-Inositol synthesis from [1-3H]glucose in Phaseolus vulgaris L. during early stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabeled D-[1- 3 H]glucose was fed by imbibition under sterile conditions to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. After 72 and 96 hours of feeding, the 3 H was located in uronic acid and pentose residues as well as hexose residues of cell wall polysaccharides in growing hypocotyl and root. Free myo-inositol present in cotyledons, hypocotyl, and root also contained 3 H, showing that de novo synthesis of myo-inositol from [1- 3 H]glucose did occur during the first 72 hours of germination. More than 90% of the labeled, free myo-inositol was present in the cotyledons. The 3 H percentage in trifluoroacetic acid-soluble arabinaose residues of cell wall polysaccharides from 72-hour-old bean hypocotyls was only half of their mole percentage. On the other hand, 3 H percentages in hexose residues were higher than their mole percentages. The results suggest that myo-inositol is synthesized from reserve sugars during the very early stages of germination, and that the newly synthesized myo-inositol, as well as that stored in cotyledons, can be used for the construction of new hypocotyl and root cell wall polysaccharides after conversion into uronic acids and pentoses via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway

  5. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiming; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, β-myosin heavy chain, and α-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway

  6. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  7. Myo-inositol vs. D-chiro inositol in PCOS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formuso, C; Stracquadanio, M; Ciotta, L

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women in fertile age. It is an endocrine and metabolic disorder characterized by oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism and insulin-resistance. Various therapeutic approaches have been attempted in PCOS, including diet and the use of pharmacological agents such as oral contraceptives (OCs) or anti-androgens. Recently, the introduction of inositol in the treatment plan has proved to be as reasonable as useful in countering the endocrine-metabolic disorders of this syndrome. The aim of our study was to compare the clinical, endocrine and metabolic response after 6 months of therapy in 137 PCOS women characterized by oligomenorrhea and/or acne and/or mild hirsutism and insulin-resistance. The patients were treated with myo-inositol or with D-chiro-inositol or with placebo. Our study showed that both myo-inositol (MI-PG) and D-chiro inositol (DCI-PG) treatments are able to significantly improve the regularity of the menstrual cycle, the Acne Score, the endocrine and metabolic parameters and the insulin-resistence in young, overweight, PCOS patients. Definitely, we assumed that both treatments with myo-inositol and with D-chiro inositol could be proposed as a potential valid therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with PCOS. Additionally, further examination and for a longer period of treatment are needed.

  8. Exciplex and excimer molecular probes: detection of conformational flip in a myo-inositol chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirvel, Manikandan; Arsic, Biljana; Freeman, Sally; Bichenkova, Elena V

    2008-06-07

    2-O-tert-Butyldimethylsilyl-4,6-bis-O-pyrenoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate (6) and 2-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-4-O-[4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl]-6-O-pyrenoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoacetate (10) adopt conformationally restricted unstable chairs with five axial substituents. In the symmetrical diester 6, the two pi-stacked pyrenoyl groups are electron acceptor-donor partners, giving a strong intramolecular excimer emission. In the mixed ester 10, the pyrenoyl group is the electron acceptor and the 4-(dimethylamino)benzoyl ester is the electron donor, giving a strong intramolecular exciplex emission. The conformation of the mixed ester 10 was assessed using 1H NMR spectroscopy (1H-NOESY) and computational studies. which showed the minimum inter-centroid distance between the two aromatic systems to be approximately 3.9 A. Upon addition of acid, the orthoformate/orthoacetate trigger in 6 and 10 was cleaved, which caused a switch of the conformation of the myo-inositol ring to the more stable penta-equatorial chair, leading to separation of the aromatic ester groups and loss of excimer and exciplex fluorescence, respectively. This study provides proof of principle for the development of novel fluorescent molecular probes.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Myo-Inositol Crystals from Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran Somasundram

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crystals isolated from Hylocereus polyrhizus were analyzed using four different approaches—X-ray Crystallography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and identified as myo-inositol. The X-ray crystallography analysis showed that the unit-cell parameters were: a = 6.6226 (3 Å, b = 12.0462 (5 Å, c = 18.8942 (8 Å, α = 90.00, β = 93.98, δ = 90.00. The purity of the crystals were checked using HPLC, whereupon a clean single peak was obtained at 4.8 min with a peak area of 41232 μV*s. The LC-MS/MS technique, which is highly sensitive and selective, was used to provide a comparison of the isolated crystals with a myo-inositol standard where the results gave an identical match for both precursor and product ions. NMR was employed to confirm the molecular structure and conformation of the crystals, and the results were in agreement with the earlier results in this study. The discovery of myo-inositol crystals in substantial amount in H. polyrhizus has thus far not been reported and this is an important finding which will increase the marketability and importance of H. polyrhizus as a crop with a wide array of health properties.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide production and myo-inositol metabolism as important traits for virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, M G; Mucha, S G; Parrot, D; Meiffren, G; Bachega, J F R; Comte, G; Zaha, A; Sagot, M F

    2018-04-06

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia. In our previous work, we reconstructed the metabolic models of this species along with two other mycoplasmas from the respiratory tract of swine: Mycoplasma hyorhinis, considered less pathogenic but which nonetheless causes disease and Mycoplasma flocculare, a commensal bacterium. We identified metabolic differences that partially explained their different levels of pathogenicity. One important trait was the production of hydrogen peroxide from the glycerol metabolism only in the pathogenic species. Another important feature was a pathway for the metabolism of myo-inositol in M. hyopneumoniae. Here, we tested these traits to understand their relation to the different levels of pathogenicity, comparing not only the species but also pathogenic and attenuated strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Regarding the myo-inositol metabolism, we show that only M. hyopneumoniae assimilated this carbohydrate and remained viable when myo-inositol was the primary energy source. Strikingly, only the two pathogenic strains of M. hyopneumoniae produced hydrogen peroxide in complex medium. We also show that this production was dependent on the presence of glycerol. Although further functional tests are needed, we present in this work two interesting metabolic traits of M. hyopneumoniae that might be directly related to its enhanced virulence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Antenatal dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in women during pregnancy for preventing gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Tineke J; Crowther, Caroline A; Alsweiler, Jane; Brown, Julie

    2015-12-17

    Gestational diabetes, glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is a rising problem worldwide. Both non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches to the prevention of gestational diabetes have been, and continue to be explored. Myo-inositol, an isomer of inositol, is a naturally occurring sugar commonly found in cereals, corn, legumes and meat. It is one of the intracellular mediators of the insulin signal and correlated with insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. The potential beneficial effect on improving insulin sensitivity suggests that myo-inositol may be useful for women in preventing gestational diabetes. To assess if antenatal dietary supplementation with myo-inositol is safe and effective, for the mother and fetus, in preventing gestational diabetes. We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP (2 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We sought published and unpublished randomised controlled trials, including conference abstracts, assessing the effects of myo-inositol for the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Quasi-randomised and cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion, but cluster designs were eligible. Participants in the trials were pregnant women. Women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes were excluded. Trials that compared the administration of any dose of myo-inositol, alone or in a combination preparation were eligible for inclusion. Trials that used no treatment, placebo or another intervention as the comparator were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, risk of bias and extracted the data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included four randomised controlled trials (all conducted in Italy) reporting on 567 women who were less than 11 weeks' to 24 weeks' pregnant at the start of the trials. The trials had small sample sizes and one trial only reported an

  12. Defining the minimal structural requirements for partial agonism at the type I myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R A; Fauq, A; Kozikowski, A P; Nahorski, S R

    1997-02-03

    The novel synthetic analogues D-3-fluoro-myo-inositol 1,5-bisphosphate-4-phosphorothioate, [3F-Ins(1,5)P2-4PS], D-3-fluoro-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate-5-phosphorothioate [3F-Ins(1,4)P2-5PS], and D-3-fluoro-myo-inositol 1-phosphate-4,5-bisphosphorothioate [3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2] were utilised to define the structure-activity relationships which could produce partial agonism at the Ca2+ mobilising myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptor. Based on prior structure-activity data we hypothesised that the minimal structural requirements for lns(1,4,5)P3 receptor partial agonism, were phosphorothioate substitution of the crucial vicinal 4,5-bisphosphate pair accompanied by another structural perturbation, such fluorination of 3-position of the myo-inositol ring. All the analogues fully displaced [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 from a single Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding site in pig cerebellar membranes [3F-Ins(1,5)P2-4PS (1C50 = 26 nM), 3F-Ins(1,4)P2-5PS (IC50 = 80 nM) and 3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2 (IC50 = 109 nM) cf. Ins(1,4,5)P3 (IC50 = 11 nM)]. In contrast, 3F-Ins(1,5)P2-4PS (IC50 = 424 nM) and 3F-Ins(1,4)P2-5PS (IC50 = 3579 nM) were weak full agonists at the Ca2+ mobilising Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor of permeabilised SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, being respectively 4- and 36-fold less potent than Ins(1,4,5)P3 (EC50 = 99 nM). While 3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2 (EC50 = 11345 nM) was a partial agonist releasing only 64.3 +/- 1.9% of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pools. 3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2 was unique among the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor partial agonists so far identified in having a relatively high affinity for the Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding site, accompanied by a significant loss of intrinsic activity for Ca2+ mobilisation. This improved affinity was probably due to the retention of the 1-position phosphate, which enhances interaction with the Ins-(1,4,5)P3 receptor. 3F-Ins(1)P-(4,5)PS2 may be an important lead compound for the development of efficient Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonists.

  13. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as alpha-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected.

  14. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.J.; Bandurski, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 0 C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as α-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other fraction enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected

  15. Salinity-induced regulation of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia gill epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Romina; Li, Johnathon; Villarreal, Fernando; Gardell, Alison M.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol that protects cells from osmotic stress. Using proteomics, the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), are identified in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium. Targeted, quantitative, label-free proteomics reveals that they are both upregulated during salinity stress. Upregulation is stronger when fish are exposed to severe (34 ppt acute and 90 ppt gradual) relative to moderate (70 ppt gradual) salinity stress. IMPA1 always responds more strongly than MIPS, suggesting that MIPS is more stable during salinity stress. MIPS is N-terminally acetylated and the corresponding peptide increases proportionally to MIPS protein, while non-acetylated N-terminal peptide is not detectable, indicating that MIPS acetylation is constitutive and may serve to stabilize the protein. Hyperosmotic induction of MIPS and IMPA1 is confirmed using western blot and real-time qPCR and is much higher at the mRNA than at the protein level. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are expressed in the gill, but one is more strongly regulated by salinity than the other. A single MIPS gene is encoded in the tilapia genome whereas the zebrafish genome lacks MIPS entirely. The genome of euryhaline tilapia contains four IMPA genes, two of which are expressed, but only one is salinity regulated in gill epithelium. The genome of stenohaline zebrafish contains a single IMPA gene. We conclude that the MIB pathway represents a major salinity stress coping mechanism that is regulated at multiple levels in euryhaline fish but absent in stenohaline zebrafish. PMID:24072791

  16. Isolation and Characterization of D-Myo-Inositol-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene Family Members in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Laura Lee

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to isolate genes encoding isoforms of the enzyme D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS, E.C. 5.5.1.4) from soybean and to characterize their expression, especially with respect to their involvement in phytic acid biosynthesis. A MIPS-homologous cDNA, designated GmMIPS1, was isolated via PCR using total RNA from developing seeds. Southern blot analysis and examination of MIPS-homologous soybean EST sequences suggested that GmMIPS1 is part of a multigene...

  17. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  18. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliński, Robert; Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo- inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo- inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo- inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo- inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo- inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo- inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo- inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo - -inositol.

  19. A cold-induced myo-inositol transporter-like gene confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Mame Abdou Nahr; He, Xueying; Tu, Qinghua; Guo, Zhenfei

    2015-03-01

    A full length cDNA encoding a myo-inositol transporter-like protein, named as MfINT-like, was cloned from Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (herein falcata), a species with greater cold tolerance than alfalfa (M. sativa subsp. sativa). MfINT-like is located on plasma membranes. MfINT-like transcript was induced 2-4 h after exogenous myo-inositol treatment, 24-96 h with cold, and 96 h by salinity. Given that myo-inositol accumulates higher in falcata after 24 h of cold treatment, myo-inositol is proposed to be involved in cold-induced expression of MfINT-like. Higher levels of myo-inositol was observed in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfINT-like than the wild-type but not in the roots of plants grown on myo-inositol containing medium, suggesting that transgenic plants had higher myo-inositol transport activity than the wild-type. Transgenic plants survived better to freezing temperature, and had lower ion leakage and higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) after chilling treatment. In addition, greater plant fresh weight was observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild-type when plants were grown under drought or salinity stress. The results suggest that MfINT-like mediated transport of myo-inositol is associated with plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Zinc-ion-dependent acid phosphatase exhibits magnesium-ion-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, S; Okano, I; Tanaka, Y; Sumida, Y; Tsuda, J; Kawakami, N; Shimohama, S

    1996-06-01

    We have purified bovine brain Zn(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase (Zn(2+)-APase), which requires Zn2+ ions to hydrolyze the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) in an acidic environment. The substrate specificity and metal requirement of Zn(2+)-APase at a physiological pH was also studied. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity on myo-inositol-1- and -2-monophosphates, 2'-adenosine monophosphate, 2'-guanosine monophosphate, and the alpha- and beta-glycerophosphates, glucose-1-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in the presence of Mg2+ ions, but not on pNPP and phosphotyrosine. Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ ions were less effective for activation. Among the above substrates, myo-inositol-1-phosphate was the most susceptible to hydrolysis by the enzyme in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH at around 8 for myo-inositol-1-phosphate in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the enzyme was significantly inhibited by Li+ ions. The Zn(2+)-dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity and Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the purified enzyme fraction exhibited similar behavior on Sephadex G-100 and Mono Q colomns. These findings suggest that Zn(2+)-APase also exhibits Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity under physiological conditions.

  1. myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is required for polar auxin transport and organ development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-06-01

    myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is a conserved enzyme that catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in inositol biosynthesis. Despite its wide occurrence in all eukaryotes, the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase and de novo inositol biosynthesis in cell signaling and organism development has been unclear. In this study, we isolated loss-of-function mutants in the Arabidopsis MIPS1 gene from different ecotypes. It was found that all mips1 mutants are defective in embryogenesis, cotyledon venation patterning, root growth, and root cap development. The mutant roots are also agravitropic and have reduced basipetal auxin transport. mips1 mutants have significantly reduced levels of major phosphatidylinositols and exhibit much slower rates of endocytosis. Treatment with brefeldin A induces slower PIN2 protein aggregation in mips1, indicating altered PIN2 trafficking. Our results demonstrate that MIPS1 is critical for maintaining phosphatidylinositol levels and affects pattern formation in plants likely through regulation of auxin distribution. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. L-Myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaroya, Rony Oren; Zamski, Eli; Tel-Or, Elisha

    2004-02-01

    L-Myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (INPS EC 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate to L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate. INPS is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytate which is a common form of stored phosphates in higher plants. The present study monitored the increase of INPS expression in Azolla filiculoides resulting from exposure to inorganic phosphates, metals and salt stress. The expression of INPS was significantly higher in Azolla plants that were grown in rich mineral growth medium than those maintained on nutritional growth medium. The expression of INPS protein and corresponding mRNA increased in plants cultured in minimal nutritional growth medium when phosphate or Zn2+, Cd2+ and NaCl were added to the growth medium. When employing rich mineral growth medium, INPS protein content increased with the addition of Zn2+, but decreased in the presence of Cd2+ and NaCl. These results indicated that accumulation of phytate in Azolla is a result of the intensified expression of INPS protein and mRNA, and its regulation may be primarily derived by the uptake of inorganic phosphate, and Zn2+, Cd2+ or NaCl.

  3. Special focus on cerebral myo-inositol in patients with hepatic encephalopathy : proton MR spectroscopic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul; Lim, Tae Whan; Auh, Yong Ho; Lee Young Sang [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine , Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hee [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    To determine whether or not cerebral myo-inositol/creatine-phos-phocreatine (MI/Cr) level can be used as a criterion of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Single voxel stimulated echo sequence with short echo time (30ms) was applied to parietal white matter of 14 healthy control subjects, 11 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, 29 cirrhotic patients without HE, and 33 cirrhotic patients with HE. The metabolite ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline containing compounds (Cho), and myo-Inositol (MI) were calculated using creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) as an internal reference. Clinical data including modified Child-Pugh score, estimated serum osmolarity, and grade of HE, were obtained at the day of MR spectroscopy. MI/Cr was 34% lower in cirrhotic patients with HE than in control subjects. It was reduced below two standard deviation from normal in 17 of 33 cirrhotic patients with HE (52%). MI/Cr did not correlate with grade of HE (r=-0.55, p=0.00). In the analysis of Child class C patients, there was no significant difference of MI/Cr between cirrhotic patients with HE and those without HE (0.83 {+-} 0.11, n= 29 vs. 0.39 {+-} 0.11, n= 15, p= 0.59, respectively). A reduction of cerebral MI/Cr cannot be used as a diagnostic criterion of HE.

  4. Recombinant expression of a functional myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyi; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-10-01

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS, E.C. 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the first step in inositol production-the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) to myo-inositol-1-phosphate. While the three dimensional structure of MIPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been solved, biochemical studies examining the in vitro activity have not been reported to date. Herein we report the in vitro activity of mycobacterial MIPS expressed in E. coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Recombinant expression in E. coli yields a soluble protein capable of binding the NAD(+) cofactor; however, it has no significant activity with the Glc-6P substrate. In contrast, recombinant expression in M. smegmatis mc(2)4517 yields a functionally active protein. Examination of structural data suggests that MtMIPS expressed in E. coli adopts a fold that is missing a key helix containing two critical (conserved) Lys side chains, which likely explains the inability of the E. coli expressed protein to bind and turnover the Glc-6P substrate. Recombinant expression in M. smegmatis may yield a protein that adopts a fold in which this key helix is formed enabling proper positioning of important side chains, thereby allowing for Glc-6P substrate binding and turnover. Detailed mechanistic studies may be feasible following optimization of the recombinant MIPS expression protocol in M. smegmatis.

  5. Dephosphorylation Pathway of D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas eugametos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, Hans; Himbergen, John A.J. van; Musgrave, Alan; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Ende, Herman van den

    In vitro dephosphorylation of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(l,4,5)P-3] by vegetative cells, gametes and zygotes of the green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos was studied using a soluble cell fraction as enzyme source and labelled Ins(1,4,5)P-3 as substrate. This compound was dephosphorylated

  6. Maternal myo-inositol, glucose, and zinc status is associated with the risk of offspring with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Peer, P.G.M.; Wevers, R.A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Franke, B.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the maternal and children's myo-inositol, glucose, and zinc status in association with spina bifida risk. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-three mothers and 70 children with spina bifida and 102 control mothers and 85 control children were investigated. The

  7. Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez I, J.

    1977-01-01

    The myo-inositol- 14 C, phytic acid- 14 C and ferric phytate- 14 C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14 CO 2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid- 14 C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol- 14 C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

  8. Myo-inositol uptake by cultured calf retinal pigment epithelial cells: regulation by glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatami, M.; Rockey, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Confluent primary (P-1) or subcultured passage 2 or 3 (P-2, P-3) calf retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) were incubated with [ 3 H]-myo-inositol (MI, 100-200 μM) in balanced salt solution (BSS), for 5 to 60 min at 37 0 C. MI uptake into RPE (P-2, 5 days old) was saturable with K/sub m/ of 147 μM and V/sub max/ of 5.5 pmole/min/μg DNA. P-1 or P-2 incubated with 10 μM MI for 40 min accumulated MI against a concentration gradient ([MI]in/[MI]out > 20). Replacement of 150 mM NaCl in BSS by 150 mM choline-Cl reduced the uptake of MI by 87%. MI uptake was inhibited (39%) when cells were incubated in BSS in the absence of Ca Cl 2 . Transport of MI into RPE incubated in the presence of phloridzin, ouabain or 2,4-dinitrophenol (1 mM each) for 10 min was inhibited by 65, 37 and 21%, respectively. α-D-Glucose (20 mM) in the incubation media inhibited MI uptake into primary (or P-2) cultured RPE by 30 or 43% when cells were incubated for 10 or 60 min, respectively. The ability of RPE cells, grown in the presence of 50 mM glucose for 15-25 days, to concentrate MI (40 μM) was reduced up to 41%. Cultured RPE cells accumulated myo-inositol by an active transport system, sensitive to ouabain, DNP and phloridzin. High glucose in the incubation media or in the growth media inhibited the uptake of MI into calf RPE cells

  9. Management of women with PCOS using myo-inositol and folic acid. New clinical data and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Pedro-Antonio; Schindler, Adolf Eduard; Lesoine, Bernd; Druckman, Rene

    2018-03-02

    Introduction The use of 2 × 2000 mg myo-inositol +2 × 200 μg folic acid per day is a safe and promising tool in the effective improvement of symptoms and infertility for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, PCOS is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Typically, PCOS patients suffer of poor quality oocytes. Patients and methods In an open, prospective, non-blinded, non-comparative observational study, 3602 infertile women used myo-inositol and folic acid between 2 and 3 months in a dosage of 2 × 2000 mg myo-inositol +2 × 200 μg folic acid per day. In a subgroup of 32 patients, hormonal values for testosterone, free testosterone and progesterone were analyzed before and after 12 weeks of treatment. The mean time of use was 10.2 weeks. In the second part of this trial it was investigated if the combination of myo-inositol + folic acid was able to improve the oocyte quality, the ratio between follicles and retrieved oocytes, the fertilization rate and the embryo quality in PCOS patients undergoing IVF treatments. Twenty-nine patients with PCOS, underwent IVF protocols for infertility treatment and were randomized prospectively into two groups. Group A (placebo) with 15 patients and group B (4000 mg myo-inositol +400 μg folic acid per day) with 14 patients were evaluated. The patients of group B used 2 months' myo-inositol + folic acid before starting the IVF protocol. For statistically analyses Student's t-test was performed. Results Seventy percent of the women had a restored ovulation, and 545 pregnancies were observed. This means a pregnancy rate of 15.1% of all the myo-inositol and folic acid users. In 19 cases a concomitant medication with clomiphene or dexamethasone was used. One twin pregnancy was documented. Testosterone levels changed from 96.6 ng/mL to 43.3 ng/mL and progesterone from 2.1 ng/mL to 12.3 ng/mL in the mean after 12 weeks of treatment (p

  10. Etude du potentiel insulino-sensibilisant du myo-inositol chez la souris : Evaluation de l’intérêt nutritionnel d’une supplémentation en myo-inositol

    OpenAIRE

    Croze , Marine

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the first step in the development of type 2 diabetes so finding insulin-sensitizing strategies is challenging for scientists. Some inositol isomers or derivatives have been reported to exert insulin-mimetic activity. myo-Inositol being the most abundant stereoisomeric form of inositol in foodstuffs, we tested its insulin-mimetic potential in the long term and as a nutritional strategy for insulin resistance prevention and/or treatment. This study demonstrates that chroni...

  11. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Katarzyna Cielecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26 and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2 were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte-like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 μg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 μg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 μg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 μg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modifi ed rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo-inositol.

  12. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Summary Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo- -inositol. PMID:27904333

  13. Ovulation induction with myo-inositol alone and in combination with clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Zdravko; Kolarov, Georgi; Gateva, Antoaneta; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Genazzani, Alessandro D

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the methods for correcting insulin resistance is using myo-inositol. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of myo-inositol alone or in combination with clomiphene citrate for (1) induction of ovulation and (2) pregnancy rate in anovulatory women with PCOS and proven insulin resistance. This study included 50 anovulatory PCOS patients with insulin resistance. All of them received myo-inositolduring three spontaneous cycles. If patients remained anovulatory and/or no pregnancy was achieved, combination of myo-inositol and clomiphene citrate was used in the next three cycles. Ovulation and pregnancy rate, changes in body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index and the rate of adverse events were assessed. After myo-inositol treatment, ovulation was present in 29 women (61.7%) and 18 (38.3%) were resistant. Of the ovulatory women, 11 became pregnant (37.9%). Of the 18 myo-inositol resistant patients after clomiphene treatment, 13 (72.2%) ovulated. Of the 13 ovulatory women, 6 (42.6%) became pregnant. During follow-up, a reduction of body mass index and HOMA index was also observed. Myo-inositol treatment ameliorates insulin resistance and body weight, and improves ovarian activity in PCOS patients.

  14. L-myo-inosose-1 as a probable intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by myo-inositol oxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naber, N.I.; Swan, J.S.; Hamilton, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    In previous investigations, it was necessary to have Fe(II) and cysteine present in order to assay the catalytic activity of purified hog kidney myo-inositol oxygenase. In the present study it was found that, if this purified nonheme iron enzyme is slowly frozen in solution with glutathione and stored at -20 degrees C, it is fully active in the absence of activators if catalase is present to remove adventitious H 2 O 2 . With this simpler assay system it was possible to clarify the effects of several variables on the enzymic reaction. Thus, the maximum velocity is pH-dependent with a maximum around pH 9.5, but the apparent Km for myo-inositol (air atmosphere) remains constant at 5.0 mM throughout a broad pH range. The enzyme is quite specific for its substrate myo-inositol, is very sensitive to oxidants and reductants, but is not affected by a variety of complexing agents, nucleotides, sulfhydryl reagents, etc. In other experiments it was found that L-myo-inosose-1, a potential intermediate in the enzymic reaction, is a potent competitive inhibitor (Ki = 62 microM), while other inososes and a solution thought to contain D-glucodialdehyde, another potential intermediate, are weak inhibitors. Also, both a kinetic deuterium isotope effect (kH/kD = 2.1) and a tritium isotope effect (kH/kT = 7.5) are observed for the enzymic reaction when [1-2H]- and [1-3H]-myo-inositol are used as reactants. These latter results are considered strong evidence that the oxygenase reaction proceeds by a pathway involving L-myo-inosose-1 as an intermediate rather than by an alternative pathway that would have D-glucodialdehyde as the intermediate

  15. Myo-inositol soft gel capsules may prevent the risk of coffee-induced neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Sara; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Unfer, Vittorio; Cavalli, Pietro

    2012-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are classified as folate sensitive (about 70%) and folate resistant (about 30%); although folic acid is able to prevent the former, several data have shown that inositol may prevent the latter. It has recently been proposed that coffee intake might represent a risk factor for NTD, likely by interfering with the inositol signaling. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that, beside affecting the inositol signaling pathway, coffee also interferes with inositol absorption. In order to evaluate coffee possible negative effects on inositol gastrointestinal absorption, a single-dose bioavailability trial was conducted. Pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters of myo-inositol (MI) powder and MI soft gelatin capsules swallowed with water and with a single 'espresso' were compared. PK profiles were obtained by analysis of MI plasma concentration, and the respective MI bioavailability was compared. Myo-inositol powder administration was negatively affected by coffee intake, thus suggesting an additional explanation to the interference between inositol deficiency and coffee consumption. On the contrary, the concomitant single 'espresso' consumption did not affect MI absorption following MI soft gelatin capsules administration. Furthermore, it was observed that MI soft gelatin capsule administration resulted in improved bioavailability compared to the MI powder form. Myo-inositol soft gelatin capsules should be considered for the preventive treatment of NTDs in folate-resistant subjects due to their higher bioavailability and to the capability to reduce espresso interference.

  16. Effect of the treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin in comparison with a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid on oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. A prospective, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, P; Raffone, E; Benedetto, V

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin compared with myo-inositol plus folic acid alone on oocyte quality in women underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. A prospective, clinical trial. Starting on the day of GnRH administration, 65 women undergoing IVF cycles were randomized in two groups to receive myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin (32 women, group A), and myo-inositol plus folic acid (33 women, group B), administered continuously. Primary endpoints were number of morphologically mature oocytes retrieved (MII oocytes), embryo quality, and pregnancy rate. Secondary endpoints were the total number of oocytes retrieved (immature and mature oocytes), fertilization rate per number of retrieved oocytes and embryo cleavage rate. The mean number of oocytes retrieved did not differ between the two groups (7.88 +/- 1.76 vs 7.67 +/- 1.88; P=0.65). Whereas the group cotreated with melatonin reported a significantly greater mean number of mature oocytes (6.56 +/- 1.64 vs 5.76 +/- 1.56; P=0.047) and a lower mean number of immature oocytes (1.31 +/- 0.74 vs. 1.91 +/- 0.68; P=0.001). The mean number of embyos of top-quality (class 1 and 2) resulted higher in the group A (1.69 +/- 0.64 vs 1.24 +/- 0.75; P=0.01). Fertilization rate did not differ between the two groups. A total of 22 pregnancies were obtained (13 in group A and 9 in group B; P=0.26). Clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate were in tendency higher in the group cotreated with melatonin, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Biochemical pregnancy rate and abortion rate were similar in both groups. melatonin ameliorates the activity of myo-inositol and folic acid by improving oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in women with low oocyte quality history.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery with Myo-Inositol Oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertoglu, Cuma; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Keskin, Ercüment; Gunay, Murat

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of retrograde intra-renal surgery (RIRS) on kidneys using the myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) enzyme. MIOX is a renal tubular-specific novel marker for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury. Methods: A total of twenty seven individuals that had undergone RIRS to treat kidney stones were included in the study. Biochemical tests were performed on serum samples collected immediately before RIRS (hour 0) and at the 6th and 24th hours after the surgery. Results: The creatinine value at hour 6 was lower than the baseline (hour 0) value (p = 0.0305). Cystatin C at hour 6 was lower than the value measured at hour 24 (p = 0.0142). Similarly, MIOX was lower at hour 6 compared to hour 24 (p = 0.0214). MIOX/creatinine at hour 6 was lower than the value calculated at hour 24 (p = 0.0348). The basal values of MIOX and creatinine were found to have a positive correlation (correlation coefficient r = 0.5946, p = 0.0035). Conclusions: Similar to the serum creatinine, the serum MIOX level provides information about kidney functions. RIRS was confirmed to be a safe procedure for the treatment of acute kidney injury with no negative effects on the kidneys. PMID:29643901

  18. Treating Woman with Myo-Inositol Vaginal Suppositories Improves Partner’s Sperm Motility and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montanino Oliva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motility is the feature that allows spermatozoa to actively reach and penetrate the female gamete during fertilization. When this function is altered, and especially decreased, troubles in conceiving may occur. In this study, we demonstrated that treating fertile women with myo-inositol (MI vaginal suppositories ameliorated their partners’ sperm motility and also positively affected their conceiving capacity, without changes in cervical mucus structural and biochemical characteristics. Indeed, by means of the postcoital test on female cervical mucus, a significant improvement especially in progressive sperm motility was recorded after MI suppository use. Concomitantly, after MI treatment, a reduction of immotile spermatozoa percentage was observed. Importantly, MI vaginal supplementation positively correlated with a pregnancy for 5 of the 50 couples enrolled in the study, leading us to speculate that this substance may substantially contribute to create in the cervical mucus an ideal milieu that makes spermatozoa more motile and functionally able to fertilize. Even though the detailed mechanism is still unclear, these results should encourage MI vaginal use for the clinical improvement of male infertility, through their partners.

  19. Quantification of plasma myo-inositol using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Shi, Yingfei; Xu, Chengbao; Zhong, Rugang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    Myo-inositol (MI) deficiency is associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs), mental disorders and metabolic diseases. We developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect MI in human plasma, which was accurate, relatively efficient and convenient for clinical application. An external standard method was used for determination of plasma MI. Samples were analyzed by GC-MS after derivatization. The stable-isotope labeled internal standard approach was used to validate the method's accuracy. Alpha fetal protein (AFP) was detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The method was validated by determining the linearity, sensitivity and recovery rate. There was a good agreement between the internal standard approach and the present method. The NTD-affected pregnancies showed lower plasma MI (P=0.024) and higher AFP levels (P=0.001) than control. Maternal MI level showed a better discrimination in spina bifida subgroup, while AFP level showed a better discrimination in anencephaly subgroup after stratification analysis. We developed a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of clinical plasma MI, which might be a marker for NTDs screening, and established fundamental knowledge for clinical diagnosis and prevention for the diseases related to disturbed MI metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Involvement of Arabidopsis Hexokinase1 in Cell Death Mediated by Myo -Inositol Accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2015-06-05

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. We recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is deficient for the enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myo-inositol (MI) synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD. Here, we identified a suppressor of PCD by screening for mutations that abolish the mips1 cell death phenotype. Our screen identified the hxk1 mutant, mutated in the gene encoding the hexokinase1 (HXK1) enzyme that catalyzes sugar phosphorylation and acts as a genuine glucose sensor. We show that HXK1 is required for lesion formation in mips1 due to alterations in MI content, via SA-dependant signaling. Using two catalytically inactive HXK1 mutants, we also show that hexokinase catalytic activity is necessary for the establishment of lesions in mips1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed a restoration of the MI content in mips1 hxk1 that it is due to the activity of the MIPS2 isoform, while MIPS3 is not involved. Our work defines a pathway of HXK1-mediated cell death in plants and demonstrates that two MIPS enzymes act cooperatively under a particular metabolic status, highlighting a novel checkpoint of MI homeostasis in plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Myo-inositol effects in women with PCOS: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Unfer1,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol (MI supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS has been evaluated over the last years. Many hormonal and reproductive impairments associated with this disorder seem relieved by the supplement. The objective of the meta-analysis was to assess the effects of MI alone or combined with d-chiro-inositol (DCI on the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of women with PCOS. Literature was retrieved from selected databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and Research Gate (up to November 2016. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs investigating the effects of MI alone or combined with DdCI were reviewed. Nine RCTs involving 247 cases and 249 controls were included. Significant decreases in fasting insulin (SMD = −1.021 μU/mL, 95% CI: −1.791 to −0.251, P = 0.009 and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index (SMD = −0.585, 95% CI: −1.145 to −0.025, P = 0.041 were identified after MI supplementation. The trial sequential analysis of insulin meta-analysis illustrates that the cumulative z-curve crossed the monitoring boundary, providing firm evidence of the intervention effect. A slight trend toward a reduction of testosterone concentration by MI with respect to controls was found (SMD = −0.49, 95% CI: −1.072 to 0.092, P = 0.099, whereas androstenedione levels remained unaffected. Throughout a subgroup’s meta-analysis, a significant increase in serum SHBG was observed only in those studies where MI was administered for at least 24 weeks (SMD = 0.425 nmol/L, 95% CI: 0.050–0.801, P = 0.026. These results highlight the beneficial effect of MI in improving the metabolic profile of women with PCOS, concomitantly reducing their hyperandrogenism.

  2. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D Villarreal

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol (Ins is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase, by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P, mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress.

  3. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Fernando D; Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol (Ins) is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1) were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P), mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P) is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress.

  4. [The myo-inositol is beneficial in the therapy of pregnancy with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Attila; Tornóczky, János

    2017-04-01

    Authors would like to demonstrate the beneficial effect of myo-inositol supplementation in a pregnant woman with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin and metformin treatment could not achieve normalization of glucose homeostasis for 3 years, and hypoglycemic episodes were frequent. Myo-inositol and folic acid supplementation added to the basic treatment resulted in improved glucose levels in 2 months. At this time she became pregnant. During pregnancy serum glucose levels still improved in the next 2 months. The amniotic membrane ruptured at the 19th gestational week, and pregnancy had to be finished. Developmental disturbances were excluded by the pathologist. She became pregnant again and gave birth to a premature male neonate at the 29th gestational week. The aim of the report was to demonstrate that myo-inositol supplementation may improve the efficacy of the therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(14), 541-545.

  5. Soluble polysaccharide composition and myo-inositol content help differentiate the antioxidative and hypolipidemic capacity of peeled apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Yaw-Bee; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2010-04-28

    Many people prefer to eat peeled apples. The present study investigated the composition of soluble polysaccharides (SP) in peeled apples and its antioxidative and hypolipidemic activity. The yield of SP ranged 0.43-0.88%, having MW ranging 223-848 kDa. All belonged to peptidoglycans. Among the fourteen amino acids found, seven were essential amino acids. In addition, sugar analysis indicated that 50% of apple samples consisted of glucoarabinan, 37.5% comprising taloarabinan and the remaining 12.5% containing alloglucan. Moreover, SP consisted of a huge amount of myo-inositol (>5.61%) and uronic acid (>11.7%), which may play a synergistic role in the hypolipidemic effect. Worth noting, we are the first who reported the presence of talose, allose and fucose in the apple SP. Conclusively, the biological value of SP is attributable to the differential effect of SP and the synergistic effect exerted by its unique SP pattern, high myo-inositol and uronic acid contents.

  6. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Either 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot.

  7. Hypotonic activation of the myo-inositol transporter SLC5A3 in HEK293 cells probed by cell volumetry, confocal and super-resolution microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Andronic

    Full Text Available Swelling-activated pathways for myo-inositol, one of the most abundant organic osmolytes in mammalian cells, have not yet been identified. The present study explores the SLC5A3 protein as a possible transporter of myo-inositol in hyponically swollen HEK293 cells. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between the hypotonicity-induced changes in plasma membrane permeability to myo-inositol P ino [m/s] and expression/localization of SLC5A3. P ino values were determined by cell volumetry over a wide tonicity range (100-275 mOsm in myo-inositol-substituted solutions. While being negligible under mild hypotonicity (200-275 mOsm, P ino grew rapidly at osmolalities below 200 mOsm to reach a maximum of ∼ 3 nm/s at 100-125 mOsm, as indicated by fast cell swelling due to myo-inositol influx. The increase in P ino resulted most likely from the hypotonicity-mediated incorporation of cytosolic SLC5A3 into the plasma membrane, as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing EGFP-tagged SLC5A3 and super-resolution imaging of immunostained SLC5A3 by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM. dSTORM in hypotonic cells revealed a surface density of membrane-associated SLC5A3 proteins of 200-2000 localizations/μm2. Assuming SLC5A3 to be the major path for myo-inositol, a turnover rate of 80-800 myo-inositol molecules per second for a single transporter protein was estimated from combined volumetric and dSTORM data. Hypotonic stress also caused a significant upregulation of SLC5A3 gene expression as detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In summary, our data provide first evidence for swelling-mediated activation of SLC5A3 thus suggesting a functional role of this transporter in hypotonic volume regulation of mammalian cells.

  8. D-6-Deoxy-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, a mimic of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate: biological activity and pH-dependent conformational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, Graeme; Maechling, Clarisse; Fleig, Andrea; Hirata, Masato; Penner, Reinhold; Spiess, Bernard; Potter, Barry V.L.

    2004-01-01

    D-6-Deoxy-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [D-6-deoxy-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 ] 3 is a novel deoxygenated analogue of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 ] 2, a central and enigmatic molecule in the polyphosphoinositide pathway of cellular signalling. D-6-Deoxy-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 is a moderate inhibitor of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 5-phosphatase [1.8 μM] compared to Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 [0.15 μM] and similar to that of L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 [1.8 μM]. In displacement of [ 3 H] Ins(1,4,5)P 3 from the rat cerebellar Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor, while slightly weaker [IC 50 =800 nM] than that of D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 [IC 50 =220 nM], 3 is less markedly different and again similar to that of L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 [IC 50 =660 nM]. 3 is an activator of I CRAC when inward currents are measured in RBL-2H3-M1 cells using patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques with a facilitation curve different to that of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 . Physicochemical properties were studied by potentiometric 31 P and 1 H NMR titrations and were similar to those of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 apart from the observation of a biphasic titration curve for the P1 phosphate group. A novel vicinal phosphate charge-induced conformational change of the inositol ring above pH 10 was observed for D-6-deoxy-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 that would normally be hindered because of the central stabilising role played by the 6-OH group in Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 . We conclude that the 6-OH group in Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 is crucial for its physicochemical behaviour and biological properties of this key inositol phosphate

  9. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4%. PMID:29089855

  10. The Combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-Chiro-inositol, in a physiological ratio, reduces the cardiovascular risk by improving the lipid profile in PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, M; Nordio, M; Pajalich, R

    2013-02-01

    Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) present several factors that increase the cardiovascular risk, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been shown to improve insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and to induce ovulation in PCOS women. However, their effects on dyslipidemia are less clear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-chiro-inositol (in a in a physiological ratio of 40:1) improve the metabolic profile, therefore, reducing cardiovascular risk in PCOS patients. Twenty obese PCOS patients [BMI 33.7 ± 6 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] were recruited. The lipid profile was assessed by measuring total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides before and after 6 months treatment with the combined therapy. Secondary end points included changes in BMI, waist-hip ratio, percentage of body fat, HOMA-IR and blood pressure. The combined therapy myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol improved LDL levels (3.50 ± 0.8 mmol/L versus, 3 ± 1.2 mmol/L p PCOS women, therefore, reducing the cardiovascular risk.

  11. Sign-trackers have elevated myo-inositol in the nucleus accumbens and ventral hippocampus following Pavlovian conditioned approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Christopher J; Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Galloway, Matthew P; Morrow, Jonathan D

    2016-01-04

    Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) is a behavioral procedure that can be used to assess individual differences in the addiction vulnerability of drug-naïve rats and identify addiction vulnerability factors. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) ex vivo, we simultaneously analyzed concentrations of multiple neurochemicals throughout the mesocorticolimbic system two weeks after PCA training in order to identify potential vulnerability factors to addiction in drug naïve rats for future investigations. Levels of myo-inositol (Ins), a 1 H-MRS-detectable marker of glial activity/proliferation, were increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC), but not dorsal hippocampus or medial prefrontal cortex, of sign-trackers compared to goal-trackers or intermediate responders. In addition, Ins levels positively correlated with PCA behavior in the NAc and vHPC. Because the sign-tracker phenotype is associated with increased drug-seeking behavior, these results observed in drug-naïve rats suggest that alterations in glial activity/proliferation within these regions may represent an addiction vulnerability factor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase gene expression in two soybean low phytate mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fengjie; Dong Dekun; Li Baiquan; Yu Xiaomin; Fu Xujun; Zhu Danhua; Zhu Shenlong; Yang Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS) gene plays a significant role in phytic acid biosynthesis. In this study, we used two low phytic acid mutants Gm-lpa-TW-1, Gm-lpa-ZC-2 and their respective wild type parents Taiwan75 and Zhechun No.3 to analyze the expression pattern and characterization of MIPS1 gene. The results showed that there was a common expression pattern of MIPS1 in soybean developing seeds. Expression was weak as detected by RT-PCR in initial stage, increased in the following stages, and the peak expression was appeared in 22 day after flowering (DAF). The expression of MIPS1 gene of non-seed tissues in mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 and its wildtype Taiwan75 was very weak. In the developing seeds, the MIPS1 expression by qRT-PCR revealed a significant reduction in 22 DAF in mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 as compared with the wildtype. Similarly, the expression of MIPS1 gene in non-seed tissue of Zhenchun No.3 and Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was very weak. However, stronger expression in developing seeds of the mutant Gm-lpa-ZC-2 than Zhechun No.3 was found. We concluded that the MIPS1 gene expression in the developing seed exhibited an up-regulation pattern in mutant Gm-lpa-ZC-2, but a down-regulation pattern in the mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1. (authors)

  13. Effect of the Putative Lithium Mimetic Ebselen on Brain Myo-Inositol, Sleep, and Emotional Processing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Sharpley, Ann L; Emir, Uzay E; Masaki, Charles; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Gluck, Mark A; Sharp, Trevor; Harmer, Catherine J; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Cowen, Philip J; Churchill, Grant C

    2016-06-01

    Lithium remains the gold standard in treating bipolar disorder but has unwanted toxicity and side effects. We previously reported that ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) and exhibits lithium-like effects in animal models through lowering of inositol. Ebselen has been tested in clinical trials for other disorders, enabling us to determine for the first time the effect of a blood-brain barrier-penetrant IMPase inhibitor on human central nervous system (CNS) function. We now report that in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with healthy participants, acute oral ebselen reduced brain myo-inositol in the anterior cingulate cortex, consistent with CNS target engagement. Ebselen decreased slow-wave sleep and affected emotional processing by increasing recognition of some emotions, decreasing latency time in the acoustic startle paradigm, and decreasing the reinforcement of rewarding stimuli. In summary, ebselen affects the phosphoinositide cycle and has CNS effects on surrogate markers that may be relevant to the treatment of bipolar disorder that can be tested in future clinical trials.

  14. Evaluation of thyroid nodule characteristics in subclinical hypothyroid patients under a myo-inositol plus selenium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, M; Basciani, S

    2018-04-01

    The anticancer effect of myo-inositol (MI) is catching researchers' attention worldwide. Thyroid nodules (TNs) have been detected by ultrasound (US) in up to 76% of the general population and, although most of them are benign, thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 642 patients with suspected hypothyroidism undergoing US. The analysis was addressed exclusively to patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels borderline associated to TNs classified as class I and II; 1 group (control, no. 16) no treatment was prescribed; the other group (treated, no. 18) underwent treatment with 1 tablet containing MI plus selenium (Se) every day, for six months. Clinical data were collected to evaluate the nodular size, number, and elasticity, as well as TSH levels. Final data were analyzed from 34 patients: in 76% of mixed TNs was observed a significant reduction of their size and 56% of them significantly regressed nodule stiffness following oral supplementation with MI plus Se. The mean number of mixed nodules for patient shifted from 1.39 ± 0.16 to 1.05 ± 0.15 (p ≤ 0.05). TSH levels dropped from 4.2 ± 0.21 mIU/L at baseline to 2.1 ± 0.20 mIU/L post-treatment (p treatment with MI plus Se, a reduction of the size, number and elasticity score of TNs as well as TSH levels was observed. Further studies are required, either in vitro and in vivo, to investigate the use of MI plus Se for the management of TNs.

  15. Lower Choline and Myo-Inositol in Temporo-Parietal Cortex Is Associated With Apathy in Amnestic MCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Tumati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is a common symptom in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and is associated with an increased risk of progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The neural substrates underlying apathy in aMCI may involve multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex and the temporo-parietal region. Here we investigated neurometabolites in brain regions that may underlie apathy in aMCI patients using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS. Twenty-eight aMCI patients with varying degrees of apathy and 20 matched controls underwent 1H-MRS. Spectra were acquired from single voxels in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (DACC, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and right temporo-parietal cortex (TPC. Apathy was measured with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES. Spearman partial correlations between metabolite concentrations in each region and severity of apathy were determined. Additionally, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were performed to determine whether metabolite changes differed between patients with or without clinically-diagnosed apathy. The degree of apathy was found to be negatively correlated with choline and myo-inositol (mI in the TPC. Additional exploratory analyses suggested that N-acetylaspartate (NAA/mI ratio was reduced in aMCI without clinical apathy but not in aMCI with clinical apathy. In the DACC, glutamate and glutamine (Glx levels tended to be higher in the aMCI with apathy group compared to controls and reduced in association with depression scores. In conclusion, apathy in aMCI patients was associated with neurometabolite changes indicative of altered membranal integrity and glial function in the right TPC. Findings also indicated that in a clinically-diagnosed aMCI cohort, apathy symptoms may be suggestive of neural changes that are distinct from aMCI without apathy.

  16. Lower Choline and Myo-Inositol in Temporo-Parietal Cortex Is Associated With Apathy in Amnestic MCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumati, Shankar; Opmeer, Esther M; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Martens, Sander; Reesink, Fransje E; De Deyn, Peter P; Aleman, André

    2018-01-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and is associated with an increased risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neural substrates underlying apathy in aMCI may involve multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex and the temporo-parietal region. Here we investigated neurometabolites in brain regions that may underlie apathy in aMCI patients using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Twenty-eight aMCI patients with varying degrees of apathy and 20 matched controls underwent 1 H-MRS. Spectra were acquired from single voxels in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (DACC), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and right temporo-parietal cortex (TPC). Apathy was measured with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). Spearman partial correlations between metabolite concentrations in each region and severity of apathy were determined. Additionally, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to determine whether metabolite changes differed between patients with or without clinically-diagnosed apathy. The degree of apathy was found to be negatively correlated with choline and myo-inositol (mI) in the TPC. Additional exploratory analyses suggested that N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/mI ratio was reduced in aMCI without clinical apathy but not in aMCI with clinical apathy. In the DACC, glutamate and glutamine (Glx) levels tended to be higher in the aMCI with apathy group compared to controls and reduced in association with depression scores. In conclusion, apathy in aMCI patients was associated with neurometabolite changes indicative of altered membranal integrity and glial function in the right TPC. Findings also indicated that in a clinically-diagnosed aMCI cohort, apathy symptoms may be suggestive of neural changes that are distinct from aMCI without apathy.

  17. Effects of a high dose of microbial phytase and myo-inositol supplementation on growth performance, tibia mineralization, nutrient digestibility, litter moisture content, and foot problems in broiler chickens fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, D; Karimi, A; Sadeghi, Gh; Rostamzadeh, J; Bedford, M R

    2017-10-01

    A total of 660 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into eleven dietary treatments. Treatments included a maize-soybean meal-based diet with recommended calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (positive control; PC), an nPP-deficient diet (negative control; NC), NC diets supplemented with different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, and 6,000 FTU/kg), a NC diet plus 0.15% myo-inositol, and a NC diet with reduced Ca level (Ca to nPP ratio same as PC). Feeding the NC diet had no effects on birds' body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), but decreased (P Phytase supplementation at ≥4,000 FTU/kg improved (P phytase returned (P phytase in a dose-dependent manner, especially at ≥4,000 FTU/kg levels, was effective in overcoming the negative consequences of NC diets, primarily due to the ability to improve nutrient utilization. In addition, reducing the Ca level or supplementation of inositol of NC diet can correct some the negative effects of feeding a NC diet confirming the negative effect of a wide Ca: P ratio in a P-deficient diet and suggesting that inositol may play a role in the response to phytase addition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Determination of mannitol sorbitol and myo-inositol in olive tree roots and rhizospheric soil by gas chromatography and effect of severe drought conditions on their profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, Beligh; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a method for the analysis of mannitol, sorbitol and myo-inositol in olive tree roots and rhizospheric soil with gas chromatography. The analytical method consists of extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane:methanol (2:1, v/v) for soil samples and a mixture of ethanol:water (80:20) for root samples, silylation using pyridine, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The recovery of mannitol sorbitol and myo-inositol (for extraction and analysis in dichloromethane:methanol and ethanol:water) was acceptable and ranged from 100.3 to 114.7%. The time of analysis was <24 min. Among identified polyols extracted from rhizosphere and roots of olive plants, mannitol was the major compound. A marked increase in mannitol content occurred in rhizosphere and roots of water-stressed plants, suggesting a much broader role of mannitol in stress response based on its ability to act as a compatible solute. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Social isolation stress and chronic glutathione deficiency have a common effect on the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio and myo-inositol concentration in the mouse frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoba, Alberto; Gruetter, Rolf; Do, Kim Q; Duarte, João M N

    2017-09-01

    Environmental stress can interact with genetic predisposition to increase the risk of developing psychopathology. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that social isolation stress interacts with impaired glutathione synthesis and have cumulative effects on the neurochemical profile of the frontal cortex. A mouse model with chronic glutathione deficit induced by knockout (-/-) of the glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (Gclm) was exposed to social isolation stress from weaning to post-natal day 65. Using magnetic resonance methods at high-field (14.1 T), we analysed the neurochemical profile in the frontal cortex, brain size and ventricular volume of adult animals. Glutathione deficit was accompanied by elevated concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, alanine, and glutamine, as well as the ratio of glutamine-to-glutamate (Gln/Glu), and by a reduction in levels of myo-inositol and choline-containing compounds in the frontal cortex of -/- animals with respect to wild-type littermates. Although there was no significant interaction between social isolation stress and glutathione deficiency, mice reared in isolation displayed lower myo-inositol concentration (-8.4%, p social isolation had no effect on these parameters. We conclude that social isolation caused neurochemical alterations that may add to those associated to impaired glutathione synthesis. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. MCK1 is a novel regulator of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS that is required for inhibition of inositol synthesis by the mood stabilizer valproate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxi Yu

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol, the precursor of all inositol compounds, is essential for the viability of eukaryotes. Identifying the factors that regulate inositol homeostasis is of obvious importance to understanding cell function and the pathologies underlying neurological and metabolic resulting from perturbation of inositol metabolism. The current study identifies Mck1, a GSK3 homolog, as a novel positive regulator of inositol de novo synthesis in yeast. Mck1 was required for normal activity of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of inositol synthesis. mck1Δ cells exhibited a 50% decrease in MIPS activity and a decreased rate of incorporation of [13C6]glucose into [13C6]-inositol-3-phosphate and [13C6]-inositol compared to WT cells. mck1Δ cells also exhibited decreased growth in the presence of the inositol depleting drug valproate (VPA, which was rescued by supplementation of inositol. However, in contrast to wild type cells, which exhibited more than a 40% decrease in MIPS activity in the presence of VPA, the drug did not significantly decrease MIPS activity in mck1Δ cells. These findings indicate that VPA-induced MIPS inhibition is Mck1-dependent, and suggest a model that unifies two current hypotheses of the mechanism of action of VPA-inositol depletion and GSK3 inhibition.

  1. MCK1 is a novel regulator of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) that is required for inhibition of inositol synthesis by the mood stabilizer valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxi; Daniel, Joshua; Mehta, Dhara; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2017-01-01

    Myo-inositol, the precursor of all inositol compounds, is essential for the viability of eukaryotes. Identifying the factors that regulate inositol homeostasis is of obvious importance to understanding cell function and the pathologies underlying neurological and metabolic resulting from perturbation of inositol metabolism. The current study identifies Mck1, a GSK3 homolog, as a novel positive regulator of inositol de novo synthesis in yeast. Mck1 was required for normal activity of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of inositol synthesis. mck1Δ cells exhibited a 50% decrease in MIPS activity and a decreased rate of incorporation of [13C6]glucose into [13C6]-inositol-3-phosphate and [13C6]-inositol compared to WT cells. mck1Δ cells also exhibited decreased growth in the presence of the inositol depleting drug valproate (VPA), which was rescued by supplementation of inositol. However, in contrast to wild type cells, which exhibited more than a 40% decrease in MIPS activity in the presence of VPA, the drug did not significantly decrease MIPS activity in mck1Δ cells. These findings indicate that VPA-induced MIPS inhibition is Mck1-dependent, and suggest a model that unifies two current hypotheses of the mechanism of action of VPA-inositol depletion and GSK3 inhibition.

  2. Effect of a supplementation with myo-inositol plus melatonin on oocyte quality in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization cycles for poor oocyte quality: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfer, Vittorio; Raffone, Emanuela; Rizzo, Piero; Buffo, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Several factors can affect oocyte quality and therefore pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Recently, a number of studies have shown that the presence of several compounds in the follicular fluid positively correlates with oocyte quality and maturation (i.e., myo-inositol and melatonin). In the present study, we aim to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes after the administration of myo-inositol combined with melatonin in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles due to poor oocyte quality. Forty-six women were treated with 4 g/day myo-inositol and 3 mg/day melatonin (inofolic® and inofolic® Plus, Lo.Lipharma, Rome) for 3 months and then underwent a new IVF cycle. After treatment, the number of mature oocytes, the fertilization rate, the number of both, total and top-quality embryos transferred were statistically higher compared to the previous IVF cycle, while there was no difference in the number of retrieved oocyte. After treatment, a total of 13 pregnancies occurred, 9 of them were confirmed echographically; four evolved in spontaneous abortion. The treatment with myo-inositol and melatonin improves ovarian stimulation protocols and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with poor oocyte quality.

  3. Identification of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) as a β-secretase 1 (BACE1) inhibitory molecule in rice grain extract and digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takako K; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is widely considered to be caused by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. Aβ is excised from amyloid-β precursor protein through sequential cleavage by β-secretase 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Thus, BACE1 inhibition could prevent Aβ accumulation. Here, we identified myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) as a BACE1 inhibitory molecule in rice grain extract and digest. The rice digest and IP6 significantly inhibited Aβ production in neuroblastoma cells without cytotoxicity. These results suggested that rice components, including IP6, may be promising starting materials for the development of potent and safe drugs and/or food to prevent AD.

  4. Reaching for mechanistic consensus across life kingdoms: structure and insights into catalysis of the myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (mIPS) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Kimberly A; Yang, Hongying; Roberts, Mary F; Stec, Boguslaw

    2005-01-11

    myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase (mIPS) catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of l-myo-inositol-1-phosphate. We have solved and refined the structure of the mIPS from the hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 1.9 A resolution. The enzyme crystallized from poly(ethylene glycol) in the P1 space group with one tetramer in the asymmetric unit and provided a view of the entire biologically active oligomer. Despite significant changes in sequence length and amino acid composition, the general architecture of the archaeal enzyme is similar to that of the eukaryotic mIPS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacterial mIPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The enhanced thermostability of the archaeal enzyme as compared to that from yeast is consistent with deletion of a number of surface loops that results in a significantly smaller protein. In the structure of the A. fulgidus mIPS, the active sites of all four subunits were fully ordered and contained NAD(+) and inorganic phosphate. The structure also contained a single metal ion (identified as K(+)) in two of the four subunits. The analysis of the electrostatic potential maps of the protein suggested the presence of a second metal-ion-binding site in close proximity to the first metal ion and NAD(+). The modeling of the substrate and known inhibitors suggests a critical role for the second metal ion in catalysis and provides insights into the common elements of the catalytic cycle in enzymes from different life kingdoms.

  5. Effects of a New Flavonoid and Myo-Inositol Supplement on Some Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario D’Anna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Cardiovascular risk is increased in women with menopause and metabolic syndrome. Aim of this study was to test the effect of a new supplement formula, combining cocoa polyphenols, myo-inositol, and soy isoflavones, on some biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Methods and Results. A total of 60 women were enrolled and randomly assigned (n=30 per group to receive the supplement (NRT: 30 mg of cocoa polyphenols, 80 mg of soy isoflavones, and 2 gr of myo-inositol, or placebo for 6 months. The study protocol included three visits (baseline, 6, and 12 months for the evaluation of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone-ALP. At 6 months, a significant difference between NRT and placebo was found for glucose (96±7 versus 108±10 mg/dL, triglycerides (145±14 versus 165±18 mg/dL, visfatin (2.8±0.8 versus 3.7±1.1 ng/mL, resistin (27±7 versus 32±8 µg/L, and b-ALP (19±7 versus 15±5 µg/mL. No difference in HDL-C concentrations nor in adiponectin levels between groups was reported at 6 months. Conclusions. The supplement used in this study improves most of the biomarkers linked to metabolic syndrome. This Trial is registered with NCT01400724.

  6. CD, MCD and VTVH MCD Studies of Biferrous and Mixed-Valent myo-Inositol Oxygenase: Insights into Substrate Activation of O2 Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rae Ana; Bell, Caleb B.; Diao, Yinghui; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin; Solomon, Edward I.

    2013-01-01

    Myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) catalyzes the 4e− oxidation of myo-inositol (MI) to D-glucuronate using a substrate activated Fe(II)Fe(III) site. The biferrous and Fe(II)Fe(III) forms of MIOX were studied with circular dichroism (CD), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and variable temperature variable field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies. The MCD spectrum of biferrous MIOX shows two ligand field (LF) transitions near 10,000 cm−1, split by ~2,000 cm−1, characteristic of 6 coordinate (6C) Fe(II) sites, indicating that the modest reactivity of the biferrous form toward O2 can be attributed to the saturated coordination of both irons. Upon oxidation to the Fe(II)Fe(III) state, MIOX shows two LF transitions in the ~10,000 cm−1 region, again implying a coordinatively saturated Fe(II) site. Upon MI binding, these split in energy to 5,200 cm−1 and 11,200 cm−1, showing that MI binding causes the Fe(II) to become coordinately unsaturated. VTVH MCD magnetization curves of unbound and MI-bound Fe(II)Fe(III) forms show that upon substrate binding, the isotherms become more nested, requiring that the exchange coupling and ferrous zero field splitting (ZFS) both decrease in magnitude. These results imply that MI binds to the ferric site, weakening the Fe(III)-μ-OH bond and strengthening the Fe(II)-μ-OH bond. This perturbation results in the release of a coordinated water from the Fe(II) that enables its O2 activation. PMID:24066857

  7. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reconstructed ancestral Myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthases indicate that ancestors of the Thermococcales and Thermotoga species were more thermophilic than their descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzin, Nicholas C; Lapierre, Pascal; Green, Anna G; Swithers, Kristen S; Gogarten, J Peter; Noll, Kenneth M

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial genomes of Thermotoga species show evidence of significant interdomain horizontal gene transfer from the Archaea. Members of this genus acquired many genes from the Thermococcales, which grow at higher temperatures than Thermotoga species. In order to study the functional history of an interdomain horizontally acquired gene we used ancestral sequence reconstruction to examine the thermal characteristics of reconstructed ancestral proteins of the Thermotoga lineage and its archaeal donors. Several ancestral sequence reconstruction methods were used to determine the possible sequences of the ancestral Thermotoga and Archaea myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (MIPS). These sequences were predicted to be more thermostable than the extant proteins using an established sequence composition method. We verified these computational predictions by measuring the activities and thermostabilities of purified proteins from the Thermotoga and the Thermococcales species, and eight ancestral reconstructed proteins. We found that the ancestral proteins from both the archaeal donor and the Thermotoga most recent common ancestor recipient were more thermostable than their descendants. We show that there is a correlation between the thermostability of MIPS protein and the optimal growth temperature (OGT) of its host, which suggests that the OGT of the ancestors of these species of Archaea and the Thermotoga grew at higher OGTs than their descendants.

  9. Reconstructed ancestral Myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthases indicate that ancestors of the Thermococcales and Thermotoga species were more thermophilic than their descendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C Butzin

    Full Text Available The bacterial genomes of Thermotoga species show evidence of significant interdomain horizontal gene transfer from the Archaea. Members of this genus acquired many genes from the Thermococcales, which grow at higher temperatures than Thermotoga species. In order to study the functional history of an interdomain horizontally acquired gene we used ancestral sequence reconstruction to examine the thermal characteristics of reconstructed ancestral proteins of the Thermotoga lineage and its archaeal donors. Several ancestral sequence reconstruction methods were used to determine the possible sequences of the ancestral Thermotoga and Archaea myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (MIPS. These sequences were predicted to be more thermostable than the extant proteins using an established sequence composition method. We verified these computational predictions by measuring the activities and thermostabilities of purified proteins from the Thermotoga and the Thermococcales species, and eight ancestral reconstructed proteins. We found that the ancestral proteins from both the archaeal donor and the Thermotoga most recent common ancestor recipient were more thermostable than their descendants. We show that there is a correlation between the thermostability of MIPS protein and the optimal growth temperature (OGT of its host, which suggests that the OGT of the ancestors of these species of Archaea and the Thermotoga grew at higher OGTs than their descendants.

  10. The Effects of Myo-Inositol and B and D Vitamin Supplementation in the db/+ Mouse Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine F. Plows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a growing concern, affecting an increasing number of pregnant women worldwide. By predisposing both the affected mothers and children to future disease, GDM contributes to an intergenerational cycle of obesity and diabetes. In order to stop this cycle, safe and effective treatments for GDM are required. This study sought to determine the treatment effects of dietary supplementation with myo-inositol (MI and vitamins B2, B6, B12, and D in a mouse model of GDM (pregnant db/+ dams. In addition, the individual effects of vitamin B2 were examined. Suboptimal B2 increased body weight and fat deposition, decreased GLUT4 adipose tissue expression, and increased expression of inflammatory markers. MI supplementation reduced weight and fat deposition, and reduced expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue of mice on suboptimal B2. MI also significantly reduced the hyperleptinemia observed in db/+ mice, when combined with supplemented B2. MI was generally associated with adipose tissue markers of improved insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, while the combination of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and D was associated with a reduction in adipose inflammatory marker expression. These results suggest that supplementation with MI and vitamin B2 could be beneficial for the treatment/prevention of GDM.

  11. A Combined Therapy with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol Improves Endocrine Parameters and Insulin Resistance in PCOS Young Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI and D-chiro-inositol (DCI in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin. Results. We recorded a statistically significant reduction of LH, free testosterone, fasting insulin, and HOMA index only in the group treated with the combined therapy of MI plus DCI; in the same patients, we observed a statistically significant increase of 17-beta-Estradiol levels. Conclusions. The combined therapy of MI plus DCI is effective in improving endocrine and metabolic parameters in young obese PCOS affected women.

  12. Expression analysis of a heat-inducible, Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) gene from wheat and the alternatively spliced variants of rice and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Neetika; Chauhan, Harsh; Khurana, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dissection and a deeper analysis of the heat stress response mechanism in wheat have been poorly understood so far. This study delves into the molecular basis of action of TaMIPS, a heat stress-inducible enzyme that was identified through PCR-select subtraction technology, which is named here as TaMIPS2. MIPS (L-Myo-inositol-phosphate synthase) is important for the normal growth and development in plants. Expression profiling showed that TaMIPS2 is expressed during different developing seed stages upon heat stress. Also, the transcript levels increase in unfertilized ovaries and significant amounts are present during the recovery period providing evidence that MIPS is crucial for its role in heat stress recovery and flower development. Alternatively spliced forms from rice and Arabidopsis were also identified and their expression analysis revealed that apart from heat stress, some of the spliced variants were also inducible by drought, NaCl, Cold, ABA, BR, SA and mannitol. In silico promoter analysis revealed various cis-elements that could contribute for the differential regulation of MIPS in different plant systems. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MIPS are highly conserved among monocots and dicots and TaMIPS2 grouped specifically with monocots. Comparative analyses was undertaken by different experimental approaches, i.e., semi-quantitative RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, Genevestigator as a reference expression tool and motif analysis to predict the possible function of TaMIPS2 in regulating the different aspects of plant development under abiotic stress in wheat.

  13. Comparative Genomics of Pneumocystis Species Suggests the Absence of Genes for myo-Inositol Synthesis and Reliance on Inositol Transport and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesterhenn, Thomas M.; Collins, Margaret S.; Welge, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the context of deciphering the metabolic strategies of the obligate pathogenic fungi in the genus Pneumocystis, the genomes of three species (P. carinii, P. murina, and P. jirovecii) were compared among themselves and with the free-living, phylogenetically related fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). The underrepresentation of amino acid metabolism pathways compared to those in S. pombe, as well as the incomplete steroid biosynthesis pathway, were confirmed for P. carinii and P. jirovecii and extended to P. murina. All three Pneumocystis species showed overrepresentation of the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway compared to that in the fission yeast. In addition to those known in S. pombe, four genes, encoding inositol-polyphosphate multikinase (EC 2.7.1.151), inositol-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (EC 2.7.1.158), phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.36), and inositol-1,4-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.57), were identified in the two rodent Pneumocystis genomes, P. carinii and P. murina. The P. jirovecii genome appeared to contain three of these genes but lacked phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase. Notably, two genes encoding enzymes essential for myo-inositol synthesis, inositol-1-phosphate synthase (INO1) and inositol monophosphatase (INM1), were absent from all three genomes, suggesting that Pneumocystis species are inositol auxotrophs. In keeping with the need to acquire exogenous inositol, two genes with products homologous to fungal inositol transporters, ITR1 and ITR2, were identified in P. carinii and P. murina, while P. jirovecii contained only the ITR1 homolog. The ITR and inositol metabolism genes in P. murina and P. carinii were expressed during fulminant infection as determined by reverse transcriptase real-time PCR of cDNA from infected lung tissue. Supplementation of in vitro culture with inositol yielded significant improvement of the viability of P. carinii for days 7 through 14. PMID:25370490

  14. Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Along With Myo-Inositol on High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Insulin Resistance in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepti; Tewari, Shikha; Narula, Satish Chander; Singhal, Savita Rani; Sharma, Rajinder Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy and medical treatment on the level of a serologic marker of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA]) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and chronic periodontitis (CP). Women with PCOS and CP (n = 60) were randomly divided into two groups. The test group was treated with scaling and root planing (SRP) and myo-inositol (MI). The control group was treated with MI and given oral hygiene instructions. Anthropometric, metabolic, and periodontal parameters were assessed at baseline and re-evaluated at 3 and 6 months. All parameters of both groups at 6 months were compared with 25 systemically and periodontally healthy females (group A). Periodontal parameters were significantly improved in the test group compared with the control group at 3- and 6-month follow-up (P 0.05) was observed in the test group compared with the control group at 3 and 6 months. Both the test and control group showed significant consistent improvement in metabolic parameters at 3- and 6-month follow-up, which was further comparable to group A. SRP together with medical treatment results in a greater reduction of systemic inflammatory burden compared with medical treatment alone in management of women with PCOS and CP.

  15. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  16. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Hu, Kai [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Li, Shu-Hong [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: xqzhouqq@tom.com [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  17. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu stress decreased fish muscle CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and PKCδ mRNA levels. • Cu stress caused fish muscle lower nuclear Nrf2 levels and poor ARE binding ability. • Cu stress induced caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in fish muscle. • Pre-treatment with MI prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages. - Abstract: The muscle is the main portion of fish that is consumed by humans. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle. However, the effects of Cu exposure on the muscle antioxidant system and molecular patterns and preventive measures against these effects remain unclear. In this study, ROS production, enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling-related molecules, antioxidant response element (ARE) binding ability, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were analyzed in fish muscle following Cu exposure or myo-inositol (MI) pre-administration. The results indicated that contamination due to copper exposure caused an approximately three-fold increase in ROS production, induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and resulted in depletion of the glutathione (GSH) content of fish muscle. Moreover, Cu exposure caused decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) that were accompanied by decreases in CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and signaling factor protein kinase C delta mRNA levels. The decreases in the antioxidant enzyme gene mRNA levels were confirmed to be partly due to the reduced nuclear Nrf2 protein levels, poor ARE binding ability and increased caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in the fish muscle. Interestingly, MI pre-treatment prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages mainly through increasing the GSH content, and increasing the CuZnSOD and GPx activities and corresponding mRNA levels and ARE binding ability. Taken together, our results show for the first

  18. Copper exposure induces toxicity to the antioxidant system via the destruction of Nrf2/ARE signaling and caspase-3-regulated DNA damage in fish muscle: Amelioration by myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: zhouxq@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Cu stress decreased fish muscle CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and PKCδ mRNA levels. • Cu stress caused fish muscle lower nuclear Nrf2 levels and poor ARE binding ability. • Cu stress induced caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in fish muscle. • Pre-treatment with MI prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages. - Abstract: The muscle is the main portion of fish that is consumed by humans. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle. However, the effects of Cu exposure on the muscle antioxidant system and molecular patterns and preventive measures against these effects remain unclear. In this study, ROS production, enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling-related molecules, antioxidant response element (ARE) binding ability, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were analyzed in fish muscle following Cu exposure or myo-inositol (MI) pre-administration. The results indicated that contamination due to copper exposure caused an approximately three-fold increase in ROS production, induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and resulted in depletion of the glutathione (GSH) content of fish muscle. Moreover, Cu exposure caused decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) that were accompanied by decreases in CuZnSOD, GPx1a, GPx1b and signaling factor protein kinase C delta mRNA levels. The decreases in the antioxidant enzyme gene mRNA levels were confirmed to be partly due to the reduced nuclear Nrf2 protein levels, poor ARE binding ability and increased caspase-3 signaling-modulated DNA fragmentation in the fish muscle. Interestingly, MI pre-treatment prevented fish muscle from Cu-induced oxidative damages mainly through increasing the GSH content, and increasing the CuZnSOD and GPx activities and corresponding mRNA levels and ARE binding ability. Taken together, our results show for the first

  19. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous adonitol, dulcitol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and xylitol at temperatures from (278.15 to 368.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, M.B.; Ziemer, S.P.; Brown, B.R.; Niederhauser, T.L.; Woolley, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes V φ were determined for aqueous adonitol, dulcitol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and xylitol at temperatures from (278.15 to 368.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa, and apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ of the same solutions were determined at temperatures from (278.15 to 363.15) K at the same pressure. Molalities m/(mol . kg -1 ) of the solutions were in the range (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 3.2) for adonitol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 0.15) for dulcitol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 5.0) for glycerol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 3.0) for meso-erythritol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 0.5) for myo-inositol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 2.0) for D-sorbitol, and (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 2.7) for xylitol. A vibrating tube densimeter was used to obtain solution densities and a fixed-cell temperature scanning calorimeter was used to obtain heat capacities. Values of V φ and C p,φ for these sugar alcohols are discussed relative to one another and compared to values from the literature, where available

  20. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous adonitol, dulcitol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and xylitol at temperatures from (278.15 to 368.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blodgett, M.B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States); Ziemer, S.P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States); Brown, B.R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States); Niederhauser, T.L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States); Woolley, E.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States)]. E-mail: earl_woolley@byu.edu

    2007-04-15

    Apparent molar volumes V {sub {phi}} were determined for aqueous adonitol, dulcitol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and xylitol at temperatures from (278.15 to 368.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa, and apparent molar heat capacities C {sub p,{phi}} of the same solutions were determined at temperatures from (278.15 to 363.15) K at the same pressure. Molalities m/(mol . kg{sup -1}) of the solutions were in the range (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 3.2) for adonitol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 0.15) for dulcitol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 5.0) for glycerol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 3.0) for meso-erythritol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 0.5) for myo-inositol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 2.0) for D-sorbitol, and (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 2.7) for xylitol. A vibrating tube densimeter was used to obtain solution densities and a fixed-cell temperature scanning calorimeter was used to obtain heat capacities. Values of V {sub {phi}} and C {sub p,{phi}} for these sugar alcohols are discussed relative to one another and compared to values from the literature, where available.

  1. UPDG: Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Daniel WH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a well-established strategy for cost reduction in disease gene mapping, pooled DNA association study is much less popular than the individual DNA approach. This situation is especially true for pooled DNA genomewide association study (GWAS, for which very few computer resources have been developed for its data analysis. This motivates the development of UPDG (Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS. Results UPDG represents a generalized framework for data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS with the integration of Unix/Linux shell operations, Perl programs and R scripts. With the input of raw intensity data from GWAS, UPDG performs the following tasks in a stepwise manner: raw data manipulation, correction for allelic preferential amplification, normalization, nested analysis of variance for genetic association testing, and summarization of analysis results. Detailed instructions, procedures and commands are provided in the comprehensive user manual describing the whole process from preliminary preparation of software installation to final outcome acquisition. An example dataset (input files and sample output files is also included in the package so that users can easily familiarize themselves with the data file formats, working procedures and expected output. Therefore, UPDG is especially useful for users with some computer knowledge, but without a sophisticated programming background. Conclusions UPDG provides a free, simple and platform-independent one-stop service to scientists working on pooled DNA GWAS data analysis, but with less advanced programming knowledge. It is our vision and mission to reduce the hindrance for performing data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS through our contribution of UPDG. More importantly, we hope to promote the popularity of pooled DNA GWAS, which is a very useful research strategy.

  2. Spatial and temporal expression analysis of D- myo -inositol 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1á (eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha) using SYBER-Green. ... expression in the developing seed tissues and can be targeted using the dsRNA induced sequence specific RNA degradation mechanism for reduction of phytate levels without ...

  3. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jessica S Veysey; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer) and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools). Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding populations of pool

  4. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Veysey Powell

    Full Text Available Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools. Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding

  5. The Leuze mineral water swimming pool - purposefully optimized energy utilization. Mineralbad Leuze: Sinnvoll optimierte Energienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-04-01

    The mineral-water swimming pool in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt is fed by mineral springs. The author reports on the design and energy technology used in this indoor swimming pool (photographs), pool hall (feed and exhaust air), treatment basin, showers, locker rooms (air throughput rate, feed and exhaust air management), cafeteria, kitchen, gymnastics and technical services rooms, toilets, chemicals storage room, cooling system and heat pump (heat recovery from drained pool water up to 50%). District heating steam (18 bar) is used for heat supply (reducing station). The author comments on the temperature levels required for different heating cycles (hot-pool hall, hot-water basin, skylight heating, space heating) and on thermal output requirements (kW). (HWJ).

  6. Effects of Geographic Diversification on Risk Pooling to Mitigate Drought-Related Financial Losses for Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rachel; Characklis, Gregory W.; Serre, Marc L.

    2018-04-01

    As the costs and regulatory barriers to new water supply development continue to rise, drought management strategies have begun to rely more heavily on temporary conservation measures. While these measures are effective, they often lead to intermittent and unpredictable reductions in revenues that are financially disruptive to water utilities, raising concerns over lower credit ratings and higher rates of borrowing for this capital intensive sector. Consequently, there is growing interest in financial risk management strategies that reduce utility vulnerabilities. This research explores the development of financial index insurance designed to compensate a utility for drought-related losses. The focus is on analyzing candidate hydrologic indices that have the potential to be used by utilities across the US, increasing the potential for risk pooling, which would offer the possibility of both lower risk management costs and more widespread implementation. This work first analyzes drought-related financial risks for 315 publicly operated water utilities across the country and examines the effectiveness of financial contracts based on several indices both in terms of their correlation with utility revenues and their spatial autocorrelation across locations. Hydrologic-based index insurance contracts are then developed and tested over a 120 year period. Results indicate that risk pooling, even under conditions in which droughts are subject to some level of spatial autocorrelation, has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of managing financial risk.

  7. Rational energy utilization and utilization of solar energy in the open-air swimming pool and in the multiple purpose hall at Wiehl. Final report. Pt. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillon, H; Jensch, K; Pentenrieder, J; Biasin, K; Dreisbach, K; Fruehauf, H J

    1982-12-01

    The test operation in Wiehl has shown that the waste heat utilization of an ice-sport ground especially in connection with the heat supply of an open-air swimming pool can be technically and functionally performed. Unter the given operating conditions annual cost savings of approx. 45.000 DM are yielded as against conventional systems. In addition to this advantage regarding works-economy the heat pump system also offers the advantage of considerable primary energy conservation. Apart from these very important findings also essential knowledge of details with regard to design, control, energy consumption and behaviour of the individual systems of this complex system have been obtained.

  8. Gender Differences in Outpatient Utilization : A Pooled Analysis of Data from the Korea Health Panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Beom; Park, Hyunchun; Kwon, Young Dae

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aims to set itself apart from prior research by elucidating gender differences in outpatient service utilization among adults aged 20 years or older, using nationally representative survey data. Methods: Data from the Korea Health Panel (KHP) collected between 2010 and 2011

  9. myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is required for polar auxin transport and organ development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming

    2010-01-01

    , cotyledon venation patterning, root growth, and root cap development. The mutant roots are also agravitropic and have reduced basipetal auxin transport. mips1 mutants have significantly reduced levels of major phosphatidylinositols and exhibit much slower

  10. Predicting grade of cerebral gliomas using Myo-inositol/Creatine ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa I.A. Metwally

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: MRS has proven to be an important complementary tool saving the patient from unnecessary biopsy taking when it is conclusive thus altering the treatment planning. This study had demonstrated that MI level and MI/Cr ratio are important in presurgical grading of brain tumors.

  11. Utilizing the ultrasensitive Schistosoma up-converting phosphor lateral flow circulating anodic antigen (UCP-LF CAA) assay for sample pooling-strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Hoekstra, Pytsje T; de Dood, Claudia J; van Dam, Govert J

    2017-11-01

    Methodological applications of the high sensitivity genus-specific Schistosoma CAA strip test, allowing detection of single worm active infections (ultimate sensitivity), are discussed for efficient utilization in sample pooling strategies. Besides relevant cost reduction, pooling of samples rather than individual testing can provide valuable data for large scale mapping, surveillance, and monitoring. The laboratory-based CAA strip test utilizes luminescent quantitative up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles and a rapid user-friendly lateral flow (LF) assay format. The test includes a sample preparation step that permits virtually unlimited sample concentration with urine, reaching ultimate sensitivity (single worm detection) at 100% specificity. This facilitates testing large urine pools from many individuals with minimal loss of sensitivity and specificity. The test determines the average CAA level of the individuals in the pool thus indicating overall worm burden and prevalence. When requiring test results at the individual level, smaller pools need to be analysed with the pool-size based on expected prevalence or when unknown, on the average CAA level of a larger group; CAA negative pools do not require individual test results and thus reduce the number of tests. Straightforward pooling strategies indicate that at sub-population level the CAA strip test is an efficient assay for general mapping, identification of hotspots, determination of stratified infection levels, and accurate monitoring of mass drug administrations (MDA). At the individual level, the number of tests can be reduced i.e. in low endemic settings as the pool size can be increased as opposed to prevalence decrease. At the sub-population level, average CAA concentrations determined in urine pools can be an appropriate measure indicating worm burden. Pooling strategies allowing this type of large scale testing are feasible with the various CAA strip test formats and do not affect

  12. Sogin enriched uranium extraction (EUREX) plant spent fuel pool cleaning and decontamination utilizing the Smart Safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, M.S.; Gili, M.; Nasta, M.; Quintiliani, R.; Caccia, G.; Botzen, W.; Forrester, K.

    2009-01-01

    SOGIN's EUREX facility in Italy was developed as a pilot plant functional testing laboratory for spent fuel reprocessing. This facility was operated successfully for many years since 1970 and was eventually shutdown consistent with Italy's suspension of all nuclear operations. At the time of suspension, the EUREX facility still had spent nuclear fuel assemblies in storage from a nearby PWR. Other fuel assemblies from an Italian AGR had remained stored in the spent fuel pool for the 20 years or so waiting for removal and reprocessing abroad. Being Magnox fuel elements, their recovery for the transport produced a huge amount of sludge in the pool. During this time, sediment, dirt, corrosion products, fuel cladding, etc. has collected within the fuel pool as a crud layer dispersed throughout. Most of this crud has accumulated on the horizontal surfaces of the pool and fuel element assemblies, while some remains as a suspended colloidal material. Furthermore many other contaminated metal components, used during the operation years, where still inside the pool. Due to a pool leak discovered in 2006, SOGIN speeded up its pool decommissioning program, making also available the transfer of the spent fuel to a nearby interim repository, with the goal to completely drain the pool in the shortest period of time. In order for SOGIN to successfully transfer the fuel assemblies from their current storage basket locations to the spent fuel transfer cask, the bulk of the crud needed to be removed. This cleanup operation was deemed necessary to minimize the suspension of contamination in the water during underwater handling operations. This would reduce the decontamination efforts on the transfer cask upon removal, once loaded with the spent fuel, and enhance safety by reducing potential underwater visibility issues. The operations were completed in July 2008 with the release to the environment of the pool water, thoroughly purified and without any relevant radiological impact. The

  13. Utility of the pooling approach as applied to whole genome association scans with high-density Affymetrix microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Joanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report an attempt to extend the previously successful approach of combining SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and DNA pooling (SNP-MaP employing high-density microarrays. Whereas earlier studies employed a range of Affymetrix SNP microarrays comprising from 10 K to 500 K SNPs, this most recent investigation used the 6.0 chip which displays 906,600 SNP probes and 946,000 probes for the interrogation of CNVs (copy number variations. The genotyping assay using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array is highly demanding on sample quality due to the small feature size, low redundancy, and lack of mismatch probes. Findings In the first study published so far using this microarray on pooled DNA, we found that pooled cheek swab DNA could not accurately predict real allele frequencies of the samples that comprised the pools. In contrast, the allele frequency estimates using blood DNA pools were reasonable, although inferior compared to those obtained with previously employed Affymetrix microarrays. However, it might be possible to improve performance by developing improved analysis methods. Conclusions Despite the decreasing costs of genome-wide individual genotyping, the pooling approach may have applications in very large-scale case-control association studies. In such cases, our study suggests that high-quality DNA preparations and lower density platforms should be preferred.

  14. Performance of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from an ice rink with an energy storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyumcu, Muhammed Enes; Tutumlu, Hakan; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical model of the system, and a computational program were developed. • Transient behavior of the water in the buried energy storage tank was simulated. • Effects of various system parameters on the system performance were investigated. • Long period performance of the system was analyzed and obtained periodic condition. • Optimum ice rink size is determined for a semi-Olympic size swimming pool heating. - Abstract: This study deals with determining the long period performance of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste heat energy that is rejected from a chiller unit of ice rink and subsequently stored in an underground thermal energy storage (TES) tank. The system consists of an ice rink, a swimming pool, a spherical underground TES tank, a chiller and a heat pump. The ice rink and the swimming pool are both enclosed and located in Gaziantep, Turkey. An analytical model was developed to obtain the performance of the system using Duhamel’s superposition and similarity transformation techniques. A computational model written in MATLAB program based on the transient heat transfer is used to obtain the annual variation of the ice rink and the swimming pool energy requirements, the water temperature in the TES tank, COP, and optimum ice rink size depending on the different ground, TES tank, chiller, and heat pump characteristics. The results obtained from the analysis indicate that 6–7 years’ operational time span is necessary to obtain the annual periodic operation condition. In addition, an ice rink with a size of 475 m"2 gives the optimum performance of the system with a semi-Olympic size swimming pool (625 m"2).

  15. Rational energy utilization and utilization of solar energy in the open-air swimming pool and in the multiple purpose hall at Wiehl. Final report. Pt. G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillon, H; Jensch, K; Jensch, W; Biasin, K; Dreisbach, K; Fruehauf, H J

    1982-12-01

    The research- and demonstration project in Wiehl consists mainly of an open-air swimming pool heated by solar energy and of a multiple purpose hall which is chiefly used as an ice-sport hall. The ice-field is cooled by means of a refrigeration system. The waste heat developing during freezing is used for water heating, space heating and hall-air heating for the multiple purpose hall and for after-heating of the pool water in the open-air swimming pool. In artificial ice-fields operated without interruptions during quite a long time, the subsoil may freeze. In this case there is the risk of the field constructions being damaged by the tensile forces of the frozen subsoil. In order to avoid this heating coils are installed below the fields in many cases today, due to which part of the waste heat developing during ice-production can be used to heat the field subsoil and thus avoid the risk of destruction.

  16. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  17. Cash pooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lozovaya, Karina

    2009-01-01

    This work makes a mention of cash management. At next chapter describes two most known theoretical models of cash management -- Baumol Model and Miller-Orr Model. Principal part of work is about cash pooling, types of cash pooling, cash pooling at Czech Republic and influence of cash pooling over accounting and taxes.

  18. Profitable pooling; Profitables Pooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Joerg-Rainer

    2011-09-15

    Many electric utilities are well prepared for the new 'market premium' that will be introduced with the amended EEG. If they are right in their assumptions, several thousands of MW of wind power may be traded by the new direct marketing model from 2012. But only big portfolios will have good chances in the long run.

  19. Exciting Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  20. The dephosphorylation pathway of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in rat brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Erneux, C; Delvaux, A; Moreau, C; Dumont, J E

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4] was measured in both the soluble and the particulate fractions of rat brain homogenates. Analysis of the hydrolysis of [4,5-32P]Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 showed that for both fractions the 5-phosphate of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was removed and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4)P3] was specifically produced. In the soluble fraction, Ins(1,3,4)P3 was further hydrolysed at the 1-phosphate position to inositol 3,4-bisphosphate[Ins(3,4)P2]...

  1. Utility of pooled urine specimens for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men attending public sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai, India, by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindan, Christina; Mathur, Meenakshi; Kumta, Sameer; Jerajani, Hermangi; Gogate, Alka; Schachter, Julius; Moncada, Jeanne

    2005-04-01

    Pooling urogenital specimens for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by nucleic acid amplification tests is an attractive alternative to individual testing. As pooling can reduce the costs of testing as well as labor, it has been advocated for use in resource-poor settings. However, it has neither been widely adopted nor evaluated for use in developing countries. We evaluated the practical use of pooling first-catch urine (FCU) specimens for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae from 690 men in Mumbai, India, by PCR. FCU, urethral smears, and swabs were collected from men seen at two sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. All laboratory testing was done at the Lokmanya Tilak General Hospital. Gram stain smears and culture isolation for N. gonorrhoeae were performed. Each FCU was tested individually and in pools using the Roche Amplicor PCR for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae with an internal control for inhibition. Specimen pools consisted of aliquots from five consecutively processed FCUs combined into an amplification tube. An optical density reading of > or =0.20 indicated a pool for which subsequent testing of individual samples was required. Prevalence by PCR on single specimens was 2.2% (15/690) for C. trachomatis and 5.4% (37/690) for N. gonorrhoeae. Compared to individual FCU results, pooling for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae had an overall sensitivity of 96.1% (50/52). Specificity was 96.5% (83/86) in that three pools required single testing that failed to identify a positive specimen. Pooling missed two positive specimens, decreased the inhibition rate, and saved 50.3% of reagent costs. In this resource-limited setting, the use of pooling to detect C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by PCR proved to be a simple, accurate, and cost-effective procedure compared to individual testing.

  2. Thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from a chiller unit of an ice rink

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyumcu Muhammed Enes; Yumrutaş Recep

    2017-01-01

    This study deals with the thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system in which the waste energy rejected from the chiller unit of an ice rink is used as an energy source. The system consists of a swimming pool and an ice rink coupled by a chiller unit. The swimming pool and the ice rink both indoor types and were constructed in city of Gaziantep, Turkey. The thermal energy requirement for each section is determined by thermal analysis of each component of the system. Effec...

  3. Thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system by utilizing waste energy rejected from a chiller unit of an ice rink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyumcu Muhammed Enes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the thermal analysis and modeling of a swimming pool heating system in which the waste energy rejected from the chiller unit of an ice rink is used as an energy source. The system consists of a swimming pool and an ice rink coupled by a chiller unit. The swimming pool and the ice rink both indoor types and were constructed in city of Gaziantep, Turkey. The thermal energy requirement for each section is determined by thermal analysis of each component of the system. Effects of different design parameters such as ceiling insulation thickness, ceiling emissivity, Carnot efficiency factor and size of the ice rink on the thermal energy requirements and coefficient of performance of the chiller unit are investigated. As a result of analyses of the system, the minimum ice rink area is determined in order to meet annual total heat energy demand of the olympic-sized swimming pool.

  4. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, J.; Herranz, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Espigares, M.M.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Smedley, Ch.; Trow, W.; Jones, A.V.; Bonanni, E.; Calvo, M.; Alonso, A.

    1996-12-01

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  5. Utilization of plastic detector for pool water radioactivity control of IEA-R1 reactor. Examination of fuel element irradiation behaviour fabricated at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berretta, J.R.; Mesquita, C.H. de; Madi Filho, T.

    1989-01-01

    For the examination of fuel element irradiation behavior that were fabricated at IPEN/CNEN/SP Metalurgical Departament, it was provided a detection system for pool water radioactivity measurements. This system uses a plastic scintillator detector produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP Health Physics Department, with dimensions and shape apropriated for such work. The detection system shows a sensibility of 4.125x10 -2 dps/cm 3 and 20% of efficiency for 131 I radiations. (author) [pt

  6. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  7. Big city consultants shut down our pool : a shocking community pool gets checked for stray voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, P. [Power Line Systems Engineering Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    This article discussed an investigation conducted at a community pool where swimmers complained of receiving electrical shocks both in the pool and on the pool's deck area. Electrical measurements taken at the pool revealed current flows from the pool water to various points around the deck area. Measured current flow in the pool area was 30 amps even when the main pool service breaker was opened to shut off power to the entire facility. Thirty amps of primary neutral current was then measured on the primary side aerial neutral in front of the pool. A 10 amp primary feeder from the pool joined up with the complex's primary neutral wire to increase the neutral current to 40 amps. The combined 40 amps current then returned to the secondary side of a nearby utility transformer substation. The study showed that the underground wet low-resistance grounded surface area of the pool was attracting the 30 amps of utility current from the surrounding ground area. The local utility disconnected the primary and secondary neutral interconnection at the pool's main 600-volt step-down transformer. The pool deck was removed in order to install additional copper bonding grounds. In order to avert serious injuries, many experts propose that all electric utilities should be required by law to reconfigure their power systems to prevent primary power neutral currents from entering private buildings. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  9. Evaluating the utility of common-pool resource theory for understanding forest governance and outcomes in Indonesia between 1965 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest D Fleischman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While Common Pool Resource (CPR theory has been widely applied to forestry, there are few examples of using the theory to study large-scale governance. In this paper we test the applicability of CPR theory to understanding forest governance and outcomes in Indonesia between 1965 and 2012. Indonesia contains one of the world’s largest tropical forests, and experienced rapid deforestation during this time frame, with forest cover dropping from close to 85% to less than 50%. Using a mixture of within case comparison and process tracing methods, we identify key variables that influenced the levels of deforestation during two time periods: before 1998, when governance was dominated by the dictatorship of President Suharto, and after 1998, when democratic governance and political decentralization were initiated, and deforestation rates fell and then rose again. Our results point to the value of CPR theory in identifying important variables that influence sustainability at large scales, however they also illustrate important limitations of CPR theory for the study of forests with large spatial extent and large numbers of users. The presence and absence of key variables from CPR theory did emerge as important causes of deforestation. However, some variables, such as strong leadership and local rule-making, appeared to work in the opposite direction as predicted by CPR theory. In addition, key variables that may have influenced deforestation rates are not well captured in CPR theory. These include the intention of the governance system, the presence of clientelistic politics, the influences of international politics and markets, and the influence of top-down governance. Given that CPR theory does not fully explain the case at hand, its applicability, as is, to large-scale commons should be treated with some caution.

  10. Myo-inositol as a main metabolite in overwintering flies: seasonal metabolomic profiles and cold stress tolerance in a northern drosophilid fly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vesala, L.; Salminen, T. S.; Košťál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Hoikkala, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 16 (2012), s. 2891-2897 ISSN 0022-0949 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : chill coma recovery * cold tolerance * cryoprotectant Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.236, year: 2012

  11. Rhodotorula rosulata sp. nov., Rhodotorula silvestris sp. nov. and Rhodotorula straminea sp. nov., novel myo-inositol-assimilating yeast species in the Microbotryomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, Wladyslav I; Scorzetti, Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Three novel species are described as Rhodotorula rosulata sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2962(T) =CBS 10977(T)), Rhodotorula silvestris sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2971(T) =CBS 11420(T)) and Rhodotorula straminea sp. nov. (type strain VKM Y-2964(T) =CBS 10976(T)) based on the study of eight isolates from needle litter. The new species, phylogenetically located within the Microbotryomycetes, are related to glucuronate-assimilating species of the genus Rhodotorula. Sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rDNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, as well as physiological characterization, revealed their distinct taxonomic positions.

  12. Temperature and nucleotide dependence of calcium release by myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.B.; Smith, L.; Higgins, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) rapidly increased 45 Ca 2+ efflux from a nonmitochondrial organelle in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells that were permeabilized with saponin. A nucleotide, preferably ATP, was essential for IP3-evoked 45 Ca 2+ release. Two nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues satisfied the nucleotide requirement for IP3-evoked 45 Ca 2+ release. IP3 strongly stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux at low temperatures (1 to 15 degrees C). Decreasing the temperature from 37 to 4 degrees C inhibited the rate of IP3-stimulated efflux by only about 33%. The failure of such low temperatures to strongly inhibit IP3-induced 45 Ca 2+ efflux suggests that IP3 activated a Ca 2+ channel, rather than a carrier, by a ligand-binding, rather than a metabolic, reaction

  13. Myo-inositol phosphate synthase expression in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): effect of seawater acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalujnaia, Svetlana; Hazon, Neil; Cramb, Gordon

    2016-08-01

    A single MIPS gene (Isyna1/Ino1) exists in eel and tilapia genomes with a single myo-d-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS) transcript identified in all eel tissues, although two MIPS spliced variants [termed MIPS(s) and MIPS(l)] are found in all tilapia tissues. The larger tilapia transcript [MIPS(l)] results from the inclusion of the 87-nucleotide intron between exons 5 and 6 in the genomic sequence. In most tilapia tissues, the MIPS(s) transcript exhibits much higher abundance (generally >10-fold) with the exception of white skeletal muscle and oocytes, in which the MIPS(l) transcript predominates. SW acclimation resulted in large (6- to 32-fold) increases in mRNA expression for both MIPS(s) and MIPS(l) in all tilapia tissues tested, whereas in the eel, changes in expression were limited to a more modest 2.5-fold increase and only in the kidney. Western blots identified a number of species- and tissue-specific immunoreactive MIPS proteins ranging from 40 to 67 kDa molecular weight. SW acclimation failed to affect the abundance of any immunoreactive protein in any tissue tested from the eel. However, a major 67-kDa immunoreactive protein (presumed to be MIPS) found in tilapia tissues exhibited 11- and 54-fold increases in expression in gill and fin samples from SW-acclimated fish. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed specific immunoreactivity in the gill, fin, skin, and intestine taken from only SW-acclimated tilapia. Immunofluorescence indicated that MIPS was expressed within gill chondrocytes and epithelial cells of the primary filaments, basal epithelial cell layers of the skin and fin, the cytosol of columnar intestinal epithelial and mucous cells, as well as unknown entero-endocrine-like cells. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  15. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  16. Solar swimming pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar collectors to heat the water in a previously unheated outdoor swimming pool. The solar system is used in conjunction with a pool blanket, to conserve heat when the pool is not in use. Energy losses through evaporation can be reduced by as much as 70% by a pool blanket. A total of 130 m{sup 2} of highly durable black synthetic collectors were installed on a support structure at a 30{degree} angle from the horizontal, oriented to the south. Circulation of pool water though the collectors, which is controlled by a differential thermostat, was done with the existing pool pump. Before installation the pool temperature averaged 16{degree}C; after installation it ranged from 20{degree} to 26{degree}C. It was hard to distinguish how much pool heating was due to the solar system and how much heat was retained by the pool blanket. However, the pool season was extended by five weeks and attendance tripled. 2 figs.

  17. Swimming-pool piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trioulaire, M.

    1959-01-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10 13 . This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [fr

  18. Spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Naoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Fences are disposed to a fuel exchange floor surrounding the upper surface of a fuel pool for preventing overflow of pool water. The fences comprise a plurality of flat boards arranged in parallel with each other in the longitudinal direction while being vertically inclined, and slits are disposed between the boards for looking down the pool. Further, the fences comprise wide boards and are constituted so as to be laid horizontally on the fuel exchange floor in a normal state and uprisen by means of the signals from an earthquake sensing device. Even if pool water is overflow from the fuel pool by the vibrations occurred upon earthquake and flown out to the floor of the fuel exchange floor, the overflow from the fuel exchange floor is prevented by the fences. An operator who monitors the fuel pool can observe the inside of the fuel pool through the slits formed to the fences during normal operation. The fences act as resistance against overflowing water upon occurrence of an earthquake thereby capable of reducing the overflowing amount of water due to the vibrations of pool water. The effect of preventing overflowing water can be enhanced. (N.H.)

  19. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  20. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set...

  1. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  2. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  3. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  4. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  5. Swimming pool special; Zwembadspecial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    This issue includes a few articles and messages on the use of heat pump systems in swimming pools. [Dutch] Dit nummer bevat onder meer een paar artikelen over het gebruik van warmtepompsystemen in zwembaden.

  6. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  7. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  8. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...

  9. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  10. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  11. Backfitting swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebert, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations based on measurements in a critical assembly, and experiments to disclose fuel element surface temperatures in case of accidents like stopping of primary coolant flow during full power operation, have shown that the power of the swimming pool type research reactor FRG-2 (15 MW, operating since 1967) might be raised to 21 MW within the present rules of science and technology, without major alterations of the pool buildings and the cooling systems. A backfitting program is carried through to adjust the reactor control systems of FRG-2 and FRG-1 (5 MW, housed in the same reactor hall) to the present safety rules and recommendations, to ensure FRG-2 operation at 21 MW for the next decade. (author)

  12. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  13. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  14. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  15. Pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a pool nuclear reactor fitted with a perfected system to raise the buckets into a vertical position at the bottom of a channel. This reactor has an inclined channel to guide a bucket containing a fuel assembly to introduce it into the reactor jacket or extract it therefrom and a damper at the bottom of the channel to stop the drop of the bucket. An upright vertically movable rod has a horizontally articulated arm with a hook. This can pivot to touch a radial lug on the bucket and pivot the bucket around its base in a vertical position, when the rod moves up [fr

  16. Characteristics of fission product release from a molten pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.I.; Suh, K.Y.; Kang, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    The volatile fission products are released from the debris pool, while the less volatile fission products tend to remain as condensed phases because of their low vapor pressure. The release of noble gases and the volatile fission products is dominated by bubble dynamics. The release of the less volatile fission products from the pool can be analyzed based on mass transport through a liquid with the convection flow. The physico-numerical models were orchestrated from existing submodels in various disciplines of engineering to estimate the released fraction of fission products from a molten pool. It was assumed that the pool has partially filled hemispherical geometry. For the high pool pressure, the diameter of the bubbles at detachment was calculated utilizing the Cole and Shulman correlation with the effect of system pressure. Sensitivity analyses were performed and results of the numerical calculations were compared with analysis results for the TMI-2 accident. (author)

  17. Model of large pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: jfay@mit.edu

    2006-08-21

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables.

  18. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  19. Design of hydrotherapy exercise pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, R F; Abidin, M R; Becker, D G; Pavlovich, L J; Dang, M T

    1988-01-01

    Several hydrotherapy pools have been designed specifically for a variety of aquatic exercise. Aqua-Ark positions the exerciser in the center of the pool for deep-water exercise. Aqua-Trex is a shallow underwater treadmill system for water walking or jogging. Swim-Ex generates an adjustable laminar flow that permits swimming without turning. Musculoskeletal conditioning can be accomplished in the above-ground Arjo shallow-water exercise pool. A hydrotherapy pool also can be custom designed for musculoskeletal conditioning in its shallow part and cardiovascular conditioning in a deeper portion of the pool. Regardless of the type of exercise, there is general agreement that the specific exercise conducted in water requires significantly more energy expenditure than when the same exercise is performed on land.

  20. Competition and power pooling in the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, P.; Yarrow, G.; Fusaro, P.

    1995-01-01

    Two contributions to the debate on power pooling and competition in the electricity supply industry are presented. In the first, the situation in England and Wales where power pooling was introduced shortly before privatization is analysed. Pooling has existed for many years in the USA but as an inter-generator arrangement designed to optimize production and costs. The British system sought in addition to establish a spot market in which bulk buyers as well as bulk suppliers could participate. There are however obvious weaknesses in the pool as a competitive market and it is argued that a combination of pooling arrangements and longer-term bilateral supply contracts are more likely to offer the prospect of workably competitive and efficient outcomes. The second contribution discusses how competitive markets will evolve in the USA under the new regime of less onerous regulation heralded by the Energy Policy Act if 1992 and the emergence of electricity trading markets which followed. In particular, the proposal by the California Public Utility commission favouring a mandatory Poolco is examined. Poolco would operate the transmission grid and dispatch generating plants while the utilities would retain ownership of transmission facilities and be required to supply the pool. This is seen as representing only partial deregulation and not to be consistent with moves to further competition and encourage free markets. (U.K.)

  1. Study on velocity distribution in a pool by submersible mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F; Shi, W D; Lu, X N; Chen, B; Jiang, H

    2012-01-01

    To study the distribution of submersible mixers and agitating effect in the sewage treatment pool, Pro/E software was utilized to build the three-dimensional model. Then, the large-scale computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT6.3 was used. ICEM software was used to build unstructured grid of sewage treatment pool. After that, the sewage treatment pool was numerically simulated by dynamic coordinate system technology and RNG k-ε turbulent model and PIOS algorithm. The macro fluid field and each section velocity flow field distribution were analyzed to observe the efficiency of each submersible mixer. The average velocity and mixing area in the sewage pool were studied simultaneously. Results show that: the preferred project B, two submersible mixers speed is 980 r/min, and setting angles are all 30°. Fluid mixing area in the pool has reached more than 95%. Under the action of two mixers, the fluid in the sewage pool form a continuous circulating water flow. The fluid is mixed adequately and average velocity of fluid in the pool is at around 0.241m/s, which agreed with the work requirements. Consequently it can provide a reference basis for practical engineering application of submersible mixers by using this method.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  3. Pooling and correlated neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosenbaum

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between spike trains can strongly modulate neuronal activity and affect the ability of neurons to encode information. Neurons integrate inputs from thousands of afferents. Similarly, a number of experimental techniques are designed to record pooled cell activity. We review and generalize a number of previous results that show how correlations between cells in a population can be amplified and distorted in signals that reflect their collective activity. The structure of the underlying neuronal response can significantly impact correlations between such pooled signals. Therefore care needs to be taken when interpreting pooled recordings, or modeling networks of cells that receive inputs from large presynaptic populations. We also show that the frequently observed runaway synchrony in feedforward chains is primarily due to the pooling of correlated inputs.

  4. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  5. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-11-17

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  6. Seismic analysis of large pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated

  7. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  8. DATA-POOL : a direct-access data base for large-scale nuclear codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Naoki; Koyama, Kinji; Naito, Yoshitaka; Minami, Kazuyoshi.

    1991-12-01

    A direct-access data base DATA-POOL has been developed for large-scale nuclear codes. The data can be stored and retrieved with specifications of simple node names, by using the DATA-POOL access package written in the FORTRAN 77 language. A management utility POOL for the DATA-POOL is also provided. A typical application of the DATA-POOL is shown to the RADHEAT-V4 code system developed for performing safety analyses of radiation shielding. Many samples and error messages are also noted to apply the DATA-POOL for the other code systems. This report is provided for a manual of DATA-POOL. (author)

  9. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, J.S.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities' specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost

  10. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall be...

  11. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  12. A note on Arabian Sea warm pool and its possible relation with monsoon onset over Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chacko, K.V.; HareeshKumar, P.V.; RameshKumar, M.R.; Mathew, B.; Bannur, V.M.

    The possible relation of the Arabian Sea Warm Pool (ASWP) with monsoon onset over Kerala is studied by utilizing the TRMM Microwave Imager data during the period 2007-2011 (5 years). The ASWP is a part of the Indian Ocean warm pool and forms...

  13. Efficient pooling designs for library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, William J.; Knill, Emanuel; Balding, David J.; Bruce, D. C.; Doggett, N. A.; Sawhill, W. W.; Stallings, R. L.; Whittaker, Craig C.; Torney, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Random $k$-sets designs have substantial advantages over alternative pooling schemes: they are efficient, flexible, easy to specify, require fewer pools, and have er...

  14. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  15. Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Gina; Wolfe, Kim; Dupree, Alan; Young, Sheila; Caver, Jessica; Quintanilla, Ruby; Thornton, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) takes student engagement to a higher level through reflective collaboration, inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and personal relevance. This article explains how six high school teachers developed an interconnected, interdisciplinary STEM-focused PBL called "Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool." The…

  16. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  17. Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Belmaker, Jonathan; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    studies, null models of community structure, and ecologically explicit definitions of the species pool as a means to compare predominant ecological processes among regions. By uniting concepts and tools from community ecology and macroecology, this approach might facilitate synthesis and resolve many......Resolving contingencies in community ecology requires comparative studies of local communities along broad-scale environmental gradients and in different biogeographic regions. However, comparisons of local ecological processes among regions require a synthetic understanding of how the species pool...... of potential community members influences the structure of ecological communities. Here, we outline an integrative approach for quantifying local ecological processes while explicitly accounting for species pool influences. Specifically, we highlight the utility of combining geographically replicated local...

  18. Comparison of fecal pooling strategies for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, S L B; Ritter, C; Dohoo, I; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W

    2018-05-23

    -prevalence herd simulation indicated that weighted mean herd probabilities of detecting a positive herd ranged between 52 and 99.3%, with the lowest probability for pools of 10 with 1 positive cow in the herd and the highest probability for pools of 5 with 5 positive cows in the herd. However, overall, pools of 5 and 10 had similar diagnostic capabilities, enabling cost savings by utilizing pools of 10. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  20. Flashing oscillation in pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Hazuku, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of high-pressure saturated water discharging into the pool water. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur in blow-down of high-pressure saturated water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in an advanced reactor. The results revealed that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when high-pressure saturated water discharges into the pool water, under specified experimental settings. The range of the flashing oscillates between a point very close to and some distance from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and pool water vary according to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and frequency of flashing position might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and its condensation on the steam-water interface. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model. The period of the flashing oscillation in the experiments can be explained by theoretical analysis

  1. Pressure supression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model developed in this work produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing is verified by comparing the model-predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  2. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  3. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  4. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  5. Clinical blood pool MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, Tim [Maastrich University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Goyen, Martin [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Rohrer, Mathias [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany). European Business Unit Diagnostic Imaging; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (eds.) [University Hospital Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2008-07-01

    Clinical Blood Pool MR Imaging - This excellent treatise on Vasovist {sup registered} created by a team of exceptional faculty who are pioneers in MR Angiography covers the basic techniques, safety, efficacy, image processing and pharmaco-economic details to successfully implement a new level of MRA image quality with this new contrast agent. Martin Prince, Cornell University, New York The editors and authors have made groundbreaking contributions towards establishing MR angiography in various investigative settings, rendering it more precise and applying it for diverse indications. The work presented here is founded upon the extensive experience of the editors, as well as the broad range of experience from other scientific working groups. Maximilian Reiser, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich Vasovist {sup registered} (Gadofosveset), worldwide the first blood pool agent, has only recently become available for clinical use, but has already gained wide acceptance as a tool to improve magnetic resonance angiography. This book presents the first in-depth introduction to the basic physicochemical aspects of the agent, the application of Vasovist {sup registered} in clinical MRA, as well as potential clinical applications beyond MRA and patient management-related aspects. The first part of the book explains basic and technical properties of the agent and the differences of Vasovist {sup registered} compared to currently available extracellular agents. The second part contains detailed chapters on safety and efficacy. In the third part the focus is on MR angiographic applications, and in the fourth part of the book potential clinical fields beyond MRA are explored. All clinical chapters feature ready-to-use clinical protocols and a series of take home messages that concisely summarize the current role of blood pool imaging for each specific indication. (orig.)

  6. Application of solar roof shallow pool at individual residental buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović Dragan J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of applying shallow roof pools of water on the basis of passive solar water capture functioning as thermal batteries and thermal "regulators" in a "hot - cold" mode with individual residential buildings. With this application, the utilization of the existing functionality of the building roof area would improve and open up the possibility of achieving better overall bio-climate individual object. By using this system, a flat roof impassable "terrace" ...

  7. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  8. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  9. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  10. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  11. Relevance of gut microbiome and endogenous phosphatases on phytate breakdown in poultry – implications on phosphorus utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel; Ptak, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal microbiota of the poultry is still relatively unexplored area. Most of the research has been conducted on broiler chickens with very few studies showing phytate-microbiome interactions. Incorporation of novel techniques in microbiology particularly, pyrosequencing should clarify...... to inhibited. In conclusion, poultry GIT microbiota can utilize 10-25% of dietary phytate. Phytase supplementation significantly affects the microbiome but the mode of action is mainly indirect, through changes in the buffering capacity of the digesta and release of IP6 isomers as well as myo-inositol....

  12. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  13. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool

  14. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool.

  15. Livermore pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) has served a dual purpose since 1958--as an instrument for fundamental research and as a tool for measurement and calibration. Our early efforts centered on neutron-diffraction, fission, and capture gamma-ray studies. During the 1960's it was used for extensive calibration work associated with radiochemical and physical measurements on nuclear-explosive tests. Since 1970 the principal applications have been for trace-element measurements and radiation-damage studies. Today's research program is dominated by radiochemical studies of the shorter-lived fission products and by research on the mechanisms of radiation damage. Trace-element measurement for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program is the major measurement application today

  16. Cardiac blood pool emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.; Charbonnier, B.; Raynaud, P.; Brochier, M.

    1983-01-01

    After blood pool labeling using technetium-99m, a series of cardiac pictures is acquired during the rotation of a gamma-camera about the patient. Computer processing leads to reconstruction of various tomographic slices from the original planar projection. Electrocardiographic gating selects the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Individual slices through the left ventricular region are added in order to provide ''thick'' slices on which global and regional parameters of the left ventricular function can be determined. Due to the proportionality existing between count rates and labeled blood volumes, any geometrical model can be avoided. The delineation of regions of interest for count integration is made easier due to the absence of superimposition of structures; no correction for background is necessary. Tomography thus appears to be more consistent and more accurate than the classical methods using planar projections. In addition, right ventricular morphological and kinetic studies can be performed in the same conditions as for the left ventricle [fr

  17. Arc-weld pool interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in arc-weld pool interactions are extremely complex and no complete theory is presently available to describe much of the phenomena observed during welding. For the past several years, experimental and analytical studies have been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to increase basic understanding of the gas tungsten arc welding process. These studies have included experimental spectral analysis of the arc in order to determine arc temperature and analytical modeling of the arc and weld puddle. The investigations have been directed toward determining the cause and effects of variations in the energy distribution incident upon the weldment. In addition, the effect of weld puddle distortion on weld penetration was investigated, and experimental and analytical studies of weld process variables have been undertaken to determine the effects of the variables upon weld penetration and configuration. A review of the results and analysis of these studies are presented

  18. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J Hossain

    Full Text Available To investigate the molecular basis of the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila responsible for an epidemic outbreak of motile aeromonad septicemia of catfish in the Southeastern United States, we sequenced 11 A. hydrophila isolates that includes five reference and six recent epidemic isolates. Comparative genomics revealed that recent epidemic A. hydrophila isolates are highly clonal, whereas reference isolates are greatly diverse. We identified 55 epidemic-associated genetic regions with 313 predicted genes that are present in epidemic isolates but absent from reference isolates and 35% of these regions are located within genomic islands, suggesting their acquisition through lateral gene transfer. The epidemic-associated regions encode predicted prophage elements, pathogenicity islands, metabolic islands, fitness islands and genes of unknown functions, and 34 of the genes encoded in these regions were predicted as virulence factors. We found two pilus biogenesis gene clusters encoded within predicted pathogenicity islands. A functional metabolic island that encodes a complete pathway for myo-inositol catabolism was evident by the ability of epidemic A. hydrophila isolates to use myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Testing of A. hydrophila field isolates found a consistent correlation between myo-inositol utilization as a sole carbon source and the presence of an epidemic-specific genetic marker. All epidemic isolates and one reference isolate shared a novel O-antigen cluster. Altogether we identified four different O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters within the 11 sequenced A. hydrophila genomes. Our study reveals new insights into the evolutionary changes that have resulted in the emergence of recent epidemic A. hydrophila strains.

  19. Stabilization of reactor fuel storage pool-TTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.

    1994-10-01

    The proposed work includes evaluating standard and improved technologies an designing an integrated demonstration system to clean the water and sludge the fuel storage pools. The water released would meet drinking water standards and tritium standards. The volume of radioactive sludge would be reduced by partial separation of the sludge and radionuclides and eventual solidification of the hazardous and radioactive waste. The scope of the wo includes a survey of needs and applicable technologies, system engineering evaluation, conceptual design, detailed design, fabrication of the integrat demonstration system, and testing of the system. The survey task will locate potential specific customers within the DOE complex, and outside of the DOE complex throughout the United States, that be able to utilize the narrowly focused technology to stabilize/shutdown reactor fuel storage pools, responsible parties will be located and asked respond to a survey about their specific process requirements. Literature searches will be run through technical and scientific databases to locate technologies that may be an improvement over the standard baselined technol for cleanup of radioactively-contaminated pools. Systems engineering will provide decision analysis support for the development, evaluation, design, test functions of the treatment of pool water and sludge

  20. Stabilization of reactor fuel storage pool-TTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.

    1994-10-01

    The proposed work includes evaluating standard and improved technologies an designing an integrated demonstration system to clean the water and sludge the fuel storage pools. The water released would meet drinking water standards and tritium standards. The volume of radioactive sludge would be reduced by partial separation of the sludge and radionuclides and eventual solidification of the hazardous and radioactive waste. The scope of the wo includes a survey of needs and applicable technologies, system engineering evaluation, conceptual design, detailed design, fabrication of the integrat demonstration system, and testing of the system. The survey task will locate potential specific customers within the DOE complex, and outside of the DOE complex throughout the United States, that be able to utilize the narrowly focused technology to stabilize/shutdown reactor fuel storage pools, responsible parties will be located and asked respond to a survey about their specific process requirements. Literature searches will be run through technical and scientific databases to locate technologies that may be an improvement over the standard baselined technol for cleanup of radioactively-contaminated pools. Systems engineering will provide decision analysis support for the development, evaluation, design, test functions of the treatment of pool water and sludge.

  1. PIV measurements of turbulent jet and pool mixing produced by a steam jet discharge in a subcooled water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Jun; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    This experimental research is on the fluid-dynamic features produced by a steam injection into a subcooled water pool. The relevant phenomena could often be encountered in water cooled nuclear power plants. Two major topics, a turbulent jet and the internal circulation produced by a steam injection, were investigated separately using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) as a non-intrusive optical measurement technique. Physical domains of both experiments have a two-dimensional axi-symmetric geometry of which the boundary and initial conditions can be readily and well defined. The turbulent jet experiments with the upward discharging configuration provide the parametric values for quantitatively describing a turbulent jet such as the self-similar velocity profile, central velocity decay, spreading rate, etc. And in the internal circulation experiments with the downward discharging configuration, typical flow patterns in a whole pool region are measured in detail, which reveals both the local and macroscopic characteristics of the mixing behavior in a pool. This quantitative data on the condensing jet-induced mixing behavior in a pool could be utilized as benchmarking for a CFD simulation of relevant phenomena.

  2. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  3. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Shimpei; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ryo; Takano, Takao; Seko, Noriaki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Kuroki, Ryota; Saegusa, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  4. Current operating practices of nuclear insurance pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear pooling system and co-operation between the pools, present practice and capacity, with a breakdown of the limits for third party liability and material damage. The author also describes the relationship between the pools and the nuclear operators (the policyholders), and concludes that the nuclear pools have been successful in serving the interests of their member companies, their policyholders and the governments as they have provided a stable insurance market by making available capacity in amounts that had never before been assembled and placed at risk in a single location. 2 tabs

  5. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Shimpei; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ryo; Takano, Takao; Seko, Noriaki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Kuroki, Ryota; Saegusa, Jun

    2012-07-15

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  6. Structure for nuclear fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae; Nichiei, Shinji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable leak detection in nuclear fuel storage pools, as well as prevent external leakages while keeping the strength of the constructional structures. Constitution: Protection plates are provided around pool linear plates and a leak reception is provided to the bottom. Leakages are detected by leak detecting pipeways and the external leakages are prevented by collecting them in a detection area provided in the intermediate layer. Since ferro-reinforcements at the bottom wall of the pool are disconnected by the protection plate making it impossible to form the constructional body, body hunches are provided to the bottom wall of the pool for processing the ferro-reinforcements. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO 4 -H 2 O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere

  8. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatsky, A.A., E-mail: andrei314@mail.ru [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Smirnov, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [EUROPÄISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut für Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache-DEN/DTN/STRI, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations.

  9. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations

  10. Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical

  11. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States. (c) SBA purchase of a Loan Interest. SBA will determine whether to purchase a Loan... reserves the right to purchase a Loan Interest from a Pool at any time. (d) Self-liquidating. A Pool... market conditions and program experience, and will publish any such change in the Federal Register. (h...

  12. Compact fuel storage rack for fuel pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parras, F.; Louvat, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    ETS LEMER and FRAMATOME propose a new compact storage rack. This rack permits a considerable increase of the storage capacity of cooling pools. A short description of the structure and the components is presented, to propose racks that are: . Inalterable, . Compact, . Insensitive to earthquakes. Installation in pools already in operation is simplified by their light structure and the bearing device [fr

  13. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    is larger and warmer, a peculiarity of the pool in the Indian Ocean is its seasonal variation. The surface area of the pool changes from 24 x 106 km2 in April to 8 x 106 km2 in September due to interaction with the southwest monsoon. The annual cycles of sea...

  14. Shedding Light on Dark Liquidity Pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments on dark liquidity pools starting from the theoretical and empirical academic literature. The number of dark liquidity pools as well as their trading volume has grown substantially in the last couple of years. We highlight the incentives of providers as

  15. Ripples in a superconducting tidal pool

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, E

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons in a metal is often compared to that of water in a pool. An empty pool is like a material that has all of its electrons removed. As electrons are 'poured' into the metal, they first occupy the lowest energies available - the bottom of the pool - and eventually fill up to the Fermi energy, the top of the pool. At this point we no longer discuss electrons but quasiparticles. These are electrons that have modified properties due to their interactions within the material. Waves in a pool can be excited, and their properties will depend on the depth of the water. Similarly in a metal, quasiparticles behave like waves that have a material-dependent dispersion relation between their energy and their wavevector, which specifies their direction and wavelength. This simple analogy also hints at an indirect method of measuring the dispersion relation of a metal, and hence the myriad of properties that depend on it. (U.K.)

  16. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door.

  17. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-01-01

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door

  18. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  19. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  20. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs

  2. Swimming pool hydraulics and their significance for public pools. Bedeutung der Beckenhydraulik in oeffentlichen Schwimmbaedern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gansloser, G

    1989-11-01

    The term of swimming pool hydraulics means the process of letting in and drawing off water to and from the pool while ensuring that no inadmissible water-borne contaminant concentrations will occur anywhere within the pool. Measurements were performed on a pool to study the significance of correct pool hydraulics. The author points out that a wrong water recirculation design will bring to nought the effects of an elaborate water treatment system; by contrast, poor pool water quality can be greatly improved by redesigning the pool water hydraulics approach. In principle, systems with with water inlet at one side and water outlet at the far side will fall short of hygienic requirements. (BWI).

  3. Studies of thermal stratification in water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.K.; Chandraker, D.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Large water pools are used as a heat sink for various cooling systems used in industry. In context of advance nuclear reactors like AHWR, it is used as ultimate heat sink for passive systems for decay heat removal and containment cooling. This system incorporates heat exchangers submerged in the large water pool. However, heat transfer by natural convection in pool poses a problem of thermal stratification. Due to thermal stratification hot layers of water accumulate over the relatively cold one. The heat transfer performance of heat exchanger gets deteriorated as a hot fluid envelops it. In the nuclear reactors, the walls of the pool are made of concrete and it may subject to high temperature due to thermal stratification which is not desirable. In this paper, a concept of employing shrouds around the heat source is studied. These shrouds provide a bulk flow in the water pool, thereby facilitating mixing of hot and cold fluid, which eliminate stratification. The concept has been applied to the a scaled model of Gravity Driven Water Pool (GDWP) of AHWR in which Isolation Condensers (IC) tubes are submerged for decay heat removal of AHWR using ICS and thermal stratification phenomenon was predicted with and without shrouds. To demonstrate the adequacy of the effectiveness of shroud arrangement and to validate the simulation methodology of RELAP5/Mod3.2, experiments has been conducted on a scaled model of the pool with and without shroud. (author)

  4. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  5. Fuzzy pool balance: An algorithm to achieve a two dimensional balance in distribute storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wenjing; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The limitation of scheduling modules and the gradual addition of disk pools in distributed storage systems often result in imbalances among their disk pools in terms of both disk usage and file count. This can cause various problems to the storage system such as single point of failure, low system throughput and imbalanced resource utilization and system loads. An algorithm named Fuzzy Pool Balance (FPB) is proposed here to solve this problem. The input of FPB is the current file distribution among disk pools and the output is a file migration plan indicating what files are to be migrated to which pools. FPB uses an array to classify the files by their sizes. The file classification array is dynamically calculated with a defined threshold named T max that defines the allowed pool disk usage deviations. File classification is the basis of file migration. FPB also defines the Immigration Pool (IP) and Emigration Pool (EP) according to the pool disk usage and File Quantity Ratio (FQR) that indicates the percentage of each category of files in each disk pool, so files with higher FQR in an EP will be migrated to IP(s) with a lower FQR of this file category. To verify this algorithm, we implemented FPB on an ATLAS Tier2 dCache production system. The results show that FPB can achieve a very good balance in both free space and file counts, and adjusting the threshold value T max and the correction factor to the average FQR can achieve a tradeoff between free space and file count.

  6. Distributed Technologies in a Data Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, K.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; He, Y.; Regner, K.; Smith, M.

    2004-12-01

    A Data Pool is an on-line repository providing interactive and programmatic access to data products through a variety of services. The University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed and deployed such a Data Pool in conjunction with the DISCOVER project, a collaboration with NASA and Remote Sensing Systems. DISCOVER provides long-term ocean and climate data from a variety of passive microwave satellite instruments, including such products as sea-surface temperature and wind, air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, cloud water and rain rate. The Data Pool provides multiple methods to access and visualize these products, including conventional HTTP and FTP access, as well as data services that provide for enhanced usability and interoperability, such as GridFTP, OPeNDAP, OpenGIS-compliant web mapping and coverage services, and custom subsetting and packaging services. This paper will focus on the distributed service technologies used in the Data Pool, which spans heterogeneous machines at multiple locations. For example, in order to provide seamless access to data at multiple sites, the Data Pool provides catalog services for all data products at the various data server locations. Under development is an automated metadata generation tool that crawls the online data repositories regularly to dynamically update the Data Pool catalog with information about newly generated data files. For efficient handling of data orders across distributed repositories, the Data Pool also implements distributed data processing services on the file servers where the data resides. Ontologies are planned to support automated service chaining for custom user requests. The UAH Data Pool is based on a configurable technology framework that integrates distributed data services with a web interface and a set of centralized database services for catalogs and order tracking. While this instantiation of the Data Pool was implemented to meet the needs of the DISCOVER project, the framework was

  7. A Pool of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Anyone who has wondered what it might be like to dive into a pool of millions of distant galaxies of different shapes and colours, will enjoy the latest image released by ESO. Obtained in part with the Very Large Telescope, the image is the deepest ground-based U-band image of the Universe ever obtained. It contains more than 27 million pixels and is the result of 55 hours of observations with the VIMOS instrument. A Sea of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 39/08 A Pool of Distant Galaxies This uniquely beautiful patchwork image, with its myriad of brightly coloured galaxies, shows the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), arguably the most observed and best studied region in the entire sky. The CDF-S is one of the two regions selected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), an effort of the worldwide astronomical community that unites the deepest observations from ground- and space-based facilities at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio. Its primary purpose is to provide astronomers with the most sensitive census of the distant Universe to assist in their study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The new image released by ESO combines data obtained with the VIMOS instrument in the U- and R-bands, as well as data obtained in the B-band with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, in the framework of the GABODS survey. The newly released U-band image - the result of 40 hours of staring at the same region of the sky and just made ready by the GOODS team - is the deepest image ever taken from the ground in this wavelength domain. At these depths, the sky is almost completely covered by galaxies, each one, like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, home of hundreds of billions of stars. Galaxies were detected that are a billion times fainter than the unaided eye can see and over a range of colours not directly observable by the eye. This deep image has been essential to the discovery of a large number of new galaxies

  8. Modal analysis of pool door in water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Park, Chan Gook; Koo, In Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A pool door is installed at the chase of the pool gate by means of an overhead crane in the building of a research reactor. The principal function of the pool door, which is located between the reactor pool and service pool, is to separate the reactor pool from the service pool for the maintenance and/or the removal of the equipment either in the reactor pool or service pool. The pool door consists of stainless steel plates supported by structural steel frames and sealing components. The pool door is equipped with double inflatable gaskets. The configuration of the pool door is shown in Figure 1. The FEM analysis and theoretical calculation by the formula were performed to evaluate the natural frequency for the pool door in the water. The results from the two methods were compared.

  9. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  10. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  11. Genotyping common and rare variation using overlapping pool sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasaniuc Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies set the stage for large, population based studies, in which the ANA or RNA of thousands of individuals will be sequenced. Currently, however, such studies are still infeasible using a straightforward sequencing approach; as a result, recently a few multiplexing schemes have been suggested, in which a small number of ANA pools are sequenced, and the results are then deconvoluted using compressed sensing or similar approaches. These methods, however, are limited to the detection of rare variants. Results In this paper we provide a new algorithm for the deconvolution of DNA pools multiplexing schemes. The presented algorithm utilizes a likelihood model and linear programming. The approach allows for the addition of external data, particularly imputation data, resulting in a flexible environment that is suitable for different applications. Conclusions Particularly, we demonstrate that both low and high allele frequency SNPs can be accurately genotyped when the DNA pooling scheme is performed in conjunction with microarray genotyping and imputation. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of our framework for the detection of cancer fusion genes from RNA sequences.

  12. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  13. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  14. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  15. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  16. AE/VCE Unconfirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  17. AE/VCE Confirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  18. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  19. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant... part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7) That portion of...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the percentages in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of... plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order. [64 FR 47954, Sept. 1, 1999, as...

  1. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic pooling status under such other order. (h) Any...

  2. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  3. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  4. Energy Pooling Upconversion in Free Space and Optical Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCount, Michael D.

    energy pooling rate efficiency of 99%. This demonstrates that the energy pooling rate can be made faster than its competing processes. Based on the results of this study, a set of design rules was developed to optimize the rate efficiency of energy pooling. Prior to this research, no attempt had been made to determine if energy pooling could be made to out-pace competing processes--i.e. whether or not a molecular system could be designed to utilize energy pooling as an efficient means of upconversion. This initial investigation was part of a larger effort involving a team of researchers at the University of Colorado, Boulder and at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. After establishing our computational proof-of-concept, we collectively used the new design rules to select an improved system for energy pooling. This consisted of rhodamine 6G and stilbene-420. These molecules were fabricated into a thin film, and the maximum internal quantum yield was measured to be 36% under sufficiently high intensity light. To further increase the efficiency of energy pooling, encapsulation within optical cavities was considered as a way of changing the rate of processes characterized by electric dipole-dipole coupling. This was carried out using a combination of classical electromagnetism, quantum electrodynamics, and perturbation theory. It was found that, in the near field, if the distance of the energy transfer is smaller than the distance from the energy transfer site and the cavity wall, then the electric dipole-dipole coupling tensor is not influenced by the cavity environment and the rates of energy transfer processes are the same as those in free space. Any increase in energy transfer efficiencies that are experimentally measured must therefore be caused by changing the rate of light absorption and emission. This is an important finding because earlier, less rigorous studies had concluded otherwise. It has been previously demonstrated that an optical cavity can be used to

  5. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  6. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  7. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.

    1999-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  8. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  9. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  10. 78 FR 79436 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Resource Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... customers of electric utilities. The marketing criteria should include municipal corporations and political... Pool AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of final marketing criteria and... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), announces the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) post-2017...

  11. Characterization of phytase enzymes as feed additive for poultry and feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, M.; Al-Arif, A.; Asmarani, O.; Warsito, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    One of the obstacles to utilizing rice bran as feed is the presence of antinutrition in the form of phytic acid which binds in minerals to form complex compounds with P, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca. Phytic acid and its salts are the main forms of P, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca deposits contained in cereals, legume and grains, about 60-90% of total minerals P, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca in the form of phytic acid or phytate salts. Phytate is one of the enzymes belonging to the phosphatase group capable of hydrolyzing phytate compounds of myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6) hexsa phosphatase into myo-inositol and organic phosphat. The aim of this study was to obtain characterization of phytase enzymes from isolate Actinobacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus vallimortis and IBR-1. Determination of phytase activity and the absorbance was measured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 392 nm. The result of Actinobacillus sp, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus vallimortis, IBR-1 each having optimum temperature were 50°C, 40°C, 45°C, 45°C, and optimum pH were 4, 4, 5.5. Bacteria especially Actinobacillus sp, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus vallimortis, IBR-1 are proven capable of producing the high enough phytase enzymes required for mineral availability for livestock and fish.

  12. Behavioral metabolomics analysis identifies novel neurochemical signatures in methamphetamine sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Daniel E.; McClay, Joseph L.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Batman, Angela M.; Vann, Robert E.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Souza, Renan P.; Crowley, James J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Beardsley, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral sensitization has been widely studied in animal models and is theorized to reflect neural modifications associated with human psychostimulant addiction. While the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is known to play a role, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying behavioral sensitization remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we conducted the first metabolomics analysis to globally characterize neurochemical differences associated with behavioral sensitization. Methamphetamine-induced sensitization measures were generated by statistically modeling longitudinal activity data for eight inbred strains of mice. Subsequent to behavioral testing, nontargeted liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling was performed on 48 brain samples, yielding 301 metabolite levels per sample after quality control. Association testing between metabolite levels and three primary dimensions of behavioral sensitization (total distance, stereotypy and margin time) showed four robust, significant associations at a stringent metabolome-wide significance threshold (false discovery rate < 0.05). Results implicated homocarnosine, a dipeptide of GABA and histidine, in total distance sensitization, GABA metabolite 4-guanidinobutanoate and pantothenate in stereotypy sensitization, and myo-inositol in margin time sensitization. Secondary analyses indicated that these associations were independent of concurrent methamphetamine levels and, with the exception of the myo-inositol association, suggest a mechanism whereby strain-based genetic variation produces specific baseline neurochemical differences that substantially influence the magnitude of MA-induced sensitization. These findings demonstrate the utility of mouse metabolomics for identifying novel biomarkers, and developing more comprehensive neurochemical models, of psychostimulant sensitization. PMID:24034544

  13. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  14. Structure of pool in reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shigeki.

    1997-01-01

    Shielding walls made of iron-reinforced concrete having a metal liner including two body walls rigidly combined to the upper surface of a reactor container are disposed at least to one of an equipment pool or spent fuel storage pool in a reactor building. A rack for temporarily placing an upper lattice plate is detachably attached at least above one of a steam dryer or a gas/liquid separator temporarily placed in the temporary pool, and the height from the bottom portion to the upper end of the shielding wall is determined based on the height of an upper lattice plate temporary placed on the rack and the water depth required for shielding radiation from the upper lattice plate. An operator's exposure on the operation floor can be reduced by the shielding wall, and radiation dose from the spent fuels is reduced. The increase of the height of a pool guarder enhances bending resistance as a ceiling. In addition, the total height of them is made identical with the depth of the spent fuel storage pool thereby enabling to increase storage area for spent fuels. (N.H.)

  15. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  16. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases

  17. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan...

  18. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... is a strong oxidant it oxidizes the organic matter in the pool water and forms disinfection byproducts (DBPs). More than 100 different DBPs have been identified. Some of these have been found to be genotoxic and may pose an increased cancer risk for the bathers. The aim of this thesis was to give an overview...... of the strategies which can be used to achieve microbiological safe water with low levels of DBPs to ensure healthy environment for bathers. There are different approaches to achieve healthy environment in public swimming pools which in this thesis are divided into three strategies: alternatives to chlorination...

  19. Simulation of pool scrubbing experiments using BUSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehbi, A.; Guentay, S.

    1994-01-01

    BUSCA-PSI is a computer code which predicts the aerosol scrubbing taking place when gas bubbles containing fission products rise through stagnant pools of water after a postulated severe accident. A Lagrangian formulation is adopted to follow the path of a bubble as it rises toward the surface of the pool. The BUSCA model includes most aerosol removal mechanisms which are thought to be significant, namely: Jet Impaction at tile orifice, Convection/Diffusiophoresis during steam condensation, Thermophoresis, Sedimentation, Centrifugal Impaction during bubble rise, and Brownian Diffusion. The hydraulic modelling offers a variety of options for the initial globule volume, the stable bubble size, tile bubble rise velocity, and the bubble shape. The heat and mass transfer part of tile model uses correlations found in the relevant literature. BUSCA simulations were performed to determine the decontamination factor (DF) dependence on key aerosol and thermal hydraulic parameters. The decontamination factor increases with height, pool temperature subcooling, and steam content. The decontamination factor exhibits a parabolic dependence on the particle radius. At low particle sizes, the DF is high due to Brownian Diffusion which is the dominant removal mechanism. The DF hits a minimum and then increases with particle size as Centrifugal Impaction and Sedimentation become important. In separate calculations, BUSCA was used to the simulate the aerosol scrubbing experiments performed by EPRI. For cold pool tests, the predicted scrubbing efficiencies were in a good, conservative agreement with the data for both Tin and CsI, and the discrepancies were within the reported measurement errors. For hot pool tests, the code systematically underpredicted the scrubbing DF's; this is potentially due to condensation in the gas space above the pool, a situation not currently modelled by BUSCA. The code was also tested against data produced by the Tepco-Toshiba-Hitachi experiments. The

  20. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  1. One component, volume heated, boiling pool thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, M.; Perret, C.; Pretrel, H.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prior work on boiling pools provided heat exchange correlations valid for bubbly flow with laminar or turbulent boundary layers. New experiments performed with water (SEBULON) and UO 2 (SCARABEE BF2) in a churn-turbulent flow configuration show unexpected heat flux distributions for which the maximum heat flux may be situated well below the pool surface. The origin of this behaviour is attributed to condensation effects, very unstable boundary layer flow and surface oscillation. A calculation model is discussed which permits to approach the experimental heat flux distribution with reasonable accuracy. (authors). 7 figs., 2 appendix., 14 refs

  2. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, Pratap; Roelofs, Ferry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  3. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: pratap.sathiah78@gmail.com [Shell Global Solutions Ltd., Brabazon House, Concord Business Park, Threapwood Road, Manchester M220RR (United Kingdom); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor.

  4. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. SBA may adjust the Pool characteristics periodically based on program experience and market... a Pool involving a Pool Loan it does not own, it must purchase the Loan Interest it proposes to pool... purchase the Loan Interest and take it into inventory or settle the purchase of the Loan Interest through...

  5. Delineating probabilistic species pools in ecology and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Cord, Anna F; Kessler, Michael; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Pompe, Sven; Sandel, Brody; Sarmento Cabral, Juliano; Smith, Adam B; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Tuomisto, Hanna; Weigelt, Patrick; Wesche, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide a mechanistic and probabilistic framework for defining the species pool based on species-specific probabilities of dispersal, environmental suitability and biotic interactions within a specific temporal extent, and to show how probabilistic species pools can help disentangle the geographical structure of different community assembly processes. Innovation Probabilistic species pools provide an improved species pool definition based on probabilities in conjuncti...

  6. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  7. Public Swimming Pools | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illness Disease Reporting and Surveillance Bureau of Public Health Laboratories Environmental Health Air Air Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Indoor Air Quality Mold Radon Water Aquatic Toxins Beach Water Quality purification, testing, treatment, and disinfection procedures. To ensure that the pool technicians are

  8. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been...

  9. Stein's neuronal model with pooled renewal input

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajdl, K.; Lánský, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2015), s. 389-399 ISSN 0340-1200 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Stein’s model * Poisson process * pooled renewal processes * first-passage time Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2015

  10. Phase analysis in gated blood pool tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Taki, Junichi; Nanbu, Ichiro

    1984-01-01

    Phase analysis of gated blood pool study has been applied to detect the site of accessory conduction pathway (ACP) in the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome; however, there was a limitation to detect the precise location of ACP by phase analysis alone. In this study, we applied phase analysis to gated blood pool tomography using seven pin hole tomography (7PT) and gated emission computed tomography (GECT) in 21 patients with WPW syndrome and 3 normal subjects. In 17 patients, the sites of ACPs were confirmed by epicardial mapping and the result of the surgical division of ACP. In 7PT, the site of ACP grossly agreed to the abnormal initial phase in phase image in 5 out of 6 patients with left cardiac type. In GECT, phase images were generated in short axial, vertical and horizontal long axial sections. In 8 out of 9 patients, the site of ACP was correctly identified by phase images, and in a patient who had two ACPs, initial phase corresponded to one of the two locations. Phase analysis of gated blood pool tomography has advantages for avoiding overlap of blood pools and for estimating three-dimensional propagation of the contraction, and can be a good adjunctive method in patients with WPW syndrome. (author)

  11. Swimming-pool piles; Piles piscines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trioulaire, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10{sup 13}. This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [French] En France, deux piles piscines, Melusine et Triton, viennent d'entrer en service. La pile piscine est l'outil de recherche ideal pour des flux de neutrons de l'ordre de 10{sup 13}. Ce type de pile peut interesser des maintenant de nombreux centres de recherches mais il faut reduire son prix de revient et rompre avec le conformisme de sa conception. Il y a avantage: - a enterrer la piscine; - a supprimer les canaux experimentaux; - a concentrer le circuit de refrigeration dans la piscine; - a effectuer toutes les manipulations dans l'eau; - a doubler le coeur. (auteur)

  12. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess...

  13. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  14. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  15. DNA pooling strategies for categorical (ordinal) traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite reduced genotyping costs in recent years, obtaining genotypes for all individuals in a population may still not be feasible when sample size is large. DNA pooling provides a useful alternative to determining genotype effects. Clustering algorithms allow for grouping of individuals (observati...

  16. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  17. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  18. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association and it fulfills the following conditions: (1) The aggregate monthly quantity supplied by all... or aseptically-processed fluid milk products. (c) A supply plant from which the quantity of bulk... operator of a supply plant located within the marketing area may include deliveries to pool distributing...

  19. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  20. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  1. Generalizing Pooling Functions in CNNs: Mixed, Gated, and Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Gallagher, Patrick; Tu, Zhuowen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we seek to improve deep neural networks by generalizing the pooling operations that play a central role in the current architectures. We pursue a careful exploration of approaches to allow pooling to learn and to adapt to complex and variable patterns. The two primary directions lie in: (1) learning a pooling function via (two strategies of) combining of max and average pooling, and (2) learning a pooling function in the form of a tree-structured fusion of pooling filters that are themselves learned. In our experiments every generalized pooling operation we explore improves performance when used in place of average or max pooling. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed pooling operations provide a boost in invariance properties relative to conventional pooling and set the state of the art on several widely adopted benchmark datasets. These benefits come with only a light increase in computational overhead during training (ranging from additional 5 to 15 percent in time complexity) and a very modest increase in the number of model parameters (e.g., additional 1, 9, and 27 parameters for mixed, gated, and 2-level tree pooling operators, respectively). To gain more insights about our proposed pooling methods, we also visualize the learned pooling masks and the embeddings of the internal feature responses for different pooling operations. Our proposed pooling operations are easy to implement and can be applied within various deep neural network architectures.

  2. Power Pool of Alberta annual report 2000 : building a market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    As of January 1, 2001, deregulation of the electricity market in Alberta became a reality, and was accompanied by steady growth in demand for electricity combined with other factors that pushed the price of electricity upward. The Power Pool of Alberta ensures that market operations are open and fair. Its mandate, under the Electric Utilities Act, is the overall market surveillance in Alberta's electric industry. It is accomplished by working closely with industry and seeking feedback through four standing committees: Human Resources, Operations, Finance and Audit, and Balancing Pool. The goal for the coming years is to build confidence in the market, whereby consumers are confident about the fairness of the market price for electricity in Alberta, the choices available, and the continued reliability of the electric system in Alberta. The Energy Trading System was explained with information about system control and customer service, and details provided on the consultation and collaboration processes. The financial analysis of the year 2000 was provided, as well as a statement of operation, a balance sheet, and a statement of cash flows. tabs., figs

  3. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Gregorash, D.; Aeschlimann, R.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO 2 , 16% ZrO 2 , and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m 2 and 3.7 MW/m 2 , respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  4. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  5. Observations of Cold Pool Properties during GoAmazon2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, S. L.; Schumacher, C.; MacDonald, L.; Turner, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Convectively generated cold pools are instrumental in both the development of the sub-cloud layer and the organization of deep convection. Despite this, analyses of cold pools in the tropics are constrained by a lack of observational data; insight into the phenomena therefore relies heavily on numerical models. GoAmazon2014/5, a 2-year DOE-sponsored field campaign centered on Manacapuru, Brazil in the central Amazon, provides a unique opportunity to characterize tropical cold pools and allows for the comparison of observational data with theoretical results from model cold pool simulations and parameterizations. This investigation analyzes radar, disdrometer, and profiler measurements at the DOE mobile facility site to study tropical cold pool characteristics. The Brazilian military (SIPAM) operational S-band radar in Manaus is used to provide a broad context of convective systems, while measurements from Parsivel disdrometers are used to assess drop-size distributions (DSDs) at the surface. A unique aspect of this research is the use of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) instrument, which utilizes down-welling IR measurements to obtain vertical profiles of thermodynamic quantities such as temperature and water vapor in the lowest few km of the atmosphere. Combined with surface observations and sounding data, these datasets will result in a thorough investigation of the horizontal and vertical characteristics of cold pools over the tropical rain forest. Preliminary analyses of 20 events reveal a mean cold pool height of 220 m and a mean radius of approximately 8.5 km. The average cold pool experienced a temperature (specific humidity) decrease of approximately 1 K (0.4 g/kg) at the surface. The temperature decrease is consistent with modeling studies and limited observations from previous studies over the tropics. The small decrease in specific humidity is attributed to the high moisture content within the cold pools. AERI retrievals of

  6. Urea utilization in growing lambs. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization quota of NPN and pure feed protein for body protein synthesis was calculated on the basis of N balance experiments with 15 N-labelled urea with the help of model concepts of a 3-pool model and its mathematical usage. In lambs weighing 13 kg the efficiency of amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-amino acid N pool was 64%. This results in a total utilization quota for NPN and pure protein in the ration of 40% and 60%, resp. Lambs weighing 27 kg showed an efficiency in amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-AA N pool of 77% and in the AA N pool of 60%. The total utilization quota of NPN was 47% and that of pure protein 56%. The pure protein in the ration was thus about twice as well utilized for total protein synthesis and for protein syntesis for crude protein retention as the NPN compounds in the ration. (author)

  7. Pool boiling from rotating and stationary spheres in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuan, Winston M.; Schwartz, Sidney H.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for a preliminary experiment involving saturated pool boiling at 1 atm from rotating 2 and 3 in. diameter spheres which were immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Additional results are presented for a stationary, 2 inch diameter sphere, quenched in LN2, which were obtained utilizing a more versatile and complete experimental apparatus that will eventually be used for additional rotating sphere experiments. The speed for the rotational tests was varied from 0 to 10,000 rpm. The stationary experiments parametrically varied pressure and subcooling levels from 0 to 600 psig and from 0 to 50 F, respectively. During the rotational tests, a high speed photographic analysis was undertaken to measure the thickness of the vapor film surrounding the sphere. The average Nusselt number over the cooling period was plotted against the rotational Reynolds number. Stationary sphere results included local boiling heat transfer coefficients at different latitudinal locations, for various pressure and subcooling levels.

  8. Presentation of a calorigenic swimming-pool reactor and study of its use for urban heating, desalination of water, and other industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, B.

    The design characteristics of the heat-producing swimming pool reactor are discussed together with economic and technical considerations related to its utilization in the areas of district heating, process heat production, and desalination

  9. Keyhole behavior and liquid flow in molten pool during laser-arc hybrid welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuaki; Katayama, Seiji; Matsunawa, Akira

    2003-03-01

    Hybrid welding was carried out on Type 304 stainless steel plate under various conditions using YAG laser combined with TIG arc. During arc and laser-arc hybrid welding, arc voltage variation was measured, and arc plasma, laser-induced plume and evaporation spots as well as keyhole behavior and liquid flow in the molten pool were observed through CCD camera and X-ray real-time transmission apparatus. It was consequently found that hybrid welding possessed many features in comparison with YAG laser welding. The deepest weld bead could be produced when the YAG laser beam of high power density was shot on the molten pool made beforehand stably with TIG arc. A keyhole was long and narrow, and its behavior was rather stable inside the molten pool. It was also confirmed that porosity was reduced by the suppression of bubble formation in hybrid welding utilizing a laser of a moderate power density.

  10. Optimization of heat pump system in indoor swimming pool using particle swarm algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wen-Shing; Kung, Chung-Kuan [Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei (China)

    2008-09-15

    When it comes to indoor swimming pool facilities, a large amount of energy is required to heat up low-temperature outdoor air before it is being introduced indoors to maintain indoor humidity. Since water is evaporated from the pool surface, the exhausted air contains more water and specific enthalpy. In response to this indoor air, heat pump is generally used in heat recovery for indoor swimming pools. To reduce the cost in energy consumption, this paper utilizes particle swarm algorithm to optimize the design of heat pump system. The optimized parameters include continuous parameters and discrete parameters. The former consists of outdoor air mass flow and heat conductance of heat exchangers; the latter comprises compressor type and boiler type. In a case study, life cycle energy cost is considered as an objective function. In this regard, the optimized outdoor air flow and the optimized design for heating system can be deduced by using particle swarm algorithm. (author)

  11. Horizontal above-rack pool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, R.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes a unique method for storing spent, six year out of core, fuel at a prototypical PWR nuclear power station. The study describes a conceptual design, with favorable structural, thermal and criticality technical evaluations. However, economic considerations and licensing risks are judged to be less favorable. The concept study prescribes a fuel over fuel arrangement in an existing Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) with full maintenance of ALARA principles. This concept study is specific to a prototypical pool design, but may easily be projected to other nuclear facilities with other SFP conditions. For the prototypical PWR, the conceptual fuel bridge design will store over 200 additional fuel assemblies without significant facility modifications and for an indefinite time period

  12. Sodium pool fire model for CONACS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The modeling of sodium pool fires constitutes an important ingredient in conducting LMFBR accident analysis. Such modeling capability has recently come under scrutiny at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) within the context of developing CONACS, the Containment Analysis Code System. One of the efforts in the CONACS program is to model various combustion processes anticipated to occur during postulated accident paths. This effort includes the selection or modification of an existing model and development of a new model if it clearly contributes to the program purpose. As part of this effort, a new sodium pool fire model has been developed that is directed at removing some of the deficiencies in the existing models, such as SOFIRE-II and FEUNA

  13. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  14. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC andBUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B.As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have beenassessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified.(Author) 73 refs

  15. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs

  16. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-07-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  17. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...... represents the clearing of the market and the second stage models the system operation under a number of plausible wind production realizations. This formulation co-optimizes energy and reserve, and allows deriving both pool energy prices and balancing energy prices. These prices result in both cost recovery...... for producers and revenue reconciliation. A case study of realistic size is used to illustrate the functioning of the proposed pricing scheme....

  18. Pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.

    1978-08-01

    Various technical aspects of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), specifically pool type LMFBR's, are summarized. The information presented, for the most part, draws upon existing data. Special sections are devoted to design, technical feasibility (normal operating conditions), and safety (accident conditions). A survey of world fast reactors is presented in tabular form, as are two sets of reference reactor parameters based on available data from present and conceptual LMFBR's. (auth)

  19. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  20. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  1. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  2. Gene pool conservation of teak in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Tun

    1995-01-01

    Myanmar with an area of 261, 228 Sq. miles is endowed with various types of forests which occupied nearly 50% of the country. Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) is one of the most valuable timber species for its excellent wood quality and properties which are not observed with other timbers. Gene pool can be defined as a group of individual trees growing over a wide range of environmental conditions, and constituting different genetic complexes which can be transmitted to the offsprings. Topics such as: objectives of gene pool conservation, genetically improved seeds for large scale forest plantations, methodology of conservation, are discussed in the article. Myanmar teak dominates the world's teak market, and thus it is crucial to maintain the superiority in the conservation of gene complexes of teak. To some extent, the conservation of gene pools of teak and tree improvements are being undertaken by the Forest Research Institute of Myanmar. It is felt that the dissemination of the philosophy and concept of gene conservation to the personal involved in the forestry activities of the country are still inadequate

  3. Analytical real-time measurement of a three-dimensional weld pool surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, WeiJie; Zhang, YuMing; Wang, XueWu

    2013-01-01

    The ability to observe and measure weld pool surfaces in real-time is the core of the foundation for next generation intelligent welding that can partially imitate skilled welders who observe the weld pool to acquire information on the welding process. This study aims at the real-time measurement of the specular three-dimensional (3D) weld pool surface under a strong arc in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). An innovative vision system is utilized in this study to project a dot-matrix laser pattern on the specular weld pool surface. Its reflection from the surface is intercepted at a distance from the arc by a diffuse plane. The intercepted laser dots illuminate this plane producing an image showing the reflection pattern. The deformation of this reflection pattern from the projected pattern (e.g. the dot matrix) is used to derive the 3D shape of the reflection surface, i.e., the weld pool surface. Based on careful analysis, the underlying reconstruction problem is formulated mathematically. An analytic solution is proposed to solve this formulated problem resulting in the weld pool surface being reconstructed on average in 3.04 ms during welding experiments. A vision-based monitoring system is thus established to measure the weld pool surface in GTAW in real-time. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, first numerical simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is then tested on a spherical convex mirror with a priori knowledge of its geometry. The detailed analysis of the measurement error validates the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results from the real-time experiments verify the robustness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm. (paper)

  4. Development of INSPCT-S for inspection of spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.; Haghighat, A. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Sitaraman, S.; Ham, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss an accurate and fast software tool (INSPCT-S, Inspection of Nuclear Spent fuel-Pool Calculation Tool, version Spreadsheet) developed for calculation of the response of fission chambers placed in a spent fuel pool, such as Atucha-I. INSPCT-S is developed for identification of suspicious regions of the pool that may have missing or substitute assemblies. INSPCT-S uses a hybrid algorithm based on the adjoint function methodology. The neutron source is comprised of spontaneous fission, ({alpha}, n) interactions, and subcritical multiplication. The former is evaluated using the ORIGEN-ARP code, and the latter is obtained with the fission matrix (FM) formulation. The FM coefficients are determined using the MCNP Monte Carlo code, and the importance function is determined using the PENTRAN 3-D parallel Sn code. Three databases for the neutron source, FM elements, and adjoint flux are prepared as functions of different parameters including burnup, cooling time, enrichment, and pool lattice size. INSPCT-S uses the aforementioned databases and systems of equations to calculate detector responses, which are subsequently compared with normalized experimental data. If this comparison is not satisfied, INSPCT-S utilizes color coding to identify the suspicious regions of a spent fuel pool. (authors)

  5. An accurate clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Cao, Changchang; Tu, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-07-08

    Chromosome-long haplotyping of human genomes is important to identify genetic variants with differing gene expression, in human evolution studies, clinical diagnosis, and other biological and medical fields. Although several methods have realized haplotyping based on sequencing technologies or population statistics, accuracy and cost are factors that prohibit their wide use. Borrowing ideas from group testing theories, we proposed a clone-based haplotyping method by overlapping pool sequencing. The clones from a single individual were pooled combinatorially and then sequenced. According to the distinct pooling pattern for each clone in the overlapping pool sequencing, alleles for the recovered variants could be assigned to their original clones precisely. Subsequently, the clone sequences could be reconstructed by linking these alleles accordingly and assembling them into haplotypes with high accuracy. To verify the utility of our method, we constructed 130 110 clones in silico for the individual NA12878 and simulated the pooling and sequencing process. Ultimately, 99.9% of variants on chromosome 1 that were covered by clones from both parental chromosomes were recovered correctly, and 112 haplotype contigs were assembled with an N50 length of 3.4 Mb and no switch errors. A comparison with current clone-based haplotyping methods indicated our method was more accurate. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  7. Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Home Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... included below. Infections Unlikely to be Spread by Swimming Pools Head Lice Head lice are unlikely to ...

  8. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  9. Analysis of sodium pool fire in SFEF for assessing the limiting pool fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Ramesh, S.S.; Nashine, B.K.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.

    2011-01-01

    Accidental sodium leaks and resultant sodium fires in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems can create a threat to the safe operation of the plant. To avoid this defence-in depth approach is implemented from the design stage of reactor itself. Rapid detection of sodium leak and fast dumping of the sodium into the storage tank of a defective circuit, leak collection trays, adequate lining of load bearing structural concrete and extinguishment of the sodium fire are the important defensive measures in the design, construction and operation of a LMFBR for protection against sodium leaks and their resultant fires. Evaluation of sodium leak events and their consequences by conducting large scale engineering experiments is very essential for effective implementation of the above protection measures for sodium fire safety. For this purpose a Sodium Fire Experimental Facility (SFEF) is constructed at SED, IGCAR. SFEF is having an experimental hall of size 9 m x 6 m x 10 m with 540 m 3 volume and its design pressure is 50 kPa. It is a concrete structure and provided with SS 304 liner, which is fixed to the inside surfaces of walls, ceiling and floor. A leak tight door of size (1.8 m x 2.0 m) is provided to the experimental hall and the facility is provided with a sodium equipment hall and a control room. Experimental evaluation of sodium pool fire consequences is an important activity in the LMFBR sodium fire safety related studies. An experimental program has been planned for different types of sodium fire studies in SFEF. A prior to that numerical analysis have been carried out for enclosed sodium pool fires using SOFIRE-II sodium pool fire code for SFEF experimental hall configuration to evaluate the limiting pool fire. This paper brings out results of the analysis carried out for this purpose. Limiting pool fire of SFEF depends on the exposed surface area of the pool, amount of sodium in the pool, oxygen concentration and initial sodium temperature. Limiting

  10. (Important hygienic aspects for swimming pools (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somosi, G

    1981-01-01

    The major epidemics which occurred in Hungary and originated from water in swimming pools are reported. The difficulties encountered in producing epidemiological evidence and in monitoring infections originating from water in swimming pools are mentioned. The possibilities of controlling the water quality in swimming pools and of preventing infections are discussed. Reference is made to the existing bacteriological limit values in Hungary to be observed in the recirculation of water in swimming pools.

  11. Utilization of glutamate/creatine ratios for proton spectroscopic diagnosis of meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazany, Saman; Hesselink, John R.; Healy, John F.; Imbesi, Steven G.

    2007-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the potential of metabolites other than alanine to diagnose intracranial meningiomas on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Using a 1.5-T MR system the lesions were initially identified on FLAIR, and T1- and T2-weighted images. Employing standard point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) for single voxel proton MRS (TR 1500 ms, TE 30 ms, 128 acquisitions, voxel size 2 x 2 x 2 cm, acquisition time 3.12 min), MR spectra were obtained from 5 patients with meningiomas, from 20 with other intracranial lesions, and from 4 normal controls. Peak heights of nine resonances, including lipid, lactate, alanine, NAA (N-acetylaspartate), β/γ-Glx (glutamate + glutamine), creatine, choline, myo-inositol, and α-Glx/glutathione, were measured in all spectra. The relative quantity of each metabolite was measured as the ratio of its peak height to the peak height of creatine. Relative quantities of α-Glx/glutathione, β/γ-Glx, and total Glx/glutathione were significantly elevated in meningiomas compared to the 20 other intracranial lesions and the normal control brains. Alanine was found in four of five meningiomas, but lactate partially masked the alanine in three meningiomas. None of the other lesions or control brains showed an alanine peak. The one meningioma with no alanine and the three others with lactate had elevated Glx. While alanine is a relatively unique marker for meningioma, our results support the hypothesis that the combination of glutamate/creatine ratios and alanine on proton MRS is more specific and reliable for the diagnosis of meningiomas than alanine alone. (orig.)

  12. Utilization of glutamate/creatine ratios for proton spectroscopic diagnosis of meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazany, Saman [University of California, School of Medicine, San Diego, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R.; Healy, John F.; Imbesi, Steven G. [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Our purpose was to determine the potential of metabolites other than alanine to diagnose intracranial meningiomas on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Using a 1.5-T MR system the lesions were initially identified on FLAIR, and T1- and T2-weighted images. Employing standard point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) for single voxel proton MRS (TR 1500 ms, TE 30 ms, 128 acquisitions, voxel size 2 x 2 x 2 cm, acquisition time 3.12 min), MR spectra were obtained from 5 patients with meningiomas, from 20 with other intracranial lesions, and from 4 normal controls. Peak heights of nine resonances, including lipid, lactate, alanine, NAA (N-acetylaspartate), {beta}/{gamma}-Glx (glutamate + glutamine), creatine, choline, myo-inositol, and {alpha}-Glx/glutathione, were measured in all spectra. The relative quantity of each metabolite was measured as the ratio of its peak height to the peak height of creatine. Relative quantities of {alpha}-Glx/glutathione, {beta}/{gamma}-Glx, and total Glx/glutathione were significantly elevated in meningiomas compared to the 20 other intracranial lesions and the normal control brains. Alanine was found in four of five meningiomas, but lactate partially masked the alanine in three meningiomas. None of the other lesions or control brains showed an alanine peak. The one meningioma with no alanine and the three others with lactate had elevated Glx. While alanine is a relatively unique marker for meningioma, our results support the hypothesis that the combination of glutamate/creatine ratios and alanine on proton MRS is more specific and reliable for the diagnosis of meningiomas than alanine alone. (orig.)

  13. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  14. A skeleton for distributed work pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  15. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes...

  16. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the financial statements are not required to include consolidated information for all series. (7) For... event that the International Financial Reporting Standards require consolidated financial statements for... reporting pool's consolidated financial statements. (ii) The commodity pool operator of a pool that meets...

  17. 48 CFR 873.114 - Best value pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Best value pool. 873.114... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.114 Best value pool... solicitation. These vendors constitute the best value pool. This determination is within the sole discretion of...

  18. Measurements in large JP-4 pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.; Schneider, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past four years, Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a number of large pool fire tests to evaluate the design of radioactive material (RAM) shipping containers. Some of these tests have been designed to define the thermal environment and some have been used for certification testing. In each test there have been a number of fire diagnostic measurements. The simplest sets of diagnostics have involved measurements of temperature at several elevations on arrays of towers, measurements of hot wall heat flux with small calorimeters suspended from the towers, the average fuel recession rate, and the wind speed and direction. The most complex sets of diagnostics have included the above and in various tests added radiometers in the lower flame zone, centerline velocity measurements at a number of elevations, radiometers and calorimeters at the fuel surface, large cylindrical and flat plate calorimeters, infrared imaging, time resolved fuel recession rates, and a variety of soot particle concentration and size measurements made in the plume with a tethered balloon and an instrumented airplane. All of the large fires have been conducted in a 9.1 m by 18.3 m pool using JP-4 as the fuel. Typical duration is one-half hour. Covering all of the results is beyond the scope of a single paper. Conditionally sampled temperature and velocity measurements from one fire will be presented; for this fire, a 20 cm layer of fuel was floated on 61 cm of water. Pool surface heat flux, fuel recession rate data, and smoke emission data from a second fire are given. Because the wind has a strong effect on the temperature and velocity measurements, conditional sampling has been used to try to obtain data during periods of low winds. 10 refs., 3 figs

  19. Gated cardiac blood pool studies in arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Casset, D.; Philippe, L.; Cosnay, P.; Fauchier, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Biventricular phase analysis a gated blood pool studies may help to solve two fundamental questions raised by patients suffering from arrhythmias: localization of an electrical cardiac activation abnormality by means of contraction mapping and assesment of an underlying organic disease using the phase histograms and their standard deviations. Three groups of patients have been evaluated to demonstrate the usefulness of radioisotopic techniques in arrhythmias: 36 patients with a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrom, 27 patients studied during a ventricular tachycardia attack and 32 patients suspected of arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia. Correlations with invasive electrophysiologic studies are presented and the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these results are discussed [fr

  20. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  1. Simulation of a pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Andre Felipe da Silva de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic is used to simulate natural circulation condition after a research reactor shutdown. A benchmark problem was used to test the viability of usage such code to simulate the reactor model. A model which contains the core, the pool, the reflector tank, the circulation pipes and chimney was simulated. The reactor core contained in the full scale model was represented by a porous media. The parameters of porous media were obtained from a separate CFD analysis of the full core model. Results demonstrate that such studies can be carried out for research and test of reactors design. (author)

  2. Gated cardiac blood pool studies in arrhythmias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itti, R.; Casset, D.; Philippe, L.; Cosnay, P.; Fauchier, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Biventricular phase analysis a gated blood pool studies may help to solve two fundamental questions raised by patients suffering from arrhythmias: localization of an electrical cardiac activation abnormality by means of contraction mapping and assesment of an underlying organic disease using the phase histograms and their standard deviations. Three groups of patients have been evaluated to demonstrate the usefulness of radioisotopic techniques in arrhythmias: 36 patients with a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrom, 27 patients studied during a ventricular tachycardia attack and 32 patients suspected of arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia. Correlations with invasive electrophysiologic studies are presented and the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these results are discussed.

  3. Pool film boiling heat transfer, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, A.; Shiotsu, M.; Hata, K.

    1981-01-01

    Steady minimum film boiling heat flux and temperature were experimentally studied for a horizontal cylinder test heater in a pool of saturated water under pressures ranging from 0.1 to 2 MPa. Minimum temperature of film boiling may be determined by hydrodynamic Taylor instability for the pressures lower than around 1.0 MPa and by homogeneous nucleation temperature for the higher pressures. However, conventional correlations of minimum heat flux based on the hydrodynamic Taylor instability cannot at all predict the pressure dependency of the experimental data in the lower pressure region. Semi-empirical equation of the minimum heat flux based on the hydrodynamic Taylor instability was given. (author)

  4. Swimming pool reactor reliability and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaohuan

    1997-01-01

    A reliability and safety analysis of Swimming Pool Reactor in China Institute of Atomic Energy is done by use of event/fault tree technique. The paper briefly describes the analysis model, analysis code and main results. Meanwhile it also describes the impact of unassigned operation status on safety, the estimation of effectiveness of defense tactics in maintenance against common cause failure, the effectiveness of recovering actions on the system reliability, the comparison of occurrence frequencies of the core damage by use of generic and specific data

  5. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  6. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  7. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  8. An overview of the metabolic differences between Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110 bacteria and differentiated bacteroids from soybean (Glycine max) root nodules: an in vitro 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclare, Pierre; Bligny, Richard; Gout, Elisabeth; Widmer, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that induce root nodules formation in legume soybean (Glycine max.). Using 13 C- and 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have analysed the metabolite profiles of cultivated B. japonicum cells and bacteroids isolated from soybean nodules. Our results revealed some quantitative and qualitative differences between the metabolite profiles of bacteroids and their vegetative state. This includes in bacteroids a huge accumulation of soluble carbohydrates such as trehalose, glutamate, myo-inositol and homo-spermidine as well as Pi, nucleotide pools and intermediates of the primary carbon metabolism. Using this novel approach, these data show that most of the compounds detected in bacteroids reflect the metabolic adaptation of rhizobia to the surrounding microenvironment with its host plant cells. (authors)

  9. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  10. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  11. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  12. Study of mixed convection in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhou; Chen Yan

    1995-01-01

    The mixed convection phenomena in the sodium pool of fast reactor have been studied systematically by the two dimensional modeling method. A generalized concept of circumferential line in the cylindrical coordinates was proposed to overcome the three dimensional effect induced by the pool geometry in an analysis of two dimensional modeling. A method of sub-step in time was developed for solving the turbulent equations. The treatments on the boundary condition for the auxiliary velocity field have been proposed, and the explanation of allowing the flow function method to be used in the flow field in presence of a mass source term was given. As examples of verification, the experiments were conducted with water flow in a rectangular cavity. The results from theoretical analysis were applied to the numerical computation for the mixed convection in the cavity. The mechanism of stratified flow in the cavity was studied. A numerical calculation was carried out for the mixed convection in hot plenum of a typical fast reactor

  13. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  14. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  15. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Kazumi; Nagata, Izumi; Sueki, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m 2 /day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m 2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m 2 /day. • More than 500 Bq/m 2 /day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  16. Plant diversity associated with pools in natural and restored peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fontaine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes plant assemblages associated with the edges of peatland pools. We conducted inventories in six natural peatlands in the province of Québec (Canada in order to measure the contribution of pools to species diversity in climatic regions where peatlands are used for peat extraction. We also carried out vegetation surveys in a peatland that has been restored after peat extraction/harvesting to determine whether pool vegetation establishes along the edges of created pools when dry surface restoration techniques only are used. Pools enhanced plant species richness in natural peatlands. Around created pools, species associated with natural pools were still absent, and non-bog species were present, six years after restoration. On this basis, we emphasise the importance of preserving natural peatlands with pools. In order to restore fully the plant diversity associated with peatlands at harvested sites, it may be necessary to modify pool excavation techniques so that created pools resemble more closely those in natural peatlands. Active introduction of the plant species or communities associated with natural pools may also be needed; candidate species for North America include Andromeda glaucophylla, Cladopodiella fluitans, Carex limosa, Eriophorum virginicum, Rhynchospora alba and Sphagnum cuspidatum.

  17. Life cycle environmental implications of residential swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Nigel; Williams, Eric

    2010-07-15

    Ownership of private swimming pools in the U.S. grew 2 to 4% per annum from 1997 to 2007. The environmental implications of pool ownership are analyzed by hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) for nine U.S. cities. An operational model is constructed estimating consumption of chemicals, water, and energy for a typical residential pool. The model incorporates geographical climatic variations and upstream water and energy use from electricity and water supply networks. Results vary considerably by city: a factor of 5-6 for both water and energy use. Water use is driven by aridness and length of the swimming season, while energy use is mainly driven by length of the swimming season. Water and energy impacts of pools are significant, particularly in arid climates. In Phoenix for example pools account for 22% and 13% of a household's electricity and water use, respectively. Measures to reduce water and energy use in pools such as optimizing the pump schedule and covering the pool in winter can realize greater savings than many common household efficiency improvements. Private versus community pools are also compared. Community pools in Phoenix use 60% less swimming pool water and energy per household than subdivisions without community pools.

  18. Reduction of the pool-top radiation level in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Heonil; Park, Yong-Chul; Choi, Young-San

    1999-01-01

    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor. Pool water is the only shielding to minimize the pool top radiation level. During the power ascension test of HANARO, the measured pool top radiation level was higher than the design value because some of the activation products in the coolant reached the pool surface. In order to suppress this rising coolant, the hot water layer system (HWL) was designed and installed to maintain l.2 meter-deep hot water layer whose temperature is 5degC higher than that of the underneath pool surface. After the installation of the HWL system, however, the radiation level of the pool-top did not satisfy the design value. The operation modes of the hot water layer system and the other systems in the reactor pool, which had an effect on the formation of the hot water layer, were changed to reduce pool-top radiation level. After the above efforts, the temperature and the radioactivity distribution in the pool was measured to confirm whether this system blocked the rising coolant. The radiation level at the pool-top was significantly reduced below one tenth of that before installing the HWL and satisfied the design value. It was also confirmed by calculation that this hot water layer system would significantly reduce the release of fission gases to the reactor hall and the environment during the hypothetical accident as well. (author)

  19. Design of inventory pools in spare part support operation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Daniel Y.; Tseng, Mitchell M.; Cheung, Raymond K.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of a spare part support operation is to fulfill the part request order with different service contracts in the agreed response time. With this objective to achieve different service targets for multiple service contracts and the considerations of inventory investment, it is not only important to determine the inventory policy but also to design the structure of inventory pools and the order fulfilment strategies. In this research, we focused on two types of inventory pools: multiple inventory pool (MIP) and consolidated inventory pool (CIP). The idea of MIP is to maintain separated inventory pools based on the types of service contract, while CIP solely maintains a single inventory pool regardless of service contract. Our research aims to design the inventory pool analytically and propose reserve strategies to manage the order fulfilment risks in CIP. Mathematical models and simulation experiments would be applied for analysis and evaluation.

  20. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel in water pool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    Storage of irradiated nuclear fuel in water pools (basins) has been standard practice since nuclear reactors first began operation approximately 34 years ago. Pool storage is the starting point for all other fuel storage candidate processes and is a candidate for extended interim fuel storage until policy questions regarding reprocessing and ultimate disposal have been resolved. This report assesses the current performance of nuclear fuel in pool storage, the range of storage conditions, and the prospects for extending residence times. The assessment is based on visits to five U.S. and Canadian fuel storage sites, representing nine storage pools, and on discussions with operators of an additional 21 storage pools. Spent fuel storage experience from British pools at Winfrith and Windscale and from a German pool at Karlsruhe (WAK) also is summarized

  1. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts

  2. Decontamination of outdoor school swimming pools in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake, many school swimming pools in Fukushima have suspended water discharge, due to concerns that pool water which contains radioactive fallout is discharged into a river or waterway for agricultural use. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted researches and examinations on the existing absorbent method and the flocculation method as ways for decontaminating pool water. By reviewing and improving these methods through decontamination demonstrations at eight pools in Fukushima, a practical decontamination method for outdoor pools has been established. This report summarizes the methods and results of the decontamination demonstrations carried out at the schools. Also, the surface density of fallout estimated at one of the pools is also presented and discussed in connection with the overall collection ratio of radiocesium at the pool. (author)

  3. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  4. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnes, E.M.; Vaahedi, E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures to improve cooperation, a questionnaire was sent to electric utilities and other interested parties on the present extent and future possibilities for inter-utility cooperation. The questionnaire and its results are presented. It was found that there already exists a significant amount of inter-utility cooperation in Canada. Such cooperation generally involves interchanges of economy energy, non-economic capacity and energy, coordinated operation, resource sharing, maintenance scheduling, emergency supports, etc. There is a very limited degree of integrated generation expansion planning. Typically, these agreements are carried out under interconnection agreements negotiated on a bi-lateral basis. The highest current degree of cooperation exists under the auspices of the Alberta interconnected power system pool. Wheeling is limited and generally restricted to cases where the sender and receiver are the same entity or where power is wheeled to a utility purchasing it from the wheeler's system. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  6. Technical specification for fabrication of HANARO pool cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Woo, Sang Ik

    2001-06-01

    This technical specification details the requirements and the acceptance criteria for design, seismic analysis, function test, installation and quality assurance for HANARO pool cover which will be installed at the top of reactor pool. The pool cover is classified as non-nuclear safety, seismic category II and quality class T. The basic design of the pool cover for increasing HANARO applications has been carried out for supporting the driving devices which can load, unload and rotate the irradiation targets in the in-core and out-core vertical irradiation holes under on-power operation. The comments of HANARO user group related with irradiation tests have optimally considered in the process of design. The interference between fuel handling and control absorber units in the reactor pool and activities to load, unload and rotate the irradiation targets at the top of the reactor pool have been minimized. The pool cover can be moved for maintenance and can protect the reactor pool from unexpected drop of foreign materials. It provides the space to vertical access of driving devices for NTD, CT/IR and OR4/OR5 under on-power operation. And the pool cover assembly must maintain its structural integrity under seismic load. Based on the above design concept, the HANARO pool cover has been proposed as supporting structure of driving devices for NTD, fission moly and RI production under on-power operation.

  7. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  8. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  9. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  10. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  11. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  12. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M. Sam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect

  13. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  14. Inositol metabolism in WRK-1 cells. Relationship of hormone-sensitive to -insensitive pools of phosphoinositides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated the existence of two separate pools of phosphoinositides in WRK-1 cells; one is labile and hormone-sensitive with respect to turnover, while the other is stable. Hormonal stimulation results in a rapid increase in 32 Pi incorporation into the sensitive pool, while in the absence of hormone, incorporation of 32 Pi into this pool is slow. Results are quite different when [ 3 H]inositol is the precursor utilized. Incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into hormone-sensitive phosphoinositides is not stimulated in the presence of hormone, suggesting entry of this exogenous precursor into the cycle by a route other than the resynthetic phase of the cycle. Furthermore, failure of hormone to induce loss of [ 3 H]phosphoinositide in pulse-chase experiments in the absence of lithium suggests reutilization of the [ 3 H]inositol moiety generated by phosphodiesteratic cleavage of hormone-sensitive phosphoinositide. Time course studies indicate that the relative rates of incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into sensitive and insensitive phosphoinositide remain constant from 2 to 24 h. Several factors are capable of increasing [ 3 H]inositol incorporation into hormone-insensitive phosphoinositide including vasopressin, calcium ionophores, and manganese. On the other hand, vasopressin treatment appears to decrease incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into the hormone-sensitive pool, probably by shifting the equilibrium between phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates, since the decrease in radioactivity observed in the phosphoinositides is equaled by the increase observed in that in the inositol phosphates

  15. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  16. Indoor swimming pools. Humidity caused problems and suggested solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Reports have been received from across Canada on premature deterioration and other problems of indoor swimming pool buildings. This technical paper has been prepared to assist pool managers to solve these problems, which typically include leaking roofs, condensation on inside walls, peeling paint, efflorescence, rusting of metal elements, deterioration of concrete block structures, and high costs for pool heating. An effective insulation and vapor barrier system for a swimming pool roof is described, and the high relative humidity of the typical pool building is discussed as the primary cause of most problems. Proper sealing to cut down air infiltration is recommended, along with proper maintenance and painting. High energy costs are often due to low insulation values and to excessive ventilation used for decreasing the humidity. By using dehumidifiers capable of heat recovery, and by placing an insulating blanket on the pool after operating hours, it is shown that substantial cost savings are possible. 10 figs.

  17. Turbulence model for melt pool natural convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, K.M.; Patankar, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    Under severe reactor accident scenarios, pools of molten core material may form in the reactor core or in the hemispherically shaped lower plenum of the reactor vessel. Such molten pools are internally heated due to the radioactive decay heat that gives rise to buoyant flows in the molten pool. The flow in such pools is strongly influenced by the turbulent mixing because the expected Rayleigh numbers under accidents scenarios are very high. The variation of the local heat flux over the boundaries of the molten pools are important in determining the subsequent melt progression behavior. This study reports results of an ongoing effort towards providing a well validated mathematical model for the prediction of buoyant flow and heat transfer in internally heated pool under conditions expected in severe accident scenarios

  18. Sharing as risk pooling in a social dilemma experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Cherry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In rural economies with missing or incomplete markets, idiosyncratic risk is frequently pooled through informal networks. Idiosyncratic shocks, however, are not limited to private goods but can also restrict an individual from partaking in or benefiting from a collective activity. In these situations, a group must decide whether to provide insurance to the affected member. We describe results of a laboratory experiment designed to test whether a simple sharing institution can sustain risk pooling in a social dilemma with idiosyncratic risk. We tested whether risk could be pooled without a commitment device and, separately, whether effective risk pooling induced greater cooperation in the social dilemma. We found that even in the absence of a commitment device or reputational considerations, subjects voluntarily pooled risk, thereby reducing variance in individual earnings. In spite of effective risk pooling, however, cooperation in the social dilemma was unaffected.

  19. Utilization of Geothermal Energy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Wittenberger; Ján Pinka

    2005-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions, Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The Slovakian government sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs the geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. The effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and the hot water supp...

  20. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-01-30

    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  1. Optimal power flow application issues in the Pool paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Bompard, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) to competitive markets. Since the OPF is a central decision-making tool its application to the more decentralized decision-making in the competitive electricity markets requires considerable care. There are some intrinsic challenges associated with the effective OPF application in the competitive environment due to the inherent characteristics of the OPF formulation. Two such characteristics are the flatness of the optimum surface and the consequent continuum associated with the optimum. In addition to these OPF structural characteristics, the level of authority vested in the central decision-making entity has major ramifications. These factors have wide ranging economic impacts, whose implications are very pronounced due to the fact that, unlike in the old vertically integrated utility environment, various market players are affected differently. The effects include price volatility, financial health of various players and the integrity of the market itself. We apply appropriate metrics to evaluate market efficiency and how the various players fare. We study the impacts of OPF applications in the Pool paradigm, with both supply and demand side explicitly modeled, and provide extensive numerical results on systems based on IEEE 30-bus and 118-bus networks. The results show the variability of nodal prices and the skew possible in different 'optimal' allocations among competing suppliers. Such variability in the results may lead to serious disputes among the players and the central decision-making authority. Directions for future research are discussed. (author)

  2. The burning and smoke release rates of sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.

    1976-10-01

    The burning rates and smoke release fractions of sodium pool fires have been measured over the pool temperature range 250 0 C to 750 0 C. A theoretical model is derived which satisfactorily predicts the burning rate over the above temperature range. The theory further predicts that the burning rate should be independent of pool diameter, a prediction supported by a comparison of burning rate data from this study and available data from other studies. (author)

  3. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiments on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses have shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination ofboundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanisms acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence, a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei the pool were measured and fitted to a long normal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inletgas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major highlights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  4. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta : model and forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Central Region

    2010-09-15

    This paper presented a reserve growth study that was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada. Historical oil reserve data were evaluated to assess the potential for future reserve growth in both pools and fields, and reserve growth models and functions were developed to better forecast hydrocarbon volumes. The study also considered the sensitivity of reserve growth to such factors as pool size, porosity, and oil gravity. From 1960 to 2005, the reported known recoverable oil in Alberta, excluding the Athabasca oil sands and including only pools with adequate data, increased from 4.2 to 13.9 billion barrels of oil (BBO). New discoveries contributed 3.7 BBO and reserve growth added 6 BBO. Most reserve growth occurred in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of oil. Light-oil pools account for most of the total known oil volume and consequently showed the lowest growth. Pools with greater than 30 percent porosity grew more than pools with lower porosity reservoirs. Oil field growth was found to be almost twice that of pool growth, possibly because the analysis evaluated fields with two or more pools discovered in different years. The growth in oil volumes in Alberta pools is projected to be about 454 million barrels of oil in the period from 2006 to 2010. Over a 25-year period, the cumulative reserve growth in Alberta oil pools was substantially lower than other major petroleum-producing regions, but the growth at the field level compares well. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. (Microbiological studies of small hot-bath-pools and hot-whirl-pools (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, M; Havenith, N

    1981-01-01

    Hot small bathing pools and hot whirl-pools have the following characteristics: small watervolume, thick squeeze of swimmers, high water temperature (37-40 degrees C) and small dimension of filters. By this, the quality of bathing-water is influenced detrimentally. To elaborate the hygienic problems, bathing-water samples were taken before, during and after the visiting-hours and were tested for facultative-pathogenic microorganisms. During this investigation E. coli was isolated in 25 degrees, Coliforms and Proteus species in 37.3%, P. aeruginosa in 36%, S. aureus in 26.3%, Enterococci in 42.3 %, Candida albicans in 3.6% and yeast totally in 8.3%.

  6. The atmospheric wet pool: definition and comparison with the oceanic warm pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiyun; CHEN Ge

    2008-01-01

    The oceanic warm pool (OWP) defined by sea surface temperature (SST) is known as the "heat reservoir" in the ocean. The warmest portion in the ocean mirrors the fact that the wettest region with the largest accumulation of water vapor (WV) in the atmosphere, termed atmospheric wet pool (AWP), should be identified because of the well-known Clausius-Clapeyron relationship between SST and WV. In this study, we used 14-year simultaneous observations of WV and SST from January 1988 to December 2001 to define the AWP and investigate its coupling and co-variations with the OWP. The joint examination of the area variations, centroid locations, and zonal migrations of the AWP and OWP lead to a number of interesting findings. The results hopefully can contribute to our understanding of the air-sea interaction in general and characterization of El Nifio/La Nina events in particular.

  7. Nuclear Insurance Pools: World-wide Practice and Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2000-01-01

    The following paper explains why Nuclear Insurance Pools were established, how they operate and what insurance protection they offer to the operations of nuclear installations. It will be shown that the clear interrelationship of the Pool-insurance operations, both on a national and an international level, has resulted in a transparency of each individual Pool-Member's exposure, which enables him to make the highest possible commitment to nuclear risks. Finally, some views will be given as regards the future prospective for the long proven method of pooling this particularly sensitive class of business. (author)

  8. A Double Evolutionary Pool Memetic Algorithm for Examination Timetabling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A double evolutionary pool memetic algorithm is proposed to solve the examination timetabling problem. To improve the performance of the proposed algorithm, two evolutionary pools, that is, the main evolutionary pool and the secondary evolutionary pool, are employed. The genetic operators have been specially designed to fit the examination timetabling problem. A simplified version of the simulated annealing strategy is designed to speed the convergence of the algorithm. A clonal mechanism is introduced to preserve population diversity. Extensive experiments carried out on 12 benchmark examination timetabling instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to produce promising results for the uncapacitated examination timetabling problem.

  9. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  10. Automated management of engineering infrastructure of pools of different purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Lev Alekseevich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pools play an important role in people’s life. They answer people’s demand in rest and improve their health. At the same time pools are rather important for industrial use, for example in construction industry. In order to solve different construction problems it is essential to investigate the influence of microclimatic parameters on construction materials and structures. For this aim pools are in demand as special test sites for construction materials and structures in different environmental conditions including the case of a direct water impact. The efficient use of pools presupposes the necessity of constant hydroclimatic contro: air humidity and temperature, water temperature, chemical composition of water and air. Classification of pools of different purposes is presented in the article. The author considers the main problems of operation of pools as objects with complicated air-and-water environment. The questions of maintaining optimal microclimatic parameters in a pool are considered. The necessity of use of the control system of a microclimate, its efficiency, profitability and social effect of its implementation is described. A mathematical model of the thermal mode of a pool area is constructed. The process of indoor temperature regulation in the pool is considered.

  11. Steam blowdown experiments with the condensation pool test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purhonen, H.; Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Vihavainen, J.

    2005-01-01

    During a possible loss-of-coolant accident (Local) a large amount of non-condensable (nitrogen) and condensable (steam) gas is blown from the upper drywell of the containment to the condensation pool through the blowdown pipes at the boiling water reactors (BWRs). The wet well pool serves as the major heat sink for condensation of steam. The blowdown causes both dynamic and structural loads to the condensation pool. There might also be a risk that the gas discharging to the pool could push its way to the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) and undermine their performance. (author)

  12. Evaporation-preventive device for nuclear reactor pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurusu, Yoshihisa; Akabori, Shiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent pool water from evaporating by a great amount in a reactor pool such as a spent fuel storing pool. Constitution: Air discharge and in-take ports are disposed just above the surface of the pool water and charge and discharge of airs are forcively carried out to form air curtains above the pool water. Water vapor evaporated from the surface of the pool water does not diffuse above the air curtains due to the air stream of the curtains, but is intaken into the intake port and then condensated into water by a steam condensator and re-supplied to the pool. Since diffusion of water vapor and radioactive materials are suppressed above the air curtains, the working circumstance in the pool chamber can be maintained desirably thereby keeping the radioactivity dose in the atmosphere. Further, incorporation of dusts from above into the pool can also be prevented by the air curtains to provide an effect for the prevention of radioactive contamination. Further, since covers are not used, visual observation can be insured. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Evaporation rate measurement in the pool of IEAR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Walmir Maximo; Cegalla, Miriam A.; Baptista Filho, Benedito Dias

    2000-01-01

    The surface water evaporation in pool type reactors affects the ventilation system operation and the ambient conditions and dose rates in the operation room. This paper shows the results of evaporation rate experiment in the pool of IEA-R1 research reactor. The experiment is based on the demineralized water mass variation inside cylindrical metallic recipients during a time interval. Other parameters were measured, such as: barometric pressure, relative humidity, environmental temperature, water temperature inside the recipients and water temperature in the reactor pool. The pool level variation due to water contraction/expansion was calculated. (author)

  14. Livestock Grazing as a Driver of Vernal Pool Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, J.; McCarten, N. F.

    2017-12-01

    Vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that host rare plant communities of high conservation priority. Plant community composition is largely driven by pool hydroperiod. A previous study found that vernal pools grazed by livestock had longer hydroperiods compared with pools excluded from grazing for 10 years, and suggests that livestock grazing can be used to protect plant diversity. It is important to assess whether observed differences are due to the grazing or due to water balance variables including upland discharge into or out of the pools since no a priori measurements were made of the hydrology prior to grazing. To address this question, in 2016 we compared 15 pools that have been grazed continuously and 15 pools that have been fenced off for over 40 years at a site in Sacramento County. We paired pools based on abiotic characteristics (size, shape, slope, soil type) to minimize natural variation. We sampled vegetation and water depth using Solinst level loggers. We found that plant diversity and average hydroperiod was significantly higher in the grazed pools. We are currently measuring groundwater connectivity and upland inputs in order to compare the relative strength of livestock grazing as a driver of hydroperiod to these other drivers.

  15. The Study of Pallet Pooling Information Platform Based on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-bin Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective implementation of pallet pooling system needs a strong information platform to support. Through the analysis of existing pallet pooling information platform (PPIP, the paper pointed out that the existing studies of PPIP are mainly based on traditional IT infrastructures and technologies which have software, hardware, resource utilization, and process restrictions. Because of the advantages of cloud computing technology like strong computing power, high flexibility, and low cost which meet the requirements of the PPIP well, this paper gave a PPIP architecture of two parts based on cloud computing: the users client and the cloud services. The cloud services include three layers, which are IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS. The method of how to deploy PPIP based on cloud computing is proposed finally.

  16. Modular design of synthetic gene circuits with biological parts and pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Mario Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits can be designed in an electronic fashion by displaying their basic components-Standard Biological Parts and Pools of molecules-on the computer screen and connecting them with hypothetical wires. This procedure, achieved by our add-on for the software ProMoT, was successfully applied to bacterial circuits. Recently, we have extended this design-methodology to eukaryotic cells. Here, highly complex components such as promoters and Pools of mRNA contain hundreds of species and reactions whose calculation demands a rule-based modeling approach. We showed how to build such complex modules via the joint employment of the software BioNetGen (rule-based modeling) and ProMoT (modularization). In this chapter, we illustrate how to utilize our computational tool for synthetic biology with the in silico implementation of a simple eukaryotic gene circuit that performs the logic AND operation.

  17. Calculation of the external dose rate in the spent fuel pool for the case to use compact racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.M. dos; Alves, A.S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The possible introduction of compact racks in the spent fuel pool of the Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant largely inreases its storage capacity, but originates an increase of the gamma radiation sources. The precise evaluation of the effects of the adoption of this option on the external gamma dose rates and also on the thickness of the concrete shielding requires the utilization of sofisticated computer codes (QAD, ANISN), which allow the calculation of the gamma dose rates through thick shielding walls. This paper describes the utilized methodology for the calculation of the modified pool shieldings, showing the obtained results for the Angra 1 NPP case. The gamma dose rate was calculated with the point Kernel model, first analytically, and later through utilization of the tridimensional multigroup QAD computer code. (author) [pt

  18. Evaluating performance from spiral polyethylene tubes as solar collectors for heating swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanelli, Anderson Thiago Pontes; Marchi Neto, Ismael de; Scalon, Vicente Luiz; Padilha, Alcides [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mails: scalon@feb.unesp.br, padilha@feb.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The solar energy is very common in the daily of citizens from different regions in world. Environmental questions and the consequent Development of renewable energy techniques were a decisive factor for expanding this market. Currently, the solar energy is present in many different devices: as direct conversion through photovoltaic panels as in solar domestic for hot water systems(SDHWS). Another common use is in the heating system for swimming pools, that could be utilized for therapeutic or comfort reasons. The main aspect that increments this use is the economy for operation of these systems. On the other hand, these systems need a high initial investment. Reducing this cost without reduction in collector efficiency using new materials and / or alternative projects is important target for new researches. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the efficiency of one of these alternative models for heating swimming pools. The conceptual device evaluated is a low cost model. It could be made from polyethylene tubes forming spiral heat exchangers. Analysis of the system is based on a dynamic model using differential equations system including solar collector and swimming pool. Experimental radiation and other environmental conditions in the region of Bauru-SP are used for analyse the dynamic behavior of the system. The simulations are based on analysis of three main parameters: number of collectors, the pump drive time and wall thickness of the collector of polyethylene. Based on these numerical tests one can conclude that this new model of solar collector for swimming pool has a better cost benefit ratio when superficial area is equal to 80% of pool area, pump operation is alternating with four minutes turned on and 28 turned off and the polyethylene wall thickness is 1.5 mm (author)

  19. The hydrometeor partitioning and microphysical processes over the Pacific Warm Pool in numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chih; Wang, Pao K.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modeling is conducted to study the hydrometeor partitioning and microphysical source and sink processes during a quasi-steady state of thunderstorms over the Pacific Warm Pool by utilizing the microphysical model WISCDYMM to simulate selected storm cases. The results show that liquid-phase hydrometeors dominate thunderstorm evolution over the Pacific Warm Pool. The ratio of ice-phase mass to liquid-phase mass is about 41%: 59%, indicating that ice-phase water is not as significant over the Pacific Warm Pool as the liquid water compared to the larger than 50% in the subtropics and 80% in the US High Plains in a previous study. Sensitivity tests support the dominance of liquid-phase hydrometeors over the Pacific Warm Pool. The major rain sources are the key hail sinks: melting of hail and shedding from hail; whereas the crucial rain sinks are evaporation and accretion by hail. The major snow sources are Bergeron-Findeisen process, transfer of cloud ice to snow and accretion of cloud water; whereas the foremost sink of snow is accretion by hail. The essential hail sources are accretions of rain, cloud water, and snow; whereas the critical hail sinks are melting of hail and shedding from hail. The contribution and ranking of sources and sinks of these precipitates are compared with the previous study. Hydrometeors have their own special microphysical processes in the development and depletion over the Pacific Warm Pool. Microphysical budgets depend on atmospheric dynamical and thermodynamical conditions which determine the partitioning of hydrometeors. This knowledge would benefit the microphysics parameterization in cloud models and cumulus parameterization in global circulation models.

  20. Positive year for Alberta power pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Carlson, D.

    1997-01-01

    The electricity power pool in Alberta completed its first year under deregulation. Results to date indicate that the competitive market has operated as intended. The effects of electricity pricing on the oil industry following deregulation were described, given the fact that electricity prices represent the second largest cost item to the oil industry after labour. The peculiarities of the mechanism of electricity pricing (based on hourly matching of supply offers to demand bids) were explained, highlighting the opportunities and risks to the oil industry caused by the hourly price variations and the difficulties involved in accurately forecasting on-peak and off-peak prices a full year in advance. In 1996 predicted average price was $14 to $17/MWh. The actual average price was $13.40/MWh. The general conclusion was that Alberta continues to have a surplus of electricity generation and is well positioned to to take advantage of its low generating costs, at least over the longer term. Short term bidding practices, however, may results in slightly higher system marginal prices

  1. Pool critical assembly pressure vessel facility benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1997-07-01

    This pool critical assembly (PCA) pressure vessel wall facility benchmark (PCA benchmark) is described and analyzed in this report. Analysis of the PCA benchmark can be used for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the qualification of the methodology for pressure vessel neutron fluence calculations, as required by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guide DG-1053. Section 1 of this report describes the PCA benchmark and provides all data necessary for the benchmark analysis. The measured quantities, to be compared with the calculated values, are the equivalent fission fluxes. In Section 2 the analysis of the PCA benchmark is described. Calculations with the computer code DORT, based on the discrete-ordinates method, were performed for three ENDF/B-VI-based multigroup libraries: BUGLE-93, SAILOR-95, and BUGLE-96. An excellent agreement of the calculated (C) and measures (M) equivalent fission fluxes was obtained. The arithmetic average C/M for all the dosimeters (total of 31) was 0.93 ± 0.03 and 0.92 ± 0.03 for the SAILOR-95 and BUGLE-96 libraries, respectively. The average C/M ratio, obtained with the BUGLE-93 library, for the 28 measurements was 0.93 ± 0.03 (the neptunium measurements in the water and air regions were overpredicted and excluded from the average). No systematic decrease in the C/M ratios with increasing distance from the core was observed for any of the libraries used

  2. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  3. Swimming pools as heat sinks for air conditioners: Model design and experimental validation for natural thermal behavior of the pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Jonathan; Harrington, Curtis; Modera, Mark [University of California Davis, Western Cooling Efficiency Center, 1450 Drew Avenue, Suite 100, Davis, CA 95618 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Swimming pools as thermal sinks for air conditioners could save approximately 40% on peak cooling power and 30% of overall cooling energy, compared to standard residential air conditioning. Heat dissipation from pools in semi-arid climates with large diurnal temperature shifts is such that pool heating and space cooling may occur concurrently; in which case heat rejected from cooling equipment could directly displace pool heating energy, while also improving space cooling efficiency. The performance of such a system relies on the natural temperature regulation of swimming pools governed by evaporative and convective heat exchange with the air, radiative heat exchange with the sky, and conductive heat exchange with the ground. This paper describes and validates a model that uses meteorological data to accurately predict the hourly temperature of a swimming pool to within 1.1 C maximum error over the period of observation. A thorough review of literature guided our choice of the most appropriate set of equations to describe the natural mass and energy exchange between a swimming pool and the environment. Monitoring of a pool in Davis, CA, was used to confirm the resulting simulations. Comparison of predicted and observed pool temperature for all hours over a 56 day experimental period shows an R-squared relatedness of 0.967. (author)

  4. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  5. Validation of effective momentum and heat flux models for stratification and mixing in a water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Li; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    The pressure suppression pool is the most important feature of the pressure suppression system in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) that acts primarily as a passive heat sink during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or when the reactor is isolated from the main heat sink. The steam injection into the pool through the blowdown pipes can lead to short term dynamic phenomena and long term thermal transient in the pool. The development of thermal stratification or mixing in the pool is a transient phenomenon that can influence the pool's pressure suppression capacity. Different condensation regimes depending on the pool's bulk temperature and steam flow rates determine the onset of thermal stratification or erosion of stratified layers. Previously, we have proposed to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models. The EHS model is used to provide thermal effect of steam injection on the pool, preserving heat and mass balance. The EMS model is used to simulate momentum induced by steam injection in different flow regimes. The EMS model is based on the combination of (i) synthetic jet theory, which predicts effective momentum if amplitude and frequency of flow oscillations in the pipe are given, and (ii) model proposed by Aya and Nariai for prediction of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at a given pool temperature and steam mass flux. The complete EHS/EMS models only require the steam mass flux, initial pool bulk temperature, and design-specific parameters, to predict thermal stratification and mixing in a pressure suppression pool. In this work we use EHS/EMS models implemented in containment thermal hydraulic code GOTHIC. The PPOOLEX experiments (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland) are utilized to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, (b) propose necessary improvements in GOTHIC sub-grid scale

  6. Combined blood pool and extracellular contrast agents for pediatric and young adult cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Joyce T. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 21, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 21, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Deng, Jie [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (cardiac MR) study including both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and MR angiography may be indicated for patients with a history of acquired or congenital heart disease. To study the novel use of an extracellular agent for assessment of LGE combined with a blood pool contrast agent for detailed MR angiography evaluation to yield a comprehensive cardiac MR study in these patients. We reviewed clinical cardiac MR studies utilizing extracellular and blood pool contrast agents and noted demographics, clinical data and adverse events. We rated LGE image quality and MR angiography image quality for each vascular segment and calculated inter-rater variability. We also quantified contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thirty-three patients (mean age 13.9 ± 3 years) received an extracellular contrast agent (10 gadobenate dimeglumine, 23 gadopentetate dimeglumine) and blood pool contrast agent (33 gadofosveset trisodium). No adverse events were reported. MRI indications included Kawasaki disease (8), cardiomyopathy and coronary anatomy (15), repaired congenital heart disease (8), and other (2). Mean LGE quality was 2.6 ± 0.6 with 97% diagnostic imaging. LGE quality did not vary by type of contrast agent given (P = 0.07). Mean MR angiography quality score was 4.7 ± 0.6, with high inter-rater agreement (k = 0.6-0.8, P < 0.002). MR angiography quality did not vary by type of contrast agent used (P = 0.6). Cardiac MR studies utilizing both extracellular and blood pool contrast agents are feasible and safe and provide excellent-quality LGE and MR angiography images. The use of two contrast agents allows for a comprehensive assessment of both myocardial viability and vascular anatomy during the same exam. (orig.)

  7. Combined blood pool and extracellular contrast agents for pediatric and young adult cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Joyce T.; Robinson, Joshua D.; Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (cardiac MR) study including both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and MR angiography may be indicated for patients with a history of acquired or congenital heart disease. To study the novel use of an extracellular agent for assessment of LGE combined with a blood pool contrast agent for detailed MR angiography evaluation to yield a comprehensive cardiac MR study in these patients. We reviewed clinical cardiac MR studies utilizing extracellular and blood pool contrast agents and noted demographics, clinical data and adverse events. We rated LGE image quality and MR angiography image quality for each vascular segment and calculated inter-rater variability. We also quantified contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thirty-three patients (mean age 13.9 ± 3 years) received an extracellular contrast agent (10 gadobenate dimeglumine, 23 gadopentetate dimeglumine) and blood pool contrast agent (33 gadofosveset trisodium). No adverse events were reported. MRI indications included Kawasaki disease (8), cardiomyopathy and coronary anatomy (15), repaired congenital heart disease (8), and other (2). Mean LGE quality was 2.6 ± 0.6 with 97% diagnostic imaging. LGE quality did not vary by type of contrast agent given (P = 0.07). Mean MR angiography quality score was 4.7 ± 0.6, with high inter-rater agreement (k = 0.6-0.8, P < 0.002). MR angiography quality did not vary by type of contrast agent used (P = 0.6). Cardiac MR studies utilizing both extracellular and blood pool contrast agents are feasible and safe and provide excellent-quality LGE and MR angiography images. The use of two contrast agents allows for a comprehensive assessment of both myocardial viability and vascular anatomy during the same exam. (orig.)

  8. Safety analysis of LWR irradiated fuel element pool storages before reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, G.; Leclerc, J.; Hoffman, A.; Frejaville, C.; Domage, M.

    1984-01-01

    The protection of operators and environment requires imperatively that the safety must be taken into account as early as the design of the pools takes place and working conditions are defined. The analysis of criticality, irradiation, contamination, external or internal aggression hazards... allows to draw the main constraints which must be retained in the sizing of these pools: the criticality risk needs distances between fuel elements which results in a not very good utilization of the available area which leads to the utilization of neutron shieldings or requires a safe knowledge of the fuel elements burn up; the irradiation and contamination risks require a special quality of the pool water (temperature, activity, purity...) a good tightness of the basins to locate and to isolate the dubions fuel elements; the external or internal aggression risks such as earthquakes, missiles or loads drops, explosion, imply the civil engineering and involve the use of special technical devices. A brief presentation of the pool storages of the next UP2-800 and UP3 A reprocessing plants allows to show how the requirement drawn by safety analysis have been enforced, while carrying out civil engineering works without equivalent in the world, in this field. The foreseeable evolution of the uranium enrichment rate and burn-up of next PWR fuel elements have an effect upon the risk evaluations; a device apparatus, developed in CEA, for the measurement of burn up and cooling time is presented. At least, a short presentation of the mechanical structure durability studies of the reception and storage spent fuels installations are allowed to improve our knowledge in working conditions and in case of serious accidents

  9. 76 FR 72923 - Pool Corporation; Analysis To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... manufacturers, warehouse them, and then resell the products to pool retail stores, pool service companies and.... ADDRESSES: Interested parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the... 0115'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc...

  10. Solar collectors for swimming pools still going strong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    According to the opinion of the experts, solar energy heating may be technically 'mature' but the profitability is by no means that far. However, solar systems are a good alternative for heating the water in swimming pools. Four solar collector systems developed by different firms to heat swimming pools, including prices, are presented.

  11. Microscopic bubble behaviour in suppression pool during wetwell venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablackaite, G.; Nagasaka, H.; Kikura, H.

    2017-10-01

    During a severe accident PCV failure should be avoided and fission products inside PCV should be confined as much as possible. In order to minimize FPs release, Wetwell venting is conducted by releasing steam-non-condensable gas mixture carrying FPs from the Drywell to Suppression Pool. Steam is condensed by subcooled water in the pool, and most of FPs are retained into water. The removal of FP in the water pool is referred to as “Pool Scrubbing effect”. Hydrodynamic parameters of bubbles have impact on pool scrubbing effect. However, there is only few data available to evaluate quantitatively the bubble behaviour under depressurization and/or thermal stratification conditions. Series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of temperature distribution, non-condensable gas content and pressure in the Wetwell on bubble behaviour. Bubbles were visualized using High Speed Camera and adopting shadowgraphy technique. Applying Particle Tracking Velocimetry, bubble velocity and size distribution were obtained from recorded images. Experimental results show that with increasing suppression pool temperature, bubbles reaching the pool surface decreased in size and traveling velocity became slower. In pressurized wetwell, bubble behaviour was similar to that in the heated up suppression pool case, although bubble parameters were similar to the low temperature case. Higher air content induced water surface movement and bubbles were smaller due to break up.

  12. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The agency...

  13. Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. B. Giese; W. M. Aust; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian...

  14. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative act...

  15. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  16. Anticipated corrosion in the Vermont Yankee spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1977-06-01

    The report provides additional information relating to a proposed modification to the spent fuel pool at the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) and addresses corrosion of spent fuel pool storage materials and zircaloy, and provides an analysis of the effectiveness of the Boral sealing

  17. Numerical analysis of weld pool oscillation in laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ho [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Farson, Dave F [The Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Hollis, Kendall; Milewski, John O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Volume of fluid (VOF) numerical simulation was used to investigate melt flow and volumetric oscillation of conduction-mode pulsed laser weld pools. The result is compared to high speed video stream of titanium laser spot welding experiment. The total simulation time is 10ms with the first 5 ms being heating and melting under constant laser irradiation and the remaining 5 ms corresponding to resolidification of the weld pool. During the melting process, the liquid pool did not exhibit periodic oscillation but was continually depressed by the evaporation recoil pressure. After the laser pulse, the weld pool was excited into volumetric oscillation by the release of pressure on its surface and oscillation of the weld pool surface was analyzed. The simulation model suggested adjusting thermal diffusivity to match cooling rate and puddle diameter during solidification which is distinguishable from previous weld pool simulation. The frequency continuously increased from several thousand cycles per second to tens of thousands of cycles per second as the weld pool solidified and its diameter decreased. The result is the first trial of investigation of small weld pool oscillation in laser welding although there have been several reports about arc welding.

  18. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers of Pool Certificates. 120.1709 Section 120.1709 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1709...

  19. 13 CFR 120.1714 - Seller's Pool Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's Pool Loan servicing. 120.1714 Section 120.1714 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1714 Seller...

  20. 13 CFR 120.1715 - Seller's Pool Loan liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's Pool Loan liquidation. 120.1715 Section 120.1715 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1715 Seller...

  1. 13 CFR 120.1713 - Seller's Pool Loan origination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's Pool Loan origination. 120.1713 Section 120.1713 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1713 Seller...

  2. 13 CFR 120.1717 - Seller's Pool Loan deferments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seller's Pool Loan deferments. 120.1717 Section 120.1717 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1717 Seller...

  3. AUS burnup module CHAR and the associated data pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1975-12-01

    The CHAR module of the AUS reactor neutronics scheme solves the multiregion nuclide depletion equations using an analytic method. The module obtains cross section, flux and geometry data from AUS data pools, and uses the STATUS data pool which has been designed for the storage of nuclide compositions, spatial smearing factors and other miscellaneous information. (author)

  4. Phytomass carbon pool of trees and forests in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaul, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports estimates of above ground phytomass carbon pools in Indian forests for 1992 and 2002 using two different methodologies. The first estimate was derived from remote sensing based forest area and crown density estimates, and growing stock data for 1992 and 2002 and the estimated pool

  5. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  6. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  7. Branchipodopsis species — specialists of ephemeral rock pools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such rock pools were studied in the Drakensberg region, in the eastern Free State and in south-eastern Botswana. Common features ... While short-range dispersal of floating eggs by overflows is common, long-range dispersal (e.g. by wind) seems to be rare and to be restricted to shallow pools with little vegetation. Limited ...

  8. Tax credits and purchasing pools: will this marriage work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, S; Ginsburg, P B

    2001-04-01

    Bipartisan interest is growing in Congress for using federal tax credits to help low-income families buy health insurance. Regardless of the approach taken, tax credit policies must address risk selection issues to ensure coverage for the chronically ill. Proposals that link tax credits to purchasing pools would avoid risk selection by grouping risks similar to the way large employers do. Voluntary purchasing pools have had only limited success, however. This Issue Brief discusses linking tax credits to purchasing pools. It uses information from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) site visits to 12 communities as well as other research to assess the role of purchasing pools nationwide and the key issues and implications of linking tax credits and pools.

  9. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  10. Parametric tomography of the cardiac blood pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.; Schwartz, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    In nuclear cardiology image processing is performed usually in 3 of 4 dimensions. ECG-gated SPECT (GSPECT) would make it possible to obtain all 4 dimensions of space and time during one examination, but its duration as well as radiation dose is limited resulting in a low signal-to-noise ratio. Sensitive feature extractions from the amount of data are necessary, e.g. Fourier filtering or extracting isovolumetric intervals. The relatively large amount of calculations and storage requirements often handicaps tomographic ventriculography because a high number of sections have to be processed and the temporal resolution is limited. A new list-mode oriented tomographic algorithm demands less storage and fewer calculations: The Fourier coefficient extraction and the filtered back projection, both of which are linear operations, could be interchanged in the case of thoracic SPECT. The feature extraction algorithm process internal list-mode heart cycles for discrimination of invalid cycles, for end-diastolic and end-systolic synthesis as well as for Fourier analysis of the first harmonic in 10 ms steps. Reconstruction operations are applied also to modified distribution matrices of Fourier coefficients. By only processing 4 spatial matrix sequences (end-diastolic and end-systolic images, amplitude and phase values) parametric tomography becomes practicable and could be also performed by a minicomputer with 64 KByte memory in addition to the possibilities of the planar left ventricular gated imaging. If there are 3 or more processors available a complete feature extraction on-the-fly will be possible. The numerical algorithms were tested with respect to stable reconstructions by phantoms. First results of a patient examination are used to explore effective display techniques, and preliminary modes are demonstrated. It is the purpose of this study to obtain additional information about the gated planar cardiac blood pool imaging in the field of SPECT. (author)

  11. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant, thermophilic esterase from a Red Sea Brine Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Yasmine M.; Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Sayed, Ahmed; Ouf, Amged; El-Dorry, Hamza; Siam, Rania

    2013-01-01

    The Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that displays multiple harsh conditions such as high temperature, high salinity and high concentrations of multiple, toxic heavy metals. The survival of microbes in such an environment by utilizing resistant enzymes makes them an excellent source of extremophilic enzymes. We constructed a fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the deepest and most secluded layer of this pool. We report the isolation and biochemical characterization of an unusual esterase: EstATII. EstATII is thermophilic (optimum temperature, 65 C), halotolerant (maintains its activity in up to 4.5â€...M NaCl) and maintains at least 60% of its activity in the presence of a wide spectrum of heavy metals. The combination of biochemical characteristics of the Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool esterase, i.e., halotolerance, thermophilicity and resistance to heavy metals, makes it a potentially useful biocatalyst.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant, thermophilic esterase from a Red Sea Brine Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Yasmine M.

    2013-11-28

    The Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that displays multiple harsh conditions such as high temperature, high salinity and high concentrations of multiple, toxic heavy metals. The survival of microbes in such an environment by utilizing resistant enzymes makes them an excellent source of extremophilic enzymes. We constructed a fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the deepest and most secluded layer of this pool. We report the isolation and biochemical characterization of an unusual esterase: EstATII. EstATII is thermophilic (optimum temperature, 65 C), halotolerant (maintains its activity in up to 4.5â€...M NaCl) and maintains at least 60% of its activity in the presence of a wide spectrum of heavy metals. The combination of biochemical characteristics of the Red Sea Atlantis II brine pool esterase, i.e., halotolerance, thermophilicity and resistance to heavy metals, makes it a potentially useful biocatalyst.

  13. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays...... for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined...... when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same...

  14. Radioactively labelled phytic acid from maturing seeds of sinapis alba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaicher, F.M.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Maturing seeds of Sinapis alba were incubated with D-[U- 14 C]glucose, sodium [1- 14 C] acetate or myo-[U 14 C] inositol in order to prepare radioactively labelled phytic acid with high specific activity. Although each substrate was utilized for the biosynthesis of phytic acid, maximum incorporation of radioactivity into phytic acid was found with myo-inositol. Radiochemical purity of the [U- 14 C]phytic acid preparations was confirmed by chromatographic techniques. Such preparations should be useful for the study of interaction of phytic acid with metal ions and proteins and may serve as substrate in the assay should be useful for the study of interaction of phytic acid with metal ions and proteins and may serve as substrate in the assay of phytase. (orig.)

  15. Radioactively labelled phytic acid from maturing seeds of Sinapis alba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, F.M.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    Maturing seeds of Sinapis alba were incubated with D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose, sodium (1-/sup 14/C) acetate or myo-(U/sup 14/C) inositol in order to prepare radioactively labelled phytic acid with high specific activity. Although each substrate was utilized for the biosynthesis of phytic acid, maximum incorporation of radioactivity into phytic acid was found with myo-inositol. Radiochemical purity of the (U-/sup 14/C)phytic acid preparations was confirmed by chromatographic techniques. Such preparations should be useful for the study of interaction of phytic acid with metal ions and proteins and may serve as substrate in the assay should be useful for the study of interaction of phytic acid with metal ions and proteins and may serve as substrate in the assay of phytase.

  16. poolHiTS: A Shifted Transversal Design based pooling strategy for high-throughput drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Peter J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key goal of drug discovery is to increase the throughput of small molecule screens without sacrificing screening accuracy. High-throughput screening (HTS in drug discovery involves testing a large number of compounds in a biological assay to identify active compounds. Normally, molecules from a large compound library are tested individually to identify the activity of each molecule. Usually a small number of compounds are found to be active, however the presence of false positive and negative testing errors suggests that this one-drug one-assay screening strategy can be significantly improved. Pooling designs are testing schemes that test mixtures of compounds in each assay, thereby generating a screen of the whole compound library in fewer tests. By repeatedly testing compounds in different combinations, pooling designs also allow for error-correction. These pooled designs, for specific experiment parameters, can be simply and efficiently created using the Shifted Transversal Design (STD pooling algorithm. However, drug screening contains a number of key constraints that require specific modifications if this pooling approach is to be useful for practical screen designs. Results In this paper, we introduce a pooling strategy called poolHiTS (Pooled High-Throughput Screening which is based on the STD algorithm. In poolHiTS, we implement a limit on the number of compounds that can be mixed in a single assay. In addition, we show that the STD-based pooling strategy is limited in the error-correction that it can achieve. Due to the mixing constraint, we show that it is more efficient to split a large library into smaller blocks of compounds, which are then tested using an optimized strategy repeated for each block. We package the optimal block selection algorithm into poolHiTS. The MATLAB codes for the poolHiTS algorithm and the corresponding decoding strategy are also provided. Conclusion We have produced a practical version

  17. Effective Momentum and heat flux models for simulation of stratification and mixing in a large pool of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Li; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P.

    2012-06-01

    Performance of a boiling water reactor (BWR) containment is mostly determined by reliable operation of pressure suppression pool which serves as a heat sink to cool and condense steam released from the core vessel. Thermal stratification in the pool can significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. A source of momentum is required in order to break stratification and mix the pool. It is important to have reliable prediction of transient development of stratification and mixing in the pool in different regimes of steam injection. Previously, we have proposed to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models. The EHS model is used to provide thermal effect of steam injection on the pool, preserving heat and mass balance. The EMS model is used to simulate momentum induced by steam injection in different flow regimes. The EMS model is based on the combination of (1) synthetic jet theory, which predicts effective momentum if amplitude and frequency of flow oscillations in the pipe are given, and (2) model proposed by Aya and Nariai for prediction of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at a given pool temperature and steam mass flux. The complete EHS/EMS models only require the steam mass flux, initial pool bulk temperature, and design-specific parameters, to predict thermal stratification and mixing in a pressure suppression pool. In this work we use EHS/EMS models implemented in containment thermal hydraulic code GOTHIC. The POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiments (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland) are utilized, to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, (b) propose necessary improvements in GOTHIC sub-grid scale modeling, and (c) validate our proposed models. Specifically the data from POOLEX STB-21 and PPOOLEX STR-03 and STR-04 tests are used for validation of the EHS and EMS models in this work. We

  18. Effective Momentum and heat flux models for simulation of stratification and mixing in a large pool of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Li; Villanueva, W.; Kudinov, P. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    Performance of a boiling water reactor (BWR) containment is mostly determined by reliable operation of pressure suppression pool which serves as a heat sink to cool and condense steam released from the core vessel. Thermal stratification in the pool can significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. A source of momentum is required in order to break stratification and mix the pool. It is important to have reliable prediction of transient development of stratification and mixing in the pool in different regimes of steam injection. Previously, we have proposed to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) models. The EHS model is used to provide thermal effect of steam injection on the pool, preserving heat and mass balance. The EMS model is used to simulate momentum induced by steam injection in different flow regimes. The EMS model is based on the combination of (1) synthetic jet theory, which predicts effective momentum if amplitude and frequency of flow oscillations in the pipe are given, and (2) model proposed by Aya and Nariai for prediction of the amplitude and frequency of oscillations at a given pool temperature and steam mass flux. The complete EHS/EMS models only require the steam mass flux, initial pool bulk temperature, and design-specific parameters, to predict thermal stratification and mixing in a pressure suppression pool. In this work we use EHS/EMS models implemented in containment thermal hydraulic code GOTHIC. The POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiments (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland) are utilized, to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, (b) propose necessary improvements in GOTHIC sub-grid scale modeling, and (c) validate our proposed models. Specifically the data from POOLEX STB-21 and PPOOLEX STR-03 and STR-04 tests are used for validation of the EHS and EMS models in this

  19. The relationship between patient data and pooled clinical management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, G I; O'Loughlin, E J; Corcoran, T B; Grant, C

    2013-01-01

    A strong relationship between patient data and preoperative clinical decisions could potentially be used to support clinical decisions in preoperative management. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationship between key patient data and pooled clinical opinions on management. In a previous study, panels of anaesthetists compared the quality of computer-assisted patient health assessments with outpatient consultations and made decisions on the need for preoperative tests, no preoperative outpatient assessment, possible postoperative intensive care unit/high dependency unit requirements and aspiration prophylaxis. In the current study, the relationship between patient data and these decisions was examined using binomial logistic regression analysis. Backward stepwise regression was used to identify independent predictors of each decision (at P >0.15), which were then incorporated into a predictive model. The number of factors related to each decision varied: blood picture (four factors), biochemistry (six factors), coagulation studies (three factors), electrocardiography (eight factors), chest X-ray (seven factors), preoperative outpatient assessment (17 factors), intensive care unit requirement (eight factors) and aspiration prophylaxis (one factor). The factor types also varied, but included surgical complexity, age, gender, number of medications or comorbidities, body mass index, hypertension, central nervous system condition, heart disease, sleep apnoea, smoking, persistent pain and stroke. Models based on these relationships usually demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity, with receiver operating characteristics in the following areas under curve: blood picture (0.75), biochemistry (0.86), coagulation studies (0.71), electrocardiography (0.90), chest X-ray (0.85), outpatient assessment (0.85), postoperative intensive care unit requirement (0.88) and aspiration prophylaxis (0.85). These initial results suggest modelling of patient

  20. A Mechanistic Model of Waterfall Plunge Pool Erosion into Bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-11-01

    Landscapes often respond to changes in climate and tectonics through the formation and upstream propagation of knickzones composed of waterfalls. Little work has been done on the mechanics of waterfall erosion, and instead most landscape-scale models neglect waterfalls or use rules for river erosion, such as stream power, that may not be applicable to waterfalls. Here we develop a physically based model to predict waterfall plunge pool erosion into rock by abrasion from particle impacts and test the model against flume experiments. Both the model and experiments show that evolving plunge pools have initially high vertical erosion rates due to energetic particle impacts, and erosion slows and eventually ceases as pools deepen and deposition protects the pool floor from further erosion. Lateral erosion can continue after deposition on the pool floor, but it occurs at slow rates that become negligible as pools widen. Our work points to the importance of vertical drilling of successive plunge pools to drive upstream knickzone propagation in homogenous rock, rather than the classic mechanism of headwall undercutting. For a series of vertically drilling waterfalls, we find that upstream knickzone propagation is faster under higher combined water and sediment fluxes and for knickzones composed of many waterfalls that are closely spaced. Our model differs significantly from stream-power-based erosion rules in that steeper knickzones can retreat faster or more slowly depending on the number and spacing of waterfalls within a knickzone, which has implications for interpreting climatic and tectonic history through analysis of river longitudinal profiles.

  1. Addressing data privacy in matched studies via virtual pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha-Chaudhuri, P; Weinberg, C R

    2017-09-07

    Data confidentiality and shared use of research data are two desirable but sometimes conflicting goals in research with multi-center studies and distributed data. While ideal for straightforward analysis, confidentiality restrictions forbid creation of a single dataset that includes covariate information of all participants. Current approaches such as aggregate data sharing, distributed regression, meta-analysis and score-based methods can have important limitations. We propose a novel application of an existing epidemiologic tool, specimen pooling, to enable confidentiality-preserving analysis of data arising from a matched case-control, multi-center design. Instead of pooling specimens prior to assay, we apply the methodology to virtually pool (aggregate) covariates within nodes. Such virtual pooling retains most of the information used in an analysis with individual data and since individual participant data is not shared externally, within-node virtual pooling preserves data confidentiality. We show that aggregated covariate levels can be used in a conditional logistic regression model to estimate individual-level odds ratios of interest. The parameter estimates from the standard conditional logistic regression are compared to the estimates based on a conditional logistic regression model with aggregated data. The parameter estimates are shown to be similar to those without pooling and to have comparable standard errors and confidence interval coverage. Virtual data pooling can be used to maintain confidentiality of data from multi-center study and can be particularly useful in research with large-scale distributed data.

  2. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  3. 3D finite element simulation of TIG weld pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X.; Asserin, O.; Gounand, S.; Gilles, P.; Bergheau, J. M.; Medale, M.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional weld pool model for the moving gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, in order to understand the main factors that limit the weld quality and improve the productivity, especially with respect to the welding speed. Simulation is a very powerful tool to help in understanding the physical phenomena in the weld process. A 3D finite element model of heat and fluid flow in weld pool considering free surface of the pool and traveling speed has been developed for the GTAW process. Cast3M software is used to compute all the governing equations. The free surface of the weld pool is calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. The combined effects of surface tension gradient, buoyancy force, arc pressure, arc drag force to drive the fluid flow is included in our model. The deformation of the weld pool surface and the welding speed affect fluid flow, heat flow and thus temperature gradients and molten pool dimensions. Welding trials study is presented to compare our numerical results with macrograph of the molten pool.

  4. Study on water evaporation rate from indoor swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzeźnik Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The air relative humidity in closed spaces of indoor swimming pools influences significantly on users thermal comfort and the stability of the building structure, so its preservation on suitable level is very important. For this purpose, buildings are equipped with HVAC systems which provide adequate level of humidity. The selection of devices and their technical parameters is made using the mathematical models of water evaporation rate in the unoccupied and occupied indoor swimming pool. In the literature, there are many papers describing this phenomena but the results differ from each other. The aim of the study was the experimental verification of published models of evaporation rate in the pool. The tests carried out on a laboratory scale, using model of indoor swimming pool, measuring 99cm/68cm/22cm. The model was equipped with water spray installation with six nozzles to simulate conditions during the use of the swimming pool. The measurements were made for conditions of sports pools (water temperature 24°C and recreational swimming pool (water temperature 34°C. According to the recommendations the air temperature was about 2°C higher than water temperature, and the relative humidity ranged from 40% to 55%. Models Shah and Biasin & Krumm were characterized by the best fit to the results of measurements on a laboratory scale.

  5. Security cost allocation under combined bilateral-pool market dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.P.; Hassan, M.Y.; Hussin, F.

    2008-01-01

    Most electricity markets around the world are a combination of bilateral and pool markets, such as NordPool and NYPOOL. In these models, market participants bid into the pool and also make bilateral contracts with each other. This paper addressed the issue of congestion management and security cost allocation in a power pool market model. The basic idea of security cost allocation is to divide the incurred security cost due to congestion relief into pool and bilateral market based on their flow contribution to the congested line. A newly proposed security cost allocation strategy of the combined bilateral-pool market was also presented along with case studies using IEEE-14 bus system that tested the proposed method. Using the proposed method, it was shown that security costs are allocated to market participants at different prices which reflect the load contribution to the security problem. This solves the problem of the uniform security cost allocation in a pure pool market system having uniform pricing, and provides a proper security signal to market participants. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  7. Mathematical modeling of the energy consumption of heated swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bel, C.; Millette, J. [LTE Shawinigan, Shawinigan, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A mathematical model was developed to estimate the water temperature of a residential swimming pool. The model can compare 2 different situations and, if local climatic conditions are known, it can accurately predict energy costs of the pool relative to the total energy consumption of the house. When used with the appropriate energy transfer coefficient and weather file, the model can estimate the water temperature of a residential swimming pool having specific characteristics, such as in-ground, above-ground, heated or non-heated. The model is suitable for determining residential loads. It can be applied to different pool types and sizes, for different water heating scenarios and different climatic regions. Data obtained from the monitoring of water temperature and electricity use of 57 residential swimming pools was used to validate the model. In addition, 5 above-ground pools were installed on the property of LTE Shawinigan to allow for a more detailed study of the parameters involved in the thermal balance of a pool. The mathematical model, based on a global heat transfer coefficient, can determine the effect of a solar blanket and the effect of water volume. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. ENERGY SAVING AT OPERATION OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ivin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy saving is a major problem in modern power engineering and various energy-consuming devices. They include outdoor swimming pools. In order to maintain them in working condition, especially in winter period, it takes significant amount of thermal energy. Task of heat loss substantial decrease in open swimming pools is considered in the article (on DNURT example. Methodology. The method of determining the mass and heat loss on the basis of criteria equations of heat and mass transfer theory is used. Findings. Calculations of the actual DNURT pool heat loss for different seasons, as for natural convection both for air forced motion above the free water surface are performed. It is shown that for the adiabatic evaporation conditions of water from the pool in winter during blow-off with wind the heat loss can be up to 2 kW/m2 on surface. To reduce these losses it is offered to cover water surface in a pool with a special material with low thermal conductivity on the basis of porous polyethylene during the time when the pool is not used for other purposes. It is shown that the implementation of these standards will reduce the actual heat loss, at least 5-6 times. Originality. The solution of important environmental and energy problem thanks to reducing heat losses by the pool in different times of a year and correspondingly lower emissions of power generating enterprises. Practical value. It is shown that the coating surface of the pool with poorly heat-conducting and easy to install coating will let, at a minimum, to reduce the actual heat loss on 5-6 times and reduce the emissions of power plants generating energy for pool heating.

  9. Health services utilization and costs of the insured and uninsured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health insurance is a social security system that aims to facilitate fair financing of health costs through pooling and judicious utilization of financial resources, in order to provide financial risk protections and cost burden sharing for people against high cost of healthcare through various prepayment methods ...

  10. 41 CFR 109-38.5102 - Utilization controls and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazards, particularly when mingled with other motor vehicle traffic; and (h) The use of electric vehicles..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38... motor vehicle is involved, such as assignments from motor pools, the individual's trip records must, as...

  11. Flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C.; Chen, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Safety analyses of fast breeder reactors require understanding of the two-phase fluid dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of volume-heated boiling pool systems. Design of direct contact three-phase boilers, of practical interest in the chemical industries also requires understanding of the fundamental two-phase flow and heat transfer behavior of volume boiling systems. Several experiments have been recently reported relevant to the boundary heat-loss mechanisms of boiling pool systems. Considerably less is known about the two-phase fluid dynamic behavior of such systems. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the steady-state flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pool systems

  12. Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in thymidine kinase 2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saada, Ann; Ben-Shalom, Efrat; Zyslin, Rivka; Miller, Chaya; Mandel, Hanna; Elpeleg, Orly

    2003-10-24

    Deficiency of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and manifests by severe skeletal myopathy in infancy. In order to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition, mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools were determined in patients' fibroblasts. Despite normal mtDNA content and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, mitochondrial dNTP pools were imbalanced. Specifically, deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) content was markedly decreased, resulting in reduced dTTP:deoxycytidine triphosphate ratio. These findings underline the importance of balanced mitochondrial dNTP pools for mtDNA synthesis and may serve as the basis for future therapeutic interventions.

  13. Non-electric applications of pool-type nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.; Romenkov, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper recommends the use of pool-type light water reactors for thermal energy production. Safety and reliability of these reactors were already demonstrated to the public by the long-term operation of swimming pool research reactors. The paper presents the design experience of two projects: Apatity Underground Nuclear Heating Plant and Nuclear Sea-Water Desalination Plant. The simplicity of pool-type reactors, the ease of their manufacturing and maintenance make this type of a heat source attractive to the countries without a developed nuclear industry. (author). 6 figs, 1 tab

  14. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lee E.; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  15. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-07-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  16. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  17. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lee E., E-mail: l.brown@leeds.ac.uk; Ramchunder, Sorain J.; Beadle, Jeannie M.; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  18. Modeling of the Temperature Field Recovery in the Oil Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibullin, I. L.; Davtetbaev, A. Ya.; Mar'in, D. F.; Khisamov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the problem on mathematical modeling of the temperature field recovery in the oil pool upon termination of injection of water into the pool. The problem is broken down into two stages: injection of water and temperature and pressure recovery upon termination of injection. A review of the existing mathematical models is presented, analytical solutions for a number of cases have been constructed, and a comparison of the analytical solutions of different models has been made. In the general form, the expression has been obtained that permits determining the temperature change in the oil pool upon termination of injection of water (recovery of the temperature field).

  19. Core-concrete molten pool dynamics and interfacial heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical models are derived for the heat transfer from molten oxide pools to an underlying concrete surface and from molten steel pools to a general concrete containment. To accomplish this, two separate effects models are first developed, one emphasizing the vigorous agitation of the molten pool by gases evolving from the concrete and the other considering the insulating effect of a slag layer produced by concrete melting. The resulting algebraic expressions, combined into a general core-concrete heat transfer representation, are shown to provide very good agreement with experiments involving molten steel pours into concrete crucibles

  20. Conceptual design of reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) spent fuel pool cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonny Lanyau; Mazleha Maskin; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Mohmammad Suhaimi Kassim; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Phongsakorn Prak Tom; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Mohd Huzair Hussain

    2012-01-01

    After undergo about 30 years of safe operation, Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) was planned to be upgraded to ensure continuous operation at optimum safety condition. In the meantime, upgrading is essential to get higher flux to diversify the reactor utilization. Spent fuel pool is needed for temporary storage of the irradiated fuel before sending it back to original country for reprocessing, reuse after the upgrading accomplished or final disposal. The irradiated fuel elements need to be secure physically with continuous cooling to ensure the safety of the fuels itself. The decay heat probably still exist even though the fuel elements not in the reactor core. Therefore, appropriate cooling is required to remove the heat produced by decay of the fission product in the irradiated fuel element. The design of spent fuel pool cooling system (SFPCS) was come to mind in order to provide the sufficient cooling to the irradiated fuel elements and also as a shielding. The spent fuel pool cooling system generally equipped with pumps, heat exchanger, water storage tank, valve and piping. The design of the system is based on criteria of the primary cooling system. This paper provides the conceptual design of the spent fuel cooling system. (author)

  1. Fragmentation of a single molten copper and silver droplets penetrating a sodium pool with solid crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru Itagaki; Ken-ichiro Sugiyama; Satoshi Nishimura; Izumi Kinoshita

    2005-01-01

    As a basic study of molten fuel-coolant interaction in liquid metal fast cooled reactors, we carried out a series of experiments for the fragmentation of molten copper droplet penetrating sodium pool at instantaneous contact interface temperatures below its freezing point. A single molten copper droplet with 5g in weight and with superheating varied from 0 degree C to 131 degree C was dropped into a sodium pool in a wide range of ambient Weber numbers 24 to 228. In addition to the experiment of molten copper droplet, molten silver droplet with 5gs in weight and with superheating varied from 3 degree C to 174 degree C was dropped into the sodium pool at an ambient Weber number of about 80. From the observation of the cross section of solidified silver droplet without fragmentation, it was clearly confirmed that sodium micro jet is driven into the inside from the upper surface of molten droplet keeping liquid phase, which is clear evidence for the thermal fragmentation mechanism proposed in the previous paper. Large scattering in the values of dimensionless mass median diameter observed in the present experimental study is recognized to be dependent on whether latent heat instantaneously released due to the injection of sodium micro jet can be effectively utilized for fragmentation. (authors)

  2. Cardiothoracic ratio for prediction of left ventricular dilation: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Shah, Parinda H; Nijhawan, Karan; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Increased cardiothoracic ratio noted on chest radiographs often prompts concern and further evaluation with additional imaging. This study pools available data assessing the utility of cardiothoracic ratio in predicting left ventricular dilation. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies comparing cardiothoracic ratio by chest x-ray to left ventricular dilation by echocardiography. Electronic databases were used to identify studies which were then assessed for quality and bias, with those with adequate quality and minimal bias ultimately being included in the pooled analysis. The pooled data were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cardiomegaly in predicting left ventricular dilation. A total of six studies consisting of 466 patients were included in this analysis. Cardiothoracic ratio had 83.3% sensitivity, 45.4% specificity, 43.5% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value. When a secondary analysis was conducted with a pediatric study excluded, a total of five studies consisting of 371 patients were included. Cardiothoracic ratio had 86.2% sensitivity, 25.2% specificity, 42.5% positive predictive value and 74.0% negative predictive value. Cardiothoracic ratio as determined by chest radiograph is sensitive but not specific for identifying left ventricular dilation. Cardiothoracic ratio also has a strong negative predictive value for identifying left ventricular dilation.

  3. Predicting how altering propagule pressure changes establishment rates of biological invaders across species pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Kimberley, Mark; Liebhold, Andrew M; Haack, Robert A; Cavey, Joseph F

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions resulting from international trade can cause major environmental and economic impacts. Propagule pressure is perhaps the most important factor influencing establishment, although actual arrival rates of species are rarely recorded. Furthermore, the pool of potential invaders includes many species that vary in their arrival rate and establishment potential. Therefore, we stress that it is essential to consider the size and composition of species pools arriving from source regions when estimating probabilities of establishment and effects of pathway infestation rates. To address this, we developed a novel framework and modeling approach to enable prediction of future establishments in relation to changes in arrival rate across entire species pools. We utilized 13 828 border interception records from the United States and New Zealand for 444 true bark beetle (Scolytinae) and longhorned beetle (Cerambycidae) species detected between 1949 and 2008 as proxies for arrival rates to model the relationship between arrival and establishment rates. Nonlinearity in this relationship implies that measures intended to reduce the unintended transport of potential invaders (such as phytosanitary treatments) must be highly effective in order to substantially reduce the rate of future invasions, particularly if trade volumes continue to increase.

  4. Ispitivanje učinka dodatka fitaze na biološku dostupnost mioinozitola u raženom kruhu pomoću in vitro simulacije probave i stanica Caco-2

    OpenAIRE

    Duliński, Robert; Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol tr...

  5. In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piascik, T.G.; Patenaude, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package, and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power/Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved. In spite of several emergent problems which a task of this nature presents, this small, close knit utility/vendor team completed the work on schedule and within the exposure and cost budgets

  6. Natural convection heat transfer in a rectangular pool with volumetric heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Kang Hee; Suh, Kune Y.

    2003-01-01

    Natural convection plays an important role in determining the thermal load from debris accumulated in the reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident. The heat transfer within the molten core material can be characterized by buoyancy-induced flows resulting from internal heating due to decay of fission products. The thermo-fluid dynamic characteristics of the molten pool depend strongly on the thermal boundary conditions. The spatial and temporal variation of heat flux on the pool wall boundaries and the pool superheat are mainly characterized by the natural convection flow inside the molten pool. In general, natural convection involving internal heat generation is delineated in terms of the modified Rayleigh number, Ra', which quantifies the internal heat source and hence the strength of buoyancy. The test section is of rectangular cavity whose length, width, and height are 500 mm, 80 mm, and 250 mm, respectively. A total of twenty-four T-type thermocouples were installed in the test loop to measure temperature distribution. Four T-type thermocouples were utilized to measure temperatures on the boundary. A direct heating method was adopted in this test to simulate the uniform heat generation. The experiments covered a range of Rayleigh number, Ra, between 4.87x10 7 and 2.32x10 14 and Prandtl number, Pr, between 0.7 and 3.98. Tests were conducted with water and air as simulant. The upper and lower boundary conditions were maintained at a uniform temperature of 10degC. (author)

  7. Pool Onistarist kuulub kütusefirma omanikele / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    Alkoholikontserni Onistar kiiret tõusu Eesti alkoholiturul toetavad Vene rahvusest ärimeestele kuuluvate kütusefirmade Infast Oil ja Saurix Petroleum omanikud, kellele kuulub pool Eesti viinaturu liidri aktsiatest

  8. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.109-2 - Equipment pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... number and location of equipment pools, consideration shall be given to economy of operation, mobility of... available for sharing or loan. Information concerning the availability of this equipment can be maintained...

  10. Open Architecture, Inventory Pooling and Spare Maintenance Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrer, Geraldo

    2007-01-01

    .... This article focuses on the benefits provided by pooling together the inventory necessary to meet the demand of many users into a small number of storage sites with reduced product variety obtained...

  11. Investigation to radioactive contamination of pool water in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. K.

    2003-06-01

    The pool (3x6x10) in irradiated materials examination facility is usually used for the purpose of taking the specimen out of cask loaded into the pool, and carrying in/out the specimen to/ from the hot cell. Always, it must be cared for the water into the pool to be fine condition because all operation are worked with the naked eye during taking an irradiated materials out of the cask and plunging them in the bucket-elevator. In the aspects of the radioactive remained substances in the water must be controlled so that the amount of substances to be lower than the standard amount prescribed by RCA Korea Activity in a part of radioactive contamination control. In consequence, an expertness of status and a practical use of skill make possible the prevention of radioactive material's diffusion or the radioactive contamination of pool water and safety work

  12. Allegheny County Public Swimming Pool, Hot Tub, and Spa Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Public swimming pool, hot tub, and spa facilities are licensed and inspected once each year to assure proper water quality, sanitation, lifeguard coverage and...

  13. 17 CFR 229.1111 - (Item 1111) Pool assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information for the asset pool, including statistical information regarding delinquencies and losses. (d.... Present statistical information in tabular or graphical format, if such presentation will aid understanding. Present statistical information in appropriate distributional groups or incremental ranges in...

  14. Equilibrium blood pool scanning in the evaluation of hemophilic arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.; Green, D.; Rana, N.A.; Milgram, J.W.; Mintzer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Arthropathy was evaluated in six patients with severe hemophilia (factor VIII<1%) using the technique of blood pool scanning. Employing an in vivo method for erythrocyte labelling with technetium-99m, a dynamic perfusion sequence was obtained using a scintillation camera over the joint(s) to be examined. Subsequently, equilibrium blood pool images of the joints were obtained to determine regional blood volume. In young patients with repeated episodes of acute hemarthrosis, increased vascularity and increased blood pool in the affected joints were demonstrated. In older patients with fixed, contracted joints and degenerative arthropathy, vascularity and regional blood volume were not abnormal. Blood pool scanning is a safe, non-invasive technique that augments the clinical and radiographic examination of the joints. The method is helpful in distinguishing acute joint bleeding from chronic synovitis and arthritis, and may prove useful in selecting patients for synovectomy. (author)

  15. LCG Persistency Framework (POOL, CORAL, COOL) - Status and Outlook

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The LCG Persistency Framework consists of three software packages (POOL, CORAL and COOL) that address the data access requirements of the LHC experiments in several different areas. The project is the result of the collaboration between the CERN IT Department and the three experiments (ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that are using some or all of the Persistency Framework components to access their data. The POOL package is a hybrid technology store for C++ objects, using a mixture of streaming and relational technologies to implement both object persistency and object metadata catalogs and collections. POOL provides generic components that can be used by the experiments to store both their event data and their conditions data. The CORAL package is an abstraction layer with an SQL-free API for accessing data stored using relational database technologies. It is used directly by experiment-specific applications and internally by both COOL and POOL. The COOL package provides specific software components and tools for the h...

  16. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  17. Dynamic simulation and thermo-economic analysis of a PhotoVoltaic/Thermal collector heating system for an indoor–outdoor swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; De Luca, Giuseppina; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV/T heating system for indoor–outdoor swimming pools is proposed. • A comparison among some thermal pool models available in literature is carried out. • Dynamic simulations of the thermal behavior of the swimming-pools are performed. • PV/T thermal energy is used to heat the swimming pool and for DHW production. • Energy and economic parametric analyses of the proposed system are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of an innovative renewable energy plant serving an existing indoor/outdoor swimming pool located in Naples. The proposed solar hybrid system is designed in order to balance the remarkable energy demand of the swimming pool facility and to ensure suitable comfort conditions for swimmers. With the aim to accomplish such goals, the dynamic thermal behavior of the swimming pool was analyzed as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the indoor space and on the meteorological conditions of the pool site. In order to properly design and size the proposed renewable energy system, different thermal pool loss formulations for the calculation of the swimming pool thermal balance, in indoor and outdoor regimes, are adopted. The solar hybrid system consists of a water cooled photovoltaic/thermal collectors plant (PV/T), designed to meet a part of the facility demands of electricity and heat. Electricity is completely utilized by the facility, while the produced thermal energy is primarily used to meet the pool thermal demand and secondarily for sanitary hot water scopes. In order to carry out dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses, the system performance is designed and dynamically simulated in TRNSYS environment. The developed simulation model enables the calculation of both the indoor and outdoor swimming pool thermal losses and the overall energy and economic system performance. Such results are obtained as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the environment, of the occupants and the

  18. Condensation pool experiments with steam using DN200 blowdown pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.

    2005-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the condensation pool experiments with steam using a DN200 blowdown pipe. Altogether five experiment series, each consisting of several steam blows, were carried out in December 2004 with a scaled-down test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The main purpose of the experiments was to increase the understanding of different phenomena in the condensation pool during steam discharge. (au)

  19. Optimization of spent fuel pool weir gate driving mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Du, Lin; Tao, Xinlei; Wang, Shijie; Shang, Ertao; Yu, Jianjiang

    2018-04-01

    Spent fuel pool is crucial facility for fuel storage and nuclear safety, and the spent fuel pool weir gate is the key related equipment. In order to achieve a goal of more efficient driving force transfer, loading during the opening/closing process is analyzed and an optimized calculation method for dimensions of driving mechanism is proposed. The result of optimizing example shows that the method can be applied to weir gates' design with similar driving mechanism.

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OFBENTHIC FISH COMMUNITY OF DNIEPER STORAGE POOL LITTORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitskiy R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific composition of bull-calves is analyzed together with their quantitative and quality parameters in the littoral zone of the Dnepr storage pool. The structural-functional features of organization of littoral communities of bull-calves were studied. The patterns of spatial distribution of Bull-calf (Gobiidae representatives were analyzed for the storage pool; their role in the littoral fish communities was clarified.

  1. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kumar; V. Bhutani; P. Khatak

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated s...

  2. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.

    1996-12-01

    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation

  3. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.

  4. A swimming pool array for ultra high energy showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.; Shoup, Anthony; Barwick, Steve; Goodman, Jordan A.

    1992-11-01

    A very preliminary design concept for an array using water Cherenkov counters, built out of commercially available backyard swimming pools, to sample the electromagnetic and muonic components of ultra high energy showers at large lateral distances is presented. The expected performance of the pools is estimated using the observed lateral distributions by scintillator and water Cherenkov arrays at energies above 1019 eV and simulations.

  5. Lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Katharina; Connert, Thomas; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    There is an increased risk of orofacial injuries in swimming pool facilities. Nevertheless, only a few studies have addressed this issue. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria. A further aim was to examine which gender and age groups were affected, where and why these injuries occurred, and whether pool attendants had sufficient knowledge of dental first-aid measures. A total of 764 pool attendants in Austria were contacted by telephone and 689 participated in the study (90.2%). The attendants were interviewed retrospectively about accident occurrences in 2014 by a standardized questionnaire. Responses to the provision of first aid and choice of storage medium for avulsed teeth were subsequently evaluated. The frequency of lip injuries was 19.0%, and tooth injuries were 11.3%. Male bathers (P < .05) and children under 12 years (P < .001) most frequently suffered injuries. The waterslide was the most common accident site. The most common cause of lip injuries was slipping on wet surfaces (39.0%), and for tooth injuries it was collisions with other persons or objects (each 28.1%). The pool attendants' responses were predominantly good or sufficient on first aid, with the exception of what storage medium to choose. Tooth rescue boxes were available in only 8.6% of all pool facilities. Orofacial injuries are a frequently occurring problem in swimming pool facilities. The pool attendants' knowledge on first-aid care of tooth injuries could still be improved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A hierarchic sustainability dashboard to evaluate logistics pooling

    OpenAIRE

    Morana, Joëlle; Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Logistics pooling is now a major challenge in supply chain management, though it remains a little known activity in which the different actors involved use different approaches whose objectives are not always the same and with sometimes conflicting standpoints. This purpose of this article is to define, on the basis of a detailed analysis of the literature, a grid for interpreting and a dashboard for evaluating the sustainable performance of pooled delivery systems. Firstly, an analysis of th...

  7. Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1996-12-01

    Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  8. Phospholipid synthesis in the squid giant axon: incorporation of lipid precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, R.M.; Pant, H.; Gainer, H.; Tytell, M.

    1983-05-01

    The squid giant axon and extruded axoplasm from the giant axon were used to study the capacity of axoplasm for phospholipid synthesis. Extruded axoplasm, suspended in chemically defined media, catalyzed the synthesis of phospholipids from all of the precursors tested. /sup 32/P-Labeled inorganic phosphate and gamma-labeled ATP were actively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol phosphate, while (2-/sup 3/H)myo-inositol and L-(/sup 3/H(G))serine were actively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine, respectively. Though less well utilized. (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol was incorporated into phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, and triglyceride, and methyl-3H)choline and (1-/sup 3/H)ethanolamine were incorporated into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. Isolated squid giant axons were incubated in artificial seawater containing the above precursors. The axoplasm was extruded following the incubations. Although most of the product lipids were recovered in the sheath (composed of cortical axoplasm, axolemma, and surrounding satellite cells), significant amounts (4-20%) were present in the extruded axoplasm. With tritiated choline and myo-inositol, the major labeled phospholipids found in both the extruded axoplasm and the sheath were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol, respectively. With both glycerol and phosphate, phosphatidylethanolamine was a major labeled lipid in both axoplasm and sheath. These findings demonstrate that all classes of phospholipids are formed by endogenous synthetic enzymes in axoplasm. In addition, we feel that the different patterns of incorporation by intact axons and extruded axoplasm indicate that surrounding sheath cells contribute lipids to axoplasm. A comprehensive picture of axonal lipid metabolism should include axoplasmic synthesis and glial-axon transfer as pathways complementing the axonal transport of perikaryally formed lipids.

  9. Exogenously applied D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol modifies the accumulation of α-D-galactosides in developing tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have investigated the effect of exogenous cyclitols on the accumulation of their galactosides and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs, as well as on some enzymes important for their biosynthesis in seeds of tiny vetch (Vicia hirsuta [L.] S.F. Gray. Immature seeds during 6-day incubation with D-chiro-inositol (naturally does not appear in seeds of tiny vetch were accumulated cyclitol and its galactosides (fagopyritols: B1 and B2. Short 4-hour incubation with D-chiro-inositol, and subsequent slow desiccation process caused accumulation of free cyclitol only, without biosynthesis of its galactosides. Feeding D-chiro-inositol to pods of tiny vetch induced accumulation of high levels of its galactosides (fagopyritol B1, B2 and B3 in maturing seeds. Similarly, feeding D-pinitol increased accumulation of its mono-, di- and tri-galactosides: GPA, GPB, DGPA and TGPA in tiny vetch seed. Accumulation of both cyclitols and their galactosides drastically reduced accumulation of verbascose. Inhibition of RFOs biosynthesis by elevated levels of free cyclitols suggests some competition between formation of both types of galactosides and similarity of both biosynthetic routes in tiny vetch seeds. Galactinol synthase (GolS from tiny vetch seeds demonstrated ability to utilize D-chiro-inositol as galactosyl acceptor, instead of myo-inositol. Presence of both cyclitols, as substrates for GolS, caused synthesis of their galactosides: fagopyritol B1 and galactinol. However, formation of galactinol was more efficient than fagopyritol B1. D-chiro-Inositol and D-pinitol at concentrations several-fold higher than myo-inositol had inhibitory effect on GolS. Thus, we suggest that a level of free cyclitols can have an influence on the rate of galactinol biosynthesis and further accumulation of RFOs and galactosyl cyclitols in tiny vetch seeds.

  10. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as open-quotes commercial fuelsclose quotes except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative

  11. LNG pool fire simulation for domino effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masum Jujuly, Muhammad; Rahman, Aziz; Ahmed, Salim; Khan, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire has been performed using ANSYS CFX-14. The CFD model solves the fundamental governing equations of fluid dynamics, namely, the continuity, momentum and energy equations. Several built-in sub-models are used to capture the characteristics of pool fire. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation for turbulence and the eddy-dissipation model for non-premixed combustion are used. For thermal radiation, the Monte Carlo (MC) radiation model is used with the Magnussen soot model. The CFD results are compared with a set of experimental data for validation; the results are consistent with experimental data. CFD results show that the wind speed has significant contribution on the behavior of pool fire and its domino effects. The radiation contours are also obtained from CFD post processing, which can be applied for risk analysis. The outcome of this study will be helpful for better understanding of the domino effects of pool fire in complex geometrical settings of process industries. - Highlights: • Simulation of pool fire using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. • Integration of CFD based pool fire model with domino effect. • Application of the integrated CFD based domino effect analysis

  12. Seasonal variation in Chironomid emergence from coastal pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T. Egan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the phenology of emergences can be useful in determining seasonal chironomid life cycle patterns, which are often influenced by ice cover and temperature in cold climates. Lake Superior is the largest lake in North America and with a mean surface temperature of 3.9 °C influences regional climate. Coastal pools at Isle Royale, a wilderness archipelago in the northern part of the lake, occur in dense patches on low-gradient volcanic bedrock between the lakeshore and forest, creating variable microhabitats for Chironomidae. Four sites were sampled monthly from April to October, 2010. Surface-floating pupal exuviae were collected from a series of pools in two zones: a lower zone near the lake influenced by wave splash, and an upper zone near the forest and influenced by upland runoff. We used Jaccard’s and Whittaker’s diversity indexes to test community similarity across months. Temperature loggers in pools collected hourly readings for most of the study. Assemblage emergences were stable in upper pools, with significant similarity across late spring and summer months. Assemblages were seasonally variable in lower pools, with significant dissimilarity across spring, summer, and fall months. Few species in either zone were unique to spring or fall months. However, many summer species in the splash zone had a narrow emergence period occurring during calm weather following distinct increases in mean water temperature. Regardless of input of cold lake water to the lower zone, pools from both zones generally had corresponding temperature trends.

  13. Review of steam jet condensation in a water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Song, C. H.; Park, C. K.; Kang, H. S.; Jeon, H. G.; Yoon, Y. J.

    2002-01-01

    In the advanced nuclear power plants including APR1400, the SDVS is adopted to increase the plant safety using the concept of feed-and-bleed operation. In the case of the TLOFW, the POSRV located at the top of the pressurizer is expected to open due to the pressurization of the reactor coolant system and discharges steam and/or water mixture into the water pool, where the mixture is condensed. During the condensation of the mixture, thermal-hydraulic loads such as pressure and temperature variations are induced to the pool structure. For the pool structure design, such thermal-hydraulic aspects should be considered. Understanding the phenomena of the submerged steam jet condensation in a water pool is helpful for system designers to design proper pool structure, sparger, and supports etc. This paper reviews and evaluates the steam jet condensation in a water pool on the physical phenomena of the steam condensation including condensation regime map, heat transfer coefficient, steam plume, steam jet condensation load, and steam jet induced flow

  14. Natural convection heat transfer in the molten metal pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.; Choi, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical studies using the FLOW-3D computer program have been performed on natural convection heat transfer of a high density molten metal pool, in order to evaluate the coolability of the corium pool. The FLOW-3D results on the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the molten metal pool region have been compared and evaluated with the experimental data. The FLOW-3D results have shown that the developed natural convection flow contributes to the solidified crust formation of the high density molten metal pool. The present FLOW-3D results, on the relationship between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region, are more similar to the calculated results of Globe and Dropkin's correlation than any others. The natural convection heat transfer in the low aspect ratio case is more substantial than that in the high aspect ratio case. The FLOW-3D results, on the temperature profile and on the heat transfer rate in the molten metal pool region, are very similar to the experimental data. The heat transfer rate of the internal heat generation case is higher than that of the bottom heating case at the same heat supply condition. (author)

  15. Detection of 41Ar diffusion from a TRIGA pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, Scott; Nelson, George

    1990-01-01

    Argon-41 levels in very low concentrations in the reactor room air can be inferred from the rate of escape from the pool water surface. The rate of Argon-41 diffusion from pool water to room air was determined by the measurement of the activity buildup in containers of air in contact with the pool surface. The Argon-41 concentration in each container was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with a calibrated GeLi detector. At 100 KW power with the water temperature at 10 deg. Celsius the total release of Argon-41 was determined to be 3.5e10±15% atoms for 80 minutes of operation. The corresponding activity released from the pool was 98.6 microcuries, while the total activity produced in the pool was 4900 microcuries. The diffusion coefficient of Argon-41 from the pool water surface to the air at this temperature was measured to be 3.14e-14 sec-cm 2 . (author)

  16. Structural analysis of the reactor pool for the RRRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberro, J.G.; Abbate, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present document is to describe the structural design of the Reactor Pool relevant to the RRRP (Replacement Research Reactor Project) for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. The structural analysis required coordinated design, engineering, analysis, and fabrication efforts. The pool has been designed, manufactured, and inspected following as guideline the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which defines the requirements for the pool to withstand hydrostatic and mechanical forces, ensuring its integrity throughout its lifetime. Standard off-the-shelf finite element programs (Nastran and Ansys codes) were used to evaluate the pool and further qualify the design and its construction. Both global and local effect analyses were carried out. The global analysis covers the structural integrity of the pool wall (6 mm thick) considering the different load states acting on it, namely hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion, and seismic event. The local analysis evaluates the structural behaviour of the pool at specific points resulting from the interaction among components. It is confirmed that maximum stresses and displacements fall below the allowable values required by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The water pressure analysis was validated by means of a hydrostatic test. (authors)

  17. 76 FR 64085 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Final Power Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, General Eligibility Criteria. The resource pool for capacity and... transmission in Kansas. Final allocation of the Post-2014 Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, is contingent...

  18. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the thermal performance of a solar heated indoor swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Mančić Marko V.; Živković Dragoljub S.; Milosavljević Peđa M.; Todorović Milena N.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings with indoor swimming pools have a large energy footprint. The source of major energy loss is the swimming pool hall where air humidity is increased by evaporation from the pool water surface. This increases energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the pool hall, fresh water supply loss and heat demand for pool water heating. In this paper, a mathematical model of the swimming pool was made to assess energy demands of an indoor swimming po...

  19. Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorado Linan, Isabel, E-mail: isabel@gfz-potsdam.de [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Gutierrez, Emilia, E-mail: emgutierrez@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Helle, Gerhard, E-mail: ghelle@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Heinrich, Ingo, E-mail: heinrich@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Andreu-Hayles, Laia, E-mail: laiandreu@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades NY (United States); Planells, Octavi, E-mail: leocarpus@hotmail.com [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Ecologia, Diagonal 645, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Leuenberger, Markus, E-mail: leuenberger@climate.unibe.ch [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Zaehringerstrasse 25, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Buerger, Carmen, E-mail: buerger@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany); Schleser, Gerhard, E-mail: schleser@gfz-potsdam.de [German Centre for Geosciences, Climate Dynamics and Landscape Evolution, Dendro Laboratory, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-05-01

    {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of tree rings contain time integrated information about the environmental conditions weighted by seasonal growth dynamics and are well established as sources of palaeoclimatic and ecophysiological data. Annually resolved isotope chronologies are frequently produced by pooling dated growth rings from several trees prior to the isotopic analyses. This procedure has the advantage of saving time and resources, but precludes from defining the isotopic error or statistical uncertainty related to the inter-tree variability. Up to now only a few studies have compared isotope series from pooled tree rings with isotopic measurements from individual trees. We tested whether or not the {delta}{sup 13}C and the {delta}{sup 18}O chronologies derived from pooled and from individual tree rings display significant differences at two locations from the Iberian Peninsula to assess advantages and constraints of both methodologies. The comparisons along the period 1900-2003 reveal a good agreement between pooled chronologies and the two mean master series which were created by averaging raw individual values (Mean) or by generating a mass calibrated mean (MassC). In most of the cases, pooled chronologies show high synchronicity with averaged individual samples at interannual scale but some differences also show up especially when comparing {delta}{sup 18}O decadal to multi-decadal variations. Moreover, differences in the first order autocorrelation among individuals may be obscured by pooling strategies. The lack of replication of pooled chronologies prevents detection of a bias due to a higher mass contribution of one sample but uncertainties associated with the analytical process itself, as sample inhomogeneity, seems to account for the observed differences. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pooled {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O chronologies are expected to be similar to the mean. {yields} Empirical pooled chronologies {delta}{sup 13}C and

  20. Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorado Linan, Isabel; Gutierrez, Emilia; Helle, Gerhard; Heinrich, Ingo; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Planells, Octavi; Leuenberger, Markus; Buerger, Carmen; Schleser, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    δ 13 C and δ 18 O of tree rings contain time integrated information about the environmental conditions weighted by seasonal growth dynamics and are well established as sources of palaeoclimatic and ecophysiological data. Annually resolved isotope chronologies are frequently produced by pooling dated growth rings from several trees prior to the isotopic analyses. This procedure has the advantage of saving time and resources, but precludes from defining the isotopic error or statistical uncertainty related to the inter-tree variability. Up to now only a few studies have compared isotope series from pooled tree rings with isotopic measurements from individual trees. We tested whether or not the δ 13 C and the δ 18 O chronologies derived from pooled and from individual tree rings display significant differences at two locations from the Iberian Peninsula to assess advantages and constraints of both methodologies. The comparisons along the period 1900-2003 reveal a good agreement between pooled chronologies and the two mean master series which were created by averaging raw individual values (Mean) or by generating a mass calibrated mean (MassC). In most of the cases, pooled chronologies show high synchronicity with averaged individual samples at interannual scale but some differences also show up especially when comparing δ 18 O decadal to multi-decadal variations. Moreover, differences in the first order autocorrelation among individuals may be obscured by pooling strategies. The lack of replication of pooled chronologies prevents detection of a bias due to a higher mass contribution of one sample but uncertainties associated with the analytical process itself, as sample inhomogeneity, seems to account for the observed differences. - Research Highlights: → Pooled δ 13 C and δ 18 O chronologies are expected to be similar to the mean. → Empirical pooled chronologies δ 13 C and δ 18 O and the mean show a high synchronicity. → Pooled chronologies differ

  1. Convective Cold Pool Structure and Boundary Layer Recovery in DYNAMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Lee, C.; Jorgensen, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    One of the key factors controlling convective cloud systems in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean is the property of the atmospheric boundary layer. Convective downdrafts and precipitation from the cloud systems produce cold pools in the boundary layer, which can inhibit subsequent development of convection. The recovery time is the time it takes for the boundary layer to return to pre convective conditions. It may affect the variability of the convection on various time scales during the initiation of MJO. This study examines the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observations, include the flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data, collected during the Dynamics of MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign from November-December 2011. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy, which can be computed from the dropsonde data. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO seems to enhance convective downdraft, making the cold pools stronger and deeper. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by the strength and depth of the cold pools and also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO over the Indian Ocean, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO. Preliminary results show that the strength and depth of the cold pools are inversely correlated with the surrounding mid-level moisture. During the convectively suppressed phase, the recovery time is ~5-20 hours in relative weak wind condition with small air-sea fluxes. The recovery time is generally less than 6 hours during the active phase of MJO with moist mid-levels and stronger surface wind and air-sea fluxes.

  2. Biophysical Interactions within Step-Pool Mountain Streams Following Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.; Chin, A.; O'Dowd, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recovery of riverine ecosystems following disturbance is driven by a variety of interacting processes. Wildfires pose increasing disturbances to riverine landscapes, with rising frequencies and magnitudes owing to warming climates and increased fuel loads. The effects of wildfire include loss of vegetation, elevated runoff and flash floods, erosion and deposition, and changing biological habitats and communities. Understanding process interactions in post-fire landscapes is increasingly urgent for successful management and restoration of affected ecosystems. In steep channels, steps and pools provide prominent habitats for organisms and structural integrity in high energy environments. Step-pools are typically stable, responding to extreme events with recurrence intervals often exceeding 50 years. Once wildfire occurs, however, intensification of post-fire flood events can potentially overpower the inherent stability of these systems, with significant consequences for aquatic life and human well-being downstream. This study examined the short-term response of step-pool streams following the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado. We explored interacting feedbacks among geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology in the post-fire environment. At selected sites with varying burn severity, we established baseline conditions immediately after the fire with channel surveys, biological assessment using benthic macroinvertebrates, sediment analysis including pebble counts, and precipitation gauging. Repeat measurements after major storm events over several years enabled analysis of the interacting feedbacks among post-fire processes. We found that channels able to retain the step-pool structure changed less and facilitated recovery more readily. Step habitats maintained higher percentages of sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa compared to pools through post-fire floods. Sites burned with high severity experienced greater reduction in the percentage of sensitive taxa. The decimation of

  3. Concepts for reducing nuclear utility inventory carrying costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graybill, R.E.; DiCola, F.E.; Solanas, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are under pressure to reduce their operating and maintenance expenses such that the total cost of generating electricity through nuclear power remains an economically attractive option. One area in which expenses may be reduced is total inventory carrying cost. The total inventory carrying cost consists of financing an inventory, managing the inventory, assuring quality, engineering of acceptable parts specifications, and procuring initial and replenishment stock. Concepts and methodology must be developed to reduce the remaining expenses of a utility's total inventory carrying cost. Currently, two concepts exist: pooled inventory management system (PIMS), originally established by General Electric Company and a group of boiling water reactor owners, and Nuclear Parts Associates' (NUPA) shared inventory management program (SIMP). Both concepts share or pool parts and components among utilities. The SIMP program objectives and technical activities are summarized

  4. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of an industrial P. chrysogenum fermentation with a coupled 9-pool metabolic model : Towards rational scale-down and design optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haringa, C.; Tang, W.; Wang, G.; Deshmukh, A.T.; van Winden, Wouter A.; Chu, Ju; van Gulik, W.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Mudde, R.F.; Noorman, H.J.

    2018-01-01

    We assess the effect of substrate heterogeneity on the metabolic response of P. chrysogenum in industrial bioreactors via the coupling of a 9-pool metabolic model with Euler-Lagrange CFD simulations. In this work, we outline how this coupled hydrodynamic-metabolic modeling can be utilized in 5

  5. Experimental investigation of particulate debris spreading in a pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, A., E-mail: kono@kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) , Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Basso, S., E-mail: simoneb@kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) , Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Kudinov, P., E-mail: pkudinov@kth.se [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) , Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Yakush, S.E., E-mail: yakush@ipmnet.ru [Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ave. Vernadskogo 101 Bldg 1, Moscow 119526 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Termination of severe accident progression by core debris cooling in a deep pool of water under reactor vessel is considered in several designs of light water reactors. However, success of this accident mitigation strategy is contingent upon the effectiveness of heat removal by natural circulation from the debris bed. It is assumed that a porous bed will be formed in the pool in the process of core melt fragmentation and quenching. Debris bed coolability depends on its properties and system conditions. The properties of the bed, including its geometry are the outcomes of the debris bed formation process. Spreading of the debris particles in the pool by two-phase turbulent flows induced by the heat generated in the bed can affect the shape of the bed and thus influence its coolability. The goal of this work is to provide experimental data on spreading of solid particles in the pool by large-scale two-phase flow. The aim is to provide data necessary for understanding of separate effects and for development and validation of models and codes. Validated codes can be then used for prediction of debris bed formation under prototypic severe accident conditions. In PDS-P (Particulate Debris Spreading in the Pool) experiments, air injection at the bottom of the test section is employed as a means to create large-scale flow in the pool in isothermal conditions. The test section is a rectangular tank with a 2D slice geometry, it has fixed width (72 mm), adjustable length (up to 1.5 m) and allows water filling to the depth of up to 1 m. Variable pool length and depth allows studying two-phase circulating flows of different characteristic sizes and patterns. The average void fraction in the pool is determined by video recording and subsequent image processing. Particles are supplied from the top of the facility above the water surface. Results of several series of PDS-P experiments are reported in this paper. The influence of the gas flow rate, pool dimensions, particle density

  6. Pool swell sub-scale testing and code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elisson, K.

    1981-01-01

    The main objective of the experiment was to investigate the pool swell dynamics in general and the forces on the lowered central part of the diaphragm between drywell and wetwell in particular. Apart from the high speed camera pressure transducers and strain gauges were used to monitor the transient. Data was recorded on a 14 channel FM recorder and then digitalised and plotted. In total more than one hundred tests were performed including parametric variations of for example geometry, break flow, initial drywell pressure and initial water level. In parallel to this experiment pool swell calculations have been performed with the computer codes COPTA and STEALTH. COPTA which is a lumped mass code for pressure suppression containment analysis has a slug pool swell mode. STEALTH which is a general purpose lagrangian hydrodynamics code has been used in a 2-D axisymmetric version. The STEALTH code has been used to calculate the radial variations in the vertical displacement and velocity of the pool surface and to predict the load on the lowered central part of the diaphragm. A comparison between the calculations and the experimental data indicates that both codes are sufficiently correct in their description of the pool swell transient. (orig.)

  7. Immobilization of radioactive waste sludge from spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Plecas, I.

    1998-01-01

    In the last forty years, in FR Yugoslavia, as result of the research reactors' operation and radionuclides application in medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of the different categories and various levels of specific activities were generated. As a temporary solution, these radioactive waste materials are stored in the two hanger type interim storages for solid waste and some type of liquid waste packed in plastic barrels, and one of three stainless steal underground containers for other types of liquid waste. Spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors in the Vinca Institute have been temporary stored in water filled storage pool. Due to the fact that the water in the spent fuel elements storage pool have not been purified for a long time, all metallic components submerged in the water have been hardly corroded and significant amount of the sludge has been settled on the bottom of the pool. As a first step in improving spent fuel elements storage conditions and slowing down corrosion in the storage spent fuel elements pool we have decided to remove the sludge from the bottom of the pool. Although not high, but slightly radioactive, this sludge had to be treated as radioactive waste material. Some aspects of immobilisation, conditioning and storage of this sludge are presented in this paper. (author

  8. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated surface. It occurs during boiling of liquids for excess temperature ranging from 5 to 30 °C in various processes related to high vaporization of liquid for specific purposes like sugarcane juice heating for jaggery making, milk heating for khoa making, steam generation, cooling of electronic equipments, refrigeration and etcetera. In this review paper, pool boiling method during heating of liquids for specific purpose is depicted. It is inferred that enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer is a challenging and complex task. Also, recent research and use of various correlations for natural convection pool boiling is reviewed.

  9. SBWR PCCS vent phenomena and suppression pool mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, P. [Thermal-Hydraulics Lab., Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Andreani, M. [Nuclear Engineering Lab., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The most important phenomena influencing the effectiveness of the pressure suppression capability of the water pool within the Wetwell compartment of the SBWR Containment, during the period of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) venting, have been critically reviewed. In addition, calculations have been carried-out to determine the condensation of the vented steam and the distribution of the energy deposited in the liquid pool. It has been found that a large contribution to the vapour suppression is due to condensation inside the vent pipe. The condensation rate of the steam inside the bubbles, produced at the vent exit, during their rise to the surface, may however be rather low, because of the large size bubbles. This can lead to vapour channelling to the Wetwell gas space. The above comments are likely to be ameliorated if the vent exit is a distributed source or sparger. Due to the large water flow rates within the {open_quotes}bubbly two-phase plume{close_quotes} generated by the gas injection, the water in the pool above the vent exit is likely to be heated nearly isothermally (perfect mixing). The effect of the suppression pool walls would be to enhance the recirculation and, consequently to promote mixing. The large size of the bubbles therein and of the walls on pool mixing are the most severe difficulties in extrapolating the results from scaled experiments to prototypical conditions.

  10. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs

  11. Determination of isotopomers in pools of molecules with polyisotopic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyakun, A.M.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Polyisotopic element atoms that are present in a molecule form a pool of isotopomer molecules. Mono- and polyisotopomers are distinguished depending on the quantity of atoms of polyisotopic elements. Methodical approaches have been considered for the quantitative determination of the isotope composition of an element included in mono- and polyisotopic molecules. A possibility of the equally probable (homogeneous) and non-equally probable (non-homogeneous) distribution of isotopes of a polyisotopic element, the atoms of which have different positions in the molecule of polyisotopomer, has been shown. Factors disturbing the homogeneous distribution of isotopes of the element in the polyisotopomer pool have been revealed. When a polyisotopomer is involved in a mass-dependent process or reaction, the homogeneity of isotope distribution of the element is disturbed both in the residual and newly formed pools of polyisotopomer. By the example of CO 2 (polyisotopomer by oxygen) it has been shown that one can judge of the history of the analyzed pool formation by distribution of oxygen isotopes within this pool. The isotope content in the oxygen sites of polyisotopomer is a diagnostic feature of CO 2 involvement in the efflux from a reservoir or influx to the analyzed reservoir from an external source. (author)

  12. Gene Pools and the Genetic Architecture of Domesticated Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Lam Huynh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [ (L. Walp.] is a major tropical legume crop grown in warm to hot areas throughout the world and especially important to the people of sub-Saharan Africa where the crop was domesticated. To date, relatively little is understood about its domestication origins and patterns of genetic variation. In this study, a worldwide collection of cowpea landraces and African ancestral wild cowpea was genotyped with more than 1200 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Bayesian inference revealed the presence of two major gene pools in cultivated cowpea in Africa. Landraces from gene pool 1 are mostly distributed in western Africa while the majority of gene pool 2 are located in eastern Africa. Each gene pool is most closely related to wild cowpea in the same geographic region, indicating divergent domestication processes leading to the formation of two gene pools. The total genetic variation within landraces from countries outside Africa was slightly greater than within African landraces. Accessions from Asia and Europe were more related to those from western Africa while accessions from the Americas appeared more closely related to those from eastern Africa. This delineation of cowpea germplasm into groups of genetic relatedness will be valuable for guiding introgression efforts in breeding programs and for improving the efficiency of germplasm management.

  13. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  14. Assessment of forest nutrient pools in view of biomass potentials - a case study from Austria oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S.; Bruckman, V. J.; Glatzel, G.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the renewable energy forms, bio-energy could help to relieve the pressure which is caused by growing global energy demand. In Austria, large area of forests, traditional utilization of biomass and people's desire to live in a sound environment have supported the positive development of bio-energy. Soil nutrient status is in principle linked with the productivity of the aboveground biomass. This study focuses on K, Ca and Mg pools in soils and aboveground biomass in order to learn more on the temporal dynamics of plant nutrients as indicators for biomass potentials in Quercus dominated forests in northeastern Austria. Three soil types (according to WRB: eutric cambisol, calcic chernozem and haplic luvisol) were considered representative for the area and sampled. We selected nine Quercus petraea dominated permanent plots for this study. Exchangeable cations K, Ca and Mg in the soils were quantified in our study plots. Macronutrients pools of K, Ca and Mg in aboveground biomass were calculated according to inventory data and literature review. The exchangeable cations pool in the top 50 cm of the soil were 882 - 1,652 kg ha-1 for K, 2,661 to 16,510 kg ha-1 for Ca and 320 - 1,850 kg ha-1 for Mg. The nutrient pool in aboveground biomass ranged from 29 to 181 kg ha-1 for K, from 56 to 426 kg ha-1 for Ca and from 4 to 26 kg ha-1 for Mg. The underground exchangeable pools of K, Ca and Mg are generally 10, 22 and 58 times higher than aboveground biomass nutrient pools. Our results showed that the nutrient pools in the mineral soil are sufficient to support the tree growth. The levels of soil nutrients in particular K, Ca and Mg in our study areas are reasonably high and do not indicate the necessity for additional fertilization under current silvicultural practices and biomass extraction rate. The forest in our study areas is in favorable condition to supply biomass as raw material for energy utilization.

  15. Evaluation of Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform and Residual Chlorine in Swimming Pools in Kermanshah on the Season, the type of Pool, Disinfection System and Source of Water Supply in the during of three years (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHarafi

    2014-11-01

    From the results , although the pools of water quality parameters has been studied in almost ideal But in summer, especially on a female pools and pools with wells water supply source than other pools , to be more oversight .

  16. Novel transmission pricing scheme based on point-to-point tariff and transaction pair matching for pool market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qixin; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing

    2010-01-01

    Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)

  17. Novel transmission pricing scheme based on point-to-point tariff and transaction pair matching for pool market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qixin; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing [State Key Lab. of Power System, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)

  18. Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.

    1986-06-01

    A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs

  19. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  20. Human parvovirus PARV4 in plasma pools of Chinese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, X; Wang, Z; Lv, M-M; Yan, Q-P; Zhang, J-G

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is present in blood and blood products. As the presence and levels of PARV4 in Chinese source plasma pools have never been determined, we implemented real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the presence of PARV4 in source plasma pools in China. Results showed that 26·15% (51/195) of lots tested positive for PARV4. The amounts of DNA ranged from 2·83 × 10(3) copies/ml to 2·35×10(7) copies/ml plasma. The high level of PARV4 in plasma pools may pose a potential risk to recipients. Further studies on the pathogenesis of PARV4 are urgently required. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.