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Sample records for myeloid leukaemia cell

  1. Extramedullary Myeloid Cell Tumour Presenting As Leukaemia Cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We herewith report a case of extramedullary myeloid cell tumour presenting as leukaemia cutis for its rarity. It occurred in a 50 year old male patient who presented to us with a 40 days history of painless raised solid skin swellings over the trunk. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy and bone marrow biopsy showed features suggestive of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Immunophenotyping on skin biopsy specimens and bone marrow biopsy found tumour cells expressing CD43 and Tdt but were negative for CD3 and CD20. These features were consistent with extramedullary myeloid cell tumour involving skin and subcutis (cutaneous manifestation of acute myeloid leukaemia.

  2. Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukaemia with specific cutaneous involvement: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, M; Gallardo, F; Ferrer, A M; Salar, A; Pérez-Vila, E; Juanpere, N; Salgado, R; Espinet, B; Orfao, A; Florensa, L; Pujol, R M

    2008-05-01

    Myeloid or type 1 dendritic cell leukaemia is an exceedingly rare haematopoietic neoplasm characterized by a specific immunophenotypic profile close to plasmacytoid dendritic cell and acute myelogenous leukaemia. A 77-year-old man presenting specific cutaneous infiltration by myeloid dendritic cell leukaemia is reported. The clinical features as well as the cutaneous histopathological and immunohistochemical features led to the initial diagnosis of CD4+/CD56+ haematodermic neoplasm. However, extensive immunophenotypic studies performed from peripheral blood blasts disclosed that leukaemic cells expressed myeloid dendritic cell markers, confirming the diagnosis. The diagnostic difficulties of specific cutaneous involvement by myeloid dendritic cell leukaemia on the basis of routine histopathological and immunohistochemical features are highlighted.

  3. Acute Myeloid Leukaemia of Donor Cell Origin Developing 17 Years after Allogenic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia

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    Jiménez, Pilar; Alvarez, J. Carlos; Garrido, Pilar; Lorente, J. Antonio; Palacios, Jorge; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Donor cell leukaemia (DCL) is a rare complication of allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report the case of a female patient with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), FAB type M3, who developed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) type M5 of donor origin 17 years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from her HLA-matched sister. Morphology and immunophenotyping showed differences with the initial leukaemia, and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis confirmed donor-type haematopoiesis. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed an 11q23 deletion. Given that the latency period between transplant and development of leukaemia was the longest reported to date, we discuss the mechanisms underlying delayed leukaemia onset. PMID:23675279

  4. Activity of Bruton's tyrosine-kinase inhibitor ibrutinib in patients with CD117-positive acute myeloid leukaemia: a mechanistic study using patient-derived blast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Stuart A; Pillinger, Genevra; Abdul-Aziz, Amina; Piddock, Rachel; Shafat, Manar S; Murray, Megan Y; Zaitseva, Lyubov; Lawes, Matthew J; MacEwan, David J; Bowles, Kristian M

    2015-05-01

    Roughly 80% of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia have high activity of Bruton's tyrosine-kinase (BTK) in their blast cells compared with normal haemopoietic cells, rendering the cells sensitive to the oral BTK inhibitor ibrutinib in vitro. We aimed to develop the biological understanding of the BTK pathway in acute myeloid leukaemia to identify clinically relevant diagnostic information that might define a subset of patients that should respond to ibrutinib treatment. We obtained acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells from unselected patients attending our UK hospital between Feb 19, 2010, and Jan 20, 2014. We isolated primary acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells from heparinised blood and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to establish the activity of BTK in response to CD117 activation. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of ibrutinib on CD117-induced BTK activation, downstream signalling, adhesion to primary bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, and proliferation of primary acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to compare results between groups. We obtained acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells from 29 patients. Ibrutinib significantly inhibited CD117-mediated proliferation of primary acute myeloid leukaemia blast cells (p=0·028). CD117 activation increased BTK activity by inducing phosphorylated BTK in patients with CD117-positive acute myeloid leukaemia. Furthermore, ibrutinib inhibited CD117-induced activity of BTK and downstream kinases at a concentration of 100 nM or more. CD117-mediated adhesion of CD117-expressing blast cells to bone-marrow stromal cells was significantly inhibited by Ibrutinib at 500 nM (p=0·028) INTERPRETATION: As first-in-man clinical trials of ibrutinib in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia commence, the data suggest not all patients will respond. Our findings show that BTK has specific pro-tumoural biological actions downstream of surface CD117 activation, which are inhibited by ibrutinib

  5. Gene expression profiling in acute myeloid leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, H. J. M.; Huls, G.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by clonal malignant haematopoiesis with a differentiation arrest and excessive proliferation of leukaemic blasts. Over the past decades, the heterogeneity of AML has been illustrated by evolving classifications based on

  6. Quercus Suber L. Cork Extracts Induce Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukaemia HL-60 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ignacio; Godoy-Cancho, Belén; Franco, Lourdes; Martínez-Cañas, Manuel A; Tormo, María A

    2015-08-01

    Quercus suber L. cork contains a diversity of phenolic compounds, mostly low molecular weight phenols. A rising number of reports support with convergent findings that polyphenols evoke pro-apoptotic events in cancerous cells. However, the literature related to the anti-cancer bioactivity of Q. suber L. cork extractives (QSE) is still limited. Herein, we aim to describe the antitumor potential displayed by cork extractives obtained by different extraction methods in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. In order to quantify the effects of QSE on cancer cells viability, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle were evaluated. The results indicated that the QSE present a time-dependent and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Such a noxious effect leads these leukaemia cells to their death through apoptotic processes by altering the mitochondrial outer membrane potential, activating caspase-3 and externalizing phosphatidylserine. However, cells cycle progression was not affected by the treatments. This study contributes to open a new way to use this natural resource by exploiting its anti-cancer properties. Moreover, it opens new possibilities of application of cork by-products, being more efficient in the sector of cork-based agriculture. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Aberrant Gene Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Frederik Otzen

    model to investigate the role of telomerase in AML, we were able to translate the observed effect into human AML patients and identify specific genes involved, which also predict survival patterns in AML patients. During these studies we have applied methods for investigating differentially expressed......Summary Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) is an aggressive cancer of the bone marrow, affecting formation of blood cells during haematopoiesis. This thesis presents investigation of AML using mRNA gene expression profiles (GEP) of samples extracted from the bone marrow of healthy and diseased subjects....... Here GEPs from purified healthy haematopoietic populations, with different levels of differentiation, form the basis for comparison with diseased samples. We present a mathematical transformation of mRNA microarray data to make it possible to compare AML samples, carrying expanded aberrant...

  8. Cancer progression by reprogrammed BCAA metabolism in myeloid leukaemia.

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    Hattori, Ayuna; Tsunoda, Makoto; Konuma, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Nagy, Tamas; Glushka, John; Tayyari, Fariba; McSkimming, Daniel; Kannan, Natarajan; Tojo, Arinobu; Edison, Arthur S; Ito, Takahiro

    2017-05-25

    Reprogrammed cellular metabolism is a common characteristic observed in various cancers. However, whether metabolic changes directly regulate cancer development and progression remains poorly understood. Here we show that BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in humans and in mouse models of CML. BCAT1 is upregulated during progression of CML and promotes BCAA production in leukaemia cells by aminating the branched-chain keto acids. Blocking BCAT1 gene expression or enzymatic activity induces cellular differentiation and impairs the propagation of blast crisis CML both in vitro and in vivo. Stable-isotope tracer experiments combined with nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic analysis demonstrate the intracellular production of BCAAs by BCAT1. Direct supplementation with BCAAs ameliorates the defects caused by BCAT1 knockdown, indicating that BCAT1 exerts its oncogenic function through BCAA production in blast crisis CML cells. Importantly, BCAT1 expression not only is activated in human blast crisis CML and de novo acute myeloid leukaemia, but also predicts disease outcome in patients. As an upstream regulator of BCAT1 expression, we identified Musashi2 (MSI2), an oncogenic RNA binding protein that is required for blast crisis CML. MSI2 is physically associated with the BCAT1 transcript and positively regulates its protein expression in leukaemia. Taken together, this work reveals that altered BCAA metabolism activated through the MSI2-BCAT1 axis drives cancer progression in myeloid leukaemia.

  9. Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanna, R.; Ronchi, P.; Lenferink, A.T.M.; Terstappen, L.W.M.M.; Tresoldi, C.; Morasso, C.; Mehn, D.; Bedoni, M.; Ciceri, F.; Otto, C.; Gramatica, F.

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, the diagnosis and classification of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) start from the manual examination of stained smears of bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) by using an optical microscope. This step is subjective and scarcely reproducib

  10. Prolonged remission maintenance in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, A S; Goldman, J M; Catovsky, D; Costello, C; Galton, D A; Pitcher, C S

    1977-08-27

    Twenty-five patients with acute myeloid leukaemia were treated with three quadruple drug combinations in predetermined rotation: TRAP (thioguanine, daunorubicin, cytarabine, prednisolone); COAP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytarabine, prednisolone); and POMP (prednisolone, vincristine, methotrexate, mercaptopurine). Fifteen patients (60%) achieved complete remission and five (20%) partial remission. For maintenance, five-day courses of drugs were administered every 14 to 21 days and doses were increased to tolerance. The median length of complete remission was 66 weeks. In eight patients remission maintenance treatment was discontinued and some remained in complete remission for over two years. In this series the remission induction rate was comparable with that reported for other regimens and complete remission lasted longer with this intensive maintenance regimen than with others. Nevertheless, the TRAP programme must still be regarded as only palliative treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia.

  11. Bcl-xL and Myeloid cell leukaemia-1 contribute to apoptosis resistance of colorectal cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henning Schulze-Bergkamen; Steffen Heeger; Peter R Galle; Markus Moehler; Roland Ehrenberg; Lothar Hickmann; Binje Vick; Toni Urbanik; Christoph C Schimanski; Martin R Berger; Arno Schad; Achim Weber

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of Bd-x,and Myeloid cell leukaemia (Mcl)-1 for the apoptosis resistance of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells towards current treatment modalities.METHODS: BCl-XL and Mcl-1 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in CRC cell lines as well as human CRC tissue by Western blot,quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry.Bcl-x,and Mcl-1 protein expression was knocked down or increased in CRC cell lines by applying specific siRNAs or expression plasmids,respectively.After modulation of protein expression,CRC cells were treated with chemotherapeutic agents,an antagonistic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR1) antibody,an EGFR1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor,or with the death receptor ligand TRAIL.Apoptosis induction and cell viability were analyzed.RESULTS: Here we show that in human CRC tissue and various CRC cell lines both Bcl-x,and Mcl-1 are expressed.Bcl-x,expression was higher in CRC tissue than in surrounding non-malignant tissue,both on protein and mRNA level.Mcl-1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in malignant tissues.However,protein expression was slightly higher.Viability rates of CRC cells were significantly decreased after knock down of Bcl-XL expression,and,to a lower extent,after knock down of Mcl-1 expression.Furthermore,cells with reduced Bcl-xL or Mcl-1 expression was more sensitive towards oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-induced apoptosis,and in the case of Bcl-xL also towards 5-FU-induced apoptosis.On the other hand,upregulation of Bcl-XL by transfection of an expression plasmid decreased chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis.EGF treatment clearly induced Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 expression in CRC cells.Apoptosis induction upon EGFR1 blockage by cetuximab or PD168393 was increased by inhibiting Hcl-1 and Bcl-xL expression.More strikingly,CD95- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis was increased by Bcl-xL knock down.CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that Bcl-xL and,to a lower extent,Mcl-1,are important anti-apoptotic factors in CRC

  12. TP53 mutation in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

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    Middeke, Jan M; Herold, Sylvia; Rücker-Braun, Elke; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Stelljes, Matthias; Kaufmann, Martin; Schäfer-Eckart, Kerstin; Baldus, Claudia D; Stuhlmann, Reingard; Ho, Anthony D; Einsele, Hermann; Rösler, Wolf; Serve, Hubert; Hänel, Mathias; Sohlbach, Kristina; Klesse, Christian; Mohr, Brigitte; Heidenreich, Falk; Stölzel, Friedrich; Röllig, Christoph; Platzbecker, Uwe; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Thiede, Christian; Schetelig, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Treatment success in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is heterogeneous. Cytogenetic and molecular alterations are strong prognostic factors, which have been used to individualize treatment. Here, we studied the impact of TP53 mutations on the outcome of AML patients with adverse cytogenetic risk treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Samples of 97 patients with AML and adverse-risk cytogenetics who had received a HSCT within three randomized trials were analysed. Complete sequencing of the TP53 coding region was performed using next generation sequencing. The median age was 51 years. Overall, TP53 mutations were found in 40 patients (41%). With a median follow up of 67 months, the three-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival for patients with TP53 wild type were 33% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21% to 45%] and 24% (95% CI, 13% to 35%) compared to 10% (95% CI, 0% to 19%) and 8% (95% CI, 0% to 16%) (P = 0·002 and P = 0·007) for those with mutated TP53, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the TP53-mutation status had a negative impact on OS (Hazard Ratio = 1·7; P = 0·066). Mutational analysis of TP53 might be an important additional tool to predict outcome after HSCT in patients with adverse karyotype AML.

  13. Exploring the acute myeloid leukaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TB Thapa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The acute myeloid leukemias are genetically a diverse group of neoplasm with varied clinical behavior and response to treatment. Advances in immunophenotyping, cytogenetics and molecular genetics have resulted in better understanding of their genesis. Risk stratification of different variants is now emerging. Therapy strategies are now increasingly being developed considering the inherent biological behavior of the different subtypes. It is anticipated that in the future, deeper secrets of these once fatal diseases will be unraveled by advances in newer genomic techniques. It is hoped that future use of gene specific tailored therapy and strategies will result in longer survival in cases showing poorer prognosis at present. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.9001 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 497-501

  14. The new low-toxic histone deacetylase inhibitor S-(2) induces apoptosis in various acute myeloid leukaemia cells.

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    Cellai, C; Balliu, M; Laurenzana, A; Guandalini, L; Matucci, R; Miniati, D; Torre, E; Nebbioso, A; Carafa, V; Altucci, L; Romanelli, M N; Paoletti, F

    2012-08-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce tumour cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, and some of them are currently used in cancer therapy. Recently, we described a series of powerful HDACi characterized by a 1,4-benzodiazepine (BDZ) ring hybridized with a linear alkyl chain bearing a hydroxamate function as Zn(++)--chelating group. Here, we explored the anti-leukaemic properties of three novel hybrids, namely the chiral compounds (S)-2 and (R)-2, and their non-chiral analogue 4, which were first comparatively tested in promyelocytic NB4 cells. (S)-2 and partially 4--but not (R)-2--caused G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest by up-regulating cyclin G2 and p21 expression and down-regulating cyclin D2 expression, and also apoptosis as assessed by cell morphology and cytofluorimetric assay, histone H2AX phosphorylation and PARP cleavage. Notably, these events were partly prevented by an anti-oxidant. Moreover, novel HDACi prompted p53 and α-tubulin acetylation and, consistently, inhibited HDAC1 and 6 activity. The rank order of potency was (S)-2 > 4 > (R)-2, reflecting that of other biological assays and addressing (S)-2 as the most effective compound capable of triggering apoptosis in various acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell lines and blasts from patients with different AML subtypes. Importantly, (S)-2 was safe in mice (up to 150 mg/kg/week) as determined by liver, spleen, kidney and bone marrow histopathology; and displayed negligible affinity for peripheral/central BDZ-receptors. Overall, the BDZ-hydroxamate (S)-2 showed to be a low-toxic HDACi with powerful anti-proliferative and pro-apototic activities towards different cultured and primary AML cells, and therefore of clinical interest to support conventional anti-leukaemic therapy.

  15. Label-free imaging and identification of typical cells of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanna, R; Ronchi, P; Lenferink, A T M; Tresoldi, C; Morasso, C; Mehn, D; Bedoni, M; Picciolini, S; Terstappen, L W M M; Ciceri, F; Otto, C; Gramatica, F

    2015-02-21

    In clinical practice, the diagnosis and classification of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) start from the manual examination of stained smears of bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) by using an optical microscope. This step is subjective and scarcely reproducible. Therefore, the development of subjective and potentially automatable methods for the recognition of typical AML/MDS cells is necessary. Here we have used Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing myeloblasts, promyelocytes, abnormal promyelocytes and erhytroblasts, which have to be counted for a correct diagnosis and morphological classification of AML and MDS. BM samples from patients affected by four different AML subtypes, mostly characterized by the presence of the four subpopulations selected for this study, were analyzed. First, each cell was scanned by acquiring 4096 spectra, thus obtaining Raman images which demonstrate an accurate description of morphological features characteristic of each subpopulation. Raman imaging coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis permitted the automatic discrimination and localization of the nucleus, the cytoplasm, myeloperoxidase containing granules and haemoglobin. Second, the averaged Raman fingerprint of each cell was analysed by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis) in order to study the typical vibrational features of each subpopulation and also for the automatic recognition of cells. The leave-one-out cross validation of a Raman-based classification model demonstrated the correct classification of myeloblasts, promyelocytes (normal/abnormal) and erhytroblasts with an accuracy of 100%. Normal and abnormal promyelocytes were distinguished with 95% accuracy. The overall classification accuracy considering the four subpopulations was 98%. This proof-of-concept study shows that Raman micro-spectroscopy could be a valid approach for developing label-free, objective and automatic

  16. Measurable residual disease testing in acute myeloid leukaemia.

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    Hourigan, C S; Gale, R P; Gormley, N J; Ossenkoppele, G J; Walter, R B

    2017-07-01

    There is considerable interest in developing techniques to detect and/or quantify remaining leukaemia cells termed measurable or, less precisely, minimal residual disease (MRD) in persons with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in complete remission defined by cytomorphological criteria. An important reason for AML MRD-testing is the possibility of estimating the likelihood (and timing) of leukaemia relapse. A perfect MRD-test would precisely quantify leukaemia cells biologically able and likely to cause leukaemia relapse within a defined interval. AML is genetically diverse and there is currently no uniform approach to detecting such cells. Several technologies focused on immune phenotype or cytogenetic and/or molecular abnormalities have been developed, each with advantages and disadvantages. Many studies report a positive MRD-test at diverse time points during AML therapy identifies persons with a higher risk of leukaemia relapse compared with those with a negative MRD-test even after adjusting for other prognostic and predictive variables. No MRD-test in AML has perfect sensitivity and specificity for relapse prediction at the cohort- or subject levels and there are substantial rates of false-positive and -negative tests. Despite these limitations, correlations between MRD-test results and relapse risk have generated interest in MRD-test result-directed therapy interventions. However, convincing proof that a specific intervention will reduce relapse risk in persons with a positive MRD-test is lacking and needs testing in randomized trials. Routine clinical use of MRD-testing requires further refinements and standardization/harmonization of assay platforms and results reporting. Such data are needed to determine whether results of MRD-testing can be used as a surrogate end point in AML therapy trials. This could make drug-testing more efficient and accelerate regulatory approvals. Although MRD-testing in AML has advanced substantially, much remains to be done.

  17. Epidural spinal cord compression as initial clinical presentation of an acute myeloid leukaemia: case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominique N'Dri Oka; Alpha Boubacar Bah; André Valentin Tokpa; Louis Derou

    2016-01-01

    Epidural localization of myeloid leukaemia is rarely reported.Spinal cord compression as an initial presentation of acute myeloid leukaemia is extremely rare.This is a report of a 17-year-old black boy who presented to emergency department with neurological symptoms of spinal cord compression.Imaging modalities showed multiple soft tissue masses in the epidural space.After surgical treatment,histopathological examination of the epidural mass showed myeloid leukaemia cells infiltration.Literature review on Medline and "scholar Google" database was done.The characteristics and management of extra-medullary leukaemia are discussed.Granulocytic sarcoma,myeloid sarcoma or chloroma with acute myeloid leukaemia should be considered as part of epidural spinal cord compression.Therefore surgery is indicated on an emergent basis.

  18. Live cell detection of chromosome 2 deletion and Sfpi1/PU1 loss in radiation-induced mouse acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olme, C-H; Finnon, R; Brown, N; Kabacik, S; Bouffler, S D; Badie, C

    2013-10-01

    The CBA/H mouse model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (rAML) has been studied for decades to bring to light the molecular mechanisms associated with multistage carcinogenesis. A specific interstitial deletion of chromosome 2 found in a high proportion of rAML is recognised as the initiating event. The deletion leads to the loss of Sfpi, a gene essential for haematopoietic development. Its product, the transcription factor PU.1 acts as a tumour suppressor in this model. Although the deletion can be detected early following ionising radiation exposure by cytogenetic techniques, precise characterisation of the haematopoietic cells carrying the deletion and the study of their fate in vivo cannot be achieved. Here, using a genetically engineered C57BL/6 mouse model expressing the GFP fluorescent molecule under the control of the Sfpi1 promoter, which we have bred onto the rAML-susceptible CBA/H strain, we demonstrate that GFP expression did not interfere with X-ray induced leukaemia incidence and that GFP fluorescence in live leukaemic cells is a surrogate marker of radiation-induced chromosome 2 deletions with or without point mutations on the remaining allele of the Sfpi1 gene. This study presents the first experimental evidence for the detection of this leukaemia initiating event in live leukemic cells.

  19. Increased cellular hypoxia and reduced proliferation of both normal and leukaemic cells during progression of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Mortensen, B T; Hodgkiss, R J

    2000-01-01

    The microenvironmental changes in the bone marrow, spleen and liver during progression of the transplantable promyelocytic leukaemia in the Brown Norwegian rat (BNML) have been studied. We used flow cytometry to estimate cellular hypoxia and proliferation based on in vivo pulse-labelling with a m......The microenvironmental changes in the bone marrow, spleen and liver during progression of the transplantable promyelocytic leukaemia in the Brown Norwegian rat (BNML) have been studied. We used flow cytometry to estimate cellular hypoxia and proliferation based on in vivo pulse......-labelling with a mixture of 2-nitroimidazole linked to theophylline (NITP) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd). The leukaemic cells were identified with the RM124 antibody. In rats inoculated with leukaemic cells the fraction of RM124+ cells was significantly increased from day 20 onwards in the spleen and from day 27...

  20. Differential cytogenomics and miRNA signature of the Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Kasumi-1 cell line CD34+38- compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedranzini, Laura; Mottadelli, Federica; Ronzoni, Simona; Rossella, Franca; Ferracin, Manuela; Magnani, Ivana; Roversi, Gaia; Colapietro, Patrizia; Negrini, Massimo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Larizza, Lidia

    2010-10-01

    The t(8;21) Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) Kasumi-1 cell line with N822K KIT mutation, is a model system for leukemogenesis. As AML initiating cells reside in the CD34(+)CD38(-) fraction, we addressed the refined cytogenomic characterization and miRNA expression of Kasumi-1 cell line and its FACS-sorted subpopulations focussing on this compartment. By conventional cytogenetics, Spectral-Karyotyping and array-CGH the cytogenomic profile of Kasumi-1 cells evidenced only subtle regions differentially represented in CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. Expression profiling by a miRNA platform showed a set of miRNA differentially expressed in paired subpopulations and the signature of miR-584 and miR-182 upregulation in the CD34(+)CD38(-) fraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA sequencing of a cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Timothy J; Mardis, Elaine R; Ding, Li; Fulton, Bob; McLellan, Michael D; Chen, Ken; Dooling, David; Dunford-Shore, Brian H; McGrath, Sean; Hickenbotham, Matthew; Cook, Lisa; Abbott, Rachel; Larson, David E; Koboldt, Dan C; Pohl, Craig; Smith, Scott; Hawkins, Amy; Abbott, Scott; Locke, Devin; Hillier, Ladeana W; Miner, Tracie; Fulton, Lucinda; Magrini, Vincent; Wylie, Todd; Glasscock, Jarret; Conyers, Joshua; Sander, Nathan; Shi, Xiaoqi; Osborne, John R; Minx, Patrick; Gordon, David; Chinwalla, Asif; Zhao, Yu; Ries, Rhonda E; Payton, Jacqueline E; Westervelt, Peter; Tomasson, Michael H; Watson, Mark; Baty, Jack; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Heath, Sharon; Shannon, William D; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Walter, Matthew J; Link, Daniel C; Graubert, Timothy A; DiPersio, John F; Wilson, Richard K

    2008-11-06

    Acute myeloid leukaemia is a highly malignant haematopoietic tumour that affects about 13,000 adults in the United States each year. The treatment of this disease has changed little in the past two decades, because most of the genetic events that initiate the disease remain undiscovered. Whole-genome sequencing is now possible at a reasonable cost and timeframe to use this approach for the unbiased discovery of tumour-specific somatic mutations that alter the protein-coding genes. Here we present the results obtained from sequencing a typical acute myeloid leukaemia genome, and its matched normal counterpart obtained from the same patient's skin. We discovered ten genes with acquired mutations; two were previously described mutations that are thought to contribute to tumour progression, and eight were new mutations present in virtually all tumour cells at presentation and relapse, the function of which is not yet known. Our study establishes whole-genome sequencing as an unbiased method for discovering cancer-initiating mutations in previously unidentified genes that may respond to targeted therapies.

  2. Chronic myeloid leukaemia with extreme thrombocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Subbiah, Arunkumar; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Basu, Debdatta

    2015-08-19

    We report two cases of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) with extreme thrombocytosis. The first patient was a 65-year-old man who presented with prolonged history of upper abdominal discomfort, anorexia and two episodes of recent gum bleeds without fever or other bleeding manifestations. He was a chronic smoker with no other comorbidities. Examination revealed moderate hepatosplenomegaly. On investigation, he was found to have extreme thrombocytosis (3,500,000/mm(3)) and leucocytosis with moderate anaemia. In view of the leucocytosis, he was investigated for CML and found to be positive for BCR-ABL by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). He received imatinib 400 mg/day and achieved complete haematological response at the end of 3 months. The second patient was a 7-year-old boy who presented with fever, cough and cold of 2-week duration. Examination revealed mild hepatomegaly with palpable spleen tip. Haemogram and peripheral smear revealed moderate leucocytosis with extreme thrombocytosis (2,800,000/mm(3)). On evaluation, he was found to be BCR-ABL positive and responded well to imatinib treatment. In both these cases, massive thrombocytosis was an unusual presentation of a well-known entity, namely, CML. This degree of thrombocytosis is usually seen only in essential thrombocytosis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Adrenal crisis in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wang; Okwuwa, Ikemefuna; Toledo-Frazzini, Karla; Alhomosh, Alaaedin

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal crisis is a group of clinical manifestation predominantly with hypotensive shock, electrolyte imbalance in a patient with adrenal insufficiency or in a patient who was abruptly withdrawn from glucocorticoid treatment acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is one of the most common acute leukaemia in adults. Though the above diseases are commonly seen in individual patients, the coexistence of both conditions in the same patient is rare. We reported a 64-year-old African-American man with a his...

  4. Atypical Ph negative chronic myeloid leukaemia presenting as sudden profound deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N; Bain, B; Michaels, L; Craven, E

    1991-01-01

    A patient with atypical Ph negative chronic myeloid leukaemia presented with the sudden onset of profound deafness. He survived only eight months. Detailed histological investigation performed at necropsy showed loss of ganglion cells and afferent nerve fibres in the cochlea and vestibule associated with extensive fibrosis and new bone formation in the labyrinthine spaces. Both leucophoresis and high dose chemotherapy capable of rapid cytoreduction are recommended in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia with profound hearing loss, as conventional chemotherapy is rarely followed by recovery. Images PMID:1791207

  5. Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia with Trisomy 13: a Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-yu Hu; Chao-hui Yuan; Kui Tan; Zhen-zhen Chen

    2011-01-01

    ATYPICAL chronic myeloid leukaemia (aCML),which shows both myeloproliferative and myeIodysplastic features,is a type of myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disease as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms.1 Because of the presence of neutrophilic leukocytosis,aCML may resemble chronic myeIogenous leukemia (CML).However,in contrast with CML,aCML does not have the Philadelphia chromosome or the bcr/abl fusion gene.

  6. Post-remission treatment with allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients aged 60 years and older with acute myeloid leukaemia : a time-dependent analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Jurjen; Hazenberg, Carin L. E.; Passweg, Jakob R.; van Putten, Wim L. J.; Maertens, Johan; Biemond, Bart J.; Theobald, Matthias; Graux, Carlos; Kuball, Jurgen; Schouten, Harry C.; Pabst, Thomas; Lowenberg, Bob; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Vellenga, Edo; Cornelissen, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukaemia mainly affects elderly people, with a median age at diagnosis of around 70 years. Although about 50-60% of patients enter first complete remission upon intensive induction chemotherapy, relapse remains high and overall outcomes are disappointing. Therefore, effecti

  7. Increased cellular hypoxia and reduced proliferation of both normal and leukaemic cells during progression of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Mortensen, B T; Hodgkiss, R J;

    2000-01-01

    The microenvironmental changes in the bone marrow, spleen and liver during progression of the transplantable promyelocytic leukaemia in the Brown Norwegian rat (BNML) have been studied. We used flow cytometry to estimate cellular hypoxia and proliferation based on in vivo pulse...... in the bone marrow and liver, reaching a level of 65-87% in these organs at day 32. At day 32, the NITP+ fraction of RM124+ cells had increased significantly in the bone marrow and spleen to 88% and 90%, respectively. The corresponding fractions of NITP+ normal cells reached 63% and 65%, respectively. From......-labelling with a mixture of 2-nitroimidazole linked to theophylline (NITP) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd). The leukaemic cells were identified with the RM124 antibody. In rats inoculated with leukaemic cells the fraction of RM124+ cells was significantly increased from day 20 onwards in the spleen and from day 27...

  8. Tuberculosis complicating imatinib treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, J. M. A.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A.; Janssen, J. J. W. M.; Postmus, P. E.; van Altena, R.

    Although imatinib is not considered a predisposing factor for tuberculosis (TB), the present case report describes three patients in whom imatinib treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia was complicated by TB. This raises the question of whether imatinib increases susceptibility to TB. There are

  9. Cell sorting enables interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of low BCR-ABL1 producing stem cells in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients beyond deep molecular remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten Niekerk, Peter B; Petersen, Charlotte C; Nyvold, Charlotte G; Ommen, Hans B; Roug, Anne S; Nederby, Line; Hokland, Peter; Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2014-01-01

    The exact disease state of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients in deep molecular remission is unknown, because even the most sensitive quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods cannot identify patients prone to relapse after treatment withdrawal. To elucidate this, CD34(+) stem cell and progenitor cell subpopulations were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and their content of residual Philadelphia positive (Ph(+) ) cells was evaluated in 17 CML patients (major molecular response, n = 6; 4-log reduction in BCR-ABL1 expression (MR(4) ), n = 11) using both sensitive qPCR and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Despite evaluating fewer cells, iFISH proved superior to mRNA-based qPCR in detecting residual Ph(+) stem cells (P = 0·005), and detected Ph(+) stem- and progenitor cells in 9/10 patients at frequencies of 2-14%. Moreover, while all qPCR(+) samples also were iFISH(+) , 9/33 samples were qPCR-/iFISH(+) , including all positive samples from MR(4) patients. Our findings show that residual Ph(+) cells are low BCR-ABL1 producers, and that DNA-based methods are required to assess the content of persisting Ph(+) stem cells in these patients. This approach demonstrates a clinically applicable manner of assessing residual disease at the stem cell level in CML patients in MR(4) , and may enable early and safe identification of candidates for tyrosine kinase inhibitor withdrawal.

  10. Leukaemia relapse after allogeneic transplants for acute myeloid leukaemia: predictive role of WT1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Sarah; Geroldi, Simona; Tedone, Elisabetta; Luchetti, Silvia; Grasso, Raffaella; Colombo, Nicoletta; Di Grazia, Carmen; Lamparelli, Teresa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ibatici, Adalberto; Bregante, Stefania; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Raiola, Anna Maria; Dominietto, Alida; Varaldo, Riccardo; Signori, Alessio; Bacigalupo, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    We assessed WT1 expression (expressed as messenger copies/10(4) ABL1) from marrow cells of 122 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), before and after an unmanipulated allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The median age was 44 years (15-69), 59% were in first remission, 74% received a myeloablative conditioning regimen and the median follow up was 865 d (34-2833). Relapse was higher in 67 patients with WT1 expression, at any time post-HSCT, exceeding 100 copies (54%), as compared to 16%, for 55 patients with post-HSCT WT1 expression <100 copies (P < 0·0001). Similarly, actuarial 5-year survival (OS) was 40% vs. 63%, respectively (P = 0·03). In multivariate Cox analysis, WT1 expression post-HSCT was the strongest predictor of relapse (Hazard Ratio [HR] 4·5, P = 0·0001), independent of disease phase (HR 2·3, P = 0·002). Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) were given to 17 patients because of increasing WT1 levels: their OS was 44%, vs. 14% for 21 patients with increasing WT1 expression who did not receive DLI (P = 0·004). In conclusion, WT1 expression post-HSCT is a strong predictor of leukaemia relapse and survival in AML; WT1 may be used as a marker for early interventional therapy.

  11. Fucoidan inhibits proliferation of the SKM-1 acute myeloid leukaemia cell line via the activation of apoptotic pathways and production of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunmei; Xiao, Qing; Kuang, Xingyi; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Zesong; Wang, Li

    2015-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias and a high risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Fucoidan, a complex sulphated polysaccharide isolated from the cell wall of brown seaweeds, has recently attracted attention for its multiple biological activities and its potential as a novel candidate for cancer therapy. In the present study, the anti‑cancer activity of fucoidan was investigated in the MDS/AML cell line SKM‑1. Fucoidan inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and caused G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle in SKM‑1 cells as determined by a cell counting kit 8 assay and flow cytometry. Furthermore, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses indicated that treatment with fucoidan (100 µg/ml for 48 h) activated Fas and caspase‑8 in SKM‑1 cells, which are critical for the extrinsic apoptotic pathway; furthermore, caspase‑9 was activated via decreases in phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling as indicated by reduced levels of phosphorylated Akt, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, fucoidan treatment of SKM‑1 cells resulted in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by staining with dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate. These results suggested that the mechanisms of the anti‑cancer effects of fucoidan in SKM‑1 are closely associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death, which partly attributed to the activation of apoptotic pathways and accumulation of intracellular ROS. Our results demonstrated that Fucoidan inhibits proliferation and induces the apoptosis of SKM‑1 cells, which provides substantial therapeutic potential for MDS treatment.

  12. BMX tyrosine kinase gene is expressed in granulocytes and myeloid leukaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, J; Lahtinen, I; Laine, S; Alitalo, K; Palotie, A

    1996-09-01

    The growth and maturation of haemopoietic cells is regulated by signal transduction through tyrosine protein kinases. Recently, a novel cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X, called Bmx, was identified in human bone marrow RNA. Bmx belongs to a subfamily of tyrosine kinases which are expressed in various haemopoietic cell lineages. We studied Bmx expression using RT-PCR of RNA from fractionated peripheral blood leucocytes, progenitor-enriched fractions of cord blood and from bone marrow or peripheral blood samples from leukaemia patients. Bmx was strongly expressed in haemopoietic tissues and enhanced in neutrophilic granulocytes. Bmx mRNA was also found in CD34-positive progenitor cells from cord blood. All samples (10/10) of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and (4/4) with chronic myeloid leukaemia showed expression of Bmx. In contrast, none of the samples of acute lymphoid leukaemia (0/8) and only one out of six samples of chronic lymphoid leukaemia expressed Bmx. In conclusion, Bmx expression seems to be associated with myelopoiesis.

  13. Acute myeloid leukaemia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in girl with Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Madeleine; Jenney, Meriel; Lazarou, Laz; White, Rhian; Birdsall, Sanda; Staab, Timo; Schindler, Detlev; Meyer, Stefan

    2013-09-18

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an inherited genomic instability disorder caused by disruption of the BLM helicase and confers an extreme cancer predisposition. Here we report on a girl with BS who developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at age nine, and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia (t-AML) aged 12. She was compound heterozygous for the novel BLM frameshift deletion c.1624delG and the previously described c.3415C>T nonsense mutation. Two haematological malignancies in a child with BS imply a fundamental role for BLM for normal haematopoiesis, in particular in the presence of genotoxic stress.

  14. Changing bone marrow micro-environment during development of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, B T; Jensen, P O; Helledie, N;

    1998-01-01

    The Brown Norwegian rat transplanted with promyelocytic leukaemic cells (BNML) has been used as a model for human acute myeloid leukaemia. We have previously shown that both the blood supply to the bone marrow and the metabolic rate decrease in relation to the leukaemic development in these rats....... Here we have investigated how the development and progression of this leukaemia affect oxygenation, pH and proliferation of normal and leukaemic cells in vivo. Bone marrow pH was measured by a needle electrode. Nitroimidazol-theophylline (NITP) was used to identify hypoxic cells, and we applied...... bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to identify DNA replicating cells. The leukaemia progressed slowly until day 27 after which a rapid deterioration could be observed leading to severe changes over the following 5 d. In whole blood there was evidence of progressing metabolic acidosis. In bone marrow the fraction...

  15. Increased cellular hypoxia and reduced proliferation of both normal and leukaemic cells during progression of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Mortensen, B T; Hodgkiss, R J;

    2000-01-01

    The microenvironmental changes in the bone marrow, spleen and liver during progression of the transplantable promyelocytic leukaemia in the Brown Norwegian rat (BNML) have been studied. We used flow cytometry to estimate cellular hypoxia and proliferation based on in vivo pulse-labelling with a m......The microenvironmental changes in the bone marrow, spleen and liver during progression of the transplantable promyelocytic leukaemia in the Brown Norwegian rat (BNML) have been studied. We used flow cytometry to estimate cellular hypoxia and proliferation based on in vivo pulse...

  16. Clofarabine in the treatment of poor risk acute myeloid leukaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krawczyk, Janusz

    2010-09-01

    Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analogue. It inhibits DNA repair and activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to cell death. In vitro clofarabine has demonstrated synergy with daunorubicin and Ara-C and in phase II clinical trials has shown promising activity in poor risk Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. In our institution over a 24 month period 22 AML patients (11 M, 11 F) with poor risk features, deemed unsuitable for standard therapy, were treated with clofarabine, alone (eight patients) or in combination (14 patients) for up to three cycles of treatment. The median age was 67.5 years (24-76) with 16 patients > 60 years. At the time of treatment 18 patients had active AML. Four patients intolerant of standard induction received clofarabine as consolidation. The overall response rate (ORR) for the 18 patients with active AML was 61%, nine patients (50%) achieving a complete response (CR). Induction and consolidation were well tolerated with no unexpected toxicities. Predictably, all patients developed grade 4 neutropenia but the median duration was only 20 days (17-120). Induction mortality was acceptable at 17%. In conclusion, clofarabine (alone or in combination) is active in poor risk AML with an acceptable safety profile and should be considered a potential option in poor risk AML patients.

  17. CBL mutations do not frequently occur in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Eva A.; Driessen, Emma M. C.; Zwaan, C. Michel; Stary, Jan; Baruchel, Andre; de Haas, Valerie; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Arentsen-Peters, Susan T. C. J. M.; Meyer, Claus; Marschalek, Rolf; Pieters, Rob; Stam, Ronald W.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2012-01-01

    RAS-pathway mutations, causing a proliferative advantage, occur in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and MLL-rearranged leukaemia. Recently, mutations in the Casitas B lineage lymphoma (CBL) gene were reported to be involved in RAS-pathway activation in various myeloid malignancies, but their role in pa

  18. P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein in acute myeloid leukaemia cells treated with the Aurora-B Kinase Inhibitor barasertib-hQPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Nigel H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora kinases play an essential role in orchestrating chromosome alignment, segregation and cytokinesis during mitotic progression, with both aurora-A and B frequently over-expressed in a variety of human malignancies. Over-expression of the ABC drug transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (Pgp and Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP is a major obstacle for chemotherapy in many tumour types with Pgp conferring particularly poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. Barasertib-hQPA is a highly selective inhibitor of aurora-B kinase that has shown tumouricidal activity against a range tumour cell lines including those of leukaemic AML origin. Methods Effect of barasertib-hQPA on the pHH3 biomarker and cell viability was measured in a panel of leukaemic cell lines and 37 primary AML samples by flow cytometry. Pgp status was determined by flow cytometry and BCRP status by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Results In this study we report the creation of the cell line OCI-AML3DNR, which over-expresses Pgp but not BCRP or multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP, through prolonged treatment of OCI-AML3 cells with daunorubicin. We demonstrate that Pgp (OCI-AML3DNR and KG-1a and BCRP (OCI-AML6.2 expressing AML cell lines are less sensitive to barasertib-hQPA induced pHH3 inhibition and subsequent loss of viability compared to transporter negative cell lines. We also show that barasertib-hQPA resistance in these cell lines can be reversed using known Pgp and BCRP inhibitors. We report that barasertib-hQPA is not an inhibitor of Pgp or BCRP, but by using 14[C]-barasertib-hQPA that it is effluxed by these transporters. Using phosphoHistone H3 (pHH3 as a biomarker of barasertib-hQPA responsiveness in primary AML blasts we determined that Pgp and BCRP positive primary samples were less sensitive to barasertib-hQPA induced pHH3 inhibition (p = 50 inhibition of pHH3 by barasertib-hQPA was achieved in 94.6% of these samples after 1

  19. Changing bone marrow micro-environment during development of acute myeloid leukaemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, B T; Jensen, P O; Helledie, N;

    1998-01-01

    cells (from about 45% to 25%), evidently as a result of the severely changed microenvironment. In this study we have demonstrated in vivo the development of an acidic and hypoxic bone marrow hampering normal haemopoiesis during leukaemic growth. Our data support the notion of BNML as a valuable tool......The Brown Norwegian rat transplanted with promyelocytic leukaemic cells (BNML) has been used as a model for human acute myeloid leukaemia. We have previously shown that both the blood supply to the bone marrow and the metabolic rate decrease in relation to the leukaemic development in these rats....... Here we have investigated how the development and progression of this leukaemia affect oxygenation, pH and proliferation of normal and leukaemic cells in vivo. Bone marrow pH was measured by a needle electrode. Nitroimidazol-theophylline (NITP) was used to identify hypoxic cells, and we applied...

  20. A novel recombinant Salmonella vaccine enhances the innate immunity of NK cells against acute myeloid leukaemia cells Kasumi-1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiuju; Jiang, Ling; Lu, Zhigang; Zhang, Xing; Li, Kunpeng; Hu, Haiyan

    2013-12-01

    Minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) clones have apparent anti-leukaemic efficacy, and the AML/ETO gene is a special fusion gene in leukaemic cells. Thus, we hypothesised that a vaccine targeting HA-1 and AML/ETO could stimulate NK cells to target leukaemia cells. Furthermore, we packaged the vaccine using attenuated Salmonella to enhance its immuno-activity. Expression of the NK cell-activating ligand ULBP2 was notably elevated upon packaging in a co-recombinant group. An AML/ETO single plasmid gave the weakest vaccine. The level of miR-182, which targets ULBP2, significantly decreased with increasing IFN-γ and granzyme B in a co-recombinant group. In summary, DNA vaccines including AML/ETO and HA-1 fragments significantly enhance the innate immunity of NK cells in vitro. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract induced mitochondria-associated apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukaemia 14.3D10 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hong; QIN Yi-min

    2006-01-01

    @@ The important aim in cancer treatment is the selective killing of cancer cells without damaging healthy cells and the most commonly used chemotherapy for eliminating cancer is achieved by activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.1 Therefore, identification of new agents that can selectively kill cancer cells becomes crucial in cancer clinical treatment.

  2. Oncogenic roles of PRL-3 in FLT3-ITD induced acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Eun; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhou, Jian Biao; Al-Aidaroos, Abdul Qader O; Guo, Ke; Valk, Peter J; Zhang, Shu Dong; Chng, Wee Joo; Hong, Cheng William; Mills, Ken; Zeng, Qi

    2013-09-01

    FLT3-ITD mutations are prevalent mutations in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). PRL-3, a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is a downstream target of FLT3-ITD. This study investigates the regulation and function of PRL-3 in leukaemia cell lines and AML patients associated with FLT3-ITD mutations. PRL-3 expression is upregulated by the FLT3-STAT5 signalling pathway in leukaemia cells, leading an activation of AP-1 transcription factors via ERK and JNK pathways. PRL-3-depleted AML cells showed a significant decrease in cell growth. Clinically, high PRL-3 mRNA expression was associated with FLT3-ITD mutations in four independent AML datasets with 1158 patients. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis on our Cohort 1 with 221 patients identified PRL-3 as a novel prognostic marker independent of other clinical parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed high PRL-3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with poorer survival among 491 patients with normal karyotype. Targeting PRL-3 reversed the oncogenic effects in FLT3-ITD AML models in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we suggest that PRL-3 could serve as a prognostic marker to predict poorer survival and as a promising novel therapeutic target for AML patients.

  3. The new low-toxic histone deacetylase inhibitor S-(2) induces apoptosis in various acute myeloid leukaemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce tumour cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, and some of them are currently used in cancer therapy. Recently, we described a series of powerful HDACi characterized by a 1,4-benzodiazepine (BDZ) ring hybridized with a linear alkyl chain bearing a hydroxamate function as Zn++-chelating group. Here, we explored the anti-leukaemic properties of three novel hybrids, namely the chiral compounds (S)-2 and (R)-2, and their non-chiral analogue 4, wh...

  4. Somatic PTPN11 mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Marco; Martinelli, Simone; Iavarone, Ivano; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Spinelli, Monica; Giarin, Emanuela; Petrangeli, Valentina; Carta, Claudio; Masetti, Riccardo; Aricò, Maurizio; Locatelli, Franco; Basso, Giuseppe; Sorcini, Mariella; Pession, Andrea; Biondi, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    Somatic mutations in PTPN11, the gene encoding the transducer SHP-2, have emerged as a novel class of lesions that upregulate RAS signalling and contribute to leukaemogenesis. In a recent study of 69 children and adolescents with de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), we documented a non-random distribution of PTPN11 mutations among French-American-British (FAB) subtypes. Lesions were restricted to FAB-M5 cases, where they were relatively common (four of 12 cases). Here, we report on the results of a molecular screening performed on 181 additional unselected patients, enrolled in participating institutions of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica-AML Study Group, to provide a more accurate picture of the prevalence, spectrum and distribution of PTPN11 mutations in childhood AML and to investigate their clinical relevance. We concluded that PTPN11 defects do not represent a frequent event in this heterogeneous group of malignancies (4.4%), although they recur in a considerable percentage of patients with FAB-M5 (18%). PTPN11 lesions rarely occur in other subtypes. Within the FAB-M5 group no clear association of PTPN11 mutations with any clinical variable was evident. Nearly two third of the patients with this subtype were found to harbour an activating mutation in PTPN11, NRAS, KRAS2 or FLT3.

  5. [Necrotizing tonsillitis and renal vein thrombosis due to acute myeloid leukaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Javed; Josefsson, Pernilla; Rømeling, Frans

    2012-09-03

    A 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with severe tonsillitis with unilateral necrotizing tonsillitis. She suddenly got fever, malaise, difficulties swallowing, pain in the throat and deterioration despite four days of penicillin treatment. During hospitalisation, she experienced abdominal pain, and blood tests showed pancytopenia. She was transferred to a haematological department, where a bone marrow biopsy showed acute myeloid leukaemia. Subsequently, an abdominal computed tomography with intravenous contrast revealed bilateral renal vein thrombosis, probably because of coagulopathy due to leukaemia.

  6. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss as the first manifestation of chronic myeloid leukaemia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, M; Tian, F; Sun, J

    2014-11-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss rarely occurs in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. We present a case report of a patient who presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss as the first manifestation of chronic myeloid leukaemia, and review the mechanisms responsible for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in leukaemic patients. A 31-year-old female presented to our clinic with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Pure tone audiometry revealed profound sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear at all frequencies. During an investigation into her hearing loss, the patient was found to have chronic myeloid leukaemia. Every case of sudden sensorineural hearing loss must be carefully evaluated, and haematological disorders must be considered in the differential diagnosis of sudden hearing loss.

  7. Estimation of current cumulative incidence of leukaemia-free patients and current leukaemia-free survival in chronic myeloid leukaemia in the era of modern pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trněný Marek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current situation in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML presents a new challenge for attempts to measure the therapeutic results, as the CML patients can experience multiple leukaemia-free periods during the course of their treatment. Traditional measures of treatment efficacy such as leukaemia-free survival and cumulative incidence are unable to cope with multiple events in time, e.g. disease remissions or progressions, and as such are inappropriate for the efficacy assessment of the recent CML treatment. Methods Standard nonparametric statistical methods are used for estimating two principal characteristics of the current CML treatment: the probability of being alive and leukaemia-free in time after CML therapy initiation, denoted as the current cumulative incidence of leukaemia-free patients; and the probability that a patient is alive and in any leukaemia-free period in time after achieving the first leukaemia-free period on the CML treatment, denoted as the current leukaemia-free survival. The validity of the proposed methods is further documented in the data of the Czech CML patients consecutively recorded between July 2003 and July 2009 as well as in simulated data. Results The results have shown a difference between the estimates of the current cumulative incidence function and the common cumulative incidence of leukaemia-free patients, as well as between the estimates of the current leukaemia-free survival and the common leukaemia-free survival. Regarding the currently available follow-up period, both differences have reached the maximum (12.8% and 20.8%, respectively at 3 years after the start of follow-up, i.e. after the CML therapy initiation in the former case and after the first achievement of the disease remission in the latter. Conclusions Two quantities for the evaluation of the efficacy of current CML therapy that may be estimated with standard nonparametric methods have been proposed in

  8. Effect of glutathione S-transferases on the survival of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Judith; Hokland, Peter; Pedersen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GST) on the survival of acute myeloid leukaemia patients receiving adriamycin induction therapy. A total of 89 patients were included in the study. Patients who carried at least one GS...

  9. Clinical relevance of molecular aberrations in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia at first relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachas, Costa; Schuurhuis, Gerrit Jan; Reinhardt, Dirk; Creutzig, Ursula; Kwidama, Zinia J.; Zwaan, C. Michel; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; De Bont, Evelina S. J. M.; Elitzur, Sarah; Rizzari, Carmelo; de Haas, Valerie; Zimmermann, Martin; Cloos, Jacqueline; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Outcome for relapsed paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains poor. Strong prognostic factors at first relapse are lacking, which hampers optimization of therapy. We assessed the frequency of molecular aberrations (FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, KIT, WT1 and NPM1 genes) at first relapse in a large set (n

  10. Clinical relevance of molecular aberrations in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia at first relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachas, Costa; Schuurhuis, Gerrit Jan; Reinhardt, Dirk; Creutzig, Ursula; Kwidama, Zinia J.; Zwaan, C. Michel; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; De Bont, Evelina S. J. M.; Elitzur, Sarah; Rizzari, Carmelo; de Haas, Valerie; Zimmermann, Martin; Cloos, Jacqueline; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Outcome for relapsed paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains poor. Strong prognostic factors at first relapse are lacking, which hampers optimization of therapy. We assessed the frequency of molecular aberrations (FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, KIT, WT1 and NPM1 genes) at first relapse in a large set (n

  11. The role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the elderly patient with acute myeloid leukaemia O papel do transplante de célula-tronco hematopoiética em pacientes idosos com leucemia mielóide aguda

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Older adults with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML), when compared to younger patients with the same disease, have a poor prognosis and represent a discrete population in terms of disease biology, treatment-related complications, and overall outcome. As a result, older patients require distinctive management approaches. For 85%-95% of older AML patients, any therapy ultimately will be purely palliative. No randomized trial has ever demonstrated that any amount of post-remission therapy in older A...

  12. The c-Jun-N-terminal-Kinase inhibitor SP600125 enhances the butyrate derivative D1-induced apoptosis via caspase 8 activation in Kasumi 1 t(8;21) acute myeloid leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Elisabetta; Gozzini, Antonella; Barbetti, Valentina; Giuntoli, Serena; Santini, Valeria; Dello Sbarba, Persio

    2006-12-01

    We recently showed that the histone deacetylase inhibitor D1 induced apoptosis in the t(8;21) Kasumi 1 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell line and activated caspase 9. The present study characterised the effects of the combined administration of D1 with PD98059, SB203580 or SP600125, specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 or Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), respectively. Among these inhibitors, SP600125 was the only one to markedly induce apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation. These experiments showed that SP600125 activated caspase 8 and confirmed that D1 activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, as caspase 8 was not affected while Bcl-2 was down-regulated following D1 administration. The combination of the two drugs enhanced caspase-8 activation and induced apoptosis in an additive fashion. JNK was constitutively activated in the Kasumi 1, NB4, HL60 and THP-1 human AML cell lines, as well as in primary blasts from a t(8;21) AML patient. In all these cells, the pro-apoptotic effect of the two drugs alone was increased when they were combined. On this basis, the combined administration of D1 with SP600125 seems to be very promising as a potential anti-leukaemic tool in AML.

  13. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and 17p abnormalities in first complete remission: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Poiré

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML with 17p abnormalities (abn(17p carries a very poor prognosis due to high refractoriness to conventional chemotherapy, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT appears as the only potential curative option. Methods To address outcomes after allo-SCT in patients with abn(17p, we retrospectively analysed de novo or secondary AML undergoing SCT between 2000 and 2013 from the EBMT registry. Results One hundred thirty-nine patients with confirmed abn(17p have been selected. At the time of transplant, one hundred twenty-five were in first remission (CR1. Median age was 54 years old. Abn(17p was associated with a monosomal karyotype in 83% of patients, complex karyotype in 91%, monosomy 5 or 5q deletion (-5/5q- in 55%, monosomy 7 (-7 in 39% and both -5/5q and -7 in 27%. Seventy-three patients (59% had a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen. The 2-year overall survival (OS and leukaemia-free survival (LFS were 28 and 24%, respectively. The 2-year non-relapse mortality (NRM was 15%, and 2-year relapse incidence (RI was 61%. The cumulative incidence of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD was 24% and that of chronic GvHD was 21%. In multivariate analysis, the presence of a -5/5q- in addition to abn(17p was significantly and independently associated with worse OS, LFS and higher RI. Age and donor types did not correlate with outcome. Conditioning intensity was not statistically associated with OS, LFS and NRM when adjusted for patients’ age. Conclusions In contrast to the dismal prognosis reported for AML patients harbouring abn(17p undergoing conventional chemotherapy, allogeneic SCT provides responses in about 25% of those patients transplanted in CR1.

  14. Occupation and risk of lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Christopher, Yvette; Peeters, Petra; Romieu, Isabelle; Xun, Wei; Riboli, Elio; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Becker, Nikolaus; Nieters, Alexandra; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philip; Oddone, Enrico; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Wareham, Nick; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-07-01

    Established risk factors for leukaemia do not explain the majority of leukaemia cases. Previous studies have suggested the importance of occupation and related exposures in leukaemogenesis. We evaluated possible associations between job title and selected hazardous agents and leukaemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. The mean follow-up time for 241 465 subjects was 11.20 years (SD 2.42 years). During the follow-up period, 477 incident cases of myeloid and lymphoid leukaemia occurred. Data on 52 occupations considered a priori to be at high risk of developing cancer were collected through standardised questionnaires. Occupational exposures were estimated by linking the reported occupations to a job exposure matrix. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between occupation and related exposures and risk of leukaemia. The risk of lymphoid leukaemia significantly increased for working in chemical laboratories (HR 8.35, 95% CI 1.58 to 44.24), while the risk of myeloid leukaemia increased for working in the shoe or other leather goods industry (HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.06). Exposure-specific analyses showed a non-significant increased risk of myeloid leukaemias for exposure to benzene (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.40; HR=1.60, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.69 for the low and high exposure categories, respectively). This association was present both for acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia at high exposure levels. However, numbers were too small to reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest a possible role of occupational exposures in the development of both lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia. Exposure to benzene seemed to be associated with both acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia.

  15. Acute myeloid leukaemia presenting as bilateral proptosis in a young child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charudutt Kalamkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. Aims We are reporting a paediatric case presenting with bilateral proptosis, which we were able to diagnose with peripheral blood smear (PBS examination. Methods Case Report Results This case highlights the utility of simple routinely available PBS test in diagnosing this rare disease. Conclusion Our case highlights the importance of haemogram and peripheral blood smear in the initial evaluation of proptosis. Correct diagnosis of this rare entity is vital especially in cases where (myeloid sarcoma MS is the presenting feature of AML.

  16. Results of a randomized trial in children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia : Medical Research Council AML12 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, Brenda E. S.; Webb, David K. H.; Howman, Andrew J.; De Graaf, Siebold S. N.; Harrison, Christine J.; Wheatley, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The Medical Research Council Acute Myeloid Leukaemia 12 (MRC AML12) trial (children) addressed the optimal anthracenedione/anthracycline in induction and the optimal number of courses of consolidation chemotherapy. 504 children (

  17. DNA repair contributes to the drug-resistant phenotype of primary acute myeloid leukaemia cells with FLT3 internal tandem duplications and is reversed by the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhouse, C H; Hunter, H M; Lloyd-Lewis, B; Massip, A-M; Pallis, M; Carter, G I; Grundy, M; Shang, S; Russell, N H

    2006-12-01

    The presence of internal tandem duplications (ITD) mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor influences the risk of relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We have investigated DNA repair in FLT3-ITD and wild-type (WT) cells. Using the comet assay, we have demonstrated that the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412 significantly inhibits repair of DNA damage in the MV4-11-FLT3-ITD cell line and FLT3-ITD patient samples but not in the HL-60-FLT3-WT cell line or FLT3-WT patient samples. Following the discovery that transcript levels of the DNA repair gene RAD51 are significantly correlated with FLT3 transcript levels in FLT3-ITD patients, we further investigated the role of RAD51 in FLT3-ITD-AML. The reduction in DNA repair in PKC412-treated FLT3-ITD cells was shown to be associated with downregulation of RAD51 mRNA and protein expression and correlates with the maintenance of phosphorylated H2AX levels, implying that PKC412 inhibits the homologous recombination double-strand break repair pathway in FLT3-ITD cells. Using FLT3-short interfering RNA (siRNA), we also demonstrated that genetic silencing of FLT3 results in RAD51 downregulation in FLT3-ITD cells but not in FLT3-WT cells. This work suggests that the use of FLT3 inhibitors such as PKC412 may reverse the drug-resistant phenotype of FLT3-ITD-AML cells by inhibiting repair of chemotherapy-induced genotoxic damage and thereby reduce the risk of disease relapse.

  18. Combined bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate: potential novel therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat L Khanim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML patients are over sixty years of age. With current treatment regimens, survival rates amongst these, and also those younger patients who relapse, remain dismal and novel therapies are urgently required. In particular, therapies that have anti-leukaemic activity but that, unlike conventional chemotherapy, do not impair normal haemopoiesis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate the potent anti-leukaemic activity of the combination of the lipid-regulating drug bezafibrate (BEZ and the sex hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA against AML cell lines and primary AML cells. The combined activity of BEZ and MPA (B/M converged upon the increased synthesis and reduced metabolism of prostaglandin D(2 (PGD(2 resulting in elevated levels of the downstream highly bioactive, anti-neoplastic prostaglandin 15-deoxy Delta(12,14 PGJ(2 (15d-PGJ(2. BEZ increased PGD(2 synthesis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and activation of the lipid peroxidation pathway. MPA directed prostaglandin synthesis towards 15d-PGJ(2 by inhibiting the PGD(2 11beta -ketoreductase activity of the aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3, which metabolises PGD(2 to 9alpha11beta-PGF(2alpha. B/M treatment resulted in growth arrest, apoptosis and cell differentiation in both AML cell lines and primary AML cells and these actions were recapitulated by treatment with 15d-PGJ(2. Importantly, the actions of B/M had little effect on the survival of normal adult myeloid progenitors. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively our data demonstrate that B/M treatment of AML cells elevated ROS and delivered the anti-neoplastic actions of 15d-PGJ(2. These observations provide the mechanistic rationale for the redeployment of B/M in elderly and relapsed AML.

  19. CD33 monoclonal antibody conjugated Au cluster nano-bioprobe for targeted flow-cytometric detection of acute myeloid leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retnakumari, Archana; Jayasimhan, Jasusri; Chandran, Parwathy; Menon, Deepthy; Nair, Shantikumar; Mony, Ullas; Koyakutty, Manzoor, E-mail: manzoork@aims.amrita.edu, E-mail: ullasmony@aims.amrita.edu [Amrita Centre for Nanoscience and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Cochin 682 041 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Protein stabilized gold nanoclusters (Au-NCs) are biocompatible, near-infrared (NIR) emitting nanosystems having a wide range of biomedical applications. Here, we report the development of a Au-NC based targeted fluorescent nano-bioprobe for the flow-cytometric detection of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells. Au-NCs with {approx} 25-28 atoms showing bright red-NIR fluorescence (600-750 nm) and average size of {approx} 0.8 nm were prepared by bovine serum albumin assisted reduction-cum-stabilization in aqueous phase. The protein protected clusters were conjugated with monoclonal antibody against CD33 myeloid antigen, which is overexpressed in {approx} 99.2% of the primitive population of AML cells, as confirmed by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry. Au-NC-CD33 conjugates having average size of {approx} 12 nm retained bright fluorescence over an extended duration of {approx} a year, as the albumin protein protects Au-NCs against degradation. Nanotoxicity studies revealed excellent biocompatibility of Au-NC conjugates, as they showed no adverse effect on the cell viability and inflammatory response. Target specificity of the conjugates for detecting CD33 expressing AML cells (KG1a) in flow cytometry showed specific staining of {approx} 95.4% of leukaemia cells within 1-2 h compared to a non-specific uptake of {approx} 8.2% in human peripheral blood cells (PBMCs) which are CD33{sup low}. The confocal imaging also demonstrated the targeted uptake of CD33 conjugated Au-NCs by leukaemia cells, thus confirming the flow cytometry results. This study demonstrates that novel nano-bioprobes can be developed using protein protected fluorescent nanoclusters of Au for the molecular receptor targeted flow cytometry based detection and imaging of cancer cells.

  20. Nucleophosmin mutation analysis in acute myeloid leukaemia: Immunohistochemistry as a surrogate for molecular techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Chopra; Sushant Soni; Haraprasad Pati; Dev Kumar; Rahul Diwedi; Deepak Verma; Garima Vishwakama; Sameer Bakhshi; Suman Kumar; Ajay Gogia; Rajive Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mutation of nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene in the absence of FLT3-ITD (FMS related tyrosine kinase 3 - internal tandem duplications) mutation carries a good prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). NPM1, a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein that shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm, gets trapped in the cytoplasm when mutated. Immunohistochemical (IHC) demonstration of its aberrant cytoplasmic location (NPMc+) has been suggested as a simple...

  1. The development of a three-dimensional scaffold for ex vivo biomimicry of human acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Teresa Mortera; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander; Panoskaltsis, Nicki

    2010-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a cancer of haematopoietic cells that develops in three-dimensional (3-D) bone marrow niches in vivo. The study of AML has been hampered by lack of appropriate ex vivo models that mimic this microenvironment. We hypothesised that fabrication and optimisation of suitable biomimetic scaffolds for culturing leukaemic cells ex vivo might facilitate the study of AML in its native 3-D niche. We evaluated the growth of three leukaemia subtype-specific cell lines, K-562, HL60 and Kasumi-6, on highly porous scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymeric materials, such as poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyurethane (PU), poly (methyl-methacrylate), poly (D, L-lactade), poly (caprolactone), and polystyrene. Our results show that PLGA and PU supported the best seeding efficiency and leukaemic growth. Furthermore, the PLGA and PU scaffolds were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type I (62.5 or 125 microg/ml) and fibronectin (25 or 50 microg/ml) to provide biorecognition signals. The 3 leukaemia subtype-specific lines grew best on PU scaffolds coated with 62.5 microg/ml collagen type I over 6 weeks in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In conclusion, PU-collagen scaffolds may provide a practical model to study the biology and treatment of primary AML in an ex vivo mimicry. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytoplasmic nucleophosmin (cNPM) in acute myeloid leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amani H. Kazem

    2011-08-26

    Aug 26, 2011 ... novo) patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia with normal karyotype of all ... AML secondary to MDS, AML therapy related ... A second line of mAb were used to further ... ing techniques to detect visually accessible aberrations.

  3. BCR-ABL DERIVED PEPTIDE VACCINES FOR CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKAEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bocchia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML is a myeloproliferative pluripotent stem cell disorder characterized by the presence of a cytogenetic hallmark, the Philadelphia (Ph chromosome, and accounts for 15% of adult leukemias. The disease progresses from a chronic phase through an accelerated phase to a blast phase and its natural course accounts for a median 4 years survival1. The Ph chromosome is derived by a reciprocal translocation termed t(9;22 in which the c-abl oncogene has moved from chromosome 9 into the breakpoint cluster region (bcr, within the bcr gene on chromosome 22, resulting in a chimeric bcr-abl fusion gene that encodes a 210 KD protein (p210 with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. Two major alternative chimeric p210 can result from this fusion gene: p210-b2a2 where the junction occurs between bcr exon 2 (b2 and abl exon 2 (a2 and p210-b3a2 where the the junction occurs between bcr exon 3 (b3 and abl exon 2 (a2. About 40% of CML patients harbor the p210-b2a2 and about 60% of them show the p210-b3a2.

  4. Radioimmunotherapy for treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Conceptual chances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, I.; Helisch, A.; Bartenstein, P. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Mainz (Germany); Meyer, R.G.; Herr, W. [III. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik (Haematologie), Universitaetsklinikum Mainz (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has improved considerably by introduction of aggressive consolidation chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Nevertheless, only 20-30% of patients with AML achieve long-term disease-free survival after SCT. The most common cause of treatment failure is relapse. Additionally, mortality rates are significantly increased by therapy-related causes such as toxicity of chemotherapy and complications of SCT. Including radioimmunotherapies in the treatment of AML and myelodyplastic syndrome (MDS) allows for the achievement of a pronounced antileukaemic effect for the reduction of relapse rates on the one hand. On the other hand, no increase of acute toxicity and later complications should be induced. These effects are important for the primary reduction of tumour cells as well as for the myelblative conditioning before SCT. This paper provides a systematic and critical review of the currently used radionuclides and immunoconjugates for the treatment of AML and MDS and summarizes the literature on primary tumour cell reductive radioimmunotherapies on the one hand and conditioning radioimmunotherapies before SCT on the other hand. (orig.)

  5. SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukaemia cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang-Nian; Wang, Tian-Shi; Li, Xi; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Like most other types of cancer cells, leukaemia cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to support rapid proliferation through enhancing biosynthetic processes. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) plays a pivotal role in meeting the anabolic demands for cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which PPP contributes to leukaemia remains elusive. Here, we report that leukaemia cell proliferation is dependent on the oxidative branch of PPP, in particular the first and rate-limiting enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Knockdown of G6PD reduces NADPH level in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell lines. Exogenous lipid supplements partially restore the proliferation of G6PD-depleted cells. Deacetylase SIRT2 promotes NADPH production through deacetylating G6PD at lysine 403 (K403). Activation of G6PD by SIRT2 supports the proliferation and clonogenic activity of leukaemia cells. Chemical inhibitors against SIRT2 suppress G6PD activity, leading to reduced cell proliferation of leukaemia cells, but not normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Importantly, SIRT2 is overexpressed in clinical AML samples, while K403 acetylation is downregulated and G6PD catalytic activity is increased comparing to that of normal control. Together, our study reveals that acetylation regulation of G6PD is involved in the metabolic reprogramming of AML, and SIRT2 serves as a promising target for further therapeutic investigations. PMID:27586085

  6. Treatment for myeloid leukaemia of Down syndrome: population-based experience in the UK and results from the Medical Research Council AML 10 and AML 12 trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, A.; Hills, R.K.; Stiller, C.; Gibson, B.E.; Graaf, S.S.N. de; Hann, I.M.; O'Marcaigh, A.; Wheatley, K.; Webb, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) children are at an increased risk of developing myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We retrospectively analysed the population-based data on 81 children with myeloid leukaemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) from the UK National Registry of Childhood Tumours and experience

  7. Klinefelter syndrome and acute basophilic leukaemia--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubić, Nives; Lang, Nada; Skelin, Ika Kardum; Lasan, Ruzica; Dominis, Mara; Perković, Leila; Zupanić-Krmek, Dubraka; Grgurević-Batinica, Anita

    2010-06-01

    Patients with 47, XXY karyotype (Klinefelter syndrome) appear to have increased risk of developing cancer, especially male breast cancer, germ cell tumours and non Hodgkin lymphomas, but rarely acute myeloid leukaemia. We report a patient with acute basophilic leukaemia with 47, XXY karyotype in both the tumour and constitutional cells. Acute basophilic leukaemia is very rare disease comprising less than 1% of all acute myeloid leukaemias. Morphological characteristic of leukaemic blast cells is moderately basophilic cytoplasm containing a variable number of coarse basophilic granules. The most characteristic cytochemical reaction is metachromatic positivity with toluidine blue. Blast are myeloperoxidase negative. Also leukemic blasts express myeloid and monocyte markers. There is no consistent chromosomal abnormality identified in this leukaemia. This is the first reported case of acute basophilic leukaemia in patient with Klinefelter syndrome. In this article the medical history of the patient is given and the possible connection between Klinefelter syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia is discussed.

  8. Detailed molecular characterisation of acute myeloid leukaemia with a normal karyotype using targeted DNA capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, N; Varela, I; Grove, C; Manes, N; Yusa, K; Moreno, T; Segonds-Pichon, A; Bench, A; Gudgin, E; Herman, B; Bolli, N; Ellis, P; Haddad, D; Costeas, P; Rad, R; Scott, M; Huntly, B; Bradley, A; Vassiliou, G S

    2013-09-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are giving unprecedented insights into the spectrum of somatic mutations underlying acute myeloid leukaemia with a normal karyotype (AML-NK). It is clear that the prognosis of individual patients is strongly influenced by the combination of mutations in their leukaemia and that many leukaemias are composed of multiple subclones, with differential susceptibilities to treatment. Here, we describe a method, employing targeted capture coupled with next-generation sequencing and tailored bioinformatic analysis, for the simultaneous study of 24 genes recurrently mutated in AML-NK. Mutational analysis was performed using open source software and an in-house script (Mutation Identification and Analysis Software), which identified dominant clone mutations with 100% specificity. In each of seven cases of AML-NK studied, we identified and verified mutations in 2-4 genes in the main leukaemic clone. Additionally, high sequencing depth enabled us to identify putative subclonal mutations and detect leukaemia-specific mutations in DNA from remission marrow. Finally, we used normalised read depths to detect copy number changes and identified and subsequently verified a tandem duplication of exons 2-9 of MLL and at least one deletion involving PTEN. This methodology reliably detects sequence and copy number mutations, and can thus greatly facilitate the classification, clinical research, diagnosis and management of AML-NK.

  9. Incidence and significance of FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations in patients with normal karyotype acute myeloid leukaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haslam, K

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder of haematopoietic progenitor cells. Approximately half of all adult AML patients have a normal karyotype (NK-AML) and an intermediate risk prognosis. AIMS: To determine the incidence and prognostic significance of NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations in a population of patients with NK-AML. METHODS: FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutation status was retrospectively sought in presentation samples from 44 NK-AML patients. RESULTS: FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations were detected in 45.5 and 54.5% of patients, respectively, allowing stratification according to genotype. CONCLUSIONS: FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutation status can be defined in NK-AML. Prospective screening for these mutations is advocated in all NK-AML patients, as the genotype is of clinical importance when considering treatment options including stem cell transplantation.

  10. Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell populations in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia/abn(11q23) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia/t(4;11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Neudenberger (J.); M. Hotfilder (Marc); A. Rosemann (Annegret); C. Langebrake (C.); D. Reinhardt (Dirk); R. Pieters (Rob); A. Schrauder (André); M. Schrappe (Martin); S. Röttgers (Silja); J. Harbott (Jochen); J. Vormoor (Josef)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIt has increasingly been acknowledged that only a few leukaemic cells possess the capability to renew themselves and that only these self-renewing leukaemic stem cells are able to initiate relapses. Therefore, these leukaemic stem cells should be the target cells for therapy and for mini

  11. Haemostatic function and biomarkers of endothelial damage before and after platelet transfusion in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I

    2015-01-01

    and after platelet transfusion in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled before, 1 and 24 h after platelet transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole blood aggregometry (Multiplate) and thromboelastography (TEG). Endothelial biomarkers (s......OBJECTIVES: The beneficial effect of platelet transfusion on haemostasis is well established, but there is emerging evidence that platelet transfusion induces an inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. BACKGROUND: We investigated haemostatic function and endothelial biomarkers before......ICAM-1, syndecan-1, sThrombomodulin, sVE-Cadherin) and platelet activation biomarkers (sCD40L, TGF-beta) were investigated along with haematology/biochemistry analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were included. Despite continued low platelet counts, platelet transfusion normalised the median values...

  12. An update on imatinib mesylate therapy in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, P C; Gan, G G; Tai, Y T; Haris, A R; Chin, E; Veera, S N

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of imatinib mesylate in 1998 has changed the management of chronic myeloid leukaemia. It is now the first-line therapy for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia patients worldwide. However, its long-term survival benefit still needs to be established in clinical setting among Asian patients. All chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in the chronic phase who were on imatinib mesylate therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Data was collected through a review of case notes, which was then processed, managed and analysed. A total of 44 patients were included in the study. The cumulative rates of complete haematological response, major cytogenetic response and major molecular response were 93.2%, 75.0% and 34.2%, respectively. The overall survival and event-free survival at five years were 86.0% and 84.9%, respectively. 31.8% of the patients developed anaemia, 29.5% neutropenia and 27.3% thrombocytopenia. A total of 43.2% of patients developed non-haematological side effects. Higher dosage (> 600 mg) and smaller body size (< 60 kg) were risk factors for haematological side effects. Patients with major cytogenetic response and absence of thrombocytopenia had better survival. The majority of our chronic myeloid leukaemia patients did well with imatinib therapy. The adverse effects in our patients were tolerable, and no patient had to stop treatment permanently.

  13. Genome-scale definition of the transcriptional programme associated with compromised PU.1 activity in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sive, J I; Basilico, S; Hannah, R; Kinston, S J; Calero-Nieto, F J; Göttgens, B

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional dysregulation is associated with haematological malignancy. Although mutations of the key haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 are rare in human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), they are common in murine models of radiation-induced AML, and PU.1 downregulation and/or dysfunction has been described in human AML patients carrying the fusion oncogenes RUNX1-ETO and PML-RARA. To study the transcriptional programmes associated with compromised PU.1 activity, we adapted a Pu.1-mutated murine AML cell line with an inducible wild-type PU.1. PU.1 induction caused transition from leukaemia phenotype to monocytic differentiation. Global binding maps for PU.1, CEBPA and the histone mark H3K27Ac with and without PU.1 induction showed that mutant PU.1 retains DNA-binding ability, but the induction of wild-type protein dramatically increases both the number and the height of PU.1-binding peaks. Correlating chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Seq with gene expression data, we found that PU.1 recruitment coupled with increased histone acetylation induces gene expression and activates a monocyte/macrophage transcriptional programme. PU.1 induction also caused the reorganisation of a subgroup of CEBPA binding peaks. Finally, we show that the PU.1 target gene set defined in our model allows the stratification of primary human AML samples, shedding light on both known and novel AML subtypes that may be driven by PU.1 dysfunction.

  14. Treatment and long-term results in children with acute myeloid leukaemia treated according to the AIEOP AML protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pession, A; Rondelli, R; Basso, G; Rizzari, C; Testi, A M; Fagioli, F; De Stefano, P; Locatelli, F

    2005-12-01

    Since 1982, four consecutive studies on childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (namely LAM-82, -87, -87M and -92) have been conducted in Italy by the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) group. The induction therapy of the first three studies consisted of daunorubicin and cytarabine structured in a 3+7 backbone. In the most recent protocol (LAM92), patients received two induction courses including idarubicin, cytarabine and etoposide. Patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (20% of diagnoses) were included in LAM-87 and 87M studies. Postremissional therapy significantly changed over time, with an ever-increasing role given to stem cell transplantation (SCT). The long-term outcome of patients enrolled in the LAM-82, 87 and 87M studies was comparable, whereas that of children treated according to LAM-92 study was significantly better (P<0.005). Either allogeneic or autologous SCT was employed as consolidation therapy in more than 75% of cases enrolled in this latter study. Patients enrolled in the LAM-92 study were stratified in standard and high-risk groups with different outcome (67 vs 47%, respectively, P=0.04). Altogether, the results obtained in these four studies have permitted a progressive refinement of treatment, contributing to the structure of the ongoing LAM-2002 protocol that stratifies patients according to the presence of definite genetic anomalies and response to induction therapy.

  15. Platelet doubling after the first azacitidine cycle is a promising predictor for response in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients in the Dutch azacitidine compassionate named patient programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Lieke H.; Alhan, Canan; Wijermans, Pierre W.; Kooy, Marinus van Marwijk; Schaafsma, Ron; Biemond, Bart J.; Beeker, Aart; Hoogendoorn, Mels; van Rees, Bastiaan P.; de Weerdt, Okke; Wegman, Jurgen; Libourel, Ward J.; Luykx-de Bakker, Sylvia A.; Minnema, Monique C.; Brouwer, Rolf E.; Boer, Fransien Croon-de; Eefting, Matthijs; Jie, Kon-Siong G.; de Loosdrecht, Arjan A. van; Koedam, Jan; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Vellenga, Edo; Huls, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of azacitidine in the treatment of high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (20-30% blasts) has been demonstrated. To investigate the efficacy of azacitidine in daily clinical practice and to identify predictors

  16. Outcome of hyperleukocytic adult acute myeloid leukaemia: a single-center retrospective study and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbello, Laura; Ricci, Francesca; Nosari, Anna Maria; Turrini, Mauro; Nador, Guido; Nichelatti, Michele; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Vismara, Eleonora; Morra, Enrica

    2008-08-01

    Hyperleukocytic acute myeloid leukaemia is considered to have a poor prognosis due to high early death rate secondary to leukostasis. Supportive treatments do not seem to have reduced early exitus in this subset of patients. Prognostic impact of hyperleukocytosis on outcome has been the object of few studies. Clinical characteristics and outcome of 45 consecutive adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia presenting to our institution with a white cell count (WBC) above 100 x 10(9)L(-1) were reviewed. The outcome of this subset of patients was compared with 200 patients with a leukocyte count lower than 100 x 10(9)L(-1) similarly treated in the same period. Eight hyperleukocytic patients (17%) died of intracranial haemorrhage or pulmonary failure due to leukostasis within the first 7 days of treatment. A significant association was found between complete response (CR) and absence of hyperleukocytosis, but if early deaths were removed from analysis the difference was no longer significant. Hyperleukocytosis also significantly reduces the overall survival (OS) but does not significantly influence the disease-free survival (DFS). We reviewed in literature studies in which the outcome of series of at least 10 patients with hyperleukocytosis were compared with that of patients with a leukocyte count lower than 100 x 10(9)L(-1). Our data were consistent with those of the literature regarding the rate of early mortality and causes of death. In most of the reviewed series hyperleukocytosis does not seem to influence the outcome of patients. Avoiding early death seems to be an important step in this subset of patients. New data about pathophysiology of leukostasis are needed.

  17. The role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the elderly patient with acute myeloid leukaemia O papel do transplante de célula-tronco hematopoiética em pacientes idosos com leucemia mielóide aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Olivieri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Older adults with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML, when compared to younger patients with the same disease, have a poor prognosis and represent a discrete population in terms of disease biology, treatment-related complications, and overall outcome. As a result, older patients require distinctive management approaches. For 85%-95% of older AML patients, any therapy ultimately will be purely palliative. No randomized trial has ever demonstrated that any amount of post-remission therapy in older AML patients provides better outcomes than no post-remission therapy. The only studies demonstrating that long-term Disease Free Survival (DFS is possible in older AML patients have included remission induction and post-remission therapy. For these reasons alternative post-remission strategies, including autologous or allogeneic transplantation have been explored also in people over sixty considered fit for aggressive therapy. Up to now the data available from clinical trials suggest that the stem cell transplant procedure is promising, and can lead to long-term survival, but it is feasible only in a minority of fit elderly patients. The main limits of Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation (ASCT are represented by the low percentage of patients able to mobilize a sufficient amount of stem cells and by the still high relapse incidence after ASCT, especially in those with poor prognostic factors; for these patients the allogeneic transplant procedure, by using non myeloablative conditioning regimens, could offer a better chance of cure, thanks to the Graft versus Leukemia (GVL effect, but there are no prospective trials showing the superiority of any transplant approach over conventional treatment in this subset of patients.Pacientes idosos com leucemia mielóide aguda (LMA, quando comparados com pacientes jovens com a mesma doença, apresentam prognóstico pobre e representam uma população particular em termos biológicos, complicações relacionadas ao

  18. The genetic basis of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinghui; Ding, Li; Holmfeldt, Linda; Wu, Gang; Heatley, Sue L; Payne-Turner, Debbie; Easton, John; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Jianmin; Rusch, Michael; Lu, Charles; Chen, Shann-Ching; Wei, Lei; Collins-Underwood, J Racquel; Ma, Jing; Roberts, Kathryn G; Pounds, Stanley B; Ulyanov, Anatoly; Becksfort, Jared; Gupta, Pankaj; Huether, Robert; Kriwacki, Richard W; Parker, Matthew; McGoldrick, Daniel J; Zhao, David; Alford, Daniel; Espy, Stephen; Bobba, Kiran Chand; Song, Guangchun; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Roberts, Stefan; Barbato, Michael I; Campana, Dario; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Shurtleff, Sheila A; Raimondi, Susana C; Kleppe, Maria; Cools, Jan; Shimano, Kristin A; Hermiston, Michelle L; Doulatov, Sergei; Eppert, Kolja; Laurenti, Elisa; Notta, Faiyaz; Dick, John E; Basso, Giuseppe; Hunger, Stephen P; Loh, Mignon L; Devidas, Meenakshi; Wood, Brent; Winter, Stuart; Dunsmore, Kimberley P; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Hong, Xin; Harris, Christopher C; Dooling, David J; Ochoa, Kerri; Johnson, Kimberly J; Obenauer, John C; Evans, William E; Pui, Ching-Hon; Naeve, Clayton W; Ley, Timothy J; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James R; Mullighan, Charles G

    2012-01-11

    Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of unknown genetic basis. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 12 ETP ALL cases and assessed the frequency of the identified somatic mutations in 94 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases. ETP ALL was characterized by activating mutations in genes regulating cytokine receptor and RAS signalling (67% of cases; NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, IL7R, JAK3, JAK1, SH2B3 and BRAF), inactivating lesions disrupting haematopoietic development (58%; GATA3, ETV6, RUNX1, IKZF1 and EP300) and histone-modifying genes (48%; EZH2, EED, SUZ12, SETD2 and EP300). We also identified new targets of recurrent mutation including DNM2, ECT2L and RELN. The mutational spectrum is similar to myeloid tumours, and moreover, the global transcriptional profile of ETP ALL was similar to that of normal and myeloid leukaemia haematopoietic stem cells. These findings suggest that addition of myeloid-directed therapies might improve the poor outcome of ETP ALL.

  19. Maintenance treatment with azacytidine for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukaemia following MDS in complete remission after induction chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grövdal, Michael; Karimi, Mohsen; Khan, Rasheed

    2010-01-01

    This prospective Phase II study is the first to assess the feasibility and efficacy of maintenance 5-azacytidine for older patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and MDS-acute myeloid leukaemia syndromes in complete remission (CR) after induction...

  20. Low frequency of MLL-partial tandem duplications in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia using MLPA as a novel DNA screenings technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgobind, B.V.; Hollink, I.H.; Reinhardt, D.; Wering, E.R. van; Graaf, S.S.N. de; Baruchel, A.; Stary, J.; Beverloo, H.B.; Greef, G.E. de; Pieters, R.; Zwaan, C.M.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-lineage leukaemia (MLL)-partial tandem duplications (PTDs) are found in 3-5% of adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and are associated with poor prognosis. In adult AML, MLL-PTD is only detected in patients with trisomy 11 or internal tandem duplications of FLT3 (FLT3-ITD). To date, studies i

  1. Diagnostic & prognostic role of microRNAs in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation in microRNAs (miRNAs expression has been observed in distinct acute myeloid leukaemia (AML subtypes, and their potential as an effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarker is slowly being realized. Certain miRNAs have been found to be associated with various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities of prognostic significance in AML. Experimental evidences have indicated the potential of modulating miRNA expression as an effective antileukaemic strategy. This has opened a new window for miRNAs-based targeted therapies. In this review, we present results of some studies analyzing the dysregulation in miRNAs expression pattern in paediatric AML and also discuss their use as diagnostic and prognostic markers.

  2. Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Presenting as Bilateral Retinal Haemorrhages with Multiple Retinal Infiltrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Priyanka Ramkrishna; Barot, Rakesh K; Gohel, Devadatta Jayantilal; Bhagat, Nupur

    2016-05-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) causes retinopathy manifesting as venous dilation and tortuosity, perivascular sheathing, retinal haemorrhages, microaneurysms, cotton-wool spots and optic nerve infiltration. Retina is the most commonly involved intraocular structure in CML. However, retinal involvement is a rare form of presentation of CML and few cases have been reported. We report a case of CML presenting as unilateral sudden visual loss. Fundus showed multiple white centered retinal haemorrhages in both eyes with unilateral macular oedema. Blood work-up showed raised WBC count, high platelet count and low Haemoglobin. Cytological analysis of bone marrow biopsy confirmed Philadelphia chromosome. After a course of Imatinib, visual acuity improved and haemorrhages resolved with normalization of macular thickness. In our case, patient presented early, leading to early detection producing better visual prognosis. This highlights the importance of detailed hematological work up in patients with retinal involvement to rule out leukaemic retinopathy.

  3. Auricular Oedema and Dyshidrotic Eczema in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Treated with Cytarabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Brandt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytarabine is an effective drug in the treatment of haematological malignancies. The therapy is associated with various complications. Frequencies of dermatological side-effects range from 2–72% and occur most commonly after high-dose regimens. Although most cutaneous reactions are mild and resolve spontaneously within several days, they may result in an increased risk of infection and alterations in comfort. In some cases, severe life-threatening reactions have been reported. Here we describe the case of a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia, who developed severe exceptional skin toxicity in terms of auricular oedema and palmar dyshidrotic eczema after the application of low-dose cytarabine. Re-administration of the drug resulted in reduced skin toxicity during further cycles of chemotherapy. Negative epicutaneous patch-testing supported the existence of cytarabine-provoked toxicity.

  4. Inhibition of CK2{alpha} and PI3K/Akt synergistically induces apoptosis of CD34+CD38- leukaemia cells while sparing haematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, June-Won; Min, Yoo Hong; Eom, Ju In; Kim, Soo Jeong; Jeung, Hoi Kyung; Kim, Jin Seok

    2010-11-01

    The CD34(+)CD38(-) leukaemia cell population contains leukaemia stem cells (LSCs) responsible for treatment failure in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and, thus, novel therapies are required to eradicate LSCs without harming healthy haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). The present study evaluated the effects of co-treatment with LY294002 (a PI3K/Akt inhibitor) and apigenin (a CK2 inhibitor) (LY/Api) at subtoxic concentrations on leukaemia cell lines and primary AML cells. LY/Api synergistically induced apoptosis in leukaemia cells, especially CD34(+)CD38(-) leukaemia cells. However, these effects were negligible in HSCs. LY/Api-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of caspase cascades and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase inhibitor or Akt overexpression abrogated this synergistic induction in apoptosis by LY/Api. LY/Api also led to remarkable down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-xL and NF-κB in CD34(+)CD38(-) leukaemia cells, but not in healthy hematopoietic stem cells. Inhibition of both CK2 and PI3K/Akt pathways may be a promising LSCs-targeted therapeutic strategy for AML.

  5. Epigenetic Guardian: A Review of the DNA Methyltransferase DNMT3A in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia and Clonal Haematopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Sabah F.

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a haematological malignancy characterized by clonal stem cell proliferation and aberrant block in differentiation. Dysfunction of epigenetic modifiers contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of AML. One frequently mutated gene involved in epigenetic modification is DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase-3-alpha), a DNA methyltransferase that alters gene expression by de novo methylation of cytosine bases at CpG dinucleotides. Approximately 22% of AML and 36% of cytogenetically normal AML cases carry DNMT3A mutations and around 60% of these mutations affect the R882 codon. These mutations have been associated with poor prognosis and adverse survival outcomes for AML patients. Advances in whole-exome sequencing techniques have recently identified a large number of DNMT3A mutations present in clonal cells in normal elderly individuals with no features of haematological malignancy. Categorically distinct from other preleukaemic conditions, this disorder has been termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Further insight into the mutational landscape of CHIP may illustrate the consequence of particular mutations found in DNMT3A and identify specific “founder” mutations responsible for clonal expansion that may contribute to leukaemogenesis. This review will focus on current research and understanding of DNMT3A mutations in both AML and CHIP. PMID:28286768

  6. Implication of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, O; Shaltout, A

    2000-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) are increasingly used to stimulate granulopoiesis in neutropenic patients but these are rarely used in the lights of knowledge of the endogenous CSF-levels. In this study we measured serum levels of GM-CSF and IL-3 at diagnosis and after remission in children with acute leukaemia, using an enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) techniques in 14 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and 27 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Twelve healthy age-matched children were used as a reference group. AML patients showed a highly significant increase in serum levels of GM-CSF and IL-3 before induction of therapy (p 0.5), with no significant difference between preinduction and postinduction serum levels of either (p > 0.5). Since these cytokines are known to be fundamental for the growth of AML cells, we postulate that the pretreatment levels of both GM-CSF and IL-3 could play a role in the pathogenesis of AML.

  7. Implication of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML); Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Osama; Shaltout, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) are increasingly used to stimulate granulopoiesis in neutropenic patients but these are rarely used in the lights of knowledge of the endogenous CSF-levels. In this study we measured serum levels of GM-CSF and IL-3 at diagnosis and after remission in children with acute leukaemia, using an enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) techniques in 14 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and 27 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Twelve healthy age-matched children were used as a reference group. AML patients showed a highly significant increase in serum levels of GM-CSF and IL-3 before induction of therapy (p 0.5), with no significant difference between preinduction and postinduction serum levels of either (p > 0.5). Since these cytokines are known to be fundamental for the growth of AML cells, we postulate that the pretreatment levels of both GM-CSF and IL-3 could play a role in the pathogenesis of AML.

  8. Altered Ca2+ homeostasis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from chronic myeloid leukaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revankar Chetana M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL, mobilization of calcium ions is one of the early events triggered by binding of chemoattractant to its receptors. Besides chemotaxis, a variety of other functional responses are dependent on calcium ion mobilization. PMNL from chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients that were morphologically indistinguishable from normal PMNL were found to be defective in various functions stimulated by a chemoattractant – fMLP. To study the mechanism underlying defective functions in CML PMNL, we studied calcium mobilization in CML PMNL in response to two different classical chemoattractants, fMLP and C5a. Results Release of calcium estimated by flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry using fluo-3 as an indicator showed that the [Ca2+]i levels were lower in CML PMNL as compared to those in normal PMNL. But, both normal and CML PMNL showed maximum [Ca2+]i in response to fMLP and C5a at 10 sec and 30 sec, respectively. Spectrofluorimetric analysis of the total calcium release in chemoattractant treated PMNL indicated more and faster efflux of [Ca2+]i in CML PMNL as compared to normal PMNL. Conclusion Fine-tuning of Ca2+ homeostasis was altered in CML PMNL. The altered Ca2+ homeostasis may contribute to the defective functions of CML PMNL.

  9. Serum posaconazole levels during acute myeloid leukaemia induction therapy: correlations with breakthrough invasive fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Chiara; Panzali, Annafranca; Passi, Angela; Borlenghi, Erika; Lamorgese, Cinzia; Petullà, Marta; Re, Alessandro; Caimi, Luigi; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The usefulness of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is still a matter of debate. A correlation between posaconazole serum levels and breakthrough invasive fungal infections (IFI) has not been clearly demonstrated so far. We analysed posaconazole serum levels in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) during induction therapy and correlated them with the incidence of breakthrough IFI and the need of systemic antifungal therapy. Overall, 77 AML patients receiving posaconazole were evaluated for serum levels; breakthrough IFI were observed in five with at least one posaconazole TDM (6.5%). Median serum level was 534 ng ml(-1) (IQ range: 298.5-750.5 ng ml(-1) ) and did not change significantly over time. Four of the 40 patients with median posaconazole levels posaconazole levels on day 7 were 384.5 ng ml(-1) (IQ range: 207-659 ng ml(-1) ) and 560.5 ng ml(-1) (IQ range: 395-756 ng ml(-1) ) in patients requiring or not systemic antifungal treatment respectively (P = 0.067). These results seem to confirm that higher median serum levels of posaconazole correlate with higher prophylactic efficacy against proven/probable IFI and with lesser need of systemic antifungal therapy.

  10. Probability Prediction in Multistate Survival Models for Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ya; Hein Putter

    2005-01-01

    In order to find an appropriate model suitable for a multistate survival experiment, 634 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) were selected to illustrate the method of analysis.After transplantation, there were 4 possible situations for a patient: disease free, relapse but still alive, death before relapse, and death after relapse. The last 3 events were considered as treatment failure. The results showed that the risk of death before relapse was higher than that of the relapse,especially in the first year after transplantation with competing-risk method. The result of patients with relapse time less than 12 months was much poor by the Kaplan-Meier method. And the multistate survival models were developed, which were detailed and informative based on the analysis of competing risks and Kaplan-Meier analysis. With the multistate survival models, a further analysis on conditional probability was made for patients who were disease free and still alive at month 12 after transplantation. It was concluded that it was possible for an individual patient to predict the 4 possible probabilities at any time. Also the prognoses for relapse either death or not and death either before or afterrelapse may be given. Furthermore, the conditional probabilities for patients who were disease free and still alive in a given time after transplantation can be predicted.

  11. Impact of NOD2 polymorphisms on infectious complications following chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomade, Olaposi; Spies-Weisshart, Bärbel; Glaser, Anita; Schnetzke, Ulf; Hochhaus, Andreas; Scholl, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of the NOD2 gene and infectious complications following intensive induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We hypothesised that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NOD2 gene are associated with a higher rate of infections during the phase of severe neutropenia. In 131 AML patients receiving induction therapy, the presence of the three most frequent polymorphisms of NOD2 (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg, Leu1007fsinsC) was analysed. SNP analyses by means of genomic PCR incorporating fluorescence-labelled probes with characteristic melting curves were performed using the LightCycler platform. Our data suggest a significantly lower probability of mucositis or enteritis in AML patients lacking any of the three evaluated NOD2 polymorphisms. Furthermore, bloodstream cultures of AML patients carrying either a missense or a frameshift mutation of NOD2 were significantly more frequently tested positive concerning Streptococcus spp. In contrast, the presence of NOD2 polymorphisms had no impact on such important infectious complications as systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis, the rate of central venous catheter infections or the incidence of pneumonia including fungal infections. Our data represent one of the first reports investigating the impact of polymorphisms of the innate immune system on infectious complications in patients with neutropenia following chemotherapy. A correlation between NOD2 polymorphisms and infectious events in AML patients is demonstrated.

  12. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II variations predict adverse prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkjaer, Trine; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Juhl-Christensen, Caroline; Hokland, Peter; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell

    2013-10-01

    Alterations in the two catalytic genes cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II (COI and COII) have recently been suggested to have an adverse impact on prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In order to explore this in further detail, we sequenced these two mitochondrial genes in diagnostic bone marrow or blood samples in 235 patients with AML. In 37 (16%) patients, a non-synonymous variation in either COI or COII could be demonstrated. No patients harboured both COI and COII non-synonymous variations. Twenty-four (10%) patients had non-synonymous variations in COI, whereas 13 (6%) patients had non-synonymous variations in COII. The COI and COII are essential subunits of cytochrome c oxidase that is the terminal enzyme in the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. In terms of disease course, we observed that in patients with a normal cytogenetic analysis at disease presentation (CN-AML) treated with curative intent, the presence of a non-synonymous variation in the COII was an adverse prognostic marker for both overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in both univariate (DFS; hazard ratio (HR) 4.4, P = 0.006) and multivariate analyses (DFS; HR 7.2, P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of a mitochondrial aberration playing an adverse prognostic role in adult AML, and we argue that its role as a potentially novel adverse prognostic marker in the subset of CN-AML should be explored further.

  13. New Quantitative Method to Identify NPM1 Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Huet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations in the NPM1 gene, which encodes for nucleophosmin, have been reported to be the most frequent genetic abnormalities found in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. Their identification and quantification remain crucial for the patients’ residual disease monitoring. We investigated a new method that could represent a novel reliable alternative to sequencing for its identification. This method was based on high-resolution melting analysis in order to detect mutated patients and on an allele-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ASO-RQ-PCR for the identification and quantification of the transcripts carrying NPM1 mutations (NPM1m. Few patients carrying known NPM1m enabled us to set up a table with the different primers’ ΔCT values, identifying a profile for each mutation type. We then analysed a series of 337 AML patients' samples for NPM1 mutational status characterization and confirmed the ASO-RQ-PCR results by direct sequencing. We identified some mutations in 86 samples, and the results were fully correlated in 100% of the 36 sequenced samples. We also detected other rare NPM1m in two samples, that we confirmed by direct sequencing. This highly specific method provides a novel quick, useful, and costless tool, easy to use in routine practice.

  14. Symptom experience and management among people with acute myeloid leukaemia in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtap, Suthisa; Nilmanat, Kittikorn

    2011-08-01

    In Thailand, haematological malignancy is one of the most common types of cancer. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Southern Thailand, aimed to describe the symptom experiences of and symptom management strategies among patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Sixty hospitalized patients with AML were recruited. The Symptom Experience Scale and two open-ended questions regarding symptom-management strategies were used to collect data via face-to-face interviews 2 weeks after the induction phase of the AML protocol. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. High fever, weakness, nausea, and anorexia were the four most prevalent symptoms reported. Other prevalent symptoms included weight loss, bleeding, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, and a cluster of psycho-emotional symptoms: worrying, fear, feeling discouraged, and feeling bored. Patients used various approaches and strategies to alleviate their symptoms, which could be categorized into five groups: preventive, direct, distraction, complementary, and restorative approaches. This study has provided important information for the development of symptom-management nursing programmes for patients with AML, particularly in Thailand.

  15. Thiotepa-based versus total body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission: a retrospective analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Sandra; Labopin, Myriam; Arcese, William; Or, Reuven; Majolino, Ignazio; Bacigalupo, Andrea; de Rosa, Gennaro; Volin, Liisa; Beelen, Dietrich; Veelken, Hendrik; Schaap, Nicolaas P M; Kuball, Jurgen; Cornelissen, Jan; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Thiotepa is an alkylating compound with an antineoplastic and myeloablative activity and can mimic the effect of radiation. However, it is unknown whether this new regimen could safely replace the long-established ones. This retrospective matched-pair analysis evaluated the outcome of adults with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission who received myeloablative conditioning either with a thiotepa-based (n = 121) or a cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation-based (TBI; n = 358) regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling or an unrelated donor. With a median follow-up of 44 months, the outcome was similar in both groups. Acute graft-versus-host disease grade II-IV was observed in 25% after thiotepa-containing regimen versus 35% after TBI (P = 0.06). The 2-yr cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 40.5% for thiotepa and 41% for TBI (P = 0.98). At 2 yrs, the cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence were 23.9% (thiotepa) vs. 22.4% (TBI; P = 0.66) and 17.2% (thiotepa) vs. 23.3% (TBI; P = 0.77), respectively. The probabilities of leukaemia-free and overall survival at 2 yrs were not significantly different between the thiotepa and TBI groups, at 58.9% vs. 54.2% (P = 0.95) and 61.4% vs. 58% (P = 0.72), respectively. Myeloablative regimens using combinations including thiotepa can provide satisfactory outcomes, but the optimal conditioning remains unclear for the individual patient in this setting.

  16. A Fatal Case of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia-Methotrexate Related or Primary Autoimmune Disease Related: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Kaeley, Nidhi; Gupta, Priyanka; Gupta, Vibha; Bhatia, Rohan

    2016-03-01

    Methotrexate is being used for many years in the treatment of chronic medical disorders e.g. rheumatoid arthritis since 1951. It has been associated with various systemic toxicities and complications including bone marrow suppression and lymphomas. The development of leukaemia in a patient of chronic rheumatoid arthritis is either related with the primary disease or due to the drugs which are used in the treatment like cyclophosphamide. In our present case, a 70-year-old female who was a known case of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and was on methotrexate once a week orally for the past 20 years presented with complaints of loss of appetite, loss of weight and anaemia since 2 months. After thorough examination and investigation, she was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML-M4) with bilateral chest consolidation.

  17. Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2012-03-22

    Myeloid cells are the most abundant nucleated haematopoietic cells in the human body and are a collection of distinct cell populations with many diverse functions. The three groups of terminally differentiated myeloid cells - macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes - are essential for the normal function of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mounting evidence indicates that the tumour microenvironment alters myeloid cells and can convert them into potent immunosuppressive cells. Here, we consider myeloid cells as an intricately connected, complex, single system and we focus on how tumours manipulate the myeloid system to evade the host immune response.

  18. Myeloid Sarcoma of the Uterine Cervix as Presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia after Treatment with Low-Dose Radioiodine for Thyroid Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sophie Weingertner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of acute myeloid leukaemia after low-dose radioiodine therapy and its presentation as a myeloid sarcoma of the uterine cervix are both rare events. We report a case of acute myeloid leukaemia revealed by a myeloid sarcoma of the uterine cervix in a 48-year-old woman, 17 months after receiving a total dose of 100 mCi 131I for papillary thyroid cancer. A strict hematological follow-up of patients treated with any dose of 131I is recommended to accurately detect any hematological complications which might have been underestimated. Unusual presentations, such as chloroma of the uterine cervix, may reveal myeloid malignancy and should be kept in mind.

  19. New Complex Chromosomal Translocation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljabar El Andaloussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML case with a new complex t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11 of a 29-year-old man is being reported. For the first time, this translocation has been characterized by karyotype complemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. In CML, the complex and standard translocations have the same prognosis. The patient was treated with standard initial therapy based on hydroxyurea before he died due to heart failure four months later. Our finding indicates the importance of combined cytogenetic analysis for diagnosis and guidance of treatment in clinical diagnosis of CML.

  20. Principal results of the Medical Research Council's 8th acute myeloid leukaemia trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J K; Gray, R G; Swirsky, D; Hayhoe, F G

    1986-11-29

    Between 1978 and 1983, 1127 patients with de-novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were entered into the Medical Research Council (MRC)'s 8th AML trial. All received the same induction therapy consisting of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and 6-thioguanine--DAT (1 + 5). The 67% who entered complete remission were randomised to consolidation with two or six further courses of DAT. Adults under the age of 55 were randomised for central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis with intrathecal cytarabine and methotrexate. Finally, those still in remission after 1 year of cytarabine and 6-thioguanine (AT) maintenance were randomised to receive either late intensification with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytarabine, and prednisolone (COAP) or continued AT. The median survival for the whole group was 12 months; the median duration of first remission was 15 months, with relapse-free survival at 5 years estimated at 18%. The factors most strongly associated with poor survival were performance status and age at presentation, but even among those over 60 years of age, half went into remission. Six courses of DAT consolidation gave a small advantage over two courses in reducing the number of late relapses but no significant survival advantage. Late intensification showed a marginally significant advantage over continued AT maintenance. The incidence of CNS relapse was low and unaffected by prophylaxis. The second remission rate varied from 10% when the first remission was shorter than 6 months to 61% when it had continued for more than 2 years. 40 patients received histocompatible allogeneic bone-marrow transplants in first remission. There was a high procedure-related death rate, particularly among patients over 30 years of age. Thus, initially at least, the transplanted group had shorter survival than a comparable group of chemotherapy-treated patients. Treatment specifications remained unchanged throughout the trial but those enrolled in the later half of the trial had a better (p = 0

  1. Massive myeloid sarcoma affecting the central nervous system, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, liver, and rectum associated with acute myeloblastic leukaemia: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best-Aguilera, C R; Vazquez-Del Mercado, M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Herrera-Zarate, L; Navarro-Hernandez, R E; Martin-Marquez, B T; Oregon-Romero, E; Ruiz-Quezada, S; Bonilla, G M; Lomeli-Guerrero, A

    2005-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary tumours with granulocytic precursors. When associated with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), these tumours usually affect no more than two different extramedullary regions. This report describes a myeloid sarcoma associated with AML with tumour formation at five anatomical sites. The patient was a 37 year old man admitted in September 1999 with a two month history of weight loss, symptoms of anaemia, rectal bleeding, and left facial nerve palsy. The anatomical sites affected were: the rectum, the right lobe of the liver, the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, and the central nervous system. A bone marrow smear was compatible with AML M2. Flow cytometry showed that the peripheral blood was positive for CD4, CD11, CD13, CD14, CD33, CD45, and HLA-DR. A karyotypic study of the bone marrow revealed an 8;21 translocation. The presence of multiple solid tumours in AML is a rare event. Enhanced expression of cell adhesion molecules may be the reason why some patients develop myeloid sarcomas. PMID:15735171

  2. Somatic mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 are prognostic and follow-up markers in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia with normal karyotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virijevic Marijana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2 genes are frequent molecular lesions in acute myeloid leukaemia with normal karyotype (AML-NK. The effects of IDH mutations on clinical features and treatment outcome in AML-NK have been widely investigated, but only a few studies monitored these mutations during follow-up.

  3. Residual disease detected by flow cytometry is an independent predictor of survival in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia; results of the NOPHO-AML 2004 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierens, Anne; Bjørklund, Elizabeth; Siitonen, Sanna;

    2016-01-01

    Early response after induction is a prognostic factor for disease outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Residual disease (RD) detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) was performed at day 15 and before consolidation therapy in 101 patients enrolled in the Nordic Society...

  4. A 4-gene expression score associated with high levels of Wilms Tumor-1 (WT1) expression is an adverse prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niavarani, A. (Ahmadreza); Herold, T. (Tobias); Y. Reyal (Yasmin); M.C. Sauerland (Maria); T. Büchner (Thomas); W. Hiddemann (Wolfgang); S.K. Bohlander (Stefan); P.J.M. Valk (Peter); Bonnet, D. (Dominique)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWilms Tumor-1 (WT1) expression level is implicated in the prognosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We hypothesized that a gene expression profile associated with WT1 expression levels might be a good surrogate marker. We identified high WT1 gene sets by comparing the gene expression p

  5. Acute Myeloid Leukaemia | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inical trial with GRASPA, Red Blood cells encapsulating L-Asparaginase, in patients affected by Acute Myeloi...ndition or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute...ion E.1.2Version 14.1 E.1.2Level LLT E.1.2Classification code 10000886 E.1.2Term Acute...old and less than 85 years old- Newly diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) or post myelodysplastic syndrom

  6. Myeloid Cells in Infantile Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Matthew R.; Reinisch, John; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Friedlander, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the pathogenesis of infantile hemangiomas despite the fact that they are relatively common tumors. These benign neoplasms occur in as many as 1 in 10 births, and although rarely life threatening, hemangiomas can pose serious concerns to the cosmetic and psychosocial development of the afflicted child. Ulceration, scarring, and disfigurement are significant problems as are encroachment of the ear and eye, which can threaten hearing and vision. The precise mechanisms controlling the rapid growth observed in the first months of life and the spontaneous involution that follows throughout the course of years remain unknown. In this report we demonstrate the presence of large numbers of hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage in proliferating hemangiomas and propose a mechanism for the observed evolution of these lesions that is triggered by hypoxia and involves the participation of myeloid cells. We report the results of experiments using myeloid markers (CD83, CD32, CD14, CD15) that unexpectedly co-labeled hemangioma endothelial cells, providing new evidence that these cells are distinct from normal endothelium. PMID:16436675

  7. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 144 Overview Alternate Names: Synonym AML - Acute... myeloblastic leukaemia; Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia; Acute Myeloblastic Leukemias; Acute... Myelocytic Leukemia; Acute Myelocytic Leukemias; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myelogenous Leukemias; Acute... granulocytic leukaemia; Acute myeloblastic leukemia; Acute myeloid leukaemia; Acute myeloid leukaemia - category; Acute... myeloid leukaemia, disease; Acute myeloid leukemia; Acute myelo

  8. Case report: hydroquinone and/or glutaraldehyde induced acute myeloid leukaemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulos Evangelos C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposures to high doses of irradiation, to chemotherapy, benzene, petroleum products, paints, embalming fluids, ethylene oxide, herbicides, pesticides, and smoking have been associated with an increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. Although there in no epidemiological evidence of relation between X-ray developer, fixer and replenisher liquids and AML, these included glutaraldehyde which has weakly associated with lymphocytic leukemia in rats and hydroquinone has been increasingly implicated in producing leukemia, causing DNA and chromosomal damage, inhibits topo-isomerase II, alter hematopoiesis and inhibit apoptosis of neoplastic cells. Case presentation Two white females (A and B hired in 1985 as medical radiation technologists in a primary care center, in Greece. In July 2001, woman A, 38-years-old, was diagnosed as having acute monocytic leukaemia (FAB M5. The patient did not respond to therapy and died threeweeks later. In August 2001, woman B, 35-year-old, was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (FAB M3. Since discharge, she is in continuous complete remission. Both women were non smokers without any medical history. Shortly after these incidents official inspectors and experts inspected workplace, examined equipment, archives of repairs, notes, interviewed and monitored employees. They concluded that shielding was inadequate for balcony's door but personal monitoring did not show any exceeding of TLV of 20 mSv yearly and cytogenetics analysis did not reveal findings considered to be characteristics of ionizing exposure. Equipment for developing photos had a long list of repairs, mainly leakages of liquids and increases of temperature. On several occasions the floor has been flooded especially during 1987–1993 and 1997–2001. Inspection confirmed a complete lack of ventilation and many spoiled medical x-ray films. Employees reported that an "osmic" level was continuously evident and frequently

  9. Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: a Single-Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakucs Enikő

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT is an important treatment modality for patients with acute myeloid leukemia with low and intermediate risk disease. It has served advantages over allogenic transplantation, because it does not need a matched donor, there is no graft versus host disease, there are less complications and a faster immune reconstitution than in the allo-setting. The disadvantage is the lack of the graft versus leukaemia effect.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of cytarabine, etoposide and daunorubicin in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Bender, B.; Jensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    (®); for daunorubicin, PK information from a prior study was utilized. RESULTS: Baseline white blood cell count (bWBC) influenced the PK for all drugs. A small, statistically insignificant improvement in model fit was achieved when a relationship between bWBC and daunorubicin central volume of distribution was included...... insights into the PK of this combination treatment. METHODS: A prospective population PK study of twenty-three patients with acute myeloid leukemia was undertaken. Plasma concentrations of patients were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. PK models were developed with NONMEM....... The volume increased 1.9% for each increase in bWBC by 1 × 10(6) cells/mL. The clearances of etoposide and cytarabine were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, by increased bWBC. Tenfold changes in bWBC were needed for these relationships to have potential clinical relevance. A decrease...

  11. Discontinuation of empirical antibiotic therapy in neutropenic acute myeloid leukaemia patients with fever of unknown origin: is it ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micol, J-B; Chahine, C; Woerther, P-L; Ghez, D; Netzer, F; Dufour, C; Merad, M; Blot, F; Chachaty, E; de Botton, S; Gachot, B

    2014-07-01

    Based on recommendations of the ECIL-4, we prospectively evaluated discontinuation of empirical antibiotic therapy in high-risk neutropenic acute myeloid leukaemia patients with fever of unknown origin. Seven patients (median neutropenia duration 30 days) were included. Four of them remained afebrile but quickly recovered from neutropenia. The other three had rapid recurrent fever. Two of these three patients had bacteraemia with susceptible strains and one of them was transferred to the ICU for septic shock. Median duration of sparing of antibiotics for the seven patients was 3 days (2-4). Because of these limited results the study was stopped. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  12. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Who Received Early Intensification Chemotherapy and an Autologous Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Arellano-Galindo, José; Medrano-Ortíz-De-Zárate, María Elena; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Berges-García, Adolfina; Solís-Labastida, Karina; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Espinoza-Hernández, Laura; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Franco-Ornelas, Sergio; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy Xavier; Martínez Villegas, Octavio; Palomares, Teresa Marin; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy. PMID:25821830

  13. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Who Received Early Intensification Chemotherapy and an Autologous Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Jiménez-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients, diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients, diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P=0.041. Overall survival for Group A (18, 90% was higher than that for Group B (60%. Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy.

  14. C-kit mutation screening in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: adaptation of a Giemsa-stained bone-marrow smear DNA extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, E L; Davidson, K; Smith, M A; Inman, L; Marriott, S A; Smith, J G; Pallister, C J

    2001-01-01

    The scarcity of viable tissue samples for leukaemia research is widely recognised and currently restrictive. Archival bone-marrow smears present a valuable resource that can be exploited easily for mutational analysis. Here, a modified technique to extract DNA is described, and used subsequently for mutation/polymorphism screening of the stem-cell factor receptor proto-oncogene c-kit in 23 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The selected method was straightforward and used bone-marrow material scraped from periodic acid-Schiff, sudan black B and May-Grünwald/Giemsa-stained preparations, and treated initially with proteinase K prepared in digestion buffer to digest all proteinaceous matter. Following incubation, saturated sodium chloride was added and DNA extracted from the supernatant by phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol treatment. Retrieved DNA was precipitated with ethanol at -20 degrees C overnight, washed with 95% ethanol, air-dried, resuspended using purite water and stored at -20 degrees C prior to use in mutational analysis. The extraction method described was compared with a commercial reagent for combined DNA, RNA and protein isolation using cryopreserved cells from 20 patients with AML. The quality of extracted DNA isolated by the two methods was comparable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques. Bone-marrow biopsies are performed regularly on each AML patient to monitor the disease; therefore, an extraction method using this resource could liberate a valuable source of DNA for study (e.g. molecular investigations, including mutation/polymorphism screening etc.). This would allow fresh and programme-frozen cells to be reserved for those investigations requiring intact, viable cells. The use of archived bone-marrow smears would permit vast increase in the scope for retrospective testing and large-scale analyses.

  15. Selective FLT3 inhibition of FLT3-ITD+ acute myeloid leukaemia resulting in secondary D835Y mutation: a model for emerging clinical resistance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A S; Faisal, A; Gonzalez de Castro, D; Bavetsias, V; Sun, C; Atrash, B; Valenti, M; de Haven Brandon, A; Avery, S; Mair, D; Mirabella, F; Swansbury, J; Pearson, A D J; Workman, P; Blagg, J; Raynaud, F I; Eccles, S A; Linardopoulos, S

    2012-07-01

    Acquired resistance to selective FLT3 inhibitors is an emerging clinical problem in the treatment of FLT3-ITD(+) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The paucity of valid pre-clinical models has restricted investigations to determine the mechanism of acquired therapeutic resistance, thereby limiting the development of effective treatments. We generated selective FLT3 inhibitor-resistant cells by treating the FLT3-ITD(+) human AML cell line MOLM-13 in vitro with the FLT3-selective inhibitor MLN518, and validated the resistant phenotype in vivo and in vitro. The resistant cells, MOLM-13-RES, harboured a new D835Y tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutation on the FLT3-ITD(+) allele. Acquired TKD mutations, including D835Y, have recently been identified in FLT3-ITD(+) patients relapsing after treatment with the novel FLT3 inhibitor, AC220. Consistent with this clinical pattern of resistance, MOLM-13-RES cells displayed high relative resistance to AC220 and Sorafenib. Furthermore, treatment of MOLM-13-RES cells with AC220 lead to loss of the FLT3 wild-type allele and the duplication of the FLT3-ITD-D835Y allele. Our FLT3-Aurora kinase inhibitor, CCT137690, successfully inhibited growth of FLT3-ITD-D835Y cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that dual FLT3-Aurora inhibition may overcome selective FLT3 inhibitor resistance, in part due to inhibition of Aurora kinase, and may benefit patients with FLT3-mutated AML.

  16. Identification of novel Notch target genes in T cell leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrander Fiona

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulated Notch signalling is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of T cell leukaemia. At a cellular level, Notch signalling promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL cells. In this study we aimed to identify novel transcriptional targets of Notch signalling in the T-ALL cell line, Jurkat. Results RNA was prepared from Jurkat cells retrovirally transduced with an empty vector (GFP-alone or vectors containing constitutively active forms of Notch (N1ΔE or N3ΔE, and used for Affymetrix microarray analysis. A subset of genes found to be regulated by Notch was chosen for real-time PCR validation and in some cases, validation at the protein level, using several Notch-transduced T-ALL and non-T-ALL leukaemic cell lines. As expected, several known transcriptional target of Notch, such as HES1 and Deltex, were found to be overexpressed in Notch-transduced cells, however, many novel transcriptional targets of Notch signalling were identified using this approach. These included the T cell costimulatory molecule CD28, the anti-apoptotic protein GIMAP5, and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (1D1. Conclusion The identification of such downstream Notch target genes provides insights into the mechanisms of Notch function in T cell leukaemia, and may help identify novel therapeutic targets in this disease.

  17. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion of myeloid lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Melanie M; Dağ, Franziska; Hengel, Hartmut; Messerle, Martin; Kalinke, Ulrich; Čičin-Šain, Luka

    2015-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) evades the immune system in many different ways, allowing the virus to grow and its progeny to spread in the face of an adverse environment. Mounting evidence about the antiviral role of myeloid immune cells has prompted the research of CMV immune evasion mechanisms targeting these cells. Several cells of the myeloid lineage, such as monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, play a role in viral control, but are also permissive for CMV and are naturally infected by it. Therefore, CMV evasion of myeloid cells involves mechanisms that qualitatively differ from the evasion of non-CMV-permissive immune cells of the lymphoid lineage. The evasion of myeloid cells includes effects in cis, where the virus modulates the immune signaling pathways within the infected myeloid cell, and those in trans, where the virus affects somatic cells targeted by cytokines released from myeloid cells. This review presents an overview of CMV strategies to modulate and evade the antiviral activity of myeloid cells in cis and in trans.

  18. Myeloid leukaemia frequency after protracted exposure to ionizing radiation: experimental confirmation of the flat dose-response found in ankylosing spondylitis after a single treatment course with x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mole, R.H.; Major, I.R. (Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit)

    1983-01-01

    The dose-response for leukaemia induction by exposure to ionizing radiation protracted over several weeks was largely independent of dose not only in X-rayed patients with ankylosing spondylitis but also in experimentally ..gamma..-rayed CBA/H mice. In the experiment the induced leukaemia frequency of acute myeloid leukaemia was independent of a several thousand-fold variation in physical dose rate. Any difference in leukaemia induction between brief and protracted exposures must therefore depend on specifically biological consequences of protracted exposures. Experimental analysis is required to provide the guides for inference about risks of low level exposure from observations on relatively heavily irradiated populations.

  19. Metalloproteinases: a Functional Pathway for Myeloid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jonathan; Chan, Matilda F; Werb, Zena

    2016-04-01

    Myeloid cells have diverse roles in regulating immunity, inflammation, and extracellular matrix turnover. To accomplish these tasks, myeloid cells carry an arsenal of metalloproteinases, which include the matrix metalloproteinases and the adamalysins. These enzymes have diverse substrate repertoires, and are thus involved in mediating proteolytic cascades, cell migration, and cell signaling. Dysregulation of metalloproteinases contributes to pathogenic processes, including inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Metalloproteinases also have important nonproteolytic functions in controlling cytoskeletal dynamics during macrophage fusion and enhancing transcription to promote antiviral immunity. This review highlights the diverse contributions of metalloproteinases to myeloid cell functions.

  20. Persistence of DNMT3A R882 mutations during remission does not adversely affect outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Bhavana; Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Nicolet, Deedra; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Blachly, James S.; Orwick, Shelley; Lucas, David M.; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Blum, William; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Stone, Richard M.; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Byrd, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Somatic mutation of the DNMT3A gene at the arginine R882 site is common in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The prognostic significance of DNMT3A R882 mutation clearance, using traditional diagnostic next generation sequencing (NGS) methods, during complete remission (CR) in AML patients is controversial. We examined the impact of clearing DNMT3A R882 mutations at diagnosis to the detectable threshold of NGS methods, persist in the majority of AML patients in CR. PMID:27476855

  1. Dose intensification in acute myeloid leukaemia: greater effectiveness at lower cost. Principal report of the Medical Research Council's AML9 study. MRC Leukaemia in Adults Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J K; Gray, R G; Wheatley, K

    1996-07-01

    Between 1984 and 1990, 972 patients aged 1-79 years with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), from 85 British hospitals, were entered into the MRC's 9th AML trial. Patients were randomized between DAT 1 + 5 (daunorubicin for 1 d, with cytarabine and 6-thioguanine for 5 d) and DAT 3 + 10 (same dose drugs for 3 and 10 d respectively) as induction therapy. The 63% who achieved complete remission (CR) were randomized to receive two courses of DAT 2 + 7 alternating with two courses of either MAZE (m-AMSA, 5-azacytidine, etoposide) or COAP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytarabine, prednisone). Finally, those still in CR were randomized to receive either 1 year of maintenance treatment with eight courses of cytarabine and thioguanine followed by four courses of COAP, or no further cytotoxic therapy. Resistance to induction therapy was less common with the DAT 3 + 10 regimen than with DAT 1 + 5 (13% v 23%; P = 0.0001) and hence, despite a 5% increase in the risk of induction death, the CR rate was higher (66% v 61%; P = 0.15). Moreover, CR was achieved more rapidly with DAT 3 + 10 (median 34 v 46 d; P COAP. 5-year survival was not significantly higher with MAZE (37% v 31%). Finally, although 1 year of outpatient maintenance treatment appeared to delay, but not prevent, recurrence it did not improve 5-year survival which was non-significantly worse for those allocated maintenance treatment (41% v 44%). We conclude that the more intensive induction regimen, DAT 3 + 10, is not only more effective than DAT 1 + 5, even for older patients, but is also less expensive; intensive post-remission therapy with MAZE achieves better leukaemic control but at the cost of substantial toxicity; whereas low-level maintenance therapy confers no apparent advantage in survival as well as being inconvenient and costly.

  2. Heterogeneity in the therapeutic approach to relapsed elderly patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: a survey from the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto (GIMEMA) Acute Leukaemia Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Felicetto; Fazi, Paola; Venditti, Adriano; Pagano, Livio; Amadori, Sergio; Mandelli, Franco

    2008-06-01

    The percentage of long-term survivors in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in the elderly does not exceed 10-15% of patients enrolled into clinical trials because of lower complete remission (CR) rates and higher incidence of relapse. However, few data are available as the treatment of elderly patients with relapsed disease is concerned. The aim of this study was of collecting data on criteria adopted for the treatment of these patients. A questionnaire was e-mailed to 32 haematologic institutions involved in the Gruppo Italiano per le Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto (GIMEMA) group. Questions to be addressed regarded: (1) per cent of relapsed elderly patients treated with aggressive salvage chemotherapy; (2) the selection criteria adopted for inclusion into intensive reinduction; (3) the specific treatment adopted; (4) the treatment given to patients not eligible for intensive salvage. Per cent of patients enrolled into aggressive salvage regimens varied from 10 to 80% (median 50%). The most frequent factor influencing the therapeutic choice was performance status (97%). Additional factors were age >70 years (44%) and duration of first CR (53%). Fludarabine including regimens were most frequently used as aggressive salvage therapy (59%), while gemtuzumab ozogamicin was adopted in various combinations at 11 out of 32 institutions (34%). For patients not eligible to aggressive therapy, the most frequent approach included hydroxyurea (59%). Low dose ARA-C (LDARA-C) was adopted at five centres: as single agent (n = 1), with 6-thioguanine (n = 1), with vitamin D3 and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) (n = 2), or with ATRA alone (n = 1). The FLT3 inhibitor CEP-701 was used at one centre. We conclude that the treatment of AML in elderly relapsed patients is extremely heterogeneous. A marked selection is operated as to inclusion into aggressive salvage regimens and only a small minority of patients are offered experimental approaches.

  3. Measurement of myeloid cell immune suppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Peranzoni, Elisa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    This unit presents simple methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo. These methods are general and could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover they could be useful to assess the influence exerted on immune suppressive pathways by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs.

  4. Wilms' Tumour 1 (WT1) peptide vaccination in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia induces short-lived WT1-specific immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttenthal, Benjamin; Martinez-Davila, Irma; Ivey, Adam; Craddock, Charles; Chen, Frederick; Virchis, Andras; Kottaridis, Panagiotis; Grimwade, David; Khwaja, Asim; Stauss, Hans; Morris, Emma C

    2014-02-01

    Wilms' Tumour 1 (WT1) is a zinc finger transcription factor that is over-expressed in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Its restricted expression in normal tissues makes it a promising target for novel immunotherapies aiming to accentuate the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against AML. Here we report a phase I/II clinical trial of subcutaneous peptide vaccination with two separate HLA-A2-binding peptide epitopes derived from WT1, together with a pan-DR binding peptide epitope (PADRE), in Montanide adjuvant. Eight HLA-A2-positive patients with poor risk AML received five vaccination cycles at 3-weekly intervals. The three cohorts received 0·3, 0·6 and 1 mg of each peptide, respectively. In six patients, WT1-specific CTL responses were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays and pWT126/HLA-A*0201 tetramer staining, after ex vivo stimulation with the relevant WT1 peptides. However, re-stimulation of these WT1-specific T cells failed to elicit secondary expansion in all four patients tested, suggesting that the WT1-specific CD8(+) T cells generated following vaccination may be functionally impaired. No correlation was observed between peptide dose, cellular immune response, reduction in WT1 mRNA expression and clinical response. Larger studies are indicated to confirm these findings. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Characterisation and Clinical Significance of FLT3-ITD and non-ITD in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Patients in Kelantan, Northeast Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Noraini Mat; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Ali Nagi Al-Jamal, Hamid; Husin, Azlan; Hussein, Abdul Rahim; Hassan, Rosline

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) receptor gene may promote proliferation via activation of multiple signaling pathways. FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is the most common gene alteration found in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and has been associated with poor prognosis. We performed mutational analysis of exons 14-15 and 20 of the FLT3 gene in 54 AML patients using PCR-CSGE (conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis) followed by sequencing analysis to characterise FLT3 mutations in adult patients diagnosed with AML at Hospital USM, Kelantan, Northeast Peninsular Malaysia. FLT3 exon 14-15 mutations were identified in 7 of 54 patients (13%) whereas no mutation was found in FLT3 exon 20. Six ITDs and one non-ITD mutation were found in exon 14 of the juxtamembrane (JM) domain of FLT3. FLT3-ITD mutations were associated with a significantly higher blast percentage (p-value=0.008) and white blood cell count (p-value=0.023) but there was no significant difference in median overall survival time for FLT3-ITD+/FLT3-ITD- within 2 years (p-value=0.374). The incidence of FLT3-ITD in AML patients in this particular region of Malaysia is low compared to the Western world and has a significant association with WBC and blast percentage.

  6. Minimal residual disease evaluation by flow cytometry is a complementary tool to cytogenetics for treatment decisions in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidriales, María-Belén; Pérez-López, Estefanía; Pegenaute, Carlota; Castellanos, Marta; Pérez, José-Juan; Chandía, Mauricio; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; Rayón, Consuelo; de Las Heras, Natalia; Fernández-Abellán, Pascual; Cabezudo, Miguel; de Coca, Alfonso García; Alonso, Jose M; Olivier, Carmen; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; Montesinos, Pau; Fernández, Rosa; García-Suárez, Julio; García, Magdalena; Sayas, María-José; Paiva, Bruno; González, Marcos; Orfao, Alberto; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2016-01-01

    The clinical utility of minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is not yet defined. We analysed the prognostic impact of MRD level at complete remision after induction therapy using multiparameter flow cytometry in 306 non-APL AML patients. First, we validated the prognostic value of MRD-thresholds we have previously proposed (≥ 0.1%; ≥ 0.01-0.1%; and Cytogenetics is the most relevant prognosis factor in AML, however intermediate risk cytogenetics represent a grey zone that require other biomarkers for risk stratification, and we show that MRD evaluation discriminate three prognostic subgroups (p=0.03). Also, MRD assessments yielded relevant information on favourable and adverse cytogenetics, since patients with favourable cytogenetics and high MRD levels have poor prognosis and patients with adverse cytogenetics but undetectable MRD overcomes the adverse prognosis. Interestingly, in patients with intermediate or high MRD levels, intensification with transplant improved the outcome as compared with chemotherapy, while the type of intensification therapy did not influenced the outcome of patients with low MRD levels. Multivariate analysis revealed age, MRD and cytogenetics as independent variables. Moreover, a scoring system, easy in clinical practice, was generated based on MRD level and cytogenetics.

  7. Maintenance treatment with azacytidine for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukaemia following MDS in complete remission after induction chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grövdal, Michael; Karimi, Mohsen; Khan, Rasheed

    2010-01-01

    This prospective Phase II study is the first to assess the feasibility and efficacy of maintenance 5-azacytidine for older patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and MDS-acute myeloid leukaemia syndromes in complete remission (CR) after induction...... and 24 months post CR. Twenty-four (40%) patients achieved CR after induction chemotherapy and 23 started maintenance treatment with azacytidine. Median CR duration was 13.5 months, >24 months in 17% of the patients, and 18-30.5 months in the four patients with trisomy 8. CR duration was not associated......-IV thrombocytopenia and neutropenia occurred after 9.5 and 30% of the cycles, respectively, while haemoglobin levels increased during treatment. 5-azacytidine treatment is safe, feasible and may be of benefit in a subset of patients....

  8. Managing children with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML): recommendations for the management of CML in children and young people up to the age of 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Josu; Baruchel, André; Biondi, Andrea; de Bont, Eveline; Dresse, Marie-Françoise; Suttorp, Meinolf; Millot, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia in children and young people is a relatively rare form of leukaemia that shows increased incidence with age and some evidence suggests that the molecular basis differs from that in adults. Significant advances in targeted therapy with the development and use in children of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the ability to monitor and understand the prognostic significance of minimal residual disease by standardized molecular techniques has shifted the management of this condition from bone marrow transplantation as the main therapeutic modality to individualized treatment for each patient based on achieving specific milestones. The physiological changes occurring during childhood, particularly those affecting growth and development and the long-term use of treatment, pose specific challenges in this age group, which we are only beginning to understand. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. FT-infrared spectroscopic studies of lymphoma, lymphoid, and myeloid leukemia cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrah, Jaspreet; McCarthy, Keith P.; Lush, Richard; Rye, Adam D.; Bessant, Conrad; Stone, Nicholas

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method to characterise spectral differences that distinguish leukaemia and lymphoma cell lines. This is based on objective spectral measurements of major cellular biochemical constituents and multivariate spectral processing. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) maps of the lymphoma, lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia cell samples were obtained using a Perkin-Elmer Spotlight 300 FT-IR imaging spectrometer. Multivariate statistical techniques incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to construct a mathematical model. This model was validated for reproducibility. Multivariate statistical analysis of FTIR spectra collected for each cell sample permit a combination of unsupervised and supervised methods of distinguishing cell line types. This resulted in the clustering of cell line populations, indicating distinct bio-molecular differences. Major spectral differences were observed in the 4000 to 800 cm -1 spectral region. Bands in the averaged spectra for the cell line were assigned to the major biochemical constituents including; proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The combination of FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis provides an important insight into the fundamental spectral differences between the cell lines, which differ according to the cellular biochemical composition. These spectral differences can serve as potential biomarkers for the differentiation of leukaemia and lymphoma cells. Consequently these differences could be used as the basis for developing a spectral method for the detection and identification of haematological malignancies.

  10. Proven/Probable Invasive Fungal Infection in hematologic patients with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia and/or in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant recipients. | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ni fungine invasive certe/probabilili in pazienti ematologici con leucemia mieloide acuta e/o in pazienti co... settimane come terapia di mantenimento per infezioni fungine invasive certe/probabilili in pazienti ematologici con leucemia...oietic Stem Cell Transplant recipients. infezioni fungine invasive certe/probabilili in pazienti ematologici con leucemia... recipients. infezioni fungine invasive certe/probabilili in pazienti ematologici con leucemia mieloide acut...ndard con L-AMB 3 mg / kg una volta al giorno nei pazienti ematologici in trattamento per leucemia

  11. Myeloid suppressor cells in cancer and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Antonio; Massarotti, Marco

    2017-07-17

    A bottleneck for immunotherapy of cancer is the immunosuppressive microenvironment in which the tumor cells proliferate. Cancers harness the immune regulatory mechanism that prevents autoimmunity from evading immunosurveillance and promoting immune destruction. Regulatory T cells, myeloid suppressor cells, inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint receptors are the major components of the immune system acting in concert with cancer cells and causing the subversion of anti-tumor immunity. This redundant immunosuppressive network poses an impediment to efficacious immunotherapy by facilitating tumor progression. Tumor-associated myeloid cells comprise heterogeneous populations acting systemically (myeloid-derived suppressor cells/MDSCs) and/or locally in the tumor microenvironment (MDSCs and tumor-associated macrophages/TAMs). Both populations promote cancer cell proliferation and survival, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and elicit immunosuppression through different pathways, including the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines and checkpoint inhibitors. Several evidences have demonstrated that myeloid cells can express different functional programs in response to different microenvironmental signals, a property defined as functional plasticity. The opposed extremes of this functional flexibility are generally represented by the classical macrophage activation, which identifies inflammatory and cytotoxic M1 polarized macrophages, and the alternative state of macrophage activation, which identifies M2 polarized anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive macrophages. Functional skewing of myeloid cells occurs in vivo under physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer and autoimmunity. Here we discuss how myeloid suppressor cells can on one hand support tumor growth and, on the other, limit autoimmune responses, indicating that their therapeutic reprogramming can generate opportunities in relieving immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment or

  12. The effect of the dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0530 on Philadelphia positive leukaemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanmesia, Patricia Mambou; Romanski, Annette; Schwarz, Kerstin; Bacic, Biserka; Ruthardt, Martin; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2009-02-13

    Imatinib mesylate, a selective inhibitor of Abl tyrosine kinase, is efficacious in treating chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, most advanced-phase CML and Ph+ ALL patients relapse on Imatinib therapy. Several mechanisms of refractoriness have been reported, including the activation of the Src-family kinases (SFK). Here, we investigated the biological effect of the new specific dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0530 on Ph+ leukaemic cells. Cell lines used included BV173 (CML in myeloid blast crisis), SEM t(4;11), Ba/F3 (IL-3 dependent murine pro B), p185Bcr-Abl infected Ba/F3 cells, p185Bcr-Abl mutant infected Ba/F3 cells, SupB15 (Ph+ ALL) and Imatinib resistant SupB15 (RTSupB15) (Ph+ ALL) cells. Cells were exposed to AZD0530 and Imatinib. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, survival and signalling pathways were assessed by dye exclusion, flow cytometry and Western blotting respectively. AZD0530 specifically inhibited the growth of, and induced apoptosis in CML and Ph+ ALL cells in a dose dependent manner, but showed only marginal effects on Ph- ALL cells. Resistance to Imatinib due to the mutation Y253F in p185Bcr-Abl was overcome by AZD0530. Combination of AZD0530 and Imatinib showed an additive inhibitory effect on the proliferation of CML BV173 cells but not on Ph+ ALL SupB15 cells. An ongoing transphosphorylation was demonstrated between SFKs and Bcr-Abl. AZD0530 significantly down-regulated the activation of survival signalling pathways in Ph+ cells, resistant or sensitive to Imatinib, with the exception of the RTSupB15. Our results indicate that AZD0530 targets both Src and Bcr-Abl kinase activity and reduces the leukaemic maintenance by Bcr-Abl.

  13. The effect of the dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0530 on Philadelphia positive leukaemia cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthardt Martin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imatinib mesylate, a selective inhibitor of Abl tyrosine kinase, is efficacious in treating chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML and Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. However, most advanced-phase CML and Ph+ ALL patients relapse on Imatinib therapy. Several mechanisms of refractoriness have been reported, including the activation of the Src-family kinases (SFK. Here, we investigated the biological effect of the new specific dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor AZD0530 on Ph+ leukaemic cells. Methods Cell lines used included BV173 (CML in myeloid blast crisis, SEM t(4;11, Ba/F3 (IL-3 dependent murine pro B, p185Bcr-Abl infected Ba/F3 cells, p185Bcr-Abl mutant infected Ba/F3 cells, SupB15 (Ph+ ALL and Imatinib resistant SupB15 (RTSupB15 (Ph+ ALL cells. Cells were exposed to AZD0530 and Imatinib. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, survival and signalling pathways were assessed by dye exclusion, flow cytometry and Western blotting respectively. Results AZD0530 specifically inhibited the growth of, and induced apoptosis in CML and Ph+ ALL cells in a dose dependent manner, but showed only marginal effects on Ph- ALL cells. Resistance to Imatinib due to the mutation Y253F in p185Bcr-Abl was overcome by AZD0530. Combination of AZD0530 and Imatinib showed an additive inhibitory effect on the proliferation of CML BV173 cells but not on Ph+ ALL SupB15 cells. An ongoing transphosphorylation was demonstrated between SFKs and Bcr-Abl. AZD0530 significantly down-regulated the activation of survival signalling pathways in Ph+ cells, resistant or sensitive to Imatinib, with the exception of the RTSupB15. Conclusion Our results indicate that AZD0530 targets both Src and Bcr-Abl kinase activity and reduces the leukaemic maintenance by Bcr-Abl.

  14. Rho GTPase expression in human myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F G van Helden

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are critical for innate immunity and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Strict regulation of the adhesive and migratory behavior is essential for proper functioning of these cells. Rho GTPases are important regulators of adhesion and migration; however, it is unknown which Rho GTPases are expressed in different myeloid cells. Here, we use a qPCR-based approach to investigate Rho GTPase expression in myeloid cells.We found that the mRNAs encoding Cdc42, RhoQ, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA and RhoC are the most abundant. In addition, RhoG, RhoB, RhoF and RhoV are expressed at low levels or only in specific cell types. More differentiated cells along the monocyte-lineage display lower levels of Cdc42 and RhoV, while RhoC mRNA is more abundant. In addition, the Rho GTPase expression profile changes during dendritic cell maturation with Rac1 being upregulated and Rac2 downregulated. Finally, GM-CSF stimulation, during macrophage and osteoclast differentiation, leads to high expression of Rac2, while M-CSF induces high levels of RhoA, showing that these cytokines induce a distinct pattern. Our data uncover cell type specific modulation of the Rho GTPase expression profile in hematopoietic stem cells and in more differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage.

  15. European LeukemiaNet recommendations for the management and avoidance of adverse events of treatment in chronic myeloid leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegmann, J L; Baccarani, M; Breccia, M; Casado, L F; García-Gutiérrez, V; Hochhaus, A; Kim, D-W; Kim, T D; Khoury, H J; Le Coutre, P; Mayer, J; Milojkovic, D; Porkka, K; Rea, D; Rosti, G; Saussele, S; Hehlmann, R; Clark, R E

    2016-01-01

    Most reports on chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) focus on efficacy, particularly on molecular response and outcome. In contrast, adverse events (AEs) are often reported as infrequent, minor, tolerable and manageable, but they are increasingly important as therapy is potentially lifelong and multiple TKIs are available. For this reason, the European LeukemiaNet panel for CML management recommendations presents an exhaustive and critical summary of AEs emerging during CML treatment, to assist their understanding, management and prevention. There are five major conclusions. First, the main purpose of CML treatment is the antileukemic effect. Suboptimal management of AEs must not compromise this first objective. Second, most patients will have AEs, usually early, mostly mild to moderate, and which will resolve spontaneously or are easily controlled by simple means. Third, reduction or interruption of treatment must only be done if optimal management of the AE cannot be accomplished in other ways, and frequent monitoring is needed to detect resolution of the AE as early as possible. Fourth, attention must be given to comorbidities and drug interactions, and to new events unrelated to TKIs that are inevitable during such a prolonged treatment. Fifth, some TKI-related AEs have emerged which were not predicted or detected in earlier studies, maybe because of suboptimal attention to or absence from the preclinical data. Overall, imatinib has demonstrated a good long-term safety profile, though recent findings suggest underestimation of symptom severity by physicians. Second and third generation TKIs have shown higher response rates, but have been associated with unexpected problems, some of which could be irreversible. We hope these recommendations will help to minimise adverse events, and we believe that an optimal management of them will be rewarded by better TKI compliance and thus better CML outcomes, together with better

  16. Quantitative multiplex quantum dot in-situ hybridisation based gene expression profiling in tissue microarrays identifies prognostic genes in acute myeloid leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholouli, Eleni [Department of Haematology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom); MacDermott, Sarah [The Medical School, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom); Hoyland, Judith [School of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom); Yin, John Liu [Department of Haematology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Byers, Richard, E-mail: richard.byers@cmft.nhs.uk [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of a quantitative high throughput in situ expression profiling method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application to a tissue microarray of 242 AML bone marrow samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of HOXA4, HOXA9, Meis1 and DNMT3A as prognostic markers in AML. -- Abstract: Measurement and validation of microarray gene signatures in routine clinical samples is problematic and a rate limiting step in translational research. In order to facilitate measurement of microarray identified gene signatures in routine clinical tissue a novel method combining quantum dot based oligonucleotide in situ hybridisation (QD-ISH) and post-hybridisation spectral image analysis was used for multiplex in-situ transcript detection in archival bone marrow trephine samples from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Tissue-microarrays were prepared into which white cell pellets were spiked as a standard. Tissue microarrays were made using routinely processed bone marrow trephines from 242 patients with AML. QD-ISH was performed for six candidate prognostic genes using triplex QD-ISH for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and for HOXA4, HOXA9, Meis1. Scrambled oligonucleotides were used to correct for background staining followed by normalisation of expression against the expression values for the white cell pellet standard. Survival analysis demonstrated that low expression of HOXA4 was associated with poorer overall survival (p = 0.009), whilst high expression of HOXA9 (p < 0.0001), Meis1 (p = 0.005) and DNMT3A (p = 0.04) were associated with early treatment failure. These results demonstrate application of a standardised, quantitative multiplex QD-ISH method for identification of prognostic markers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical samples, facilitating measurement of gene expression signatures in routine clinical samples.

  17. Outcome of children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) experiencing primary induction failure in the AIEOP AML 2002/01 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarello, Paola; Fagioli, Franca; Basso, Giuseppe; Putti, Maria C; Berger, Massimo; Luciani, Matteo; Rizzari, Carmelo; Menna, Giuseppe; Masetti, Riccardo; Locatelli, Franco

    2015-11-01

    Paediatric patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who fail induction due to primary resistance to chemotherapy account for a significant proportion of cases and have a particularly dismal prognosis. We report the clinical and biological data, and final outcome of 48 paediatric patients with primary-resistant AML enrolled in the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica AML 2002/01 clinical trial. These patients had a significantly higher white blood cell count at diagnosis compared to other AML patients. Cytogenetic and molecular features did not differ between patients with primary induction failure and patients allocated to the high-risk group. For the whole patient population, the probability of overall survival, event-free survival (EFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was 21·8% ± 6·2, 20·4% ± 5·9, and 49·5% ± 11·3, respectively. Twenty-eight (58%) patients received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); 3 were autologous and 25 were allogeneic. Patients who underwent HSCT had improved EFS (31·2% vs. 5%, P < 0·0001). Only one of the 20 patients who did not receive HSCT is alive and disease free. The 19 patients in complete remission at time of HSCT showed significantly better DFS than the 9 with active disease (46% vs. 0%, P = 0·02). This study represents one of the largest series with long-term follow up of paediatric AML patients with primary refractory disease. Children who underwent transplantation had an encouraging long-term outcome. Disease recurrence remains the major cause of treatment failure; a better understanding of the disease biology is desirable to develop more effective treatment strategies.

  18. Clinical pathway for patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: The Euriclea Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Stefano; Gargiulo, Gianpaolo; Bombaci, Felice; Artioli, Giovanna; Cosentino, Chiara; Pignatelli, Adriana Concetta; Torino, Daniela; Lionetti, Maria Marcella; Samarani, Emanuela; Cappucciati, Lorella; Bordiga, Paola; Diodati, Antonella; Caffarri, Cristiana; Rosini, Irene; Pane, Fabrizio

    2017-07-18

    The use of Tirosine Kinase Ihnibitors (TKIs) for the treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) has definitely represented a turning point in the treatment of the onco-hematological diseases. Over the years, the interest of physicians, nurses, patients and caregivers has increasingly focused on the aspects of the humanization of care, the management of side effects and on the full and constant therapeutic adherence. The aim of the project was to define patient-oriented care processes, based on a proactive approach that can fully respond to the new health needs of CML patients. A nursing expert Working Group (WG) was established. WG reviewed literature about CML patients assistance and then it was conducted a survey on organizational models for the treatment of CML patients, adopted by Italian haematologic and transplant centers.  Finally, the main issues regarding CML patients care were identified and discussed on a multiprofessional basis. Euriclea Project for care of CML patients with the description of a new and expanded nurse role was defined. The Nurse Case Manager or Nursing Clinical Experts were identified as key people for the management of the side effects of treatment, the promotion of the therapeutic adherence and the evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the process through the identification of specific indicators for structure, process and outcome. The focal areas of the care process were identified so as to define a different approach to the CML patient, through a holistic view of care and the multidisciplinary interventions.

  19. A novel RT-qPCR assay for quantification of the MLL-MLLT3 fusion transcript in acute myeloid leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lotte; Ommen, Hans Beier; Lausen, Birgitte Frederiksen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) of the monocytic lineage often lack molecular markers for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring. The MLL-MLLT3 fusion transcript found in patients with AML harbouring t(9;11) is amenable to RT-qPCR quantification but because of the heter......OBJECTIVES: Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) of the monocytic lineage often lack molecular markers for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring. The MLL-MLLT3 fusion transcript found in patients with AML harbouring t(9;11) is amenable to RT-qPCR quantification but because...... of the heterogeneity of translocation break points, the MLL-MLLT3 fusion gene is a challenging target. We hypothesised that MRD monitoring using MLL-MLLT3 as a RT-qPCR marker is feasible in the majority of patients with t(9;11)-positive AML. METHODS: Using a locked nucleic acid probe, we developed a sensitive RT-qPCR...... follow-up. Two patients relapsed, and both were MRD positive in BM after first induction course. A total of three relapses occurred, and they were detected by RT-qPCR 3 wks before haematological relapse was diagnosed. CONCLUSION: This MLL-MLLT3 RT-qPCR assay could be useful in MRD monitoring of a group...

  20. Randomized trial of two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin as induction monotherapy for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients not considered candidates for intensive chemotherapy. A phase II study of the EORTC and GIMEMA leukaemia groups (AML-19).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadori, S.; Suciu, S.; Selleslag, D.; Stasi, R.; Alimena, G.; Baila, L.; Rizzoli, V.; Borlenghi, E.; Gaidano, G.; Magro, D.; Torelli, G.; Muus, P.; Venditti, A.; Cacciola, E.; Lauria, F.; Vignetti, M.; Witte, T.J.M. de

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as induction monotherapy for untreated acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, to identify the more promising regimen for further study. Patients were randomized to receive either best

  1. Randomized trial of two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin as induction monotherapy for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients not considered candidates for intensive chemotherapy. A phase II study of the EORTC and GIMEMA leukaemia groups (AML-19).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadori, S.; Suciu, S.; Selleslag, D.; Stasi, R.; Alimena, G.; Baila, L.; Rizzoli, V.; Borlenghi, E.; Gaidano, G.; Magro, D.; Torelli, G.; Muus, P.; Venditti, A.; Cacciola, E.; Lauria, F.; Vignetti, M.; Witte, T.J.M. de

    2010-01-01

    This study compared two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as induction monotherapy for untreated acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, to identify the more promising regimen for further study. Patients were randomized to receive either best suppor

  2. NUP98/11p15 translocations affect CD34+ cells in myeloid and T lymphoid leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, Barbara; Nofrini, Valeria; Barba, Gianluca; Matteucci, Caterina; Di Giacomo, Danika; Gorello, Paolo; Beverloo, Berna; Vitale, Antonella; Wlodarska, Iwona; Vandenberghe, Peter; La Starza, Roberta; Mecucci, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    We assessed lineage involvement by NUP98 translocations in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Single cell analysis by FICTION (Fluorescence Immunophenotype and Interphase Cytogenetics as a Tool for Investigation of Neoplasms) showed that, despite diverse partners, i.e. NSD1, DDX10, RAP1GDS1, and LNP1, NUP98 translocations always affected a CD34+/CD133+ hematopoietic precursor. Interestingly the abnormal clone included myelomonocytes, erythroid cells, B- and T- lymphocytes in MDS/AML and only CD7+/CD3+ cells in T-ALL. The NUP98-RAP1GDS1 affected different hematopoietic lineages in AML and T-ALL. Additional specific genomic events, were identified, namely FLT3 and CEBPA mutations in MDS/AML, and NOTCH1 mutations and MYB duplication in T-ALL.

  3. Bone marrow myeloid cells in regulation of multiple myeloma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Sarah E; Lin, Cindy; Nefedova, Yulia

    2017-08-01

    Survival, growth, and response to chemotherapy of cancer cells depends strongly on the interaction of cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment. In multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells that localizes preferentially in the bone marrow, the microenvironment is highly enriched with myeloid cells. The majority of myeloid cells are represented by mature and immature neutrophils. The contribution of the different myeloid cell populations to tumor progression and chemoresistance in multiple myeloma is discussed.

  4. Selective inhibition of FLT3 by gilteritinib in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia: a multicentre, first-in-human, open-label, phase 1-2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Alexander E; Altman, Jessica K; Cortes, Jorge; Smith, Catherine; Litzow, Mark; Baer, Maria R; Claxton, David; Erba, Harry P; Gill, Stan; Goldberg, Stuart; Jurcic, Joseph G; Larson, Richard A; Liu, Chaofeng; Ritchie, Ellen; Schiller, Gary; Spira, Alexander I; Strickland, Stephen A; Tibes, Raoul; Ustun, Celalettin; Wang, Eunice S; Stuart, Robert; Röllig, Christoph; Neubauer, Andreas; Martinelli, Giovanni; Bahceci, Erkut; Levis, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Internal tandem duplication mutations in FLT3 are common in acute myeloid leukaemia and are associated with rapid relapse and short overall survival. The clinical benefit of FLT3 inhibitors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia has been limited by rapid generation of resistance mutations, particularly in codon Asp835 (D835). We aimed to assess the highly selective oral FLT3 inhibitor gilteritinib in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. In this phase 1-2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with acute myeloid leukaemia who either were refractory to induction therapy or had relapsed after achieving remission with previous treatment. Patients were enrolled into one of seven dose-escalation or dose-expansion cohorts assigned to receive once-daily doses of oral gilteritinib (20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg, 120 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, or 450 mg). Cohort expansion was based on safety and tolerability, FLT3 inhibition in correlative assays, and antileukaemic activity. Although the presence of an FLT3 mutation was not an inclusion criterion, we required ten or more patients with locally confirmed FLT3 mutations (FLT3(mut+)) to be enrolled in expansion cohorts at each dose level. On the basis of emerging findings, we further expanded the 120 mg and 200 mg dose cohorts to include FLT3(mut+) patients only. The primary endpoints were the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of gilteritinib. Safety and tolerability were assessed in the safety analysis set (all patients who received at least one dose of gilteritinib). Responses were assessed in the full analysis set (all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and who had at least one datapoint post-treatment). Pharmacokinetics were assessed in a subset of the safety analysis set for which sufficient data for concentrations of gilteritinib in plasma were available to enable derivation of one or more pharmacokinetic variables. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number

  5. Role of mesenchymal stem cells in leukaemia: Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca S Y; Cheong, Soon-Keng

    2014-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have captured the attention of researchers today due to their multipotent differentiation capacity. Also, they have been successfully applied clinically, in the treatment of various diseases of the heart and musculoskeletal systems, with encouraging results. Their supportive role in haematopoiesis and their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties have enhanced their contribution towards the improvement of engraftment and the treatment of graft-versus-host disease in patients receiving haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, there is a growing body of research that supports the involvement of MSCs in leukaemogenesis with several genetic and functional abnormalities having been detected in the MSCs of leukaemia patients. MSCs also exert leukaemia-enhancing effects and induce chemotherapy resistance in leukaemia cells. This paper addresses the key issues in the therapeutic value as well as the harmful effects of the MSCs in leukaemia with a sharp focus on the recent updates in the published literature.

  6. Bcl-2 protein level in blood of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is ... example, in the immune system, B and T lymphocytes ... Parkinson disease, are associated with the premature ... contribute to promote autoimmune disease .... 1a), nor with age. The.

  7. NPM1 mutation is a stable marker for minimal residual disease monitoring in acute myeloid leukaemia patients with increased sensitivity compared to WT1 expression*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas; Møller, Michael B; Friis, Lone;

    2011-01-01

    Mutation in the NPM1 gene occurs in 60% of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with normal karyotype. NPM1 mutation is potentially a superior minimal residual disease (MRD) marker compared to WT1 gene overexpression by being specific to the malignant clone, although experimental evidence...... published so far includes very limited numbers of relapsed cases. Also, the stability of the NPM1 mutation has been questioned by reports of the mutation being lost at relapse. In the present study we compared NPM1 mutation and WT1 overexpression as MRD markers in 20 cases of relapsed AML. The 20 patients...... experienced a total of 28 morphological relapses. Karyotypic evolution was detected in 56% of relapses. All relapses were accompanied by high levels of NPM1 mutation, along with high WT1 mRNA levels, thus demonstrating complete stability of both markers during relapse. Detectable NPM1 mutation following...

  8. Phenotypically Dormant and Immature Leukaemia Cells Display Increased Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pallis

    Full Text Available Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR activity drives a number of key metabolic processes including growth and protein synthesis. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway promotes cellular dormancy. Since cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML can be phenotypically dormant (quiescent, we examined biomarkers of their mTOR pathway activity concurrently with Ki-67 and CD71 (indicators of cycling cells by quantitative flow cytometry. Using antibodies to phosphorylated epitopes of mTOR (S2448 and its downstream targets ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6, S235/236 and 4E-BP1 (T36/45, we documented that these phosphorylations were negligible in lymphocytes, but evident in dormant as well as proliferating subsets of both mobilised normal stem cell harvest CD34+ cells and AML blasts. Although mTOR phosphorylation in AML blasts was lower than that of the normal CD34+ cells, p-4E-BP1 was 2.6-fold higher and p-rpS6 was 22-fold higher. Moreover, in contrast to 4E-BP1, rpS6 phosphorylation was higher in dormant than proliferating AML blasts, and was also higher in the immature CD34+CD38- blast subset. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas show that rpS6 expression is associated with that of respiratory chain enzymes in AML. We conclude that phenotypic quiescence markers do not necessarily predict metabolic dormancy and that elevated rpS6 ser235/236 phosphorylation is characteristic of AML.

  9. Complex Variant of Philadelphia Translocation Involving Chromosomes 9, 12, and 22 in a Case with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestiti, F.; Agrati, C.; Chinetti, S.; Di Meco, A.; Cirrincione, S.; Oggionni, M.; Grimi, B.; Maggi, F.; Simoni, G.; Grati, F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder included in the broader diagnostic category of myeloproliferative neoplasms, associated with fusion by BCR gene at chromosome 22q11 to ABL1 gene at chromosome 9q34 with the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. In 2–10% of CML cases, the fusion gene arises in connection with a variant translocation, involving chromosomes 9, 22, and one or more different chromosomes; consequently, the Ph chromosome could be masked within a complex chromosome rearrangement. In cases with variant Ph translocation a deletion on der(9) may be more frequently observed than in cases with the classical one. Herein we describe a novel case of CML with complex variant Ph translocation involving chromosomes 9, 12, and 22. We present the hematologic response and cytogenetic response after Imatinib treatment. We also speculated the mechanism which had originated the chromosome rearrangement. PMID:25045550

  10. Complex Variant of Philadelphia Translocation Involving Chromosomes 9, 12, and 22 in a Case with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Malvestiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder included in the broader diagnostic category of myeloproliferative neoplasms, associated with fusion by BCR gene at chromosome 22q11 to ABL1 gene at chromosome 9q34 with the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph chromosome. In 2–10% of CML cases, the fusion gene arises in connection with a variant translocation, involving chromosomes 9, 22, and one or more different chromosomes; consequently, the Ph chromosome could be masked within a complex chromosome rearrangement. In cases with variant Ph translocation a deletion on der(9 may be more frequently observed than in cases with the classical one. Herein we describe a novel case of CML with complex variant Ph translocation involving chromosomes 9, 12, and 22. We present the hematologic response and cytogenetic response after Imatinib treatment. We also speculated the mechanism which had originated the chromosome rearrangement.

  11. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) in treatment-naive patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: phase 2 results from a multicentre, randomised, phase 1/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarjian, Hagop M; Roboz, Gail J; Kropf, Patricia L; Yee, Karen W L; O'Connell, Casey L; Tibes, Raoul; Walsh, Katherine J; Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Jabbour, Elias; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Rizzieri, David; Stock, Wendy; Savona, Michael R; Rosenblat, Todd L; Berdeja, Jesus G; Ravandi, Farhad; Rock, Edwin P; Hao, Yong; Azab, Mohammad; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2017-08-24

    The hypomethylating drugs azacitidine and decitabine have shown efficacy in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukaemia, but complete tumour responses are infrequent and of short duration, possibly because of the short half-lives and suboptimal bone marrow exposure of the drugs. Guadecitabine, a next-generation hypomethylating drug, has a longer half-life and exposure than its active metabolite decitabine. A phase 1 study established 60 mg/m(2) guadecitabine for 5 days as an effective treatment schedule. In this phase 2 study, we aimed to assess the safety and activity of two doses and schedules of guadecitabine in older (≥65 years) patients with treatment-naive acute myeloid leukaemia who were not candidates for intensive chemotherapy. We did a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 1/2 study of guadecitabine in cohorts of patients with treatment-naive acute myeloid leukaemia, relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes; here we report the phase 2 results from the cohort of treatment-naive patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. We included patients aged at least 65 years from 14 US medical centres (hospitals and specialist cancer clinics) who were not candidates for intensive chemotherapy and randomly assigned them (1:1) using a computer algorithm (for dynamic randomisation) to guadecitabine 60 or 90 mg/m(2) on days 1-5 (5-day schedule) of a 28-day treatment cycle. Treatment allocation was not masked. We also assigned additional patients to guadecitabine 60 mg/m(2) in a 10-day schedule in a 28-day treatment cycle after a protocol amendment. The primary endpoint was composite complete response (complete response, complete response with incomplete platelet recovery, or complete response with incomplete neutrophil recovery regardless of platelets). Response was assessed in all patients (as-treated) who received at least one dose of guadecitabine. We present the final analysis, although at the time of the database lock

  12. Immunological and molecular biological identification of a true case of T-hairy cell leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demeter, J; Pálóczi, K; Földi, J

    1990-01-01

    A hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) patient is presented in whom the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) carried suppressor T-cell markers (CD3+, CD2+, CD8+/CD4-, CD38+). Analysis of genomic DNA of PBMNC showed the presence of a monoclonal population of T cells, the T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-cha...

  13. Myeloid cells in tumour-immune interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Irina; Berezovskaya, Faina; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Despite highly developed specific immune responses, tumour cells often manage to escape recognition by the immune system, continuing to grow uncontrollably. Experimental work suggests that mature myeloid cells may be central to the activation of the specific immune response. Recognition and subsequent control of tumour growth by the cells of the specific immune response depend on the balance between immature (ImC) and mature (MmC) myeloid cells in the body. However, tumour cells produce cytokines that inhibit ImC maturation, altering the balance between ImC and MmC. Hence, the focus of this manuscript is on the study of the potential role of this inhibiting mechanism on tumour growth dynamics. A conceptual predator-prey type model that incorporates the dynamics and interactions of tumour cells, CD8(+) T cells, ImC and MmC is proposed in order to address the role of this mechanism. The prey (tumour) has a defence mechanism (blocking the maturation of ImC) that prevents the predator (immune system) from recognizing it. The model, a four-dimensional nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations, is reduced to a two-dimensional system using time-scale arguments that are tied to the maturation rate of ImC. Analysis shows that the model is capable of supporting biologically reasonable patterns of behaviour depending on the initial conditions. A range of parameters, where healing without external influences can occur, is identified both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  14. Adult T-cell leukaemia and lymphoma: report of two cases and a brief review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van Zaanen; J.G. Pegels

    2002-01-01

    textabstractHuman T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Two patients originating from the Caribbean area with ATLL are described. The first patient developed respiratory insufficiency due to acute T-cell leukaemia. The diagnosis

  15. Myeloid cells contribute to tumor lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Adrian; Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Imaizumi, Natsuko; Schwendener, Reto; Rüegg, Curzio; Christofori, Gerhard

    2009-09-17

    The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) promotes tumor outgrowth and metastasis. Previously, it has been demonstrated that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) can contribute to tumor angiogenesis. However, the role of BMDC in lymphangiogenesis has largely remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate by bone marrow transplantation/reconstitution and genetic lineage-tracing experiments that BMDC integrate into tumor-associated lymphatic vessels in the Rip1Tag2 mouse model of insulinoma and in the TRAMP-C1 prostate cancer transplantation model, and that the integrated BMDC originate from the myelomonocytic lineage. Conversely, pharmacological depletion of tumor-associated macrophages reduces lymphangiogenesis. No cell fusion events are detected by genetic tracing experiments. Rather, the phenotypical conversion of myeloid cells into lymphatic endothelial cells and their integration into lymphatic structures is recapitulated in two in vitro tube formation assays and is dependent on fibroblast growth factor-mediated signaling. Together, the results reveal that myeloid cells can contribute to tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, thus extending the findings on the previously reported role of hematopoietic cells in lymphatic vessel formation.

  16. Myeloid cells contribute to tumor lymphangiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Zumsteg

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis and lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis promotes tumor outgrowth and metastasis. Previously, it has been demonstrated that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC can contribute to tumor angiogenesis. However, the role of BMDC in lymphangiogenesis has largely remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate by bone marrow transplantation/reconstitution and genetic lineage-tracing experiments that BMDC integrate into tumor-associated lymphatic vessels in the Rip1Tag2 mouse model of insulinoma and in the TRAMP-C1 prostate cancer transplantation model, and that the integrated BMDC originate from the myelomonocytic lineage. Conversely, pharmacological depletion of tumor-associated macrophages reduces lymphangiogenesis. No cell fusion events are detected by genetic tracing experiments. Rather, the phenotypical conversion of myeloid cells into lymphatic endothelial cells and their integration into lymphatic structures is recapitulated in two in vitro tube formation assays and is dependent on fibroblast growth factor-mediated signaling. Together, the results reveal that myeloid cells can contribute to tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, thus extending the findings on the previously reported role of hematopoietic cells in lymphatic vessel formation.

  17. Central line-related bacteraemia due to Roseomonas mucosa in a neutropenic patient with acute myeloid leukaemia in Piraeus, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, G B; Perlorentzou, S; Alexaki, P; Megalakaki, A; Zarkadis, I K

    2006-08-01

    A case of central venous catheter-related bacteraemia due to Roseomonas mucosa in a neutropenic patient with acute myelogenous leukaemia is reported. The patient was successfully treated with amikacin and piperacillin-tazobactam. The clinical isolate was identified as R. mucosa by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  18. Rapid Evolution to Blast Crisis Associated with a Q252H ABL1 Kinase Domain Mutation in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. McCarron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A minority of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients express variant transcripts of which the e19a2 BCR-ABL1 fusion is the most common. Instances of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI resistance in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML patients have rarely been reported. A case of e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML is described in whom imatinib resistance, associated with a Q252H ABL1 kinase domain mutation, became apparent soon after initiation of TKI therapy. The patient rapidly transformed to myeloid blast crisis (BC with considerable bone marrow fibrosis and no significant molecular response to a second generation TKI. The clinical course was complicated by comorbidities with the patient rapidly succumbing to advanced disease. This scenario of Q252H-associated TKI resistance with rapid BC transformation has not been previously documented in e19a2 BCR-ABL1 CML. This case highlights the considerable challenges remaining in the management of TKI-resistant BC CML, particularly in the elderly patient.

  19. Caffeine affects the biological responses of human hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage via downregulation of the mTOR pathway and xanthine oxidase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abooali, Maryam; Yasinska, Inna M.; Casely-Hayford, Maxwell A.; Berger, Steffen M.; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Sumbayev, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Correction of human myeloid cell function is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory and allergic reactions as well as leukaemia progression. Caffeine, a naturally occurring food component, is known to display anti-inflammatory effects which have previously been ascribed largely to its inhibitory actions on phosphodiesterase. However, more recent studies suggest an additional role in affecting the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of myeloid cell translational pathways, although detailed molecular events underlying its mode of action have not been elucidated. Here, we report the cellular uptake of caffeine, without metabolisation, by healthy and malignant hematopoietic myeloid cells including monocytes, basophils and primary acute myeloid leukaemia mononuclear blasts. Unmodified caffeine downregulated mTOR signalling, which affected glycolysis and the release of pro-inflammatory/pro-angiogenic cytokines as well as other inflammatory mediators. In monocytes, the effects of caffeine were potentiated by its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which plays a central role in human purine catabolism by generating uric acid. In basophils, caffeine also increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels which further enhanced its inhibitory action on mTOR. These results demonstrate an important mode of pharmacological action of caffeine with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic impact for treating non-infectious disorders of the human immune system, where it could be applied directly to inflammatory cells. PMID:26384306

  20. T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL): a rare disease with a grave prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandarajah, Abhirami; Atallah, Jean Paul; Gupta, Shilpi

    2013-05-02

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is an extremely uncommon haematological malignancy that has an aggressive course and a grave prognosis. We describe a patient who presented with lymphocytosis, scalp erythema, ascites and splenomegaly and was diagnosed with T-PLL. He was treated with alemtuzumab with a good response and was referred for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  1. Association of inclusion body myositis with T cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, Steven A; Pinkus, Jack L; Amato, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    SEE HOHLFELD AND SCHULZE-KOOPS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW053 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Inclusion body myositis and T cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia are rare diseases involving pathogenic cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. After encountering four patients with both disorders, we prospe...

  2. Low frequency of MLL-partial tandem duplications in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia using MLPA as a novel DNA screenings technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgobind, Brian V; Hollink, Iris H I M; Reinhardt, Dirk; van Wering, Elisabeth R; de Graaf, Siebold S N; Baruchel, Andre; Stary, Jan; Beverloo, H Berna; de Greef, Georgine E; Pieters, Rob; Zwaan, C Michel; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2010-07-01

    Mixed-lineage leukaemia (MLL)-partial tandem duplications (PTDs) are found in 3-5% of adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and are associated with poor prognosis. In adult AML, MLL-PTD is only detected in patients with trisomy 11 or internal tandem duplications of FLT3 (FLT3-ITD). To date, studies in paediatric AML are scarce, and reported large differences in the frequency of MLL-PTD, frequently utilising mRNA RT-PCR only to detect MLL-PTDs. We studied the frequency of MLL-PTD in a large cohort of paediatric AML (n=276) and the results from two different methods, i.e. mRNA RT-PCR, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a method designed to detect copy number differences of specific DNA sequences. In some patients with an MLL-rearrangement, MLL-PTD transcripts were detected, but were not confirmed by DNA-MLPA, indicating that DNA-MLPA can more accurately detect MLL-PTD compared to mRNA RT-PCR. In paediatric AML, MLL-PTD was detected in 7/276 patients (2.5%). One case had a trisomy 11, while the others had normal cytogenetics. Furthermore 4 of the 7 patients revealed a FLT3-ITD, which was significantly higher compared with the other AML cases (p=0.016). In conclusion, using DNA-MLPA as a novel screenings technique in combination with mRNA RT-PCR a low frequency of MLL-PTD in paediatric AML was found. Larger prospective studies are needed to further define the prognostic relevance of MLL-PTD in paediatric AML.

  3. Acute myeloid leukaemia induced by mitoxantrone: case report Leucemia mielóide aguda induzida por mitoxantrone: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Oleschko Arruda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitoxantrone (MX is an immunosupressant drug used in secondarily progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS and in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. It has a leukemogenesis potential induced by cytogenetic abnormalities, though with a low incidence. Promyelocitic leukaemia (type M3 and other forms of acute myeloblastic leukaemias (M4 and M5 have been described in a few MS patients who received MX during their treatment. We describe a white female patient, 47 year-old, with SPMS (EDSS = 4 with 14 years of disease. She received MX during her disease and developed acute promyelocytic leukaemia (M3, with severe thrombocytopenia 30 months later. She ultimately died due to intracerebral hemorrhage. Other cases of treatment related to AML are reviewed and discussed.Mitoxantrone (MX é uma agente imunossupressor utilizado nas formas progressivas secundárias de esclerose múltipla (EM ou formas surto-remissão sem resposta com outras formas de tratamento (p.ex. beta-interferon, acetato de glatirâmer. Com o uso desta medicação, ocorre uma incidência maior, embora pequena, de desenvolvimento de leucemia mielóide aguda induzida por quimioterápicos. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente com forma progressiva secundária de EM, submetida a uma dose única de MX de 15mg e que 30 meses após desenvolveu quadro fulminante de leucemia promieloblástica aguda (M3, com trombocitopenia grave. A paciente faleceu por hemorragia intracerebral maciça. É feita revisão de outros casos relatados na literatura e os possíveis mecanismos de desenvolvimento desta complicação grave secundária ao uso do MX.

  4. Targeting the acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Alexandre; Luciana, M; Krause, Fontanari; Rego, Eduardo M

    2010-02-01

    The idea that within the bulk of leukemic cells there are immature progenitors which are intrinsically resistant to chemotherapy and able to repopulate the tumor after treatment is not recent. Nevertheless, the term leukemia stem cells (LSCs) has been adopted recently to describe these immature progenitors based on the fact that they share the most relevant features of the normal hematopoetic stem cells (HSCs), i.e. the self-renewal potential and quiescent status. LSCs differ from their normal counterparts and from the more differentiated leukemic cells regarding the default status of pathways regulating apoptosis, cell cycle, telomere maintenance and transport pumps activity. In addition, unique features regarding the interaction of these cells with the microenvironment have been characterized. Therapeutic strategies targeting these unique features are at different stages of development but the reported results are promising. The aim of this review is, by taking acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as a bona fide example, to discuss some of the mechanisms used by the LSCs to survive and the strategies which could be used to eradicate these cells.

  5. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Forestier, Erik; Hellebostad, Marit;

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic impact of peripheral blood white blood cell count (WBC) at the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was evaluated in a population-based consecutive series of 2666 children aged 1-15 treated for ALL between 1992 and 2008 in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland...

  6. Predictors of early death and survival among children, adolescents and young adults with acute myeloid leukaemia in California, 1988-2011: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Renata; Keogh, Ruth H; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Medeiros, Bruno C; Coleman, Michel P; Ribeiro, Raul C; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2016-04-01

    A better understanding of factors associated with early death and survival among children, adolescents and young adults with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) may guide health policy aimed at improving outcomes in these patients. We examined trends in early death and survival among 3935 patients aged 0-39 years with de novo AML in California during 1988-2011 and investigated the associations between sociodemographic and selected clinical factors and outcomes. Early death declined from 9·7% in 1988-1995 to 7·1% in 2004-2011 (P = 0·062), and survival improved substantially over time. However, 5-year survival was still only 50% (95% confidence interval 47-53%) even in the most recent treatment period (2004-2011). Overall, the main factors associated with poor outcomes were older age at diagnosis, treatment at hospitals not affiliated with National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centres, and black race/ethnicity. For patients diagnosed during 1996-2011, survival was lower among those who lacked health insurance compared to those with public or private insurance. We conclude that mortality after AML remained strikingly high in California and increased with age. Possible strategies to improve outcomes include wider insurance coverage and treatment at specialized cancer centres.

  7. A prospective phase II randomized study of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in patients undertaking induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Glen A; Morris, Kirk L; Subramonpillai, Elango; Curley, Cameron; Butler, Jason; Durrant, Simon

    2013-06-01

    This prospective randomized phase II study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of deferasirox in preventing iatrogenic iron overload in patients receiving induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) ize. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and CRP were measured pre-, mid- and post- each chemotherapy cycle. Patients were randomized to receive either therapy with deferasirox vs. no deferasirox therapy once serum ferritin increased to >500 μg/l. The trial was stopped prematurely due to excess gastrointestinal (GI) and infectious toxicity demonstrable in the deferasirox arm, after 10 patients had been randomized to deferasirox and 6 patients to the control arm. Overall, deferasirox was poorly tolerated, with median maximum tolerated dose only 13·8 mg/kg/d and no patient able to tolerate doses >20 mg/kg/d. Median duration of deferasirox therapy was only 72 d (range 19-130 d), with 9/10 patients requiring unplanned dose interruptions and 4/10 patients unable to continue the drug predominantly due to GI effects. Although all 3 treatment-related deaths occurred in the deferasirox arm (P = 0·25), median overall survival was similar between treatment arms. Use of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in AML patients undertaking induction/consolidation is poorly tolerated and appears to be associated with excess GI and infectious toxicity.

  8. Outpatient bendamustine and idarubicin for upfront therapy of elderly acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome: a phase I/II study using an innovative statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Jack M; Pagel, John M; Sandhu, Vicky K; Xie, Hu; Shadman, Mazyar; Mawad, Raya; Boehm, Alexandra; Dean, Carol; Shannon-Dorcy, Kathleen; Scott, Bart L; Deeg, Hans Joachim; Becker, Pamela S; Hendrie, Paul C; Walter, Roland B; Ostronoff, Fabiana; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Estey, Elihu H

    2014-08-01

    Combinations of agents may improve outcomes among elderly acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. We performed an adaptive phase I/II trial for newly-diagnosed AML or high-risk MDS patients aged ≥50 years using a Bayesian approach to determine whether 1 of 3 doses of bendamustine (45, 60, 75 mg/m(2) days 1-3), together with idarubicin (12 mg/m(2) days 1-2), might provide a complete response (CR) rate ≥40% with 10% marrow blasts; median age 73 years). None of the three bendamustine doses in combination with idarubicin met the required CR and toxicity rates; the 75 mg/m(2) dose because of excess toxicity (two of three patients) and the 60 mg/m(2) dose because of low efficacy (CR rate 10/33), although no grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity was seen at this dose. Median survival was 7·2 months. All patients began treatment as outpatients but hospitalization was required in 90% (35/39). Although we did not find a dose of bendamustine combined with idarubicin that would provide a CR rate of >40% with acceptable toxicity, bendamustine may have activity in AML/MDS patients, suggesting its addition to other regimens may be warranted.

  9. A single nucleotide polymorphism in cBIM is associated with a slower achievement of major molecular response in chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with imatinib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Augis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: BIM is essential for the response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients. Recently, a deletion polymorphism in intron 2 of the BIM gene was demonstrated to confer an intrinsic TKI resistance in Asian patients. The present study aimed at identifying mutations in the BIM sequence that could lead to imatinib resistance independently of BCR-ABL mutations. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: BIM coding sequence analysis was performed in 72 imatinib-treated CML patients from a French population of our centre and in 29 healthy controls (reference population as a case-control study. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR was performed to assess Bim expression in our reference population. RESULTS: No mutation with amino-acid change was found in the BIM coding sequence. However, we observed a silent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c465C>T (rs724710. A strong statistical link was found between the presence of the T allele and the high Sokal risk group (p = 0.0065. T allele frequency was higher in non responsive patients than in the reference population (p = 0.0049. Similarly, this T allele was associated with the mutation frequency on the tyrosine kinase domain of BCR-ABL (pT SNP of BIM could be useful for predicting the outcome of imatinib-treated CML patients.

  10. Hematopoietic stem cells express multiple myeloid markers: implications for the origin and targeted therapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Taussig, David C.; Pearce, Daniel J; Simpson, Catherine; Rohatiner, Ama Z; Lister, T. Andrew; Kelly, Gavin; Luongo, Jennifer L.; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn-aël H.; Bonnet, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are generally regarded as being devoid of the markers expressed by differentiated blood cells, the lineage-specific antigens. However, recent work suggests that genes associated with the myeloid lineage are transcribed in mouse HSCs. Here, we explore whether myeloid genes are actually translated in human HSCs. We show that CD33, CD13, and CD123, well-established myeloid markers, are expressed on human long-term repopulating cells from cord blood and bone ...

  11. CD27-triggering on primary plasma cell leukaemia cells has anti-apoptotic effects involving mitogen activated protein kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, JEJ; Vellenga, E; Abdulahad, WH; Hovenga, S; Bos, NA

    2004-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukaemia (PCL) is a rare plasma cell malignancy, which is related to multiple myeloma (MM) and is characterized by a poor prognosis. In a previous study we demonstrated that PCL plasma cells display a high expression of CD27, in contrast to MM plasma cells. The present study was

  12. Molecular-genetic insights in paediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Pieters, Rob; Beverloo, H Berna; Meijerink, Jules P P

    2008-10-01

    Paediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes that accounts for about 15% of ALL cases and for which treatment outcome remains inferior compared to B-lineage acute leukaemias. In T-ALL, leukemic transformation of maturating thymocytes is caused by a multistep pathogenesis involving numerous genetic abnormalities that drive normal T-cells into uncontrolled cell growth and clonal expansion. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on onco- and tumor suppressor genes in T-ALL and suggests a classification of these genetic defects into type A and type B abnormalities. Type A abnormalities may delineate distinct molecular-cytogenetic T-ALL subgroups, whereas type B abnormalities are found in all major T-ALL subgroups and synergize with these type A mutations during T-cell pathogenesis.

  13. Dopamine inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qun; YUAN Lin-bo

    2007-01-01

    Background Dopamine exerts its effects mainly in nervous system through D1, D2 or D3 receptors. There are few reports dealing with the effects of dopamine on leukaemia cells. However, some dopamine agonists or antagonists do show biological effects on some types of leukaemia cells. Here, we report the effects of dopamine on the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.Methods Proliferation was determined by MTT assay and cell counting both in liquid and semisolid cultures.Differentiation was verified by morphology, benzidine staining and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was checked by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. The two groups were untreated group and treated group (dopamine 10-9 mol/L-10-4mol/L).Results In liquid culture, MTT assay and colony assay, dopamine inhibited proliferation of K562 cells. Inhibition rate was 29.28% at 10-6 mol/L and 36.10% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in MTT assay. In benzidine staining and CD71 expression, dopamine induced K562 cells toward erythroid differentiation by increased 155% at 10-6 mol/L and by 171% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in benzidine staining. In Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry,dopamine induced K562 cells toward apoptosis. The sub G1 peak stained by PI was 14.23% at 10-4 mol/L dopamine after culture for 3 days compared with the control (0.81%) in flow cytometry.Conclusion Dopamine inhibites proliferation and induces both differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.

  14. Bone marrow aplasia in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: successful treatment with antithymocyte globulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Singal, R; Winfield, D A; Greaves, M.

    1991-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is a rare but well known association of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Pancytopenia due to bone marrow aplasia has not been previously described in CLL. A 42 year old man with B cell CLL became severely pancytopenic with bone marrow aplasia. Bone marrow culture resulted in a greatly reduced colony formation. High dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment were unsuccessful. Prompt and complete marrow recovery ensued after administration of antith...

  15. Active acute leukaemia: should transplant be offered to all patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Batia; Shapira, Michael Y; Resnick, Igor B; Stepensky, Polina; Or, Reuven; Grisariu, Sigal

    2016-06-24

    The probability of achieving long term remission for patients with refractory acute leukaemia is very low. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is offered to these patients in order to improve their dismal outcome. We retrospectively analyzed 361 acute leukaemia patients, who underwent allogeneic SCT in the Hadassah's bone marrow transplantation department between the years 2005 and 2012 and identified 84 patients with active leukaemia at transplantation. Median age was 34 years. Sixty four patients were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 18 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and two with biphenotypic leukaemia. The majority of patients were diagnosed with de-novo AML and transplanted at relapse. In the surviving patients, median follow up was 15 months. One year OS was 20%. At time of last follow up, 13 patients were alive (15.5%): ten patients with AML and two patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with significantly better overall survival were as follows: matched unrelated donor (p = 0.006), matched donor (p = 0.014) and occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (p = 0.019). Karnofsky performance score at SCT and occurrence of cGVHD were found to be borderline significant. Only matched unrelated donor and aGVHD were found to affect overall survival significantly in the multivariate analysis. Other than performance score at SCT, none of the pretransplant patients' characteristics were found to influence survival. In conclusion, as none of the pretransplant characteristics were found to influence the ability to select the patients that will benefit from HSC transplantation, this work supports offering HSCT to all active leukaemia eligible patients with reasonable performance status. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Molecular response to imatinib & its correlation with mRNA expression levels of imatinib influx & efflux transporters in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Imatinib is the standard first-line treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML patients. About 20 to 30 per cent patients develop resistance to imatinib and fail imatinib treatment. One of the mechanisms proposed is varying expression levels of the drug transporters. This study was aimed to determine the expression levels of imatinib transporter genes (OCT1, ABCB1, ABCG2 in CML patients and to correlate these levels with molecular response. Methods: Sixty three CML chronic phase patients who were on 400 mg/day imatinib for more than two years were considered for gene expression analysis study for OCT1, ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. These were divided into responders and non-responders. The relative transcript expression levels of the three genes were compared between these two categories. The association between the expression values of these three genes was also determined. Results: No significant difference in the expression levels of OCT1, ABCB1 and ABCG2 was found between the two categories. The median transcript expression levels of OCT1, ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes in responders were 26.54, 10.78 and 0.64 versus 33.48, 7.09 and 0.53 in non-responders, respectively. A positive association was observed between the expression of the ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporter genes (r=0.407, P<0.05 while no association was observed between the expression of either of the ABC transporter genes with the OCT1 gene. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of imatinib transporter genes were not correlated with molecular response in CML patients. Further studies need to be done on a large sample of CML patients to confirm these findings.

  17. Association of nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) 894 G>T polymorphism with prognostic outcomes of anthracycline in Chinese patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Xu, Ya-Jing; Yin, Ji-Ye; Li, Xi; Qu, Jian; Xu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Zhuo-Gang; Zhou, Fan; Zhai, Ming; Li, Yan; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) 894 G>T polymorphism on prognostic outcomes of anthracycline in Chinese patients with de novo intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and to examine the gene expression level in relation to genetic variation. In all, 225 Chinese patients with intermediate-risk AML (at the complete remission stage) treated with anthracycline were enrolled in the study. The 894 G>T polymorphism of the NOS3 gene was analysed by allele-specific matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. Expression of NOS3 mRNA was tested in 72 patients of known genotype for NOS3 894 G>T. The clinical characteristics of these patients were obtained from medical records. Survival analysis showed that patients with AML (GG genotype) had a longer overall survival (OS; P = 0.006). After adjusting for age, gender, leucocyte count, haemoglobin level, platelet level, French, American and Britain (FAB) classification, lactate dehydrogenase levels, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, nucleophosmin gene and fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene, multivariate survival analysis showed that the NOS3 894 G>T polymorphism appeared to be a predicting factor for OS (P = 0.014; hazard ratio = 1.856). However, no significant associations between the NOS3 894 G>T polymorphism and relapse-free survival and relapse in patients with AML were observed. Gene expression levels were significantly higher in patients with the GG genotype than in patients with the GT and TT genotypes (P = 0.033). The findings suggest that the NOS3 894 G>T variant may be a biomarker for the prediction of OS in Chinese patients with AML. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Phase II study of tosedostat with cytarabine or decitabine in newly diagnosed older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawad, Raya; Becker, Pamela S; Hendrie, Paul; Scott, Bart; Wood, Brent L; Dean, Carol; Sandhu, Vicky; Deeg, Hans Joachim; Walter, Roland; Wang, Lixia; Myint, Han; Singer, Jack W; Estey, Elihu; Pagel, John M

    2016-01-01

    Tosedostat, an oral aminopeptidase inhibitor, has synergy with cytarabine and hypomethylating agents. We performed a Phase II trial to determine rates of complete remission (CR) and survival using tosedostat with cytarabine or decitabine in older patients with untreated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Thirty-four patients ≥60 years old (median age 70 years; range, 60-83) were randomized to receive tosedostat (120 mg on days 1-21 or 180 mg continuously) with 5 d of either cytarabine (1 g/m2 /d) or decitabine (20 mg/m2 /d) every 35 d. Twenty-nine patients (85%) had AML, including 15 (44%) with secondary AML/MDS, and 5 (15%) had MDS-refractory anaemia with excess blasts type 2. The CR/CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) rate was 53% [9 in each arm; 14 CR (41%) and 4 CRi (12%)], attained in 6 of 14 patients with adverse cytogenetics and 4 of 7 with FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutations. Median follow-up was 11.2 months (range, 0.5-22.3), and median survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval, 5.2-16.7). Twenty-three patients (67.6%) were treated as outpatients and 10 of these patients required hospitalization for febrile neutropenia. No Grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicities required withdrawal from study. Tosedostat with cytarabine or decitabine is tolerated in older patients with untreated AML/MDS, results in a CR/CRi rate of >50%, and warrants further study in larger trials.

  19. Detection of residual bcr/abl translocation by polymerase chain reaction in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients after bone-marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabert, J; Thuret, I; Lafage, M; Carcassonne, Y; Maraninchi, D; Mannoni, P

    1989-11-11

    The polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate minimum residual disease in chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) patients after bone-marrow transplantation, by amplification of the transcript of the specific bcr/abl hybrid gene. Strict precautions were taken to avoid contamination. Peripheral blood cells from 22 patients transplanted for haematological malignant disorders were analysed. The results were clearcut for positive controls (patients with CML in relapse) and negative controls (patients with malignant disorders other than CML). In 11 of 12 CML patients in clinical and cytogenetic remission the bcr/abl transcript was detected 3 months to 6 years after transplantation. Thus, it appears that cells expressing the bcr/abl mRNA are not eradicated from the blood of CML patients in complete clinical remission even years after bone-marrow transplantation.

  20. Therapeutic targeting of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugel, Stefano; Delpozzo, Federica; Desantis, Giacomo; Papalini, Francesca; Simonato, Francesca; Sonda, Nada; Zilio, Serena; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2009-08-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent a subset of myeloid cells that expand under pathological conditions, such as cancer development, acute and chronic infections, trauma, bone marrow transplantations, and some autoimmune diseases. MDSCs mediate a negative regulation of the immune response by affecting different T lymphocyte subsets. Potential mechanisms, which underlie this inhibitory activity range from those requiring direct cell-to-cell contact with others, more indirect, and mediated by the modification of the microenvironment. Pharmacological inhibition of MDSC suppressive pathways is a promising strategy to overcome disease-induced immune defects, which might be a key step in enhancing the effectiveness of immune-based therapies.

  1. Secondary pure erythroid leukaemia in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: lineage switch or chemotherapy effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Rajive; Chharchhodawala, Taher; Kumar, Lalit

    2014-05-19

    Pure erythroid leukaemia is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and its occurrence at acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) relapse has not been reported earlier. A 39-year-old man received chemotherapy for Philadelphia-negative B cell ALL. Subsequently, he developed pure erythroid leukaemia with >80% immature erythroid precursors in bone marrow showing block positivity on periodic acid-Schiff stain, expressing CD71, CD34 but lacking CD235a. The interval between exposure to multidrug chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide and AML diagnosis was 2 years and 9 months. No cytogenetic abnormality was detected at the time of relapse. The patient died 2 weeks after starting AML chemotherapy. The relatively narrow time interval (usually 5-10 years) between chemotherapy and AML development and normal karyotype at relapse raises a possibility of lineage switch besides therapy-related AML as the likely pathogenesis. Further exploration of such cases may unravel the pathways responsible for lineage assignment in pluripotent stem cells. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Outcomes of patients with acute leukaemia who relapsed after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical or one antigen-mismatched related donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Kami, Masahiro; Murashige, Naoko; Kusumi, Eiji; Kishi, Yukiko; Hamaki, Tamae; Hori, Akiko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Masuo, Shigeru; Mori, Shinichiro; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Mitamura, Tadayuki; Takaue, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2005-06-01

    The characteristics of relapse following reduced-intensity stem-cell transplantation (RIST) remain to be clarified. We reviewed the medical records of 19 patients with acute leukaemia [acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 16; acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 3] who relapsed after RIST from related donors using purine-analogue-based regimens. Their median age was 55 years (range, 29-65 years). Median interval between RIST and relapse was 4.9 months (range, 1.8-24.9 months). Three chose not to receive interventions. The remaining 16 patients received withdrawal of immunosuppression (n = 3), chemotherapy (n = 2), donor lymphocyte infusion (n = 10) and second transplantation (n = 7), alone (n = 9) or in combination (n = 7). Four are alive with a median follow-up of 27.6 months (range, 16.0-28.9 months); three in remission and one in relapse. The 2-year overall survival after relapse was 28.9%. Causes of death in 15 patients included progressive disease (n = 7), graft-versus-host disease (n = 5) and infections (n = 3). Cumulative incidences of relapse-related and non-relapse-related deaths at 2 years after relapse were 37% and 32% respectively. Two prognostic factors were identified on univariate analysis: age [P = 0.017; hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.32], and ALL as underlying disease (P = 0.011; HR, 10.4; 95% CI, 1.73-62.4). Some AML patients who relapse after RIST achieve durable remission with allogeneic immunotherapy-based interventions; however they carry a significant risk of non-relapse mortality.

  3. Environmental factors and leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on the association between environmental hazards and the development of various types of leukaemia are reviewed. Regarding acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-documented risk factor. According to several recent studies exposure to strong electromagnetic fields may be suspected to be of etiologic importance for ANLL. There is evidence that occupational handling of benzene is a risk factor and other organic solvents may also be leukaemogenic. Occupational exposure to petrol products has been proposed to be a risk factor although the hazardous substances have not yet been defined. Results of cytogenetic studies in ANLL suggest that exposure to certain environmental agents may be associated with relatively specific clonal chromosome aberrations. Exposure in utero to ionizing radiation has been proposed to be a risk factor for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) in children. Unlike ANLL there seems at present to be little evidence that ALL is related to exposure to some chemicals. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) may follow exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation whereas such exposure seems to be of insignificant importance for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). According to some studies an abnormally high incidence of CLL may be found among farmers in the USA. These results have not been confirmed in Scandinavian studies. There seems to be little evidence that CML or CLL are related to occupational handling of some chemicals. 35 references.

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Myeloid Cell Leukemia-1 siRNA on Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Karami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Up-regulation of Mcl-1, a known anti-apoptotic protein, is associated with the survival and progression of various malignancies including leukemia. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Mcl-1 small interference RNA (siRNA on the proliferation and apoptosis of HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. Methods: siRNA transfection was performed using Lipofectamine™2000 reagent. Relative mRNA and protein expressions were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Trypan blue assay was performed to assess tumor cell proliferation after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxic effect of Mcl-1 siRNA on leukemic cells was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected using ELISA cell death assay. Results: Mcl-1 siRNA clearly lowered both Mcl-1 mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner, leading to marked inhibition of cell survival and proliferation. Furthermore, Mcl-1 down-regulation significantly enhanced the extent of HL-60 apoptotic cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the down-regulation of Mcl-1 by siRNA can effectively trigger apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of leukemic cells. Therefore, Mcl-1 siRNA may be a potent adjuvant in AML therapy.

  5. Azacitidine for Treating Acute Myeloid Leukaemia with More Than 30 % Bone Marrow Blasts: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, Irina A; Hoyle, Martin W; Snowsill, Tristan M; Cooper, Chris; Varley-Campbell, Joanna L; Rudin, Claudius E; Mujica Mota, Ruben E

    2017-03-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of azacitidine (Celgene) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia with more than 30 % bone marrow blasts in adults who are not eligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as part of the NICE's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Peninsula Technology Assessment Group was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence contained within the company's submission to NICE. The clinical effectiveness data used in the company's economic analysis were derived from a single randomised controlled trial, AZA-AML-001. It was an international, multicentre, controlled, phase III study with an open-label, parallel-group design conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of azacitidine against a conventional care regimen (CCR). The CCR was a composite comparator of acute myeloid leukaemia treatments currently available in the National Health Service: intensive chemotherapy followed by best supportive care (BSC) upon disease relapse or progression, non-intensive chemotherapy followed by BSC and BSC only. In AZA-AML-001, the primary endpoint was overall survival. Azacitidine appeared to be superior to the CCR, with median overall survival of 10.4 and 6.5 months, respectively. However, in the intention-to-treat analysis, the survival advantage associated with azacitidine was not statistically significant. The company submitted a de novo economic evaluation based on a partitioned survival model with four health states: "Remission", "Non-remission", "Relapse/Progressive disease" and "Death". The model time horizon was 10 years. The perspective was the National Health Service and Personal Social Services. Costs and health effects were discounted at the rate of 3.5 % per year. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of azacitidine

  6. Hypoxia inducible factors are dispensable for myeloid cell migration into the inflamed mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Peter J.; Liyanage, Sidath E.; Cristante, Enrico; Sampson, Robert D.; Dick, Andrew D.; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are ubiquitously expressed transcription factors important for cell homeostasis during dynamic oxygen levels. Myeloid specific HIFs are crucial for aspects of myeloid cell function, including their ability to migrate into inflamed tissues during autoimmune disease. This contrasts with the concept that accumulation of myeloid cells at ischemic and hypoxic sites results from a lack of chemotactic responsiveness. Here we seek to address the role of HIFs in myeloid trafficking during inflammation in a mouse model of human uveitis. We show using mice with myeloid-specific Cre-deletion of HIFs that myeloid HIFs are dispensable for leukocyte migration into the inflamed eye. Myeloid-specific deletion of Hif1a, Epas1, or both together, had no impact on the number of myeloid cells migrating into the eye. Additionally, stabilization of HIF pathways via deletion of Vhl in myeloid cells had no impact on myeloid trafficking into the inflamed eye. Finally, we chemically induce hypoxemia via hemolytic anemia resulting in HIF stabilization within circulating leukocytes to demonstrate the dispensable role of HIFs in myeloid cell migration into the inflamed eye. These data suggest, contrary to previous reports, that HIF pathways in myeloid cells during inflammation and hypoxia are dispensable for myeloid cell tissue trafficking. PMID:28112274

  7. Intensive consolidation therapy compared with standard consolidation and maintenance therapy for adults with acute myeloid leukaemia aged between 46 and 60 years: final results of the randomized phase III study (AML 8B) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto (GIMEMA) Leukemia Cooperative Groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, M.; Suciu, S.; Karrasch, M.; Specchia, G.; Marie, J.P.; Muus, P.; Petti, M.C.; Rotoli, B.; Amadori, S.; Fioritoni, G.; Leoni, P.; Morra, E.; Thaler, J.; Resegotti, L.; Fazi, P.; Vignetti, M.; Mandelli, F.; Zittoun, R.; Witte, T.J. de

    2012-01-01

    The most effective post-remission treatment to maintain complete remission (CR) in adults aged between 46 and 60 years with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is uncertain. Previously untreated patients with AML in CR after induction chemotherapy with daunorubicin and cytarabine were randomized between

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  19. Arginine Metabolism in Myeloid Cells Shapes Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulo C.; Ochoa, Augusto C.; Al-Khami, Amir A.

    2017-01-01

    Arginine metabolism has been a key catabolic and anabolic process throughout the evolution of the immune response. Accruing evidence indicates that arginine-catabolizing enzymes, mainly nitric oxide synthases and arginases, are closely integrated with the control of immune response under physiological and pathological conditions. Myeloid cells are major players that exploit the regulators of arginine metabolism to mediate diverse, although often opposing, immunological and functional consequences. In this article, we focus on the importance of arginine catabolism by myeloid cells in regulating innate and adaptive immunity. Revisiting this matter could result in novel therapeutic approaches by which the immunoregulatory nodes instructed by arginine metabolism can be targeted.

  20. Granulocytic sarcoma of the femur in a patient with acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Granulocytic sarcoma, chloroma or myeloblastoma are observed in 3% to7% of acute myeloid leukaemia and represents localized tumour composed of collection of immature leukaemic cells. It appears most frequently in patients with M2, M4 and M5 subtypes of acute myeloid leukaemia Case Outline. A 58-year-old female presented with pain and oedema of the right upper limb in November 2009. After two months the patinet had fracture dislocation and numerous osteolytic lesions of the right femur. Immunohistochemistry of tumour biopsy showed megakaryoblastic granulocytic sarcoma which was CD31++, F-XIII++, CD34-, FVIII+++, S100-, aktin-, EMA++, Bcl2++, CD43++, with positive proliferative marker measured with Ki-67 positivity in more of 50% of cells. Aspirate of bone marrow and immunophenotyping with flowcytometry revealed diagnosis of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia. The course of the disease was rapid and the patient died before commencing chemotherapy, five months after first complaints. Conclusion. Granulocytic sarcoma is extramedullary localization of collection of leukaemia cells which can proceed, to arise concomitantly with leukaemia, or may be the only manifestation of the disease. The diagnosis can be established only with immunohystochemistry.

  1. Roles Nrf2 Plays in Myeloid Cells and Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Keap1-Nrf2 system protects animals from oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces the expression of genes essential for detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS and cytotoxic electrophiles. Keap1 is a stress sensor protein that binds to and ubiquitinates Nrf2 under unstressed conditions, leading to the rapid proteasomal degradation of Nrf2. Upon exposure to stress, Keap1 is modified and inactivated, which allows Nrf2 to accumulate and activate the transcription of a battery of cytoprotective genes. Antioxidative and detoxification activities are important for many types of cells to avoid DNA damage and cell death. Accumulating lines of recent evidence suggest that Nrf2 is also required for the primary functions of myeloid cells, which include phagocytosis, inflammation regulation, and ROS generation for bactericidal activities. In fact, results from several mouse models have shown that Nrf2 expression in myeloid cells is required for the proper regulation of inflammation, antitumor immunity, and atherosclerosis. Moreover, several molecules generated upon inflammation activate Nrf2. Although ROS detoxification mediated by Nrf2 is assumed to be required for anti-inflammation, the entire picture of the Nrf2-mediated regulation of myeloid cell primary functions has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we describe the Nrf2 inducers characteristic of myeloid cells and the contributions of Nrf2 to diseases.

  2. Hyperthyroidism after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: A Case Report and Literature Review%慢性髓性白血病患者非血缘供者骨髓移植术后并发甲状腺功能亢进1例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧学峰; 李渤涛; 庞一琳; 刘婷婷; 楼晓; 李倩; 江岷; 王雷; 陈虎

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析骨髓移植后引起甲状腺功能亢进的病因、临床特点、治疗及预后.方法:报道l例慢性髓性白血病患者非血缘供者骨髓移植术后并发甲状腺功能亢进随访9年的结果,并复习相关文献.结果:患者男性,21岁,确诊慢性髓性白血病后行非血缘供者骨髓移植,术后+44天,出现持续低热,抗细菌、抗病毒及抗真菌治疗均无效,排除疾病复发,查甲状腺功能提示患者从亚临床甲状腺功能亢进进展为甲状腺功能亢进,给予口服甲巯咪唑治疗2周,患者体温降至正常,血T4、fT4恢复正常,随访9年,慢性髓性白血病无复发,甲状腺功能持续正常.检索文献发现类似报道5例,对其进行归纳分析.结论:骨髓移植术后早期并发甲状腺功能亢进,可能与放化疗预处理及免疫损伤引起的破坏性甲状腺炎相关,有其独特的临床表现,极易被忽视,治疗方面可以尝试应用糖皮质激素及抗甲状腺药物.对于非血缘供者骨髓移植后不明原因发热者,应考虑到甲亢可能.%Objective: To analyze the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and study the clinical characteristics, therapy and prognosis of early onset hyperthyroidism. Methods: One case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation (MUD-BMT) complicated with hyperthyroidism was reported, and its related literature was reviewed. Results: A 21-year-old male with a definitive diagnosis of CML came for a treatment of MUD-BMT. 44 days after transplantation, the patient presented with sustained low fever which was not response to antibiotic, antiviral or antifungal therapy. Excluded from disease recurrence, he was found to have a progress from subclinical hyperthyroidism to clinical hyperthyroidism. After two weeks therapy of methimazole, his temperature become normal, as well as T4, fT4. With a follow up of 9 years, he had no recurrence of

  3. Vosaroxin plus cytarabine versus placebo plus cytarabine in patients with first relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (VALOR): a randomised, controlled, double-blind, multinational, phase 3 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravandi, Farhad; Ritchie, Ellen K.; Sayar, Hamid; Lancet, Jeffrey E.; Craig, Michael D.; Vey, Norbert; Strickland, Stephen A.; Schiller, Gary J.; Jabbour, Elias; Erba, Harry P.; Pigneux, Arnaud; Horst, Heinz-August; Recher, Christian; Klimek, Virginia M.; Cortes, Jorge; Roboz, Gail J.; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Thomas, Xavier; Havelange, Violaine; Maertens, Johan; Derigs, Hans-Günter; Heuser, Michael; Damon, Lloyd; Powell, Bayard L.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Carella, Angelo-Michele; Wei, Andrew; Hogge, Donna; Craig, Adam R.; Fox, Judith A.; Ward, Renee; Smith, Jennifer A.; Acton, Gary; Mehta, Cyrus; Stuart, Robert K.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Safe and effective treatments are urgently needed for patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We investigated the efficacy and safety of vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, plus cytarabine in patients with relapsed/refractory AML. Methods VALOR was a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 101 international sites. Patients were randomised 1:1 to vosaroxin (90 mg/m2 IV days 1,4) plus cytarabine (1 g/m2 IV days 1–5) (vos/cyt) or placebo plus cytarabine (pla/cyt) using a permuted block procedure stratified by disease status, age, and geographic location. All participants were blind to treatment assignment. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and 30- and 60-day mortality. Efficacy analyses were by intention-to-treat; safety analyses included all treated patients. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01191801). Findings Between December 2010 and September 2013, 711 patients were randomised to vos/cyt (n=356) or pla/cyt (n=355). Median OS was 7·5 months with vos/cyt and 6·1 months with pla/cyt (hazard ratio 0·87; unstratified log-rank p=0·061; stratified p=0·0241) and was supported by a sensitivity analysis censoring for subsequent transplant (6·7 and 5·3 months; p=0·0243). Complete remission (CR) rate was higher with vos/cyt vs pla/cyt (30·1% vs 16·3%, p<0·0001). Early mortality rates were equivalent (vos/cyt vs pla/cyt: 30-day, 7·9% vs 6·6%; 60-day, 19·7% vs 19·4%). Treatment-related deaths occurred at any time in 18 patients (5·1%) with vos/cyt and 8 (2·3%) with pla/cyt. Grade ≥3 adverse events more frequent with vos/cyt included febrile neutropenia (167/355 [47%] vs 117/350 [33%]), stomatitis (54 [15%] vs 10 [3%]), hypokalaemia (52 [15%] vs 21 [6%]), sepsis (42 [12%] vs 18 [5%]), and pneumonia (39 [11%] vs 26 [7%]). Interpretation Addition of vosaroxin to cytarabine prolonged survival in patients with relapsed/refractory AML

  4. CatacLysMic specificity when targeting myeloid cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas; Prinz, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The antibacterial enzyme lysozyme M (LysM) encoded by the Lyz2 gene is broadly expressed in myeloblasts, macrophages, and neutrophils, and thus has been used for a long time as a cell-specific marker for myeloid cells in mice. In order to delete loxP-site flanked genes in myeloid cells, a Cre-recombinase (Cre) expressing mouse line was created by inserting Cre-coding sequence into the translational start site of the LysM gene. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [2016. 46: 1529-1532], Orthgiess et al. verify, with the help of tdTomato and YFP reporter mouse lines, LysM-driven recombination. Unexpectedly, the authors also describe major expression of the tdTomato reporter protein in brain neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), with only a very small percentage of gene recombination in myeloid cells of the brain, called microglia. These findings cause justified concerns regarding the efficient and specific targeting of microglia and peripheral myeloid cells using LysM-Cre mice and should stimulate thoughts on conclusions drawn from past experiments on the diseased CNS employing this Cre/loxP-deleter line. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. In vitro experimental {sup 211}At-anti-CD33 antibody therapy of leukaemia cells overcomes cellular resistance seen in vivo against gemtuzumab ozogamicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, Thorsten; Korkmaz, Zekiye; Krull, Doris; Meyer, Geerd J.; Knapp, Wolfram H. [Hanover University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hanover (Germany); Froemke, Cornelia [Hanover University School of Medicine, Department of Biometry, Hanover (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Monoclonal anti-CD33 antibodies conjugated with toxic calicheamicin derivative (gemtuzumab ozogamicin, GO) are a novel therapy option for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Key prognostic factors for patients with AML are high CD33 expression on the leukaemic cells and the ability to overcome mechanisms of resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapies, including drug efflux or other mechanisms decreasing apoptosis. Alpha particle-emitting radionuclides overwhelm such anti-apoptotic mechanisms by producing numerous DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) accompanied by decreased DNA repair. We labelled anti-CD33 antibodies with the alpha-emitter {sup 211}At and compared survival of leukaemic HL-60 and K-562 cells treated with the {sup 211}At-labelled antibodies, GO or unlabelled antibodies as controls. We also measured caspase-3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and necrosis in HL-60 cells after treatment with the different antibodies or with free {sup 211}At. The mean labelling ratio of {sup 211}At-labelled antibodies was 1:1,090 {+-} 364 (range: 1:738-1:1,722) in comparison to 2-3:1 for GO. Tumour cell binding of {sup 211}At-anti-CD33 was high in the presence of abundant CD33 expression and could be specifically blocked by unlabelled anti-CD33. {sup 211}At-anti-CD33 decreased survival significantly more than did GO at comparable dilution (1:1,000). No significant differences in induction of apoptosis or necrosis or DNA DSB or in decreased survival were observed after {sup 211}At-anti-CD33 (1:1,090) versus GO (1:1) treatment. Our results suggest that {sup 211}At is a promising, highly cytotoxic radioimmunotherapy in CD33-positive leukaemia and kills tumour cells more efficiently than does calicheamicin-conjugated antibody. Labelling techniques leading to higher chemical yield and specific activities must be developed to increase {sup 211}At-anti-CD33 therapeutic effects. (orig.)

  6. Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zambonin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL, whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach.

  7. Testing the Role of Myeloid Cell Glucose Flux in Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nishizawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory activation of myeloid cells is accompanied by increased glycolysis, which is required for the surge in cytokine production. Although in vitro studies suggest that increased macrophage glucose metabolism is sufficient for cytokine induction, the proinflammatory effects of increased myeloid cell glucose flux in vivo and the impact on atherosclerosis, a major complication of diabetes, are unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that increased glucose uptake in myeloid cells stimulates cytokine production and atherosclerosis. Overexpression of the glucose transporter GLUT1 in myeloid cells caused increased glycolysis and flux through the pentose phosphate pathway but did not induce cytokines. Moreover, myeloid-cell-specific overexpression of GLUT1 in LDL receptor-deficient mice was ineffective in promoting atherosclerosis. Thus, increased glucose flux is insufficient for inflammatory myeloid cell activation and atherogenesis. If glucose promotes atherosclerosis by increasing cellular glucose flux, myeloid cells do not appear to be the key targets.

  8. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for myeloid leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Christian M; Riether, Carsten; Ochsenbein, Adrian F

    2013-12-31

    Acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML, CML) are hematologic malignancies arising from oncogene-transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). LSCs are selectively resistant to various forms of therapy including irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved disease outcome in patients with CML. For AML, however, prognosis is still quite dismal. Standard treatments have been established more than 20 years ago with only limited advances ever since. Durable remission is achieved in less than 30% of patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD), reflected by the persistence of LSCs below the detection limit by conventional methods, causes a high rate of disease relapses. Therefore, the ultimate goal in the treatment of myeloid leukemia must be the eradication of LSCs. Active immunotherapy, aiming at the generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may represent a powerful approach to target LSCs in the MRD situation. To fully activate CTLs, leukemia antigens have to be successfully captured, processed, and presented by mature dendritic cells (DCs). Myeloid progenitors are a prominent source of DCs under homeostatic conditions, and it is now well established that LSCs and leukemic blasts can give rise to "malignant" DCs. These leukemia-derived DCs can express leukemia antigens and may either induce anti-leukemic T cell responses or favor tolerance to the leukemia, depending on co-stimulatory or -inhibitory molecules and cytokines. This review will concentrate on the role of DCs in myeloid leukemia immunotherapy with a special focus on their generation, application, and function and how they could be improved in order to generate highly effective and specific anti-leukemic CTL responses. In addition, we discuss how DC-based immunotherapy may be successfully integrated into current treatment strategies to promote remission and potentially cure myeloid leukemias.

  9. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for myeloid leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Martijn Schürch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML, CML are hematologic malignancies arising from oncogene-transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs. LSCs are selectively resistant to various forms of therapy including irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved disease outcome in patients with CML. For AML, however, prognosis is still quite dismal. Standard treatments have been established more than 20 years ago with only limited advances ever since. Durable remission is achieved in less than 30% of patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD, reflected by the persistence of LSCs below the detection limit by conventional methods, causes a high rate of disease relapses. Therefore, the ultimate goal in the treatment of myeloid leukemia must be the eradication of LSCs. Active immunotherapy, aiming at the generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs, may represent a powerful approach to target LSCs in the MRD situation. To fully activate CTLs, leukemia antigens have to be successfully captured, processed and presented by mature dendritic cells (DCs. Myeloid progenitors are a prominent source of DCs under homeostatic conditions, and it is now well established that LSCs and leukemic blasts can give rise to malignant DCs. These leukemia-derived DCs can express leukemia antigens and may either induce anti-leukemic T cell responses or favor tolerance to the leukemia, depending on co-stimulatory or -inhibitory molecules and cytokines. This review will concentrate on the role of DCs in myeloid leukemia immunotherapy with a special focus on their generation, application and function and how they could be improved in order to generate highly effective and specific anti-leukemic CTL responses. In addition, we discuss how DC-based immunotherapy may be successfully integrated into current treatment strategies to promote remission and potentially cure myeloid

  10. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsuoka, M. [Second Division of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Jhono, M. [Department of Dermatology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Eto, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  11. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C; Sellati, Timothy J; Harton, Jonathan A

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  12. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  13. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Periasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  14. Mechanosensitive channel activity and F-actin organization in cholesterol-depleted human leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morachevskaya, Elena; Sudarikova, Anastasiya; Negulyaev, Yuri

    2007-04-01

    This study focuses on the functional role of cellular cholesterol in the regulation of mechanosensitive cation channels activated by stretch in human leukaemia K562 cells. The patch-clamp method was employed to examine the effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), a synthetic cholesterol-sequestering agent, on stretch-activated single currents. We found that cholesterol-depleting treatment with MbetaCD resulted in a suppression of the activity of mechanosensitive channels without a change in the unitary conductance. The probability that the channel was open significantly decreased after treatment with MbetaCD. Fluorescent microscopy revealed F-actin reorganization, possibly involving actin assembly, after incubation of the cells with MbetaCD. We suggest that suppression of mechanosensitive channel activation in cholesterol-depleted leukaemia cells is due to F-actin rearrangement, presumably induced by lipid raft destruction. Our observations are consistent with the notion that stretch-activated cation channels in eukaryotic cells are regulated by the membrane-cytoskeleton complex rather than by tension developed purely in the lipid bilayer.

  15. Acute leukaemia: making sense of a complex blood cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meenaghan, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Acute leukaemia represents a diverse group of blood cancers that affect both children and adults. Treatment schedules for these haematology cancers are often prolonged, with many associated side effects and complications. Nurses caring for patients with acute leukaemia require an anticipatory approach, where care is aimed at minimizing the side effects of treatment and being constantly vigilant for any impending adverse effects. Moreover, patients require support for the psychosocial issues that can arise for patients during their illness. This article provides an overview of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia. Nursing considerations in the care of patients being treated for acute leukaemia are also explored.

  16. Selection of reference genes for quantitative PCR studies in purified B cells from B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Valceckiene, Vilma; Kontenyte, Rima; Jakubauskas, Arturas; Griskevicius, Laimonas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Clinical heterogeneity of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) makes it necessary to identify potent prognostic indicators to predict individual clinical course and select risk-adapted therapy. During the last years numerous gene expression models have been suggested as prognostic factors of B-CLL. Today quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid quantification of gene expression and validation of microarray data. Reliability of q...

  17. Synchronous Occurrence of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajwol Pathak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL are hematologic malignancies that originate from different oligopotent progenitor stem cells, namely, common myeloid and lymphoid progenitor cells, respectively. Although blastic transformation of CML can occur in the lymphoid lineage and CML has been related to non-Hodgkin lymphoma on transformation, to our knowledge, de novo and synchronous occurrence of CML and MCL has not been reported. Herein, we report the first case of synchronous CML and MCL in an otherwise healthy 38-year-old man. Potential etiologies and pathological relationships between the two malignancies are explored, including the possibility that the downstream effects of BCR-ABL may link it to an overexpression of cyclin D1, which is inherent to the etiology of MCL.

  18. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell heterogeneity in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solito, Samantha; Marigo, Ilaria; Pinton, Laura; Damuzzo, Vera; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic interplay between cancer and host immune system often affects the process of myelopoiesis. As a consequence, tumor-derived factors sustain the accumulation and functional differentiation of myeloid cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which can interfere with T cell-mediated responses. Since both the phenotype and mechanisms of action of MDSCs appear to be tumor-dependent, it is important not only to determine the presence of all MDSC subsets in each cancer patient, but also which MDSC subsets have clinical relevance in each tumor environment. In this review, we describe the differences between MDSC populations expanded within different tumor contexts and evaluate the prognostic significance of MDSC expansion in peripheral blood and within tumor masses of neoplastic patients.

  19. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell heterogeneity and subset definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranzoni, Elisa; Zilio, Serena; Marigo, Ilaria; Dolcetti, Luigi; Zanovello, Paola; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-04-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are defined in mice on the basis of CD11b and Gr-1 marker expression and the functional ability to inhibit T lymphocyte activation. Nevertheless the term 'heterogeneous' remains the first, informal feature commonly attributed to this population. It is clear that CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells are part of a myeloid macropopulation, which comprises at least two subsets of polymorphonuclear and monocytic cells with different immunosuppressive properties. While recent literature shows substantial agreement on the immunoregulatory property of the monocytic MDSC subset, there is still contrasting evidence on the role of the granulocytic fraction. Moreover, this dichotomy holds true for human MDSCs. We attempt here to summarize conflicting findings in the field and provide some possible, unifying explanations.

  20. MiRNA182 regulates percentage of myeloid and erythroid cells in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Deepak; Sachithanandan, Sasikala P; Ross, Cecil; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Li, Shang; Krishna, Sudhir

    2017-01-12

    The deregulation of lineage control programs is often associated with the progression of haematological malignancies. The molecular regulators of lineage choices in the context of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance remain poorly understood in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). To find a potential molecular regulator contributing to lineage distribution and TKI resistance, we undertook an RNA-sequencing approach for identifying microRNAs (miRNAs). Following an unbiased screen, elevated miRNA182-5p levels were detected in Bcr-Abl-inhibited K562 cells (CML blast crisis cell line) and in a panel of CML patients. Earlier, miRNA182-5p upregulation was reported in several solid tumours and haematological malignancies. We undertook a strategy involving transient modulation and CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats)-mediated knockout of the MIR182 locus in CML cells. The lineage contribution was assessed by methylcellulose colony formation assay. The transient modulation of miRNA182-5p revealed a biased phenotype. Strikingly, Δ182 cells (homozygous deletion of MIR182 locus) produced a marked shift in lineage distribution. The phenotype was rescued by ectopic expression of miRNA182-5p in Δ182 cells. A bioinformatic analysis and Hes1 modulation data suggested that Hes1 could be a putative target of miRNA182-5p. A reciprocal relationship between miRNA182-5p and Hes1 was seen in the context of TK inhibition. In conclusion, we reveal a key role for miRNA182-5p in restricting the myeloid development of leukemic cells. We propose that the Δ182 cell line will be valuable in designing experiments for next-generation pharmacological interventions.

  1. TESTIN Induces Rapid Death and Suppresses Proliferation in Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Weeks

    Full Text Available Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL is the most common malignancy in children. Despite high cure rates, side effects and late consequences of the intensive treatments are common. Unquestionably, the identification of new therapeutic targets will lead to safer, more effective treatments. We identified TES promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing as a very common molecular abnormality in childhood ALL, irrespective of molecular subtype. The aims of the present study were to demonstrate that TES promoter methylation is aberrant, to determine the effects of TES re-expression in ALL, and to determine if those effects are mediated via TP53 activity.Normal fetal and adult tissue DNA was isolated and TES promoter methylation determined by Sequenom MassARRAY. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot were used to confirm re-expression of TES in ALL cell lines after 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine exposure or transfection with TES expression plasmids. The effects of TES re-expression on ALL cells were investigated using standard cell proliferation, cell death and cell cycle assays.In this study, we confirm that the TES promoter is unmethylated in normal adult and fetal tissues. We report that decitabine treatment of ALL cell lines results in demethylation of the TES promoter and attendant expression of TES mRNA. Re-expression of TESTIN protein in ALL cells using expression plasmid transfection results in rapid cell death or cell cycle arrest independent of TP53 activity.These results suggest that TES is aberrantly methylated in ALL and that re-expression of TESTIN has anti-leukaemia effects which point to novel therapeutic opportunities for childhood ALL.

  2. Primary cerebellar extramedullary myeloid cell tumor mimicking oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D M; Wong, T T; Guo, W Y; Chang, K P; Yen, S H

    1997-10-01

    Extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCTs) are tumors consisting of immature cells of the myeloid series that occur outside the bone marrow. Most of them are associated with acute myelogenous leukemia or other myeloproliferative disorders, and a small number occur as primary lesions, i.e., are not associated with hematological disorders. Occurrence inside the cranium is rare, and there has been only one case of primary EMCT involving the cerebellum reported in the literature. The case we report here is a blastic EMCT occurring in the cerebellum of a 3-year-old boy who had no signs of leukemia or any hematological disorder throughout the entire course. The cerebellar tumor was at first misdiagnosed as an "oligodendroglioma" because of the uniformity and "fried egg" artifact of the tumor cells. The tumor disappeared during chemotherapy consisting of 12 treatments. However, it recurred and metastasized to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shortly after the therapy was completed. A diagnosis of EMCT was suspected because of the presence of immature myeloid cells in the CSF, and was confirmed by anti-myeloperoxidase and anti-lysozyme immunoreactivity of the cerebellar tumor. The patient succumbed 1 year and 3 months after the first presentation of the disease.

  3. Effects of bioactive compounds from carrots (Daucus carota L.), polyacetylenes, beta-carotene and lutein on human lymphoid leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Rana G; Brandt, Kirsten; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2012-07-01

    New therapies for leukaemia are urgently needed. Carrots have been suggested as a potential treatment for leukaemia in traditional medicine and have previously been studied in other contexts as potential sources of anticancer agents. Indicating that carrots may contain bioactive compounds, which may show potential in leukaemia therapies. This study investigated the effects of five fractions from carrot juice extract (CJE) on human lymphoid leukaemia cell lines, together with five purified bioactive compounds found in Daucus carota L, including: three polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) and two carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein). Their effects on induction of apoptosis using Annexin V/PI and Caspase 3 activity assays analysed via flow cytometry and inhibition of cellular proliferation using Cell Titer Glo assay and cell cycle analysis were investigated. Treatment of all three lymphoid leukaemia cell lines with the fraction from carrot extracts which contained polyacetylenes and carotenoids was significantly more cytotoxic than the 4 other fractions. Treatments with purified polyacetylenes also induced apoptosis in a dose and time responsive manner. Moreover, falcarinol and falcarindiol-3-acetate isolated from Daucus carota L were more cytotoxic than falcarindiol. In contrast, the carotenoids showed no significant effect on either apoptosis or cell proliferation in any of the cells investigated. This suggests that polyacetylenes rather than beta-carotene or lutein are the bioactive components found in Daucus carota L and could be useful in the development of new leukemic therapies. Here, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of polyacetylenes have been shown to be exerted via induction of apoptosis and arrest of cell cycle.

  4. A combination therapy with fludarabine, mitoxantrone and rituximab induces complete immunophenotypical remission in B-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tempescul, Adrian; Feuerbach, Johanna; Ianotto, Jean-Christophe; Dalbies, Florence; Marion, Veronique; Bris, Marie-Josée; De Braekeleer, Marc; Berthou, Christian

    2008-01-01

    A combination therapy with fludarabine, mitoxantrone and rituximab induces complete immunophenotypical remission in B-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia phone: +33-298-223504 (Tempescul, Adrian) (Tempescul, Adrian) Department of Clinical Hematology, Institute of Cancerology and Hematology - CHU Morvan, Avenue Foch - 29609 - Brest - FRANCE (Tempescul, Adrian) Department of Clinical Hematology, Institute of Cancerology and Hematology - CHU Morvan, Avenue Foch - 2...

  5. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case series of 12 patients with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant with a matched related donor. Male to female ratio was 1:1. The main complication post-transplant was graft-versus-host disease (n=7 patients. Transplant-related mortality involved one patient; cause of death was multi-organ failure. After a median follow up of 36.0±11.3 months, overall survival was 16%.

  6. Magnetic fields and leukaemia risks in UK electricity supply workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether leukaemia risks are related to occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields. Leukaemia risks experienced by 73 051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales were investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82 and were employed for at least 6 months with some employment in the period 1973-82. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing leukaemia or leukaemia subtypes for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. Findings for all leukaemias combined were unexceptional; risks were close to unity for all exposure categories and there was no suggestion of risks increasing with cumulative (or recent or distant) magnetic field exposures. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects shown for acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. There was a significant positive trend for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), but this was based, in the main, on unusually low risks in the lowest exposure category. This study found no convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that exposure to magnetic fields is a risk factor for leukaemia, and the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that both distant and recent magnetic field exposures are not causally related to the generality of leukaemia. The limited positive findings for ALL may well be chance findings.

  7. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stem cell transplantation in the management of acute leukaemia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, K; Yahaya, I; Hyde, C; Andronis, L; Barton, P; Bayliss, S; Chen, Y-F

    2010-12-01

    Acute leukaemia is a group of rapidly progressing cancers of bone marrow and blood classified as either acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) has developed as an adjunct to or replacement for conventional chemotherapy with the aim of improving survival and quality of life. A systematic overview of the best available evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SCT in the treatment of acute leukaemia. Clinical effectiveness: electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, were searched from inception to December 2008 to identify published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index (SCI) were searched from 1997 to March 2009 to identify primary studies. Cost-effectiveness: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) were searched from inception to January 2009. Potentially relevant papers were retrieved and independently checked against predefined criteria by two reviewers (one in the case of the cost-effectiveness review). Included reviews and meta-analyses were critically appraised and data extracted and narratively presented. Included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and donor versus no donor (DvND) studies were mapped to the evidence covered in existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses according to a framework of 12 decision problems (DPs): DP1 related to SCT in adults with AML in first complete remission (CR1); DP2 to adults with AML in second or subsequent remission or with refractory disease (CR2+); DP3 to children with AML in CR1; DP4 to children with AML in CR2+; DP5 to adults with ALL in CR1; DP6 to adults with ALL in CR2+; DP7 to children with ALL in CR1; DP8 to children with ALL in CR2+; DP9 to comparison of different sources of stem cells in transplantation; DP10 to different conditioning regimens; DP

  8. Elevated frequencies of leukemic myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in acute myeloid leukemia with the FLT3 internal tandem duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Rickmann, Mareike; Krauter, Juergen; Stamer, Kathrin; Heuser, Michael; Salguero, Gustavo; Mischak-Weissinger, Eva; Ganser, Arnold; Stripecke, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Some 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients display an internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene. FLT3-ITDs are known to drive hematopoietic stem cells towards FLT3 ligand independent growth, but the effects on dendritic cell (DC) differentiation during leukemogenesis are not clear. We compared the frequency of cells with immunophenotype of myeloid DC (mDC: Lin?, HLA-DR+, CD11c+, CD86+) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC: Lin?, HL...

  9. Increase in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) associated with minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Li, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-fen; Ju, Ying; Li, Li; Zhang, Bing-chang; Liu, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are thought to help provide a cellular microenvironments in many solid tumors, in which transformed cells proliferate, acquire new mutations, and evade host immunosurveillance. In the present study, we found that MDSCs (CD33 + CD11b + HLA-DR(low/neg)) in bone marrow were significantly increased in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. MDSCs levels in newly diagnosed AML patients correlated well with extramedullary infiltration and plasma D-dimer levels. Remission rates in the MDSCs > 1500 group and MDSCs phenotype. These cells appear to impact the clinical course and prognosis of AML. This data may provide potentially important targets for novel therapies.

  10. Iron acquisition by Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing within myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanmi, Oyebode; Kesavalu, Banurekha; Abdalla, Maher Y; Britigan, Bradley E

    2013-12-01

    The pathophysiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection is linked to the ability of the organism to grow within macrophages. Lung myeloid dendritic cells are a newly recognized reservoir of M.tb during infection. Iron (Fe) acquisition is critical for M.tb growth. In vivo, extracellular Fe is chelated to transferrin (TF) and lactoferrin (LF). We previously reported that M.tb replicating in human monocyte-dervied macrophages (MDM) can acquire Fe bound to TF, LF, and citrate, as well as from the MDM cytoplasm. Access of M.tb to Fe may influence its growth in macrophages and dendritic cells. In the present work we confirmed the ability of different strains of M.tb to grow in human myeloid dendritic cells in vitro. Fe acquired by M.tb replicating within dendritic cells from externally added Fe chelates varied with the Fe chelate present in the external media: Fe-citrate > Fe-LF > Fe-TF. Fe acquisition rates from each chelate did not vary over 7 days. M.tb within dendritic cells also acquired Fe from the dendritic cell cytoplasm, with the efficiency of Fe acquisition greater from cytoplasmic Fe sources, regardless of the initial Fe chelate from which that cytoplasmic Fe was derived. Growth and Fe acquisition results with human MDM were similar to those with dendritic cells. M.tb grow and replicate within myeloid dendritic cells in vitro. Fe metabolism of M.tb growing in either MDM or dendritic cells in vitro is influenced by the nature of Fe available and the organism appears to preferentially access cytoplasmic rather than extracellular Fe sources. Whether these in vitro data extend to in vivo conditions should be examined in future studies.

  11. Tumor-Induced Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Francesco; Bronte, Vincenzo; Ugel, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent a heterogeneous, immune-suppressive leukocyte population that develops systemically and infiltrates tumors. MDSCs can restrain the immune response through different mechanisms including essential metabolite consumption, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, as well as display of inhibitory surface molecules that alter T-cell trafficking and viability. Moreover, MDSCs play a role in tumor progression, acting directly on tumor cells and promoting cancer stemness, angiogenesis, stroma deposition, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis formation. Many biological and pharmaceutical drugs affect MDSC expansion and functions in preclinical tumor models and patients, often reversing host immune dysfunctions and allowing a more effective tumor immunotherapy.

  12. Myeloid dendritic cells: Development, functions, and role in atherosclerotic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2015-06-01

    Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) comprise a heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells, which are responsible for capture, processing, and presentation of antigens on their surface to T cells. mDCs serve as a bridge linking adaptive and innate immune responses. To date, the development of DC lineage in bone marrow is better characterized in mice than in humans. DCs and macrophages share the common myeloid progenitor called macrophage-dendritic cell progenitor (MDP) that gives rise to monocytoid lineage and common DC progenitors (CDPs). CDP in turn gives rise to plasmacytoid DCs and predendritic cells (pre-mDCs) that are common precursor of myeloid CD11b+ and CD8α(+) DCs. The development and commitment of mDCs is regulated by several transcription and hematopoietic growth factors of which CCr7, Zbtb46, and Flt3 represent 'core' genes responsible for development and functional and phenotypic maintenance of mDCs. mDCs were shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. In atherogenesis, different subsets of mDCs could possess both proatherogenic (e.g. proinflammatory) and atheroprotective (e.g. anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic) activities. The proinflammatory role of mDCs is consisted in production of inflammatory molecules and priming proinflammatory subsets of effector T cells. In contrast, tolerogenic mDCs fight against inflammation through arrest of activity of proinflammatory T cells and macrophages and induction of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. Microenvironmental conditions trigger differentiation of mDCs to acquire proinflammatory or regulatory properties.

  13. Birth weight in offspring and leukaemia risk in parents-A nation-wide register-based cohort study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, Maria; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hjalgrim, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    with parental risk of leukaemia overall or of leukaemia subtypes except for a twofold increased acute lymphatic leukaemia risk in fathers of high birth weight offspring and an increasing paternal risk of chronic myeloid leukaemia with increasing offspring birth weight. These may both be chance findings. Our...

  14. Targeting DNA vaccines to myeloid cells using a small peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chunting; Choi, Jang Gi; Abraham, Sojan; Shankar, Premlata; Manjunath, N

    2015-01-01

    Targeting DNA vaccines to dendritic cells (DCs) greatly enhances immunity. Although several approaches have been used to target protein Ags to DCs, currently there is no method that targets DNA vaccines directly to DCs. Here, we show that a small peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein fused to protamine residues (RVG-P) can target DNA to myeloid cells, including DCs, which results in enhanced humoral and T-cell responses. DCs targeted with a DNA vaccine encoding the immunodominant vaccinia B8R gene via RVG-P were able to restimulate vaccinia-specific memory T cells in vitro. Importantly, a single i.v. injection of B8R gene bound to RVG-P was able to prime a vaccinia-specific T-cell response that was able to rapidly clear a subsequent vaccinia challenge in mice. Moreover, delivery of DNA in DCs was enough to induce DC maturation and efficient Ag presentation without the need for adjuvants. Finally, immunization of mice with a DNA-vaccine encoding West Nile virus (WNV) prM and E proteins via RVG-P elicited high titers of WNV-neutralizing Abs that protected mice from lethal WNV challenge. Thus, RVG-P provides a reagent to target DNA vaccines to myeloid cells and elicit robust T-cell and humoral immune responses.

  15. Myeloid Cell-Specific Knockout of NFI-A Improves Sepsis Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeak, Melissa B; Youssef, Dima; Williams, Danielle A; Pritchett, Christopher; Yao, Zhi Q; McCall, Charles E; El Gazzar, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Myeloid progenitor-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) arise from myeloid progenitors and suppress both innate and adaptive immunity. MDSCs expand during the later phases of sepsis in mice, promote immunosuppression, and reduce survival. Here, we report that the myeloid differentiation-related transcription factor nuclear factor I-A (NFI-A) controls MDSC expansion during sepsis and impacts survival. Unlike MDSCs, myeloid cells with conditional deletion of the Nfia gene normally differentiated into effector cells during sepsis, cleared infecting bacteria, and did not express immunosuppressive mediators. In contrast, ectopic expression of NFI-A in myeloid progenitors from NFI-A myeloid cell-deficient mice impeded myeloid cell maturation and promoted immune repressor function. Importantly, surviving septic mice with conditionally deficient NFI-A myeloid cells were able to respond to challenge with bacterial endotoxin by mounting an acute inflammatory response. Together, these results support the concept of NFI-A as a master molecular transcriptome switch that controls myeloid cell differentiation and maturation and that malfunction of this switch during sepsis promotes MDSC expansion that adversely impacts sepsis outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Adenovirus protein IX sequesters host-cell promyelocytic leukaemia protein and contributes to efficient viral proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Puvion-Dutilleul, Francine; Lutz, Pierre; Dreyer, Dominique; de Thé, Hugues; Chatton, Bruno; Kedinger, Claude

    2003-10-01

    The product of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) gene IX, protein IX (pIX), is a multifunctional protein that stabilizes the viral capsid and has transcriptional activity. We show that pIX also contributes to the Ad5-induced reorganization of the host-cell nuclear ultrastructure: pIX induces the formation of specific and dynamic nuclear inclusions, and the host promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein, which is the main structural organizer of PML bodies, is stably relocated and confined within the pIX-induced inclusions late in infection. Our results suggest that Ad5 has evolved a unique strategy that leads to the sustained neutralization of PML bodies throughout infection, thereby ensuring optimal viral proliferation.

  17. Myeloid dendritic cells are potential players in human neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eBossù

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s (AD and Parkinson’s (PD diseases are devastating neurodegenerative disturbances wherein neuroinflammation is a chronic pathogenic process with high therapeutic potential. Major mediators of AD/PD neuroimmune processes are resident immune cells, but immune cells derived from periphery may also participate and to some extent modify neuroinflammation. Specifically, blood borne myeloid cells emerge as crucial components of AD/PD progression and susceptibility. Among these, dendritic cells (DCs are key immune orchestrators and players of brain immune surveillance: we candidate them as potential mediators of both AD and PD and as relevant cell model for unraveling myeloid cell role in neurodegeneration. Hence, we recapitulate and discuss emerging data suggesting that blood-derived DCs play a role in experimental and human neurodegenerative diseases. In humans, in particular, DCs are modified by in vitro culture with neurodegeneration-associated pathogenic factors and dysregulated in AD patients, while the levels of DC precursors are decreased in AD and PD patients’ blood, possibly as an index of their recruitment to the brain. Overall, we emphasize the need to explore the impact of DCs on neurodegeneration to uncover peripheral immune mechanisms of pathogenic importance, recognize potential biomarkers and improve therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. [Cytotoxicity of polyphenolic/flavonoid compounds in a leukaemia cell culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josipović, Pavle; Orsolić, Nada

    2008-12-01

    Flavonoid components of propolis are biologically active substances with antioxidative, immunostimulative, immunomodulative, and anti-inflamatory properties. The aim of the study was to investigate their cytotoxic effect on different leukaemia cell lines. For this purpose we used five different flavonoids (quercetin, caffeic acid, chrysin, naringenin, and naringin) and five types of leukemia cell lines (MOLT, JURKAT, HL-60, RAJI and U937). Cells were cultured at 37 degrees C in the RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% FCS in humified atmosphere with 5% of CO2. Flavonoids were added in the following concentrations: 100 microg mL(-1), 50 microg mL(-1), 25 microg mL(-1), or 12.5 microg mL(-1). The results show different dose- and cell-type-dependent cytotoxicity. Among the flavonoids, quercetin showed the strongest cytotoxic effect in all cell lines. Caffeic acid and chrisyn also expressed a high level of cytotoxicty. Treatment of U937 and HL-60 cell lines with low concentrations of chrisyn or naringenin stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest a biphase effect of the tested compounds on monocyte cell lines. Cytotoxicity and growth stimulation mechanisms caused directly by flavonoids should further be investigated on the molecular level.

  19. Childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia expressing "Ia-like" antigen:" a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupa, A; Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Moore, H; Thomas, M; Zola, H; Cheney, K; Rice, M; Toogood, I

    1982-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl presenting with vomiting, abdominal pain, and renal failure was found to have gross hepatosplenomegaly, a renal mass, and bilateral pleural effusions. A diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was suggested by a peripheral white cell count (WCC) of 119,000 x 10(6)mm3, 57% blasts, 22% lymphocytes, and confirmed by bone marrow examination. Lymphocyte surface marker studies at diagnosis enabled classification as a T-ALL, with a significant proportion of the T cells also bearing receptors for the third component of complement (C3). Seventy-two percent of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells reacted with anti-Ia monoclonal antibody (FMC44), and a smaller proportion (25%) carried receptors for the Fc portion of IgG. The T-classification of this ALL was verified at central nervous system (CNS) relapse and at a subsequent nodal relapse. Double-marker studies on cells from the infiltrated lymph node prepared in suspension confirmed the presence of Ia-positive T cells. The Ia marker is usually a useful discriminant between T and non-T cells in normal and ALL cell populations. The case described here highlights the need for a panel of markers to be used in classification of childhood ALL and supports the suggestion that there is a distinct subtype of Ia-positive T-ALL.

  20. Distinct morphophenotypic features of chronic B-cell leukaemias identified with CD1c and CD23 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazi, A; Cattoretti, G; Polli, N; Delia, D; Rilke, F

    1991-07-01

    Morphological criteria usually applied to diagnose various subtypes of B-cell chronic lymphoid leukaemia are largely subjective. Immunophenotyping of 61 relevant cases using a selected panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), showed that CD1c and CD23 mAb were able to separate B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) from other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Lymphocytes of B-CLL were CD1c-, CD23+, whereas those of other types of chronic B-cell leukaemia were CD1c+/-, CD23-, and CD38/-. Non-B-CLL cases had a significantly higher amount of large peroxidase-negative (unstained) cells analyzed with an automated blood cell counter (Technicon H6000). This type of volumetric assessment allowed a separation between typical and "atypical" B-CLL, which otherwise were both CD1c-, and CD23+. These combinations of phenotypic markers corresponded to well-defined haematopathologic entities, conventionally diagnosed on peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow smears, and on histologic sections of lymph nodes and spleen.

  1. Acute leukaemia following renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subar, M; Gucalp, R; Benstein, J; Williams, G; Wiernik, P H

    1996-03-01

    Four renal transplant patients on immunosuppressive therapy who presented with acute myeloid leukaemia are described. In two cases, azathioprine may have played an important role as a cofactor in leukaemogenesis. In a third case, the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide may have contributed. All patients were treated for leukaemia with full doses of cytotoxic chemotherapy and, in each case, a functioning renal allograft was preserved throughout the treatment despite attenuation of immunosuppressive therapy. Three patients achieved complete remission. Of the three, one is surviving at 2 years and two expired during the pancytopenic phase of their treatment with no active leukaemia present, and with intact renal function. As increasing expertise in the field of organ transplantation allows patients to survive longer, such patients' exposure to immunosuppressive and potentially leukaemogenic drugs is prolonged. The risk of secondary neoplasia has been previously documented in this population. Two of the four cases reported here suffered from polycystic kidney disease as their underlying condition. While this report suggests that the leukaemias are related to renal transplantation, we cannot rule out an association with the underlying disease which led to the transplant. This report further suggests that the leukaemia that develops in such patients may respond to standard therapy, and that such treatment does not compromise the transplanted kidney.

  2. CD133+ adult human retinal cells remain undifferentiated in Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Eric J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD133 is a cell surface marker of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF, sustains proliferation and not differentiation of embryonic stem cells. We used CD133 to purify adult human retinal cells and aimed to determine what effect LIF had on these cultures and whether they still had the ability to generate neurospheres. Methods Retinal cell suspensions were derived from adult human post-mortem tissue with ethical approval. With magnetic automated cell sorting (MACS CD133+ retinal cells were enriched from post mortem adult human retina. CD133+ retinal cell phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry and cultured cells were observed for proliferative capacity, neuropshere generation and differentiation with or without LIF supplementation. Results We demonstrated purification (to 95% of CD133+ cells from adult human postmortem retina. Proliferating cells were identified through BrdU incorporation and expression of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1. CD133+ retinal cells differentiated whilst forming neurospheres containing appropriate lineage markers including glia, neurons and photoreceptors. LIF maintained CD133+ retinal cells in a proliferative and relatively undifferentiated state (Ki67, Cyclin D1 expression without significant neurosphere generation. Differentiation whilst forming neurospheres was re-established on LIF withdrawal. Conclusion These data support the evidence that CD133 expression characterises a population of cells within the resident adult human retina which have progenitor cell properties and that their turnover and differentiation is influenced by LIF. This may explain differences in retinal responses observed following disease or injury.

  3. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel; Majeti, Ravindra

    2017-03-23

    Evidence of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AML LSCs) was first reported nearly 2 decades ago through the identification of rare subpopulations of engrafting cells in xenotransplantation assays. These AML LSCs were shown to reside at the apex of a cellular hierarchy that initiates and maintains the disease, exhibiting properties of self-renewal, cell cycle quiescence, and chemoresistance. This cancer stem cell model offers an explanation for chemotherapy resistance and disease relapse and implies that approaches to treatment must eradicate LSCs for cure. More recently, a number of studies have both refined and expanded our understanding of LSCs and intrapatient heterogeneity in AML using improved xenotransplant models, genome-scale analyses, and experimental manipulation of primary patient cells. Here, we review these studies with a focus on the immunophenotype, biological properties, epigenetics, genetics, and clinical associations of human AML LSCs and discuss critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Granulocytic subset of myeloid derived suppressor cells in rats with mammary carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, Y.; Gunaydin, G.; Esendagli, G.; Guc, D.

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge is available on myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) of rat origin. We examined the myeloid cells from peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleens of healthy and mammary tumor bearing rats employing a novel immunophenotyping strategy with CD172a, HIS48, and Rp-1 antibodies. We ad

  5. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    tissue regeneration is not well understood. Bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid cells facilitate angiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Here, we report that a serpin-resistant form of tPA by activating the extracellular proteases matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plasmin expands the myeloid cell pool...

  6. A high rate of telomeric sister chromatid exchange occurs in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medves, Sandrine; Auchter, Morgan; Chambeau, Laetitia; Gazzo, Sophie; Poncet, Delphine; Grangier, Blandine; Verney, Aurélie; Moussay, Etienne; Ammerlaan, Wim; Brisou, Gabriel; Morjani, Hamid; Géli, Vincent; Palissot, Valérie; Berchem, Guy; Salles, Gilles; Wenner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Cancer cells protect their telomere ends from erosion through reactivation of telomerase or by using the Alternative Lengthening of Telomere (ALT) mechanism that depends on homologous recombination. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B cells are characterized by almost no telomerase activity, shelterin deregulation and telomere fusions. To characterize telomeric maintenance mechanisms in B-CLL patients, we measured their telomere length, telomerase expression and the main hallmarks of the ALT activity i.e. C-circle concentration, an extra-chromosomal telomere repeat (ECTR), and the level of telomeric sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE) rate. Patients showed relative homogenous telomere length although almost no TERT transcript and nearly no C-circle were evidenced. Nevertheless, compared with normal B cells, B-CLL cells showed an increase in T-SCE rate that was correlated with a strong down-regulation of the topoisomerase III alpha (TOP3A) expression, involved in the dissolution of Holliday Junctions (HJ), together with an increased expression of SLX1A, SLX4, MUS81 and GEN1, involved in the resolution of HJ. Altogether, our results suggest that the telomere maintenance mechanism of B-CLL cells do not preferentially use telomerase or ALT. Rather, the rupture of the dissolvasome/resolvasome balance may increase telomere shuffling that could homogenize telomere length, slowing telomere erosion in this disease.

  7. Alantolactone selectively ablates acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Ding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poor outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML are largely attributed to leukemia stem cells (LSCs which are difficult to eliminate with conventional therapy and responsible for relapse. Thus, new therapeutic strategies which could selectively target LSCs in clinical leukemia treatment and avoid drug resistance are urgently needed. However, only a few small molecules have been reported to show anti-LSCs activity. Methods The aim of the present study was to identify alantolactone as novel agent that can ablate acute myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cells from AML patient specimens and evaluate the anticancer activity of alantolactone in vitro and in vivo. Results The present study is the first to demonstrate that alantolactone, a prominent eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, could specifically ablate LSCs from AML patient specimens. Furthermore, in comparison to the conventional chemotherapy drug, cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C, alantolactone showed superior effects of leukemia cytotoxicity while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. Alantolactone induced apoptosis with a dose-dependent manner by suppression of NF-kB and its downstream target proteins. DMA-alantolactone, a water-soluble prodrug of alantolactone, could suppress tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions Based on these results, we propose that alantolactone may represent a novel LSCs-targeted therapy and eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones offer a new scaffold for drug discovery towards anti-LSCs agents.

  8. Uncaria tomentosa stimulates the proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Iria; do Carmo Araújo, Maria; Zimmermann, Estevan Sonego; Dalmora, Sergio Luiz; Benedetti, Aloisio Luiz; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Asbahr, Ana Carolina Cavazzin; Bertol, Gustavo; Farias, Júlia; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2011-09-01

    The Asháninkas, indigenous people of Peru, use cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) to restore health. Uncaria tomentosa has antioxidant activity and works as an agent to repair DNA damage. It causes different effects on cell proliferation depending on the cell type involved; specifically, it can stimulate the proliferation of myeloid progenitors and cause apoptosis of neoplastic cells. Neutropenia is the most common collateral effect of chemotherapy. For patients undergoing cancer treatment, the administration of a drug that stimulates the proliferation of healthy hematopoietic tissue cells is very desirable. It is important to assess the acute effects of Uncaria tomentosa on granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) and in the recovery of neutrophils after chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, by establishing the correlation with filgrastim (rhG-CSF) treatment to evaluate its possible use in clinical oncology. The in vivo assay was performed in ifosfamide-treated mice receiving oral doses of 5 and 15 mg of Uncaria tomentosa and intraperitoneal doses of 3 and 9 μg of filgrastim, respectively, for four days. Colony-forming cell (CFC) assays were performed with human hematopoietic stem/precursor cells (hHSPCs) obtained from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Bioassays showed that treatment with Uncaria tomentosa significantly increased the neutrophil count, and a potency of 85.2% was calculated in relation to filgrastim at the corresponding doses tested. An in vitro CFC assay showed an increase in CFU-GM size and mixed colonies (CFU-GEMM) size at the final concentrations of 100 and 200 μg extract/mL. At the tested doses, Uncaria tomentosa had a positive effect on myeloid progenitor number and is promising for use with chemotherapy to minimize the adverse effects of this treatment. These results support the belief of the Asháninkas, who have classified Uncaria tomentosa as a 'powerful plant'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic regulation of suppressive myeloid cells in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Antonio; Strauss, Laura; Consonni, Francesca Maria; Travelli, Cristina; Genazzani, Armando; Porta, Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to promote growth, survival, proliferation and long-term maintenance. The common feature of this altered metabolism is the increased glucose uptake and fermentation of glucose to lactate, which is observed even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria. This effect is known as the 'Warburg Effect' and its intensive investigation in the last decade has partially established either its causes or its functions. It is now emerging that a major side effect of the Warburg Effect is immunosuppression, which limits the immunogenicity of cancer cells and therefore restricts the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer immunotherapy. Here we discuss how the metabolic communication between cancer and infiltrating myeloid cells contributes to cancer immune evasion and how the understanding of these mechanisms may improve current immunotherapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oncogenic NRAS Primes Primary Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells for Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Brendel

    Full Text Available RAS mutations are frequently found among acute myeloid leukemia patients (AML, generating a constitutively active signaling protein changing cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We have previously shown that treatment of AML patients with high-dose cytarabine is preferentially beneficial for those harboring oncogenic RAS. On the basis of a murine AML cell culture model, we ascribed this effect to a RAS-driven, p53-dependent induction of differentiation. Hence, in this study we sought to confirm the correlation between RAS status and differentiation of primary blasts obtained from AML patients. The gene expression signature of AML blasts with oncogenic NRAS indeed corresponded to a more mature profile compared to blasts with wildtype RAS, as demonstrated by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and real-time PCR analysis of myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 homolog (MEIS1 in a unique cohort of AML patients. In addition, in vitro cell culture experiments with established cell lines and a second set of primary AML cells showed that oncogenic NRAS mutations predisposed cells to cytarabine (AraC driven differentiation. Taken together, our findings show that AML with inv(16 and NRAS mutation have a differentiation gene signature, supporting the notion that NRAS mutation may predispose leukemic cells to AraC induced differentiation. We therefore suggest that promotion of differentiation pathways by specific genetic alterations could explain the superior treatment outcome after therapy in some AML patient subgroups. Whether a differentiation gene expression status may generally predict for a superior treatment outcome in AML needs to be addressed in future studies.

  11. CD19-Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, C L; thor Straten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for cancer represents a promising new treatment modality. ACT based on the administration of cytotoxic T cells genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recognizing CD19 expressed by B cell malignancies has been shown to induce complete lasting......-associated toxicities, which needs attention. Herein we review current data and discuss key aspects of this powerful approach to treat and potentially cure B cell malignancies....

  12. Binase induces apoptosis of transformed myeloid cells and does not induce T-cell immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskaya, Olga N; Zelenikhin, Pavel V; Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Makarov, Alexander A

    2007-10-01

    Microbial RNases along with such animal RNases as onconase and BS-RNase are a promising basis for developing new antitumor drugs. We have shown that the Bacillus intermedius RNase (binase) induces selective apoptosis of transformed myeloid cells. It attacks artificially expressing activated c-Kit myeloid progenitor FDC cells and chronic myelogenous leukemia cells K562. Binase did not induce apoptosis in leukocytes of healthy donors and in normal myeloid progenitor cells. The inability of binase to initiate expression of activation markers CD69 and IFN-gamma in CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes testifies that enzyme is devoid of superantigenic properties. Altogether, these results demonstrate that binase possesses therapeutic opportunities for treatment of genotyped human neoplasms expressing activated kit.

  13. The rate of spontaneous mutations in human myeloid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araten, David J., E-mail: david.araten@nyumc.org [Division of Hematology, Department of Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System (United States); Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine and the NYU Langone Cancer Center (United States); Krejci, Ondrej [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); DiTata, Kimberly [Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine and the NYU Langone Cancer Center (United States); Wunderlich, Mark [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sanders, Katie J.; Zamechek, Leah [Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine and the NYU Langone Cancer Center (United States); Mulloy, James C. [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We provide the first measurement of the mutation rate (μ) in human myeloid cells. • μ is measured to be 3.6–23 × 10{sup −7} per cell division. • The AML-ETO and MLL-AF9 fusions do not seem to increase μ. • Cooperating mutations in NRAS, FLT3 and p53 not seem to increase μ. • Hypermutability may be required to explain leukemogenesis. - Abstract: The mutation rate (μ) is likely to be a key parameter in leukemogenesis, but historically, it has been difficult to measure in humans. The PIG-A gene has some advantages for the detection of spontaneous mutations because it is X-linked, and therefore only one mutation is required to disrupt its function. Furthermore, the PIG-A-null phenotype is readily detected by flow cytometry. Using PIG-A, we have now provided the first in vitro measurement of μ in myeloid cells, using cultures of CD34+ cells that are transduced with either the AML-ETO or the MLL-AF9 fusion genes and expanded with cytokines. For the AML-ETO cultures, the median μ value was ∼9.4 × 10{sup −7} (range ∼3.6–23 × 10{sup −7}) per cell division. In contrast, few spontaneous mutations were observed in the MLL-AF9 cultures. Knockdown of p53 or introduction of mutant NRAS or FLT3 alleles did not have much of an effect on μ. Based on these data, we provide a model to predict whether hypermutability must occur in the process of leukemogenesis.

  14. Lysosomal disruption preferentially targets acute myeloid leukemia cells and progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Prabha, Swayam; Hurren, Rose; Rutledge, Angela C.; Lee, Anna Y.; Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Sun, Hong; Wang, Xiaoming; Skrtic, Marko; Seneviratne, Ayesh; Cusimano, Maria; Jhas, Bozhena; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Cho, Eunice E.; Spagnuolo, Paul A.; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Gebbia, Marinella; Urbanus, Malene; Eppert, Kolja; Dissanayake, Dilan; Jonet, Alexia; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Li, Xiaoming; Datti, Alessandro; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Wrana, Jeff; Rogers, Ian; Sonnet, Pascal; Ellis, William Y.; Corey, Seth J.; Eaves, Connie; Minden, Mark D.; Wang, Jean C.Y.; Dick, John E.; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Schimmer, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to understand and treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there remains a need for more comprehensive therapies to prevent AML-associated relapses. To identify new therapeutic strategies for AML, we screened a library of on- and off-patent drugs and identified the antimalarial agent mefloquine as a compound that selectively kills AML cells and AML stem cells in a panel of leukemia cell lines and in mice. Using a yeast genome-wide functional screen for mefloquine sensitizers, we identified genes associated with the yeast vacuole, the homolog of the mammalian lysosome. Consistent with this, we determined that mefloquine disrupts lysosomes, directly permeabilizes the lysosome membrane, and releases cathepsins into the cytosol. Knockdown of the lysosomal membrane proteins LAMP1 and LAMP2 resulted in decreased cell viability, as did treatment of AML cells with known lysosome disrupters. Highlighting a potential therapeutic rationale for this strategy, leukemic cells had significantly larger lysosomes compared with normal cells, and leukemia-initiating cells overexpressed lysosomal biogenesis genes. These results demonstrate that lysosomal disruption preferentially targets AML cells and AML progenitor cells, providing a rationale for testing lysosomal disruption as a novel therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:23202731

  15. The Hematopoietic Differentiation and Production of Mature Myeloid Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Dal; Vodyanik, Maxim; Slukvin, Igor I.

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a protocol for hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and generation of mature myeloid cells from hPSCs through expansion and differentiation of hPSC-derived lin-CD34+CD43+CD45+ multipotent progenitors. The protocol is comprised of three major steps: (i) induction of hematopoietic differentiation by coculture of hPSCs with OP9 bone marrow stromal cells, (ii) short-term expansion of multipotent myeloid progenitors with a high dose of GM-CSF, and ...

  16. Posaconazole for primary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome during remission induction chemotherapy: a single-centre retrospective study in Korea and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hee-Je; Min, Woo-Sung

    2015-09-01

    Posaconazole was introduced as the primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients during remission induction chemotherapy. Data on breakthrough invasive fungal infections (IFIs) from various centres are essential, as there are several considerations in treating IFIs in the posaconazole era. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of posaconazole PAP and identify characteristics of IFIs at a single centre in Korea. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with AML/MDS undergoing remission induction chemotherapy between December 2010 and November 2013. Of the 424 patients, 140 received posaconazole and 284 received fluconazole prophylaxis. The incidence of breakthrough proven/probable IFIs (15.5% vs. 2.9%, P posaconazole group compared to the fluconazole group. In the posaconazole PAP group, two cases of breakthrough mucormycosis were noted among 13 proven/probable/possible IFI cases (15.4%). Overall and IFI-related mortality was 12.1% and 1.9% respectively. Fungus-free survival was significantly higher in the posaconazole group (74.7% vs. 87.1%, P = 0.028). Breakthrough IFIs and EAFT decreased significantly after posaconazole PAP. The benefit in fungus-free survival was noted with posaconazole PAP. Clinicians should be vigilant to identify non-Aspergillus IFIs with active diagnostic effort.

  17. Phase II study of targeted therapy with temozolomide in acute myeloid leukaemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients pre-screened for low O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwein, Joseph M; Kassis, Jeannine; Leber, Brian; Hogge, Donna; Howson-Jan, Kang; Minden, Mark D; Galarneau, André; Pouliot, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Resistance to temozolomide is largely mediated by the DNA repair enzyme O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We conducted a prospective multicentre study of patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who were not candidates for intensive therapy. Patient selection was based on MGMT expression by Western blot. Patients with MGMT:ACTB (β-actin) ratio temozolomide 200 mg/m(2) /d ×7 d. Patients achieving a complete response (CR) could receive up to 12 monthly cycles of temozolomide ×5/28 d. Of 166 patients screened, 81 (49%) demonstrated low MGMT expression; 45 of these were treated with temozolomide. The overall response rate was 53%; 36% achieved complete clearance of blasts, with 27% achieving a CR/CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Factors associated with a trend toward a higher response rate included MDS, methylated MGMT promoter and standard cytogenetic risk group. Induction and post-remission cycles were well-tolerated and most patients were treated on an outpatient basis. Patient who achieved CR/CRp had a superior overall survival compared to partial or non-responders. In conclusion, targeted therapy based on pre-selection for low MGMT expression was associated with a higher response rate to temozolomide compared to previous reports of unselected patients.

  18. A Novel Three-Colour Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Approach for the Detection of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Reveals New Cryptic Three Way Translocation t(7;12;16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiel, Abdulbasit [Leukaemia and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Division of Biosciences, Brunel University, London, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Vetter, Michael [MetaSystems, Altlussheim 68804 (Germany); Plekhanova, Olga [Regional Children’s Hospital N 1, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Fleischman, Elena; Sokova, Olga [N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Tsaur, Grigory [Regional Children’s Hospital N 1, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Medical Cell Technologies, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Harbott, Jochen [Oncogenetic Laboratory, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen 35392 (Germany); Tosi, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.tosi@brunel.ac.uk [Leukaemia and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Division of Biosciences, Brunel University, London, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-11

    The t(7;12)(q36;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosome abnormality that involves the ETV6 gene on chromosome 12 and has been identified in 20–30% of infant patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The detection of t(7;12) rearrangements relies on the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) because this translocation is hardly visible by chromosome banding methods. Furthermore, a fusion transcript HLXB9-ETV6 is found in approximately 50% of t(7;12) cases, making the reverse transcription PCR approach not an ideal screening method. Considering the report of few cases of variant translocations harbouring a cryptic t(7;12) rearrangement, we believe that the actual incidence of this abnormality is higher than reported to date. The clinical outcome of t(7;12) patients is believed to be poor, therefore an early and accurate diagnosis is important in the clinical management and treatment. In this study, we have designed and tested a novel three-colour FISH approach that enabled us not only to confirm the presence of the t(7;12) in a number of patients studied previously, but also to identify a cryptic t(7;12) as part of a complex rearrangement. This new approach has proven to be an efficient and reliable method to be used in the diagnostic setting.

  19. Canthin-6-one induces cell death, cell cycle arrest and differentiation in human myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Torquato, Heron F; Ribeiro-Filho, Antonio C; Buri, Marcus V; Araújo Júnior, Roberto T; Pimenta, Renata; de Oliveira, José Salvador R; Filho, Valdir C; Macho, Antonio; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos T

    2017-04-01

    Canthin-6-one is a natural product isolated from various plant genera and from fungi with potential antitumor activity. In the present study, we evaluate the antitumor effects of canthin-6-one in human myeloid leukemia lineages. Kasumi-1 lineage was used as a model for acute myeloid leukemia. Cells were treated with canthin-6-one and cell death, cell cycle and differentiation were evaluated in both total cells (Lin(+)) and leukemia stem cell population (CD34(+)CD38(-)Lin(-/low)). Among the human lineages tested, Kasumi-1 was the most sensitive to canthin-6-one. Canthin-6-one induced cell death with apoptotic (caspase activation, decrease of mitochondrial potential) and necrotic (lysosomal permeabilization, double labeling of annexin V/propidium iodide) characteristics. Moreover, canthin-6-one induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 (7μM) and G2 (45μM) evidenced by DNA content, BrdU incorporation and cyclin B1/histone 3 quantification. Canthin-6-one also promoted differentiation of Kasumi-1, evidenced by an increase in the expression of myeloid markers (CD11b and CD15) and the transcription factor PU.1. Furthermore, a reduction of the leukemic stem cell population and clonogenic capability of stem cells were observed. These results show that canthin-6-one can affect Kasumi-1 cells by promoting cell death, cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation depending on concentration used. Canthin-6-one presents an interesting cytotoxic activity against leukemic cells and represents a promising scaffold for the development of molecules for anti-leukemic applications, especially by its anti-leukemic stem cell activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-mobility group box protein 1 promotes the survival of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by inducing autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katherine H; Horn, Lucas A; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are immune-suppressive cells that are elevated in most individuals with cancer, where their accumulation and suppressive activity are driven by inflammation. As myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit anti-tumor immunity and promote tumor progression, we are determining how their viability is regulated. Previous studies have established that the damage-associated molecular pattern molecule high-mobility group box protein 1 drives myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation and suppressive potency and is ubiquitously present in the tumor microenvironment. As high-mobility group box protein 1 also facilitates tumor cell survival by inducing autophagy, we sought to determine if high-mobility group box protein 1 regulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell survival through induction of autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy increased the quantity of apoptotic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, demonstrating that autophagy extends the survival and increases the viability of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Inhibition of high-mobility group box protein 1 similarly increased the level of apoptotic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cell autophagy, demonstrating that in addition to inducing the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, high-mobility group box protein 1 sustains myeloid-derived suppressor cell viability. Circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells have a default autophagic phenotype, and tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells are more autophagic, consistent with the concept that inflammatory and hypoxic conditions within the microenvironment of solid tumors contribute to tumor progression by enhancing immune-suppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that in addition to previously recognized protumor effects, high-mobility group box protein 1 contributes to tumor progression by increasing myeloid-derived suppressor cell viability by

  1. A monoclonal antibody reactive with normal and leukemic human myeloid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J D; Linch, D; Sabbath, K; Larcom, P; Schlossman, S F

    1984-01-01

    Anti-MY9 is an IgG2b murine monoclonal antibody selected for reactivity with immature normal human myeloid cells. The MY9 antigen is expressed by blasts, promyelocytes and myelocytes in the bone marrow, and by monocytes in the peripheral blood. Erythrocytes, lymphocytes and platelets are MY9 negative. All myeloid colony-forming cells (CFU-GM), a fraction of erythroid burst-forming cells (BFU-E) and multipotent progenitors (CFU-GEMM) are MY9 positive. This antigen is further expressed by the leukemic cells of a majority of patients with AML and myeloid CML-BC. Leukemic stem cells (leukemic colony-forming cells, L-CFC) from most patients tested were also MY9 positive. In contrast, MY9 was not detected on lymphocytic leukemias. Anti-MY9 may be a valuable reagent for the purification of hematopoietic colony-forming cells and for the diagnosis of myeloid-lineage leukemias.

  2. Haemophilus ducreyi partially activates human myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Keith E; Humphreys, Tricia L; Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Wilkes, David S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2007-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses to bacteria. How Haemophilus ducreyi, which causes genital ulcers and regional lymphadenitis, interacts with DC is unknown. H. ducreyi evades uptake by polymorphonuclear leukocyte and macrophage-like cell lines by secreting LspA1 and LspA2. Many H. ducreyi strains express cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), and recombinant CDT causes apoptosis of DC in vitro. Here, we examined interactions between DC and H. ducreyi 35000HP, which produces LspA1, LspA2, and CDT. In human volunteers infected with 35000HP, the ratio of myeloid DC to plasmacytoid DC was 2.8:1 in lesions, compared to a ratio of 1:1 in peripheral blood. Using myeloid DC derived from monocytes as surrogates for lesional DC, we found that DC infected with 35000HP remained as viable as uninfected DC for up to 48 h. Gentamicin protection and confocal microscopy assays demonstrated that DC ingested and killed 35000HP, but killing was incomplete at 48 h. The expression of LspA1 and LspA2 did not inhibit the uptake of H. ducreyi, despite inactivating Src kinases. Infection of DC with live 35000HP caused less cell surface marker activation than infection with heat-killed 35000HP and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inhibited maturation by LPS. However, infection of DC with live bacteria caused the secretion of significantly higher levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha than infection with heat-killed bacteria and LPS. The survival of H. ducreyi in DC may provide a mechanism by which the organism traffics to lymph nodes. Partial activation of DC may abrogate the establishment of a full Th1 response and an environment that promotes phagocytosis.

  3. Myeloid derived suppressor cells enhance IgE-mediated mast cell responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously demonstrated that enhanced development of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in ADAM10 transgenic mice yielded resistance to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, and that co-culturing MDSC with IgE-activated mast cells enhanced cytokine production. In the current...

  4. Engagement of SIRP alpha Inhibits Growth and Induces Programmed Cell Death in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irandoust, Mahban; Zarate, Julian Alvarez; Hubeek, Isabelle; van Beek, Ellen M.; Schornagel, Karin; Broekhuizen, Aart J. F.; Akyuz, Mercan; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A.; Delwel, Ruud; Valk, Peter J.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Kearns, Pamela; Creutzig, Ursula; Reinhardt, Dirk; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Coenen, Eva A.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Zwaan, C. Michel; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Cloos, Jacqueline; van den Berg, Timo K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies show the importance of interactions between CD47 expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and the inhibitory immunoreceptor, signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRP alpha) on macrophages. Although AML cells express SIRP alpha, its function has not been investigated in

  5. Engagement of SIRPα Inhibits Growth and Induces Programmed Cell Death in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Irandoust (Mahban); J. Alvarez Zarate (Julian); I. Hubeek (I.); E.M. van der Beek (Eline); K. Schornagel (Karin); A.J.F. Broekhuizen (Aart J.); M. Akyuz (Mercan); A.A. van de Loosdrecht (Arjan); H.R. Delwel (Ruud); P.J.M. Valk (Peter); E. Sonneveld (Edwin); P. Kearns (Pamela); U. Creutzig; D. Reinhardt (Dirk); E.S.J.M. de Bont (Eveline); E.A. Coenen (Eva); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); G.J. Kaspers (Gertjan); J. Cloos (Jacqueline); T.K. van den Berg (Timo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies show the importance of interactions between CD47 expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and the inhibitory immunoreceptor, signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) on macrophages. Although AML cells express SIRPα, its function has not been investigated

  6. Morphological and immunophenotypical features of hairy cell leukaemia involving lymph nodes and extranodal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Jacqueline M; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Morgan, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare B cell neoplasm that mainly affects bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB) and spleen. Involvement of lymph nodes and extranodal structures is considered infrequent. Herein we describe our institutional experience of nodal (n = 10) and extranodal (n = 3) HCL during a 30-year period. Ten patients had prior evidence of HCL within the BM or PB at a median 35.8 months before nodal/extranodal diagnosis (range: <1-175 months), and HCL was diagnosed concurrently within the bone marrow of one additional patient. Nodal involvement showed distinct architectural patterns, including diffuse (62% of cases), sinusoidal (25%) and nodular (13%). Extranodal involvement was characterized as diffuse infiltration through underlying structures in all cases. Morphological features ranged from classic 'fried-egg' cytology to a plasmacytoid appearance. Nodal/extranodal disease showed an overlapping immunophenotypical profile with other small B cell lymphomas, including expression of cyclin D1 (70%), CD43 (55%), CD10 (38%) and CD5 (8%). Rates of both CD43 and CD10 reactivity were higher than described previously in leukaemic HCL, suggesting that expression may be enriched in cases with extramedullary extension. Although uncommon, HCL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small B cell neoplasms involving nodal/extranodal sites, given the therapeutic implications. In particular, recent discoveries including detection of the BRAF(V)(600E) mutation in nearly all cases of HCL and the availability of an antibody to CD103 for use in paraffin-embedded tissues will facilitate the distinction of HCL from other small B cell lymphomas in the nodal/extranodal setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A role for paclitaxel in the combination chemotherapy of acute myeloblastic leukaemia: preclinical cell culture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J E; Minkin, S; Minden, M D; McCulloch, E A

    1996-11-01

    Paclitaxel dose responses in culture have been investigated alone and in association with cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), with the objective of identifying a role for paclitaxel in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML). Initial studies were done to determine if paclitaxel dose responses of AML blast cell precursors were altered by regulatory compounds known to modify the dose responses of ARA-C. In contrast to ARA-C, paclitaxel dose responses were independent of cell culture method, the growth factors G-CSF and GM-CSF, and the ligands all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and hydrocortisone. Most blast cell populations were sensitive to paclitaxel; compared with normal marrow progenitors the dose responses were markedly heterogenous with some more, and others less, sensitive. Remission marrow progenitor paclitaxel responses resembled those of AML blasts in heterogeneity. The cell culture model tested the effect of pacliataxel and ATRA on the ARA-C dose responses of OCI/ AML-5; paclitaxel exposure was either before or after ARA-C to test for an effect of schedule; ATRA was added to the MEC cultures after paclitaxel and ARA-C. Repeat experiments were done to test three dose levels each of paclitaxel and ATRA. When paclitaxel was given after ARA-C, synergism was found for all but one of the dose combinations tested; only three examples of synergy were seen when paclitaxel preceded ARA-C. The studies justify trials combining ARA-C, paclitaxel and ATRA using a schedule suggested by the cell culture findings.

  8. Lichen planus-like lesions as the first manifestation of adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Hayakazu; Sugaya, Makoto; Kamata, Masahiro; Suga, Hiraku; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Ohmatsu, Hanako; Fujita, Hideki; Sato, Shinichi

    2013-07-06

    Cutaneous involvement is frequent in adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a peripheral T-cell neoplasm caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Patients with ATLL manifest different types of skin lesions, including nodules, plaques, ulcers, erythroderma and purpura. It has been reported that this type of skin eruption is an independent prognostic factor for ATLL. We report here a rare case of a 62-year-old Japanese woman with smouldering-type ATLL, first manifested by lichen planus-like skin lesions on the lower leg. This case report highlights the multiplicity of skin manifestations in ATLL.

  9. Randomized trial of two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin as induction monotherapy for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients not considered candidates for intensive chemotherapy. A phase II study of the EORTC and GIMEMA leukaemia groups (AML-19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Sergio; Suciu, Stefan; Selleslag, Dominik; Stasi, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana; Baila, Liliana; Rizzoli, Vittorio; Borlenghi, Erika; Gaidano, Gianluca; Magro, Domenico; Torelli, Giuseppe; Muus, Petra; Venditti, Adriano; Cacciola, Emma; Lauria, Francesco; Vignetti, Marco; de Witte, Theo

    2010-05-01

    This study compared two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as induction monotherapy for untreated acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, to identify the more promising regimen for further study. Patients were randomized to receive either best supportive care or a course of GO according to one of two schedules: 3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3 and 5 (arm A), or GO 6 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 3 mg/m(2) on day 8 (arm B). Primary endpoint was the rate of disease non-progression (DnP), defined as the proportion of patients either achieving a response or maintaining a stable disease following GO induction in each arm. Fifty-six patients were randomized in the two GO arms (A, n = 29; B, n = 27). The rate of DnP was 38% [90% confidence interval (CI), 23-55] in arm A, and 63% (90% CI, 45-78) in arm B. Peripheral cytopenias were the most common adverse events for both regimens. The all-cause early mortality rate was 14% in arm A and 11% in arm B. The day 1 + 8 schedule, which was associated with the highest rate of DnP, met the statistical criteria to be selected as the preferred regimen for phase III comparison with best supportive care.

  10. Identification of Arsenic Direct-Binding Proteins in Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of arsenic direct-binding proteins is essential for determining the mechanism by which arsenic trioxide achieves its chemotherapeutic effects. At least two cysteines close together in the amino acid sequence are crucial to the binding of arsenic and essential to the identification of arsenic-binding proteins. In the present study, arsenic binding proteins were pulled down with streptavidin and identified using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS. More than 40 arsenic-binding proteins were separated, and redox-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1, heat shock 70 kDa protein 9 (HSPA9 and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2, were further studied using binding assays in vitro. Notably, PKM2 has a high affinity for arsenic. In contrast to PKM2, GSTP1and HSPA9 did not combine with arsenic directly in vitro. These observations suggest that arsenic-mediated acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL suppressive effects involve PKM2. In summary, we identified several arsenic binding proteins in APL cells and investigated the therapeutic mechanisms of arsenic trioxide for APL. Further investigation into specific signal pathways by which PKM2 mediates APL developments may lead to a better understanding of arsenic effects on APL.

  11. Potential role of curcumin and taurine combination therapy on human myeloid leukemic cells propagated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houseini, Motawa E; Refaei, Mohammed Osman; Amin, Ahmed Ibrahim; Abol-Ftouh, Mahmoud A

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin and taurine are natural products that have been used in this study evaluating their therapeutic effect on myeloid leukemic cells propagated in vitro. Sixty patients with myeloid leukemia and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All patient groups were admitted to the Medical Oncology Department of the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. There were statistically significant differences between treated leukemic cells compared to normal mononuclear leukocytes in cell density, interferon-γ and immunophenotypic profile, mainly CD4+, CD8 + and CD25+. This work highlights the possibility of using curcumin and taurine as a potential useful therapy in the management of patients suffering from chronic and acute myeloid leukemias.

  12. Myeloid and T Cell-Derived TNF Protects against Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Jen; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Keeton, Roanne; Allie, Nasiema; Quesniaux, Valérie F. J.; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) is a devastating complication of tuberculosis, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial for innate immunity and controlling the infection. TNF is produced by many cell types upon activation, in particularly the myeloid and T cells during neuroinflammation. Here we used mice with TNF ablation targeted to myeloid and T cell (MT-TNF−/−) to assess the contribution of myeloid and T cell-derived TNF in immune responses during CNS-TB. These mice exhibited impaired innate immunity and high susceptibility to cerebral Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, a similar phenotype to complete TNF-deficient mice. Further, MT-TNF−/− mice were not able to control T cell responses and cytokine/chemokine production. Thus, our data suggested that collective TNF production by both myeloid and T cells are required to provide overall protective immunity against CNS-TB infection. PMID:28280495

  13. Study of clinical, haematological and cytogenetic profile of patients with acute erythroid leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linu, Jacob Abraham; Udupa, MS Namratha; Madhumathi, DS; Lakshmaiah, KC; Babu, K Govind; Lokanatha, D; Babu, MC Suresh; Lokesh, KN; Rajeev, LK; Rudresha, AH

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute erythroid leukaemia (AEL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), constituting cytogenetic profile of this disease, considering the rarity of its occurrence and poor prognosis. Materials and methods This study was done by retrospective analysis of data from 32 case files of patients diagnosed with AEL. Clinical details noted down were the demographic profile, peripheral blood smear details and bone marrow examination details: (1) blasts-erythroblasts and myeloblasts, (2) dysplasia in the cell lineages and (3) cytogenetic abnormalities. Results The most common presenting symptom was fever. Pancytopenia at presentation was seen in 81.25% of patients. Dysplasia was observed in bone marrow in 100% of erythroblasts and in 40% of myeloblasts in erythroid/myeloid subtype. In pure myeloid subtype, myeloid and megakaryocytic dysplasias were not obvious. Complex karyotype was noticed only in patients of pEL. Conclusion AEL is a rare group of heterogeneous diseases with many neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions mimicking the diagnosis. The clinical presentation and cytogenetics are also non-specific, presenting additional challenges to the diagnosis. PMID:28144286

  14. Natural killer cells require monocytic Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells to eradicate orthotopically engrafted glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Gregory J; Chockley, Peter; Zamler, Daniel; Castro, Maria G; Lowenstein, Pedro R

    2016-06-01

    Malignant gliomas are resistant to natural killer (NK) cell immune surveillance. However, the mechanisms used by these cancers to suppress antitumor NK cell activity remain poorly understood. We have recently reported on a novel mechanism of innate immune evasion characterized by the overexpression of the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-1 by both mouse and rat malignant glioma. Here, we investigate the cytokine profile of galectin-1-deficient GL26 cells and describe the process by which these tumors are targeted by the early innate immune system in RAG1(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice. Our data reveal that galectin-1 knockdown in GL26 cells heightens their inflammatory status leading to the rapid recruitment of Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells and NK1.1(+) NK cells into the brain tumor microenvironment, culminating in tumor clearance. We show that immunodepletion of Gr-1(+) myeloid cells in RAG1(-/-) mice permits the growth of galectin-1-deficient glioma despite the presence of NK cells, thus demonstrating an essential role for myeloid cells in the clearance of galectin-1-deficient glioma. Further characterization of tumor-infiltrating Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) cells reveals that these cells also express CCR2 and Ly-6C, markers consistent with inflammatory monocytes. Our results demonstrate that Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells, often referred to as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), are required for antitumor NK cell activity against galectin-1-deficient GL26 glioma. We conclude that glioma-derived galectin-1 represents an important factor in dictating the phenotypic behavior of monocytic Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells. Galectin-1 suppression may be a valuable treatment approach for clinical glioma by promoting their innate immune-mediated recognition and clearance through the concerted effort of innate myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages.

  15. Functional inhibition of mesenchymal stromal cells in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, S; Rodríguez-Paredes, M; Jäger, P; Khandanpour, C; Cadeddu, R-P; Gutekunst, J; Wilk, C M; Fenk, R; Zilkens, C; Hermsen, D; Germing, U; Kobbe, G; Lyko, F; Haas, R; Schroeder, T

    2016-03-01

    Hematopoietic insufficiency is the hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and predisposes patients to life-threatening complications such as bleeding and infections. Addressing the contribution of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) to AML-induced hematopoietic failure we show that MSC from AML patients (n=64) exhibit significant growth deficiency and impaired osteogenic differentiation capacity. This was molecularly reflected by a specific methylation signature affecting pathways involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and skeletal development. In addition, we found distinct alterations of hematopoiesis-regulating factors such as Kit-ligand and Jagged1 accompanied by a significantly diminished ability to support CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) assays. This deficient osteogenic differentiation and insufficient stromal support was reversible and correlated with disease status as indicated by Osteocalcin serum levels and LTC-IC frequencies returning to normal values at remission. In line with this, cultivation of healthy MSC in conditioned medium from four AML cell lines resulted in decreased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, AML-derived MSC are molecularly and functionally altered and contribute to hematopoietic insufficiency. Inverse correlation with disease status and adoption of an AML-like phenotype after exposure to leukemic conditions suggests an instructive role of leukemic cells on bone marrow microenvironment.

  16. Rare myeloid sarcoma/acute myeloid leukemia with adrenal mass after allogeneic mobilization peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Wang; Qian Li; Wen-Gui Xu; Jian-Yu Xiao; Qing-Song Pang; Qing Yang; Yi-Zuo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare hematological neoplasm that develops either de novo or concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This neoplasm can also be an initial manifestation of relapse in a previously treated AML that is in remission. A 44-year-old male patient was diagnosed with testis MS in a local hospital in August 2010. Atfer one month, bone marrow biopsy and aspiration conifrmed the diagnosis of AML. Allogeneic mobilization peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed, with the sister of the patient as donor, after complete remission (CR) was achieved by chemotherapy. Five months after treatment, an adrenal mass was detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Radiotherapy was performed for the localized mass after a multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion. hTe patient is still alive as of May 2013, with no evidence of recurrent MS or leukemia.

  17. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Outcomes in Monosomal Karyotype Myeloid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Marcelo C; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Medeiros, Bruno C; Armand, Philippe; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Akpek, Görgün; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Cairo, Mitchell S; Cerny, Jan; Copelan, Edward A; Deol, Abhinav; Freytes, César O; Gale, Robert Peter; Ganguly, Siddhartha; George, Biju; Gupta, Vikas; Hale, Gregory A; Kamble, Rammurti T; Klumpp, Thomas R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Luger, Selina M; Liesveld, Jane L; Litzow, Mark R; Marks, David I; Martino, Rodrigo; Norkin, Maxim; Olsson, Richard F; Oran, Betul; Pawarode, Attaphol; Pulsipher, Michael A; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Reshef, Ran; Saad, Ayman A; Saber, Wael; Savani, Bipin N; Schouten, Harry C; Ringdén, Olle; Tallman, Martin S; Uy, Geoffrey L; Wood, William A; Wirk, Baldeep; Pérez, Waleska S; Batiwalla, Minoo; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    The presence of monosomal karyotype (MK+) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with dismal outcomes. We evaluated the impact of MK+ in AML (MK+AML, n = 240) and in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (MK+MDS, n = 221) on hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes compared with other cytogenetically defined groups (AML, n = 3360; MDS, n = 1373) as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 1998 to 2011. MK+ AML was associated with higher disease relapse (hazard ratio, 1.98; P < .01), similar transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (hazard ratio, 1.01; P = .90), and worse survival (hazard ratio, 1.67; P < .01) compared with those outcomes for other cytogenetically defined AML. Among patients with MDS, MK+ MDS was associated with higher disease relapse (hazard ratio, 2.39; P < .01), higher TRM (hazard ratio, 1.80; P < .01), and worse survival (HR, 2.02; P < .01). Subset analyses comparing chromosome 7 abnormalities (del7/7q) with or without MK+ demonstrated higher mortality for MK+ disease in for both AML (hazard ratio, 1.72; P < .01) and MDS (hazard ratio, 1.79; P < .01). The strong negative impact of MK+ in myeloid malignancies was observed in all age groups and using either myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Alternative approaches to mitigate disease relapse in this population are needed. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dipeptide species regulate p38MAPK–Smad3 signalling to maintain chronic myelogenous leukaemia stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Kazuhito; Jomen, Yoshie; Ishihara, Kaori; Kim, Junil; Ishimoto, Takahiro; Bae, Eun-Jin; Mohney, Robert P.; Stirdivant, Steven M.; Oshima, Hiroko; Oshima, Masanobu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Kato, Yukio; Ooshima, Akira; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the specific survival of the rare chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) stem cell population could provide a target for therapeutics aimed at eradicating these cells. However, little is known about how survival signalling is regulated in CML stem cells. In this study, we survey global metabolic differences between murine normal haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and CML stem cells using metabolomics techniques. Strikingly, we show that CML stem cells accumulate significantly higher levels of certain dipeptide species than normal HSCs. Once internalized, these dipeptide species activate amino-acid signalling via a pathway involving p38MAPK and the stemness transcription factor Smad3, which promotes CML stem cell maintenance. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of dipeptide uptake inhibits CML stem cell activity in vivo. Our results demonstrate that dipeptide species support CML stem cell maintenance by activating p38MAPK–Smad3 signalling in vivo, and thus point towards a potential therapeutic target for CML treatment. PMID:26289811

  19. Novel combination treatments targeting chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Baghdadi, Tareq; Abonour, Rafat; Boswell, H Scott

    2012-04-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is currently considered incurable in most patients. Stem cell transplantation, an accepted curative option for which extensive experience has been gained, is limited by high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly in older patients. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BCR-ABL are widely used and induce remission in a high proportion of patients, but resistance and incomplete response to these agents portends eventual relapse and disease progression. Although BCR-ABL inhibitors eradicate most CML cells, they are largely ineffective against the reservoir of quiescent leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Thus a strong medical need exists for therapies that effectively eradicate LSCs and is currently a focus of extensive research. To date, evidence obtained from in vitro studies, animal models, and clinical CML specimens suggests that an effective approach may be to partner existing BCR-ABL inhibitors with compounds targeting key stem cell molecular effectors, including Wnt/β-catenin, hedgehog pathway components, histone deacetylase (HDAC), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Janus kinase 2, promyelocytic leukemia protein, and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5). Novel combinations may sensitize LSCs to BCR-ABL inhibitors, thereby overcoming resistance and creating the possibility of improving disease outcome beyond the current standard of care. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Influence of Programmed Cell Death in Myeloid Cells on Host Resilience to Infection with Legionella pneumophila or Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamradt, Pia; Xu, Yun; Gratz, Nina; Duncan, Kellyanne; Kobzik, Lester; Högler, Sandra; Decker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen clearance and host resilience/tolerance to infection are both important factors in surviving an infection. Cells of the myeloid lineage play important roles in both of these processes. Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells all have important roles in initiation of the immune response and clearance of bacterial pathogens. If these cells are not properly regulated they can result in excessive inflammation and immunopathology leading to decreased host resilience. Programmed cell death (PCD) is one possible mechanism that myeloid cells may use to prevent excessive inflammation. Myeloid cell subsets play roles in tissue repair, immune response resolution, and maintenance of homeostasis, so excessive PCD may also influence host resilience in this way. In addition, myeloid cell death is one mechanism used to control pathogen replication and dissemination. Many of these functions for PCD have been well defined in vitro, but the role in vivo is less well understood. We created a mouse that constitutively expresses the pro-survival B-cell lymphoma (bcl)-2 protein in myeloid cells (CD68(bcl2tg), thus decreasing PCD specifically in myeloid cells. Using this mouse model we explored the impact that decreased cell death of these cells has on infection with two different bacterial pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Streptococcus pyogenes. Both of these pathogens target multiple cell death pathways in myeloid cells, and the expression of bcl2 resulted in decreased PCD after infection. We examined both pathogen clearance and host resilience and found that myeloid cell death was crucial for host resilience. Surprisingly, the decreased myeloid PCD had minimal impact on pathogen clearance. These data indicate that the most important role of PCD during infection with these bacteria is to minimize inflammation and increase host resilience, not to aid in the clearance or prevent the spread of the pathogen. PMID:27973535

  1. Targeting etoposide to acute myelogenous leukaemia cells using nanostructured lipid carriers coated with transferrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavinia, Amir; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Jafarian Dehkordi, Abbas

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diverse properties of transferrin (Tf)-conjugated nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) prepared using three different fatty amines, including stearylamine (SA), dodecylamine (DA) and spermine (SP), and two different methods for Tf coupling. Etoposide-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method followed by probe sonication. Chemical coupling of NLCs with Tf was mediated by an amide linkage between the surface-exposed amino group of the fatty amine and the carboxyl group of the protein. The physical coating was performed in a Ringer-Hepes buffer medium. NLCs were characterized by their particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, drug entrapment percentage, drug release profiles and Tf-coupling efficiency. The cytotoxicity of NLCs on K562 acute myelogenous leukaemia cells was studied by MTT assay, and their cellular uptake was studied by a flow cytometry method. SA-containing NLCs showed the lowest particle size, the highest zeta potential and the largest coupling efficiency values. The drug entrapment percentage and the zeta potential decreased after Tf coupling, but the average particle size increased. SP-containing formulations released their drug contents comparatively slower than SA- or DA-containing NLCs. Unconjugated NLCs released moderately more drug than Tf-NLCs. Flow cytometry studies revealed enhanced cellular uptake of Tf-NLCs compared to unconjugated ones. Blocking Tf receptors resulted in a significantly higher cell survival rate for Tf-NLCs. The highest cytotoxic activity was observed in the chemically coupled SA-containing nanoparticles, with an IC50 value of 15-fold lower than free etoposide.

  2. Correlation between myeloid-derived suppressor cells and gastric cancer begin with chronic gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the ratio change of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells(MDSCs) and cellular immune function in healthy volunteers,chronic gastritis patients,gastric intraepithelial neoplasia patients and gastric cancer patients

  3. Myeloid Cells and Related Chronic Inflammatory Factors as Novel Predictive Markers in Melanoma Treatment with Ipilimumab

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gebhardt, Christoffer; Sevko, Alexandra; Jiang, Huanhuan; Lichtenberger, Ramtin; Reith, Maike; Tarnanidis, Kathrin; Holland-Letz, Tim; Umansky, Ludmila; Beckhove, Philipp; Sucker, Antje; Schadendorf, Dirk; Utikal, Jochen; Umansky, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    .... We performed an analysis of myeloid cells in the peripheral blood of 59 stage IV melanoma patients before the treatment and at different time points upon the therapy using a clinical laboratory...

  4. CCR4 frameshift mutation identifies a distinct group of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kato, Takeharu; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Niino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yuya; Shimono, Joji; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Utsunomiya, Atae; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Seto, Masao; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an intractable T cell neoplasm caused by human T cell leukaemia virus type 1. Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive mutation studies have revealed recurrent somatic CCR4 mutations in ATLL, although clinicopathological findings associated with CCR4 mutations remain to be delineated. In the current study, 184 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma, including 113 cases of ATLL, were subjected to CCR4 mutation analysis. This sequence analysis identified mutations in 27% (30/113) of cases of ATLL and 9% (4/44) of cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. Identified mutations included nonsense (NS) and frameshift (FS) mutations. No significant differences in clinicopathological findings were observed between ATLL cases stratified by presence of CCR4 mutation. All ATLL cases with CCR4 mutations exhibited cell-surface CCR4 positivity. Semi-quantitative CCR4 protein analysis of immunohistochemical sections revealed higher CCR4 expression in cases with NS mutations of CCR4 than in cases with wild-type (WT) CCR4. Furthermore, among ATLL cases, FS mutation was significantly associated with a poor prognosis, compared with NS mutation and WT CCR4. These results suggest that CCR4 mutation is an important determinant of the clinical course in ATLL cases, and that NS and FS mutations of CCR4 behave differently with respect to ATLL pathophysiology.

  5. Overexpression of the VAV proto-oncogene product is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia displaying loss on 13q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Sánchez, Rosario M.; Hernández, José A.; García, Juan L.; Gutiérrez, Norma C.; Miguel, Jesús San; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Hernández, Jesús M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The expression of the VAV proto-oncogene in 57 patients with chronic myeloproliferative disease (CMD), B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BALL) and B-cell non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (B-NHL), and 61 with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) was analysed. VAV overexpression was observed in 19.5% of cases and 81% of VAV-positive tumours also displayed VAV phosphorylation. Overexpression was not observed in B-ALL or CMD, but 13% of B-NHL and 34.4% of B-CLL patients (P = 0.002) overexpressed VAV. The overexpression and phosphorylation of VAV was detected more frequently in 13q- chronic lymphocytic leukaemias (71.4%) versus other B-CLLs (23.4%, P = 0.001). Overexpression of VAV protein is a frequent event in patients with B-CLL displaying loss of 13q sequences. PMID:16704440

  6. Fli-1 overexpression in hematopoietic progenitors deregulates T cell development and induces pre-T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique F M A Smeets

    Full Text Available The Ets transcription factor Fli-1 is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic tissues and cells, including immature T cells, but the role of Fli-1 in T cell development has not been closely examined. To address this we retrovirally overexpressed Fli-1 in various in vitro and in vivo settings and analysed its effect on T cell development. We found that Fli-1 overexpression perturbed the DN to DP transition and inhibited CD4 development whilst enhancing CD8 development both in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, Fli-1 overexpression in vivo eventuated in development of pre-T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (pre-T LBL. Known Fli-1 target genes such as the pro-survival Bcl-2 family members were not found to be upregulated. In contrast, we found increased NOTCH1 expression in all Fli-1 T cells and detected Notch1 mutations in all tumours. These data show a novel function for Fli-1 in T cell development and leukaemogenesis and provide a new mouse model of pre-T LBL to identify treatment options that target the Fli-1 and Notch1 signalling pathways.

  7. Childhood leukaemia in North West England 1954-1977: epidemiology, incidence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, J M; Swindell, R; Marsden, H B; Morris Jones, P H

    1981-03-01

    The annual incidence of leukaemia among children aged up to 14 years as estimated by the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry has been analysed for the 24 years 1954-1977. A significant increase in acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) was found, while the incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remained constant. Other types of leukaemia were too rare to be analysed separately. The increase in ALL was concentrated among boys in the 1--5-year age group. Analysis with respect to initial white-cell count showed the increase to be more pronounced in children with initial white cell counts of 1-5 x 10(4)/microliters. The proportion of cases presenting in Lancashire compared with Greater Manchester did not change during the study period. The distribution of cases with respect to social class and socio-economic group of the parents also remained constant. Due to advances in the treatment of childhood ALL survival improved considerably during the study period and no increase in mortality was seen.

  8. TISSUE FACTOR EXPRESSION BY MYELOID CELLS CONTRIBUTES TO PROTECTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST Mycobacterium tuberculosis INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Tripathi, Deepak; Tucker, Torry; Paidipally, Padmaja; Cheekatla, Satyanarayana; Welch, Elwyn; Raghunath, Anjana; Jeffers, Ann; Tvinnereim, Amy R.; Schechter, Melissa E; Andrade, Bruno B; Mackman, Nizel; Idell, Steven; Vankayalapati, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Tissue Factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an essential role in hemostasis by activating coagulation. TF is also expressed by monocytes/macrophages as part of the innate immune response to infections. In the current study, we determined the role of TF expressed by myeloid cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection by using mice lacking the TF gene in myeloid cells (TFΔ) and human monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs). We found that during M. tb infection, a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells was associated with reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced arginase 1 (Arg1) expression, enhanced IL-10 production and reduced apoptosis in infected macrophages, which augmented M. tb growth. Our results demonstrate that a deficiency of TF in myeloid cells promotes M2 like phenotype in M .tb infected macrophages. A deficiency in TF expression by myeloid cells was also associated with reduced fibrin deposition and increased matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mediated inflammation in M. tb infected lungs. Our studies demonstrate that TF expressed by myeloid cells has newly recognized abilities to polarize macrophages and to regulate M. tb growth. PMID:26471500

  9. Characterization of miRNomes in Acute and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xiong; Jiangwei Yan; Songnian Hu; Xiangdong Fang; Yadong Yang; Hai Wang; Jie Li; Shaobin Wang; Yanming Li; Yaran Yang; Kan Cai; Xiuyan Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid leukemias are highly diverse diseases and have been shown to be associated with microRNA (miRNA) expression aberrations. The present study involved an in-depth miRNome analysis of two human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, HL-60 and THP-1, and one human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line, K562, via massively parallel signature sequenc-ing. mRNA expression profiles of these cell lines that were established previously in our lab facil-itated an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression patterns. miRNA expression profiling followed by differential expression analysis and target prediction suggested numerous miRNA signatures in AML and CML cell lines. Some miRNAs may act as either tumor suppres-sors or oncomiRs in AML and CML by targeting key genes in AML and CML pathways. Expres-sion patterns of cell type-specific miRNAs could partially reflect the characteristics of K562, HL-60 and THP-1 cell lines, such as actin filament-based processes, responsiveness to stimulus and phag-ocytic activity. miRNAs may also regulate myeloid differentiation, since they usually suppress dif-ferentiation regulators. Our study provides a resource to further investigate the employment of miRNAs in human leukemia subtyping, leukemogenesis and myeloid development. In addition, the distinctive miRNA signatures may be potential candidates for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of myeloid leukemias.

  10. Transcriptional activation of immediate-early gene ETR101 by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Ma, Shiliang; Li, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax regulates viral and cellular gene expression through interactions with multiple cellular transcription pathways. This study describes the finding of immediate-early gene ETR101 expression in HTLV-I-infected cells and its regulation by Tax. ETR101...... was persistently expressed in HTLV-I-infected cells but not in HTLV-I uninfected cells. Expression of ETR101 was dependent upon Tax expression in the inducible Tax-expressing cell line JPX-9 and also in Jurkat cells transiently transfected with Tax-expressing vectors. Tax transactivated the ETR101 gene promoter......-DNA complex in HTLV-I-infected cell lines. EMSA with specific antibodies confirmed that the CREB transcription factor was responsible for formation of this specific protein-DNA complex. These results suggested that Tax directly transactivated ETR101 gene expression, mainly through a CRE sequence via the CREB...

  11. [Biphenotypic acute leukaemia with Burkitt-like cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, D; Bergues, B; Harrivel, V; Guillaume, N

    2009-01-01

    Biphenotypic acute leukaemia (BAL) represents about 5% of adult acute leukaemia. Based on a previously described scoring system, the European Group for Immunologic Classification of Leukaemia (EGIL) proposed a set of diagnostic criteria for BAL. This scoring system is based on the number and degree of the specificity of several markers for myeloid or T/B lymphoid blasts. Here, we report the case of a BAL with Burkitt-like cytology, corresponding to "the acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Burkitt type" L3 for the FAB classification. By flow cytometry, the blasts showed a positivity for B lymphoid cytoplasmic (CD79a and mu) and membrane (CD19, CD22, CD24, IgM) markers AND a positivity for the myeloid (CD13, CD33, CD65, CD15) markers.

  12. Oral manifestations of acute leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukaemia is the most common form of chilhood cancer. The aim of this paper was to underline the importance of oral manifestations in children with acute leukaemia. The disease and its treatment can directly or indirectly affect oral health. Oral manifestations are gingival inflammation and enlargement. Leukaemic cells are capable of infiltrating the gingiva and the deeper periodontal tissues which leads to ulceration and infection of oral tissues. Gingival bleeding is a common sign in patients with leukaemia. Symptoms include local lymphadenopathy, mucous membrane Petechiae and ecchymoses. Cytotoxic drugs have direct effects like mucositis, involving atrophy, desquamation and ulceration of the mucosa, with increasing the risk for local and systemic infections. Leukaemia can directly influence dental care and dental treatment, while oral lesions may have life-threatening consequences. Knowledge and skills among dentists may also not be adequate to treat children with acute leukaemia. It is therefore imperative that all stomatologists be aware of dental problems that occur in leukaemia in order to be able to effectively carry out appropriate measures to mitigate these problems.

  13. Prognostic significance of flow-cytometry evaluation of minimal residual disease in children with acute myeloid leukaemia treated according to the AIEOP-AML 2002/01 study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldini, Barbara; Rizzati, Frida; Masetti, Riccardo; Fagioli, Franca; Menna, Giuseppe; Micalizzi, Concetta; Putti, Maria Caterina; Rizzari, Carmelo; Santoro, Nicola; Zecca, Marco; Disarò, Silvia; Rondelli, Roberto; Merli, Pietro; Pigazzi, Martina; Pession, Andrea; Locatelli, Franco; Basso, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), assessment of initial treatment response is an essential prognostic factor; methods more sensitive than morphology are still under evaluation. We report on the measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD), by multicolour flow-cytometry in one centralized laboratory, in 142 children with newly diagnosed AML enrolled in the Associazione Italiana di EmatoOncologia Pediatrica-AML 2002/01 trial. At the end of the first induction course, MRD was 1% in 51 patients. The 8-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 125 children in morphological complete remission and with MRD <0·1%, 0·1-1% and ≥1% was 73·1 ± 5·6%, 37·8 ± 12·1% and 34·1 ± 8·8%, respectively (P < 0·01). MRD was also available after the second induction course in 92/142 patients. MRD was ≥0·1% at the end of the first induction course in 36 patients; 13 reached an MRD <0·1% after the second one and their DFS was 45·4 ± 16·7% vs. 22·8 ± 8·9% in patients with persisting MRD ≥0·1% (P = 0·037). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MRD ≥0·1% after first induction course was, together with a monosomal karyotype, an independent adverse prognostic factor for DFS. Our results show that MRD detected by flow-cytometry after induction therapy predicts outcome in patients with childhood AML and can help stratifying post-remission treatment.

  14. Suppression of granzyme B activity and caspase-3 activation in leukaemia cells constitutively expressing the protease inhibitor 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Kristina; Finke, Jürgen; Grüllich, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    Immune surveillance against malignant cells is mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells (CTL/NK) that induce apoptosis through the granzyme-B-dependent pathway. The serine protease inhibitor serpinB9/protease inhibitor-9 (PI-9) is a known inhibitor of granzyme B. Ectopic expression of PI-9 in tumour cells has been reported. However, the impact of PI-9 on granzyme-B-induced apoptosis in tumour cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of constitutive PI-9 expression in leukaemia cell lines on the activity of granzyme B and apoptosis induction. PI-9 negative (lymphoblastic Jurkat cells; myeloblastic U937 cells) and PI-9-expressing cell lines (myeloblastic K562 cells, EBV-transformed LCL-1 and LCL-2 B-cells, lymphoblastic Daudi cells, AML-R cells f leukaemia and the U937 subclone U937PI-9(+)). For accurate granzyme B activity determination a quantitative substrate (Ac-IEPD-pNA) cleavage assay was established and caspase-3 activation measured for apoptosis assessment. Cells were treated with a cytotoxic granule isolate that has previously been shown to induce apoptosis through granzyme B signalling. We found a robust correlation between constitutive PI-9 expression levels and the suppression of granzyme B activity. Further, inhibition of granzyme B translated into reduced caspase-3 activation. We conclude, suppression of granzyme B initiated apoptosis in PI-9-expressing cells could contribute to immune evasion and the measurement of granzyme B activity with our assay might be a useful predictive marker in immune-therapeutic approaches against cancer.

  15. Tumor-associated myeloid cells as guiding forces of cancer cell stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Antonio; Porta, Chiara; Amadori, Alberto; Pastò, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Due to their ability to differentiate into various cell types and to support tissue regeneration, stem cells simultaneously became the holy grail of regenerative medicine and the evil obstacle in cancer therapy. Several studies have investigated niche-related conditions that favor stemness properties and increasingly emphasized their association with an inflammatory environment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are major orchestrators of cancer-related inflammation, able to dynamically express different polarized inflammatory programs that promote tumor outgrowth, including tumor angiogenesis, immunosuppression, tissue remodeling and metastasis formation. In addition, these myeloid populations support cancer cell stemness, favoring tumor maintenance and progression, as well as resistance to anticancer treatments. Here, we discuss inflammatory circuits and molecules expressed by TAMs and MDSCs as guiding forces of cancer cell stemness.

  16. Increased levels of circulating and tumor-infiltrating granulocytic myeloid cells in colorectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman M Toor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of myeloid cells, especially myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, have been reported to correlate with bad prognosis and reduced survival in cancer patients. However, limited data are available on their conclusive phenotypes and their correlation with clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate levels and phenotype of myeloid cells in peripheral blood and tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, compared to blood from healthy donors (HDs and paired, adjacent non-tumor colon tissue. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the expression of different myeloid markers in fresh peripheral blood samples from CRC patients and HDs, and tissue-infiltrating immune cells from CRC patients. We found significantly higher levels of cells expressing myeloid markers and lacking the expression of MHC class II molecule HLA-DR in blood and tumor of CRC patients. Further analysis revealed that these cells were granulocytic and expressed Arginase 1 (ARG1, indicative of their suppressive phenotype. These expanded cells could be neutrophils or granulocytic MDSCs, and we refer to them as granulocytic myeloid cells (GMCs due to the phenotypical and functional overlap between these cell subsets. Interestingly, the expansion of peripheral GMCs correlated with higher stage and histological grade of cancer, thereby suggesting their role in cancer progression. Furthermore, an increase in CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR-CD14-CD15- immature myeloid cells (IMCs was also observed in CRC tumor tissue. Our work shows that GMCs are expanded in circulation and tumor microenvironment of CRC patients, which provides further insights for developing immunotherapeutic approaches targeting these cell subsets to enhance anti-tumor immune and clinical responses.

  17. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are essential for maintaining feto-maternal immunotolerance via STAT3 signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ting; Liu, Yufeng; Zhong, Li Mei; Shi, Mao Hua; Duan, Xiao Bing; Wu, Kang; Yang, Qiong; Liu, Chao; Wei, Jian Yang; Ma, Xing Ru; Shi, Kun; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Maternal immune system tolerance to the semiallogeneic fetus is essential for a successful pregnancy; however, the mechanisms underlying this immunotolerance have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that myeloid-derived suppressor cells play an important role in maintaining feto-maternal tolerance. A significant expansion of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells was observed in multiple immune organs and decidual tissues from pregnant mice. Pregnancy-derived granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells suppressed T cell responses in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner and required direct cell-cell contact. Mechanistic studies showed that progesterone facilitated differentiation and activation of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, mediated through STAT3 signaling. The STAT3 inhibitor JSI-124 and a specific short hairpin RNA completely abrogated the effects of progesterone on granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. More importantly, granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell depletion dramatically enhanced the abortion rate in normal pregnant mice, whereas adoptive transfer of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells clearly reduced the abortion rate in the CBA/J X DBA/2J mouse model of spontaneous abortion. These observations collectively demonstrate that granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells play an essential role in the maintenance of fetal immunotolerance in mice. Furthermore, our study supports the notion that in addition to their well-recognized roles under pathologic conditions, myeloid-derived suppressor cells perform important functions under certain physiologic circumstances. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  18. The immunosuppressive tumour network: myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells and natural killer T cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindau, D.S.U.; Gielen, P.R.; Kroesen, M.; Wesseling, P.; Adema, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are major components of the immune suppressive tumour microenvironment (TME). Both cell types expand systematically in preclinical tumour models and promote T-cell dysfunction that in turn favours tumour progression. Clinical repo

  19. Transcriptional activation of immediate-early gene ETR101 by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Ma, Shiliang; Li, Bo;

    2003-01-01

    Human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax regulates viral and cellular gene expression through interactions with multiple cellular transcription pathways. This study describes the finding of immediate-early gene ETR101 expression in HTLV-I-infected cells and its regulation by Tax. ETR101...... was persistently expressed in HTLV-I-infected cells but not in HTLV-I uninfected cells. Expression of ETR101 was dependent upon Tax expression in the inducible Tax-expressing cell line JPX-9 and also in Jurkat cells transiently transfected with Tax-expressing vectors. Tax transactivated the ETR101 gene promoter...... in a transient transfection assay. A series of deletion and mutation analyses of the ETR101 gene promoter indicated that a 35 bp region immediately upstream of the TATA-box sequence, which contains a consensus cAMP response element (CRE) and a G+C-rich sequence, is the critical responsive element for Tax...

  20. In vitro drug resistance and prognostic impact of p16(INK4A)/p15(INK4B) deletions in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers-van Woerden, NL; Pieters, R; Slater, RM; Loonen, A.H.; Beverloo, HB; van Drunen, E; Heyman, M; Moreno, TC; Rots, MG; van Wering, ER; Kamps, WA; Janka-Schaub, GE; Veerman, AJP

    2001-01-01

    p16 gene deletions are present in about 70% of primary paediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and 20% of common/precursor B-cell ALL cases. It is not clear what the impact of the frequent p16 deletions is within the subgroup of T-lineage ALL. We studied the relationship between p16/

  1. CD80 (B7-1) expression on human acute myeloid leukaemic cells cultured with GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C; Keoshkerian, E; Gaudry, L; Lindeman, R

    2001-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) blasts rarely express the B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules and do not elicit a clinically significant autologous T-lymphocyte anti-tumour response. The aim of this study was the in vitro modification of AML blasts to an antigen-presenting cell phenotype characterised by upregulated expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 (B7-1). Circulating AML cells were induced to undergo partial differentiation in culture with the cytokines IL-3, IL-6 and GM-CSF; they exhibited variable upregulation of CD80 and continued to express MHC class I and II. These cells remained viable to day 20, in contrast with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC), which did not survive under the culture conditions. In contrast to unmanipulated blasts, cultured leukaemic cells expressed B7-1. Where initial cytogenetic abnormalities were present, they were also seen in flow-sorted CD80-expressing cells after culture in cytokines, indicating their malignant origin. The immunogenic potential of these cultured cells was highlighted by allogeneic and autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions, in which both differentiated, but not unmanipulated, blasts produced expansion of T-lymphocyte numbers. Autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assays indicated specific killing of B7-1+ leukaemic cells, which was greatly enhanced after priming of the T-lymphocytes by B7-1+ blasts prior to the CTL assay, then enabling the CTL to lyse both unmanipulated and differentiated leukaemic cells.

  2. T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma associated with a microenvironment of thymic asteroid B cells in the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Kikkeri N; May, Philippa C; Reid, Alistair G; Marks, Alexandra J; Macdonald, Donald; Kanfer, Ed

    2010-10-01

      Asteroid B cells are a component of normal thymus. It is currently unclear whether these cells are identifiable in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-ALL/LBL) of the thymus. The aim of this study was to identify asteroid B cells both in thymic and extrathymic tissue involved by T-ALL/LBL.   Thymic, lymph node (LN) and bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMTB) samples from eight patients with T-ALL/LBL were reviewed. All had been investigated by immunohistochemistry and one by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The BMTB samples of two of eight T-ALL/LBLs and LN sample in one of them showed the presence of asteroid-shaped B cells with dendritic cytoplasmic processes. These B cells also expressed CD23 and the features were akin to the unique thymic asteroid B cells. Both patients had aggressive/resistant disease. Cytogenetic analysis in one showed a complex translocation involving the T cell receptor beta (TCRB) gene at 7q35 and a distal region of 9q known to harbour the NOTCH1 gene.   This is the first report of T-ALL/LBL documenting the presence of an asteroid B cell-rich microenvironment at bone marrow and LN sites. In this small subset, T-ALL/LBL cells are possibly dependent upon asteroid B cells, and whether targeting of asteroid B cells with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in such cases will result in clinical benefit remains to be determined. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  3. In vitro effects of extract of Senna alata (Ceasalpiniaceae on the polyamines produced by Leukaemia cells (L1210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Pieme

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the effects of S. alata (Ceasalpiniaceae extract on the metabolism of polyamines resulting from the proliferation of leukaemia cells (L1210. The results established that the inhibition of cell proliferation was significantly increased with the concentration of extract from 28 to 32.80 % after 72 h. The percentage of cells viability changed significantly from 9.72 to 80 % when cells are treated with extract alone, in combination with DEMO or putrescine. The levels of the intracellular yield of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were also reduced by the extract compared to the control. The DEMO-extract complex enhanced the inhibition of the production polyamines up to 95 %. In opposite, the complex S. alata- putrescine complex stimulated significantly its biosynthesis of polyamines. A significant reduction of the level of protein after 72 h of treatment was observed. This result corroborated with the reduction of polyamines resulting from inhibition cell proliferation.

  4. Myeloid and lymphoid contribution to non-haematopoietic lineages through irradiation-induced heterotypic cell fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygren, J.M.; Liuba, K.; Breitbach, M.;

    2008-01-01

    and Purkinje neurons. However, through lineage fate-mapping we demonstrate that such in vivo fusion of lymphoid and myeloid blood cells does not occur to an appreciable extent in steady-state adult tissues or during normal development. Rather, fusion of blood cells with different non-haematopoietic cell types...... is induced by organ-specific injuries or whole-body irradiation, which has been used in previous studies to condition recipients of bone marrow transplants. Our findings demonstrate that blood cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages contribute to various non-haematopoietic tissues by forming rare fusion......Recent studies have suggested that regeneration of non-haematopoietic cell lineages can occur through heterotypic cell fusion with haematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage. Here we show that lymphocytes also form heterotypic-fusion hybrids with cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle, hepatocytes...

  5. The Role and Potential Therapeutic Application of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Allo- and Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells that consists of myeloid progenitor cells and immature myeloid cells. They have been identified as a cell population that may affect the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells to regulate the immune response negatively, which makes them attractive targets for the treatment of transplantation and autoimmune diseases. Several studies have suggested the potential suppressive effect of MDSCs on allo- and autoimmune responses. Conversely, MDSCs have also been found at various stages of differentiation, accumulating during pathological situations, not only during tumor development but also in a variety of inflammatory immune responses, bone marrow transplantation, and some autoimmune diseases. These findings appear to be contradictory. In this review, we summarize the roles of MDSCs in different transplantation and autoimmune diseases models as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit.

  6. Naja nigricollis CMS-9 enhances the mitochondria-mediated death pathway in adaphostin-treated human leukaemia U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Wang, Jeh-Jeng; Chang, Long-Sen

    2011-11-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of the Naja nigricollis phospholipase A(2) CMS-9 on adaphostin-induced death of human leukaemia U937 cells. 2. Leukaemia U937 cells (Bcr/Abl-negative cells) were treated with adaphostin (0-10 μmol/L) and CMS-9 (0-1 μmol/L). The effects of CMS-9, adaphostin and their combination on cell viability, the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS), [Ca(2+) ](i) , p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inactivation, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m) ) and Bcl-2 family proteins were analysed. 3. Both adaphostin and CMS-9 induced U937 cell apoptosis, characterized by dissipation of ΔΨ(m) and ROS generation. Combined treatment further increased ΔΨ(m) loss and reduced the viability of adaphostin-treated cells. Unlike in CMS-9-treated cells, in adaphostin-treated cells ROS-induced increases in [Ca(2+) ](i) were observed. CMS-9-induced ROS generation resulted in p38 MAPK activation, whereas adaphostin treatment elicited ROS/Ca(2+) -mediated inactivation of Akt and ERK. Moreover, Akt was found to be involved in ERK phosphorylation. Suppression of p38 MAPK activation blocked CMS-9-induced ΔΨ(m) loss and Bcl-xL downregulation. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1 rescued adaphostin-induced ΔΨ(m) loss and Bcl-2 downregulation. Similarly, CMS-9 augmented adaphostin toxicity in human leukaemia K562 cells via increased mitochondrial alterations. 4. The results suggest that two distinct pathways mediate adaphostin- and CMS-9-induced mitochondrial damage (i.e. the ROS-Ca(2+) -Akt-ERK and ROS-p38 MAPK pathways, respectively). These distinct pathway explain the augmentation by CMS-9 of ΔΨ(m) loss and apoptosis in adaphostin-treated U937 cells.

  7. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... their treatment is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  8. Expression of maturation-specific nuclear antigens in differentiating human myeloid leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S.; Epstein, A.L.; Clevenger, C.V.; Huberman, E.

    1985-02-01

    The expression of three myeloid-specific nuclear antigens was studied by indirect immunofluorescence with murine monoclonal antibodies in human myeloid (HL-60, ML-2, KG-1, and B-II) leukemia cells treated with chemical inducers of cell differentiation. Treatment of the promyelocytic HL-60 cells with dimethyl sulfoxide or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin DT induced the cells to acquire a phenotype that resembled that of granulocytes and monocytesmacrophages, respectively. These phenotypes were characterized by changes in cell growth, cell morphology, expression of specific cell surface antigens, and activities of lysozyme and nonspecific esterase enzymes. Induction of these differentiation markers in the HL-60 cells was associated with induction of the myeloid-specific nuclear antigens. The ML-2 cells, which are arrested at the myeloblast-promyelocyte stage, were also susceptible to the induction of cell differentiation and to changes in the expression of the nuclear antigens, but the degree of susceptibility was less than in the HL-60 cells. The less-differentiated KG-1 and B-II myeloid cells were either not responsive or responded only in a limited degree to the induction of cell differentiation or to changes in the expression of the nuclear antigens. The authors suggest that the reactivity of cells with monoclonal antibodies to specific nuclear antigens can be used as a maturational marker in cell differentiation studies. Furthermore, nuclear antigens expressed early in cellular differentiation may provide information about changes in regulatory elements in normal and malignant cells. 40 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Melanoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Multipronged functional proteomics approaches for global identification of altered cell signalling pathways in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Paula; Lorenzo, Seila; Dégano, Rosa M; Ibarrola, Nieves; González-González, María; Nieto, Wendy; Almeida, Julia; González, Marcos; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignant B cell disorder characterized by its high heterogeneity. Although genomic alterations have been broadly reported, protein studies are still in their early stages. Herein, a 224-antibody microarray has been employed to study the intracellular signalling pathways in a cohort of 14 newly diagnosed B-CLL patients as a preliminary study for further investigations. Several protein profiles were differentially identified across the cytogenetic and molecular alterations presented in the samples (deletion 13q14 and 17p13.1, trisomy 12, and NOTCH1 mutations) by a combination of affinity and MS/MS proteomics approaches. Among others altered cell signalling pathways, PKC family members were identified as down-regulated in nearly 75% of the samples tested with the antibody arrays. This might explain the rapid progression of the disease when showing p53, Rb1, or NOTCH1 mutations due to PKC-proteins family plays a critical role favouring the slowly progressive indolent behaviour of CLL. Additionally, the antibody microarray results were validated by a LC-MS/MS quantification strategy and compared to a transcriptomic CLL database. In summary, this research displays the usefulness of proteomic strategies to globally evaluate the protein alterations in CLL cells and select the possible biomarkers to be further studied with larger sample sizes.

  11. Lack of PPARγ in myeloid cells confers resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Abdullah

    Full Text Available The peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ is a nuclear receptor that controls inflammation and immunity. Innate immune defense against bacterial infection appears to be compromised by PPARγ. The relevance of PPARγ in myeloid cells, that organize anti-bacterial immunity, for the outcome of immune responses against intracellular bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes in vivo is unknown. We found that Listeria monocytogenes infection of macrophages rapidly led to increased expression of PPARγ. This prompted us to investigate whether PPARγ in myeloid cells influences innate immunity against Listeria monocytogenes infection by using transgenic mice with myeloid-cell specific ablation of PPARγ (LysMCre×PPARγ(flox/flox. Loss of PPARγ in myeloid cells results in enhanced innate immune defense against Listeria monocytogenes infection both, in vitro and in vivo. This increased resistance against infection was characterized by augmented levels of bactericidal factors and inflammatory cytokines: ROS, NO, IFNγ TNF IL-6 and IL-12. Moreover, myeloid cell-specific loss of PPARγ enhanced chemokine and adhesion molecule expression leading to improved recruitment of inflammatory Ly6C(hi monocytes to sites of infection. Importantly, increased resistance against Listeria infection in the absence of PPARγ was not accompanied by enhanced immunopathology. Our results elucidate a yet unknown regulatory network in myeloid cells that is governed by PPARγ and restrains both listeriocidal activity and recruitment of inflammatory monocytes during Listeria infection, which may contribute to bacterial immune escape. Pharmacological interference with PPARγ activity in myeloid cells might represent a novel strategy to overcome intracellular bacterial infection.

  12. The CD68 protein as a potential target for leukaemia-reactive CTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikova, E; Parovichnikova, E N; Savchenko, V G; Zabotina, T; Stauss, H J

    2002-10-01

    CD68, a haematopoietic differentiation marker of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, is expressed in various human malignancies including chronic and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). While the majority of normal CD34(+) cells are negative for CD68 expression, CD34(+) cells from AML patients produce elevated amounts of this protein. The purpose of this study was to identify CTL epitopes in the human CD68 protein. Mouse CD68 was also analysed to search for epitopes that could be used in murine tumor model. Peptides binding to murine H2(b) class I molecules were identified and used to stimulate CTL responses from allogeneic donor mice to avoid immunological tolerance. High avidity CTL clones specific for three different peptide epitopes did not kill CD68-expressing murine target cells, indicating that endogenous antigen processing failed to produce sufficient amounts of these peptides. In contrast, allo-restricted human CTL specific for an HLA-A2-binding peptide of CD68 recognised not only picomolar concentrations of peptide, but also displayed low levels of killing against HLA-A2-positive K562 and THP-1 leukemia cell lines and blast cells from AML patients. These data suggest that human leukaemia cells express limited amounts of CD68-derived peptides, and that high avidity CTL capable of recognising sub-picomolar concentrations of peptides are required for efficient killing of leukaemia cells.

  13. Immunodetection of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in mammary carcinomas of female dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara C. Rosolem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells have attracted great interest from researchers as they may be used as targets of tumor immune evasion mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the dendritic cells (DCs subpopulation in simple type mammary carcinomas in female dogs. Two groups of samples were used: the control group consisted of 18 samples of mammary tissue without changes and the tumor group with 26 simple type mammary carcinomas. In these groups, we evaluated the immunodetection of immature and mature myeloid DCs, plasmacytoid DCs and MHC-II. In mammary tumor, mature myeloid DCs predominated in the peritumoral region, while immature myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs were evident in the intratumoral region. Immunostaining of MHC-II was visualized in mammary acini (control group, in tumor cells and inflammatory infiltration associated with tumors. The comparison between the control and tumor groups showed a statistically significant difference between immature myeloid DCs, mature myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs. The immunodetection of MHC-II was not significant when comparing the groups. The predominance of immature DCs in the tumor group is possibly related to an inefficient immune response, promoting the development and survival of tumor cells. The presence of plasmacytoid DCs in the same group suggests a worse prognosis for female dogs with mammary tumors. Therefore, the ability of differentiation of canine dendritic cells could be influenced by neoplastic cells and by the tumor microenvironment.

  14. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: biological background and prognostic impact. Results from the NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkeviciene, G; Forestier, E; Hellebostad, M;

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic impact of peripheral blood white blood cell count (WBC) at the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was evaluated in a population-based consecutive series of 2666 children aged 1–15 treated for ALL between 1992 and 2008 in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland...

  15. Antibody responses to vaccination and immune function in patients with haematological malignancies - studies in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia autologous stem cell recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.M.T. van der

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns the antibody responses to vaccination and immune function of patients with several forms of haematological diseases. Antibody responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and in autologous stem cell transplant recipients were studied. In the autologous stem

  16. Central nervous system myeloid cells as drug targets: current status and translational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Knut; Möller, Thomas; Boddeke, Erik; Prinz, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), which include parenchymal microglia, macrophages at CNS interfaces and monocytes recruited from the circulation during disease, are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases. The origin of these cells in the immune system distinguishes them from ectodermal neurons and other glia and endows them with potential drug targets distinct from classical CNS target groups. However, despite the identification of several promising therapeutic approaches and molecular targets, no agents directly targeting these cells are currently available. Here, we assess strategies for targeting CNS myeloid cells and address key issues associated with their translation into the clinic.

  17. Genotoxicity of alkene epoxides in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HL60 leukaemia cells evaluated with the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Roberto; Rosignoli, Patrizia; De Bartolomeo, Angelo; Fuccelli, Raffaela; Morozzi, Guido

    2012-08-30

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exert their carcinogenic activity through the production of epoxide metabolites. Because of their high reactivity some epoxides are also produced in the chemical industry for the synthesis of other compounds. Therefore, human exposure to VOCs epoxides does occur and may be an important human health concern. In this study, the in vitro genotoxic potential of epoxides originating from 1,3-butadiene (3,4-epoxy-1-butene: EB; 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane: DEB), isoprene (3,4-epoxy-2-methyl-1-butene: IO), styrene (styrene-7,8-oxide: SO), propylene (propylene oxide: PO) and 1-butene (1,2-epoxy-butane: BO) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL60) was measured with the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis, SCGE). The effect of inclusion of foetal calf serum (FCS, 5%) in the cell-culture medium and different durations of exposure (2h, 24h) were also investigated. All epoxides tested produced DNA damage in a concentration range that did not reduce cell viability. HL60 cells were more resistant than PBMCs to the DNA damage induced by the different epoxides. With the exception of IO, the treatment for 24h resulted in an increase of DNA damage. FCS slightly protected PBMCs from the genotoxic effects induced by IO and BO, whilst no such effect was noted for the other compounds. Overall, the dose-dependent effects that were seen allowed us to define a genotoxicity scale for the different epoxides as follows: SO>EB>DEB>IO>PO>BO, which is in partial agreement with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of the carcinogenic hazards.

  18. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats.

  19. KEGG DISEASE / Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) [KEGG DISEASE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DISEASE: H00003 Entry H00003Disease Name Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Description Acute.... Category Cancer Brite Human diseases [BR:br08402] Cancers Cancers of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues H00003Acute...atopoietic and related tissue C92Myeloid leukaemia H00003Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Cancer-accociated carb...ohydrates [br08441.html] H00003 Pathway hsa05221Acute myeloid leukemiahsa05202Transcriptional misregulation ... or t(16; 16)(p13, q22), (CBF-beta/MYH11) ICD-O: 9866/3, Tumor type: Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (AML with

  20. Radotinib Induces Apoptosis of CD11b+ Cells Differentiated from Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Kyoung Heo

    Full Text Available Radotinib, developed as a BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, is approved for the second-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML in South Korea. However, therapeutic effects of radotinib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML are unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that radotinib significantly decreases the viability of AML cells in a dose-dependent manner. Kasumi-1 cells were more sensitive to radotinib than NB4, HL60, or THP-1 cell lines. Furthermore, radotinib induced CD11b expression in NB4, THP-1, and Kasumi-1 cells either in presence or absence of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA. We found that radotinib promoted differentiation and induced CD11b expression in AML cells by downregulating LYN. However, CD11b expression induced by ATRA in HL60 cells was decreased by radotinib through upregulation of LYN. Furthermore, radotinib mainly induced apoptosis of CD11b+ cells in the total population of AML cells. Radotinib also increased apoptosis of CD11b+ HL60 cells when they were differentiated by ATRA/dasatinib treatment. We show that radotinib induced apoptosis via caspase-3 activation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm in CD11b+ cells differentiated from AML cells. Our results suggest that radotinib may be used as a candidate drug in AML or a chemosensitizer for treatment of AML by other therapeutics.

  1. T-cell number and subtype influence the disease course of primary chronic lymphocytic leukaemia xenografts in alymphoid mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri E. Oldreive

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL cells require microenvironmental support for their proliferation. This can be recapitulated in highly immunocompromised hosts in the presence of T cells and other supporting cells. Current primary CLL xenograft models suffer from limited duration of tumour cell engraftment coupled with gradual T-cell outgrowth. Thus, a greater understanding of the interaction between CLL and T cells could improve their utility. In this study, using two distinct mouse xenograft models, we investigated whether xenografts recapitulate CLL biology, including natural environmental interactions with B-cell receptors and T cells, and whether manipulation of autologous T cells can expand the duration of CLL engraftment. We observed that primary CLL xenografts recapitulated both the tumour phenotype and T-cell repertoire observed in patients and that engraftment was significantly shorter for progressive tumours. A reduction in the number of patient T cells that were injected into the mice to 2-5% of the initial number or specific depletion of CD8+ cells extended the limited xenograft duration of progressive cases to that characteristic of indolent disease. We conclude that manipulation of T cells can enhance current CLL xenograft models and thus expand their utility for investigation of tumour biology and pre-clinical drug assessment.

  2. Birth weight in offspring and leukaemia risk in parents--a nation-wide register-based cohort study from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Maria; Rostgaard, Klaus; Hjalgrim, Lisa; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2013-02-01

    Spurred by previous observations we assessed the relationship between offspring birth weight and parental leukaemia risk in a register-based investigation including 2.4 million parents of 2 million Danish children. Regardless of analytical approach, offspring birth weight was not associated with parental risk of leukaemia overall or of leukaemia subtypes except for a twofold increased acute lymphatic leukaemia risk in fathers of high birth weight offspring and an increasing paternal risk of chronic myeloid leukaemia with increasing offspring birth weight. These may both be chance findings. Our investigation indicates that offspring birth weight is not strongly associated with parental leukaemia risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. IGK with conserved IGΚV/IGΚJ repertoire is expressed in acute myeloid leukemia and promotes leukemic cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Xia, Miaoran; Sun, Xiaoping; He, Zhiqiao; Hu, Fanlei; Chen, Lei; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Yin, C Cameron

    2015-11-17

    We have previously reported that immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were expressed in myeloblasts and mature myeloid cells. In this study, we further demonstrated that rearranged Ig κ light chain was also frequently expressed in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (6/6), primary myeloblasts from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (17/18), and mature monocytes (11/12) and neutrophils (3/12) from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms, but not or only rarely expressed in mature neutrophils (0/8) or monocytes (1/8) from healthy individuals. Interestingly, myeloblasts and mature monocytes/neutrophils shared several restricted IGKV and IGKJ gene usages but with different expression frequency. Surprisingly, almost all of the acute myeloid leukemia-derived IGKV showed somatic hypermutation; in contrast, mature myeloid cells-derived IGKV rarely had somatic hypermutation. More importantly, although IGK expression appeared not to affect cell proliferation, reduced IGK expression led to a decrease in cell migration in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines HL-60 and NB4, whereas increased IGK expression promoted their motility. In summary, IGK is expressed in myeloblasts and mature myeloid cells from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms, and is involved in cell migration. These results suggest that myeloid cells-derived IgK may have a role in leukemogenesis and may serve as a novel tumor marker for monitoring minimal residual disease and developing target therapy.

  4. Mannose-exposing myeloid leukemia cells detected by the sCAR-PPA fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gong Chu; Li, Na; Zhang, Yan Hong; Li, Xin; Wang, Yi Gang; Liu, Xin Yuan; Qian, Wen Bin; Liu, Xiao Chuan

    2009-06-01

    Altered glycosylation may be a hallmark of malignant transformation and cancer progression. In the work described, a specific mannose-binding lectin, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA), was genetically fused with the extracellular domain of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) to generate the soluble CAR (sCAR)-PPA fusion protein. The adenoviral transduction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines Kasumi-1 and HL-60 was increased by sCAR-PPA, indicating that a fraction of AML cells exposing mannose residues was detected by PPA. However, sCAR-PPA did not increase the adenoviral infection of KG-1 cells, suggesting the mannose exposure of AML cells may be cell type specific. Furthermore, the infectious efficiency of Ad-EGFP in chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 was significantly increased by sCAR-PPA as well. We, herein, report that PPA recognized a fraction of myeloid leukemia cells showing mannose-exposing phenotype. The sCAR-PPA fusion protein combined with the adenoviral vector system may provide a useful tool for investigating myeloid leukemia cells exposing mannose residues and further elucidating the role of these cells in the leukemia development.

  5. The inhibition of DNA synthesis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells by chlorambucil in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, D. P.; Blackmore, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia by chlorambucil was measured in vitro and the results related to clinical drug resistance. The assay proved to be both sensitive and specific showing a clear separation of those patients with responsive disease from those with disease resistant to treatment. There was evidence of primary drug resistance in untreated patients. In almost all patients who received treatment this led to increasing resistance to chlorambucil in vitro. The assay is predictive of clinical responsiveness and provides a potential means whereby new therapeutic agents and treatment modifiers may be investigated. PMID:1739612

  6. A New Approach Targeting Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells for Therapy of Mammary Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Nat Rev Immunol 9, 162-174 (2009). 7. Marigo, I., Dolcetti, L., Serafini, P., Zanovello, P. & Bronte , V. Tumor-induced tolerance and immune...in B-cell lymphoma by expanding regulatory T cells. Cancer Res 68, 5439-5449 (2008). 10. Serafini, P., Borrello, I. & Bronte , V. Myeloid suppressor

  7. Targeted bone marrow irradiation in the conditioning of high-risk leukaemia prior to stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Buchmann, I.; Seitz, U.; Glatting, G.; Neumaier, B.; Kotzerke, J.; Buck, A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Bunjes, D.; Doehner, H. [Abteilung Innere Medizin III, Haematologie und Onkologie, Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany); Martin, H.; Bergmann, L. [Klinik fuer Haematologie und Onkologie, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Disease recurrence following stem cell transplantation (SCT) remains a major problem. Despite the sensitivity of leukaemias to chemotherapy and irradiation, conventional conditioning before SCT is limited by significant organ toxicity. Targeted irradiation of bone marrow and spleen by radioimmunotherapy may provide considerable dose escalation, with limited toxicity to non-target organs. In this study, 27 patients with high-risk or relapsing leukaemia were treated with rhenium-188-labelled CD66a,b,c,e radioimmunoconjugates ({sup 188}Re-mAb) specific for normal bone marrow in addition to conventional conditioning with high-dose chemotherapy and 12 Gy total body irradiation prior to SCT. A mean activity of 10.2{+-}2.1 (range 6.9-15.8) GBq {sup 188}Re-mAb was administered intravenously. Acute side-effects were assessed according to the CTC classification and patient outcome was determined. Mean radiation doses (Gy; range in parentheses) to relevant organs and whole body were as follows: 13.1 (6.5-22) to bone marrow, 11.6 (1.7-31.1) to spleen, 5.0 (2.0-11.7) to liver, 7.0 (2.3-11.6) to kidneys, 0.7 (0.3-1.3) to lungs and 1.4 (0.8-2.1) to the whole body. Stem cells engrafted in all patients within 9-18 days post SCT. Acute organ toxicity of grade II or less was observed. During follow-up for 25.4{+-}5.3 (range 18-34) months, 4/27 (15%) patients died from relapse, and 9/27 (33%) from transplantation-related complications. Fourteen patients (52%) are still alive and in ongoing complete clinical remission. Radioimmunotherapy with the bone marrow-seeking {sup 188}Re-labelled CD66 mAb can double the dose to bone marrow and spleen without undue extramedullary acute organ toxicity, when given in addition to high-dose chemotherapy and 12 Gy TBI before allogeneic SCT. This intensified conditioning regimen may reduce the relapse rate of high-risk leukaemia. (orig.)

  8. Leukaemic cells from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients undergo apoptosis following microtubule depolymerization and Lyn inhibition by nocodazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzato, Federica; Trimarco, Valentina; Martini, Veronica; Gattazzo, Cristina; Ave, Elisa; Visentin, Andrea; Cabrelle, Anna; Olivieri, Valeria; Zambello, Renato; Facco, Monica; Zonta, Francesca; Cristiani, Andrea; Brunati, Anna Maria; Moro, Stefano; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Trentin, Livio

    2014-06-01

    Functional abnormalities of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells may be related to the microtubular network of cell cytoskeleton; specifically tubulin involvement in cells after B-cell receptor engagement. As microtubule inhibitors could represent a therapeutic strategy for CLL, this study investigated the capability of nocodazole, a synthetic depolymerizing agent, to kill CLL leukaemic cells. We demonstrated that nocodazole was highly specific for the in vitro induction of apoptosis in leukaemic cells from 90 CLL patients, without affecting the viability of T-cells and/or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) recovered from the same patients. Nocodazole was observed to overcome the pro-survival signals provided by MSCs. Competing with ATP for the nucleotide-binding site, nocodazole has been observed to turn off the high basal tyrosine phosphorylation of leukaemic cells mediated by the Src-kinase Lyn. Considering that most anti-microtubule drugs have limited clinical use because of their strong toxic effects, the high selectivity of nocodazole for leukaemic cells in CLL and its capability to bypass microenvironmental pro-survival stimuli, suggests the use of this inhibitor for designing new therapeutic strategies in CLL treatment.

  9. On the armament and appearances of human myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poschke, Isabel; Kiessling, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have frequently been observed in patients with cancer. This heterogeneous population of myeloid cells can exert potent suppression of lymphocyte function and thereby poses a significant hurdle to natural or therapeutically induced anti-tumor immunity. On the other hand, the natural function of MDSC is not yet well understood and their role in infection, inflammation and autoimmune disease is still puzzling. Understanding MDSC biology will provide the tools necessary for therapeutic targeting of this population, but also permit exploitation of their strong tolerogenic function in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and the prevention of graft rejection.

  10. Role of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells in the Activation of Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Matveyeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system plays a key role in triggering a systemic inflammatory response (SIR. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1, which is located on neutrophils and monocytes, is involved in SIR, by regulating the effector mechanisms of innate immunity. Hyperproduction of proinflammatory cytokines is a pathogenetic component of the hyperergic phase of acute systemic inflammation. The simultaneous activation of Toll-like receptors and TREM-1 increases the production of cytokines manifold. This is compensatory and adaptive, however, resulting in damage to organs and tissues during excessive production of cytokines. Key words: triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells, Toll-like receptors, cytokines, inflammation.

  11. MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers in Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imilia Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL is an M3 subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. This classification is based on the morphology of promyelocytic cell. The clinical characteristics of APL can be recognized by haemorrhagic episodes, a differentiation block at the promyelocytic stage, and sensitivity to the differentiation response to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA. Cytogenetically, APL is characterized by a balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17, which results in the production of PML/RARα fusion protein. Recent studies reported that microRNAs (miRNAs have also been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of APL. miRNAs have been associated with the pathogenesis of cancer and their involvement as oncogenic and tumour suppressor activities have been identified. They are involved in various biological processes including the cell proliferation, differentiation, growth and development, metabolism, apoptosis, and haematopoiesis. The new discovery of miRNAs as possible therapeutic markers will provide new insight for the diagnosis and therapeutic entries for the treatment of APL. This review highlights the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers in APL.

  12. Dasatinib. En ny tyrosinkinaseinhibitor til behandling af kronisk myeloid leukaemi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Dufva, Inge Høgh; Stentoft, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia is characterized by an abnormal tyrosin kinase in the cytoplasm of the clonal cells. The enzyme is derived from a fusion gene on the Philadelphia-chromosome, evolved by a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. Understanding the biology of the tyrosin kinase led...... to targeted therapy, inhibiting the ATP-binding site by a small molecule--imatinib (Glivec). A novel 2nd generation tyrosin kinase inhibitor--dasatinib (Sprycel)--is now available in cases of insufficient response or intolerance to imatinib. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan-28...

  13. Human breast cancer cells share antigens with the myeloid monocyte lineage.

    OpenAIRE

    F. Calvo; Martin, P M; Jabrane, N.; de Cremoux, P; Magdelenat, H.

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the expression of several myeloid cell associated antigens, some of which are involved in myelomonocyte adhesion, in seven well characterized human breast cancer cell lines, since common properties of adhesiveness and migration are found in haemopoietic cells and epithelial cancer cells. Five of these cell lines were of metastatic origin and two were derived from primary breast carcinoma. Antigenic expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence (IF), flow cytometry (FCM), rad...

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC Regulate Activation of Granulocyte-Like Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (G-MDSC in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesarina Giallongo

    Full Text Available It is well known that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have a role in promotion of tumor growth, survival and drug-resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Recent reports indicated that a subpopulation of myeloid cells, defined as granulocyte-like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC is increased in these patients. So far, the role of MSC in MDSC expansion and activation into the BM microenvironment remains unexplored. To address this question, here we use a specific experimental model in vitro, co-culturing MSC with peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC from normal individuals, in order to generate MSC-educated G-MDSC. Although MSC of healthy donors (HD and CML patients were able to generate the same amount of MDSC, only CML-MSC-educated G-MDSC exhibited suppressive ability on autologous T lymphocytes. In addition, compared with HD-MSC, CML-MSC over-expressed some immunomodulatory factors including TGFβ, IL6 and IL10, that could be involved in MDSC activation. CML-MSC-educated G-MDSC expressed higher levels of ARG1, TNFα, IL1β, COX2 and IL6 than G-MDSC isolated from co-culture with HD-MSC. Our data provide evidence that CML-MSC may play a critical role in tumor microenvironment by orchestrating G-MDSC activation and regulating T lymphocytes-mediated leukemia surveillance, thus contributing to CML immune escape.

  15. Mononuclear cells in subcutaneous haemorrhage with special consideration of myeloid percursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Windisch, A; Meissner, C

    2000-10-01

    Various hematogenous markers were used to differentiate and quantify the types of mononuclear cells present in subcutaneous haemorrhages. Fifty samples of subcutaneous bleeding with a survival time of a few minutes to more than 48 hours were studied. The various cell types were detected using the following stains: Naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase for myeloid cells, including mast cells; (alpha1-antichymotrypsin for monocytes/macrophages; UCHL1 for T-lymphocytes; and L26 for B lymphocytes. The percentage of monocytes/macrophages was found to increase in dependence on survival time, whereas T-lymphocytes declined. Within minutes of injury neutrophilic granulocytes had emigrated into the surrounding tissue and mast cell degranulation had occurred within the haemorrhagic zone. Esterase-positive mononuclear cells, namely metamyelocytes, were detected within minutes after injury and were still present after survival times exceeding 48 hours; however, no dependence on survival time or cause of death was found. Although the increasing number of monocytes/ macrophages and T-lymphocytes was expected, the sometimes high percentage of myeloid precursor cells within the wound were surprising. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed.

  16. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  17. Myeloid cell-derived HIF attenuates inflammation in UUO-induced kidney injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hanako; Gilbert, Victoria; Liu, Qingdu; Kapitsinou, Pinelopi P.; Unger, Travis L.; Rha, Jennifer; Rivella, Stefano; Schlöndorff, Detlef; Haase, Volker H.

    2012-01-01

    Renal fibrosis and inflammation are associated with hypoxia, and tissue pO2 plays a central role in modulating the progression of chronic kidney disease. Key mediators of cellular adaptation to hypoxia are hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and -2. In the kidney they are expressed in a cell type-specific manner; to what degree activation of each homolog modulates renal fibrogenesis and inflammation has not been established. To address this issue, we used Cre-loxP recombination to activate or to delete both Hif-1 and Hif-2 either globally or cell type-specifically in myeloid cells. Global activation of Hif suppressed inflammation and fibrogenesis in mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction, while activation of Hif in myeloid cells suppressed inflammation only. Suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration was associated with down-regulation of CC chemokine receptors in renal macrophages. Conversely, global deletion or myeloid-specific inactivation of Hif promoted inflammation. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia suppressed the expression of multiple inflammatory molecules in non-injured kidneys. Collectively, we provide experimental evidence that hypoxia and/or myeloid cell-specific HIF activation attenuates renal inflammation associated with chronic kidney injury. PMID:22490864

  18. EFFECTS OF CURCUMIN ON PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS IN ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA CELLS HL-60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the curcumin killing leukemia cells in vitro,. Methods: The myeloid leukemic cell line HL-60 was studied by using cell culture, flow cytometrydetermining DNA content and TUNEL method measuring apoptotic cell percentage. Results: The data showed that curcumin selectively inhibited proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibition rate was gradually increased and reached the peak at concentration of 25 m mol/L curcumin at 24h. The sub-G1 peak appeared after 12h treatment and was increased to 34.4% at 24h. The TUNEL method further certified that apoptotic cells reached 41% at the same phase. Conclusion: curcumin possesses obvious potent of anti-leukemia cell proliferation, which is contributed to the induction of HL-60 cells apoptosis. The concentration and action time of curcumin in vitro provide some reference for clinical use.

  19. Attenuated Toxoplasma gondii Stimulates Immunity to Pancreatic Cancer by Manipulation of Myeloid Cell Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kiah L; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2015-08-01

    Suppressive myeloid cells represent a significant barrier to the generation of productive antitumor immune responses to many solid tumors. Eliminating or reprogramming suppressive myeloid cells to abrogate tumor-associated immune suppression is a promising therapeutic approach. We asked whether treatment of established aggressive disseminated pancreatic cancer with the immunotherapeutic attenuated Toxoplasma gondii vaccine strain CPS would trigger tumor-associated myeloid cells to generate therapeutic antitumor immune responses. CPS treatment significantly decreased tumor-associated macrophages and markedly increased dendritic cell infiltration of the pancreatic tumor microenvironment. Tumor-resident macrophages and dendritic cells, particularly cells actively invaded by CPS, increased expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 and concomitantly boosted their production of IL12. CPS treatment increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell infiltration into the tumor microenvironment, activated tumor-resident T cells, and increased IFNγ production by T-cell populations. CPS treatment provided a significant therapeutic benefit in pancreatic tumor-bearing mice. This therapeutic benefit depended on IL12 and IFNγ production, MyD88 signaling, and CD8(+) T-cell populations. Although CD4(+) T cells exhibited activated effector phenotypes and produced IFNγ, CD4(+) T cells as well as natural killer cells were not required for the therapeutic benefit. In addition, CD8(+) T cells isolated from CPS-treated tumor-bearing mice produced IFNγ after re-exposure to pancreatic tumor antigen, suggesting this immunotherapeutic treatment stimulated tumor cell antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. This work highlights the potency and immunotherapeutic efficacy of CPS treatment and demonstrates the significance of targeting tumor-associated myeloid cells as a mechanism to stimulate more effective immunity to pancreatic cancer.

  20. Unusual presentations of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-04-06

    Apr 6, 2014 ... leukaemia: A case report. Accepted: ... accumulation of lymphoid blasts in the bone marrow and some ... tion; typically its clinical presentation is related to bone marrow .... haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Treatment.

  1. Overcoming resistance to checkpoint blockade therapy by targeting PI3Kγ in myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henau, Olivier; Rausch, Matthew; Winkler, David; Campesato, Luis Felipe; Liu, Cailian; Cymerman, Daniel Hirschhorn; Budhu, Sadna; Ghosh, Arnab; Pink, Melissa; Tchaicha, Jeremy; Douglas, Mark; Tibbitts, Thomas; Sharma, Sujata; Proctor, Jennifer; Kosmider, Nicole; White, Kerry; Stern, Howard; Soglia, John; Adams, Julian; Palombella, Vito J; McGovern, Karen; Kutok, Jeffery L; Wolchok, Jedd D; Merghoub, Taha

    2016-11-17

    Recent clinical trials using immunotherapy have demonstrated its potential to control cancer by disinhibiting the immune system. Immune checkpoint blocking (ICB) antibodies against cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 or programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 have displayed durable clinical responses in various cancers. Although these new immunotherapies have had a notable effect on cancer treatment, multiple mechanisms of immune resistance exist in tumours. Among the key mechanisms, myeloid cells have a major role in limiting effective tumour immunity. Growing evidence suggests that high infiltration of immune-suppressive myeloid cells correlates with poor prognosis and ICB resistance. These observations suggest a need for a precision medicine approach in which the design of the immunotherapeutic combination is modified on the basis of the tumour immune landscape to overcome such resistance mechanisms. Here we employ a pre-clinical mouse model system and show that resistance to ICB is directly mediated by the suppressive activity of infiltrating myeloid cells in various tumours. Furthermore, selective pharmacologic targeting of the gamma isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kγ), highly expressed in myeloid cells, restores sensitivity to ICB. We demonstrate that targeting PI3Kγ with a selective inhibitor, currently being evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial (NCT02637531), can reshape the tumour immune microenvironment and promote cytotoxic-T-cell-mediated tumour regression without targeting cancer cells directly. Our results introduce opportunities for new combination strategies using a selective small molecule PI3Kγ inhibitor, such as IPI-549, to overcome resistance to ICB in patients with high levels of suppressive myeloid cell infiltration in tumours.

  2. Tumor-derived lactate and myeloid-derived suppressor cells: Linking metabolism to cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Zaheed; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2013-11-01

    Many malignant cells produce increased amounts of lactate, which promotes the development of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs, lactate, and a low pH in the tumor microenvironment inhibit the function of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, hence allowing for disease progression. Ketogenic diets can deplete tumor-bearing animals from MDSCs and regulatory T cells, thereby improving their immunological profile.

  3. Clonal diversity of Ig and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, T; Weston, V; McConville, C M; Green, E; Powell, J E; Mann, J R; Darbyshire, P J; Taylor, A M

    2000-01-01

    The majority of paediatric B precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemias in children are derived from a single transformed haematopoietic cell with complete or partial VDJ recombination within the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. A high frequency of patients also show rearrangements within TCRdelta and TCRgamma loci and in up to 40% of children there is an excess of immune system gene rearrangements compared with the number of identified alleles of immune system genes, suggesting the presence of multiple leukaemic subclones -clonal diversity. It has been observed by us and other investigators that in individual patients the pattern of immune system gene rearrangements often changes between presentation and relapse. In order to explore the possibility that clonal diversity plays a biological role during disease progression we optimised methods for subclone detection and analysed the prognostic significance of clonal diversity among 75 children with B precursor-ALL. Our results suggest that clonal diversity plays a role in disease progression as patients with oligoclonal disease showed a significantly shorter disease free survival than patients with monoclonal disease. This trend was of particular importance in the 'standard risk' group of ALL where aggressive disease could not be recognised by other means. In addition, generation of independent subclones from an early, non-rearranged tumour progenitor appears to be a common feature among leukaemias with aggressive clinical behaviour. We speculate on the type of genetic factors which may participate both in the generation of subclones and also in wider genomic instability and which are likely to be required for the aggressive clinical phenotype in children with ALL.

  4. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  5. Myeloid derived suppressor cells in physiological and pathological conditions: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of myeloid progenitors, are recognized as a key element in tumor escape and progression. The importance of MDSCs in human malignancies has been demonstrated in recent years, and new approaches targeting their suppressive/tolerogenic action are currently being tested in both preclinical model and clinical trials. However, emerging evidence suggests that MDSCs may play a prominent role as regulator of the physiologic, the chronic, and the pathologic immune responses. This review will focus on the biology of MDSC in light of these new findings and the possible role of this myeloid population not only in the progression of the tumor but also in its initiation.

  6. Anti-leukaemic activity of the TYK2 selective inhibitor NDI-031301 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Koshi; Li, Zhaodong; Etchin, Julia; Berezovskaya, Alla; Gjini, Evisa; Masse, Craig E; Miao, Wenyan; Rocnik, Jennifer; Kapeller, Rosana; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Tiv, Hong; Sanda, Takaomi; Weinstock, David M; Look, A Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Activation of tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) contributes to the aberrant survival of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cells. Here we demonstrate the anti-leukaemic activity of a novel TYK2 inhibitor, NDI-031301. NDI-031301 is a potent and selective inhibitor of TYK2 that induced robust growth inhibition of human T-ALL cell lines. NDI-031301 treatment of human T-ALL cell lines resulted in induction of apoptosis that was not observed with the JAK inhibitors tofacitinib and baricitinib. Further investigation revealed that NDI-031301 treatment uniquely leads to activation of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), resulting in phosphorylation of ERK, SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK coincident with PARP cleavage. Activation of p38 MAPK occurred within 1 h of NDI-031301 treatment and was responsible for NDI-031301-induced T-ALL cell death, as pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK partially rescued apoptosis induced by TYK2 inhibitor. Finally, daily oral administration of NDI-031301 at 100 mg/kg bid to immunodeficient mice engrafted with KOPT-K1 T-ALL cells was well tolerated, and led to decreased tumour burden and a significant survival benefit. These results support selective inhibition of TYK2 as a promising potential therapeutic strategy for T-ALL.

  7. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1: a biomarker for bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Determann; M. Weisfelt; J. de Gans; A. van der Ende; M.J. Schultz; D. van de Beek

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1) in CSF can serve as a biomarker for the presence of bacterial meningitis and outcome in patients with this disease. Design: Retrospective study of diagnostic accuracy. Setting and patients: CSF was coll

  8. The expression of PML in chronic myeloid leukemia and effect on cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether PML is expressed differently in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients and healthy controls,then explore the effect of PML on proliferation in leukemia cell lines K562.Methods Realtime PCR was used to detect the PML expression in

  9. Myeloid derived suppressor cells-An overview of combat strategies to increase immunotherapy efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draghiciu, Oana; Lubbers, Joyce; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to tumor-mediated immune escape and negatively correlate with overall survival of cancer patients. Nowadays, a variety of methods to target MDSCs are being investigated. Based on the intervention stage of MDSCs, namely development, expansion and ac

  10. Myeloid dendritic cells induce HIV-1 latency in non-proliferating CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vanessa A; Kumar, Nitasha; Filali, Ali; Procopio, Francesco A; Yegorov, Oleg; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Saleh, Suha; Haddad, Elias K; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Ellenberg, Paula C; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Cameron, Paul U; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4(+) T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4(+) T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4(+) T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact.

  11. Myeloid dendritic cells induce HIV-1 latency in non-proliferating CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A Evans

    Full Text Available Latently infected resting CD4(+ T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4(+ T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4(+ T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4(+ T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4(+ T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4(+ T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact.

  12. Specific Btk inhibition suppresses B cell- and myeloid cell-mediated arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, Julie A.; Huang, Tao; Balazs, Mercedesz; Barbosa, James; Barck, Kai H.; Bravo, Brandon J.; Carano, Richard A.D.; Darrow, James; Davies, Douglas R.; DeForge, Laura E.; Diehl, Lauri; Ferrando, Ronald; Gallion, Steven L.; Giannetti, Anthony M.; Gribling, Peter; Hurez, Vincent; Hymowitz, Sarah G.; Jones, Randall; Kropf, Jeffrey E.; Lee, Wyne P.; Maciejewski, Patricia M.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Rong, Hong; Staker, Bart L.; Whitney, J. Andrew; Yeh, Sherry; Young, Wendy B.; Yu, Christine; Zhang, Juan; Reif, Karin; Currie, Kevin S. (CGI); (Emerald); (Genentech)

    2011-09-20

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation. CGI1746 has exquisite selectivity for Btk and inhibits both auto- and transphosphorylation steps necessary for enzyme activation. Using CGI1746, we demonstrate that Btk regulates inflammatory arthritis by two distinct mechanisms. CGI1746 blocks B cell receptor-dependent B cell proliferation and in prophylactic regimens reduces autoantibody levels in collagen-induced arthritis. In macrophages, Btk inhibition abolishes Fc{gamma}RIII-induced TNF{alpha}, IL-1{beta} and IL-6 production. Accordingly, in myeloid- and Fc{gamma}R-dependent autoantibody-induced arthritis, CGI1746 decreases cytokine levels within joints and ameliorates disease. These results provide new understanding of the function of Btk in both B cell- or myeloid cell-driven disease processes and provide a compelling rationale for targeting Btk in rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Engagement of SIRPα inhibits growth and induces programmed cell death in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahban Irandoust

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies show the importance of interactions between CD47 expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells and the inhibitory immunoreceptor, signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα on macrophages. Although AML cells express SIRPα, its function has not been investigated in these cells. In this study we aimed to determine the role of the SIRPα in acute myeloid leukemia. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of SIRPα, both on mRNA and protein level in AML patients and we further investigated whether the expression of SIRPα on two low SIRPα expressing AML cell lines could be upregulated upon differentiation of the cells. We determined the effect of chimeric SIRPα expression on tumor cell growth and programmed cell death by its triggering with an agonistic antibody in these cells. Moreover, we examined the efficacy of agonistic antibody in combination with established antileukemic drugs. RESULTS: By microarray analysis of an extensive cohort of primary AML samples, we demonstrated that SIRPα is differentially expressed in AML subgroups and its expression level is dependent on differentiation stage, with high levels in FAB M4/M5 AML and low levels in FAB M0-M3. Interestingly, AML patients with high SIRPα expression had a poor prognosis. Our results also showed that SIRPα is upregulated upon differentiation of NB4 and Kasumi cells. In addition, triggering of SIRPα with an agonistic antibody in the cells stably expressing chimeric SIRPα, led to inhibition of growth and induction of programmed cell death. Finally, the SIRPα-derived signaling synergized with the activity of established antileukemic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that triggering of SIRPα has antileukemic effect and may function as a potential therapeutic target in AML.

  14. Engagement of SIRPα Inhibits Growth and Induces Programmed Cell Death in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeek, Isabelle; van Beek, Ellen M.; Schornagel, Karin; Broekhuizen, Aart J. F.; Akyuz, Mercan; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A.; Delwel, Ruud; Valk, Peter J.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Kearns, Pamela; Creutzig, Ursula; Reinhardt, Dirk; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Coenen, Eva A.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Zwaan, C. Michel; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Cloos, Jacqueline; van den Berg, Timo K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show the importance of interactions between CD47 expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and the inhibitory immunoreceptor, signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) on macrophages. Although AML cells express SIRPα, its function has not been investigated in these cells. In this study we aimed to determine the role of the SIRPα in acute myeloid leukemia. Design and Methods We analyzed the expression of SIRPα, both on mRNA and protein level in AML patients and we further investigated whether the expression of SIRPα on two low SIRPα expressing AML cell lines could be upregulated upon differentiation of the cells. We determined the effect of chimeric SIRPα expression on tumor cell growth and programmed cell death by its triggering with an agonistic antibody in these cells. Moreover, we examined the efficacy of agonistic antibody in combination with established antileukemic drugs. Results By microarray analysis of an extensive cohort of primary AML samples, we demonstrated that SIRPα is differentially expressed in AML subgroups and its expression level is dependent on differentiation stage, with high levels in FAB M4/M5 AML and low levels in FAB M0–M3. Interestingly, AML patients with high SIRPα expression had a poor prognosis. Our results also showed that SIRPα is upregulated upon differentiation of NB4 and Kasumi cells. In addition, triggering of SIRPα with an agonistic antibody in the cells stably expressing chimeric SIRPα, led to inhibition of growth and induction of programmed cell death. Finally, the SIRPα-derived signaling synergized with the activity of established antileukemic drugs. Conclusions Our data indicate that triggering of SIRPα has antileukemic effect and may function as a potential therapeutic target in AML. PMID:23320069

  15. Blood myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells reflect Th1/Th2 balance in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Jarosław; Krawczyk, Paweł; Chocholska, Sylwia; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Kieszko, Robert; Michnar, Marek; Milanowski, Janusz; Roliński, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a specific regulatory role in the immune system. In this paper, the significance of myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was evaluated. Myeloid dendritic cells are connected with Th1 type of immunological response, whereas lymphoid ones--with Th2 type. The latest findings indicate that both diseases are characterized by serious disturbances of Th1/Th2 response to Th1 dominance. Our studies seem to confirm these suggestions. In the peripheral blood of patients with sarcoidosis as well as with EAA, myeloid dendritic cells outnumbered lymphoid ones.

  16. Modeling of C/EBPalpha mutant acute myeloid leukemia reveals a common expression signature of committed myeloid leukemia-initiating cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstetter, Peggy; Schuster, Mikkel B; Bereshchenko, Oksana

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the CEBPA gene are present in 7%-10% of human patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, no genetic models exist that demonstrate their etiological relevance. To mimic the most common mutations affecting CEBPA-that is, those leading to loss of the 42 kDa C/EBPalpha isoform (p...... penetrance. p42-deficient leukemia could be transferred by a Mac1+c-Kit+ population that gave rise only to myeloid cells in recipient mice. Expression profiling of this population against normal Mac1+c-Kit+ progenitors revealed a signature shared with MLL-AF9-transformed AML....

  17. JNK and NFκB dependence of apoptosis induced by vinblastine in human acute promyelocytic leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Eva; Tejedor, M Cristina; Sancho, Pilar; Herráez, Angel; Diez, José C

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between the mitogen-activated protein kinase response, nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) expression and the apoptosis in human acute promyelocytic leukaemia NB4 cells treated with vinblastine was investigated in this work. Cell viability, subdiploid DNA and cell cycle were analysed by propidium iodide permeability and flow cytometry analyses. Apoptosis was determined by annexin V-Fluorescein isothiocyanate assays. Western-blot analysis was used for determination of expression levels of apoptotic factors (p53, Bax and Bcl2), intracellular kinases [serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)], NFκB factor and caspases. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was usefully applied to study DNA-NFκB interaction. In NB4 cells, vinblastine produces alteration of p53 and DNA fragmentation. Vinblastine treatment had an antiproliferative effect via the induction of apoptosis producing Bax/Bcl-2 imbalance. Vinblastine treatment suppressed NFκB expression and depressed NFκB-DNA binding activity while maintaining JNK activation that subsequently resulted in apoptotic response through caspase-dependent pathway. Our study provides a possible anti-cancer mechanism of vinblastine action on NB4 cells by deregulation of the intracellular signalling cascade affecting to JNK activation and NFκB expression. Moreover, JNK activation and NFκB depression can be very significant factors in apoptosis induction by vinblastine.

  18. Lethal giant larvae 1 tumour suppressor activity is not conserved in models of mammalian T and B cell leukaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin D Hawkins

    Full Text Available In epithelial and stem cells, lethal giant larvae (Lgl is a potent tumour suppressor, a regulator of Notch signalling, and a mediator of cell fate via asymmetric cell division. Recent evidence suggests that the function of Lgl is conserved in mammalian haematopoietic stem cells and implies a contribution to haematological malignancies. To date, direct measurement of the effect of Lgl expression on malignancies of the haematopoietic lineage has not been tested. In Lgl1⁻/⁻ mice, we analysed the development of haematopoietic malignancies either alone, or in the presence of common oncogenic lesions. We show that in the absence of Lgl1, production of mature white blood cell lineages and long-term survival of mice are not affected. Additionally, loss of Lgl1 does not alter leukaemia driven by constitutive Notch, c-Myc or Jak2 signalling. These results suggest that the role of Lgl1 in the haematopoietic lineage might be restricted to specific co-operating mutations and a limited number of cellular contexts.

  19. Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells from aged mice using bone marrow-derived myeloid cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Cheng; Sachiko Ito; Naomi Nishio; Hengyi Xiao; Rong Zhang; Haruhiko Suzuki; Yayoi Okawa; Toyoaki Murohara; Ken-ichi Isobe

    2011-01-01

    If induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are to be used to treat damaged tissues or repair organs in elderly patients, it will be necessaryto establish iPS cells from their tissues. To determine the feasibility of using this technology with elderly patients, we asked if itwas indeed possible to establish iPS cells from the bone marrow (BM) of aged mice. BM cells from aged C57BL/6 mice carrying thegreen fluorescence protein (GFP) gene were cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for 4 days.Four factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) were introduced into the BM-derived myeloid (BM-M) cells. The efficiency of generating iPS cells from aged BM cultured in GM-CSF was low. However, we succeeded in obtaining BM-M-iPS cells from aged C57BL/6 mice,which carried GFP. Our BM-M-iPS cells expressed SSEA-1 and Pou5f1 and were positive for alkaline phosphatase staining. The iPScells did make teratoma with three germ layers following injection into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, and can be differentiated to threegerm layers in vitro. By co-culturing with OP9, the BM-M-iPS cells can be differentiated to the myeloid lineage. The differentiated BM-M-iPS cells proliferated well in the presence of GM-CSF, and lost expression of Nanog and Pou5f1, at least in part, due to methylation of their promoters. On the contrary, Tnf and Il1b gene expression was upregulated and their promoters were hypornethylated.

  20. HEBAlt enhances the T-cell potential of fetal myeloid-biased precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Marsela; Rajkumar, Paula; Claus, Carol L; Vaccarelli, Giovanna; Moore, Amanda J; Wang, Duncheng; Anderson, Michele K

    2010-12-01

    Hematopoiesis is controlled by the interplay between transcription factors and environmental signals. One of the primary determinants of the T-lineage choice is Delta-like (DL)-Notch signaling, which promotes T-cell development and inhibits B-cell development. We have found that the transcription factor HEBAlt is up-regulated in early hematopoietic precursors in response to DL-Notch signaling and that it can promote early T-cell development. Here, we identified a population of lineage-negative Sca-1⁻c-kit(+) (LK) cells in the mouse fetal liver that rapidly gave rise to myeloid cells and B cells but exhibited very little T-cell potential. However, forced expression of HEBAlt in these precursors restored their ability to develop into T cells. We also showed that Ikaros and Notch1 are up-regulated in response to HEBAlt over-expression and that activated Notch1 enhances the ability of LK cells to enter the T-cell lineage. Furthermore, the myeloid transcription factor C/EBPα is down-regulated in response to HEBAlt. We therefore propose that HEBAlt plays a role in the network that enforces the T-lineage fate and limits myeloid fate during hematopoiesis.

  1. Technical Advance: Transcription factor, promoter, and enhancer utilization in human myeloid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anagha; Pooley, Christopher; Freeman, Tom C.; Lennartsson, Andreas; Babina, Magda; Schmidl, Christian; Geijtenbeek, Teunis; Michoel, Tom; Severin, Jessica; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Kawaji, Hideya; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Rehli, Michael; Hume, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The generation of myeloid cells from their progenitors is regulated at the level of transcription by combinatorial control of key transcription factors influencing cell-fate choice. To unravel the global dynamics of this process at the transcript level, we generated transcription profiles for 91 human cell types of myeloid origin by use of CAGE profiling. The CAGE sequencing of these samples has allowed us to investigate diverse aspects of transcription control during myelopoiesis, such as identification of novel transcription factors, miRNAs, and noncoding RNAs specific to the myeloid lineage. We further reconstructed a transcription regulatory network by clustering coexpressed transcripts and associating them with enriched cis-regulatory motifs. With the use of the bidirectional expression as a proxy for enhancers, we predicted over 2000 novel enhancers, including an enhancer 38 kb downstream of IRF8 and an intronic enhancer in the KIT gene locus. Finally, we highlighted relevance of these data to dissect transcription dynamics during progressive maturation of granulocyte precursors. A multifaceted analysis of the myeloid transcriptome is made available (www.myeloidome.roslin.ed.ac.uk). This high-quality dataset provides a powerful resource to study transcriptional regulation during myelopoiesis and to infer the likely functions of unannotated genes in human innate immunity. PMID:25717144

  2. Technical Advance: Transcription factor, promoter, and enhancer utilization in human myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anagha; Pooley, Christopher; Freeman, Tom C; Lennartsson, Andreas; Babina, Magda; Schmidl, Christian; Geijtenbeek, Teunis; Michoel, Tom; Severin, Jessica; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Kawaji, Hideya; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Rehli, Michael; Hume, David A

    2015-05-01

    The generation of myeloid cells from their progenitors is regulated at the level of transcription by combinatorial control of key transcription factors influencing cell-fate choice. To unravel the global dynamics of this process at the transcript level, we generated transcription profiles for 91 human cell types of myeloid origin by use of CAGE profiling. The CAGE sequencing of these samples has allowed us to investigate diverse aspects of transcription control during myelopoiesis, such as identification of novel transcription factors, miRNAs, and noncoding RNAs specific to the myeloid lineage. We further reconstructed a transcription regulatory network by clustering coexpressed transcripts and associating them with enriched cis-regulatory motifs. With the use of the bidirectional expression as a proxy for enhancers, we predicted over 2000 novel enhancers, including an enhancer 38 kb downstream of IRF8 and an intronic enhancer in the KIT gene locus. Finally, we highlighted relevance of these data to dissect transcription dynamics during progressive maturation of granulocyte precursors. A multifaceted analysis of the myeloid transcriptome is made available (www.myeloidome.roslin.ed.ac.uk). This high-quality dataset provides a powerful resource to study transcriptional regulation during myelopoiesis and to infer the likely functions of unannotated genes in human innate immunity.

  3. Heterogeneous X-ray survival characteristics of lymphocytes in prolymphocytic leukaemia. Mathematical analysis distinguishing delayed cell death and true radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, A.E.R.; O' Connor, T.W.E.; Slater, N.G.P. (Division of Haematology, United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)); Peel, W.E. (Computing Services, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom))

    1994-10-01

    The survival of non-dividing (G[sub 0]) leukaemic lymphocytes in culture is generally too short for their radiosensitivity to be quantitatively assessed, since lethally X-irradiated cells may show a long delay before manifestations of cell death ('interphase death') are seen. Counts of surviving cells well therefore include both lethally-hit cells (apparent survivors), and real survivors which have not been lethally hit. Death rates of irradiated leukaemic and normal cells show great variation between individuals, so that comparisons of radiosensitivity between different cell populations based on surviving cell counts at a single time-point are invalid. In this study the supposed radioresistance of prolymphocytic leukaemia lymphocytes was examined in 6 patients with B-cell disease. Survival curves were plotted from serial observations made over several days after graded X-irradiation (0-1000 cGy). We attempted to interpret these radiation responses in terms of their dose dependence (intrinsic radiosensitivity) and time dependence (cell death rate) characteristics using the best-fitting of four mathematical models, all based on classical 'single-hit' target theory. The apparent radioresistance shown in 4 cases could be explained by very slow death rates (T[sub 172] values 55-205 h) of cells proving otherwise radiosensitive (D37 values 38-123 cGy). Genuine radioresistance was found in only 1 case (actual D37 value above 2000 cGy). B ignoring delayed cell death in clinical assessments, pathological lymphocytes could be mistakenly categorized as resistant to elimination by radiotherapy. (au) (30 refs.).

  4. Analysis of immunophenotyping characteristics and clinical prognosis of 108 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia%急性髓系白血病108例免疫表型特征与临床预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞霞; 乔振华; 叶芳; 李国霞; 任方刚; 王宏伟; 魏百合; 何玉梅; 甄祯; 周文峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价免疫分型在判断急性髓系白血病(AML)预后中的作用.方法 采用流式细胞术对108例初发AML患者骨髓进行免疫表型检测.结果 ①AML患者中髓系抗原表达率以CD33 (96.3%)、CD13(88.0%)、髓过氧化物酶(MPO)(88.0%)最常见,造血祖/干细胞抗原表达以CD38最常见,为95.4%;②有52.8%(57/108)AML患者同时伴有淋巴系抗原表达,主要为CD19、CD7、CD4,表达率分别为23.1%、21.3%、17.6%;③高、中、低危3组AML患者淋巴系抗原表达率进行比较,发现CD4、CD7低危组低于中危组和高危组(P均<0.01),而CD19的表达率则相反,低危组高于中、高危组(P均<0.05).结论 免疫分型在诊断AML及判断预后中起重要作用.%Objective To evaluate the impact of immunophenotyping on diagnosis and prognosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Methods Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the immunophenotype of bone marrow in 108 patients with primary AML Results ①of AML patients, the expression rates of antigens were mainly CD33 (96.3%), CD13 (88.0%) and MPO (88.0%) in bone mallow. Notably, CD38 was most commonly seen in hematopoietic stem / progenitor of antigen, being 95.4%. ②There were 52.8% (57/108) AML patients had expressions of lymphoid-associated antigen, mainly CD19 (23.1%), CD7 (21.3%) and CD4 (17.6%). ③Among 3 groups of AML patients in high, moderate and low risk degrees, the lymphoid antigen expressions of CD4 and CD7 in low risk group were lower than those in moderate and high risk group (both P<0.01), which was on contrary to the expression of CD 19 (both P<0.05). Conclusion The immunophenotyping played an important role in diagnosis and prognosis of AML

  5. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells impair the quality of dendritic cell vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poschke, I; Mao, Y; Adamson, L; Salazar-Onfray, F; Masucci, G; Kiessling, R

    2012-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are important regulators of the immune system and key players in tumor-induced suppression of T-cell responses. CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSC have been detected in a great number of malignancies, including melanoma. MDSC are known to be impaired in their ability to differentiate along the myeloid lineage, e.g., into dendritic cells (DC). This is a concern for utilization of monocyte-derived DC for vaccination of patients with melanoma or other cancers exhibiting accumulation of CD14+ MDSC. When producing DC according to standard operating procedures of two currently ongoing clinical trials, we found that MDSC co-purified with monocytes isolated by elutriation. MDSC frequencies did not affect yield or viability of the produced DC, but induced a dose-dependent decrease in DC maturation, ability to take up antigen, migrate and induce T-cell IFNγ production. Changes in DC characteristics were most notable when 'pathological' frequencies of >50% CD14+HLA-DR- cells were present in the starting culture. The impaired DC quality could not be explained by altered cytokine production or increased oxidative stress in the cultures. Tracking of HLA-DR- cells throughout the culture period revealed that the observed changes were partially due to the impaired maturation and functionality of the originally HLA-DR- population, but also to their negative effects on HLA-DR+ cells. In conclusion, MDSC could be induced to differentiate into DC but, due to the impairment of overall DC vaccine quality when >50% HLA-DR- cells were present in the starting culture, their removal could be advisable.

  6. Alloreactive natural killer cells for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia: from stem cell transplantation to adoptive immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana eRuggeri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells express activating and inhibitory receptors which recognize MHC class I alleles, termed Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs. Preclinical and clinical data from haploidentical T-cell depleted stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that alloreactive KIR-L mismatched natural killer cells play a major role as effectors against acute myeloid leukemia. Outside the transplantation setting, several reports have proven the safety and feasibility of natural killer cell infusion in acute myeloid leukemia patients and, in some cases, provided evidence that transferred NK cells are functionally alloreactive and may have a role in disease control. Aim of the present work is to briefly summarize the most recent advances in the field by moving from the first preclinical and clinical demonstration of donor NK alloreactivity in the transplantation setting to the most recent attempts of exploiting the use of alloreactive NK cell infusion as a means of adoptive immunotherapy against acute myeloid leukemia. Altogether, these data highlight the pivotal role of NK cells for the development of novel immunological approaches in the clinical management of acute myeloid leukemia.

  7. Specific Btk inhibition suppresses B cell- and myeloid cell-mediated arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, Julie A; Huang, Tao; Balazs, Mercedesz; Barbosa, James; Barck, Kai H; Bravo, Brandon J; Carano, Richard A.D.; Darrow, James; Davies, Douglas R; DeForge, Laura E; Diehl, Lauri; Ferrando, Ronald; Gallion, Steven L; Giannetti, Anthony M; Gribling, Peter; Hurez, Vincent; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Jones, Randall; Kropf, Jeffrey E; Lee, Wyne P; Maciejewski, Patricia M; Mitchell, Scott A; Rong, Hong; Staker, Bart L; Whitney, J Andrew; Yeh, Sherry; Young, Wendy B; Yu, Christine; Zhang, Juan; Reif, Karin; Currie, Kevin S [CGI; (Emerald); (Genentech)

    2011-08-29

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation. CGI1746 has exquisite selectivity for Btk and inhibits both auto- and transphosphorylation steps necessary for enzyme activation. Using CGI1746, we demonstrate that Btk regulates inflammatory arthritis by two distinct mechanisms. CGI1746 blocks B cell receptor–dependent B cell proliferation and in prophylactic regimens reduces autoantibody levels in collagen-induced arthritis. In macrophages, Btk inhibition abolishes FcγRIII-induced TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 production. Accordingly, in myeloid- and FcγR-dependent autoantibody-induced arthritis, CGI1746 decreases cytokine levels within joints and ameliorates disease. These results provide new understanding of the function of Btk in both B cell– or myeloid cell–driven disease processes and provide a compelling rationale for targeting Btk in rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. The role of Lin28b in myeloid and mast cell differentiation and mast cell malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L D; Rao, T N; Rowe, R G; Nguyen, P T; Sullivan, J L; Pearson, D S; Doulatov, S; Wu, L; Lindsley, R C; Zhu, H; DeAngelo, D J; Daley, G Q; Wagers, A J

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are critical components of the innate immune system and important for host defense, allergy, autoimmunity, tissue regeneration and tumor progression. Dysregulated MC development leads to systemic mastocytosis (SM), a clinically variable but often devastating family of hematologic disorders. Here we report that induced expression of Lin28, a heterochronic gene and pluripotency factor implicated in driving a fetal hematopoietic program, caused MC accumulation in adult mice in target organs such as the skin and peritoneal cavity. In vitro assays revealed a skewing of myeloid commitment in LIN28B-expressing hematopoietic progenitors, with increased levels of LIN28B in common myeloid and basophil-MC progenitors altering gene expression patterns to favor cell fate choices that enhanced MC specification. In addition, LIN28B-induced MCs appeared phenotypically and functionally immature, and in vitro assays suggested a slowing of MC terminal differentiation in the context of LIN28B upregulation. Finally, interrogation of human MC leukemia samples revealed upregulation of LIN28B in abnormal MCs from patients with SM. This work identifies Lin28 as a novel regulator of innate immune function and a new protein of interest in MC disease.

  9. MicroRNA-150 Expression Induces Myeloid Differentiation of Human Acute Leukemia Cells and Normal Hematopoietic Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Valerie A.; Zhang, Ailin; Yang, Taimei; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Ramamurthy, Ranjani; Meshinchi, Soheil; Oehler, Vivian G.

    2013-01-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and blast crisis (BC) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) normal differentiation is impaired. Differentiation of immature stem/progenitor cells is critical for normal blood cell function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that interfere with gene expression by degrading messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or blocking protein translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is a feature of leukemia and miRNAs also play a significant role in normal hematopoiesis and differentiation. We have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in AML and BC CML and identified a new role for miR-150 in myeloid differentiation. Expression of miR-150 is low or absent in BC CML and AML patient samples and cell lines. We have found that expression of miR-150 in AML cell lines, CD34+ progenitor cells from healthy individuals, and primary BC CML and AML patient samples at levels similar to miR-150 expression in normal bone marrow promotes myeloid differentiation of these cells. MYB is a direct target of miR-150, and we have identified that the observed phenotype is partially mediated by MYB. In AML cell lines, differentiation of miR-150 expressing cells occurs independently of retinoic acid receptor α (RARA) signaling. High-throughput gene expression profiling (GEP) studies of the AML cell lines HL60, PL21, and THP-1 suggest that activation of CEPBA, CEBPE, and cytokines associated with myeloid differentiation in miR-150 expressing cells as compared to control cells contributes to myeloid differentiation. These data suggest that miR-150 promotes myeloid differentiation, a previously uncharacterized role for this miRNA, and that absent or low miR-150 expression contributes to blocked myeloid differentiation in acute leukemia cells. PMID:24086639

  10. MicroRNA-150 expression induces myeloid differentiation of human acute leukemia cells and normal hematopoietic progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Morris

    Full Text Available In acute myeloid leukemia (AML and blast crisis (BC chronic myeloid leukemia (CML normal differentiation is impaired. Differentiation of immature stem/progenitor cells is critical for normal blood cell function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs are small non-coding RNAs that interfere with gene expression by degrading messenger RNAs (mRNAs or blocking protein translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is a feature of leukemia and miRNAs also play a significant role in normal hematopoiesis and differentiation. We have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in AML and BC CML and identified a new role for miR-150 in myeloid differentiation. Expression of miR-150 is low or absent in BC CML and AML patient samples and cell lines. We have found that expression of miR-150 in AML cell lines, CD34+ progenitor cells from healthy individuals, and primary BC CML and AML patient samples at levels similar to miR-150 expression in normal bone marrow promotes myeloid differentiation of these cells. MYB is a direct target of miR-150, and we have identified that the observed phenotype is partially mediated by MYB. In AML cell lines, differentiation of miR-150 expressing cells occurs independently of retinoic acid receptor α (RARA signaling. High-throughput gene expression profiling (GEP studies of the AML cell lines HL60, PL21, and THP-1 suggest that activation of CEPBA, CEBPE, and cytokines associated with myeloid differentiation in miR-150 expressing cells as compared to control cells contributes to myeloid differentiation. These data suggest that miR-150 promotes myeloid differentiation, a previously uncharacterized role for this miRNA, and that absent or low miR-150 expression contributes to blocked myeloid differentiation in acute leukemia cells.

  11. Traffic-related air pollution and risk for leukaemia of an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution causes lung cancer, but associations with other cancers have not been established. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the risk of the general population for leukaemia. We identified 1,967 people in whom leukaemia was diagnosed in 1992-2010 from a nation-wide cancer registry and selected 3,381 control people at random, matched on sex and year of birth, from the entire Danish population. Residential addresses since 1971 were traced in a population registry, and outdoor concentrations of NOx and NO2 , as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, were calculated at each address in a dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk for leukaemia after adjustment for income, educational level, cohabitation status and co-morbidity. In linear analyses, we found odds ratios for acute myeloid leukaemia of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38) per 20 µg/m(3) increase in NOx and 1.31 (1.02-1.68) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2 , calculated as time-weighted average exposure at all addresses since 1971. We found no association with chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. This study indicates an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myeloid leukaemia in the general population, but not for other subtypes of leukaemia.

  12. Myeloid derived suppressor cells and their role in tolerance induction in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Mahnke, Karsten; Enk, Alexander H

    2010-07-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise a phenotypically heterogeneous population of cells, which can be found in tumor-bearing mice and in patients with cancer. MDSCs play a central role in the induction of peripheral tolerance. Together with regulatory T cells (Tregs) they promote an immunosuppressive environment in tumor-bearing hosts. The phenotype of MDSCs differs in humans and mice, and the exact mechanisms of their suppressive function are still controversially discussed. In summary, MDSCs are a group of phenotypically heterogeneous cells of myeloid origin that have common biological activities. In this review, we discuss the definition of MDSCs, the proposed mechanisms of expansion and the recruitment and activation of MDSCs, as well as their biological activities in tumorbearing hosts to assess the potential therapeutic applications.

  13. Myeloid leukemic progenitor cells can be specifically targeted by minor histocompatibility antigen LRH-1-reactive cytotoxic T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norde, Wieger J; Overes, Ingrid M; Maas, Frans; Fredrix, Hanny; Vos, Johanna C M; Kester, Michel G D; van der Voort, Robbert; Jedema, Inge; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Schattenberg, Anton V; de Witte, Theo M; Dolstra, Harry

    2009-03-05

    CD8(+) T cells recognizing minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHAs) on leukemic stem and progenitor cells play a pivotal role in effective graft-versus-leukemia reactivity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Previously, we identified a hematopoiesis-restricted MiHA, designated LRH-1, which is presented by HLA-B7 and encoded by the P2X5 purinergic receptor gene. We found that P2X5 is significantly expressed in CD34(+) leukemic subpopulations from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Here, we demonstrate that LRH-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses are frequently induced in myeloid leukemia patients following donor lymphocyte infusions. Patients with high percentages of circulating LRH-1-specific CD8(+) T cells had no or only mild graft-versus-host disease. Functional analysis showed that LRH-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) isolated from 2 different patients efficiently target LRH-1-positive leukemic CD34(+) progenitor cells from both CML and AML patients, whereas mature CML cells are only marginally lysed due to down-regulation of P2X5. Furthermore, we observed that relative resistance to LRH-1 CTL-mediated cell death due to elevated levels of antiapoptotic XIAP could be overcome by IFN-gamma prestimulation and increased CTL-target ratios. These findings provide a rationale for use of LRH-1 as immunotherapeutic target antigen to treat residual or persisting myeloid malignancies after allogeneic SCT.

  14. Nanoparticle Systems Modulating Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Avia; Kim, Julian; Huang, Alex Y; Zhang, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are preferentially expanded in cancer. They arise from myeloid progenitor cells that do not differentiate into mature dendritic cells (DCs), granulocytes, or macrophages, and are rather thought to play a pivotal role in immune escape and cancer progression. MDSCs are characterized by the ability to suppress T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, inhibit natural killer T (NKT) cell activation, and induce the differentiation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg). MDSC levels have been shown to correlate negatively with prognosis and overall survival of patients with cancers of various types and stages. The role of MDSCs in cancer progression represents a promising target for effective cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of MDSC functions, their influence on tumor progression and metastasis, and finally focus on up to date nanoparticle approaches that target and antagonize MDSCs in tumor-bearing hosts. The development of multifunctional nanoparticle systems for effective imaging, assessment and manipulation of MDSCs will represent strategic theranostic innovations that may improve cancer staging, therapeutic outcomes, and overall patient survival. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Requiem: a novel zinc finger gene essential for apoptosis in myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, T G; Mantel, P L; Rosli, R; Crean, C D

    1994-11-25

    To identify genes mediating programmed cell death triggered by interleukin 3 (IL-3)-deprivation of myeloid cells, the IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell line FDCP-1 was used to screen a mammalian cell expression library for cDNAs that would promote survival following withdrawal of IL-3. A unique 892-base pair cDNA was cloned that prevented the programmed cell death response following IL-3 deprivation by causing antisense suppression of an endogenous 2.4-kilobase (kb) mRNA. A 2.3-kb cDNA containing the identical 892-base pair over-lapping sequence was cloned that encoded a deduced 371-amino acid protein containing a single Kruppel-type zinc finger and a cluster of 4 cysteine/histidine-rich repeats resembling atypical zinc fingers. The 2.4-kb mRNA was found to be ubiquitously expressed in murine tissues and its abundance in FDCP-1 cells was not altered in response to IL-3 deprivation. Since expression of this 2.4-kb mRNA was a prerequisite for the apoptosis response following IL-3 deprivation, the gene encoding it was named requiem. Requiem is likely to encode a transcription factor required for the apoptosis response following survival factor withdrawal from myeloid cells.

  16. Deregulated expression of Cdc6 as BCR/ABL-dependent survival factor in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; He, Yan-Li; Zhu, Rui; Du, Wen; Xiao, Jun-Hua

    2017-06-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia is characterized by the presence of the reciprocal translocation t(9;22) and the BCR/ABL oncogene. The BCR/ABL oncogene activates multiple signaling pathways and involves the dysregulation of oncogenes during the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia. The cell division cycle protein 6, an essential regulator of DNA replication, is elevated in some human cancer cells. However, the expression of cell division cycle protein 6 in chronic myeloid leukemia and the underlying regulatory mechanism remain to be elucidated. In this study, our data showed that cell division cycle protein 6 expression was significantly upregulated in primary chronic myeloid leukemia cells and the chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 cells, as compared to the normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. BCR/ABL kinase inhibitor STI571 or BCR/ABL small interfering RNA could significantly downregulate cell division cycle protein 6 messenger RNA expression in K562 cells. Moreover, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway inhibitor AG490 could downregulate cell division cycle protein 6 expression in K562 cells, but not RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor PD98059 had such effect. Cell division cycle protein 6 gene silencing by small interfering RNA effectively resulted in decrease of proliferation, increase of apoptosis, and arrest of cell cycle in K562 cells. These findings have demonstrated that cell division cycle protein 6 overexpression may contribute to the high proliferation and low apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells and can be regulated by BCR/ABL signal transduction through downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, suggesting cell division cycle protein 6 as a potential therapeutic target in chronic myeloid leukemia.

  17. miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes cell proliferation and invasion in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hong; Miao, Mei-hua; Ji, Xue-qiang; Xue, Jun; Shao, Xue-jun, E-mail: xuejunshao@hotmail.com

    2015-04-03

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in leukaemia, particularly T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), has remained elusive. Here, we identified miR-664 and its predicted target gene PLP2 were differentially expressed in T-ALL using bioinformatics methods. In T-ALL cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-664, while miR-664 inhibitor could significantly inhibited the proliferation. Moreover, migration and invasion assay showed that overexpression of miR-664 could significantly promoted the migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, whereas miR-664 inhibitor could reduce cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-664 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of PLP2, and western blotting showed that miR-664 suppressed the expression of PLP2 at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cell lines. Thus, miR-664 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T-ALL intervention. - Highlights: • miR-664 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cells. • miR-664 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cells. • miR-664 targets 3′ UTR of PLP2 in T-ALL cells. • miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 in T-ALL cells.

  18. Drug screen in patient cells suggests quinacrine to be repositioned for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anna; Österroos, Albin; Hassan, Sadia Bashir; Gullbo, Joachim; Rickardson, Linda; Jarvius, Malin; Nygren, Peter; Fryknäs, Mårten; Höglund, Martin; Larsson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    To find drugs suitable for repositioning for use against leukemia, samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic, acute myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in response to 1266 compounds from the LOPAC1280 library (Sigma). Twenty-five compounds were defined as hits with activity in all leukemia subgroups (<50% cell survival compared with control) at 10 mu M drug concentration. Only one of these compounds, quinacrine, showed low...

  19. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of tumor bearing dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sherger Matthew; Kisseberth William; London Cheryl; Olivo-Marston Susan; Papenfuss Tracey L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a recently described population of immune cells that significantly contribute to the immunosuppression seen in cancer patients. MDSCs are one of the most important factors that limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy (e.g. cancer vaccines) and MDSC levels are increased in cancer in multiple species. Identifying and targeting MDSCs is actively being investigated in the field of human oncology and is increasingly being investig...

  20. Induction in myeloid leukemic cells of genes that are expressed in different normal tissues

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Using DNA microarray and cluster analysis of expressed genes in a cloned line (M1-t-p53) of myeloid leukemic cells, we have analyzed the expression of genes that are preferentially expressed in different normal tissues. Clustering of 547 highly expressed genes in these leukemic cells showed 38 genes preferentially expressed in normal hematopoietic tissues and 122 other genes preferentially expressed in different normal non-hematopoietic tissues including neuronal tissues, muscle, liver and te...

  1. Successful hematopoietic cell transplantation in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Chernin, Leah R; Abusin, Ghada; Auletta, Jeffery; Cabral, Linda; Egler, Rachel; Ochs, Hans D; Torgerson, Troy R; Lopez-Guisa, Jesus; Hostoffer, Robert W; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Cooke, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by marked reduction in all classes of serum immunoglobulins and the near absence of mature CD19(+) B-cells. Although malignancy has been observed in patients with XLA, we present the first reported case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a patient with XLA. We also demonstrate the complete correction of the XLA phenotype following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment of the patient's leukemia.

  2. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to diagnose and treat patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). LCH occurs with similar frequency as other rare malignancies including Hodgkin's lymphoma and AML. |

  3. [Key molecular mechanisms associated with cell malignant transformation in acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, N N; Lebedev, T D; Spirin, P V; Prassolov, V S

    2016-01-01

    Cancer, along with cardiovascular disorders, is one of the most important problems of healthcare. Pathologies of the hematopoietic system are the most prevalent in patients under 30 years of age, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is widespread and difficult to treat. The review considers the mechanisms that play a significant role in AML cell malignant transformation and shows the contributions of certain genes to both remission and resistance of AML cells to various treatments.

  4. Immunoglobulin genes and T-cell receptors as molecular markers in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL is a malignant clonal disease, one of the most common malignancies in childhood. Contemporary protocols ensure high remission rate and long term free survival. The ability of molecular genetic methods help to establish submicroscopic classification and minimal residual disease (MRD follow up, in major percent responsible for relapse. Objective. The aim of the study was to detect the frequency of IgH and TCR gene rearrangements and their correlation with clinical parameters. Methods. Forty-one children with ALL were enrolled in the study group, with initial diagnosis of IgH and TCR gene rearrangements by polimerase chain reaction ( PCR. MRD follow-up was performed in induction phase when morphological remission was expected, and after intensive chemiotherapy. Results. In the study group IgH rearrangement was detected in 82.9% of children at the diagnosis, while TCR rearrangement was seen in 56.1%. On induction day 33, clonal IgH rearrangements persisted in 39% and TCR rearrangements in 36.5% of children. Conclusion. Molecular analysis of genetic alterations and their correlation with standard prognostic parameters show the importance of risk stratification revision which leads to new therapy intensification approach. MRD stands out as a precise predictive factor for the relapse of disease.

  5. Systemic RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing in Nonhuman Primate and Rodent Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Novobrantseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes are central regulators of inflammation and the target cells of therapies for key diseases, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, and malignant disorders. Efficient in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA to immune cells could thus enable novel treatment strategies with broad applicability. In this report, we develop systemic delivery methods of siRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP for durable and potent in vivo RNA interference (RNAi-mediated silencing in myeloid cells. This work provides the first demonstration of siRNA-mediated silencing in myeloid cell types of nonhuman primates (NHPs and establishes the feasibility of targeting multiple gene targets in rodent myeloid cells. The therapeutic potential of these formulations was demonstrated using siRNA targeting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα which induced substantial attenuation of disease progression comparable to a potent antibody treatment in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In summary, we demonstrate a broadly applicable and therapeutically relevant platform for silencing disease genes in immune cells.

  6. Systemic RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing in Nonhuman Primate and Rodent Myeloid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Borodovsky, Anna; Wong, Jamie; Klebanov, Boris; Zafari, Mohammad; Yucius, Kristina; Querbes, William; Ge, Pei; Ruda, Vera M; Milstein, Stuart; Speciner, Lauren; Duncan, Rick; Barros, Scott; Basha, Genc; Cullis, Pieter; Akinc, Akin; Donahoe, Jessica S; Narayanannair Jayaprakash, K; Jayaraman, Muthusamy; Bogorad, Roman L; Love, Kevin; Whitehead, Katie; Levins, Chris; Manoharan, Muthiah; Swirski, Filip K; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; de Fougerolles, Antonin; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Koteliansky, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Leukocytes are central regulators of inflammation and the target cells of therapies for key diseases, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, and malignant disorders. Efficient in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to immune cells could thus enable novel treatment strategies with broad applicability. In this report, we develop systemic delivery methods of siRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) for durable and potent in vivo RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing in myeloid cells. This work provides the first demonstration of siRNA-mediated silencing in myeloid cell types of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and establishes the feasibility of targeting multiple gene targets in rodent myeloid cells. The therapeutic potential of these formulations was demonstrated using siRNA targeting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) which induced substantial attenuation of disease progression comparable to a potent antibody treatment in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In summary, we demonstrate a broadly applicable and therapeutically relevant platform for silencing disease genes in immune cells. PMID:23344621

  7. Targeting myeloid cells to the brain using non-myeloablative conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotima Böttcher

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs are able to colonize the central nervous system (CNS at sites of damage. This ability makes BMDCs an ideal cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic genes/molecules to the CNS. However, conditioning is required for bone marrow-derived myeloid cells to engraft in the brain, which so far has been achieved by total body irradiation (TBI and by chemotherapy (e.g. busulfan treatment. Unfortunately, both regimens massively disturb the host's hematopoietic compartment. Here, we established a conditioning protocol to target myeloid cells to sites of brain damage in mice using non-myeloablative focal head irradiation (HI. This treatment was associated with comparatively low inflammatory responses in the CNS despite cranial radiation doses which are identical to TBI, as revealed by gene expression analysis of cytokines/chemokines such as CCL2, CXCL10, TNF-α and CCL5. HI prior to bone marrow transplantation resulted in much lower levels of blood chimerism defined as the percentage of donor-derived cells in peripheral blood ( 95% or busulfan treatment (> 50%. Nevertheless, HI effectively recruited myeloid cells to the area of motoneuron degeneration in the brainstem within 7 days after facial nerve axotomy. In contrast, no donor-derived cells were detected in the lesioned facial nucleus of busulfan-treated animals up to 2 weeks after transplantation. Our findings suggest that myeloid cells can be targeted to sites of brain damage even in the presence of very low levels of peripheral blood chimerism. We established a novel non-myeloablative conditioning protocol with minimal disturbance of the host's hematopoietic system for targeting BMDCs specifically to areas of pathology in the brain.

  8. Loss of variation of state detected in soybean metabolic and human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional networks under external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Katsumi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Okumura, Jun; Ishige, Kentaro; Suzuki, Harukazu; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-10-24

    Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state-space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants. Loss of variation of state was also observed in a human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional network in response to a phorbol-ester stimulus. Thus, we detected a loss of variation of state under external stimuli in two biological systems, regardless of the regulation and stimulus types. Our results suggest that a loss of robustness may occur concurrently with the loss of variation of state in biological systems. We describe the possible applications of the quantity of variation of state in plant genetic engineering and cell biology. Finally, we present a hypothetical "external stimulus-induced information loss" model of biological systems.

  9. Loss of variation of state detected in soybean metabolic and human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional networks under external stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Sakata, Katsumi

    2016-10-24

    Soybean (Glycine max) is sensitive to flooding stress, and flood damage at the seedling stage is a barrier to growth. We constructed two mathematical models of the soybean metabolic network, a control model and a flooded model, from metabolic profiles in soybean plants. We simulated the metabolic profiles with perturbations before and after the flooding stimulus using the two models. We measured the variation of state that the system could maintain from a state–space description of the simulated profiles. The results showed a loss of variation of state during the flooding response in the soybean plants. Loss of variation of state was also observed in a human myelomonocytic leukaemia cell transcriptional network in response to a phorbol-ester stimulus. Thus, we detected a loss of variation of state under external stimuli in two biological systems, regardless of the regulation and stimulus types. Our results suggest that a loss of robustness may occur concurrently with the loss of variation of state in biological systems. We describe the possible applications of the quantity of variation of state in plant genetic engineering and cell biology. Finally, we present a hypothetical “external stimulus-induced information loss” model of biological systems.

  10. Microglia-derived interleukin-6 and leukaemia inhibitory factor promote astrocytic differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masaya; Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Matsuda, Satoru; Akaike, Akinori; Kihara, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    2007-02-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) proliferate and differentiate depending on their intrinsic properties and local environment. It has been recognized that astrocytes promote neurogenic differentiation of NSPCs, suggesting the importance of cell-cell interactions between glial cells and NSPCs. Recent studies have demonstrated that microglia, one type of glial cells, play an important role in neurogenesis. However, little is known about how activated microglia control the proliferation and differentiation of NSPCs. In this study, we investigated the possibility that microglia-derived soluble factors regulate the behaviour of NSPCs. To this end, NSPCs and microglial cultures were obtained from rat embryonic day 16 subventricular zone (SVZ) and rat postnatal 1 day cortex, respectively, and the conditioned medium from microglia was prepared. Microglial-conditioned medium had no significant effect on the proliferation of NSPCs. In contrast, it increased the percentage of cells positive for a marker of astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) during differentiation. The induction of astrocytic differentiation by microglial-conditioned medium was reduced by the inhibition of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activation of transcription (JAK/STAT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Furthermore, microglia-derived interleukin (IL)-6 and leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were identified as essential molecules for this astrocytic differentiation using neutralizing antibodies and recombinant cytokines. Our results suggest that microglia as well as astrocytes contribute to the integrity of the local environment of NSPCs, and at least IL-6 and LIF released by activated microglia promote astrocytic differentiation of NSPCs via the activation of the JAK/STAT and MAPK pathways.

  11. Human herpes virus-6 seroprevalence and leukaemias: a case-control study. GIMEMA (Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, G; Mele, A; Ragona, G; Faggioni, A; Zompetta, C; Tosti, M E; Visani, G; Castelli, G; Pulsoni, A; Monarca, B; Martino, P; Mandelli, F

    1999-06-01

    The relationships between acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and human herpes virus (HHV)-6 antibody level were investigated in a multicentre case-control study. An association between increased HHV-6 seropositivity and geometric mean titre ratio with AML was shown: P for trend = 0.022, adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.33 respectively. No association was found between HHV-6 and ALL, CML or RAEB.

  12. Histone deacetylase 11: A novel epigenetic regulator of myeloid derived suppressor cell expansion and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakian, Eva; Powers, John J; Chen, Jie; Deng, Susan L; Cheng, Fengdong; Distler, Allison; Woods, David M; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Sodre, Andressa L; Youn, Je-In; Woan, Karrune V; Villagra, Alejandro; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Sotomayor, Eduardo M; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier

    2015-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of cells capable of suppressing anti-tumor T cell function in the tumor microenvironment, represent an imposing obstacle in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics. Thus, identifying elements essential to the development and perpetuation of these cells will undoubtedly improve our ability to circumvent their suppressive impact. HDAC11 has emerged as a key regulator of IL-10 gene expression in myeloid cells, suggesting that this may represent an important targetable axis through which to dampen MDSC formation. Using a murine transgenic reporter model system where eGFP expression is controlled by the HDAC11 promoter (Tg-HDAC11-eGFP), we provide evidence that HDAC11 appears to function as a negative regulator of MDSC expansion/function in vivo. MDSCs isolated from EL4 tumor-bearing Tg-HDAC11-eGFP display high expression of eGFP, indicative of HDAC11 transcriptional activation at steady state. In striking contrast, immature myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice display a diminished eGFP expression, implying that the transition of IMC to MDSC's require a decrease in the expression of HDAC11, where we postulate that it acts as a gate-keeper of myeloid differentiation. Indeed, tumor-bearing HDAC11-knockout mice (HDAC11-KO) demonstrate a more suppressive MDSC population as compared to wild-type (WT) tumor-bearing control. Notably, the HDAC11-KO tumor-bearing mice exhibit enhanced tumor growth kinetics when compare to the WT control mice. Thus, through a better understanding of this previously unknown role of HDAC11 in MDSC expansion and function, rational development of targeted epigenetic modifiers may allow us to thwart a powerful barrier to efficacious immunotherapies.

  13. Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myeloid Leukemia (CML) Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase Treatment options for people ... a stem cell donor with matching tissue type. Chronic phase The standard treatment for chronic phase CML ...

  14. Cyanobacteria from terrestrial and marine sources contain apoptogens able to overcome chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated forty cyanobacterial isolates from biofilms, gastropods, brackish water and symbiotic lichen habitats. Their aqueous and organic extracts were used to screen for apoptosis-inducing activity against acute myeloid leukemia cells. A total of 28 extracts showed cytotoxicity against rat acute myeloid leukemia (IPC-81) cells. The design of the screen made it possible to eliminate known toxins, such as microcystins and nodularin, or known metabolites with anti-leukemi...

  15. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. II. A hybridoma secreting antibody against an antigen expressed by human B and null lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Thomas, M E; Zola, H

    1980-06-01

    A hybridoma (FMC4) has been derived which secretes antibody showing selective reaction with human B lymphocytes, monocytes and some null lymphocytes. Few, if any, T lymphocytes in normal blood are stained, although stimulation of lymphocytes with PHA leads to an increase in the proportion of cells reacting with the hybridoma antibody. The antibody reacts with B and null lymphoblastoid cell lines but not with T cell lines. B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells but not T-CLLs are stained and null-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells but not T-type ALL also react. Normal blood myeloid cells do not react with FMC4 supernatant whilst some myeloid leukaemias do. The expression of the antigen reacting with FMC4 supernatant suggests that FMC4 may secrete an antibody against the human equivalent of the Ia antigen.

  16. The DC-HIL/syndecan-4 pathway regulates autoimmune responses through myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Sung; Tamura, Kyoichi; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Cruz, Ponciano D; Ariizumi, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-15

    Having discovered that the dendritic cell (DC)-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent integrin ligand (DC-HIL) receptor on APCs inhibits T cell activation by binding to syndecan-4 (SD-4) on T cells, we hypothesized that the DC-HIL/SD-4 pathway may regulate autoimmune responses. Using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a disease model, we noted an increase in SD-4(+) T cells in lymphoid organs of wild-type (WT) mice immunized for EAE. The autoimmune disease was also more severely induced (clinically, histologically, and immunophenotypically) in mice knocked out for SD-4 compared with WT cohorts. Moreover, infusion of SD-4(-/-) naive T cells during EAE induction into Rag2(-/-) mice also led to increased severity of EAE in these animals. Similar to SD-4 on T cells, DC-HIL expression was upregulated on myeloid cells during EAE induction, with CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as the most expanded population and most potent T cell suppressor among the myeloid cells examined. The critical role of DC-HIL was supported by DC-HIL gene deletion or anti-DC-HIL treatment, which abrogated T cell suppressor activity of MDSCs, and also by DC-HIL activation inducing MDSC expression of IFN-γ, NO, and reactive oxygen species. Akin to SD-4(-/-) mice, DC-HIL(-/-) mice manifested exacerbated EAE. Adoptive transfer of MDSCs from EAE-affected WT mice into DC-HIL(-/-) mice reduced EAE severity to the level of EAE-immunized WT mice, an outcome that was precluded by depleting DC-HIL(+) cells from the infused MDSC preparation. Our findings indicate that the DC-HIL/SD-4 pathway regulates autoimmune responses by mediating the T cell suppressor function of MDSCs.

  17. Activated T cells sustain myeloid-derived suppressor cell-mediated immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Laura; Solito, Samantha; Damuzzo, Vera; Francescato, Samuela; Pozzuoli, Assunta; Berizzi, Antonio; Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Bronte, Vincenzo; Mandruzzato, Susanna

    2016-01-12

    The expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a suppressive population able to hamper the immune response against cancer, correlates with tumor progression and overall survival in several cancer types. We have previously shown that MDSCs can be induced in vitro from precursors present in the bone marrow and observed that these cells are able to actively proliferate in the presence of activated T cells, whose activation level is critical to drive the suppressive activity of MDSCs. Here we investigated at molecular level the mechanisms involved in the interplay between MDSCs and activated T cells. We found that activated T cells secrete IL-10 following interaction with MDSCs which, in turn, activates STAT3 phosphorylation on MDSCs then leading to B7-H1 expression. We also demonstrated that B7-H1+ MDSCs are responsible for immune suppression through a mechanism involving ARG-1 and IDO expression. Finally, we show that the expression of ligands B7-H1 and MHC class II both on in vitro-induced MDSCs and on MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment of cancer patients is paralleled by an increased expression of their respective receptors PD-1 and LAG-3 on T cells, two inhibitory molecules associated with T cell dysfunction. These findings highlight key molecules and interactions responsible for the extensive cross-talk between MDSCs and activated T cells that are at the basis of immune suppression.

  18. Single-cell transcriptomics uncovers distinct molecular signatures of stem cells in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustacchini, Alice; Thongjuea, Supat; Barkas, Nikolaos; Woll, Petter S; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Booth, Christopher A G; Sopp, Paul; Norfo, Ruggiero; Rodriguez-Meira, Alba; Ashley, Neil; Jamieson, Lauren; Vyas, Paresh; Anderson, Kristina; Segerstolpe, Åsa; Qian, Hong; Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla; Mustjoki, Satu; Sandberg, Rickard; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Mead, Adam J

    2017-06-01

    Recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics are ideally placed to unravel intratumoral heterogeneity and selective resistance of cancer stem cell (SC) subpopulations to molecularly targeted cancer therapies. However, current single-cell RNA-sequencing approaches lack the sensitivity required to reliably detect somatic mutations. We developed a method that combines high-sensitivity mutation detection with whole-transcriptome analysis of the same single cell. We applied this technique to analyze more than 2,000 SCs from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) throughout the disease course, revealing heterogeneity of CML-SCs, including the identification of a subgroup of CML-SCs with a distinct molecular signature that selectively persisted during prolonged therapy. Analysis of nonleukemic SCs from patients with CML also provided new insights into cell-extrinsic disruption of hematopoiesis in CML associated with clinical outcome. Furthermore, we used this single-cell approach to identify a blast-crisis-specific SC population, which was also present in a subclone of CML-SCs during the chronic phase in a patient who subsequently developed blast crisis. This approach, which might be broadly applied to any malignancy, illustrates how single-cell analysis can identify subpopulations of therapy-resistant SCs that are not apparent through cell-population analysis.

  19. Neurofibromin Deficient Myeloid Cells are Critical Mediators of Aneurysm Formation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Downing, Brandon D.; Smiley, Lucy C.; Mund, Julie A.; DiStasi, Matthew R.; Bessler, Waylan K.; Sarchet, Kara N.; Hinds, Daniel M.; Kamendulis, Lisa M.; Hingtgen, Cynthia M.; Case, Jamie; Clapp, D. Wade; Conway, Simon J.; Stansfield, Brian K.; Ingram, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Neurofibromin, the protein product of NF1, functions as a negative regulator of Ras activity in circulating hematopoietic and vascular wall cells, which are critical for maintaining vessel wall homeostasis. NF1 patients have evidence of chronic inflammation resulting in development of premature cardiovascular disease, including arterial aneurysms, which may manifest as sudden death. However, the molecular pathogenesis of NF1 aneurysm formation is unknown. Method and Results Utilizing an angiotensin II-induced aneurysm model, we demonstrate that heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 (Nf1+/−) enhanced aneurysm formation with myeloid cell infiltration and increased oxidative stress in the vessel wall. Using lineage-restricted transgenic mice, we show loss of a single Nf1 allele in myeloid cells is sufficient to recapitulate the Nf1+/− aneurysm phenotype in vivo. Finally, oral administration of simvastatin or the antioxidant apocynin, reduced aneurysm formation in Nf1+/− mice. Conclusion These data provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that Nf1+/− myeloid cells are the cellular triggers for aneurysm formation in a novel model of NF1 vasculopathy and provide a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24370551

  20. Energy metabolism drives myeloid-derived suppressor cell differentiation and functions in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Antonio; Strauss, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade, a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with major regulatory functions has been described in cancer and other pathologic conditions and ultimately defined as MDSCs. Most of the early work on the origins and functions of MDSCs has been in murine and human tumor bearers in which MDSCs are known to be immunosuppressive and to result in both reduced immune surveillance and antitumor cytotoxicity. More recent studies, however, suggest that expansion of these immature myeloid cells may be linked to most, if not all, chronic and acute inflammatory processes. The universal expansion to inflammatory stimuli of MDSCs suggests that these cells may be more of a normal component of the inflammatory response (emergency myelopoiesis) than simply a pathologic response to a growing tumor. Instead of an adverse immunosuppressive response, expansion of these immature myeloid cell populations may result from a complex balance between increased immune surveillance and dampened adaptive immune responses that are common to many inflammatory responses. Within this scenario, new pathways of metabolic reprogramming are emerging as drivers of MDSC differentiation and functions in cancer and inflammatory disorders, crucially linking metabolic syndrome to inflammatory processes. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. ATM facilitates mouse gammaherpesvirus reactivation from myeloid cells during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinski, Joseph M; Darrah, Eric J; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Mboko, Wadzanai P; Mounce, Bryan C; Malherbe, Laurent P; Corbett, John A; Gauld, Stephen B; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2015-09-01

    Gammaherpesviruses are cancer-associated pathogens that establish life-long infection in most adults. Insufficiency of Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase leads to a poor control of chronic gammaherpesvirus infection via an unknown mechanism that likely involves a suboptimal antiviral response. In contrast to the phenotype in the intact host, ATM facilitates gammaherpesvirus reactivation and replication in vitro. We hypothesized that ATM mediates both pro- and antiviral activities to regulate chronic gammaherpesvirus infection in an immunocompetent host. To test the proposed proviral activity of ATM in vivo, we generated mice with ATM deficiency limited to myeloid cells. Myeloid-specific ATM deficiency attenuated gammaherpesvirus infection during the establishment of viral latency. The results of our study uncover a proviral role of ATM in the context of gammaherpesvirus infection in vivo and support a model where ATM combines pro- and antiviral functions to facilitate both gammaherpesvirus-specific T cell immune response and viral reactivation in vivo.

  2. Expression of the B-cell receptor component CD79a on immature myeloid cells contributes to their tumor promoting effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Luger

    Full Text Available The role of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs in promoting tumorigenesis is well-established, and significant effort is being made to further characterize surface markers on MDSCs both for better diagnosis and as potential targets for therapy. Here we show that the B cell receptor adaptor molecule CD79a is unexpectedly expressed on immature bone marrow myeloid cells, and is upregulated on MDSCs generated in multiple different mouse models of metastatic but not non-metastatic cancer. CD79a on MDSCs is upregulated and activated in response to soluble factors secreted by tumor cells. Activation of CD79a on mouse MDSCs, by crosslinking with a specific antibody, maintained their immature phenotype (CD11b+Gr1+, enhanced their migration, increased their suppressive effect on T cell proliferation, and increased secretion of pro-tumorigenic cytokines such as IL-6 and CCL22. Furthermore, crosslinking CD79a on myeloid cells activated signaling through Syk, BLNK, ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation. In vivo, CD79+ myeloid cells showed enhanced ability to promote primary tumor growth and metastasis. Finally we demonstrate that CD79a is upregulated on circulating myeloid cells from lung cancer patients, and that CD79a+ myeloid cells infiltrate human breast tumors. We propose that CD79a plays a functional role in the tumor promoting effects of myeloid cells, and may represent a novel target for cancer therapy.

  3. Myeloid infection links epithelial and B cell tropisms of Murid Herpesvirus-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Frederico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-herpesviruses persist in lymphocytes and cause disease by driving their proliferation. Lymphocyte infection is therefore a key pathogenetic event. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 is a rhadinovirus that like the related Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus persists in B cells in vivo yet infects them poorly in vitro. Here we used MuHV-4 to understand how virion tropism sets the path to lymphocyte colonization. Virions that were highly infectious in vivo showed a severe post-binding block to B cell infection. Host entry was accordingly an epithelial infection and B cell infection a secondary event. Macrophage infection by cell-free virions was also poor, but improved markedly when virion binding improved or when macrophages were co-cultured with infected fibroblasts. Under the same conditions B cell infection remained poor; it improved only when virions came from macrophages. This reflected better cell penetration and correlated with antigenic changes in the virion fusion complex. Macrophages were seen to contact acutely infected epithelial cells, and cre/lox-based virus tagging showed that almost all the virus recovered from lymphoid tissue had passed through lysM(+ and CD11c(+ myeloid cells. Thus MuHV-4 reached B cells in 3 distinct stages: incoming virions infected epithelial cells; infection then passed to myeloid cells; glycoprotein changes then allowed B cell infection. These data identify new complexity in rhadinovirus infection and potentially also new vulnerability to intervention.

  4. Myeloid infection links epithelial and B cell tropisms of Murid Herpesvirus-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Bruno; Milho, Ricardo; May, Janet S; Gillet, Laurent; Stevenson, Philip G

    2012-09-01

    Gamma-herpesviruses persist in lymphocytes and cause disease by driving their proliferation. Lymphocyte infection is therefore a key pathogenetic event. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) is a rhadinovirus that like the related Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus persists in B cells in vivo yet infects them poorly in vitro. Here we used MuHV-4 to understand how virion tropism sets the path to lymphocyte colonization. Virions that were highly infectious in vivo showed a severe post-binding block to B cell infection. Host entry was accordingly an epithelial infection and B cell infection a secondary event. Macrophage infection by cell-free virions was also poor, but improved markedly when virion binding improved or when macrophages were co-cultured with infected fibroblasts. Under the same conditions B cell infection remained poor; it improved only when virions came from macrophages. This reflected better cell penetration and correlated with antigenic changes in the virion fusion complex. Macrophages were seen to contact acutely infected epithelial cells, and cre/lox-based virus tagging showed that almost all the virus recovered from lymphoid tissue had passed through lysM(+) and CD11c(+) myeloid cells. Thus MuHV-4 reached B cells in 3 distinct stages: incoming virions infected epithelial cells; infection then passed to myeloid cells; glycoprotein changes then allowed B cell infection. These data identify new complexity in rhadinovirus infection and potentially also new vulnerability to intervention.

  5. Small?molecule Hedgehog inhibitor attenuates the leukemia?initiation potential of acute myeloid leukemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Nobuaki; Minami, Yosuke; Kakiuchi, Seiji; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Jamieson, Catoriona; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway has been implicated in the maintenance of leukemia stem cell populations in several model systems. PF?04449913 (PF?913) is a selective, small?molecule inhibitor of Smoothened, a membrane protein that regulates the Hedgehog pathway. However, details of the proof?of?concept and mechanism of action of PF?913 following administration to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are unclear. This study examined the role of the Hedgehog signali...

  6. The normal flora may contribute to the quantitative preponderance of myeloid cells under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shi; LiHua, Hu

    2011-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the innate immune cells derived from myeloid lineage absolutely outnumber the lymphoid cells. At present, two theories are attributed to the maintenance of haemopoiesis: the asymmetric cell division and the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment or "niche". However, the former only explains the self-renewal of haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the start of haemopoietic differentiation but fails to address the inducers of cell fate decisions; the latter has to admit that the hematopoietic cytokines, despite their significance in the maintenance of haemopoiesis, have no specific effect on lineage commitment. Given these flaws, the advantageous mechanism of myeloid haemopoiesis has not yet been uncovered in the current theories. The discoveries that bacterial components (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and intestinal decontamination affect the mobilization of HSC trigger the interest in normal flora, which together with their components may have an effect on haemopoiesis. In the experiments in dogs and mice, researchers documented that the generation of myeloid cells has undergone changes in the bone marrow and periphery when antibiotics are used to regulate the normal intestinal flora and the concentration of its components. However, the same changes are not involved in lymphoid cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that in human body normal flora and its components are a driving force to maintain myeloid haemopoiesis under physiological conditions. To account for the selectiveness in haemopoiesis, these facts should be taken into consideration, such as HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) functionally expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRR), and both of them can self-migrate or be recruited by normal flora or its components into periphery. Dynamically monitoring the myeloid haemopoiesis may provide an important complementary program that precludes the abuse of antibiotics, which prevents diseases triggered by the imbalance of normal

  7. Loss of C/EBP alpha cell cycle control increases myeloid progenitor proliferation and transforms the neutrophil granulocyte lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Bo T; Bryder, David; Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)alpha is a myeloid-specific transcription factor that couples lineage commitment to terminal differentiation and cell cycle arrest, and is found mutated in 9% of patients who have acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We previously showed that mutations which......, accumulation of myeloblasts and promyelocytes, and expansion of myeloid progenitor populations--all characteristics of AML. Circulating myeloblasts and hepatic leukocyte infiltration were observed, but thrombocytopenia, anemia, and elevated leukocyte count--normally associated with AML-were absent...

  8. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  9. A20 (Tnfaip3 deficiency in myeloid cells protects against influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maelfait

    Full Text Available The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against viruses and other pathogens by responding to specific microbial molecules. Influenza A virus (IAV produces double-stranded RNA as an intermediate during the replication life cycle, which activates the intracellular pathogen recognition receptor RIG-I and induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antiviral interferon. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses to IAV and other viruses is of key importance to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Here we used myeloid cell specific A20 knockout mice to examine the role of the ubiquitin-editing protein A20 in the response of myeloid cells to IAV infection. A20 deficient macrophages were hyperresponsive to double stranded RNA and IAV infection, as illustrated by enhanced NF-κB and IRF3 activation, concomitant with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and type I interferon. In vivo this was associated with an increased number of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs of IAV infected mice. Surprisingly, myeloid cell specific A20 knockout mice are protected against lethal IAV infection. These results challenge the general belief that an excessive host proinflammatory response is associated with IAV-induced lethality, and suggest that under certain conditions inhibition of A20 might be of interest in the management of IAV infections.

  10. Natural Product Vibsanin A Induces Differentiation of Myeloid Leukemia Cells through PKC Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zu-Yin; Xiao, He; Wang, Li-Mei; Shen, Xing; Jing, Yu; Wang, Lin; Sun, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Cui, Yu; Shan, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Wen-Bing; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Dong, Bo; Feng, Jian-Nan; Wang, Li-Sheng; Luo, Qing-Liang; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Cong, Yu-Wen

    2016-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based cell differentiation therapy has been successful in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, other subtypes of AML display resistance to ATRA-based treatment. In this study, we screened natural, plant-derived vibsane-type diterpenoids for their ability to induce differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells, discovering that vibsanin A potently induced differentiation of AML cell lines and primary blasts. The differentiation-inducing activity of vibsanin A was mediated through direct interaction with and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Consistent with these findings, pharmacological blockade of PKC activity suppressed vibsanin A-induced differentiation. Mechanistically, vibsanin A-mediated activation of PKC led to induction of the ERK pathway and decreased c-Myc expression. In mouse xenograft models of AML, vibsanin A administration prolonged host survival and inhibited PKC-mediated inflammatory responses correlated with promotion of skin tumors in mice. Collectively, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for vibsanin A as a myeloid differentiation-inducing compound, with potential application as an antileukemic agent. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2698-709. ©2016 AACR.

  11. Matrine induces apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukemia cells via the mitochondrial pathway and Akt inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Zhang

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a hematological malignancy characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature myeloid cells in bone marrow. Despite recent advances in the treatment, AML remains an incurable disease. Matrine, a major component extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects on various cancer cell lines. However, the effects of matrine on AML remain largely unknown. Here we investigated its anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms on human AML cells in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that matrine inhibited cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in AML cell lines as well as primary AML cells from patients with AML in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Matrine induced apoptosis by collapsing the mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing cytochrome c release from mitochondria, reducing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increasing activation of caspase-3, and decreasing the levels of p-Akt and p-ERK1/2. The apoptotic effects of matrine on AML cells were partially blocked by a caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK and a PI3K/Akt activator IGF-1, respectively. Matrine potently inhibited in vivo tumor growth following subcutaneous inoculation of HL-60 cells in SCID mice. These findings indicate that matrine can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of AML cells and may be a novel effective candidate as chemotherapeutic agent against AML.

  12. The Role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Immune Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Gervassi, Ana; Jaspan, Heather; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of granulocytic or monocytic cells that suppress innate as well as adaptive immune responses. In healthy adults, immature myeloid cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes in the bone marrow and MDSC are rarely detected in peripheral blood. However, in certain pathologies, in particular malignancies and chronic infection, differentiation of these cells is altered resulting in accumulation of circulating suppressive myeloid cells. MDSC express suppressive factors such as arginase-1, reactive oxygen species, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which have the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytoxicity, induce the expansion of regulatory T cells, and block natural killer cell activation. It is increasingly recognized that MDSC alter the immune response to several cancers, and perhaps chronic viral infections, in clinically important ways. In this review, we outline the potential contribution of MDSC to the generation of feto-maternal tolerance and to the ineffective immune responses to many infections and vaccines observed in early post-natal life. Granulocytic MDSC are present in large numbers in pregnant women and in cord blood, and wane rapidly during infancy. Furthermore, cord blood MDSC suppress in vitro T cell and NK responses, suggesting that they may play a significant role in human immune ontogeny. However, there are currently no data that demonstrate in vivo effects of MDSC on feto-maternal tolerance or immune ontogeny. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the functional importance of MDSC, including their effects on control of infection and response to vaccination in infancy. Importantly, several pharmacologic interventions have the potential to reverse MDSC function. Understanding the role of MDSC in infant ontogeny and their mechanisms of action could lead to interventions that reduce mortality due to early-life infections. PMID:25165466

  13. The role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in immune ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren eGantt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC are a heterogeneous population of granulocytic or monocytic cells that suppress innate as well as adaptive immune responses. In healthy adults, immature myeloid cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes in the bone marrow, and MDSC are rarely detected in peripheral blood. However, in certain pathologies, in particular malignancies and chronic infection, differentiation of these cells is altered resulting in accumulation of circulating suppressive myeloid cells. MDSC express suppressive factors such as arginase-1, reactive oxygen species, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which have the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytoxicity, induce the expansion of regulatory T cells, and block natural killer cell activation. It is increasingly recognized that MDSC alter the immune response to several cancers, and perhaps chronic viral infections, in clinically important ways. In this review, we outline the potential contribution of MDSC to the generation of feto-maternal tolerance and to the ineffective immune responses to many infections and vaccines observed in early post-natal life. Granulocytic MDSC are present in large numbers in pregnant women and in cord blood, and wane rapidly during infancy. Furthermore, cord blood MDSC suppress in vitro T cell and NK responses, suggesting that they may play a significant role in human immune ontogeny. However, there are currently no data that demonstrate in vivo effects of MDSC on feto-maternal tolerance or immune ontogeny. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the functional importance of MDSC, including their effects on control of infection and response to vaccination in infancy. Importantly, several pharmacologic interventions have the potential to reverse MDSC function. Understanding the role of MDSC in infant ontogeny and their mechanisms of action could lead to interventions that reduce mortality due to early-life infections.

  14. The role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in immune ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Gervassi, Ana; Jaspan, Heather; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of granulocytic or monocytic cells that suppress innate as well as adaptive immune responses. In healthy adults, immature myeloid cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes in the bone marrow and MDSC are rarely detected in peripheral blood. However, in certain pathologies, in particular malignancies and chronic infection, differentiation of these cells is altered resulting in accumulation of circulating suppressive myeloid cells. MDSC express suppressive factors such as arginase-1, reactive oxygen species, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which have the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytoxicity, induce the expansion of regulatory T cells, and block natural killer cell activation. It is increasingly recognized that MDSC alter the immune response to several cancers, and perhaps chronic viral infections, in clinically important ways. In this review, we outline the potential contribution of MDSC to the generation of feto-maternal tolerance and to the ineffective immune responses to many infections and vaccines observed in early post-natal life. Granulocytic MDSC are present in large numbers in pregnant women and in cord blood, and wane rapidly during infancy. Furthermore, cord blood MDSC suppress in vitro T cell and NK responses, suggesting that they may play a significant role in human immune ontogeny. However, there are currently no data that demonstrate in vivo effects of MDSC on feto-maternal tolerance or immune ontogeny. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the functional importance of MDSC, including their effects on control of infection and response to vaccination in infancy. Importantly, several pharmacologic interventions have the potential to reverse MDSC function. Understanding the role of MDSC in infant ontogeny and their mechanisms of action could lead to interventions that reduce mortality due to early-life infections.

  15. Myeloid cells in circulation and tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Salman M; Syed Khaja, Azharuddin Sajid; El Salhat, Haytham; Faour, Issam; Kanbar, Jihad; Quadri, Asif A; Albashir, Mohamed; Elkord, Eyad

    2017-06-01

    Pathological conditions including cancers lead to accumulation of a morphological mixture of highly immunosuppressive cells termed as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). The lack of conclusive markers to identify human MDSC, due to their heterogeneous nature and close phenotypical and functional proximity with other cell subsets, made it challenging to identify these cells. Nevertheless, expansion of MDSC has been reported in periphery and tumor microenvironment of various cancers. The majority of studies on breast cancers were performed on murine models and hence limited literature is available on the relation of MDSC accumulation with clinical settings in breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate levels and phenotypes of myeloid cells in peripheral blood (n = 23) and tumor microenvironment of primary breast cancer patients (n = 7), compared with blood from healthy donors (n = 21) and paired non-tumor normal breast tissues from the same patients (n = 7). Using multicolor flow cytometric assays, we found that breast cancer patients had significantly higher levels of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, which comprised of granulocytes (P = 0.022) and immature cells that lack the expression of markers for fully differentiated monocytes or granulocytes (P = 0.016). Importantly, this expansion was not reflected in the peripheral blood. The immunosuppressive potential of these cells was confirmed by expression of Arginase 1 (ARG1), which is pivotal for T-cell suppression. These findings are important for developing therapeutic modalities to target mechanisms employed by immunosuppressive cells that generate an immune-permissive environment for the progression of cancer.

  16. Clinical activity of azacitidine in patients who relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craddock, Charles; Labopin, Myriam; Robin, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Disease relapse is the most common cause of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, yet treatment options for such patients remain extremely limited. Azacitidine is an important new therapy in high-risk myelodysplastic...... syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia but its role in patients who relapse post allograft has not been defined. We studied the tolerability and activity of azacitidine in 181 patients who relapsed after an allograft for acute myeloid leukemia (n=116) or myelodysplastic syndromes (n=65). Sixty-nine patients...... conclude that azacitidine represents an important new therapy in selected patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes who relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prospective studies to confirm optimal treatment options in this challenging patient population are required....

  17. Identifying alemtuzumab as an anti-myeloid cell antiangiogenic therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer

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    Coukos George

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine studies suggest that myeloid cells such as vascular leukocytes (VLC and Tie2+ monocytes play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Myeloid cells are a primary cause of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. The elimination of these cells from the tumor microenvironment significantly restricts tumor growth in both spontaneous and xenograft murine tumor models. Thus animal studies indicate that myeloid cells are potential therapeutic targets for solid tumor therapy. Abundant VLC and Tie2+ monocytes have been reported in human cancer. Unfortunately, the importance of VLC in human cancer growth remains untested as there are no confirmed therapeutics to target human VLC. Methods We used FACS to analyze VLC in ovarian and non-ovarian tumors, and characterize the relationship of VLC and Tie2-monocytes. We performed qRT-PCR and FACS on human VLC to assess the expression of the CD52 antigen, the target of the immunotherapeutic Alemtuzumab. We assessed Alemtuzumab's ability to induce complement-mediated VLC killing in vitro and in human tumor ascites. Finally we assessed the impact of anti-CD52 immuno-toxin therapy on murine ovarian tumor growth. Results Human VLC are present in ovarian and non-ovarian tumors. The majority of VLC appear to be Tie2+ monocytes. VLC and Tie2+ monocytes express high levels of CD52, the target of the immunotherapeutic Alemtuzumab. Alemtuzumab potently induces complement-mediated lysis of VLC in vitro and ex-vivo in ovarian tumor ascites. Anti-CD52 immunotherapy targeting VLC restricts tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine ovarian cancer. Conclusion These studies confirm VLC/myeloid cells as therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. Our data provide critical pre-clinical evidence supporting the use of Alemtuzumab in clinical trials to test its efficacy as an anti-myeloid cell antiangiogenic therapeutic in ovarian cancer. The identification of an FDA approved anti-VLC agent with a history

  18. Intelligent Techniques Using Molecular Data Analysis in Leukaemia: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjar, Haneen; Adelson, David; Brown, Fred; Chaudhri, Naeem

    2017-01-01

    The use of intelligent techniques in medicine has brought a ray of hope in terms of treating leukaemia patients. Personalized treatment uses patient's genetic profile to select a mode of treatment. This process makes use of molecular technology and machine learning, to determine the most suitable approach to treating a leukaemia patient. Until now, no reviews have been published from a computational perspective concerning the development of personalized medicine intelligent techniques for leukaemia patients using molecular data analysis. This review studies the published empirical research on personalized medicine in leukaemia and synthesizes findings across studies related to intelligence techniques in leukaemia, with specific attention to particular categories of these studies to help identify opportunities for further research into personalized medicine support systems in chronic myeloid leukaemia. A systematic search was carried out to identify studies using intelligence techniques in leukaemia and to categorize these studies based on leukaemia type and also the task, data source, and purpose of the studies. Most studies used molecular data analysis for personalized medicine, but future advancement for leukaemia patients requires molecular models that use advanced machine-learning methods to automate decision-making in treatment management to deliver supportive medical information to the patient in clinical practice.

  19. Regulatory T cells and human myeloid dendritic cells promote tolerance via programmed death ligand-1.

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    Shoba Amarnath

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy using regulatory T cells (Treg has been proposed, yet cellular and molecular mechanisms of human Tregs remain incompletely characterized. Here, we demonstrate that human Tregs promote the generation of myeloid dendritic cells (DC with reduced capacity to stimulate effector T cell responses. In a model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, allogeneic human DC conditioned with Tregs suppressed human T cell activation and completely abrogated posttransplant lethality. Tregs induced programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 expression on Treg-conditioned DC; subsequently, Treg-conditioned DC induced PD-L1 expression in vivo on effector T cells. PD-L1 blockade reversed Treg-conditioned DC function in vitro and in vivo, thereby demonstrating that human Tregs can promote immune suppression via DC modulation through PD-L1 up-regulation. This identification of a human Treg downstream cellular effector (DC and molecular mechanism (PD-L1 will facilitate the rational design of clinical trials to modulate alloreactivity.

  20. Risk factors for therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: After successful treatment of malignant diseases, therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia have emerged as significant problems. DESIGN AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigate outcome and risk factors in patients with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Between 1981 and 2006, 461 patients with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome o...

  1. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently home to site of injury after intravenous administration and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaozhe; Lv, Gang; Huang, Jianhua; Min, Yongfen; Yang, Li; Lin, Pengnian Charles

    2014-06-01

    Vascularization is an important factor that affects diabetic wound healing. There is increasing evidence that myeloid cell lineages play a role in neovascularization. In this study, the efficiency of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to home to the site of injury and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration was investigated. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were injected into tail vein after establishment of dorsal window chamber, hindlimb ischaemia and ear-punch injury in diabetic or non-diabetic mice. The Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently homed to the site of injury after intravenous administration and increased neoangiogenesis. The chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is robustly expressed by Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. Inhibition of CXCR4 decreases the homing ability of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury, which indicates that the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis plays an important role in the homing of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury. In addition, Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were found to improve blood flow recovery of ischaemic limb and enhance wound healing in diabetic mice by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells may serve as a potential cell therapy for diabetic wound healing.

  2. MBA-induced differentiation of myeloid leukemic cell lines is associated with altered G1 cell cycle regulators and related genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钦红; 谢毅; 范华骅

    2004-01-01

    @@The proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells can be regulated by a number of physiological agents including hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). Clinically, HMBA has been used for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.1 However, the mechanism of the effect of HMBA on the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells is largely unkown. Up to now, related reports have not been found. We used HL-60 and U937 cell lines to study the effect of HMBA on the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells and to explore the possible mechanism.

  3. Interleukin-10 production by myeloid-derived suppressor cells contributes to bacterial persistence during Staphylococcus aureus orthopedic biofilm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Cortney E.; Vidlak, Debbie; Kielian, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to establish biofilms on medical devices. We recently demonstrated that Ly6GhighLy6C+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells are critical for allowing S. aureus biofilms to subvert immune-mediated clearance; however, the mechanisms whereby myeloid-derived suppressor cells promote biofilm persistence remain unknown. Interleukin-10 expression was significantly increased in a mouse model of S. aureus orthopedic implant biofilm infection with kinetics that mirrored myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment. Because myeloid-derived suppressor cells produce interleukin-10, we explored whether it was involved in orchestrating the nonproductive immune response that facilitates biofilm formation. Analysis of interleukin-10–green fluorescent protein reporter mice revealed that Ly6GhighLy6C+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells were the main source of interleukin-10 during the first 2 wk of biofilm infection, whereas monocytes had negligible interleukin-10 expression until day 14. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell influx into implant-associated tissues was significantly reduced in interleukin-10 knockout mice at day 14 postinfection, concomitant with increased monocyte and macrophage infiltrates that displayed enhanced proinflammatory gene expression. Reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment facilitated bacterial clearance, as revealed by significant decreases in S. aureus burdens in the knee joint, surrounding soft tissue, and femur of interleukin-10 knockout mice. Adoptive transfer of interleukin-10 wild-type myeloid-derived suppressor cells into S. aureus–infected interleukin-10 knockout mice restored the local biofilm-permissive environment, as evidenced by increased bacterial burdens and inhibition of monocyte proinflammatory activity. These effects were both interleukin-10-dependent and interleukin-10-independent because myeloid-derived suppressor cell–derived interleukin-10 was required for promoting biofilm growth and anti

  4. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are increased and exert immunosuppressive activity together with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesarina Giallongo

    Full Text Available Tumor immune tolerance can derive from the recruitment of suppressor cell population, including myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, able to inhibit T cells activity. We identified a significantly expanded MDSCs population in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients at diagnosis that decreased to normal levels after imatinib therapy. In addition, expression of arginase 1 (Arg1 that depletes microenvironment of arginine, an essential aminoacid for T cell function, resulted in an increase in patients at diagnosis. Purified CML CD11b+CD33+CD14-HLADR- cells markedly suppressed normal donor T cell proliferation in vitro. Comparing CML Gr-MDSCs to autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs we observed a higher Arg1 expression and activity in PMNs, together with an inhibitory effect on T cells in vitro. Our data indicate that CML cells create an immuno-tolerant environment associated to MDSCs expansion with immunosuppressive capacity mediated by Arg1. In addition, we demonstrated for the first time also an immunosuppressive activity of CML PMNs, suggesting a strong potential immune escape mechanism created by CML cells, which control the anti-tumor reactive T cells. MDSCs should be monitored in imatinib discontinuation trials to understand their importance in relapsing patients.

  5. Emerging roles of myeloid derived suppressor cells in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda; Hammerich; Frank; Tacke

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells(MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immune cells that are potent suppressors of immune responses. MDSC emerge in various compartments in the body, such as blood, bonemarrow or spleen, especially in conditions of cancer, infections or inflammation. MDSC usually express CD11 b, CD33, and low levels of human leukocyte antigen-DR in humans or CD11 b and Gr1(Ly6C/G) in mice, and they can be further divided into granulocytic or monocytic MDSC. The liver is an important organ for MDSC induction and accumulation in hepatic as well as extrahepatic diseases. Different hepatic cells, especially hepatic stellate cells, as well as liver-derived soluble factors, including hepatocyte growth factor and acute phase proteins(SAA, KC), can promote the differentiation of MDSC from myeloid cells. Importantly, hepatic myeloid cells like neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages fulfill essential roles in acute and chronic liver diseases. Recent data from patients with liver diseases and animal models linked MDSC to the pathogenesis of hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). In settings of acute hepatitis, MDSC can limit immunogenic T cell responses and subsequent tissue injury. In patients with chronic hepatitis C, MDSC increase and may favor viral persistence. Animal models of chronic liver injury, however, have not yet conclusively clarified the involvement of MDSC for hepatic fibrosis. In human HCC and mouse models of liver cancer, MDSC are induced in the tumor environment and suppress anti-tumoral immune responses. Thus, the liver is a primary site of MDSC in vivo, and modulating MDSC functionality might represent a promising novel therapeutic target for liver diseases.

  6. Establishing the flow cytometric assessment of myeloid cells in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy M; Wise, Andrea F; Alikhan, Maliha A; Layton, Daniel S; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2014-03-01

    Polychromatic flow cytometry is a powerful tool for assessing populations of cells in the kidney through times of homeostasis, disease and tissue remodeling. In particular, macrophages have been identified as having central roles in these three settings. However, because of the plasticity of myeloid cells it has been difficult to define a specific immunophenotype for these cells in the kidney. This study developed a gating strategy for identifying and assessing monocyte and macrophage subpopulations, along with neutrophils and epithelial cells in the healthy kidney and following ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in mice, using antibodies against CD45, CD11b, CD11c, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, CSF-1R (CD115), MHC class II, mannose receptor (MR or CD206), an alternatively activated macrophage marker, and the epithelial cell adhesion marker (EpCAM or CD326). Backgating analysis and assessment of autofluorescence was used to extend the knowledge of various cell types and the changes that occur in the kidney at various time-points post-IR injury. In addition, the impact of enzymatic digestion of kidneys on cell surface markers and cell viability was assessed. Comparisons of kidney myeloid populations were also made with those in the spleen. These results provide a useful reference for future analyses of therapies aimed at modulating inflammation and enhancing endogenous remodeling following kidney injury.

  7. Activated myeloid dendritic cells accumulate and co-localize with CD3+ T cells in coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Atilla; Rowley, Anne; Schulte, Danica J; Doherty, Terence M; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Fishbein, Michael C; Kalelkar, Mitra; Cicha, Iwona; Schubert, Katja; Daniel, Werner G; Garlichs, Christoph D; Arditi, Moshe

    2007-08-01

    Emerging evidence implicating the participation of dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells in various vascular inflammatory diseases such as giant cell arteritis, Takayasu's arteritis, and atherosclerosis led us to hypothesize that they might also participate in the pathogenesis of coronary arteritis in Kawasaki disease (KD). Coronary artery specimens from 4 patients with KD and 6 control patients were obtained. Immunohistochemical and computer-assisted histomorphometric analyses were performed to detect all myeloid DCs (S-100(+), fascin(+)), all plasmacytoid DCs (CD123(+)) as well as specific DC subsets (mature myeloid DCs [CD83(+)], myeloid [BDCA-1(+)] and plasmacytoid DC precursors [BDCA-2(+)]), T cells (CD3(+)), and all antigen-presenting cells (HLA-DR(+)). Co-localization of DCs with T cells was assessed using double immunostaining. Significantly more myeloid DCs at a precursor, immature or mature stage were found in coronary lesions of KD patients than in controls. Myeloid DC precursors were distributed equally in the intima and adventitia. Mature myeloid DCs were particularly abundant in the adventitia. There was a significant correlation between mature DCs and HLA-DR expression. Double immunostaining demonstrated frequent contacts between myeloid DCs and T cells in the outer media and adventitia. Plasmacytoid DC precursors were rarely found in the adventitia. In conclusion, coronary artery lesions of KD patients contain increased numbers of mature myeloid DCs with high HLA-DR expression and frequent T cell contacts detected immunohistochemically. This suggests that mature arterial myeloid DCs might be activating T cells in situ and may be a significant factor in the pathogenesis of coronary arteritis in KD.

  8. Donor lung derived myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells differentially regulate T cell proliferation and cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Heather L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct allorecognition, i.e., donor lung-derived dendritic cells (DCs stimulating recipient-derived T lymphocytes, is believed to be the key mechanism of lung allograft rejection. Myeloid (cDCs and plasmacytoid (pDCs are believed to have differential effects on T cell activation. However, the roles of each DC type on T cell activation and rejection pathology post lung transplantation are unknown. Methods Using transgenic mice and antibody depletion techniques, either or both cell types were depleted in lungs of donor BALB/c mice (H-2d prior to transplanting into C57BL/6 mice (H-2b, followed by an assessment of rejection pathology, and pDC or cDC-induced proliferation and cytokine production in C57BL/6-derived mediastinal lymph node T cells (CD3+. Results Depleting either DC type had modest effect on rejection pathology and T cell proliferation. In contrast, T cells from mice that received grafts depleted of both DCs did not proliferate and this was associated with significantly reduced acute rejection scores compared to all other groups. cDCs were potent inducers of IFNγ, whereas both cDCs and pDCs induced IL-10. Both cell types had variable effects on IL-17A production. Conclusion Collectively, the data show that direct allorecognition by donor lung pDCs and cDCs have differential effects on T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Depletion of both donor lung cDC and pDC could prevent the severity of acute rejection episodes.

  9. BETULINIC ACID WAS MORE CYTOTOXIC TOWARDS THE HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE MDA-MB-231 THAN THE HUMAN PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKAEMIA CELL LINE HL-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LATIFAH SAIFUL YAZAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid (BA is a pentacyclic triterpene found in several botanical sources that has been shown to cause apoptosis in a number of cell lines. This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro cytotoxic properties of BA towards the human mammary carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 and the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line HL-60 and the mode of the induced cell death. The cytotoxicity and mode of cell death of BA were determined using the MTT assay and DNAfragmentation analysis, respectively. In our study, the compound was found to be cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 and HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 58 μg/mL and 134 μg/mL, respectively. Cells treated with high concentrations of BA exhibited features characteristic of apoptosis such as blebbing, shrinking and a number of small cytoplasm body masses when viewed under an inverted light microscope after 24 h. The incidence of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 was further confirmed bythe DNA fragmentation analysis, with the formation of DNA fragments of oligonucleosomal size (180-200 base pairs, giving a ladder-like pattern on agarose gel electrophoresis. BA was more cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 than HL-60 cells, and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells.

  10. Heterozygous inactivation of the Nf1 gene in myeloid cells enhances neointima formation via a rosuvastatin-sensitive cellular pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Brian K; Bessler, Waylan K; Mali, Raghuveer; Mund, Julie A; Downing, Brandon; Li, Fang; Sarchet, Kara N; DiStasi, Matthew R; Conway, Simon J; Kapur, Reuben; Ingram, David A

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene cause Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Neurofibromin, the protein product of NF1, functions as a negative regulator of Ras activity. Some NF1 patients develop cardiovascular disease, which represents an underrecognized disease complication and contributes to excess morbidity and mortality. Specifically, NF1 patients develop arterial occlusion resulting in tissue ischemia and sudden death. Murine studies demonstrate that heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 (Nf1(+/-)) in bone marrow cells enhances neointima formation following arterial injury. Macrophages infiltrate Nf1(+/-) neointimas, and NF1 patients have increased circulating inflammatory monocytes in their peripheral blood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 in myeloid cells is sufficient for neointima formation. Specific ablation of a single copy of the Nf1 gene in myeloid cells alone mobilizes a discrete pro-inflammatory murine monocyte population via a cell autonomous and gene-dosage dependent mechanism. Furthermore, lineage-restricted heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 in myeloid cells is sufficient to reproduce the enhanced neointima formation observed in Nf1(+/-) mice when compared with wild-type controls, and homozygous inactivation of Nf1 in myeloid cells amplified the degree of arterial stenosis after arterial injury. Treatment of Nf1(+/-) mice with rosuvastatin, a stain with anti-inflammatory properties, significantly reduced neointima formation when compared with control. These studies identify neurofibromin-deficient myeloid cells as critical cellular effectors of Nf1(+/-) neointima formation and propose a potential therapeutic for NF1 cardiovascular disease.

  11. Characterization of the murine myeloid precursor cell line MuMac-E8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Stephan; Pfefferkorn, Cathleen; Wolf, Doris; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies.

  12. Characterization of the murine myeloid precursor cell line MuMac-E8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Fricke

    Full Text Available Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin, of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45, for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64, showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies.

  13. Disassembly of actin filaments by botulinum C2 toxin and actin-filament-disrupting agents induces assembly of microtubules in human leukaemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yosuke; Kogo, Yasusi; Ohishi, Iwao

    2007-03-01

    C(2) toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D ADP-ribosylates actin monomers and inactivates their polymerization activities. The disassembly of actin filaments by C(2) toxin induces a polarization of cultured human leukaemia cell lines. The polarization induced by C(2) toxin was temperature dependent and was prevented by nocodazole, a microtubule-disrupting agent, whereas it was promoted by paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing agent. The fluorescence staining of polarized cells indicated an increase in microtubule assembly accompanying disassembly of actin filaments. Furthermore, several actin-filament-disrupting agents, other than C(2) toxin, also induced microtubule assembly and cell polarization, irrespective of their different mechanisms of action. The effects induced by some of the agents, which have lower binding affinities for actin, were reversible in response to the re-assembly of actin filaments. Thus the disassembly of actin filaments by C(2) toxin and actin-filament-disrupting agents induces assembly of microtubules followed by polarization of human leukaemia cell lines, indicating that the assembly/disassembly equilibrium of actin filaments influences the dynamics of microtubules, which control cell morphology and, in turn, diverse cellular processes.

  14. An evidence for adhesion-mediated acquisition of acute myeloid leukemic stem cell-like immaturities

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    Funayama, Keiji; Shimane, Miyuki; Nomura, Hitoshi [Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Waseda University, 4-3-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Asano, Shigetaka, E-mail: asgtkmd@waseda.jp [Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Waseda University, 4-3-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    For long-term survival in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemia cells, their adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells is indispensable. However, it is still unknown if these events are uniquely induced by the leukemic stem cells. Here we show that TF-1 human leukemia cells, once they have formed a cobblestone area by adhering to mouse bone marrow-derived MS-5 cells, can acquire some leukemic stem cell like properties in association with a change in the CD44 isoform-expression pattern and with an increase in a set of related microRNAs. These findings strongly suggest that at least some leukemia cells can acquire leukemic stem cell like properties in an adhesion-mediated stochastic fashion.

  15. Long term maintenance of myeloid leukemic stem cells cultured with unrelated human mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawa Ito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs support the growth and differentiation of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. Here we studied the ability of MSCs to support the growth and survival of leukemic stem cells (LSCs in vitro. Primary leukemic blasts isolated from the peripheral blood of 8 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML were co-cultured with equal numbers of irradiated MSCs derived from unrelated donor bone marrow, with or without cytokines for up to 6 weeks. Four samples showed CD34+CD38− predominance, and four were predominantly CD34+CD38+. CD34+ CD38− predominant leukemia cells maintained the CD34+ CD38− phenotype and were viable for 6 weeks when co-cultured with MSCs compared to co-cultures with cytokines or medium only, which showed rapid differentiation and loss of the LSC phenotype. In contrast, CD34+ CD38+ predominant leukemic cells maintained the CD34+CD38+ phenotype when co-cultured with MSCs alone, but no culture conditions supported survival beyond 4 weeks. Cell cycle analysis showed that MSCs maintained a higher proportion of CD34+ blasts in G0 than leukemic cells cultured with cytokines. AML blasts maintained in culture with MSCs for up to 6 weeks engrafted NSG mice with the same efficiency as their non-cultured counterparts, and the original karyotype persisted after co-culture. Chemosensitivity and transwell assays suggest that MSCs provide pro-survival benefits to leukemic blasts through cell–cell contact. We conclude that MSCs support long-term maintenance of LSCs in vitro. This simple and inexpensive approach will facilitate basic investigation of LSCs and enable screening of novel therapeutic agents targeting LSCs.

  16. Spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus in a child: a rare complication after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia PV (Italy); Bernardo, Maria E.; Locatelli, Franco [University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Pavia (Italy); Meloni, Giulia [University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Institute of Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Spinazzola, Angelo [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico ' S.Matteo' , Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia PV (Italy); Ospedale Maggiore, Crema CR (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    We report the case of a child affected by acute myeloid leukaemia who was treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and developed cervicothoracic spinal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The diagnosis was difficult on a clinical basis, but made possible by conventional radiography and MRI. (orig.)

  17. Circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Xu; Jun Hu; Min Wang; Feng Peng; Rui Tian; Xing-Jun Guo; Yu Xie; Ren-Yi Qin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogeneous cell types that suppress T-cell responses in cancer patients and animal models, some MDSC subpopula-tions are increased in patients with pancreatic cancer. The present study was to investigate a specific subset of MDSCs in patients with pancreatic cancer and the mechanism of MDSCs increase in these patients. METHODS: Myeloid cells from whole blood were collected from 37 patients with pancreatic cancer, 17 with cholangiocarcinoma, and 47 healthy controls. Four pancreatic cancer cell lines were co-culturedwithnormalperipheralbloodmononuclearcells(PBMCs) to test the effect of tumor cells on the conversion of PBMCs to MDSCs. Levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and arginase activity in the plasma of cancer patients were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: CD14+/CD11b+/HLA-DR- MDSCs were increased in patients with pancreatic or bile duct cancer compared with those in healthy controls, and this increase was correlated with clinical cancer stage. Pancreatic cancer cell lines induced PBMCs to MDSCs in a dose-dependent manner. GM-CSF and arginase activity levels were significantly increased in the se-rum of patients with pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: MDSCsweretumorrelated:tumorcellsinduced PBMCs to MDSCs in a dose-dependent manner and circulating CD14+/CD11b+/HLA-DR- MDSCs in pancreatic cancer patients were positively correlated with tumor burden. MDSCs might be useful markers for pancreatic cancer detection and progression.

  18. Bloodstream infection caused by Acinetobacter junii in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after allogenic haematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayô, Rodrigo; Yañez San Segundo, Lucrecia; Pérez del Molino Bernal, Inmaculada Concepción; García de la Fuente, Celia; Bermúdez Rodríguez, Maria Aranzazu; Calvo, Jorge; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2011-03-01

    Acinetobacter junii is a rare human pathogen associated with bacteraemia in neonates and paediatric oncology patients. We present a case of A. junii causing bacteraemia in an adult transplant patient with leukaemia. The correct identification of Acinetobacter species can highlight the clinical significance of the different species of this genus.

  19. Recommendations for myeloid-derived suppressor cell nomenclature and characterization standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Brandau, Sven; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Colombo, Mario P; Frey, Alan B; Greten, Tim F; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Murray, Peter J; Ochoa, Augusto; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Rodriguez, Paulo C; Sica, Antonio; Umansky, Viktor; Vonderheide, Robert H; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2016-07-06

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have emerged as major regulators of immune responses in cancer and other pathological conditions. In recent years, ample evidence supports key contributions of MDSC to tumour progression through both immune-mediated mechanisms and those not directly associated with immune suppression. MDSC are the subject of intensive research with >500 papers published in 2015 alone. However, the phenotypic, morphological and functional heterogeneity of these cells generates confusion in investigation and analysis of their roles in inflammatory responses. The purpose of this communication is to suggest characterization standards in the burgeoning field of MDSC research.

  20. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell role in tumor-related inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Marigo, Ilaria; Mantelli, Barbara; Peranzoni, Elisa; Zanovello, Paola; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2008-08-28

    Chronic inflammatory state can create a proper environment for neoplastic onset and sustain cancer growth. The inflammatory state that arises at the tumor edge could contribute to immune escape phenomena in many ways. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a cell population that contributes to tumor escape, immune tolerance, and suppression, respond to a variety of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory stimuli, which drive their recruitment and activation. Understanding how the inflammatory milieu favours tumor escape through the accumulation of MDSCs could be very useful to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Myeloid cells are required for PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint activation and the establishment of an immunosuppressive environment in pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Velez-Delgado, Ashley; Mathew, Esha; Li, Dongjun; Mendez, Flor M; Flannagan, Kevin; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Beatty, Gregory L; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is characterised by the accumulation of a fibro-inflammatory stroma. Within this stromal reaction, myeloid cells are a predominant population. Distinct myeloid subsets have been correlated with tumour promotion and unmasking of anti-tumour immunity. Objective The goal of this study was to determine the effect of myeloid cell depletion on the onset and progression of pancreatic cancer and to understand the relationship between myeloid cells and T cell-mediated immunity within the pancreatic cancer microenvironment. Methods Primary mouse pancreatic cancer cells were transplanted into CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) mice. Alternatively, the iKras* mouse model of pancreatic cancer was crossed into CD11b-DTR mice. CD11b+ cells (mostly myeloid cell population) were depleted by diphtheria toxin treatment during tumour initiation or in established tumours. Results Depletion of myeloid cells prevented KrasG12D-driven pancreatic cancer initiation. In pre-established tumours, myeloid cell depletion arrested tumour growth and in some cases, induced tumour regressions that were dependent on CD8+ T cells. We found that myeloid cells inhibited CD8+ T-cell anti-tumour activity by inducing the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumour cells in an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-dependent manner. Conclusion Our results show that myeloid cells support immune evasion in pancreatic cancer through EGFR/MAPK-dependent regulation of PD-L1 expression on tumour cells. Derailing this crosstalk between myeloid cells and tumour cells is sufficient to restore anti-tumour immunity mediated by CD8+ T cells, a finding with implications for the design of immune therapies for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27402485

  2. Myeloid cells are required for PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint activation and the establishment of an immunosuppressive environment in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Velez-Delgado, Ashley; Mathew, Esha; Li, Dongjun; Mendez, Flor M; Flannagan, Kevin; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Beatty, Gregory L; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterised by the accumulation of a fibro-inflammatory stroma. Within this stromal reaction, myeloid cells are a predominant population. Distinct myeloid subsets have been correlated with tumour promotion and unmasking of anti-tumour immunity. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of myeloid cell depletion on the onset and progression of pancreatic cancer and to understand the relationship between myeloid cells and T cell-mediated immunity within the pancreatic cancer microenvironment. Primary mouse pancreatic cancer cells were transplanted into CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) mice. Alternatively, the iKras* mouse model of pancreatic cancer was crossed into CD11b-DTR mice. CD11b(+) cells (mostly myeloid cell population) were depleted by diphtheria toxin treatment during tumour initiation or in established tumours. Depletion of myeloid cells prevented Kras(G12D)-driven pancreatic cancer initiation. In pre-established tumours, myeloid cell depletion arrested tumour growth and in some cases, induced tumour regressions that were dependent on CD8(+) T cells. We found that myeloid cells inhibited CD8(+) T-cell anti-tumour activity by inducing the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumour cells in an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-dependent manner. Our results show that myeloid cells support immune evasion in pancreatic cancer through EGFR/MAPK-dependent regulation of PD-L1 expression on tumour cells. Derailing this crosstalk between myeloid cells and tumour cells is sufficient to restore anti-tumour immunity mediated by CD8(+) T cells, a finding with implications for the design of immune therapies for pancreatic cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Phenotype and function of myeloid dendritic cells derived from African green monkey blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortara, Lorenzo; Ploquin, Mickaël J-Y; Faye, Abdourahmane; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Vaslin, Bruno; Butor, Cécile; Hosmalin, Anne; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Diop, Ousmane M; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C

    2006-01-20

    Myeloid dendritic cells probably play an important role in the immune response against HIV and SIV, and in the enhancement of CD4+ T cell infection. Here, we have investigated phenotypic and functional features of myeloid monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) from African green monkeys (AGMs). AGMs are natural hosts of SIV and exhibit no signs of abnormal T cell activation despite high SIV plasma viremia. We identified mAbs that cross-react specifically with homologous molecules expressed on AGM DC. We adapted a protocol to derive AGM MDDC by culture in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. The differentiated cells possessed a typical dendritic morphology and the majority were CD11c+ DC-SIGN+. AGM MDDC displayed a high expression of typical maturation markers, such as CD83, CD86 and DC-LAMP, and moderate immunostimulatory capacity, suggesting that the cells were in a semi-mature state. Stimulation resulted in further maturation, as shown by up-regulation of CD80 and decrease of endocytosis ability. However, neither increase of HLA-DR or CD40 expression nor enhanced immunostimulatory capacity was observed. The latter was associated with a low pro-inflammatory cytokine production during mixed lymphocyte reactions and a cytokine balance in favour of IL-10 in contrast to human MDDC. This is the first characterization of AGM MDDC. The tools described here are a crucial step for future studies in vivo or in vitro on the function of myeloid DC using the AGM animal model.

  4. Hedgehog signalling in myeloid cells impacts on body weight, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Julia; Weyer, Ulrike; Matz-Soja, Madlen; Hobusch, Constance; Kern, Matthias; Kunath, Anne; Klöting, Nora; Kralisch, Susann; Blüher, Matthias; Gebhardt, Rolf; Zavros, Yana; Bechmann, Ingo; Gericke, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Recently, hedgehog (Hh) was identified as a crucial player in adipose tissue development and energy expenditure. Therefore, we tested whether Hh ligands are regulated in obesity. Further, we aimed at identifying potential target cells of Hh signalling and studied the functional impact of Hh signalling on adipose tissue inflammation and glucose metabolism. Hh ligands and receptors were analysed in adipose tissue or serum from lean and obese mice as well as in humans. To study the impact on adipose tissue inflammation and glucose metabolism, Hh signalling was specifically blocked in myeloid cells using a conditional knockout approach (Lys-Smo (-/-)). Desert Hh (DHH) and Indian Hh (IHH) are local Hh ligands, whereas Sonic Hh is not expressed in adipose tissue from mice or humans. In mice, obesity leads to a preferential upregulation of Hh ligands (Dhh) and signalling components (Ptch1, Smo and Gli1) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Further, adipose tissue macrophages are Hh target cells owing to the expression of Hh receptors, such as Patched1 and 2. Conditional knockout of Smo (which encodes Smoothened, a mandatory Hh signalling component) in myeloid cells increases body weight and adipose tissue inflammation and attenuates glucose tolerance, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of Hh signalling. In humans, adipose tissue expression of DHH and serum IHH decrease with obesity and type 2 diabetes, which might be explained by the intake of metformin. Interestingly, metformin reduced Dhh and Ihh expression in mouse adipose tissue explants. Hh signalling in myeloid cells affects adipose tissue inflammation and glucose metabolism and may be a potential target to treat type 2 diabetes.

  5. Oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in proliferating, G0/G1-arrested and bcl-2-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Nicole; Tiefenthaler, Martin; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Ausserlechner, Michael J; Kofler, Reinhard; Konwalinka, Günther

    2006-03-01

    Natural products are still an untapped source of promising lead compounds for the generation of antineoplastic drugs. Here, we investigated for the first time the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of highly purified oxindole alkaloids, namely isopteropodine (A1), pteropodine (A2), isomitraphylline (A3), uncarine F (A4) and mitraphylline (A5) obtained from Uncaria tomentosa, a South American Rubiaceae, on human lymphoblastic leukaemia T cells (CCRF-CEM-C7H2). Four of the five tested alkaloids inhibited proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect of the most potent alkaloids pteropodine (A2) and uncarine F (A4) correlated with induction of apoptosis. After 48 h, 100 micromol/l A2 or A4 increased apoptotic cells by 57%. CEM-C7H2 sublines with tetracycline-regulated expression of bcl-2, p16ink4A or constitutively expressing the cowpox virus protein crm-A were used for further studies of the apoptosis-inducing properties of these alkaloids. Neither overexpression of bcl-2 or crm-A nor cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase by tetracycline-regulated expression of p16INK4A could prevent alkaloid-induced apoptosis. Our results show the strong apoptotic effects of pteropodine and uncarine F on acute leukaemic lymphoblasts and recommend the alkaloids for further studies in xenograft models.

  6. β-Catenin-regulated myeloid cell adhesion and migration determine wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini-Nik, Saeid; Cambridge, Elizabeth; Yu, Winston; Guo, Anne; Whetstone, Heather; Nadesan, Puviindran; Poon, Raymond; Hinz, Boris; Alman, Benjamin A

    2014-06-01

    A β-catenin/T cell factor-dependent transcriptional program is critical during cutaneous wound repair for the regulation of scar size; however, the relative contribution of β-catenin activity and function in specific cell types in the granulation tissue during the healing process is unknown. Here, cell lineage tracing revealed that cells in which β-catenin is transcriptionally active express a gene profile that is characteristic of the myeloid lineage. Mice harboring a macrophage-specific deletion of the gene encoding β-catenin exhibited insufficient skin wound healing due to macrophage-specific defects in migration, adhesion to fibroblasts, and ability to produce TGF-β1. In irradiated mice, only macrophages expressing β-catenin were able to rescue wound-healing deficiency. Evaluation of scar tissue collected from patients with hypertrophic and normal scars revealed a correlation between the number of macrophages within the wound, β-catenin levels, and cellularity. Our data indicate that β-catenin regulates myeloid cell motility and adhesion and that β-catenin-mediated macrophage motility contributes to the number of mesenchymal cells and ultimate scar size following cutaneous injury.

  7. Derivation of a myeloid cell-binding adenovirus for gene therapy of inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O Alberti

    Full Text Available The gene therapy field is currently limited by the lack of vehicles that permit efficient gene delivery to specific cell or tissue subsets. Native viral vector tropisms offer a powerful platform for transgene delivery but remain nonspecific, requiring elevated viral doses to achieve efficacy. In order to improve upon these strategies, our group has focused on genetically engineering targeting domains into viral capsid proteins, particularly those based on adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5. Our primary strategy is based on deletion of the fiber knob domain, to eliminate broad tissue specificity through the human coxsackie-and-adenovirus receptor (hCAR, with seamless incorporation of ligands to re-direct Ad tropism to cell types that express the cognate receptors. Previously, our group and others have demonstrated successful implementation of this strategy in order to specifically target Ad to a number of surface molecules expressed on immortalized cell lines. Here, we utilized phage biopanning to identify a myeloid cell-binding peptide (MBP, with the sequence WTLDRGY, and demonstrated that MBP can be successfully incorporated into a knob-deleted Ad5. The resulting virus, Ad.MBP, results in specific binding to primary myeloid cell types, as well as significantly higher transduction of these target populations ex vivo, compared to unmodified Ad5. These data are the first step in demonstrating Ad targeting to cell types associated with inflammatory disease.

  8. Cytosine arabinoside induces costimulatory molecule expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecque, R; Saudemont, A; Quesnel, B

    2004-07-01

    Chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells mainly by direct cytotoxicity, but they might also induce a stronger host immune response by causing the tumor to produce costimulatory cell surface molecules like CD80. We previously reported that in myeloid leukemic cells, gamma-irradiation induced CD80 expression. In this study, we show that cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), even at low doses, induced CD80 expression in vitro in mouse DA1-3b leukemic cells, by a mechanism that involved reactive oxygen species. In vivo experiments in the mouse DA1-3b/C3H whole-animal acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model showed that injection of Ara-C induced expression of CD80 and CD86, and decreased expression of B7-H1, indicating that chemotherapy can modify costimulatory molecule expression in vivo, in a way not necessarily observed in vitro. Mouse leukemic cells exposed in vivo to Ara-C were more susceptible to specific cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing. Ara-C also induced CD80 or CD86 expression in 14 of 21 primary cultured human AML samples. In humans being treated for AML, induction chemotherapy increased CD86 expression in the leukemic cells. These findings indicate possible synergistic strategies between CTL-based immunotherapy and chemotherapy for treatment. They also suggest an additional mechanism by which chemotherapy can eradicate AML blasts.

  9. Ipilimumab and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Chimerism; Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; RAEB-1; RAEB-2; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Cytokines and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) genes expression in blood chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells and their immortalised CLL cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Chen, Fu; Castro, Juan; Avila-Carino, Javier; Lewin, Freddi

    2003-01-01

    We have encountered two unique chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients, PG and NN. Some blood CLL cells of these patients have been infected and carry Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in vivo. In spite of their early-activated G0/G1 stage of post germinal center (GC) memory cells, ex vivo EBV-carrying blood CLL cells of PG clone expressed LMPs and used specific QUK splice for their EBNA1 expression, similar to the EBV-carrying cells of non-B origin. Interestingly, EBV-carrying CLL cells of NN clone expressed LMP2a and used UK-splice for their EBNA1 expression, similar to the in vivo EBV-carrying high density normal B cells in the blood of healthy individuals. The CLL-derived lines but not normal lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) used QUK- and YUK-splice for their EBNA1 expression. As expected, LCL and their permanent CLL-derived lines used Cp promoter and up-regulated their EBNA2 expression. Blood CLL cells and the CLL-derived cell lines of these patients spontaneously produced cytokines as shown by microarray assay. The types and quantities of cytokines might relate to their CLL origin and viral strain in the given CLL cells. Neither blood CLL nor their CLL-derived cell lines express any detectable apoptosis-inducer ligands, CD95L or Apo 3L. As a consequence of cell cycle progression, CLL-derived cell lines up-regulated their co-stimulator molecules CD80 and apoptosis-related receptor CD95. Since only the rare EBV-carrying CLL cells grew in vitro, the combination of viral genome and cytokines seems to be critical for the outgrowth of EBV-carrying CLL cells over their EBV-negative counterpart in vitro but not in vivo.

  11. Modulatory Effects and Action Mechanisms of Tryptanthrin on Murine Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoi-Ling Chan; Hon-Yan Yip; Nai-Ki Mak; Kwok-Nam Leung

    2009-01-01

    Leukemia is the disorder of hematopoietic cell development and is characterized by an uncoupling of cell proliferation and differentiation. There is a pressing need for the development of novel tactics for leukemia therapy as conventional treatments often have severe adverse side effects. Tryptanthrin (6,12-dihydro-6,12-dioxoindolo-(2,1-b)-quinazoline) is a naturally-occurring, weakly basic alkaloid isolated from the dried roots of medicinal indigo plants (Ban-Lan-Gen). It has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects. However, its modulatory effects and action mechanisms on myeloid cells remain poorly understood. In this study, tryptanthrin was shown to suppress the proliferation of the murine myeloid leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also significantly reduced the growth of WEHI-3B JCS cells in vivo in syngeneic BALB/c mice. However, it exhibited no significant direct cytotoxicity on normal murine peritoneal macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis showed an obvious cell cycle arrest of the tryptanthrin-treated WEHI-3B JCS cells at the G0/G1 phase. The expression of cyclin D2,D3, Cdk 2, 4 and 6 genes in WEHI-3B JCS cells was found to be down-regulated at 24 h as measured by RT-PCR. Morphological and functional studies revealed that tryptanthrin could induce differentiation in WEHI-3B JCS cells, as shown by the increases in vacuolation, cellular granularity and NBT-reducing activity in tryptanthrin-treated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that tryptanthrin might exert its anti-tumor effect on the murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells by causing cell cycle arrest and by triggering cell differentiation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2009;6(5):335-342.

  12. Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury in the absence of myeloid cell-derived COX-2 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Duarte

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is a mediator of hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI. While both global COX-2 deletion and pharmacologic COX-2 inhibition ameliorate liver IRI, the clinical use of COX-2 inhibitors has been linked to increased risks of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of COX-2 in different cell types may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for hepatic IRI. Macrophages of myeloid origin are currently considered to be important sources of the COX-2 in damaged livers. Here, we used a Cox-2flox conditional knockout mouse (COX-2-M/-M to examine the function of COX-2 expression in myeloid cells during liver IRI. COX-2-M/-M mice and their WT control littermates were subjected to partial liver ischemia followed by reperfusion. COX-2-M/-M macrophages did not express COX-2 upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation and COX-2-M/-M livers showed reduced levels of COX-2 protein post-IRI. Nevertheless, selective deletion of myeloid cell-derived COX-2 failed to ameliorate liver IRI; serum transaminases and histology were comparable in both COX-2-M/-M and WT mice. COX-2-M/-M livers, like WT livers, developed extensive necrosis, vascular congestion, leukocyte infiltration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression post-reperfusion. In addition, myeloid COX-2 deletion led to a transient increase in IL-6 levels after hepatic reperfusion, when compared to controls. Administration of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, resulted in significantly improved liver function and histology in both COX-2-M/-M and WT mice post-reperfusion, providing evidence that COX-2-mediated liver IRI is caused by COX-2 derived from a source(s other than myeloid cells. In conclusion, these results support the view that myeloid COX-2, including myeloid-macrophage COX-2, is not responsible for the hepatic IRI phenotype.

  13. Small-Molecule Disruption of the Myb/p300 Cooperation Targets Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttarkar, Sagar; Piontek, Therese; Dukare, Sandeep; Schomburg, Caroline; Schlenke, Peter; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Schmidt, Thomas J; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-12-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb is essential for the proliferation of hematopoietic cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and other human cancers. Pharmacologic inhibition of Myb is therefore emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. By using a Myb reporter cell line, we have identified plumbagin and several naphthoquinones as potent low-molecular weight Myb inhibitors. We demonstrate that these compounds inhibit c-Myb by binding to the c-Myb transactivation domain and disrupting the cooperation of c-Myb with the coactivator p300, a major driver of Myb activity. Naphthoquinone-induced inhibition of c-Myb suppresses Myb target gene expression and induces the differentiation of the myeloid leukemia cell line HL60. We demonstrate that murine and human primary acute myeloid leukemia cells are more sensitive to naphthoquinone-induced inhibition of clonogenic proliferation than normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. Overall, our work demonstrates for the first time the potential of naphthoquinones as small-molecule Myb inhibitors that may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of leukemia and other tumors driven by deregulated Myb. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 2905-15. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Glycoprotein B cleavage is important for murid herpesvirus 4 to infect myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Daniel L; Milho, Ricardo; Frederico, Bruno; May, Janet S; Kratz, Anne-Sophie; Gillet, Laurent; Stevenson, Philip G

    2013-10-01

    Glycoprotein B (gB) is a conserved herpesvirus virion component implicated in membrane fusion. As with many-but not all-herpesviruses, the gB of murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) is cleaved into disulfide-linked subunits, apparently by furin. Preventing gB cleavage for some herpesviruses causes minor infection deficits in vitro, but what the cleavage contributes to host colonization has been unclear. To address this, we mutated the furin cleavage site (R-R-K-R) of the MuHV-4 gB. Abolishing gB cleavage did not affect its expression levels, glycosylation, or antigenic conformation. In vitro, mutant viruses entered fibroblasts and epithelial cells normally but had a significant entry deficit in myeloid cells such as macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The deficit in myeloid cells was not due to reduced virion binding or endocytosis, suggesting that gB cleavage promotes infection at a postendocytic entry step, presumably viral membrane fusion. In vivo, viruses lacking gB cleavage showed reduced lytic spread in the lungs. Alveolar epithelial cell infection was normal, but alveolar macrophage infection was significantly reduced. Normal long-term latency in lymphoid tissue was established nonetheless.

  15. Role of arginase 1 from myeloid cells in th2-dominated lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Barron

    Full Text Available Th2-driven lung inflammation increases Arginase 1 (Arg1 expression in alternatively-activated macrophages (AAMs. AAMs modulate T cell and wound healing responses and Arg1 might contribute to asthma pathogenesis by inhibiting nitric oxide production, regulating fibrosis, modulating arginine metabolism and restricting T cell proliferation. We used mice lacking Arg1 in myeloid cells to investigate the contribution of Arg1 to lung inflammation and pathophysiology. In six model systems encompassing acute and chronic Th2-mediated lung inflammation we observed neither a pathogenic nor protective role for myeloid-expressed Arg1. The number and composition of inflammatory cells in the airways and lungs, mucus secretion, collagen deposition, airway hyper-responsiveness, and T cell cytokine production were not altered if AAMs were deficient in Arg1 or simultaneously in both Arg1 and NOS2. Our results argue that Arg1 is a general feature of alternative activation but only selectively regulates Th2 responses. Therefore, attempts to experimentally or therapeutically inhibit arginase activity in the lung should be examined with caution.

  16. Cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitor, nabumetone, inhibits proliferation in chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Filiz; Ozcan, Mehmet Ali; Ozsan, Güner Hayri; Ateş, Halil; Demirkan, Fatih; Pişkin, Ozden; Undar, Bülent

    2005-05-01

    The anti-tumor effect of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors has been documented in several studies. COX2 inhibitors have attracted more attention because of the fewer side-effects and the more prominent anti-tumor effects. However, experience with these drugs in hematological malignancies is limited. In our study, a potent COX2 inhibitor, nabumetone (NBT), was investigated for its anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in K-562 and Meg-01 chronic myeloid leukemia blastic cell lines as a single agent or in combination with adriamycin (ADR) and interferon alpha (IFN-a). In these cell lines, a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation was observed with NBT. We observed no significant apoptotic effect of NBT. However, NBT potentiated the apoptotic effect of ADR in the K-562 cell line. Bcl-2 expression was reduced by NBT (11% vs. 2%). The combination of NBT with IFN did not have any significant effect on the K-562 cell line. We suggest that NBT inhibits proliferation and potentiates the apoptotic effect of ADR in chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines.

  17. Gr1(intCD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Obregón-Henao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is one of the world's leading killers, stealing 1.4 million lives and causing 8.7 million new and relapsed infections in 2011. The only vaccine against tuberculosis is BCG which demonstrates variable efficacy in adults worldwide. Human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in the influx of inflammatory cells to the lung in an attempt to wall off bacilli by forming a granuloma. Gr1(intCD11b(+ cells are called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC and play a major role in regulation of inflammation in many pathological conditions. Although MDSC have been described primarily in cancer their function in tuberculosis remains unknown. During M. tuberculosis infection it is crucial to understand the function of cells involved in the regulation of inflammation during granuloma formation. Understanding their relative impact on the bacilli and other cellular phenotypes is necessary for future vaccine and drug design. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the bacterial burden, lung pathology and Gr1(intCD11b(+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell immune responses in M. tuberculosis infected NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, C3HeB/FeJ and C57/BL6 mice. Gr-1(+ cells could be found on the edges of necrotic lung lesions in NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, and C3HeB/FeJ, but were absent in wild-type mice. Both populations of Gr1(+CD11b(+ cells expressed high levels of arginase-1, and IL-17, additional markers of myeloid derived suppressor cells. We then sorted the Gr1(hi and Gr1(int populations from M. tuberculosis infected NOS-/- mice and placed the sorted both Gr1(int populations at different ratios with naïve or M. tuberculosis infected splenocytes and evaluated their ability to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+T cells. Our results showed that both Gr1(hi and Gr1(int cells were able to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. However this response was reduced as the ratio of CD4(+ T to Gr1(+ cells increased. Our results

  18. Gr1intCD11b+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Henao, Andrés; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is one of the world’s leading killers, stealing 1.4 million lives and causing 8.7 million new and relapsed infections in 2011. The only vaccine against tuberculosis is BCG which demonstrates variable efficacy in adults worldwide. Human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in the influx of inflammatory cells to the lung in an attempt to wall off bacilli by forming a granuloma. Gr1intCD11b+ cells are called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and play a major role in regulation of inflammation in many pathological conditions. Although MDSC have been described primarily in cancer their function in tuberculosis remains unknown. During M. tuberculosis infection it is crucial to understand the function of cells involved in the regulation of inflammation during granuloma formation. Understanding their relative impact on the bacilli and other cellular phenotypes is necessary for future vaccine and drug design. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the bacterial burden, lung pathology and Gr1intCD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell immune responses in M. tuberculosis infected NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, C3HeB/FeJ and C57/BL6 mice. Gr-1+ cells could be found on the edges of necrotic lung lesions in NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, and C3HeB/FeJ, but were absent in wild-type mice. Both populations of Gr1+CD11b+ cells expressed high levels of arginase-1, and IL-17, additional markers of myeloid derived suppressor cells. We then sorted the Gr1hi and Gr1int populations from M. tuberculosis infected NOS-/- mice and placed the sorted both Gr1int populations at different ratios with naïve or M. tuberculosis infected splenocytes and evaluated their ability to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+T cells. Our results showed that both Gr1hi and Gr1int cells were able to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. However this response was reduced as the ratio of CD4+ T to Gr1+ cells increased. Our results illustrate a yet unrecognized interplay

  19. Gene expression profiling to define the cell intrinsic role of the SKI proto-oncogene in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Alistair M; Liddicoat, Brian J J; Walkley, Carl R; Singbrant, Sofie

    2014-12-01

    The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced gene signatures associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation. Here we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis for the gene expression profiling described in our recently published study of Singbrant et al. (2014) in Haematologica. Our data sets (available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE39457) provide a resource for exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms of the involvement of the proto-oncogene SKI in hematopoietic stem cell function and development of myeloid neoplasms.

  20. Gene expression profiling to define the cell intrinsic role of the SKI proto-oncogene in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair M. Chalk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced gene signatures associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation. Here we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis for the gene expression profiling described in our recently published study of Singbrant et al. (2014 in Haematologica. Our data sets (available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE39457 provide a resource for exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms of the involvement of the proto-oncogene SKI in hematopoietic stem cell function and development of myeloid neoplasms.

  1. Myeloid cells are capable of synthesizing aldosterone to exacerbate damage in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jessica A; Swager, Sarah A; Lowe, Jeovanna; Welc, Steven S; Tidball, James G; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

    2016-12-01

    FDA-approved mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are used to treat heart failure. We have recently demonstrated efficacy of MR antagonists for skeletal muscles in addition to heart in Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models and that mineralocorticoid receptors are present and functional in skeletal muscles. The goal of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of MR antagonist efficacy on dystrophic skeletal muscles. We demonstrate for the first time that infiltrating myeloid cells clustered in damaged areas of dystrophic skeletal muscles have the capacity to produce the natural ligand of MR, aldosterone, which in excess is known to exacerbate tissue damage. Aldosterone synthase protein levels are increased in leukocytes isolated from dystrophic muscles compared with controls and local aldosterone levels in dystrophic skeletal muscles are increased, despite normal circulating levels. All genes encoding enzymes in the pathway for aldosterone synthesis are expressed in muscle-derived leukocytes. 11β-HSD2, the enzyme that inactivates glucocorticoids to increase MR selectivity for aldosterone, is also increased in dystrophic muscle tissues. These results, together with the demonstrated preclinical efficacy of antagonists, suggest MR activation is in excess of physiological need and likely contributes to the pathology of muscular dystrophy. This study provides new mechanistic insight into the known contribution of myeloid cells to muscular dystrophy pathology. This first report of myeloid cells having the capacity to produce aldosterone may have implications for a wide variety of acute injuries and chronic diseases with inflammation where MR antagonists may be therapeutic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Gene expression profiling of human fibrocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (f-MDSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Zoso, Alessia; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo; Serafini, Paolo; Inverardi, Luca; Bicciato, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been shown to control self-reactive and anti-graft effector T-cells in autoimmunity and transplantation, but their therapeutic use is limited by their scarce availability in the peripheral blood of tumor-free donors. We isolated and characterized a novel population of myeloid suppressor cells, named fibrocytic MDSC (f-MDSC), which are differentiated from umbilical cord blood (UCB) precursors (Zoso et al., 2014). This MDSC subset promotes regulatory T-cell expansion and induces normoglycemia in a xenogeneic model of type 1 diabetes. Here we describe in details the experimental design and the bioinformatics analyses of the gene expression dataset used to investigate the molecular mechanisms at the base of MDSC tolerogenic and suppressive properties. We also provide an R code to easily access the data and perform the quality controls and basic analyses relevant to this dataset. Raw and pre-processed data are available at Gene Expression Omnibus under accession GSE52376. PMID:26484135

  3. Gene expression profiling of human fibrocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (f-MDSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs have been shown to control self-reactive and anti-graft effector T-cells in autoimmunity and transplantation, but their therapeutic use is limited by their scarce availability in the peripheral blood of tumor-free donors. We isolated and characterized a novel population of myeloid suppressor cells, named fibrocytic MDSC (f-MDSC, which are differentiated from umbilical cord blood (UCB precursors (Zoso et al., 2014. This MDSC subset promotes regulatory T-cell expansion and induces normoglycemia in a xenogeneic model of type 1 diabetes. Here we describe in details the experimental design and the bioinformatics analyses of the gene expression dataset used to investigate the molecular mechanisms at the base of MDSC tolerogenic and suppressive properties. We also provide an R code to easily access the data and perform the quality controls and basic analyses relevant to this dataset. Raw and pre-processed data are available at Gene Expression Omnibus under accession GSE52376.

  4. Cryptic collagen IV promotes cell migration and adhesion in myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favreau, Amanda J; Vary, Calvin P H; Brooks, Peter C; Sathyanarayana, Pradeep

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we showed that discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a class of collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was highly upregulated on bone marrow (BM)-derived CD33+ leukemic blasts of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Herein as DDR1 is a class of collagen-activated RTK, we attempt to understand the role of native and remodeled collagen IV in BM microenvironment and its functional significance in leukemic cells. Exposure to denatured collagen IV significantly increased the migration and adhesion of K562 cells, which also resulted in increased activation of DDR1 and AKT. Further, levels of MMP9 were increased in conditioned media (CM) of denatured collagen IV exposed cells. Mass spectrometric liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry QSTAR proteomic analysis revealed exclusive presence of Secretogranin 3 and InaD-like protein in the denatured collagen IV CM. Importantly, BM samples of AML patients exhibited increased levels of remodeled collagen IV compared to native as analyzed via anti-HUIV26 antibody. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrate that remodeled collagen IV is a potent activator of DDR1 and AKT that also modulates both migration and adhesion of myeloid leukemia cells. Additionally, high levels of the HUIV26 cryptic collagen IV epitope are expressed in BM of AML patients. Further understanding of this phenomenon may lead to the development of therapeutic agents that directly modulate the BM microenvironment and attenuate leukemogenesis.

  5. Lysophospholipid acyltransferases and eicosanoid biosynthesis in zebrafish myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarini, Simona; Hankin, Joseph A; Murphy, Robert C; Gijón, Miguel A

    2014-10-01

    Eicosanoids derived from the enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid play important roles in a large number of physiological and pathological processes in humans. Many animal and cellular models have been used to investigate the intricate mechanisms regulating their biosynthesis and actions. Zebrafish is a widely used model to study the embryonic development of vertebrates. It expresses homologs of the key enzymes involved in eicosanoid production, and eicosanoids have been detected in extracts from adult or embryonic fish. In this study we prepared cell suspensions from kidney marrow, the main hematopoietic organ in fish. Upon stimulation with calcium ionophore, these cells produced eicosanoids including PGE2, LTB4, 5-HETE and, most abundantly, 12-HETE. They also produced small amounts of LTB5 derived from eicosapentaenoic acid. These eicosanoids were also produced in kidney marrow cells stimulated with ATP, and this production was greatly enhanced by preincubation with thimerosal, an inhibitor of arachidonate reacylation into phospholipids. Microsomes from these cells exhibited acyltransferase activities consistent with expression of MBOAT5/LPCAT3 and MBOAT7/LPIAT1, the main arachidonoyl-CoA:lysophospholipid acyltransferases. In summary, this work introduces a new cellular model to study the regulation of eicosanoid production through a phospholipid deacylation-reacylation cycle from a well-established, versatile vertebrate model species.

  6. IKKα Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis by Limiting Recruitment of M1-like Polarized Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan I. Göktuna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of immune cells into solid tumors is an essential prerequisite of tumor development. Depending on the prevailing polarization profile of these infiltrating leucocytes, tumorigenesis is either promoted or blocked. Here, we identify IκB kinase α (IKKα as a central regulator of a tumoricidal microenvironment during intestinal carcinogenesis. Mice deficient in IKKα kinase activity are largely protected from intestinal tumor development that is dependent on the enhanced recruitment of interferon γ (IFNγ-expressing M1-like myeloid cells. In IKKα mutant mice, M1-like polarization is not controlled in a cell-autonomous manner but, rather, depends on the interplay of both IKKα mutant tumor epithelia and immune cells. Because therapies aiming at the tumor microenvironment rather than directly at the mutated cancer cell may circumvent resistance development, we suggest IKKα as a promising target for colorectal cancer (CRC therapy.

  7. The detection and classification of blast cell in Leukaemia Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia (AML M3) blood using simulated annealing and neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    W. Ismail; Hassan, R.; PAYNE, A.; Swift, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper was delivered at AIME 2011: 13th Conference on Artifical Intelligence in Medicine. This paper presents a method for the detection and classification of blast cells in M3 with others sub-types using simulated annealing and neural networks. In this paper, we increased our test result from 10 images to 20 images. We performed Hill Climbing, Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms for detecting the blast cells. As a result, simulated annealing is the “best” heuristic search for d...

  8. Infection with human herpesvirus type 8 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 among individuals participating in a case–control study in Havana City, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, L; Serraino, D; Rezza, G; Lence, J; Ortiz, R M; Cruz, T; Vaccarella, S; Sarmati, L; Andreoni, M; Franceschi, S

    2002-01-01

    Infection with human herpesvirus type 8 and with human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 shows strong geographic variations. We conducted this study to assess prevalence and risk factors for human herpesvirus type 8 infection in Havana City, Cuba. Information and residual serum samples already collected for a hospital based case–control study were used. A total of 379 individuals (267 males and 112 females; median age=63 years) were evaluated. Antibodies to the lytic antigen of human herpesvirus type 8 were detected by using an immunofluorescence assay, while human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 serology was performed by means of an ELISA test (alpha Biotech). Overall, 64 subjects (16.9%, 95% confidence interval: 13.1–20.0) were positive for human herpesvirus type 8 antibodies. Human herpesvirus type 8 seroprevalence significantly increased with age (odds ratio=1.9 for ⩾65 vs Havana City, Cuba, suggesting that Cuba may represent an intermediate endemical area. Sexual transmission does not seem to play a major role in the spread human herpesvirus type 8 infection. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1253–1256. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600613 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12439714

  9. Evaluation of myeloid cells (tumor-associated tissue eosinophils and mast cells) infiltration in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debta, Priyanka; Debta, Fakir Mohan; Chaudhary, Minal; Bussari, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The multifunctional involvement and infiltration of myeloid cells (tumor-associated tissue eosinophils [TATE] and mast cells) can provide a unique opportunity to define relevant effectors functions that may represent novel, therapeutic options for modulation of tumor onset/growth. Aim: Our study aimed to evaluate infiltration of myeloid cells (TATE and Mast cells) infiltration in different grades (WHO grading) of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods: Total 30 cases of OSCC were selected for this study. Hematoxylin and eosin stain and toluidine blue special stain, to evaluate TATE and the mast cells infiltration, were used. Three-year follow-up of OSCC cases was done. Result: Among 30 cases, 63.33% cases of OSCC showed TATE-positive and 36.66% cases showed TATE-negative. Regarding mast cells infiltration, 66.66% OSCC cases showed mast cells positive and 33.33% cases did not show significant mast cells infiltration. We found significant association of TATE and mast cells infiltration in OSCC cases. These myeloid cells infiltration significantly associated with age of patients but did not show any significant association with gender, site, and habit of cases. When we compared these cells infiltration with clinical stages and different histological grades of tumor, we found their infiltration is decreasing, from Stages 1 to Stage 3 of tumor and from well to poorly differentiated carcinoma. We have also found the less infiltration of these myeloid in recurrence cases of OSCC. Conclusion: As the infiltration of TATE and mast cells are correlated, along with evaluation of TATE, we should also evaluate the presence of mast cells infiltration in OSCC. The assessment of myeloid cells could become, in the future, useful for therapeutic approaches in this subset of the patient. PMID:27688609

  10. Activation of PPARγ in myeloid cells promotes lung cancer progression and metastasis.

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    Howard Li

    Full Text Available Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ inhibits growth of cancer cells including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Clinically, use of thiazolidinediones, which are pharmacological activators of PPARγ is associated with a lower risk of developing lung cancer. However, the role of this pathway in lung cancer metastasis has not been examined well. The systemic effect of pioglitazone was examined in two models of lung cancer metastasis in immune-competent mice. In an orthotopic model, murine lung cancer cells implanted into the lungs of syngeneic mice metastasized to the liver and brain. As a second model, cancer cells injected subcutaneously metastasized to the lung. In both models systemic administration of pioglitazone increased the rate of metastasis. Examination of tissues from the orthotopic model demonstrated increased numbers of arginase I-positive macrophages in tumors from pioglitazone-treated animals. In co-culture experiments of cancer cells with bone marrow-derived macrophages, pioglitazone promoted arginase I expression in macrophages and this was dependent on the expression of PPARγ in the macrophages. To assess the contribution of PPARγ in macrophages to cancer progression, experiments were performed in bone marrow-transplanted animals receiving bone marrow from Lys-M-Cre+/PPARγ(flox/flox mice, in which PPARγ is deleted specifically in myeloid cells (PPARγ-Mac(neg, or control PPARγ(flox/flox mice. In both models, mice receiving PPARγ-Mac(neg bone marrow had a marked decrease in secondary tumors which was not significantly altered by treatment with pioglitazone. This was associated with decreased numbers of arginase I-positive cells in the lung. These data support a model in which activation of PPARγ may have opposing effects on tumor progression, with anti-tumorigenic effects on cancer cells, but pro-tumorigenic effects on cells of the microenvironment, specifically myeloid cells.

  11. 2'-Nitroflavone induces apoptosis and modulates mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in human leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Mariano G; Blank, Viviana C; Marder, Mariel N; Roguin, Leonor P

    2012-09-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 2'-nitroflavone was evaluated in different haematological cancer cell lines and its mechanism of action was further studied in HL-60 cells. 2'-Nitroflavone arrested the cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase and induced an apoptotic response characterized by an increase in the sub-G1 fraction of cells, a typical DNA ladder fragmentation, chromatin condensation and the detection of cells stained with Annexin V. Apoptosis was dependent on the activation of at least caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3. The involvement of the death receptor pathway was indicated by the upregulation of both the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its death receptor (DR5). We also showed that 2'-nitroflavone increased the expression levels of Bax and induced the release of cytochrome C to cytosol, suggesting the participation of the mitochondria-dependent pathway. When mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways were studied, it was found that p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways were activated by 2'-nitroflavone in HL-60 cells, whereas the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 decreased significantly. In addition, whereas both pharmacological inhibition of JNK and downregulation of JNK expression by RNA interference reduced the nitroflavone growth-inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect, contrasting results were obtained when the ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited, and no effect was observed in the presence of a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These findings show for the first time the antitumour action of 2'-nitroflavone in haematological cancer cell lines and suggest that both JNK and ERK1/2 cascades are involved in the apoptotic response induced by 2'-nitroflavone in HL-60 cells.

  12. Leukemia-induced phenotypic and functional defects in natural killer cells predict failure to achieve remission in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringaris, Kate; Sekine, Takuya; Khoder, Ahmad; Alsuliman, Abdullah; Razzaghi, Bonnie; Sargeant, Ruhena; Pavlu, Jiri; Brisley, Gill; de Lavallade, Hugues; Sarvaria, Anushruthi; Marin, David; Mielke, Stephan; Apperley, Jane F; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Barrett, A John; Rezvani, Katayoun

    2014-05-01

    The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia will relapse, and older patients often fail to achieve remission with induction chemotherapy. We explored the possibility that leukemic suppression of innate immunity might contribute to treatment failure. Natural killer cell phenotype and function was measured in 32 consecutive acute myeloid leukemia patients at presentation, including 12 achieving complete remission. Compared to 15 healthy age-matched controls, natural killer cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients were abnormal at presentation, with downregulation of the activating receptor NKp46 (P=0.007) and upregulation of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A (P=0.04). Natural killer cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients had impaired effector function against autologous blasts and K562 targets, with significantly reduced CD107a degranulation, TNF-α and IFN-γ production. Failure to achieve remission was associated with NKG2A overexpression and reduced TNF-α production. These phenotypic and functional abnormalities were partially restored in the 12 patients achieving remission. In vitro co-incubation of acute myeloid leukemia blasts with natural killer cells from healthy donors induced significant impairment in natural killer cell TNF-α and IFN-γ production (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively) against K562 targets and a trend to reduced CD107a degranulation (P=0.07). Under transwell conditions, the inhibitory effect of AML blasts on NK cytotoxicity and effector function was still present, and this inhibitory effect was primarily mediated by IL-10. These results suggest that acute myeloid leukemia blasts induce long-lasting changes in natural killer cells, impairing their effector function and reducing the competence of the innate immune system, favoring leukemia survival.

  13. Intensive consolidation therapy compared with standard consolidation and maintenance therapy for adults with acute myeloid leukaemia aged between 46 and 60 years: final results of the randomized phase III study (AML 8B) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto (GIMEMA) Leukemia Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengeveld, Marysia; Suciu, Stefan; Karrasch, Matthias; Specchia, Giorgina; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Muus, Petra; Petti, Maria C; Rotoli, Bruno; Amadori, Sergio; Fioritoni, Guiseppe; Leoni, Pietro; Morra, Enrica; Thaler, Joseph; Resegotti, Luigi; Fazi, Paola; Vignetti, Marco; Mandelli, Franco; Zittoun, Robert; de Witte, Theo

    2012-06-01

    The most effective post-remission treatment to maintain complete remission (CR) in adults aged between 46 and 60 years with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is uncertain. Previously untreated patients with AML in CR after induction chemotherapy with daunorubicin and cytarabine were randomized between two intensive courses of consolidation therapy containing high-dose cytarabine, combined with amsacrine or daunorubicin and a standard consolidation and maintenance therapy containing standard dose cytarabine and daunorubicin. One hundred fifty-eight CR patients were assigned to the intensive group and 157 patients to the standard group. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years, the 4-year survival rate was 32 % in the intensive group versus 34 % in the standard group (P = 0.29). In the intensive group, the 4-year relapse incidence was lower than in the standard group: 55 and 75 %, respectively (P = 0.0003), whereas treatment-related mortality incidence was higher: 22 versus 3 % (P < 0.0001). Two intensive consolidation courses containing high-dose cytarabine as post-remission treatment in patients with AML aged between 46 and 60 years old did not translate in better long-term outcome despite a 20 % lower relapse incidence. Better supportive care and prevention of treatment-related complications may improve the overall survival after intensified post-remission therapy in this age group.

  14. Over-Expression of Catalase in Myeloid Cells Confers Acute Protection Following Myocardial Infarction

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    E. Bernadette Cabigas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and new treatment options are greatly needed. Oxidative stress is increased following myocardial infarction and levels of antioxidants de