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Sample records for mycoplasma hominis strains

  1. Genomic and gene variation in Mycoplasma hominis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed...... no identity or cluster formation between strains. Variation within M. hominis rRNA genes was analyzed by Southern hybridization of EcoRI-cleaved DNA hybridized with a cloned fragment of the rRNA gene from the mycoplasma strain PG50. Five of the M. hominis strains showed identical hybridization patterns....... These hybridization patterns were compared with those of 12 other mycoplasma species, which showed a much more complex band pattern. Cloned nonribosomal RNA gene fragments of M. hominis PG21 DNA were analyzed, and the fragments were used to demonstrate heterogeneity among the strains. A monoclonal antibody against...

  2. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins from Mycoplasma hominis strains detected by SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1987-01-01

    The proteins of 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis were compared by SDS-PAGE in gradient gels, by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis of extracts of 35S-labelled cells and by immunoblot analysis of cell proteins. The strains examined included the M. hominis type strain PG21 and 13 others...... isolated variously from genital tract, mouth, blood, upper urinary tract and a wound. These 14 strains shared 76-99% of proteins in SDS-gradient gel analysis and 41-72% in the 2D gels. As expected, the immunoblot analysis likewise revealed the existence of an extensive common protein pattern in M. hominis...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Strain Sprott (ATCC 33131), Isolated from a Patient with Nongonococcal Urethritis.

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    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F

    2015-07-09

    Presented here is the complete and annotated genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Sprott (ATCC 33131). The chromosome comprises 695,214 bp, which is approximately 30 kb larger than the syntenic genome of M. hominis PG21(T). Tetracycline resistance of strain Sprott is most probably conferred by the tetM determinant, harbored on a mosaic transposon-like structure. Copyright © 2015 Calcutt and Foecking.

  4. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-like Mycoplasma on the infection of HEp-2 cells by the TW-183 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

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    Castilla, E A; Wadowsky, R M

    2000-02-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  5. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-Like Mycoplasma on the Infection of HEp-2 Cells by the TW-183 Strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Elias A.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  6. A high-affinity human monoclonal IgM antibody reacting with multiple strains of Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, SA; Birkelund, Svend; Borrebaeck, CA

    1990-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies were produced against Mycoplasma hominis by in vitro immunization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a healthy seropositive donor using low amounts of antigen (5 ng/ml). The immune B lymphocytes were subsequently immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus transformation...

  7. Molecular design of Mycoplasma hominis Vaa adhesin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2001-01-01

    The variable adherence-associated (Vaa) adhesin of the opportunistic human pathogen Mycoplasma hominis is a surface-exposed, membrane-associated protein involved in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells. The molecular masses of recombinant 1 and 2 cassette forms of the protein determined...

  8. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G.; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M.; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory

  9. Mycoplasma hominis Induces Mediastinitis after a Tonsillar Abscess

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    Anna Grancini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is commonly involved in genitourinary tract infections. We report a 59-year-old man who developed a M. hominis-associated mediastinitis following acute tonsillar infection.

  10. Determination of recombination in Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Boesen, Thomas; Mygind, Tina

    2002-01-01

    disequilibrium and distance between the segregating sites, by the homoplasy ratio (H ratio), and by compatibility matrices. The gap gene showed well-supported evidence for high levels of recombination, whereas recombination was less frequent and not significant within the other genes. The analysis revealed......B-hitL, excinuclease ABC subunit A (uvrA) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) genes. The level of variability of these M. hominis genes was low compared with the housekeeping genes from Helicobacter pylori and Neisseria meningitidis, but only few M. hominis isolates had identical sequences in all genes...... intergenic and intragenic recombination in M. hominis and this may explain the high intraspecies variability. The results obtained in the present study may be of importance for future population studies of Mycoplasma species....

  11. Diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of Mycoplasma hominis meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Elisabeth H. L.; Winter, Heinrich L. J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Metzemaekers, Joannes D. M.; Arends, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Meningitis in adults due to infection with Mycoplasma hominis is rarely reported. Here, we document the third case of M. hominis meningitis in an adult individual, developed upon neurosurgery following a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our findings are noteworthy, because the presence of M. hominis in

  12. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular...

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in Greek female outpatients, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Mavromanolaki, Viktoria Eirini; Nioti, Eleni; Stafylaki, Dimitra; Minadakis, George

    2017-11-28

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species are opportunistic pathogens associated with urogenital infections, complications during pregnancy and postpartum infections. Appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment is necessary to achieve an optimal therapeutic outcome. This study evaluated the prevalence and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. isolated from 1,008 endocervical samples of outpatients in Crete, Greece, during a five-year period (2012-2016), using the commercially available Mycoview kit (Zeakon diagnostics, France). Ureaplasma spp. was isolated from 116 patients (11.5%), M. hominis from 6 (0.6%), while coinfection with both mycoplasmas was demonstrated in 17 (1.7%). All Ureaplasma strains were susceptible to josamycin and doxycycline. Doxycycline, minocycline and ofloxacin were the most potent antibiotics against M. hominis. Docycycline was proved the most active and is still the drug of choice for the treatment of genital mycoplasma infections. Local surveillance to monitor changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities is necessary to guide treatment strategies.

  14. Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess following heart-lung transplantation.

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    Hagiya, Hideharu; Yoshida, Hisao; Yamamoto, Norihisa; Kimura, Keigo; Ueda, Akiko; Nishi, Isao; Akeda, Yukihiro; Tomono, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation. The absence of sternal wound infection delayed the diagnosis, but the patient successfully recovered with debridement surgeries and long-term antibiotic therapy. Owing to the difficulty in detection and the intrinsic resistance to beta-lactams, M. hominis infections are prone to being misdiagnosed and undertreated. M. hominis should be suspected in cases where conventional microbiological identification and treatment approaches fail. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cloning, sequencing and variability analysis of the gap gene from Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Melkova, Renata

    2000-01-01

    The gap gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The gene was cloned and sequenced from the Mycoplasma hominis type strain PG21(T). The intraspecies variability was investigated by inspection of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns...... after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the gap gene from 15 strains and furthermore by sequencing of part of the gene in eight strains. The M. hominis gap gene was found to vary more than the Escherichia coli counterpart, but the variation at nucleotide level gave rise to only a few...... amino acid substitutions. To verify that the gene was expressed in M. hominis, a polyclonal antibody was produced and tested against whole cell protein from 15 strains. The enzyme was expressed in all strains investigated as a 36-kDa protein. All strains except type strain PG21(T) showed reaction...

  16. Cloning, sequencing and variability analysis of the gap gene from Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Melkova, Renata

    2000-01-01

    The gap gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The gene was cloned and sequenced from the Mycoplasma hominis type strain PG21(T). The intraspecies variability was investigated by inspection of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns...... after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the gap gene from 15 strains and furthermore by sequencing of part of the gene in eight strains. The M. hominis gap gene was found to vary more than the Escherichia coli counterpart, but the variation at nucleotide level gave rise to only a few...

  17. Analysis of a Mycoplasma hominis membrane protein, P120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Mathiesen, SL; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg

    1994-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody mAb 26.7D generated against a clinical isolate of Mycoplasma hominis 7488 was shown to react with a surface-exposed epitope on a 120-kDa protein (P120). The gene encoding the protein was cloned and sequenced, and the transcriptional start point was determined by primer...

  18. Antigenic and genomic homogeneity of successive Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Torp; Thorsen, P; Møller, B

    1998-01-01

    Sixty Mycoplasma hominis isolates were obtained from the cervices of pregnant women and from the ears or pharynges of their newborn babies. The isolates were examined by SDS-PAGE and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Antigenic and genomic profiles were obtained for 16 series with two or more...

  19. Physical and genetic mapping of the genomes of five Mycoplasma hominis strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Christiansen, Gunna

    1992-01-01

    -field gel electrophoresis. All the ApaI, SmaI, BamHI, XhoI, and SalI restriction sites (total of 21 to 33 sites in each strain) were placed on the physical map, yielding an average resolution of 26 kb. The maps were constructed using three different approaches: (i) size determination of DNA fragments...

  20. The Mycoplasma hominis P120 membrane protein contains a 216 amino acid hypervariable domain that is recognized by the human humoral immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1997-01-01

    In the antigenically heterogeneous species Mycoplasma hominis a monoclonal antibody, mAb 26.7D, was previously found to recognize a 120 kDa polypeptide from M. hominis 7488. This antibody did not react with the type strain PG21. The homologous gene from M. hominis PG21 was cloned and sequenced an...... response. Such a variable domain may be important in evasion of the host's immune response, and thus aid survival of the micro-organism....

  1. Epidemiological investigation and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in outpatients with genital manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tiejun; Ye, Aiqing; Xie, Xinyou; Huang, Jun; Ruan, Zhi; Kong, Yingying; Song, Jingjuan; Wang, Yue; Chen, Jiangzhong; Zhang, Jun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and drug resistance of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in outpatients with genital manifestation from 2005 to 2013 in Hangzhou, China. A total of 2689 female and 2336 male patients with various genital symptoms were included in this study. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed by using the mycoplasma IST-2 kit. The prevalence rate of Ureaplasma species was 39.9%, M hominis was 1.2% in female patients, and the coinfection rate was 13.4%; while in males, the prevalence rate of Ureaplasma species was 18.8%, M hominis was 0.4%, and the coinfection rate was 2.9%. Moreover, significantly high positive rates for mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma species M hominis) and were found in 16–20-year-old females (65.2%) and males (27.3%). Ureaplasma species and M hominis displayed relatively lower resistance rates (Ureaplasma species to quinolones (ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) were much higher (>50%) and increased significantly from 2005 to 2013. Our study indicates that high positive rates of Ureaplasma species and M hominis were found in young outpatients with genital symptoms, and monitoring the local drug resistance is critical for prevention of the occurrence of resistant strains.

  2. Meningitis in a Chinese adult patient caused by Mycoplasma hominis: a rare infection and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. Case presentation We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with...

  3. Rapid PCR Detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Cunningham; Jayawant N. Mandrekar; Jon E. Rosenblatt; Robin Patel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We compared laboratory developed real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma hominis and for detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and parvum to culture using genitourinary specimens submitted for M. hominis and Ureaplasma culture. Methods. 283 genitourinary specimens received in the clinical bacteriology laboratory for M. hominis and Ureaplasma species culture were evaluated. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Kit on the MagNA Pure 2.0...

  4. Morphology of human Fallopian tubes after infection with Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis--in vitro organ culture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Funch, P; Fedder, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female infertility can be caused by scarring and occlusion of the Fallopian tubes. Sexually transmitted bacteria can damage the delicate epithelial layer of human Fallopian tubes (HFT). Genital mycoplasmas are associated with human reproductive failure. Yet, there is not enough evidence...... that mycoplasmas can cause tubal factor infertility. We analysed the effects of infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium on the HFT epithelium and compared them with the effects of infections with genital pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: We used an in vitro...

  5. The infection of Mycoplasma hominis after total knee replacement: Case report and literature review

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    Hong-Jiu Qiu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mycoplasma hominis infection is a rare postoperative complication after joint replacement. Based on our knowledge, there were only two cases reported by Korea all over the world currently. A case of postoperative Mycoplasma hominis infection after total knee replacement in our hospital was reported in this article. It was confirmed through mass spectrometer and Mycoplasma cultivation and treated by the first stage debridement, polyethylene insert replacement, and then drainage and irrigation combined with sensitive antibiotics after the operation. We observed that the C reactive protein (CRP level correlates with the development of disease, while the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR remains at a high level, indicating the relevance between the Mycoplasma hominis infection caused by knee joint replacement and CRP. This study aims to report the case and review relevant literature.

  6. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycoplasma hominis antibodies in infertile women serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Friis Svenstrup, Helle; Fedder, Jens

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besides Chlamydiae trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis may also cause infertility due to damage of the Fallopian tubes. Therefore serum samples from infertile women were analyzed for antibodies to M. hominis. METHODS: Sera from 304 infertile women were investigat...

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in genital samples collected over 6 years at a Serbian university hospital

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    Dusan Skiljevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are implicated in a wide array of infectious diseases in adults and children. Since some species have innate or acquired resistance to certain types of antibiotics, antibiotic susceptibility testing of mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract assumes increasing importance. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in genital samples collected between 2007 and 2012. Methods: Three hundred and seventy three patients presenting with symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases, infertility or risky sexual behaviour, who had not taken antibiotics in the previous 6 weeks and had ≥10 WBC per high power field on genital smears were studied. Urethral samples were taken in men and endocervical samples in women. The mycoplasma IST-2 kit was used for organism identification and for testing susceptibility to doxycycline, josamycin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and pristinamycin. Results: U. urealyticum was isolated from 42 patients and M. hominis from 11 patients. From 9.8% of isolates, both organisms were grown. All M. hominis isolates were resistant to tetracycline, clarithromycin and erythromycin while U. urealyticum was highly resistant to clarithromycin (94.6%, tetracycline (86.5%, ciprofloxacin (83.8% and erythromycin (83.8%. M. hominis was sensitive to doxycycline (83.3% and ofloxacin (66.7% while most U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to doxycycline (94.6%. Limitations: Inability of the commercial kit used in the study to detect other potentially pathogenic urogenital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma genitalium. Conclusion: There is significant resistance of U. urealyticum and M. hominis to tetracycline and macrolides. The most active tetracycline for genital mycoplasmas was found to be doxycycline, which continues to be the drug of first choice.

  8. Life on arginine for Mycoplasma hominis: clues from its minimal genome and comparison with other human urogenital mycoplasmas.

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    Sabine Pereyre

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma. Two other pathogenic human species, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma parvum, reside within the same natural niche as M. hominis: the urogenital tract. These three species have overlapping, but distinct, pathogenic roles. They have minimal genomes and, thus, reduced metabolic capabilities characterized by distinct energy-generating pathways. Analysis of the M. hominis PG21 genome sequence revealed that it is the second smallest genome among self-replicating free living organisms (665,445 bp, 537 coding sequences (CDSs. Five clusters of genes were predicted to have undergone horizontal gene transfer (HGT between M. hominis and the phylogenetically distant U. parvum species. We reconstructed M. hominis metabolic pathways from the predicted genes, with particular emphasis on energy-generating pathways. The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway was incomplete, with a single enzyme absent. We identified the three proteins constituting the arginine dihydrolase pathway. This pathway was found essential to promote growth in vivo. The predicted presence of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase suggested that arginine catabolism is more complex than initially described. This enzyme may have been acquired by HGT from non-mollicute bacteria. Comparison of the three minimal mollicute genomes showed that 247 CDSs were common to all three genomes, whereas 220 CDSs were specific to M. hominis, 172 CDSs were specific to M. genitalium, and 280 CDSs were specific to U. parvum. Within these species-specific genes, two major sets of genes could be identified: one including genes involved in various energy-generating pathways, depending on the energy source used (glucose, urea, or arginine and another involved in cytadherence and virulence. Therefore, a minimal mycoplasma cell, not including cytadherence and virulence-related genes, could be envisaged containing a core genome (247 genes, plus a set of genes required for

  9. Hematoma and abscess formation caused by Mycoplasma hominis following cesarean section

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    Koshiba, Hisato; Koshiba, Akemi; Daimon, Yasushi; Noguchi, Toshifumi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma species cannot be identified by routine bacteriological culture methods and are resistant to common antimicrobial agents. Mycoplasma hominis usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and causes pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, rupture of fetal membranes, preterm labor, postpartum fever, postabortal fever, and neonatal infection. This organism is highly prevalent in cervicovaginal cultures of sexually active women. M. hominis, M. genitalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and U. parvum may invade and infect placental and fetal tissues, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. M. hominis occasionally causes nongenitourinary infection of the blood, wounds, central nervous system, joints, or respiratory tract. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who developed abdominal wound hematoma and abscess after cesarean section. The wound was drained, but her high fever persisted, in spite of antibiotic treatment using flomoxef sodium and imipenem·cilastatin sodium. Because the exudate exhibited M. hominis growth in an anaerobic environment, we administered the quinolone ciprofloxacin. This therapy resolved her fever, and her white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level diminished to the normal ranges. To our knowledge, there are four published articles regarding the isolation of M. hominis from postcesarean incisions. Based on the current study and the literature, infection by this pathogen may cause hematoma formation with or without abscess after cesarean section or in immunosuppressed postoperative patients. In such cases, physicians may need to suspect Mycoplasma infection and initiate appropriate antibacterial treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid persistent fever. PMID:21339933

  10. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

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    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of

  11. Molecular detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis in endometriosis lesions

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    F. Azizvakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retrograde of menstrual blood into the peritoneal cavity is one of the accepted theories for initiation of endometriosis although indicated that other factors are involved in pathogenesis. Investigation of infectious agents is important in this regard. Objective: To investigate the presence of bacterial infections; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis as risk factors in endometriosis lesions. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Sarem Hospital in 2014. DNA was extracted from 90 paraffin-embedded blocks included 40 endometriosis tissue samples, 23 samples of endometrial tissue from the same patients and 27 samples of endometrial tissue of the patients without endometriosis, and molecular analysis were performed using polymerase chain reaction. Results were analyzed by Fisher Exact Test and McNemar Test. Findings: Chlamydia trachomatis infection was seen in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 3 (13% normal tissue from patients and 10 (37% in patient without endometriosis. Mycoplasma hominis was diagnosed in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 7 (30.4% of normal tissue from patients and one patient without endometriosis (3.7%. These differences show significant relations between infection with Mycoplasma hominis and endometriosis. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not show significant association between Chlamydia trachomatis infections and endometriosis. However; it seems Mycoplasma hominis infection can increase the risk of endometriosis incidence.

  12. Cardiothoracic Transplant Recipient Mycoplasma hominis: An Uncommon Infection with Probable Donor Transmission

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    Rahul Sampath

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of infection with Mycoplasma hominis following cardiothoracic organ transplantation and its source of transmission have not been well-defined. Here, we identify and describe infection with M. hominis in patients following cardiothoracic organ transplantation after reviewing all cardiothoracic transplantations performed at our center between 1998 and July 2015. We found seven previously unreported cases of M. hominis culture positive infection all of whom presented with pleuritis, surgical site infection, and/or mediastinitis. PCR was used to establish the diagnosis in four cases. In two instances, paired single lung transplant recipients manifested infection, and in one of these pairs, isolates were indistinguishable by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. To investigate the prevalence of M. hominis in the lower respiratory tract, we tested 178 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluids collected from immunocompromised subjects for M. hominis by PCR; all were negative. Review of the literature revealed an additional 15 cases of M. hominis in lung transplant recipients, most with similar clinical presentations to our cases. We recommend that M. hominis should be considered in post-cardiothoracic transplant infections presenting with pleuritis, surgical site infection, or mediastinitis. M. hominis PCR may facilitate early diagnosis and prompt therapy. Evaluation for possible donor transmission should be considered.

  13. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

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    O. V. Zarucheynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

  14. Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium in the Vaginal Microbiota and Persistent High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection

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    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have suggested that the vaginal microenvironment plays a role in persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infection and thus cervical carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has been shown that some mycoplasmas are efficient methylators and may facilitate carcinogenesis through methylation of hrHPV and cervical somatic cells. We examined associations between prevalence and persistence of Mycoplasma spp. in the vaginal microbiota, and prevalent as well as persistent hrHPV infections.MethodsWe examined 194 Nigerian women who were tested for hrHPV infection using SPF25/LiPA10 and we identified Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis in their vaginal microbiota established by sequencing the V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We defined the prevalence of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and hrHPV based on positive result of baseline tests, while persistence was defined as positive results from two consecutive tests. We used exact logistic regression models to estimate associations between Mycoplasma spp. and hrHPV infections.ResultsThe mean (SD age of the study participants was 38 (8 years, 71% were HIV positive, 30% M. genitalium positive, 45% M. hominis positive, and 40% hrHPV positive at baseline. At follow-up, 16% of the women remained positive for M. genitalium, 30% for M. hominis, and 31% for hrHPV. There was a significant association between persistent M. hominis and persistent hrHPV (OR 8.78, 95% CI 1.49–51.6, p 0.01. Women who were positive for HIV and had persistent M. hominis had threefold increase in the odds of having persistent hrHPV infection (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.31–8.74, p 0.008, compared to women who were negative for both.ConclusionWe found significant association between persistent M. hominis in the vaginal microbiota and persistent hrHPV in this study, but we could not rule out reverse causation. Our findings need to be replicated in larger, longitudinal studies and if confirmed

  15. Development of real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma hominis

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    Baczynska, A.; Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma hominis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, bacterial vaginosis, post partum fever, sepsis and infections of the central nervous system often leading to serious conditions. Association with development of female infertility has also been suggested, but different....... Information on bacterial load in genital swabs can be obtained. The assay allowed detection of M. hominis in a closed system reducing the risk of contamination by amplicon carry-over......., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), as a target. RESULTS: Real-time PCR was optimized to detect 10 copies of M. hominis PG21 genomic DNA. A fluorescence signal was measured for all 20 other M. hominis isolates, and melting curves analysis showed variations in the melting temperature in agreement...

  16. Association of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with some indicators of nonspecific vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Ramírez, L; Gil, C; Zago, I; Yáñez, A; Giono, S

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the isolation rates of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum from three populations of women and also to relate the presence of these microorganisms with some indicators of nonspecific vaginitis. Three hundred vaginal swabs were taken from delivery, pregnant and control (not pregnant) women. Cultures were done in E broth supplemented with arginine or urea. M. hominis was isolated in 5% at delivery, 12% from pregnant and 5% from control women and U. urealyticum was isolated in 21%, 31% and 28% respectively. There was statistical difference in the isolation rate of M. hominis in pregnant women respect to the other groups. Both microorganisms were more frequently isolated in women with acid vaginal pH, amine-like odor in KOH test, clue cells and leucorrhea. M. hominis was isolated in 17% and U. urealyticum in 52% from women with nonspecific vaginitis. M. hominis was isolated in 2% and U. urealyticum in 13% from women without nonspecific vaginitis. Although the presence of clue cells and amine-like odor in KOH test have relationship with Gardnerella vaginalis, these tests could also suggest the presence of these mycoplasmas.

  17. Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in cervical fluid of pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Ivana; Pliskova, Lenka; Kutova, Radka; Hornychova, Helena; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid and their association with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). A prospective study of 68 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM between 24(0/7) and 36(6/7) weeks was conducted. Cervical fluid and amniotic fluid were collected from all women at the time of admission. The Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid were identified using specific real-time PCR. Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA were identified in 59% (40/69) of the cervical fluid samples. Women with the presence of Ureaplasma species DNA with and without Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid had a higher rate of MIAC alone [35% (14/40) versus 11% (3/28); p = 0.02] and a higher rate of the presence of both MIAC and HCA [30% (12/40) versus 4% (1/28); p = 0.01] than women without Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid. The presence of Ureaplasma species DNA with and without Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid is associated with a higher risk of MIAC or MIAC and HCA together in pregnancies complicated by PPROM.

  18. An infant case with hydrocephalus as the initial manifestation of Mycoplasma hominis-associated meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taku, Keisuke; Hoshina, Takayuki; Haro, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Shun; Kinjo, Tadamune; Takahashi, Mayu; Akiba, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Kusuhara, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We report an infant with hydrocephalus as the initial manifestation of Mycoplasma hominis-associated meningitis, who recovered without appropriate antimicrobial treatment. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction amplification using universal primers and pathogen-specific primers was useful for the diagnosis and the investigation of serial detection status of the pathogen. This method may be helpful for the assessment of the frequency and the prediction of severity in M. hominis-associated central nervous system infection in infants, and investigating the association between M. hominis and the development of hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie A; Kock, Marleen M

    2014-03-28

    Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is

  20. Meningitis in a Chinese adult patient caused by Mycoplasma hominis: a rare infection and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-10-12

    Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with combined azithromycin and minocycline therapy of 2 weeks duration, despite delayed treatment because the Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yielded no visible organisms. The diagnosis required 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of the cultured isolate from CSF. Literature review of M. hominis CNS infections yielded 19 cases (13 instances of brain abscess, 3 of meningitis, 1 spinal cord abscess and 1 subdural empyema each). Delay in diagnosis and initial treatment failure was evident in all cases. With appropriate microbiological testing, antibiotic therapy (ranging from 5 days to 12 weeks) and often, multiple surgical interventions, almost all the patients improved immediately. Both our patient findings and the literature review, highlighted the pathogenic potential of M. hominis together with the challenges prompted by rare infectious diseases in particular for developing countries laboratories with limited diagnostic resources.

  1. Sequencing analysis reveals a unique gene organization in the gyrB region of Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    of which showed similarity to that which encodes the LicA protein of Haemophilus influenzae. The organization of the genes in the region showed no resemblance to that in the corresponding regions of other bacteria sequenced so far. The gyrA gene was mapped 35 kb downstream from the gyrB gene.......The homolog of the gyrB gene, which has been reported to be present in the vicinity of the initiation site of replication in bacteria, was mapped on the Mycoplasma hominis genome, and the region was subsequently sequenced. Five open reading frames were identified flanking the gyrB gene, one...

  2. PCR-Múltiple para el diagnóstico de Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Rodríguez-Preval

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum son especies relacionadas con enfermedades del tracto genitourinario, y particularmente con la uretritis no gonocócica (UNG en el hombre. Los cultivos de estos microorganismos resultan complicados, por lo que las técnicas moleculares, principalmente la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, se han convertido en el principal método de detección de estos organismos. Objetivo: Implementar un método molecular basado en tecnología de genes para el diagnóstico de estas cuatro especies de micoplasmas genitales, aplicándolo en muestras clínicas de pacientes con UNG. Material y métodos: Se crearon las condiciones para un PCR-Múltiple para identificar estas especies empleando como muestra ADN de referencia, utilizando los juegos de cebadores complementarios a fragmentos de los genes de la proteína adhesiva de M. genitalium (MgPa, ARN ribosomal 16S de M. hominis, región espaciadora entre los genes del ARN ribosomal 16S y 23S de U. parvum, y de la región espaciadora adyacente al gen de la ureasa y específico para U. urealyticum, siendo un método específico y sensible. Resultados: Al analizar 34 muestras de exudado uretral, 27 correspondieron a la clase Mollicutes, obteniéndose 14,8% de positividad a M. genitalium, 18,5% a M. hominis, 11,1% a U. urealyticum y 3,7%. a U. parvum. Con este trabajo se realizó por primera vez el diagnóstico de M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. parvum y U. urealyticum en muestras uretrales de pacientes cubanos. Conclusión: Se recomienda incluir el diagnóstico de estas especies en un mayor número de pacientes cubanos con síntomas uretrales, para validar el método propuesto y conocer la relación de estos microorganismos con la UNG.

  3. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P.; Fiori, Pier L.

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host. PMID:27379081

  4. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis among Danish patients requesting abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Hvid, Malene; Lamy, P

    2008-01-01

    . There was no correlation between the presence of genital infection with C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas and no correlation between the presence of antibodies to these bacteria. In conclusion, in Danish patients it is not necessary to test for M. genitalium before abortion since less than 1% were found positive....... The prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infections was high among the abortion-seeking patients....

  5. Evaluation of First Voided Urine Samples For Detection of Ureaplasma Uriealyticum and Mycoplasma Hominis in Urinary Tracts of Men and Women Suffering from Nongonococcal and Nonspecific Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohamadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ureaplasma uriealyticum is one of the most important causes of Nongonococcal and Nonspecific urethritis (NGU & NSU in men. Mycoplasma hominis too has a causal role in NGU & NSU. This study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to detect Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma uriealyticum in first voided urine samples in men suffering from NGU & NSU without complaints of urethral secretions and in women with clinical symptoms despite negative vaginal secretion culture test results. Methods: First voided urine samples were taken from 150 patients (21 women & 129 men suffering from NGU & NSU who referred to the Division of Bacteriology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004-2005. Samples were examined by culture method. Results: Cultures were positive for Mycoplasma and Ureoplasma in 49 (32.6 % of the 150 samples. Of the 21 samples taken from women, 5 samples were positive for Mycoplasma & Ureoplasma (2 samples Mycoplasma, 3 samples Ureaplasma. Samples from 44 men were positive for Ureoplasma & Mycoplasma(17 samples Mycoplasma, 4 samples Ureaplasma and 23 samples were positive for both. Ureoplasma urealyticum was detected in 30 samples (20% and Mycoplasma hominis, was detected in 42 samples (28%. Conclusion: The results of this study provides evidence that culture tests can be done using voided urine in order to detect Mycoplasma hominis and ureaplasma urealyticum in patients suffering from Nongonococcal urethris; men who do not have urethral secretions and women with clinical symptoms despite negative vaginal secretion culture test results.

  6. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  7. Relevant prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum serogroups in HIV-1 infected men without urethritis symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORDOVA Caio Mauricio Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available M. hominis and U. urealyticum are the better-known mycoplasma species pathogenic to the human genitourinary tract, causing mainly urethritis, bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy complications. In HIV-infected patients, the prevalence and role of these species is still not well known. The aim of this work was to determinate the prevalence of these species in this group of male patients (HIV group, in comparison to a group of men with clinical symptoms of urethritis (STD group. M. hominis was isolated from 7.5% patients (8/106 and U. urealyticum from 18.9% patients (20/106 from the HIV group, being among these 62.5% and 85% in significant concentrations, respectively. In the STD group these rates were 0.9% (1/110 for M. hominis and 13.6% (15/110 for U. urealyticum, being 100% and 93.3% in significant concentrations, respectively. We could demonstrate infection rates by these mycoplasma species in the HIV group as high as the one found in the STD one, what may indicate the occurrence of opportunistic infections in our population. This fact is discussed here because in immunosuppressed patients, specially M. hominis has been reported causing severe infections, even systemically.

  8. High rates of double-stranded RNA viruses and Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Becker, Débora; dos Santos, Odelta; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in world, with 276.4 million new cases each year. T. vaginalis can be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonasvirus species. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. vaginalis infected with four distinct T. vaginalis viruses (TVVs) and M. hominis among isolates from patients in Porto Alegre city, South Brazil. An additional goal of this study was to investigate whether there is association between metronidazole resistance and the presence of M. hominis during TVV infection. The RNA expression level of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) gene was also evaluated among metronidazole-resistant and metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis isolates. A total of 530 urine samples were evaluated, and 5.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Among them, 4.51% were isolated from female patients and 1.12% were from male patients. Remarkably, the prevalence rates of M. hominis and TVV-positive T. vaginalis isolates were 56.7% and 90%, respectively. Most of the T. vaginalis isolates were metronidazole-sensitive (86.7%), and only four isolates (13.3%) were resistant. There is no statistically significant association between infection by M. hominis and infection by TVVs. Our results refute the hypothesis that the presence of the M. hominis and TVVs is enough to confer metronidazole resistance to T. vaginalis isolates. Additionally, the role of PFOR RNA expression levels in metronidazole resistance as the main mechanism of resistance to metronidazole could not be established. This study is the first report of the T. vaginalis infection by M. hominis and TVVs in a large collection of isolates from South Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial load of umbilical cord blood Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Pliskova, Lenka; Menon, Ramkumar; Kutova, Radka; Musilova, Ivana; Maly, Jan; Andrys, Ctirad

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate Ureaplasma species and M. hominis DNA in the umbilical cord blood and its correlation with its microbial load in the amniotic fluid, as a measure of microbial burden in fetal inflammatory response and neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM). A retrospective study of 158 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by pPROM between 24(0/7) and 36(6/7) weeks was conducted. Amniotic fluid was obtained from all women by transabdominal amniocentesis, and umbilical cord blood was obtained by venipuncture from umbilical cords immediately after the delivery of the neonates. The Ureaplasma species and M. hominis DNA was quantitated using absolute quantification techniques. Ureaplasma species and M. hominis DNA was identified in 9% of the umbilical cord blood samples. No correlation between the amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood microbial load was observed. The presence of Ureaplasma species and M. hominis DNA in the umbilical cord blood had no impact on short-term neonatal morbidity. A high microbial load of genital mycoplasma Ureaplasma species DNA in the umbilical cord in pregnancies complicated by pPROM is not associated with a high fetal inflammatory response and is therefore not associated with serious neonatal morbidity.

  10. Fatal nosocomial meningitis caused by Mycoplasma hominis in an adult patient: case report and review of the literature

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    Sophie Reissier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis due to Mycoplasma hominis in adults is rarely described, with only three cases having been reported to date. A case of fatal meningitis in a 39-year-old patient after a neurosurgical procedure for a subarachnoid haemorrhage is reported herein. Identification and treatment were significantly delayed because of the rarity of the aetiology and difficulty identifying this organism with the routinely used conventional methods, such as Gram staining and agar growth on standard agar plates. Clinical procedures and the treatment of ‘culture-negative’ central nervous system infections is a real challenge for clinical microbiologists and clinicians, and M. hominis has to be considered as a potential, although very uncommon, pathogen.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activities of cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene against Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleha, Radek; Mosio, Petra; Vydrzalova, Marketa; Jantovska, Alexandra; Bostikova, Vanda; Mazurova, Jaroslava

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of five natural substances against 50 clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. The in vitro activity of selected natural compounds, cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene, was investigated against 50 M. hominis isolates cultivated from cervical swabs by the broth dilution method. All showed valuable antimicrobial activity against the tested isolates. Oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (MBC90 = 500 µg/mL) however was found to be the most effective. Carvacrol (MBC90 = 600 µg/mL) and eugenol (MBC90 = 1000 µg/mL) also possessed strong antimycoplasmal activity. The results indicate that cinnamon bark oil, carvacrol and eugenol have strong antimycoplasmal activity and the potential for use as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections.

  12. Frequency of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in women with systemic lupus erythematosus Freqüência da infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum em mulheres portadoras de lupus eritematoso sistêmico

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    Alcyone A. Machado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Mycoplasma hominis (MH have been detected in the urine of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. We evaluated the presence of these mycoplasma in the endocervix of women presenting SLE. A total of 40 SLE patients (mean age 40.2 years, and 51 healthy women (mean age 30.9 years, were studied. Endocervical swabs were cultured in specific liquid media for MH or UU, detected by a quantitative color assay, and considered positive at >10³ dilutions. Statistical analysis was performed using the two-tailed Fisher test. UU was detected in 52.5 % of patients and in 11.8% of controls (p= 0.000059. MH was detected in 20% of patients and 2% controls (p=0.003905. Both mycoplasmas were detected in 7.3% patients and 0% controls (pUreaplasma urealyticum (UU e Mycoplasma hominis (MH têm sido detectados em urina de mulheres com lupus eritematoso sistêmico (LES. Avaliamos a presença destes mycoplasmas no endocervix de mulheres apresentando LES. Um total de 40 pacientes com LES (idade média de 40,2 anos, e 51 mulheres sadias (idade média de 30.9 anos, foram estudadas. Swabs do endocervix foram cultivados em meio líquido específico para MH e UU, detectados por teste colorimétrico quantitativo, considerando positivo diluições > 10³ . Análise estatística foi feita usando teste de Fisher. UU foi detectado em 52,5% das pacientes e em 11,8% dos controles (p= 0.000059. MH foi detectado em 20% das pacientes e 2% dos controles (p=0.003905. Ambos mycoplasmas foram detectados em 7,3 % das pacientes e 0% dos controles (p<0.000001. Os resultados aqui reportados corroboram com a associação de infecção por mycoplasma e LES. Estes agentes podem estimular a produção de clones autoreativos.

  13. First report of Sneathia sanguinegens together with Mycoplasma hominis in postpartum prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaskova, Iva; Nemec, Petr; Vanerkova, Martina; Malisova, Barbora; Tejkalova, Renata; Orban, Marek; Zampachova, Vita; Freiberger, Tomas

    2017-08-14

    The presence of more than one bacterial agent is relatively rare in infective endocarditis, although more common in prosthetic cases. Molecular diagnosis from a removed heart tissue is considered a quick and effective way to diagnose fastidious or intracellular agents. Here we describe the case of postpartum polymicrobial prosthetic valve endocarditis in a young woman. Sneathia sanguinegens and Mycoplasma hominis were simultaneously detected from the heart valve sample using broad range 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing while culture remained negative. Results were confirmed by independent PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Before the final agent identification, the highly non-compliant patient left from the hospital against medical advice on empirical intravenous treatment with aminopenicillins, clavulanate and gentamicin switched to oral amoxycillin and clavulanate. Four months after surgery, no signs of inflammation were present despite new regurgitation and valve leaflet flail was detected. However, after another 5 months the patient died from sepsis and recurrent infective endocarditis of unclarified etiology. Mycoplasma hominis is a rare causative agent of infective endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, presented case is the first report of Sneathia sanguinegens detected in this condition. Molecular techniques were shown to be useful even in polymicrobial infective endocarditis samples.

  14. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, T; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intraspecies heterogeneity within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis, five isolates with diverse antigenic profiles, variable/identical P120 hypervariable domains, and different 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns were analysed. The 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon was amplified...

  15. ヒト精子運動に及ぼす Ureaplasma urealyticum 及び Mycoplasma hominis の影響

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Myung Woong; Choi, Tae Kyung; Matsuo, Yoshiyasu; Yoshii, Zensaku

    1984-01-01

    The human spermatozoal motility was significantly affected by the whole culture solution and slightly less significantly by the microbial cell suspension of Ureaplasma urealyticum but not the microbial metabolites (culture supernatant). The same phenomenon was observed with the preparations of Mycoplasma hominis in somewhat less degree.

  16. Cytokine concentrations in seminal plasma from subfertile men are not indicative of the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis in the lower genital tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; Trum, J. W.; Bleker, O. P.; van der Veen, F.; Spanjaard, L.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    The inflammatory response to the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis in the lower genital tract of subfertile men without any signs or symptoms of infection was investigated by measuring the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum isolated during a population-based study concerning women infertility in northeast Romania

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    Mareş Mihai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 1068 infertile women under initial evaluation. For Mycoplasma hominis, the highest resistance rates were registered for ciprofloxacin (72.22%, followed by macrolides and ofloxacin. For Ureaplasma urealyticum, the ciprofloxacin resistance was also high (51.72%, while the resistance rates to other tested antibiotics were significantly lower.

  18. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

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    Daria A Burmistrova

    Full Text Available Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh, for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection.

  19. [Usefulness of conventional polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis in female outpatient's genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gonzalo; Barraza, Gabriela; Vera, Andrea; Wozniak, Aniela; García, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. are microorganisms responsible for genitourinary and pregnancy pathologies. Nucleic acid amplification methods have shown several advantages, but have not been widely studied for the detection of these microorganisms. To implement a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the microorganisms and to compare its results versus the methods currently used at our laboratory. 91 available samples were processed by PCR, culture (M. hominis y Ureaplasma spp.) and wet mount (T vaginalis). Results were compared and statistically analyzed by kappa agreement test. 85, 80 and 87 samples resulted in agreement for the detection of M. hominis, Ureaplasma spp. y T. vaginalis, respectively. For M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp., agreement was substantial, whereas for T. vaginalis it was moderate, however, for the latter, PCR detected more cases than wet mount. We recommend the implementation of PCR for detection of T. vaginalis whereas culture kit is still a useful method for the other microorganisms.

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis among outpatients in central Greece: absence of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M over a 4-year period study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ikonomidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 men and women attending local urologists and gynaecologists in the state of Thessaly, central Greece, were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis DNA. Investigation of the tet(M gene, which confers tetracycline resistance in these genera, was also performed. Low incidence of C. trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp. as well as high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp., especially among women, were found. The tet(M gene was absent in all cases, notably in a region where doxycycline administration remains the first therapeutic option unless special medical conditions direct otherwise.

  1. Co-infections with Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive woman with vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Dhawan, Benu

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected woman presented with vaginal discharge and associated vulval irritation. The vaginal swabs tested positive for Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specimen also tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene PCR assays. The patient was successfully treated with azithromycin based on the antibiotic susceptibility testing results of U. parvum and M. hominis by microbroth dilution. Since sexually transmitted infections enhance the transmission of HIV, HIV-positive patients should be screened routinely for these pathogens.

  2. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    bacteriological culture during a 4-year period. Methods: Dpt. of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg Hospital serves a population of 0.5 mio. Aerobic bacteriologic cultures are routinely carried out on 5% horse blood agar and chocolate agar (SSI Diagnostika, DK) at 35 °C in 5% CO2. The finding of translucent, pinpoint...... not respond to surgical drainage of the abscesses (if present) and prolonged empirical intravenous therapy with a β-lactam antibiotic and metronidazole (median 9 days). The tentative diagnosis of M. hominis prompted a change of antibiotic therapy to either moxifloxacin or clindamycin which was followed...... by resolution of symptoms and normalisation of CRP (median 9 days). Conclusion: M. hominis is a rare finding by prolonged incubation of conventional blood agar. A pathogenic role of M. hominis was supported by the lack of clinical response to surgical drainage and prolonged empirical antibiotic therapy...

  3. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: M. hominis is part of the normal mucosal flora and is primarily associated with infections in the genitourinary tract. Most infections occur following delivery or genitourinary instrumentation, but are also seen in immunocompromised patients. We present 4 cases diagnosed by routine ba...... Serum Institut, Copenhagen (by courtesy to Jørgen Skov). Results: The four patients were immunocompetent women (23-56 years of age) without significant comorbidity (Table). In all patients M. hominis were obtained in pure culture. At the time of diagnosis three patients had abscesses...

  4. Interaction of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 with Human Dendritic Cells: Interleukin-23-Inducing Mycoplasmal Lipoproteins and Inflammasome Activation of the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goret, J; Béven, L; Faustin, B; Contin-Bordes, C; Le Roy, C; Claverol, S; Renaudin, H; Bébéar, C; Pereyre, S

    2017-08-01

    Mycoplasma hominis lacks a cell wall, and lipoproteins anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane are in direct contact with the host components. A Triton X-114 extract of M. hominis enriched with lipoproteins was shown to stimulate the production of interleukin-23 (IL-23) by human dendritic cells (hDCs). The inflammasome activation of the host cell has never been reported upon M. hominis infection. We studied here the interaction between M. hominis PG21 and hDCs by analyzing both the inflammation-inducing mycoplasmal lipoproteins and the inflammasome activation of the host cell. IL-23-inducing lipoproteins were determined using a sequential extraction strategy with two nondenaturing detergents, Sarkosyl and Triton X-114, followed by SDS-PAGE separation and mass spectrometry identification. The activation of the hDC inflammasome was assessed using PCR array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We defined a list of 24 lipoproteins that could induce the secretion of IL-23 by hDCs, 5 with a molecular mass between 20 and 35 kDa and 19 with a molecular mass between 40 and 100 kDa. Among them, lipoprotein MHO_4720 was identified as potentially bioactive, and a synthetic lipopeptide corresponding to the N-terminal part of the lipoprotein was subsequently shown to induce IL-23 release by hDCs. Regarding the hDC innate immune response, inflammasome activation with caspase-dependent production of IL-1β was observed. After 24 h of coincubation of hDCs with M. homini s, downregulation of the NLRP3-encoding gene and of the adaptor PYCARD-encoding gene was noticed. Overall, this study provides insight into both protagonists of the interaction of M. hominis and hDCs. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma hominis is a human urogenital pathogen involved in gynecologic and opportunistic infections. M. hominis lacks a cell wall, and its membrane contains many lipoproteins that are anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we focused on

  5. Kinases of two strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of Mycoplasma synoviae: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Melo Bailão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are wall-less eubacteria belonging to the class of Mollicutes. These prokaryotes have a reduced genome size and reduced biosynthetic machinery. They cause great losses in animal production. M. synoviae is responsible for an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens and turkeys. M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. The complete genomes of these organisms showed 17 ORFs encoding kinases in M. synoviae and 15 in each of the M. hyopneumoniae strain. Four kinase genes were restricted to the avian pathogen while three were specific to the pig pathogen when compared to each other. All deduced kinases found in the non pathogenic strain (J[ATCC25934] were also found in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae strain. The enzymes were classified in nine families composing five fold groups.

  6. "The rate of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Mycoplasma Hominis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum in females with habitual abortion and its comparison with control group "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salari MH

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Females abortion is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.In this study frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was studied in 125 females with habitual abortion by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. The results obtained were as follow: Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 18 (14.4% females with habitual abortion and 18 (7.2% normal population (P=0.0139. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 39(31.2% females with habitual aboration and 48 (19.2% normal population (P=0.0045. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence test in 9 (7.2% of cases and 2 (0.8% of control groups (P=0.0002. the antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured. The valuable titer of antibody (>1/16 was detected in 15 (12% of cases and 8 (3.2% of control groups (P=0.0004.The results show that chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may be responsible for some cases of abortion.

  7. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis an...

  8. Antibacterial Resistance in Ureaplasma Species and Mycoplasma hominis Isolates from Urine Cultures in College-Aged Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine-King, Marissa A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect nearly 20% of women age 15 to 29 and account for an estimated $3.5 billion in costs. Antibiotic resistance prolongs UTI treatment, and resistance profiles vary regionally. This regional variation is an important consideration in guiding empirical treatment selection. Regional studies in the United States have identified tetracycline resistance in over one-third of Ureaplasma species isolates, but no studies have evaluated antibiotic resistance levels in college-aged women with a first-time UTI. We tested a panel of antibiotics and determined the MICs of Ureaplasma species (60 U. parvum and 13 U. urealyticum) and 10 Mycoplasma hominis isolates obtained from urine from college-aged women with a first-time UTI. Low antibiotic resistance was found in this population of women with a first-time UTI. All M. hominis and U. urealyticum isolates were sensitive. However, two U. parvum isolates were resistant, with one to levofloxacin (MIC, 4 μg/ml) and one to tetracycline (MIC, 8 μg/ml). For the Ureaplasma spp., the MIC90s were highest against gentamicin (21 μg/ml) and lowest against doxycycline (0.25 μg/ml). In a comparison of MIC levels between Ureaplasma spp., U. urealyticum had significantly higher MICs against each antibiotic except doxycycline. For the resistant isolates, the genetic mechanisms of resistance were determined. PCR amplification identified tetM to be present in the tetracycline-resistant isolate and an S83W mutation within the parC gene of the quinolone-resistant isolate. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide molecular and phenotypic evidence of the S83W parC mutation conferring levofloxacin resistance in U. parvum isolated from a patient in the United States. PMID:28827422

  9. Amplified-fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycoplasma species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, N.F.; Jensen, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a whole-genome fingerprinting method based on selective amplification of restriction fragments. The potential of the method for the characterization of mycoplasmas was investigated in a total of 50 strains of human and animal origin, including...... Mycoplasma genitalium (n = 11), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 5), Mycoplasma hominis (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyopneunmoniae (n = 9), Myco plasma flocculare (n = 5), Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (n = 10), and Mycoplasma dispar (n = 5), AFLP templates were prepared by the digestion of mycoplasmal DNA with BglII and Mfe...... to discriminate the analyzed strains at species and intraspecies levels as well, Each of the tested Mycoplasma species developed a banding pattern entirely different from those obtained from other species under analysis, Subtle intraspecies genomic differences were detected among strains of all of the Mycoplasma...

  10. Investigation on Symbiosis of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis in Some Areas of Guizhou Province%贵州省部分地区阴道毛滴虫与人型支原体共生情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡贵榕; 衣凤芸; 杨宇箭; 程其会; 王丽娟; 吴家红

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解贵州地区阴道毛滴虫临床分离株与人型支原体共生情况。方法:以贵州部分地区女性阴道毛滴虫病患者阴道后穹隆分泌物中采集的阴道毛滴虫虫株,实验室达到纯培养后,采用Chelex-100的方法提取滴虫基因组DNA,设计人型支原体16S rDNA特异引物,进行聚合酶链式反应( PCR),琼脂糖凝胶电泳法对PCR产物进行分析,观察滴虫细胞内人型支原体共生情况。结果:从临床共采集到165株虫株中,83株获得纯培养;83株中人型支原体检测结果显示有47株阳性,阳性率为56.6%。结论:阴道毛滴虫虫株与人型支原体共生情况在我国贵州地区普遍性存在。%Objective:To investigate the symbiosis of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis in Guizhou Province. Methods:The clinical strains of T. vaginalis were collected from the hospitals and family planning service stations in Guiyang city and Anshun city. After pure culture in lab,the ge-nome DNA of T. vaginalis was extracted by Chelex-100,and 16S rDNA fragment of M. hominis was amplified by PCR with the specific primers. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis was conducted and the symbiosis of M. hominis in T. vaginalis was observed. Results:A total of 165 strains were collected from the hospitals and family planning service stations,and 83 clinical strains attained pure culture,of which 47 strains were detected positively for M. hominis. The positive rate was 56. 6%. Conclusions:The symbiosis of M. hominis in T. vaginalis is prevalent in Guizhou province.

  11. Freqüência de infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum em mulheres inférteis e relação com repercussões clínicas Frequency of infection with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in infertile women and clinical repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Araujo Penna

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a freqüência de infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum e relacioná-la a variáveis clínicas de mulheres inférteis. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com 322 pacientes inférteis submetidas à coleta de swab endocervical para pesquisa de Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum, de outubro de 2002 a maio de 2004. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas a protocolo básico de investigação clínica e laboratorial da infertilidade. Como controle, utilizou-se série histórica de 51 mulheres não gestantes, previamente pesquisadas quanto aos agentes infecciosos estudados. RESULTADOS: a freqüência de infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum foi de 4,9% nas pacientes inférteis e 13,8% no grupo controle. Entre as pacientes inférteis observou-se relação entre a presença dos dois patógenos e alterações no resultado da histerossalpingografia (OR: 3,20; IC 95%: 1,05-9,73, presença de dispareunia (OR: 10,72; IC 95%: 3,21-35,77 e corrimento vaginal (OR: 8,5; IC 95%: 2,83-26,02, além de cultura endocervical positiva para Escherichia coli (OR: 16,09; IC 95%: 4,95-52,25. CONCLUSÃO: a taxa de infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum é baixa em pacientes inférteis e está associada a seqüelas reprodutivas tardias.PURPOSE: to determine the frequency of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infection, and relate it to the associated clinical variables of infertile women. METHODS: transversal study involving 322 infertile women, submitted to collection of endocervix swab for research of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infecction, from October 2002 to May 2004. All patients were submitted to a basic infertility investigation protocol. As control, a historical series of 51 non-pregnant women previously investigated as for the studied infectious agents, was used. RESULTS: the frequency of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infection was 4

  12. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type...

  13. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, T; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intraspecies heterogeneity within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis, five isolates with diverse antigenic profiles, variable/identical P120 hypervariable domains, and different 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns were analysed. The 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon was amplified...... by PCR and the PCR products were sequenced. Three isolates had identical 16S rRNA sequences and two isolates had sequences that differed from the others by only one nucleotide....

  14. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  15. Molecular analysis of field strains of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, small colony type isolated from goats in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    A molecular analysis of strains of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp, capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type (M. mycoides SQ isolated from goats was performed using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and pulsed-field gel...

  16. Co-infection with vaginal Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis increases adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong-Wook; Hwang, Han-Sung; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Han

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) in patients with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to determine the effect of these organisms on pregnancy outcomes based on the density of colonization. The study group consisted of 184 women with preterm labor or PPROM. Vaginal cultures for UU and MH were performed for all patients at admission, and the placentas were histologically evaluated after delivery. The prevalence of positive vaginal fluid cultures for genital mycoplasma was 62.5% (112/179). This group included 99 patients carrying only UU and 13 carrying both organisms. No patients were found to carry only MH. Compared to patients only positive for UU, patients with both organisms showed significantly decreased gestational age at birth and birth weight, and significant increases in the incidences of preterm birth, NICU admissions and histologic chorioamnionitis. Vaginal MH tends to be detected with UU, and patients carrying both organisms simultaneously had more severe adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to patients in preterm labor or PPROM who were only positive for UU.

  17. Selection of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 deletion mutants by cultivation in the presence of monoclonal antibody 552

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Ladefoged, S; Birkelund, S

    1995-01-01

    characterized. The mutants showed deletions of a various number of repeats. The deletions were accompanied by a decrease in size of the proteins. With increasing size of deletions, agglutination and growth inhibition by MAb 552 became less pronounced. Spontaneous aggregation of the mutant M. hominis cells...

  18. Clinical significance of asymptomatic urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in relation to seminal fluid parameters among infertile Jordanian males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The differences in the occurrence of M. hominis were statistically insignificant among infertility and control groups, but it was significant for U. urealyticum (p=0.046. M. hominis occurs more frequently in the semen of infertile-varicose male and normal seminal fluid quality. It seems to have no adverse effects on sperm motility but it might decline the fertility potential in such cases. U. urealyticum on the other hand have no clear significant impacts on sperm motility. The mean values for sperm motility, concentrations, and viscosity were not affected by the presence of the two species. Despite the significant presence of Ureaplasma among infertility, further studies were needed to clarify their potential effect on semen quality and infertility status.

  19. Association between preterm labor and genitourinary tract infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Gram-negative bacilli, and coryneforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dien M.S. Hosny

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the main risk factors for PTL were vaginal infection with T. vaginalis, M. hominis, coryneforms, and Gram-negative bacilli, and their determinants (vaginal pH>5, positive whiff test, heavy vaginal bleeding. Both young age (< 20 years and poor obstetric history were also the risk factors. Therefore, screening for genitourinary tract infections is strongly recommended to be included in prenatal care.

  20. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  1. PCR Research of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis Cells of Sichuan Province%四川地区阴道毛滴虫内人型支原体的PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓燕; 王雅静; 毕世樑; 张仁刚

    2009-01-01

    20 isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis were collected from clinical patients in hospital. After pure cultivation, genomic DNA of T. vaginalis was extracted. A pair of specific 16S rDNA primers was designed based on the sequence of Mycoplasma hominis. M. hominis in T. vaginalis cells were detected by PCR. Altogether 20 isolates of T. vaginalis were collected, 13 out of 20 T. vaginalis isolates harboured M. hominis, and the symbiosis ratio between T. vaginalis and M. hominis was up to 65%. It suggested that the symbiotic relationship between T. vaginalis and M. hominis occurred commonly in Sichuan, China.%从临床上分离获得20株阴道毛滴虫虫株,经纯化培养后,提取基因组DNA.以人型支原体16S rDNA序列设计特异性引物,利用PCR技术检测阴道毛滴虫内的人型支原体,结果有13株为人型支原体阳性,感染率为65%,表明阴道毛滴虫与人型支原体的共生关系在中国四川具有普遍性.

  2. 阴道毛滴虫与人型支原体共生对铁氧还蛋白基因影响%Effects of the Symbiosis of Trichomonas Vaginalis with Mycoplasma Hominis on Ferredoxin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 温雯静; 薛长贵

    2011-01-01

    We isolated 30 Trichomonas vaginalis for the PCR detection from the gynecological outpatients in the Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University using the specific 16s rDNA primers of Mycoplasma hominis. The results showed that there were 25 cases of Mycoplasma hominis infection, with the infection rate of 83. 33%. This gave a clew that the symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis with Mycoplasma hominis may be of certain generality in China. We sequenced the ferredoxin gene of 10 Trichomonas vaginalis where 5 Mycoplasma hominis were positive and five negative, and found that the ferredoxin (Fd) gene of the 10 Trichomonas vaginalis were exactly the same. But compared to the genes in the GenBank. A comparative analysis of the gene revealed that there were 3 more ctg bases at the 200th position of encoding leucine, but this did not lead to changes in reading frame. The gene homology was 99%.%采用人型支原体16s rDNA的特异引物,对从郑州大学附属医院妇科门诊患者分离到的30株阴道毛滴虫进行PCR检测,结果有25株感染人型支原体,感染率为83.33%,这显示了阴道毛滴虫和人型支原体之间的共生关系在中国具有普遍性.并对10株阴道毛滴虫(5株人型支原体阳性和5株人型支原体阴性)的铁氧还蛋白(Fd)基因进行测序,探讨人型支原体对Fd基因的影响,结果发现10株阴道毛滴虫的Fd基因完全相同,但与GenBank中的基因进行比较分析,在第200位多出ctg三个碱基,编码亮氨酸,但并未导致读码框架改变.基因同源性为99%.

  3. Detecting the Diversity of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Endosymbionts Hosted by Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Anastasios; Papaioannou, Panagiota; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Magana, Maria; Ioannidou, Vasiliki; Tzanetou, Konstantina; Burriel, Angeliki R.; Tsironi, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis is the first described association between two obligate human parasites. Trichomonas is the niche and the vector for the transmission of M. hominis infection. This clinically significant symbiosis may affect T. vaginalis virulence and susceptibility to treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the intracellularly present Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species in T. vaginalis strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of infected women as well as to trace the diversity pattern among the species detected in the isolated strains. Methods: Hundred pure T. vaginalis cultures were isolated from ~7,500 patient specimens presented with clinical purulent vaginitis. PCR and sequencing for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma spp. were performed in DNA extracted from the pure cultures. In addition, vaginal discharge samples were cultured for the presence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Phylogenetic analysis assisted the identification of interspecies relationships between the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma isolates. Results: Fifty four percentage of T. vaginalis isolates were harboring Mycoplasma spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters, two with already characterized M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. (37% of total Mycoplasma spp.), whereas one group formed a distinct cluster matched with the newly identified species Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii (59.3%) and one or more unknown Mycoplasma spp. (3.7%). Conclusions: T. vaginalis strains associated with vaginal infection might host intracellular mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas. Intracellular Mollicutes that remain undetected in the extracellular environment when conventional diagnostic methods are implemented may comprise either novel species, such as Candidatus M. giredii, or unknown species with yet unexplored clinical significance. PMID:28702014

  4. Detecting the Diversity of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Endosymbionts Hosted by Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Ioannidis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis is the first described association between two obligate human parasites. Trichomonas is the niche and the vector for the transmission of M. hominis infection. This clinically significant symbiosis may affect T. vaginalis virulence and susceptibility to treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the intracellularly present Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species in T. vaginalis strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of infected women as well as to trace the diversity pattern among the species detected in the isolated strains.Methods: Hundred pure T. vaginalis cultures were isolated from ~7,500 patient specimens presented with clinical purulent vaginitis. PCR and sequencing for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma spp. were performed in DNA extracted from the pure cultures. In addition, vaginal discharge samples were cultured for the presence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Phylogenetic analysis assisted the identification of interspecies relationships between the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma isolates.Results: Fifty four percentage of T. vaginalis isolates were harboring Mycoplasma spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters, two with already characterized M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. (37% of total Mycoplasma spp., whereas one group formed a distinct cluster matched with the newly identified species Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii (59.3% and one or more unknown Mycoplasma spp. (3.7%.Conclusions:T. vaginalis strains associated with vaginal infection might host intracellular mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas. Intracellular Mollicutes that remain undetected in the extracellular environment when conventional diagnostic methods are implemented may comprise either novel species, such as Candidatus M. giredii, or unknown species with yet unexplored clinical significance.

  5. Proteogenomic mapping of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae virulent strain 232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendarvis, Ken; Padula, Matthew P; Tacchi, Jessica L; Petersen, Andrew C; Djordjevic, Steven P; Burgess, Shane C; Minion, F Chris

    2014-07-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes respiratory disease in swine and contributes to the porcine respiratory disease complex, a major disease problem in the swine industry. The M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 genome is one of the smallest and best annotated microbial genomes, containing only 728 annotated genes and 691 known proteins. Standard protein databases for mass spectrometry only allow for the identification of known and predicted proteins, which if incorrect can limit our understanding of the biological processes at work. Proteogenomic mapping is a methodology which allows the entire 6-frame genome translation of an organism to be used as a mass spectrometry database to help identify unknown proteins as well as correct and confirm existing annotations. This methodology will be employed to perform an in-depth analysis of the M. hyopneumoniae proteome. Proteomic analysis indicates 483 of 691 (70%) known M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 proteins are expressed under the culture conditions given in this study. Furthermore, 171 of 328 (52%) hypothetical proteins have been confirmed. Proteogenomic mapping resulted in the identification of previously unannotated genes gatC and rpmF and 5-prime extensions to genes mhp063, mhp073, and mhp451, all conserved and annotated in other M. hyopneumoniae strains and Mycoplasma species. Gene prediction with Prodigal, a prokaryotic gene predicting program, completely supports the new genomic coordinates calculated using proteogenomic mapping. Proteogenomic mapping showed that the protein coding genes of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 identified in this study are well annotated. Only 1.8% of mapped peptides did not correspond to genes defined by the current genome annotation. This study also illustrates how proteogenomic mapping can be an important tool to help confirm, correct and append known gene models when using a genome sequence as search space for peptide mass spectra. Using a gene prediction program which scans for a wide variety of

  6. Selection of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 deletion mutants by cultivation in the presence of monoclonal antibody 552

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Torp; Ladefoged, Søren; Birkelund, Svend

    1995-01-01

    monoclonal antibody (MAb) 552. The epitope for MAb 552 was localized at the repeated part of the protein. The gene encoding Lmp1 is part of a transcriptional complex that contains 9.5 direct repeats of 471 bp each. Pure cultures of mutant strains were obtained by subcloning, and three mutants were...

  7. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster strains from goats in Chongqing, China

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    Wang Haoju

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the prevalence of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in goats in Chongqing, China, an epidemiological survey in this area was carried out. A total of 68 samples were subjected to bacteria isolation on Hartley’s medium. Four isolates (three from lung tissue and one from nasal discharges were recovered from the samples and identified as the Mycoplasma species by their morphological and biochemical characteristics. They were further confirmed by PCR using 16S rRNA specific primer pairs and by restriction enzyme analysis. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates indicated that some strains had developed resistance to the antibiotics tested. This is the first report on the isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from goats in Chongqing. This study also revealed a prevalence of Mycoplasma species infection in goats in this area.

  8. Impact of diversity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains on lung lesions in slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Annelies; Vranckx, Katleen; Piepers, Sofie; Del Pozo Sacristán, Rubén; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2017-01-17

    The importance of diversity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) strains is not yet fully known. This study investigated the genetic diversity of M. hyopneumoniae strains in ten pig herds, and assessed associations between the presence of different strains of M. hyopneumoniae and lung lesions at slaughter. Within each herd, three batches of slaughter pigs were investigated. At slaughter, from each batch, 20 post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected for multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and lung lesions (Mycoplasma-like lesions, fissures) were examined. Multivariable analyses including potential risk factors for respiratory disease were performed to assess associations between the number of different strains per batch (three categories: one strain, two-six strains, ≥seven strains), and the lung lesions as outcome variables. In total, 135 different M. hyopneumoniae strains were found. The mean (min.-max.) number of different strains per batch were 7 (1-13). Batches with two-six strains or more than six strains had more severe Mycoplasma-like lesions (P = 0.064 and P = 0.012, respectively), a higher prevalence of pneumonia [odds ratio (OR): 1.30, P = 0.33 and OR: 2.08, P = 0.012, respectively], and fissures (OR = 1.35, P = 0.094 and OR = 1.70, P = 0.007, respectively) compared to batches with only one strain. In conclusion, many different M. hyopneumoniae strains were found, and batches of slaughter pigs with different M. hyopneumoniae strains had a higher prevalence and severity of Mycoplasma-like lung lesions at slaughter, implying that reducing the number of different strains may lead to less lung lesions at slaughter and better respiratory health of the pigs.

  9. Associação entre presença de Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum e níveis de citocinas pró e antiinflamatórias no líquido amniótico de gestação de termo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity has been described in term deliveries and its role on the immune modulation is of interest to the better understanding of the underlying labor processes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the amniotic fluid of term pregnancies and to evaluate its influence on cytokines production at the end of pregnancy. A cross sectional study was conducted with fifty five pregnant women out of l...

  10. [Immunogenicity of attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strain expressing immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengying; Zou, Haoyong; He, Qigai

    2011-09-01

    The study was carried out to construct and characterize Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strain expressing immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to test its immunogenicity in mice. We made p36, p46, p65 and p97R1-Nrdf, the main immunogenic genes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, to insert into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pYA3493. Then these recombinant plasmids and pYA3493 were electroporated into C500 asd-mutant, resulting in the recombinant Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strains C36 (pYA-36), C46 (pYA-46), C65 (pYA-65), C97R1-Nrdf(pYA-97R1-Nrdf) and CpYA(pYA3493). We characterized these recombinant Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strains and tested the immunogenicity in mice by intramuscular injection or orally immunized. The results of the immunogenicity in mice indicated that the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65, C97R1-Nrdf showed significantly higher Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody than both the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65 and the group intramuscular injected with the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC) (P Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC) (P 0.05). The highest level of IL-4 was found in the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65; higher levels of IL-4 was observed in the group orally immunized with C36, C46, C65, C97R1-Nrdf than the group injected with the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin (M + PAC); and the lowest IL-4 level was found in the group injected with C36, C46, C65. There were no significant differences among them (P > 0.05). The Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody, IFN-gamma or IL-4 production of the each group was obviously higher than the control group (P Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae which has immunogenicity in mice especially by intramuscular injection could probably serve as a vaccine against mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine.

  11. Comparative genomic analyses of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic 168 strain and its high-passaged attenuated strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a mild, chronic pneumonia of swine. Despite presenting with low direct mortality, EP is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry. To identify the virulence-associated determinants of M. hyopneumoniae, we determined the whole genome sequence of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L and carried out comparative genomic analyses. Results We performed the first comprehensive analysis of M. hyopneumoniae strain 168 and its attenuated strain and made a preliminary survey of coding sequences (CDSs) that may be related to virulence. The 168-L genome has a highly similar gene content and order to that of 168, but is 4,483 bp smaller because there are 60 insertions and 43 deletions in 168-L. Besides these indels, 227 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified. We further investigated the variants that affected CDSs, and compared them to reported virulence determinants. Notably, almost all of the reported virulence determinants are included in these variants affected CDSs. In addition to variations previously described in mycoplasma adhesins (P97, P102, P146, P159, P216, and LppT), cell envelope proteins (P95), cell surface antigens (P36), secreted proteins and chaperone protein (DnaK), mutations in genes related to metabolism and growth may also contribute to the attenuated virulence in 168-L. Furthermore, many mutations were located in the previously described repeat motif, which may be of primary importance for virulence. Conclusions We studied the virulence attenuation mechanism of M. hyopneumoniae by comparative genomic analysis of virulent strain 168 and its attenuated high-passage strain 168-L. Our findings provide a preliminary survey of CDSs that may be related to virulence. While these include reported virulence-related genes, other novel virulence determinants were also detected. This new information will form

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

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    Klein Cátia S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly infectious swine pathogen and is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP. Following the previous report of a proteomic survey of the pathogenic 7448 strain of swine pathogen, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, we performed comparative protein profiling of three M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely the non-pathogenic J strain and the two pathogenic strains 7448 and 7422. Results In 2DE comparisons, we were able to identify differences in expression levels for 67 proteins, including the overexpression of some cytoadherence-related proteins only in the pathogenic strains. 2DE immunoblot analyses allowed the identification of differential proteolytic cleavage patterns of the P97 adhesin in the three strains. For more comprehensive protein profiling, an LC-MS/MS strategy was used. Overall, 35% of the M. hyopneumoniae genome coding capacity was covered. Partially overlapping profiles of identified proteins were observed in the strains with 81 proteins identified only in one strain and 54 proteins identified in two strains. Abundance analysis of proteins detected in more than one strain demonstrates the relative overexpression of 64 proteins, including the P97 adhesin in the pathogenic strains. Conclusions Our results indicate the physiological differences between the non-pathogenic strain, with its non-infective proliferate lifestyle, and the pathogenic strains, with its constitutive expression of adhesins, which would render the bacterium competent for adhesion and infection prior to host contact.

  13. Mycoplasma hominis Symbiosis and Trichomonas vaginalis Metronidazole Resistance%人型支原体共生与阴道毛滴虫甲硝唑耐药性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王频佳; 谢成彬

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究人型支原体(Mycoplasma hominis)的共生与阴道毛滴虫(Trichomonas vaginalis)甲硝唑耐药性的关系.方法 2010年11月至2011年7月,自四川省妇幼保健院妇科门诊患者生殖道分泌物中分离出160株阴道毛滴虫,用梯度浓度1 024、512、256……4、2和1 μg/ml甲硝唑分别处理该批虫株,以死亡率≥90%的最低浓度作为甲硝唑最小致死浓度(MLC).以160个阴道毛滴虫分离株中提取的DNA为模板,用PCR技术特异性扩增人型支原体16S rRNA基因,检测滴虫细胞内是否有人型支原体共生.对检出人型支原体DNA的分离株用32μg/ml多西环素清除支原体,比较清除前后甲硝唑MLC的变化.结果 160个阴道毛滴虫分离株中甲硝唑MLC为1~8μg/ml的占61.3%(98/160),16~32μg/ml的占26.3%(42/160),64~256μg/ml的占12.5%(20/160).PCR检测结果显示,有61株(38.1%)检出人型支原体DNA,其中MLC为1~8μg/ml的分离株检出率为13.3%(13/98),16~32μg/ml的分离株检出率为73.8%( 31/42),64~256μg/ml的分离株检出率为85.0%(17/20),不同MLC范围的分离株人型支原体检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).用多西环素处理后,61株中仅有8株支原体被清除,清除前后甲硝唑MLC无明显变化.结论 四川地区的阴道毛滴虫分离株对甲硝唑表现出一定程度的耐药性,人型支原体的共生可能与之有关,但尚未发现直接证据.%Objective To investigate the relation of Mycoplasma hominis symbiosis and the resistence of Trichomonas vaginalit to metronidazole. Methods From November 2010 to July 2011, 160 isolates of T. Vaginalis were collected from the genital tract secretion of gynecological out-patients at the Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) to metronidazole of these isolates was determined by an in. Vitro sensitivity assay with different concentration gradients of metronidazole (from 1 to 1 024 μg/ml), and M

  14. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

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    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma synoviae strains originating from Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Grózner, Dénes; Sulyok, Kinga M.; Nilsson, Kristin; Hrivnák, Veronika; Benčina, Dušan; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma synoviae causes infectious synovitis and respiratory diseases in chickens and turkeys and may lead to egg shell apex abnormalities in chickens; hence possesses high economic impact on the poultry industry. Control of the disease consists of eradication, vaccination or medication. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to 14 different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of M. synoviae strains originating from Hungary and other coun...

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gr?zner, D?nes; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga M.; R?nai, Zsuzsanna; Hrivn?k, Veronika; Turcs?nyi, Ibolya; J?nosi, Szil?rd; Gyuranecz, Mikl?s

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma sp. 1220 can induce inflammation primarily in the genital and respiratory tracts of waterfowl, leading to serious economic losses. Adequate housing and appropriate antibiotic treatment are promoted in the control of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to thirteen different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of thirty-eight M. sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese and a duck in several parts of Hungary, Central Euro...

  17. Genomic diversity among Danish field strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Nielsen, Elisabeth O.

    2002-01-01

    Genomic diversity among strains of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated in Denmark was assessed by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Ninety-six strains, obtained from different specimens and geographical locations during 30 years and the type strain of M. hyosynoviae S16(T......) were concurrently examined for variance in BglII-MfeI and EcoRI-Csp6I-A AFLP markers. A total of 56 different genomic fingerprints having an overall similarity between 77 and 96% were detected. No correlation between AFLP variability and period of isolation or anatomical site of isolation could...

  18. Regulation of gene expression in Mycoplasmas: contribution from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Maciel França Madeira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the transcription apparatus of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (strains J and 7448 and Mycoplasma synoviae, using a comparative genomics approach to summarize the main features related to transcription and control of gene expression in mycoplasmas. Most of the transcription-related genes present in the three strains are well conserved among mycoplasmas. Some unique aspects of transcription in mycoplasmas and the scarcity of regulatory proteins in mycoplasma genomes are discussed.

  19. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V

    2001-01-01

    with this microorganism seem to be rare, the fact that 37 of 46 strains characterized in this study have been found in Copenhagen indicates that under-reporting may occur. A. hominis is phenotypically relatively homogeneous but can be difficult to differentiate from other Actinobacillus species unless extensive...... biochemical testing is performed. Mannose-positive strains of A. hominis are especially difficult to differentiate from A. equuli. Attempts to identify A. hominis by automatic identification systems may lead to misidentifications. Ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization data show that A. hominis is a homogeneous...

  20. Comparative in vitro activities of investigational peptide deformylase inhibitor NVP LBM-415 and other agents against human mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Ken B; Reddy, Nipun B; Crabb, Donna M; Duffy, Lynn B

    2005-06-01

    Peptide deformylase inhibitor LBM-415 and seven other drugs were tested against Mycoplasma pneumoniae (100 isolates), Mycoplasma hominis (20 isolates), Mycoplasma fermentans (10 isolates), and Ureaplasma species (50 isolates). LBM-415 was active against M. pneumoniae (MICs, hominis and M. fermentans and modest activity against Ureaplasma spp.

  1. Prevalence of pathogens from Mollicutes class in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma bovis field strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szacawa Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycoplasma bovis is one of the main pathogens involved in cattle pneumonia. Other mycoplasmas have also been directly implicated in respiratory diseases in cattle. The prevalence of different Mycoplasma spp. in cattle affected by respiratory diseases and molecular characteristics of M. bovis field strains were evaluated. Material and Methods: In total, 713 nasal swabs from 73 cattle herds were tested. The uvrC gene fragment was amplified by PCR and PCR products were sequenced. PCR/DGGE and RAPD were performed. Results: It was found that 39 (5.5% samples were positive for M. bovis in the PCR and six field strains had point nucleotide mutations. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis of 20 M. bovis field strains tested with RAPD showed two distinct groups of M. bovis strains sharing only 3.8% similarity. PCR/DGGE analysis demonstrated the presence of bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes class in 79.1% of DNA isolates. The isolates were identified as: Mycoplasma bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. bovis, M. canis, M. arginini, M. canadense, M. bovoculi, M. alkalescens, and Ureaplasma diversum. Conclusion: Different Mycoplasma spp. strains play a crucial role in inducing respiratory diseases in cattle.

  2. Genome analysis of Mycoplasma synoviae strain MS-H, the most common M. synoviae strain with a worldwide distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad A; Markham, John; Browning, Glenn F; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Marenda, Marc S

    2018-02-02

    The bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae can cause subclinical respiratory disease, synovitis, airsacculitis and reproductive tract disease in poultry and is a major cause of economic loss worldwide. The M. synoviae strain MS-H was developed by chemical mutagenesis of an Australian isolate and has been used as a live attenuated vaccine in many countries over the past two decades. As a result it may now be the most prevalent strain of M. synoviae globally. Differentiation of the MS-H vaccine from local field strains is important for epidemiological investigations and is often required for registration of the vaccine. The complete genomic sequence of the MS-H strain was determined using a combination of Illumina and Nanopore methods and compared to WVU-1853, the M. synoviae type strain isolated in the USA 30 years before the parent strain of MS-H, and MS53, a more recent isolate from Brazil. The vaccine strain genome had a slightly larger number of pseudogenes than the two other strains and contained a unique 55 kb chromosomal inversion partially affecting a putative genomic island. Variations in gene content were also noted, including a deoxyribose-phosphate aldolase (deoC) fragment and an ATP-dependent DNA helicase gene found only in MS-H. Some of these sequences may have been acquired horizontally from other avian mycoplasma species. MS-H was somewhat more similar to WVU-1853 than to MS53. The genome sequence of MS-H will enable identification of vaccine-specific genetic markers for use as diagnostic and epidemiological tools to better control M. synoviae.

  3. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grózner, Dénes; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga M; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Hrivnák, Veronika; Turcsányi, Ibolya; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-08-19

    Mycoplasma sp. 1220 can induce inflammation primarily in the genital and respiratory tracts of waterfowl, leading to serious economic losses. Adequate housing and appropriate antibiotic treatment are promoted in the control of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to thirteen different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of thirty-eight M. sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese and a duck in several parts of Hungary, Central Europe between 2011 and 2015. High MIC50 values were observed in the cases of tilmicosin (>64 μg/ml), oxytetracycline (64 μg/ml), norfloxacin (>10 μg/ml) and difloxacin (10 μg/ml). The examined strains yielded the same MIC50 values with spectinomycin, tylosin and florfenicol (8 μg/ml), while enrofloxacin (MIC50 5 μg/ml), doxycycline (MIC50 5 μg/ml), lincomycin (MIC50 4 μg/ml) and lincomycin-spectinomycin (1:2) combination (MIC50 4 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of the bacteria with lower concentrations. Tylvalosin (MIC50 0.5 μg/ml) and two pleuromutilins (tiamulin MIC50 0.625 μg/ml; valnemulin MIC50 ≤ 0.039 μg/ml) were found to be the most effective drugs against M. sp. 1220. However, strains with elevated MIC values were detected for all applied antibiotics. Valnemulin, tiamulin and tylvalosin were found to be the most effective antibiotics in the study. Increasing resistance was observed in the cases of several antibiotics. The results highlight the importance of testing Mycoplasma species for antibiotic susceptibility before therapy.

  4. Carboxypeptidase activity in human mycoplasmas.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, K; Watanabe, T

    1986-01-01

    Mycoplasma salivarium produced citrulline, ammonia, and ATP from N-benzoylglycyl-L-arginine. The activity was inhibited by EDTA and was therefore concluded to be due to an arginine-specific carboxypeptidase. The activity was also found to exist in M. orale, M. buccale, M. faucium, and M. hominis.

  5. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-07-07

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain.

  6. Efficacy of one dose vaccination against experimental infection with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Annelies; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Boyen, Filip; Krejci, Roman; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2017-08-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Pigs are often infected with different M. hyopneumoniae strains. This study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against experimental infection with two genetically different M. hyopneumoniae strains in weaned piglets. At 33 days of age (D0), 45 M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1) negative control group (NCG; n = 5): not vaccinated, not infected, 2) positive control group (PCG; n = 20): not vaccinated, infected, and 3) vaccination group (VG; n = 20): single vaccination with an inactivated whole-cell M. hyopneumoniae vaccine (Hyogen®, Ceva) (D1), infected. The PCG and VG were endotracheally inoculated with 7 × 10 7 CCU in 7 ml of the highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C (D24) and 7 × 10 7 CCU in 7 ml low virulent strain F1.12A (D25). A respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed from D24 until D53. At D53 (euthanasia), macroscopic lung lesions (MLL) were scored, log copies of M. hyopneumoniae DNA (qPCR) and IL-1 and IL-6-concentrations (ELISA) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. The RDS and MLL at euthanasia were respectively 0, 1.20 and 0.55 (P hyopneumoniae strain as the vaccinated pigs coughed significantly less, and showed significantly less lung lesions compared to the non-vaccinated challenged pigs: the vaccinated animals showed a 52.9% lower RDS and 91.0% lower MLL compared to the PCG. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected at the necropsy of the vaccinated pigs, a significantly lower amount of M. hyopneumoniae-DNA and a significantly lower IL-1 and IL-6 concentration was found compared to the pigs of the PCG.

  7. In vitro activity of tylvalosin against Spanish field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

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    Tavío, M M; Poveda, C; Assunção, P; Ramírez, A S; Poveda, J B

    2014-11-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is involved in the porcine enzootic pneumonia and respiratory disease complex; therefore, the search for new treatment options that contribute to the control of this organism is relevant. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations of tylvalosin and 19 other antimicrobial agents against 20 Spanish field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae were determined using the broth microdilution method, with the type strain (J) as a control strain. Tylvalosin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.016 and 0.06 µg/ml, respectively, and was the second-most effective of the assayed antibiotics, after valnemulin. Tiamulin, tylosin and lincomycin were also among the antibiotics with the lowest MIC50 and MIC90 values against the 20 field isolates (0.06-0.25 µg/ml). However, resistance to tylosin and spiramycin, which like tylvalosin, are 16-membered macrolides, was observed. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin ranged from 0.125 to 1 µg/ml; the corresponding values ranged from 2 to 4 µg/ml for oxytetracyline, which was the most active tetracycline. Furthermore, tylvalosin and valnemulin exhibited the highest bactericidal activities. In conclusion, the macrolide tylvalosin and the pleuromutilin valnemulin exhibited the highest in vitro antimicrobial activities against M. hyopneumoniae field isolates in comparison with the other tested antibiotics. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster

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    Francisca Kama-Kama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Mycoplasma species belonging to the ‘mycoides cluster’ negatively affect the agricultural sector through losses in livestock productivity. These Mycoplasma strains are resistant to many conventional antibiotics due to the total lack of cell wall. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb the resistance threat. Recent studies on extracts from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii revealed interesting antimycoplasmal activities hence the motivation to investigate the antimycoplasmal activities of constituent compounds. The CH2Cl2/MeOH extracts from the berries of S. aculeastrum yielded a new β-sitosterol derivative (1 along with six known ones including; lupeol (2, two long-chain fatty alcohols namely undecyl alcohol (3 and lauryl alcohol (4; two long-chain fatty acids namely; myristic acid (5 and nervonic acid (6 as well as a glycosidic steroidal alkaloid; (25R-3β-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-22α-N-spirosol-5-ene (7 from the MeOH extracts. A new furan diglycoside, (2,5-D-diglucopyranosyloxy-furan (8 was also characterized from the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of stem bark of P. thonningii. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8 isolated in sufficient yields were tested against the growth of two Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm, two M. mycoides. capri (Mmc, and one M. capricolum capricolum (Mcc using broth dilution methods, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by serial dilution. The inhibition of Mycoplasma in vitro growth was determined by the use of both flow cytometry (FCM and color change units (CCU methods. Compounds 4 and 7 showed moderate activity against the growth of Mmm and Mmc but were inactive against the growth of Mcc

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma synoviae strains originating from Central and Eastern Europe.

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    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Grózner, Dénes; Sulyok, Kinga M; Nilsson, Kristin; Hrivnák, Veronika; Benčina, Dušan; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2017-11-17

    Mycoplasma synoviae causes infectious synovitis and respiratory diseases in chickens and turkeys and may lead to egg shell apex abnormalities in chickens; hence possesses high economic impact on the poultry industry. Control of the disease consists of eradication, vaccination or medication. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to 14 different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of M. synoviae strains originating from Hungary and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of a total of 41 M. synoviae strains were determined by the microbroth dilution method. The strains were collected between 2002 and 2016 and originated from Hungary (n = 26), Austria (n = 3), the Czech Republic (n = 3), Slovenia (n = 3), Ukraine (n = 3), Russia (n = 2) and Serbia (n = 1). Tetracyclines (with MIC 50 values of 0.078 μg/ml, ≤0.25 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml for doxycycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline, respectively), macrolides (with MIC 50 values of ≤0.25 μg/ml for tylvalosin, tylosin and tilmicosin), pleuromutilins (with MIC 50 values of 0.078 μg/ml and ≤0.039 μg/ml for tiamulin and valnemulin) and the combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin (MIC 50 1 μg/ml (0.333/0.667 μg/ml)) were found to be the most effective antibiotic agents against M. synoviae in vitro. High MIC values were detected in numerous strains for fluoroquinolones (with MIC 50 values of 1.25 μg/ml and 2.5 μg/ml for enrofloxacin and difloxacin), neomycin (MIC 50 32 μg/ml), spectinomycin (MIC 50 2 μg/ml), lincomycin (MIC 50 0.5 μg/ml) and florfenicol (MIC 50 4 μg/ml). Nevertheless, strains with elevated MIC values were detected for most of the applied antibiotics. In the medical control of M. synoviae infections the preliminary in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing and the careful evaluation of the data are crucial. Based on the in vitro examinations

  10. Enhancement of anti-tubercular activity and biomass of fermented food associated Staphylococcus hominis strain MANF2 using Taguchi orthogonal array and Box-Behnken design.

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    Khusro, Ameer; Aarti, Chirom; Dusthackeer, Azger; Agastian, Paul

    2018-04-14

    The prime focus of the present investigation was to optimize statistically the anti-tubercular activity and biomass of fermented food associated Staphylococcus hominis strain MANF2 using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The anti-tubercular activity of strain MANF2 was determined against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using luciferase reporter phase assay. Among varied media examined, the isolate exhibited impressive anti-tubercular activity with paramount relative light unit reduction of >90% in de Man Rogose Sharpe (MRS) broth. Primarily, the anti-tubercular activity and biomass of strain MANF2 were estimated in MRS broth by optimizing eight diversified parameters using one factor at a time (OFAT) method after working out a series of experiments. The most significant contributing factors selected through OFAT tool were optimized using Taguchi approach with a standard OA layout of L18 (2 2  × 3 6 ). Results demonstrated the significant (P ≤ 0.05) influence of pH, temperature, yeast extract, magnesium sulphate, and glycerol on response variables. These controlled variables were further optimized using BBD matrix at N = 46 by second-order polynomial equation. The fermentation medium of pH 6.5 constituting yeast extract (0.5% w/v), magnesium sulphate (0.1% w/v), and glycerol (1.5% v/v), being further incubated at 30 °C showed enhanced anti-tubercular activity (98.7%) and approximately 4 fold increment in the bacterial biomass yield (8.3 mg/mL) with respect to traditional OFAT method. Three-dimensional response plots of the quadratic model showed interdependent interaction between the significant variables. In conclusion, the present study revealed the first report on the optimization of anti-tubercular activity and biomass of S. hominis via Taguchi OA as well as BBD design, and thus, paved a path for its proficient applications in pharmaceutical industries as dynamic mycobactericidal agent in future. Copyright © 2018

  11. Molecular analysis of an integrative conjugative element, ICEH, present in the chromosome of different strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

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    Paulo Marcos Pinto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of bacterial species and pathotypes is largely caused by lateral gene transfer (LGT of diverse mobile DNA elements such as plasmids, phages, transposons and genomic islands. Thus, acquisition of new phenotypes by LGT is very important for bacterial evolution and relationship with hosts. This paper reports a 23 kb region containing fourteen CDSs with similarity to the previous described Integrative Conjugal Element of Mycoplasma fermentans (ICEF. This element, named ICEH, is present as one copy at distinct integration sites in the chromosome of 7448 and 232 pathogenic strains and is absent in the type strain J (non-pathogenic. Notable differences in the nucleotide composition of the insertion sites were detected, and could be correlated to a lack of specificity of the ICEH integrase. Although present in strains of the same organism, the ICEH elements are more divergent than the typical similarity between other chromosomal locus of Mycoplasma hyopneunomiae, suggesting an accelerated evolution of these constins or an ongoing process of degeneration, while maintaining conservation of the tra genes. An extrachromosomal form of this element had been detected in the 7448 strain, suggesting a possible involvement in its mobilization and transference of CDSs to new hosts.

  12. Inter- and intra-strain variability of tandem repeats in Mycoplasma pneumoniae based on next-generation sequencing data.

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    Zhang, Jing; Song, Xiaohong; Ma, Marella J; Xiao, Li; Kenri, Tsuyoshi; Sun, Hongmei; Ptacek, Travis; Li, Shaoli; Waites, Ken B; Atkinson, T Prescott; Shibayama, Keigo; Dybvig, Kevin; Feng, Yanmei

    2017-02-01

    To characterize inter- and intra-strain variability of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) in Mycoplasma pneumoniae to determine the optimal multilocus VNTR analysis scheme for improved strain typing. Whole genome assemblies and next-generation sequencing data from diverse M. pneumoniae isolates were used to characterize VNTRs and their variability, and to compare the strain discriminability of new VNTR and existing markers. We identified 13 VNTRs including five reported previously. These VNTRs displayed different levels of inter- and intra-strain copy number variations. All new markers showed similar or higher discriminability compared with existing VNTR markers and the P1 typing system. Our study provides novel insights into VNTR variations and potential new multilocus VNTR analysis schemes for improved genotyping of M. pneumoniae.

  13. Serologic response of SPF chickens to live vaccines and other strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

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    ER do Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available False positive serologic reactions and difficulties in the diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in chickens have increased lately as a result of infection by low virulent MG strains and the use of live MG vaccines in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses of SPF chickens exposed to the three commercially available live MG vaccines, and one low virulent MG strain (MG-70, contributing to the diagnosis and monitoring of MG infection in birds. Six groups of SPF chickens were used. The control group was not infected nor challenged; one group was infected with the low virulent strain MG-70 (MG-70; three groups were immunized and named after the MG vaccine used, i.e., MG-6/85, MG-ts11, and MG-F; and finally one group was infected with the virulent MG standard strain, MGR. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPDPCR was used to compare the strains to each other, to the standard MG-A5969, and to MGR. All strains were found to be genetically distinguishable from each other. Birds in the control group showed negative results throughout the experiment and showed no cross-reaction with M. synoviae in any serologic test. ELISA tests at 21 days post first exposure (P1E and seven days after the second exposure (P2E, evidenced that 25% of the MG70 birds were positive, whereas vaccine groups yielded higher positivity rate, i.e., 57%, 43% and 29% for MG-6/85, MG-ts11 and MG-F, respectively. Serum plate agglutination (SPA evidenced the first positive results at 35 days P1E on birds in the MG-F group at the rate of 100%; followed by 40% of birds in the MG-70 group at 63 days P1E. Chickens in MG-ts11 and MG 6/85 groups had identical behavior and yielded 100% positive SPA at 77 days P1E. In regard to hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 14 % of the birds in MG-F and MG-ts11 reacted at 42 days P1E, while MG-70 and MG-6/85 groups yielded positive results only after challenge; MG-70 birds reacted at 56 days P1E at the rate of

  14. Specificity and Strain-Typing Capabilities of Nanorod Array-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Detection.

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    Kelley C Henderson

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a cell wall-less bacterial pathogen of the human respiratory tract that accounts for > 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. At present the most effective means for detection and strain-typing is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can exhibit excellent sensitivity and specificity but requires separate tests for detection and genotyping, lacks standardization between available tests and between labs, and has limited practicality for widespread, point-of-care use. We have developed and previously described a silver nanorod array-surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (NA-SERS biosensing platform capable of detecting M. pneumoniae with statistically significant specificity and sensitivity in simulated and true clinical throat swab samples, and the ability to distinguish between reference strains of the two main genotypes of M. pneumoniae. Furthermore, we have established a qualitative lower endpoint of detection for NA-SERS of < 1 genome equivalent (cell/μl and a quantitative multivariate detection limit of 5.3 ± 1 cells/μl. Here we demonstrate using partial least squares- discriminatory analysis (PLS-DA of sample spectra that NA-SERS correctly identified M. pneumoniae clinical isolates from globally diverse origins and distinguished these from a panel of 12 other human commensal and pathogenic mycoplasma species with 100% cross-validated statistical accuracy. Furthermore, PLS-DA correctly classified by strain type all 30 clinical isolates with 96% cross-validated accuracy for type 1 strains, 98% cross-validated accuracy for type 2 strains, and 90% cross-validated accuracy for type 2V strains.

  15. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma agalactiae strains isolated from dairy goats.

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    Paterna, A; Sánchez, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; De la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Amores, J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to several antimicrobials of 28 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae obtained from goats in a region (southeastern Spain) where contagious agalactia is endemic. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 12 antimicrobials of the quinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline families was determined. The antimicrobials with the lowest MIC were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, and doxycycline, all with MIC90 (concentration at which growth of 90% of the isolates is inhibited) <1 µg/mL. Norfloxacin (a quinolone) showed a wide MIC range (0.1-12.8 µg/mL), suggesting a resistance mechanism toward this antimicrobial that was not elicited by enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (the other quinolones tested). Erythromycin showed the highest MIC90 such that its use against Mycoplasma agalactiae is not recommended. Finally, Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates obtained from goat herds with clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia featured higher MIC90 and MIC50 (concentration at which growth of 50% of the isolates is inhibited) values for many of the antimicrobials compared with isolates from asymptomatic animals. The relationship between the extensive use of antimicrobials in herds with clinical contagious agalactia and variations in MIC requires further study. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaccination reduces macrophage infiltration in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pigs infected with a highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain

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    Vranckx Katleen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia and is responsible for significant economic losses to the pig industry. To better understand the mode of action of a commercial, adjuvanted, inactivated whole cell vaccine and the influence of diversity on the efficacy of vaccination, we investigated samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs experimentally infected with either a low (LV or a highly virulent (HV M. hyopneumoniae strain. Non-vaccinated and sham-infected control groups were included. Lung tissue samples collected at 4 and 8 weeks post infection (PI were immunohistochemically tested for the presence of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT. The number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was determined using quantitative PCR at 4 and 8 weeks PI. Serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks PI. Results The immunostaining revealed a lower density of macrophages in the BALT of the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups. The highest number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid was measured at 4 weeks PI for the HV strain and at 8 weeks PI for the LV strain. Vaccination reduced the number of organisms non-significantly, though for the HV strain the reduction was clinically more relevant than for the LV strain. At the level of the individual pigs, a higher lung lesion score was associated with more M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the lungs and a higher density of the investigated immune cells in the BALT. Conclusions In conclusion, the infiltration of macrophages after infection with M. hyopneumoniae is reduced by vaccination. The M. hyopneumoniae replication in the lungs is also reduced in vaccinated pigs, though the HV strain is inhibited more than the LV strain.

  17. Effect of challenge of pigs previously immunised with inactivated vaccines containing homologous and heterologous Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains

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    Villarreal Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Although vaccination is an important control tool, the results observed under field conditions are variable. This may be due to antigenic differences between the strains circulating in pig herds and the vaccine strain. This study compared the protective efficacy of four bacterins against challenge infection with a highly virulent field strain of M. hyopneumoniae. Seventy eight, one-week old piglets were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, 14 piglets each, and a negative control group (F consisting of 8 piglets. All pigs were injected at 1 (D7 and 4 weeks of age (D28, with 2 ml of either a placebo or a bacterin based on selected M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely A (F7.2C, B (F20.1L, C (B2V1W20 1A-F, D (J strain, E (placebo; positive control, F (placebo; negative control. At D56, all pigs except those of group F were challenged intratracheally with 7 ml culture medium containing 107 CCU/ml of M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C. All pigs were euthanized and necropsied at D84. The severity of coughing and pneumonia lesions were the main parameters. Immunofluorescence (IF testing, nested PCR testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and serology for M. hyopneumoniae were also performed. Results The different bacterins only slightly improved clinical symptoms (average 0.38 in vaccinated groups vs. 0.45 in group E and histopathological lung lesions (average 3.20 in vaccinated groups vs. 3.45 in group E, but did not improve macroscopic lung lesions (score 4.30 vs. 4.03 in group E. None of the vaccines was significantly and/or consistently better or worse than the other ones. All bacterins evoked a serological response in the vaccinated animals. All pigs, except those from group F, were positive with nPCR in BAL fluid at D84. Conclusion The bacterins did not induce a clear overall protection against challenge infection, and there were no

  18. Effect of challenge of pigs previously immunised with inactivated vaccines containing homologous and heterologous Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Iris; Vranckx, Katleen; Calus, Dries; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2012-01-06

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Although vaccination is an important control tool, the results observed under field conditions are variable. This may be due to antigenic differences between the strains circulating in pig herds and the vaccine strain. This study compared the protective efficacy of four bacterins against challenge infection with a highly virulent field strain of M. hyopneumoniae. Seventy eight, one-week old piglets were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E), 14 piglets each, and a negative control group (F) consisting of 8 piglets. All pigs were injected at 1 (D7) and 4 weeks of age (D28), with 2 ml of either a placebo or a bacterin based on selected M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely A (F7.2C), B (F20.1L), C (B2V1W20 1A-F), D (J strain), E (placebo; positive control), F (placebo; negative control). At D56, all pigs except those of group F were challenged intratracheally with 7 ml culture medium containing 107 CCU/ml of M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C. All pigs were euthanized and necropsied at D84. The severity of coughing and pneumonia lesions were the main parameters. Immunofluorescence (IF) testing, nested PCR testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serology for M. hyopneumoniae were also performed. The different bacterins only slightly improved clinical symptoms (average 0.38 in vaccinated groups vs. 0.45 in group E) and histopathological lung lesions (average 3.20 in vaccinated groups vs. 3.45 in group E), but did not improve macroscopic lung lesions (score 4.30 vs. 4.03 in group E). None of the vaccines was significantly and/or consistently better or worse than the other ones. All bacterins evoked a serological response in the vaccinated animals. All pigs, except those from group F, were positive with nPCR in BAL fluid at D84. The bacterins did not induce a clear overall protection against challenge infection, and there were no significant differences in protective

  19. Evaluation of a PCR multiplex for detection and differentiation of Mycoplasma synoviae, M. gallisepticum, and M. gallisepticum strain F-vaccine

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    Elena Mettifogo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS are the mycoplasma infections of most concern for commercial poultry industry. MG infection is commonly designated as chronic respiratory disease (CRD of chickens and infections sinusitis of turkeys. MS causes sub clinical upper respiratory infection and tenosynovitis or bursitis in chickens and turkeys. The multiplex PCR was standardized to detect simultaneously the MS, MG field strains and MG F-vaccine strain specific. The generic PCR for detection of any species of Mollicutes Class was performed and compared to the multiplex PCR and to PCR using species-specific primers. A total of 129 avian tracheal swabs were collected from broiler-breeders, layer hens and broilers in seven different farms and were examined by multiplex PCR methods. The system (multiplex PCR demonstrated to be very rapid, sensitive, and specific. Therefore, the results showed a high prevalence of MS in the flocks examined (27.9%, and indicate that the MS is a recurrent pathogen in Brazilian commercial poultry flocks.

  20. Analysis of immune responses to recombinant proteins from strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Casal, Jose; Prysliak, Tracy; Maina, Teresa; Wang, Yejun; Townsend, Hugh; Berverov, Emil; Nkando, Isabel; Wesonga, Hezron; Liljander, Anne; Jores, Joerg; Naessens, Jan; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew

    2015-11-15

    Current contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccines are based on live-attenuated strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). These vaccines have shortcomings in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity and in some cases show severe side effects at the inoculation site; hence the need to develop new vaccines to combat the disease. Reverse vaccinology approaches were used and identified 66 candidate Mycoplasma proteins using available Mmm genome data. These proteins were ranked by their ability to be recognized by serum from CBPP-positive cattle and thereafter used to inoculate naïve cattle. We report here the inoculation of cattle with recombinant proteins and the subsequent humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses to these proteins and conclude that a subset of these proteins are candidate molecules for recombinant protein-based subunit vaccines for CBPP control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proximal Region of the Gene Encoding Cytadherence-Related Protein Permits Molecular Typing of Mycoplasma genitalium Clinical Strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatovova, Oxana; Herrera, Caleb; Baseman, Joel B.

    2006-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified proximal region of the gene encoding cytadherence accessory protein P110 (MG192) revealed DNA sequence divergences among 54 Mycoplasma genitalium clinical strains isolated from the genitourinary tracts of women attending a sexually transmitted disease-related health clinic, plus one from the respiratory tract and one from synovial fluid. Seven of 56 (12.5%) strains exhibited RFLPs following digestion of the proximal region with restriction endonuclease MboI or RsaI, or both. No sequence variability was detected in the distal portion of the gene. PMID:16455921

  2. Molecular diversity assessed by VNTR and IS1296 typing of historical Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Filipa; Inácio, João; Botelho, Ana

    2010-12-15

    The last case of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (MmmSC), in Europe was reported in Portugal in 1999. However, in view of its insidious nature, it is still possible that CBPP could re-emerge. Despite differences in animal host and geographical origin, most of the European MmmSC field isolates were traditionally considered to be very homogeneous. In the present study we performed a retrospective variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) and IS1296 genotyping analysis of 65 MmmSC field isolates associated to the last CBPP outbreaks that occurred in Portugal in order to elucidate their intra-specific genetic variability. A 8.8 kb region and two VNTR loci (VNTR4 and VNTR5) were analyzed for polymorphisms by PCR amplification. All but one strain presented the same IS1296 profile, in contrast with the VNTR genotyping that confirmed some diversity of Portuguese strains showing VNTR4, the most discriminatory one, four different patterns. VNTR4 type "9" (numbering according to the estimated number of repeats) was the most predominant one mainly in the Entre Douro-Minho region. All isolates from one geographic region (Beira Litoral) presented VNTR4 type "8" suggesting the existence of a region-specific VNTR. These facts raise the hypothesis that at least two CBPP re-emergence events could have occurred in Portugal since 1983 after 30 years of silence. This aspect represents a major concern and is a major reason for the maintenance of intensive research on this disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic evolution of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains and molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by sequencing of locus H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, S; Wesonga, H; Ygesu, Laikemariam; Tekleghiorgis, Tesfaalem; Maikano, Y; Angaya, M; Hendrikx, P; Thiaucourt, F

    2002-03-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in developing countries. Its exact distribution is not well known, despite the fact that new diagnostic tools such as PCR and competitive ELISA are now available. The authors developed a study of the molecular epidemiology of the disease, based on the amplification of a 2400 bp long fragment containing two duplicated gene coding for a putative membrane protein. The sequence of this fragment, obtained on 19 Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) strains from various geographical locations, gave 11 polymorphic positions. The three mutations found on gene H2prim were silent and did not appear to induce any amino acid modifications in the putative translated protein. The second gene may be a pseudogene not translated in vivo, as it bore a deletion of the ATG codon found in the other members of the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster" and as the six mutations evidenced in the Mccp strains would induce modifications in the translated amino acids. In addition, an Mccp strain isolated in the United Arab Emirates showed a deletion of the whole pseudogene, a further indication that this gene is not compulsory for mycoplasma growth. Four lineages were defined, based on the nucleotide sequence. These correlated relatively well with the geographical origin of the strains: North, Central or East Africa. The strain of Turkish origin had a sequence similar to that found in North African strains, while strains isolated in Oman had sequences similar to those of North or East African strains. The latter is possibly due to the regular import of goats of various origins. Similar molecular epidemiology tools have been developed by sequencing the two operons of the 16S rRNA gene or by AFLP. All these various techniques give complementary results. One (16S rRNA) offers the likelihood of a finer identification of strains circulating in a region, another (H2) of determining the geographical origin of the

  4. In vitro comparison of the activity of various antibiotics and drugs against new Taiwan isolates and standard strains of avian mycoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M Y

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-nine antibiotics or drugs were incorporated individually into mycoplasma agar to evaluate their inhibitory activity against avian mycoplasmas: 100 recent Taiwan isolates of 7 serotypes and 10 standard strains of 7 serotypes were tested. All of the standard strains were very sensitive to erythromycin, chlorotetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and tetracycline, but the local isolates were highly resistant to these antibiotics. The drugs or antibiotics that possessed an MIC90 of 50 micrograms/ml or less against the local isolates were tiamulin (less than 0.4 micrograms/ml), lincospectin (2.7), josamycin (2.7), lincomycin (3.0), spectinomycin (4.8), tylosin (6.0), kanamycin (6.0), chloramphenicol (6.0), gentamicin (7.5), apramycin (24.5), doxycycline (27.4), minocycline (29.0), spiramycin (30.0), colistin (44.3), leucomycin (45.0), and streptomycin (50.0). The MIC90 of the other antibiotics or drugs was greater than 50 micrograms/ml. None of the isolates or strains were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ronidazole, penicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, carbadox, or four sulfa drugs at a concentration about 5 times the therapeutic level.

  5. Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Zhu, H L; Xu, K R; Wang, S Y; Fan, L Q; Zhu, W B

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility has been studied widely; however, results remain controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the association between genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium), and risk of male infertility. Differences in prevalence of ureaplasma and mycoplasma infection between China and the rest of the world were also compared. Study data were collected from PubMed, Embase and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess the relationship. Heterogeneity testing and publication bias testing were also performed. A total of 14 studies were used: five case-control studies with 611 infertile cases and 506 controls featuring U. urealyticum infection, and nine case-control studies with 2410 cases and 1223 controls concerning M. hominis infection. Two other infection (U. parvum and M. genitalium) were featured in five and three studies, respectively. The meta-analysis results indicated that U. parvum and M. genitalium are not associated with male infertility. However, a significant relationship existed between U. urealyticum and M. hominis and male infertility. Comparing the global average with China, a significantly higher positive rate of U. urealyticum, but a significantly lower positive rate of M. hominis, was observed in both the infertile and control groups in China. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Association of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with nongonococcal urethritis attending STD & HIV clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Ashwini; Sethi, Sunil; Sharma, Meera; Wanchu, Ajay; Kanwar, A J; Kaur, Karamjit; Mehta, S D

    2009-03-01

    Acute nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections affecting men. The role of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU is still not known. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation pattern/detection of genital mycoplasma including M. genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU and to compare it with non HIV infected individuals. One hundred male patients with NGU (70 HIV positive, 30 HIV negative) were included in the study. Urethral swabs and urine samples obtained from patients were subjected to semi-quantitative culture for Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasama urealyticum, whereas M. genitalium was detected by PCR from urine. The primers MgPa1 and MgPa3 were selected to identify 289 bp product specific for M. genitalium. Chalmydia trachomatis antigen detection was carried out by ELISA. M. genitalium and M. hominis were detected/isolated in 6 per cent of the cases. M. genitalium was more common amongst HIV positive cases (7.1%) as compared to HIV negative cases (3.3%) but difference was not statistically significant. Co-infection of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum was found in two HIV positive cases whereas, C. trachomatis and M. hominis were found to be coinfecting only one HIV positive individual. M. genitalium was found to be infecting the patients as the sole pathogen. Patients with NGU had almost equal risk of being infected with M. genitalium, U. urealyticum or M. hominis irrespective of their HIV status. M.genitalium constitutes one of the important causes of NGU besides other genital mycoplasmas.

  7. Evaluation of the Capacity of PCR and High-Resolution Melt Curve Analysis for Identification of Mixed Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains.

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    Seyed A Ghorashi

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity and presentation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection may differ from one strain to another and this may have implications on control measures. Infection of individual birds with more than one MG strain has been reported. A PCR followed by high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis has been developed in our laboratory and routinely used for detection and differentiation of MG strains. However the potential of this test for identification of MG strains in a mixed specimen has not been evaluated. In the present study, the capability of PCR-HRM curve analysis technique, targeting vlhA and pvpA genes was assessed for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed population. Different DNA ratios of two MG strains from 1 to 10(-4 ng were tested with some generated conventional and normalized curves distinct from those of individual strains alone. Using genotype confidence percentages (GCP generated from HRM curve analysis, it was found that vlhA PCR-HRM was more consistent than pvpA PCR-HRM for the detection of MG ts-11 vaccine strain mixed with any of the MG strains 6/85, F, S6 or a field isolate. The potential of vlhA PCR-HRM to detect mixed MG strains in a specimen was found to be primarily dependent on quantity and proportion of the target DNAs in the mixture. This is the first study examining the capacity of PCR-HRM technique for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed strain population.

  8. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG ino...

  9. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the egg characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculatio...

  10. Influence of Supplemental Dietary Poultry Fat, Phytase, and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Performance of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 2 levels of supplemental dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (D3) on the performance of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG inoculations were ...

  11. Dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol influence the digestive and reproductive organ characteristic of commercial...at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum 1 , 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) w...

  12. Development, validation and field evaluation of a quantitative real-time PCR able to differentiate between field Mycoplasma synoviae and the MS-H-live vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, R; Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M

    2017-08-01

    A quantitative PCR (qPCR) able to differentiate between field Mycoplasma synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain was developed, validated and evaluated. It was developed using nucleotide differences in the obg gene. Analytical specificity and sensitivity assessed using DNA from 194 M. synoviae field samples, three different batches of MS-H vaccine and from 43 samples representing four other avian Mycoplasma species proved to be 100%. The detection limit for field M. synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain was 10 2-3 and 10 2 colony-forming units PCR equivalents/g trachea mucus, respectively. The qPCR was able to detect both, field M. synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain in ratios of 1:100 determined both using spiked and field samples. One hundred and twenty samples from M. synoviae-infected non-vaccinated birds, 110 samples from M. synoviae-vaccinated birds from a bird experiment and 224 samples from M. synoviae negative (serology and PCR) birds were used to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity using a previously described M. synoviae PCR as reference. The relative sensitivity and specificity for field M. synoviae were 95.0% and 99.6%, respectively, and 94.6% and 100% for the MS-H-live vaccine, respectively. Field validation and confirmation by multi locus sequence typing revealed that the qPCR correctly distinguished between MS-H and field M. synoviae. Evaluation of the differentiating M. synoviae qPCR in three commercial flocks suggested transmission of MS-H-live vaccine from vaccinated to non-vaccinated flocks at the same farm. Furthermore, it showed evidence for the colonization with field M. synoviae in MS-H-vaccinated flocks.

  13. Genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas and its clinical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Plakhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas. The author presents the results of genetic variability studies for M. hominis, gene vaa, U. parvum, gene mba, and M. genitalium, gene mg192, sampled from women with different clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system. Based on the molecular typing results for 138 samples of genital mycoplasmas, the author revealed a relationship between clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system caused by U. parvum and different U. parvum serovars as well as different genetic variations of M. hominis.Infection with 6 U. parvum serovar results in the development of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract accompanied by subjective manifestations (р < 0.05. Genetic variant II of М. hominis was revealed more often in patients with clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases while variant I was revealed more often in patients infected with М. hominis without any signs of inflammation (р < 0.05. Genetic variants of M. genitalium were determined; no significant differences in terms of their prevalence in the examined patients were revealed.

  14. Frequency of urogenital mycoplasma detection in women of Dnipropetrovsk

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    K. V. Bubalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of urogenital mycoplasmas detection in women of different ages was studied in culture with the help of DUO test-system in order to determine their etiological significance in the development of inflammatory processes of women urogenital tract. We identified the researched cultures Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum in the diagnostic titer >104 TEM/ml indicating severe contamination by microorganisms, and in the titer 104 TEM/ml, 104 TEM/ml was observed in 55 women (46% and 20 women (17%, respectively, and the titer of <103 CFU/ml U. urealyticum was observed in 20 women (17%, and M. hominis in 18 women (15%. Analysis of genital mycoplasmas distribution among women of different ages has shown that there was the certain correlation between the patient age and frequency of genital mycoplasmas detection: the highest detection rate was observed in women age of 24–29. The dominant pathogen of urogenital tract inflammatory processes in women in 24–29 age group is U. urealyticum. The comparison of DUO test-system and PCR data has shown that DUO test-system in culture allowed more sensitive quantitave characterization of mycoplasmas, however, for the more effective laboratory diagnostics it was necessary to use complex methods to increase the probability of pathogen detection. Incidence of mycoplasmas in women with the presence of inflammation was higher than in women having the inflammation in the genital tract. In this case, potential symptom-free carriers exist for the development of inflammation of urogenital tract of women. Scientists have proved that mycoplasma could cause vulvovaginitis, urethritis, paraurethritis, bartholinitis, adnexitis, salpingitis, endometritis, and ovaritis.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Mycoplasma bovis Strains Reveals That Decreased Virulence with Increasing Passages Might Correlate with Potential Virulence-Related Factors

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    Muhammad A. Rasheed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is an important cause of bovine respiratory disease worldwide. To understand its virulence mechanisms, we sequenced three attenuated M. bovis strains, P115, P150, and P180, which were passaged in vitro 115, 150, and 180 times, respectively, and exhibited progressively decreasing virulence. Comparative genomics was performed among the wild-type M. bovis HB0801 (P1 strain and the P115, P150, and P180 strains, and one 14.2-kb deleted region covering 14 genes was detected in the passaged strains. Additionally, 46 non-sense single-nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were detected, which confirmed that more passages result in more mutations. A subsequent collective bioinformatics analysis of paralogs, metabolic pathways, protein-protein interactions, secretory proteins, functionally conserved domains, and virulence-related factors identified 11 genes that likely contributed to the increased attenuation in the passaged strains. These genes encode ascorbate-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIB and IIA components, enolase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, glycerol, and multiple sugar ATP-binding cassette transporters, ATP binding proteins, NADH dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, transketolase, and a variable surface protein. Fifteen genes were shown to be enriched in 15 metabolic pathways, and they included the aforementioned genes encoding pyruvate kinase, transketolase, enolase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production in M. bovis strains representing seven passages from P1 to P180 decreased progressively with increasing numbers of passages and increased attenuation. However, eight mutants specific to eight individual genes within the 14.2-kb deleted region did not exhibit altered H2O2 production. These results enrich the M. bovis genomics database, and they increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying M. bovis virulence.

  16. Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Fresh Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Larsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on the Molicutes that associate with genital tract tissues focuses on four species that may be of interest in potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal infection and in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum have historically been the subject of attention, but Mycoplasma genitalis which causes male urethritis in addition to colonizing the female genital tract and the division of Ureaplasma into two species, urealyticum and parvum, has also added new taxonomic clarity. The role of these genital tract inhabitants in infection during pregnancy and their ability to invade and infect placental and fetal tissue is discussed. In particular, the role of some of these organisms in prematurity may be mechanistically related to their ability to induce inflammatory cytokines, thereby triggering pathways leading to preterm labor. A review of this intensifying exploration of the mycoplasmas in relation to pregnancy yields several questions which will be important to examine in future research.

  17. Survey of surface proteins from the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 7448 using a biotin cell surface labeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reolon, Luciano Antonio; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia.

  18. Survey of surface proteins from the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 7448 using a biotin cell surface labeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Antonio Reolon

    Full Text Available The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia.

  19. Draft genome sequences of eight bacteria isolated from the indoor environment: Staphylococcus capitis strain H36, S. capitis strain H65, S. cohnii strain H62, S. hominis strain H69, Microbacterium sp. strain H83, Mycobacterium iranicum strain H39, Plantibacter sp. strain H53, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strain H72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Coil, David A; Schichnes, Denise; Lindow, Steven E; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A; Adams, Rachel I

    2017-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of eight bacterial strains of the genera Staphylococcus , Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Plantibacter, and Pseudomonas . These isolates were obtained from aerosol sampling of bathrooms of five residences in the San Francisco Bay area. Taxonomic classifications as well as the genome sequence and gene annotation of the isolates are described. As part of the "Built Environment Reference Genome" project, these isolates and associated genome data provide valuable resources for studying the microbiology of the built environment.

  20. Draft genome sequences of eight bacteria isolated from the indoor environment: Staphylococcus capitis strain H36, S. capitis strain H65, S. cohnii strain H62, S. hominis strain H69, Microbacterium sp. strain H83, Mycobacterium iranicum strain H39, Plantibacter sp. strain H53, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strain H72

    OpenAIRE

    Lymperopoulou, Despoina S.; Coil, David A.; Schichnes, Denise; Lindow, Steven E.; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Adams, Rachel I.

    2017-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of eight bacterial strains of the genera Staphylococcus, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Plantibacter, and Pseudomonas. These isolates were obtained from aerosol sampling of bathrooms of five residences in the San Francisco Bay area. Taxonomic classifications as well as the genome sequence and gene annotation of the isolates are described. As part of the ?Built Environment Reference Genome? project, these isolates and associated genome data provide val...

  1. Detecting of Mycoplasma genitalium in male patients with urethritis symptoms in Turkey by polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolapci, Istar; Tekeli, Alper; Ozsan, Murat; Elhan, Atilla; Yaman, Onder; Ergin, Sureyya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Mycoplasma genitalium in the urine samples of 63 male patients who had urethritis symptoms. Along with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). We also investigated Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), both of which are known to cause urethritis. Microorganisms were investigated in urine samples of the patients with polymerase chain reaction. The study was conducted between September 2003 - February 2004 at the Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. A total of 63 urine samples were analyzed and 6 (9.52%) patients had N. gonorrhoeae, 4 (6.34%) had C. trachomatis, while 4 (6.34%) urines were positive in terms of M. genitalium. Nevertheless, 3 (4.76%) patients had U. urealyticum and 2 (3.17%) patients had M. hominis. One urine sample was positive in terms of both N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum, and another urine sample was positive in terms of both M. hominis and U. urealyticum. The results were compared with the control group and found no statistically significant difference. Mycoplasma species are found in normal flora of urogenital system and also as an agent of urogenital infection. In our study, we found low microorganism rates when compared with Europe and America. This difference may be due to the conservative sexual behavior in Turkey. (author)

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a surface-localized adhesion protein in Mycoplasma bovis Hubei-1 strain.

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    Xiaohui Zou

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis is an important pathogen that causes various bovine diseases, such as mastitis in cows and pneumonia in calves. The surface proteins are generally thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this organism. We screened the entire genome of M. bovis Hubei-1 and discovered a gene named vpmaX that encodes the 25 kDa variable surface lipoprotein A (VpmaX. Sequence analysis revealed that VpmaX contains several repetitive units and a typical bacterial lipoprotein signal sequence. The vpmaX gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli to obtain recombinant VpmaX (rVpmaX. Western blot analysis using a rabbit antibody against rVpmaX demonstrated that VpmaX is a membrane protein. Immunostaining visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that rVpmaX was able to adhere to embryonic bovine lung cells (EBL, and this was also confirmed by a sandwich ELISA. In summary, a surface-localized adhesion protein was identified in M. bovis Hubei-1.

  3. Identification of a new genetic marker in Mycoplasma synoviae vaccine strain MS-H and development of a strategy using polymerase chain reaction and high-resolution melting curve analysis for differentiating MS-H from field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Konsak, Barbara M; Olaogun, Olusola M; Agnew-Crumptona, Rebecca; Kanci, Anna; Marenda, Marc S; Browning, Glenn F; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an economically important avian pathogen worldwide, causing subclinical respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. A temperature-sensitive (ts + ) live attenuated vaccine MS-H, derived from the Australian field strain 86079/7NS, is now widely used in many countries to control the disease induced by MS. Differentiation of MS-H vaccine from field strains is crucial for monitoring vaccination programs in commercial poultry. Comparison of genomic sequences of MS-H and its parent strain revealed an adenine deletion at nucleotide position 468 of the MS-H oppF-1 gene. This mutation was shown to be unique to MS-H in further comparative analyses of oppF-1 genes of MS-H re-isolates and field strains from Australia and other countries. Based on this single nucleotide, a combination of nested PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis was used to evaluate its potential for use in differentiation of MS-H from field strains. The mean genotype confidence percentages of 99.27 and 48.20 for MS-H and field strains, respectively, demonstrated the high discriminative power of the newly developed assay (oppF PCR-HRM). A set of 13 tracheal swab samples collected from MS-H vaccinated specific pathogen free birds and commercial chicken flocks infected with MS were tested using the oppF PCR-HRM test and results were totally consistent with those obtained using vlhA genotyping. The nested-PCR HRM method established in this study proved to be a rapid, simple and cost effective tool for discriminating the MS-H vaccine strain from Australian and international strains in pure cultures and on tracheal swabs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mycoplasma genitalium: from Chrysalis to multicolored butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2011-07-01

    The history, replication, genetics, characteristics (both biological and physical), and factors involved in the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma genitalium are presented. The latter factors include adhesion, the influence of hormones, motility, possible toxin production, and immunological responses. The preferred site of colonization, together with current detection procedures, mainly by PCR technology, is discussed. The relationships between M. genitalium and various diseases are highlighted. These diseases include acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis, balanoposthitis, chronic prostatitis, and acute epididymitis in men and urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and reproductive disease in women. A causative relationship, or otherwise strong association, between several of these diseases and M. genitalium is apparent, and the extent of this, on a subjective basis, is presented; also provided is a comparison between M. genitalium and two other genital tract-orientated mollicutes, namely, Mycoplasma hominis, the first mycoplasma of human origin to be discovered, and Ureaplasma species. Also discussed is the relationship between M. genitalium and infertility and also arthritis in both men and women, as is infection in homosexual and immunodeficient patients. Decreased immunity, as in HIV infections, may enhance mycoplasmal detection and increase disease severity. Finally, aspects of the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance of M. genitalium, together with the treatment and possible prevention of mycoplasmal disease, are discussed.

  5. Genes involved in translation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Oliveira Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the analysis of genes involved in translation of the complete genomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J and 7448 and Mycoplasma synoviae. In both genomes 31 ORFs encoding large ribosomal subunit proteins and 19 ORFs encoding small ribosomal subunit proteins were found. Ten ribosomal protein gene clusters encoding 42 ribosomal proteins were found in M. synoviae, while 8 clusters encoding 39 ribosomal proteins were found in both M. hyopneumoniae strains. The L33 gene of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 presented two copies in different locations. The genes encoding initiation factors (IF-1, IF-2 and IF-3, elongation factors (EF-G, EF-Tu, EF-Ts and EF-P, and the genes encoding the ribosome recycling factor (frr and one polypeptide release factor (prfA were present in the genomes of M. hyopneumoniae and M. synoviae. Nineteen aminoacyl-tRNA synthases had been previously identified in both mycoplasmas. In the two strains of M. hyopneumoniae, J and 7448, only one set of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNAs had been identified. Two sets of 16S and 23S rRNA genes and three sets of 5S rRNA genes had been identified in the M. synoviae genome.

  6. Microbiological and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus hominis isolates from blood.

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    Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS, Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism recoverable from the blood of immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, define the SCCmec (Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec type, and genetic relatedness of clinical S. hominis isolates. METHODOLOGY: S. hominis blood isolates (n = 21 were screened for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. Methicillin resistance was evaluated using the cefoxitin disk test and the mecA gene was detected by PCR. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the broth microdilution method. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and SCCmec typed by multiplex PCR using two different methodologies described for Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: Of the S. hominis isolates screened, 47.6% (10/21 were categorized as strong biofilm producers and 23.8% (5/21 as weak producers. Furthermore, 81% (17/21 of the isolates were methicillin resistant and mecA gene carriers. Resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim was observed in >70% of isolates screened. Each isolate showed a different PFGE macrorestriction pattern with similarity ranging between 0-95%. Among mecA-positive isolates, 14 (82% harbored a non-typeable SCCmec type: eight isolates were not positive for any ccr complex; four contained the mec complex A ccrAB1 and ccrC, one isolate contained mec complex A, ccrAB4 and ccrC, and one isolate contained the mec complex A, ccrAB1, ccrAB4, and ccrC. Two isolates harbored the association: mec complex A and ccrAB1. Only one strain was typeable as SCCmec III. CONCLUSIONS: The S. hominis isolates analyzed were variable biofilm producers had a high prevalence of methicillin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics, and high genetic diversity. The results of this study strongly suggested that S. hominis isolates harbor

  7. Experimental infection of chickens and turkeys with Mycoplasma gallisepticum reference strain S6 and North Carolina field isolate RAPD type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanei, B; Barnes, H J; Vaillancourt, J P; Leyc, D H

    2007-03-01

    During an epidemic of mycoplasmosis in chicken and turkey flocks in North Carolina between 1999 and 2001, isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) from affected flocks were characterized by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and eight distinct RAPD types were identified. MG RAPD type B accounted for more than 90% of the isolates and was associated with moderate-to-severe clinical signs and mortality. The virulence of MG RAPD type B for chickens and turkeys was compared with sham-inoculated negative controls and MG S6 (a virulent strain)-inoculated positive controls. Clinical signs occurred in chickens and turkeys inoculated with either MG RAPD type B or MG S6. However, they were not as frequent or severe as those seen in naturally affected flocks, and there was no mortality in the experimental groups. Based on gross and microscopic findings, MG RAPD type B was equal to or more virulent than MG S6. All MG-inoculated birds were culture and PCR positive at 7 and 14 days postinoculation (PI). Among serological tests, the serum plate agglutination test was positive for the majority of chickens and turkeys (58%-100%) infected with either strain of MG at both 7 and 14 days PI. The hemagglutination inhibition test was negative for all birds at 7 days PI and positive for a few chickens (8%-17%) and several turkey sera (40%-60%) at 14 days PI. Only a single serum was positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (an MG S6-infected turkey) at 14 days PI.

  8. Detection of mycoplasmas in urethral swabs from HIV-1 infected patients and control individuals using culture techniques and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUNHA Regina Ayr Florio da

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of certain mycoplasma species, i.e., Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma penetrans, in urethral swabs from HIV-1 infected patients compared to swabs from a control group. Mycoplasmas were detected by routine culture techniques and by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique, using 16SrRNA generic primers of conserved region and Mycoplasma penetrans specific primers. The positivity rates obtained with the two methods were comparable. Nevertheless, PCR was more sensitive, while the culture techniques allowed the quantification of the isolates. The results showed no significant difference (p < 0.05 in positivity rates between the methods used for mycoplasma detection.

  9. Molecular study and phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma synoviae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is one of the important pathogens in chicken and turkey which cause great economic losses in poultry industry. M. synoviae has one serotype but there is heterogeneity among MS strains. The aim of this study was to analyze the DNA sequence of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from Mazandran ...

  10. [Validation of the Kit for Detecting Mycoplasma Genitalium from the Male Urethritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Thi LE, Phuong; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the pathogenic microorganisms in male urethritis as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). M.genitalium is detected in the urine specimens of 15-25% male patients with urethritis. The emergence of macrolide- or fluoroquinolone-resistant M.genitalium has become a serious problem in the treatment of male urethritis worldwide, but there is no commercial-based detecting kits accepted by the national insurance in Japan. In this study, we tested the validity of a molecular kit for detecting seven microorganisms related to STI (Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection which detects Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, M.genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Trichomonas vaginalis) produced by Seegene company in Korea. Seventeen M.genitalium strains were used to determine the detection limit of M.genitalium. M.genitalium DNA samples were extracted from M.genitalium strains and the diluted DNA samples were reacted to detect M.genitalium by the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection. The detection limit was determined as the maximum dilution of DNA samples and the number of M.genitalium DNA copies calculated. In this study, the minimum DNA copies to detect M.genitalium by the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection was determined to be around 50 per reaction. The detection rates of M.genitalium in urine specimens were compared between MgPa gene PCR and the Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection. The positive and negative concordant rates were high as 96.4% (27/28) and 98.6% (71/72), respectively. The validity of the kit for detecting seven microorganisms related to STI (Anyplex™ II STI-7 Detection) was high and thought to be useful for clinical uses.

  11. Identification of the GTPase superfamily in Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Luiz Borges

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are the smallest known prokaryotes with self-replication ability. They are obligate parasites, taking up many molecules of their hosts and acting as pathogens in men, animals, birds and plants. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the infective agent of swine mycoplasmosis and Mycoplasma synoviae is responsible for subclinical upper respiratory infections that may result in airsacculitis and synovitis in chickens and turkeys. These highly infectious organisms present a worldwide distribution and are responsible for major economic problems. Proteins of the GTPase superfamily occur in all domains of life, regulating functions such as protein synthesis, cell cycle and differentiation. Despite their functional diversity, all GTPases are believed to have evolved from a single common ancestor. In this work we have identified mycoplasma GTPases by searching the complete genome databases of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, J (non-pathogenic and 7448 (pathogenic strains. Fifteen ORFs encoding predicted GTPases were found in M. synoviae and in the two strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Searches for conserved G domains in GTPases were performed and the sequences were classified into families. The GTPase phylogenetic analysis showed that the subfamilies were well resolved into clades. The presence of GTPases in the three strains suggests the importance of GTPases in 'minimalist' genomes.

  12. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V

    2001-01-01

    Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections with this micr......Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections...

  13. Genital mycoplasmas in semen samples of males attending a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria: any role in sperm count reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Ikechebelu, J I

    2007-06-01

    Semen samples from 54 married men attending the outpatient clinics for problems of infertility and routine semen analysis were examined for the presence of genital mycoplasmas. The mean age of the men was 36.1 years with a range of 25 55 years. Majority of the men 57.4% (31 of 54) were in their fourth decade of life (30 39 years). This age group also had the highest percentage 57.2% (8 of 14) of positive isolates of genital mycoplasmas on semen culture. A total of 21 organisms obtained from 14 (26.0%) positive samples were isolated. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. separately isolated from the samples yielded frequencies of 1 (1.9%) and 6 (11.1%) respectively and the remaining 7 (13.0%) samples were infected with both organisms. A breakdown of the mycoplasma species include 5 (23.8%) M. hominis, 2 (9.5%) M. fermentans and 1 (4.8%) M. penetrans. Apart from one isolate of M. hominis other Mycoplasma species were found in association with Ureaplasma species. Fifteen (71.4%) of the 21 isolates [8 (53.3%) ureaplasmas and 7 (46.7%) mycoplasmas] were isolated from samples with sperm counts less than 20 million/ml while the remaining 6 (21.6%) isolates [5 (83.3%) ureaplasmas and 1 (16.7) mycoplasma] were from samples with counts greater than 20 million/ml. This finding could indicate a possible influence of genital mycoplasmas especially mycoplasmas species on sperm count.

  14. Characterization of Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans immunodominant proteins Caracterização de proteinas imunodominantes de Mycoplasma penetrans e Mycoplasma fermentans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bruder

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are a heterogeneous group of the smallest organisms capable of self replication and are known to cause many detrimental diseases in both animals and humans. These wall-less prokaryotes are enveloped by a lipoprotein membrane and their small genomes are sufficient to synthesize molecules required for growth and self-replication. Among sixteen species isolated from humans, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, an agent of primary atypical pneumonia, and the urogenital tract species Mycoplasma hominis,Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum have been confirmed to be pathogenic. Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans, which are species associated with HIV, have been investigated mainly in research laboratories. In this study we have characterized lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP of Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma fermentans, in view of the importance of mycoplasmas in human diseases and the peculiar antigenic variation observed in these species. To characterize proteins with possible diagnostic value, we used ELISA and Western blot in sera of pregnant women whose cervical samples were positive for these species of mycoplasmas when tested by PCR. ELISA showed IgG anti-LAMP-M. fermentans antibodies to be present in 57.5% of cases and IgM antibodies to be present in 74.5% of cases. The three samples that were PCR positive for M. penetrans showed IgG anti-LAMP-M. penetrans antibodies, and one sample was positive for IgM. No IgA antibodies against either species were detected in any of the samples. LAMP analysis by Western blot revealed the 35, 38, 42, 61 and 103 kDa proteins of M. penetrans and the 29, 38, 41, 61, 78 and 95 kDa proteins of M. fermentans. Among these, will be considered p35 to M. penetrans and 29 kDa protein to M. fermentans, the main immunoreactive proteins and therefore useful markers for further laboratory diagnosis.Micoplasmas são procariotos diminutos, desprovidos de parede celular e envoltos por uma membrana

  15. Serologic response of roosters to gradient dosage levels of a commercially available live F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray application is a commonly used time- and labor-efficient means to deliver live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to laying hens in commercial production facilities. The dosage of vaccine received by spray vaccinated birds can vary due to variation in the spray plume and vaccine suspension...

  16. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  17. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    1994-01-01

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  18. Mycoplasma in Methanosarcina cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhilina, T.N.; Zavarzin, G.A.

    1979-05-01

    As was shown on ultra-thin sections of Methanosarcina, biotype 3, its aggregates can be subjected to lysis by Mycoplasma and substituted by it. Mycoplasma cells are located predominantly in the intercellular space and do not penetrate the cytoplasmic membrane of the Methanosarcina cells.

  19. Molecular biology of Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Jensen, Lise T.; Boesen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are the smallest free living microorganisms with the smallest genome. The G+C content is in general low (25-33%) and the coding capacity is about 600 proteins. Mycoplasma species are phylogenetically related, they use the genetic codon UGA for tryptophan, and show rapid evolution, wit...

  20. [Frequency and in vitro susceptibility antiparasitic of Blastocystis hominis from patients admitted to the Hospital Regional Lambayeque, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Díaz, Heber; Flores-Esqueche, Lorena; Llatas-Cancino, Dunalia; Guevara Vásquez, Génesis; Silva-García, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    To describe the frequency and antiparasitic in vitro susceptibility of Blastocystis hominis in patients admitted to theHospital Regional Lambayeque, Peru. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to August 2015 at 313 patients of all ages. B. hominis detection was performed on serial fecal samples by direct microscopic examination and microculture in modified Locke solution. The in vitro susceptibility testing against the drug metronidazole, nitazoxanide, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin was performed in 24 strains of B. hominis, which grew up (microculture method) in 10 double concentrations of each antimicrobial (from 256 ug/ml to 0.5 ug/mL) plus a control. 46.3% (145/313) of the sample had B. hominis, also the age between 12 to 17 years and 60 years was associated with higher frequency of parasites (OR: 2.93 and 2.62). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90 of metronidazole and nitazoxanide was 3.19 ug/mL and 11.19 ug/ml, respectively, whereas the MIC 90 of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin were above 256 ug/mL. B. hominis occurs in high frequency in patients admitted to the Hospital Regional in Lambayeque, proving to be an important problem of public health in the region. Also B. hominis isolated from these patients were shown to be susceptible in vitro to low concentrations of metronidazole and nitazoxanide so they could be chosen for treatment of this parasite.

  1. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" strain purdue, a red blood cell pathogen of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Kritchevsky, Janice E; Messick, Joanne B

    2012-11-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae," an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation.

  2. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae” Strain Purdue, a Red Blood Cell Pathogen of Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    Guimaraes, Ana M. S.; Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Messick, Joanne B.

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae,” an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation.

  3. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae” Strain Purdue, a Red Blood Cell Pathogen of Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; Kritchevsky, Janice E.

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae,” an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation. PMID:23105057

  4. Homo homini : [luuletused] / Valeria Ränik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ränik, Valeria, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Homo homini ; "Tegelikult on täiuslik kõik..." ; Mõned kõned ; "Vihmadest lekib lagi..." ; "Sündisid siia, et maksta maksu..." ; "Mingis kohas, mingil ajal..." ; "Emajõgi, Amme jõgi..." ; Kaktus ; Eraelamus ; "Minevikule vesi peale..."

  5. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambonie, G; Sarran, N; Leboucq, N; Luc, F; Bongrand, A F; Slim, G; Lassus, P; Fournier-Favre, S; Montoya, F; Astruc, J; Rieu, D

    1999-03-01

    Severe central nervous system diseases, such as encephalitis, have been reported in association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. After an ENT infection, a 9-year-old boy with Down's syndrome developed encephalitis revealed by an acute alteration in consciousness. Head computed tomography showed, after 2 weeks, an infiltration in the basal ganglia region. The diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis was made; recovery was complete in a few weeks. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection should be considered in all cases of acute encephalopathy; yet the pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown and the treatment uncertain.

  6. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma acquisition in male HIV-1 infected patients: a multistage cross-sectional survey in Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-S; Wu, J-R; Wang, B; Yang, T; Yuan, R; Zhao, Y-Y; Xu, J-S; Guo, H-X; Huan, X-P

    2015-11-01

    Mycoplasma infections are most frequently associated with disease in the urogenital or respiratory tracts and, in most cases, mycoplasmas infect the host persistently. In HIV-infected individuals the prevalence and role of genital mycoplasmas has not been well studied. To investigate the six species of Mycoplasma and the risk factors for infection in Jiangsu province, first-void urine and venous blood samples were collected and epidemiological questionnaires were administered after informed consent. A total of 1541 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in this study. The overall infection rates of six Mycoplasma species were: Ureaplasma urealyticum (26·7%), Mycoplasma hominis (25·3%), M. fermentans (5·1%), M. genitalium (20·1%), M. penetrans (1·6%) and M. pirum (15·4%). The Mycoplasma infection rate in the unmarried group was lower than that of the married, divorced and widowed groups [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·432, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·077-1·904, P HIV/AIDS populations.

  7. Analysis of the mycoplasma genome by recombinant DNA technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C; Frydenberg, Jane; Christiansen, G

    1984-01-01

    A library of DNA fragments from Mycoplasma sp. strain PG50 has been made in the vector pBR325. Analysis in Escherichia coli minicells of randomly picked clones from this library demonstrated that many plasmids can promote synthesis of mycoplasma protein in the E. coli genetic background. Screening....... The DNA sequence of 16S rRNA and the surrounding control regions has been determined....

  8. UV survival of human mycoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeji; Ito, Shoko; Watanabe, Takehiko

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of mycoplasma cells of five human strains was monitored by investigating the colony-forming ability. The survival curves of five strains tested indicated that the cells of Mycoplasma buccale only are single and homogenously susceptible to UV light. The effect of the repair inhibitor, caffeine, on the colony-forming ability of UV-irradiated cells was investigated with M. buccale because of its homogeneous susceptibility to UV light. The colony formation of irradiated cells was markedly depressed by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine at concentration that had little or no effect on the colony formation of unirradiated cells. The colony-forming units (CFU) of UV-irradiated cells which were kept in broth without caffeine in the dark increased without a lag as the time in the dark increased. The colony-forming ability of the irradiated cells completely recovered after 3 hr in the dark. However, when irradiated cells were kept in the presence of caffeine, no increase in their CFU was observed. The mode of action of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells closely resembles that described for other organisms which possess dark reactivation systems for UV-induced damage in deoxyribonucleic acid. Thus, the results obtained provide evidence for the existence of a dark repair function in M. buccale. (author)

  9. Detection of T. vaginalis,M. hominis,M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum using Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Brunelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction. The sexually transmitted diseases include a large group of infections affecting both the sexes. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the Prato area during the period September 2010 – July 2011. Methods.We analysed different kind of samples (urine, endocervical swabs, urethral swabs, seminal fluids from hospitalized patients or referred to the Prato clinic subjects.The DNA was obtained using EZ1-DNA extraction kit and EZ1 instrument.The DNA was then amplified using the Seeplex STD6 kit (Seegene, Korea, identifying multiple pathogens simultaneously (T. vaginalis, M. hominis, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae e U. urealyticum. The revelation was performed by electrophoresis on microchip (instrument Multina, Shimadzu, Japan. Results. 1136 samples from Italian and foreign patients were examined: 876 were endocervical swabs (77%, 103 urethral swabs (9%, 103 seminal fluids (9%, and 54 urines (5%. The number of females was higher than males [894 (78.7% vs 242 (21.3%]; the mean age of females was 37.0±11.6 years, whereas that of males was 41.5 ±12.63 years.The prevalence of urogenital pathogens was: 15 positive samples for T. vaginalis (1.3%, 56 for M. hominis (4.9%, 13 for M. genitalium (1.1%, 28 for C. trachomatis (2.5%, 8 for N. gonorrhoeae (0.7% and 87 for U. urealyticum (7.7%.Among all positive, 25 subjects were positive for more than one pathogen and in particular: one was positive for the presence of 4 pathogens, five presented 3 pathogens simultaneously and the remaining nineteen for 2 pathogens. Conclusions. This study provides data on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the hospital of Prato.

  10. Isolate resistance of Blastocystis hominis to metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresh, K; Suresh, K; Khairul Anus, A; Saminathan, S

    1999-04-01

    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.

  11. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  12. Isolation of a mycoplasma from sarcoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, E; Hannuksela, M; Eklund, H; Halme, H; Tuuri, S

    1972-10-01

    Using a modified cell-free culture medium, a mycoplasma was isolated from sarcoid lymph nodes in two cases and from sarcoid skin lesions in four out of seven cases of chronic sarcoidosis. Growth inhibition tests showed that the isolates were related to Mycoplasma orale type 1. By the indirect haemagglutination method, 244 cases of definite or probable sarcoidosis, 160 patients with other diseases, and 355 blood donors were tested for antibodies against an isolated mycoplasma (strain 215-M). Titres [unk] 16 were found in 14% of the patients with sarcoidosis and in 8% of the patients with other diseases but only in 0.6% of the blood donors. The proportion of patients with high antibody titres among those with sarcoidosis and erythema nodosum was smaller (8%) than among those with other forms of sarcoidosis (17%). The role of the mycoplasmas isolated from sarcoid tissues remains obscure, but it is possible that these organisms are only an expression of altered immunity in sarcoidosis.

  13. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of blastocystis hominis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Ali, Ichraf Ben Haj; Khaled, Samira

    2010-03-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal parasite known since long. It is cosmopolitan and lives in the colon. It is still the subject of controversy regarding its pathogenicity and possibly opportunistic character. We exhibit in this article the results obtained for 4 years on the epidemiological, clinical and biological character and opportunistic Blastocystis hominis, often overlooked in the examination of parasitological laboratories city. This is a retrospective study of 3257 stool examination (PSE), performed in the Mycology Laboratory of Parasitology of the Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis over a period of 4 years (January 2005-December 2008). Detection of Blastocystis hominis has been made by microscopic examination of samples by direct examination and concentration. Blastocystis was found in 7.27% of cases and 48.5% in men. Endolimax nanus is the parasite most frequently associated with Blastocystis (40.4% of cases). The port was symptomatic in 72.1% of cases, diarrhea is the symptom most often found (27.7%). There is a seasonal distribution; in fact, it is more frequently diagnosed in summer and autumn. The absence of gravity and the saprophytic nature of this infection do not lead to an indication for treatment even among profoundly immunosuppressed individuals. Only the persistence of clinical disorders associated with the detection of the parasite and in the absence of other micro-organisms and intestinal parasites justifies the treatement. Metronidazole is the molecule used conventionally.

  14. Human pathogenic Mycoplasma species induced cytokine gene expression in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, E; Opitz, O; Pietsch, K; Bauer, G; Ehlers, S; Jacobs, E

    1998-04-01

    We addressed the question whether the in vitro interaction of two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-genome-positive B cell lines (EB-3 and HilB-gamma) with either Mycoplasma pneumoniae or M. hominis, with the mycoplasma species (M. fermentans, M. fermentans subsp. incognitus, M. penetrans, M. genitalium) or with mycoplasma species known to be mere commensals of the respiratory tract (M. orale and M. salivarium) would result in expression of mRNAs for IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4 and IL-6 as determined by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR after 4 and 24 h of cocultivation. The pattern of cytokine gene expression observed depended on (i) the origin of the transformed cell line, (ii) the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma species, and (iii) the length of cocultivation. The EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell line HilB-gamma showed mRNA expression for IL-2, IL-2-receptor, IL-4 and IL-6 peaking 24 h after stimulation with M. pneumoniae and all AIDS-related mycoplasma species tested. The Burkitt lymphoma cell line EB-3 showed a distinct and isolated strong II-2/IL-2 R-mRNA expression within 4 h after contact with the pathogenic and all of the AIDS related mycoplasma species. In neither EBV-containing cell line cytokine was gene expression detectable after stimulation with the commensal mycoplasma species, M. orale and M. salivarium, indicating species differences in the ability of mycoplasmas to interact with and stimulate B-cell lines. Our data suggest that some mcyoplasma species may act as immunomodulatory cofactors by eliciting inappropriate cytokine gene expression in B cells latently infected with EBV. Therefore, this cultivation model may prove useful in evaluating the pathogenetic potential of novel isolated mycoplasma species. Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited.

  15. Palpebral myiasis in a Danish traveler caused by the human bot-fly (Dermatobia hominis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Regitze; Holst, Bengt; Krogh, Erik

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis......ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis...

  16. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins from Mycoplasma capricolum and related serotypes using extracts from intact cells and from minicells containing cloned mycoplasma DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Christiansen, Gunna; Christiansen, C

    1984-01-01

    The acidic proteins of six different mycoplasma serotypes causing bovine or caprine pleuropneumonia were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of extracts of 35S-labelled cells. The organisms investigated were Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (PG1), M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Y......, whereas the two M. mycoides subspecies appeared to be quite distant from M. capricolum and F38. The representative strain of the bovine serogroup 7 of Leach was equally distant from F38, M. capricolum and the three strains of M. mycoides. Strikingly, all six mycoplasma strains apparently shared six...... proteins in the two-dimensional gels. In Escherichia coli minicells, DNA from strain PG50 cloned in the vector pBR325 gave rise to incorporation of radioactive label into proteins which were identified as mycoplasma proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation....

  17. Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dhawan, Benu; Chaudhry, Rama; Vajpayee, Madhu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings. PMID:22310829

  18. Mycoplasmal adherence with particular reference to the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma Pulmonis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Robinson, D.; Furr, P.M.; Davies, H.A. (Medical Research Council, Harrow (UK). Clinical Research Centre); Manchee, R.J. (Water Pollution Research Lab., Watford (UK)); Mouches, C.; Bove, J.M. (INRA, Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Pont de la Maye, France)

    1981-07-01

    Various eucaryotic cells adhere to colonies of some mycoplasmas (adsorption). The chemical nature of the receptors on the cells is not the same for all mycoplasma species, nor are the binding sites on different mycoplasmas the same. Some receptors comprise sialic acid, but in the case of Mycoplasma pulmonis, for example, attachment to cells is not mediated in this way. Nevertheless, adherence seems to be an important factor in the pathogenicity of this mycoplasma. Strain JB caused pneumonia in mice when inoculated intranasally, and colonies of this strain on agar absorbed erythrocytes (hemadsorption) strongly. After multiple passes in mycoplasma liquid medium, the strain lost its hemadsorbing capacity and also its mouse virulence, suggesting that the ability to attach to cells is a virulence factor. Examination by electron microscopy of the virulent mycoplasma and its induced avirulent form after ruthenium-red staining showed that the stain was less thick on the surface of the avirulent form. In addition, the protein pattern of the avirulent mycoplasma, demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was deficient in three bands. These observations suggest that a glycosylated protein may form the binding site on M. pulmonis organisms that mediates their attachment to cells.

  19. Mycoplasmal adherence with particular reference to the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma Pulmonis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Robinson, D.; Furr, P.M.; Davies, H.A.; Mouches, C.; Bove, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Various eucaryotic cells adhere to colonies of some mycoplasmas (adsorption). The chemical nature of the receptors on the cells is not the same for all mycoplasma species, nor are the binding sites on different mycoplasmas the same. Some receptors comprise sialic acid, but in the case of Mycoplasma pulmonis, for example, attachment to cells is not mediated in this way. Nevertheless, adherence seems to be an important factor in the pathogenicity of this mycoplasma. Strain JB caused pneumonia in mice when inocu lated intranasally, and colonies of this strain on agar absorbed erythrocytes (hemadsorption) strongly. After multiple passes in mycoplasma liquid medium, the strain lost its hemadsorbing capacity and also its mouse virulence, suggesting that the ability to attach to cells is a virulence factor. Examination by electron microscopy of the virulent mycoplasma and its induced avirulent form after ruthenium-red staining showed that the stain was less thick on the surface of the avirulent form. In addition, the protein pattern of the avirulent mycoplasma, demonstrated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was deficient in three bands. These observations suggest that a glycosylated protein may form the binding site on M. pulmonis organisms that mediates their attachment to cells. (author)

  20. A comparison between hominy chop and defatted maize germ meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...

  1. Mycoplasma genitalium Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-08

    Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.  Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2018.

  2. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Malvessi Cattani

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  3. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  4. Development and immunogenicity of recombinant GapA(+) Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein and chicken interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shil, Pollob K; Kanci, Anna; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

    2011-04-12

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. A live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of MG in several countries. The efficacy of this vaccine is highly dose dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. To improve the functionality of the vaccine and investigate its potential as a delivery vector for foreign antigens and immunomodulatory proteins, we developed a derivative of ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein (IBV-S1) and releasing chicken interleukin-6 into the extracellular milieu (MG ts-11 C3 (+CS)) using a transposon-based delivery vector. Following administration of MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) to chickens by eye-drop, an antibody response to MG and IBV-S1, as determined by the rapid serum agglutination test (RSA) and Western blotting, respectively, could be detected. Birds inoculated with the recombinant vaccine had significantly enhanced weight gain and were partially protected against damage by pathogenic IBV. These results indicate that the ChIL-6 released by MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) may have had a non-specific effect on growth rate. They also suggest that ts-11 is a promising vaccine vector, capable of delivering heterologous protective antigens, and may also provide non-specific benefits when engineered to express immunomodulatory proteins. With some improvements in the expression system, it could be used to induce a targeted immune response against specific mucosal pathogens, and co-expression of several antigens would allow development of a novel multivalent vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones in current and archived Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from meat-type turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Irina; Lysnyansky, Inna; Perk, Shimon; Levisohn, Sharon

    2008-10-15

    Monitoring of susceptibility to antibiotics in field isolates of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas is important for appropriate choice of treatment. Our study compared in vitro susceptibility to enrofloxacin and difloxacin in recent (2005-2006) isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae from meat-type turkey flocks with archived (1997-2003) isolates and reference strains. Comparison of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined by microtest, agar dilution and commercial Etest showed good agreement, but underscored the need for standardized methods for testing. Notably, while the commercial Etest was convenient and accurate for determining MICs for enrofloxacin in the range 0.002-0.094microg/ml, the endpoint of inhibition for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae strains with MIC values > or =1.0microg/ml could not be determined. A decrease in susceptibility to both fluoroquinolones was detected in archived strains but to a greater degree in recent isolates, most of which had MICs above the NCCLS susceptibility breakpoint for these antibiotics (meat-type turkeys suggests that these strains have become established in Israel, necessitating a reevaluation of antibiotic therapy. Periodic survey of MICs in field isolates of avian mycoplasmas to monitor for the possible appearance of resistant strains is recommended.

  6. ABC transporters in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae: insights into evolution and pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Fabiana Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC transporters represent one of the largest superfamilies of active membrane transport proteins (MTPs with a highly conserved ATPase domain that binds and hydrolyzes ATP, supplying energy for the uptake of a variety of nutrients and for the extrusion of drugs and metabolic wastes. The complete genomes of a non-pathogenic (J and pathogenic (7448 strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, as well as of a pathogenic (53 strain of Mycoplasma synoviae have been recently sequenced. A detailed study revealed a high percentage of CDSs encoding MTPs in M. hyopneumoniae strains J (13.4%, 7448 (13.8%, and in M. synoviae 53 (11.2%, and the ABC systems represented from 85.0 to 88.6% of those CDSs. Uptake systems are mainly involved in cell nutrition and some might be associated with virulence. Exporter systems include both drug and multidrug resistant systems (MDR, which may represent mechanisms of resistance to toxic molecules. No relation was found between the phylogeny of the ATPase domains and the lifestyle or pathogenicity of Mycoplasma, but several proteins, potentially useful as targets for the control of infections, were identified.

  7. Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Fahrendorf, G.

    1987-07-01

    Clinical, CT and, in one case, autopsy findings indicated a diagnosis of a severe necrotising encephalitis in two patients. Although usually herpes simplex virus is blamed for this form of encephalitis, it was possible to prove in these two patients that mycoplasma was the causative agent of the disease. It is concluded that this organism can produce a serious disease in the central nervous system similar to that caused by herpes simplex.

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Fahrendorf, G.; Muenster Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical, CT and, in one case, autopsy findings indicated a diagnosis of a severe necrotising encephalitis in two patients. Although usually herpes simplex virus is blamed for this form of encephalitis, it was possible to prove in these two patients that mycoplasma was the causative agent of the disease. It is concluded that this organism can produce a serious disease in the central nervous system similar to that caused by herpes simplex. (orig.) [de

  9. A 135-kilodalton surface antigen of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 contains multiple directly repeated sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Birkelund, Svend; Hauge, S

    1995-01-01

    gene was sequenced, and its gene product was characterized with the goal of elucidating the structure and function of Lmp1. A total of 7,196 bp in the lmp1 region was sequenced. An open reading frame of 4,032 bp, encoding a protein of 1,344 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 147...

  10. Significance of Blastocystis hominis in patients referred for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and related clinical manifestation of B. hominis infection in patients referred for bacteriological ... with a worldwide distribution. However ... abdominal pain and peripheral blood eosinophilia. However ...

  11. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-01-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the fi...

  12. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification on Crude DNA as a Point-of-Care Test for the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma-Related Vaginitis During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichao; Zhang, Bumei; Sun, Yan; Liu, Yunde; Gu, Yajun

    2017-12-20

    Mycoplasma-related vaginitis gradually has been growing as a threat in adults-genitourinary infection contributes to funisitis, spontaneous abortion, and low birth weight. Until now, use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), or Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) has been reported by some researchers. However, previous studies focused on purified DNA as the template for LAMP assay, which is usually extracted via commercial kit. We developed a LAMP assay for rapid detection of UU, MH, and MG genital mycoplasmas using a simple boiling method for DNA extraction, in a cohort of pregnant women with mycoplasma-related vaginitis. We monitored amplicons with the naked eye using SYBR Green I. The cohort in our study showed a prevalence of 22.6% in pregnant women, as detected by UU-LAMP assay. Compared to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with purified DNA, the sensitivity of the UU-LAMP in clinical specimens with crude DNA was 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.6%->99.9). For crude DNA specimens, UU-LAMP was more sensitive and reliable than PCR, with a higher agreement rate (96.8%) and Youden index value (0.88). As a point-of-care test, LAMP is a useful, specific, and efficient way to detect genital mycoplasmas in resource-limited settings, especially for crude DNA. © American Society for Clinical Pathology 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Characterization of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, N.F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2002-01-01

    , were investigated by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms of the Bgl II and Mfe I restriction sites and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of a Bss HII digest of chromosomal DNA. Both methods allowed unambiguous differentiation of the analysed strains and showed similar discriminatory...

  14. The Phospholipid Profile of Mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Kornspan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The de novo synthesized polar lipids of Mycoplasma species are rather simple, comprising primarily of the acidic glycerophospholipids PG and CL. In addition, when grown in a medium containing serum, significant amounts of PC and SPM are incorporated into the mycoplasma cell membrane although these lipids are very uncommon in wall-covered bacteria. The exogenous lipids are either incorporated unchanged or the PC incorporated is modified by a deacylation-acylation enzymatic cycle to form disaturated PC. Although their small genome, in some Mycoplasma species, other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis were detected, resulting in the synthesis of a variety of glycolipis, phosphoglycolipids and ether lipids. We suggest that analyses and comparisons of mycoplasma polar lipids may serve as a novel and useful tool for classification. Nonetheless, to evaluate the importance of polar lipids in mycoplasma, further systematic and extensive studies on more Mycoplasma species are needed. While studies are needed to elucidate the role of lipids in the mechanisms governing the interaction of mycoplasmas with host eukaryotic cells, the finding that a terminal phosphocholine containing glycolipids of M. fermentans serves both as a major immune determinants and as a trigger of the inflammatory responses, and the findings that the fusogenicity of M. fermentans with host cells is markedly stimulated by lyso-ether lipids, are important steps toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of M. fermentans pathogenicity.

  15. Mycoplasmas and their host: emerging and re-emerging minimal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, Christine; Blanchard, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Commonly known as mycoplasmas, bacteria of the class Mollicutes include the smallest and simplest life forms capable of self replication outside of a host. Yet, this minimalism hides major human and animal pathogens whose prevalence and occurrence have long been underestimated. Owing to advances in sequencing methods, large data sets have become available for a number of mycoplasma species and strains, providing new diagnostic approaches, typing strategies, and means for comprehensive studies. A broader picture is thus emerging in which mycoplasmas are successful pathogens having evolved a number of mechanisms and strategies for surviving hostile environments and adapting to new niches or hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., a twisted mycoplasma from green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Meghan; Ortiz, G Javier; Wendland, Lori D; Rotstein, David S; Relich, Ryan F; Balish, Mitchell F; Brown, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    Mycoplasma insons sp. nov., first cultured from the choanae and tracheae of healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from El Salvador, was readily distinguished from all previously described mollicutes and assigned to the Mycoplasma fastidiosum phylogenetic cluster by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Growth inhibition assays distinguished the isolates serologically from the other two members of that cluster. Many M. insons cells exhibit a remarkable twisted rod morphology despite lacking a cell wall. The organism is nonmotile, produces acid from glucose, but does not hydrolyze arginine, esculin, or urea. Mycoplasma insons 16S rRNA gene was also detected by PCR in packed blood cells from culture-negative iguanas. The type strain I17P1(T) has been deposited with the Mollicutes Collection at Purdue University and with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC BAA-1435) in the USA. A limited number of cultures generated by the authors have also been deposited with the Culture Collection, University of Göteborg, in Sweden (CCUG 53461).

  17. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. dos Santos C.S., McIntosh D., Berto B.P., de Jesus V.L.T., da Rocha C.N.C., Fernandes J.I., Scott F.B. & Lopes C.W.G. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil. [Diagnóstico de Pentatrichomonas hominis em gatos no sudeste do Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:25-31, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: carolinespitz@yahoo.com.br The parabasalid flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is recognized as the causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats. A second species of parabasalid flagellate Pentatrichomonas hominis, has also been reported in association with domestic cats, albeit almost exclusively as a commensal organism. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that P. hominis may also be involved in feline gastro-intestinal disorders including diarrhea and that the incidence of infection with P. hominis may have been underestimated due to it being misidentified as T. foetus. The aim of the current study was to establish the basis for routine morphological identification of P. hominis employing light microscopy and to apply the methodology to the examination of cases of diarrhea in a laboratory population of Brazilian domestic cats (n =39. A detailed morphological description of P. hominis isolated from 11 cats with diarrhea was produced and molecular analyses were performed in support of the morphological data and to demonstrate the absence of T. foetus in infected cats. All animals with diarrhea were demonstrated to be infected solely with P. hominis. The findings of the current study provide a straight forward and validated method for the differential diagnosis of P. hominis and contribute to the on-going debate surrounding the pathogenic potential of this parabasalid flagellate.

  18. Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonavent, Tina Bennett; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Kristensen, Kjeld Skødebjerg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum are well known, though rare, etiologic agents of infective endocarditis. Cardiac devices are increasingly implanted. Case Reports: Two cases of infective episodes in pacemaker (PM) treated patients with respectively C. hominis and C...

  19. Blastocystis hominis among food vendors in Xochimilco markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Licea, Verónica; Plancarte Crespo, Agustín; Morán Alvarez, Cristina; Valencia Rojas, Silvia; Rodríguez Sásnchez, Gustavo; Vega Franco, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a pathogenic protozoon that lives in the human bowel and causes diarrhea: the mode of transmission is a passive one, through the ingestion of stool-contaminated water or foods that contain infective forms of the parasite. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food vendors in the markets within the Xochimilco jurisdiction, Mexico City, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which food vendors answered an epidemiological questionnaire and underwent a serial stool culture. The frequency of the intestinal parasitoses reported was estimated and an analysis was carried out associating the presence of Blastocystis hominis with socio-economic and hygienic factors using the odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval. The frequency of intestinal parasites and commensals was 50.4%; Blastocystis hominis was found in 48 (41.7%) food vendors. The risk analysis showed that Blastocystis hominis was associated with: male gender, poor personal hygiene habits, personal history of parasitosis, and family history of parasitosis. The prevalence reported is high when compared with other populations studied. The relevance of this report lies on the fact that food vendors handle foods and could transmit the infection to consumers.

  20. Serological differentiation of microsporidia with special reference to Trachipleistophora hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheney S.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Myositis is a common clinical syndrome in advanced stages of AIDS. Trachipleistophora hominis (phylum Microspora has been detected in several cases of painful, immobilising myositis in AIDS patients. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and Western blotting of protein profiles separated by SDS PAGE were used to determine whether this species could be detected and differentiated by serology. Sixteen microsporidia, including several species known to infect man and species infecting fish, crustaceans and a mosquito, were used as antigen. Each species had a unique profile of SDS PAGE-separated proteins. In Western blots, mouse antiserum, raised to T. hominis and selected for its high ELISA specificity, bound to antigens ranging from less than 25 kDa to greater than 250 kDa with major bands at 39-44 kDa and 98-150 kDa on T. hominis protein profiles. The serum also recognised some high molecular weight antigens in the profiles of Vavraia culicis, Heterosporis anguillarum, and three species of Pleistophora but none in the remaining genera examined. It was concluded that ELISA and Western blotting could be used to detect and differentiate T. hominis in muscle biopsy tissue from patients with myositis. However, sera from T. hominis infected patients in the terminal stages of AIDS would not be useful for detection of infections because of a sharp decline in antibody level.

  1. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum at Batna Commercial poultry farms in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouzha Heleili

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in broiler and layer chickens in the area of Batna, eastern Algeria. This investigation was conducted during the period from 2008 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 505 sera samples were collected and tested by serum plate agglutination (SPA test using Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antigens (Soleil Diagnostic to detect the presence of antibodies against MS and MG. Results: The overall prevalence of MS and MG infection in the 27 flocks visited in this investigation were recorded as 66.33% and 69.90% respectively. Seroprevalence of MG infection was found significantly (p<0.05 higher during winter season (61.48% than in summer (47.74% while MS infection is more dominant in summer (91.25% against 46.69%. Again this was recorded in different age groups, with significantly higher occurrence in young compared to adult with 85.14% in layer hens and 90.73% in broiler chickens. On the other hand, the seroprevalence of MG and MS infection was found little (p>0.05 higher in large flocks (76.97% in comparison to small flocks (63.63%. The highest prevalence (76.59% of mycoplasmal infection in layer hens was found in Lohman strain. Conclusion: It has been found that MG and MS infections are still important disease problems in poultry farms in Algeria. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 709-712

  2. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  3. Prevalence of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma in Infertile Men in Van Region and Effects to Semen Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Taken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Mycoplasma hominis (MH in semen cultures of cases with primary infertility in the Van Province, and also to determine the effect of therapy on sperm parameters. Material and Method: The study included 106 individuals divided into three groups: The infertile group (41 cases, the group with lower urinary tract symptoms (33 cases, and the control group (32 cases. The patients in the infertile group had no history of varicocele, testicular torsion, hydrocele, undescended testis, and hormonal disorders. The control group included cases without infertility and lower urinary tract symptoms. The parameters of culture-positive cases in the infertile group were determined before and after therapy. The identification of Mycoplasma species was made using the Biomerieux® Mycoplasma IST 2 (RCS Lyon-France kit. The sperm count was carried out with the Makler counting chamber (Self Medical Industries, Haifa, Israel. Results: In the infertile group, UU was isolated from 17 and MH was isolated from 3 cases. In the group with lower urinary tract symptoms, UU was isolated from 15 (45.5% and MH was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases. In the control group, UU was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases, but MH was isolated from none of the cases. In the infertile group, the sperm counts in 3 culture-positive cases (15% and in 10 culture-negative cases (50% were

  4. Effects of mycoplasma contamination on phenotypic expression of mitochondrial mutants in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersen, C J; Stanbridge, E J

    1981-04-01

    HeLa cells sensitive to the mitochondrial protein synthesis inhibitors erythromycin (ERY) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and HeLa variants resistant to the effects of these drugs were purposefully infected with drug-sensitive and -resistant mycoplasma strains. Mycoplasma hyorhinis and the ERY-resistant strain of Mycoplasma orale, MO-ERYr, did not influence the growth of HeLa and ERY-resistant ERY2301 cells in the presence or absence of ERY. M. hyorhinis also did not affect the growth of HeLa and CAP-resistant Cap-2 cells in the presence or absence of CAP. However, both HeLa and Cap-2 cells infected with the CAP-resistant strain of M. hyorhinis, MH-CAPr, were more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of CAP. This may be due to the glucose dependence of the cells, which was compromised by the increased utilization of glucose by MH-CAPr in these infected cell cultures. In vitro protein synthesis by isolated mitochondria was significantly altered by mycoplasma infection of the various cell lines. A substantial number of mycoplasmas copurified with the mitochondria, resulting in up to a sevenfold increase in the incorporation of [3H]leucine into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. More importantly, the apparent drug sensitivity or resistance of mitochondrial preparations from mycoplasma-infected cells reflected the drug sensitivity or resistance of the contaminating mycoplasmas. These results illustrate the hazards in interpreting mitochondrial protein synthesis data derived from mycoplasma-infected cell lines, particularly putative mitochondrially encoded mutants resistant to inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis.

  5. Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Caused by Cardiobacterium hominis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davie Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group of organisms, is an uncommon but important cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis. First-line therapy is a third-generation cephalosporin due to rare beta-lactamase production. The authors report a case involving endovascular infection due to C hominis that initially tested resistant to third-generation cephalosporins using an antibiotic gradient strip susceptibility method (nitrocephin negative, but later proved to be susceptible using broth microdilution reference methods (a ‘major’ error. There are limited studies to guide susceptibility testing and interpretive breakpoints for C hominis in the medical literature, and the present case illustrates some of the issues that may arise when performing susceptibility testing for fastidious organisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  6. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis organisms isolated from human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneshiro, E S; Amit, Z; Chandra, Jan Suresh

    1999-01-01

    in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human...... infections, it is important to determine whether the 24-alkylsterols of organisms found in rats are also present in organisms in humans. In the present study, sterol analyses of P. carinii hominis organisms isolated from cryopreserved human P. carinii-infected lungs and from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were...

  7. Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum y bacterias aeróbicas en el semen de hombres que consultan por infertilidad Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and aerobic bacteria present in the semen from men attending infertility service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Victoria Rodríguez Pendás

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infecciones en el semen humano pueden alterar la calidad espermática, y vincularse con problemas de infertilidad masculina. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de infecciones por Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum y bacterias aeróbicas en el semen de hombres que consultan por infertilidad, e identificar si existe relación entre las infecciones encontradas y las alteraciones en las variables de calidad del semen. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, para evaluar muestras de semen de 140 hombres, con edades entre 20 y 45 años, provenientes de las consultas de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Se realizó un espermograma completo, que incluyó leucocitospermia, siguiendo los lineamientos de la OMS, para determinar las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas del semen. Las muestras de semen fueron cultivadas en agar sangre y agar chocolate a 37° C en atmósfera de CO2 para investigar bacterias aeróbicas, y se utilizó un juego de reactivos (Mycoplasma System Plus que permite realizar el cultivo, la identificación, el conteo semicuantitativo y el antibiograma de micoplasmas/ureaplasma urogenitales. Se tuvo en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y los resultados obtenidos se analizaron mediante cálculo de por cientos y la aplicación de la prueba de chi cuadrado. Resultados: de las 140 muestras de semen evaluadas, 58 (41,4 % mostraron la presencia de infecciones, de ellas 37 correspondieron a Ureaplasma urealyticum (25,7 %, 2 a Micoplasma hominis (1,4 % y 19 a bacterias aeróbicas (13,8 %. Al comparar las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas del semen con los sujetos infectados y no infectados, no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ninguna de las variables de calidad espermática evaluadas. Conclusiones: la frecuencia total de infecciones, en la muestra estudiada, fue relativamente alta, pero no asociada a alteraciones en las variables seminales

  8. Effects on goat milk quality of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in herds without symptoms of contagious agalactia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fe, Christian; Sánchez, Antonio; Gutierrez, Aldo; Contreras, Antonio; Carlos Corrales, Juan; Assunçao, Patricia; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the possible effects of mycoplasmas on the quality of milk produced by goat herds in a contagious agalactia (CA) endemic area with absence of classical symptoms. Several factors related to milk quality (percentages of fat, total protein, lactose and total solids, standard plate counts (SPC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus) were compared in mycoplasma-infected and non-infected herds. To define the CA status of 26 herds on the island of Lanzarote (Spain), where CA is endemic, 570 individual milk samples and 266 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were microbiologically analysed for the presence of Mycoplasma spp. A herd was considered infected by mycoplasmas when at least a sample (individual or BTM) was positive. BTM samples were also used to determine milk quality parameters. Mycoplasma infection was confirmed in 13 herds. A total of 31, 10 and 11 strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (MmmLC), Mp. agalactiae and Mp. capricolum subsp. capricolum were isolated. No significant differences were observed between the least square means of the variables fat, total protein, lactose and total solids or SPC recorded for the infected v. non-infected herds. The Staph. aureus status of a herd was also found to be independent of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. Our findings indicate that neither the presence of mycoplasmas in a goat herd with absence of classical symptoms seem to compromise the quality of the BTM.

  9. Genomic variations of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Bolske, G.; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains based on determination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) is described. AFLP fingerprints of 38 strains derived from different countries in Africa and the Middle East consisted of over 100 bands in the size...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Human Gut Symbiont Roseburia hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travis, Anthony J.; Kelly, Denise; Flint, Harry J

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the human gut symbiont Roseburia hominis A2-183(T) (= DSM 16839(T) = NCIMB 14029(T)), isolated from human feces. The genome is represented by a 3,592,125-bp chromosome with 3,405 coding sequences. A number of potential functions contributing to host...

  11. Common occurrence of Cryptosporidium hominis in horses and donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fuchun; Liu, Aiqin; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Qi, Meng; Zhao, Wei; Shi, Yadong; Wang, Jianling; Wei, Jiujian; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Extensive genetic variation is observed within the genus Cryptosporidium and the distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in humans and animals appears to vary by geography and host species. To better understand the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses and donkeys, we characterized five horse-derived and 82 donkey-derived Cryptosporidium isolates from five provinces or autonomous regions (Sichuan, Gansu, Henan, Inner Mongolia and Shandong) in China at the species/genotype and subtype levels. Three Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified based on the analysis of the SSU rRNA gene, including Cryptosporidium parvum (n=22), the Cryptosporidium horse genotype (n=4), and Cryptosporidium hominis (n=61). The identification of C. hominis was confirmed by sequence analysis of the HSP70 and actin genes. Subtyping using sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene identified 21 C. parvum isolates as subtype IIdA19G1, the four horse genotype isolates as subtypes VIaA15G4 (n=2) and VIaA11G3 (n=2), and the 61 C. hominis isolates as IkA16G1 (n=59) and IkA16 (n=2). The common finding of C. hominis reaffirms the heterogeneity of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses and donkeys and is possibly a reflection of endemic transmission of C. hominis in these animals. Data of the study suggest that horses and donkeys as companion animals may potentially transmit Cryptosporidium infections to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genital infections mycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  13. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  14. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793B, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, S; Bettridge, J; Christley, R; Habte, T; Ganapathy, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry. Mycoplasma gallisepticum was also found to be present; however, infectious laryngotracheitis virus was not detected by PCR. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was not detected by PCR, but variable levels of anti-NDV HI antibody titres shows possible exposure to virulent strains or poor vaccine take, or both. For the burgeoning-intensive industry in Ethiopia, this study highlights several circulating infectious respiratory pathogens that can impact on poultry welfare and productivity.

  15. [Standardization of Blastocystis hominis diagnosis using different staining techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymael, Dayane; Schuh, Graziela Maria; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out from March to May 2008, with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different techniques for diagnosing Blastocystis hominis in a sample of the population attended at the Biomedicine Laboratory of Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul. On hundred feces samples from children and adults were evaluated. After collection, the samples were subjected to the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation (HPJ), sedimentation in formalin-ether (Ritchie) and staining by means of Gram and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). The presence of Blastocystis hominis was observed in 40 samples, when staining techniques were used (MGG and Gram), while sedimentation techniques were less efficient (32 positive samples using the Ritchie technique and 20 positive samples using the HPJ technique). Our results demonstrate that HPJ was less efficient than the other methods, thus indicating the need to include laboratory techniques that enable parasite identification on a routine basis.

  16. Unique vaginal microbiota that includes an unknown Mycoplasma-like organism is associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David H; Zozaya, Marcela; Lillis, Rebecca A; Myers, Leann; Nsuami, M Jacques; Ferris, Michael J

    2013-06-15

    The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection is highest in women with intermediate Nugent scores. We hypothesized that the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected women differs from that in T. vaginalis-uninfected women. Vaginal samples from 30 T. vaginalis-infected women were matched by Nugent score to those from 30 T. vaginalis-uninfected women. Equal numbers of women with Nugent scores categorized as normal, intermediate, and bacterial vaginosis were included. The vaginal microbiota was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of an unknown organism was obtained by universal bacterial polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Principal coordinates analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed divergence of the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected and T. vaginalis-uninfected patients among women with normal and those with intermediate Nugent scores but not among women with bacterial vaginosis. Cluster analysis revealed 2 unique groups of T. vaginalis-infected women. One had high abundance of Mycoplasma hominis and other had high abundance of an unknown Mycoplasma species. Women in the former group had clinical evidence of enhanced vaginal inflammation. T. vaginalis may alter the vaginal microbiota in a manner that is favorable to its survival and/or transmissibility. An unknown Mycoplasma species plays a role in some of these transformations. In other cases, these changes may result in a heightened host inflammatory response.

  17. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  18. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Fettweis

    Full Text Available Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

  19. An emerging mycoplasma associated with trichomoniasis, vaginal infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Serrano, Myrna G; Huang, Bernice; Brooks, J Paul; Glascock, Abigail L; Sheth, Nihar U; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Humans are colonized by thousands of bacterial species, but it is difficult to assess the metabolic and pathogenic potential of the majority of these because they have yet to be cultured. Here, we characterize an uncultivated vaginal mycoplasma tightly associated with trichomoniasis that was previously known by its 16S rRNA sequence as "Mnola." In this study, the mycoplasma was found almost exclusively in women infected with the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, but rarely observed in women with no diagnosed disease. The genomes of four strains of this species were reconstructed using metagenome sequencing and assembly of DNA from four discrete mid-vaginal samples, one of which was obtained from a pregnant woman with trichomoniasis who delivered prematurely. These bacteria harbor several putative virulence factors and display unique metabolic strategies. Genes encoding proteins with high similarity to potential virulence factors include two collagenases, a hemolysin, an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase and a feoB-type ferrous iron transport system. We propose the name "Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii" for this potential new pathogen.

  20. Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, M; Foissac, X; Gaurivaud, P; Laigret, F; Renaudin, J; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2001-10-01

    Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas were discovered by electron microscopy, in 1967, long after the discovery and culture in 1898 of the first pathogenic mycoplasma of animal origin, Mycoplasma mycoides. Mycoplasmas are Eubacteria of the class Mollicutes, a group of organisms phylogenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Their more characteristic features reside in the small size of their genomes, the low guanine (G) plus cytosine (C) content of their genomic DNA and the lack of a cell wall. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are responsible for several hundred diseases and belong to two groups: the phytoplasmas and the spiroplasmas. The phytoplasmas (previously called MLOs, for mycoplasma like organisms) were discovered first; they are pleiomorphic, and have so far resisted in vitro cultivation. Phytoplasmas represent the largest group of plant pathogenic Mollicutes. Only three plant pathogenic spiroplasmas are known today. Spiroplasma citri, the agent of citrus stubborn was discovered and cultured in 1970 and shown to be helical and motile. S. kunkelii is the causal agent of corn stunt. S. phoeniceum, responsible for periwinkle yellows, was discovered in Syria. There are many other spiroplasmas associated with insects and ticks. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in which circulates the photosynthetically-enriched sap, the food for many phloem-feeding insects (aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, etc.). Interestingly, phytopathogenic mycoplasmas are very specifically transmitted by leafhoppers or psyllid species. In this paper, the most recent knowledge on phytopathogenic mycoplasmas in relation with their insect and plant habitats is presented as well as the experiments carried out to control plant mycoplasma diseases, by expression of mycoplasma-directed-antibodies in plants (plantibodies).

  1. Genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates reveals eight P1 subtypes within two genomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Three methods for genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates were applied to 2 reference strains and 21 clinical isolates. By a modified restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR products of the M. pneumoniae cytadhesin P1 gene, 5 subtypes were discriminated among 13

  2. Selective medium for culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Beth S; Beddow, Jessica G; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Maglennon, Gareth A; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2016-11-15

    The fastidious porcine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has proven difficult to culture since it was first isolated in 1965. A reliable solid medium has been particularly challenging. Moreover, clinical and pathological samples often contain the fast-growing M. hyorhinis which contaminates and overgrows M. hyopneumoniae in primary culture. The aim of this study was to optimise the culture medium for recovery of M. hyopneumoniae and to devise a medium for selection of M. hyopneumoniae from clinical samples also containing M. hyorhinis. The solid medium devised by Niels Friis was improved by use of Purified agar and incorporation of DEAE-dextran. Addition of glucose or neutralization of acidity in liquid medium with NaOH did not improve the final yield of viable organisms or alter the timing of peak viability. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis strains to four antimicrobials showed that M. hyopneumoniae is less susceptible than M. hyorhinis to kanamycin. This was consistent in all UK and Danish strains tested. A concentration of 2μg/ml of kanamycin selectively inhibited the growth of all M. hyorhinis tested, while M. hyopneumoniae was able to grow. This forms the basis of an effective selective culture medium for M. hyopneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence of Mycoplasma synoviae on commercial poultry farms of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia R. Barros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of Pernambuco is the largest producer of eggs in the North and Northeast of Brazil and second one in the broiler production. Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS in broilers and commercial laying hens in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Tracheal fragments were analyzed from 55 healthy broilers, 35 broilers with respiratory signs and 30 commercial laying hens with respiratory signs, from 24 commercial poultry farms, each sample was composed of a pool of five birds. The bacteriological exam, PCR and nested PCR were used for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS. All samples were negative in bacteriological isolation. In the PCR analyses, seven samples from birds with respiratory signs were positive for MS and one was positive for MG, the latter of which was confirmed as the MG-F vaccine strain. The occurrence of MS in chickens with respiratory signs may indicate inadequate sanitary management on poultry farms, favoring the propagation of mycoplasmosis.

  4. Comparative genomics of Mycoplasma: analysis of conserved essential genes and diversity of the pan-genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma, the smallest self-replicating organism with a minimal metabolism and little genomic redundancy, is expected to be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes needed to sustain bacterial life. This study employs comparative evolutionary analysis of twenty Mycoplasma genomes to gain an improved understanding of essential genes. By analyzing the core genome of mycoplasmas, we finally revealed the conserved essential genes set for mycoplasma survival. Further analysis showed that the core genome set has many characteristics in common with experimentally identified essential genes. Several key genes, which are related to DNA replication and repair and can be disrupted in transposon mutagenesis studies, may be critical for bacteria survival especially over long period natural selection. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,355 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among mycoplasma strains. To obtain deeper insight into the relative roles of molecular evolution in pathogen adaptation to their hosts, we also analyzed the positive selection pressures on particular sites and lineages. There appears to be an approximate correlation between the divergence of species and the level of positive selection detected in corresponding lineages.

  5. Molecular Methods for the Detection of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, Ken B.; Xiao, Li; Paralanov, Vanya; Viscardi, Rose M.; Glass, John I.

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species are well-known human pathogens responsible for a broad array of inflammatory conditions involving the respiratory and urogenital tracts of neonates, children, and adults. Greater attention is being given to these organisms in diagnostic microbiology, largely as a result of improved methods for their laboratory detection, made possible by powerful molecular-based techniques that can be used for primary detection in clinical specimens. For slow-growing species, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium, molecular-based detection is the only practical means for rapid microbiological diagnosis. Most molecular-based methods used for detection and characterization of conventional bacteria have been applied to these organisms. A complete genome sequence is available for one or more strains of all of the important human pathogens in the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma genera. Information gained from genome analyses and improvements in efficiency of DNA sequencing are expected to significantly advance the field of molecular detection and genotyping during the next few years. This review provides a summary and critical review of methods suitable for detection and characterization of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas of humans, with emphasis on molecular genotypic techniques. PMID:22819362

  6. In situ hybridisation for identification and differentiation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in formalin-fixed porcine tissue sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ahrens, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S ribosomal RNA were designed for species-specific identification of the porcine mycoplasmas Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae using a fluorescent in situ hybridisation assay. The specificity of the probes was evaluated...... using pure cultures as well as porcine tissue sections with artificial presence of mycoplasma, and the probes were found specific for the target organisms. The assay was applied on sections of 28 tissue samples from pigs infected with one or more of the three Mycoplasma species as determined...

  7. The Case Report of Trigger Finger Improved with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The Purpose of this study is to investigate and report the effectiveness of Hominis Placenta using Pharmacopuncture treatment for trigger finger. Methods : 3 Patients are admitted at Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation, Bu-Chun Jaseng Oriental Medicine Hospital, diagnosed as Trigger finger and treated with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture. Each cases are measured and assessed by Quinnell's classification of triggering and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale scores. Results : 3 Patients of trigger finger have a different kind of cause and fingers lesion they have, but nodules are not significantly found up, so we could classify all of 3 patients to diffuse type. After treatment of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture, spontaneous pain and tenderness, grades of triggering are decreased significantly. We would expect that Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture has a effect on degenerative diseases of diffuse type's tendon sheath. Conclusions : Trigger finger is generally divided into two stages, inflammatory and degenerative stage, and when degenerative stage, Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture appears to be effective.

  8. Sensitivity of some local isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum against antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of five local isolates ofMycoplasma gallisepticum (MG strain and two standard MG isolates obtained from Australia were tested against antibiotics of oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin using antibiogram disc method. The result showed that one, 2 and 3 local MG isolates were resistent to doxycycline, erythromycin and oxytetracycline respectively . MG isolate of ADA7 from Australia was found to be resistent to all antibiotics tested. None ofthe local MG isolates were sensitive against bacitracin, vancomycin, methicillin and penicillin.

  9. Gastrodiscoides hominis infection in a Nigerian- case report | Dada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit d'un rapport d'un cas d'un enfant Nigerian âgé de sept ans qui s'est présenté atteints des traits de la sous alimentation et de l'anénue également atteint des gastrodiscoides hominis et ascaris lumbricoides. A la suite de la clairance des vers on a remarqué une enorme amélioration dans le statut de la santé de cet ...

  10. In vitro development of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin and oxytetracycline in Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma iowae and Mycoplasma synoviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Reinhardt, A K; Kobisch, M; Kempf, I

    2002-08-02

    The in vitro emergence of resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, tiamulin, and oxytetracycline in three avian Mycoplasma species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae was studied. Mutants were selected stepwise and their MICs were determined after 10 passages in subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotic. High-level resistance to erythromycin and tylosin developed within 2-6 passages in the three Mycoplasma species. Resistance to enrofloxacin developed more gradually. No resistance to tiamulin or oxytetracycline could be evidenced in M. gallisepticum or M. synoviae after 10 passages whereas, resistant mutants were obtained with M. iowae. Cross-sensitivity tests performed on mutants demonstrated that mycoplasmas made resistant to tylosin were also resistant to erythromycin, whereas mutants made resistant to erythromycin were not always resistant to tylosin. Some M. iowae tiamulin-resistant mutants were also resistant to both macrolide antibiotics. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline did not induce any cross-resistance to the other antibiotics tested. These results show that Mycoplasma resistance to macrolides can be quickly selected in vitro, and thus, providing that similar results could be obtained under field conditions, that development of resistance to these antibiotics in vivo might also be a relatively frequent event.

  11. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcription Unit Organization: Genome Survey and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Augusto; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is associated with swine respiratory diseases. Although gene organization and regulation are well known in many prokaryotic organisms, knowledge on mycoplasma is limited. This study performed a comparative analysis of three strains of M. hyopneumoniae (7448, J and 232), with a focus on genome organization and gene comparison for open read frame (ORF) cluster (OC) identification. An in silico analysis of gene organization demonstrated 117 OCs and 34 single ORFs in M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and J, while 116 OCs and 36 single ORFs were identified in M. hyopneumoniae 232. Genomic comparison revealed high synteny and conservation of gene order between the OCs defined for 7448 and J strains as well as for 7448 and 232 strains. Twenty-one OCs were chosen and experimentally confirmed by reverse transcription–PCR from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome, validating our prediction. A subset of the ORFs within an OC could be independently transcribed due to the presence of internal promoters. Our results suggest that transcription occurs in ‘run-on’ from an upstream promoter in M. hyopneumoniae, thus forming large ORF clusters (from 2 to 29 ORFs in the same orientation) and indicating a complex transcriptional organization. PMID:22086999

  12. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  13. Mycoplasmas and Non-gonococcal Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 692 heterosexual males which included 130 men with non-gonoccal urethritis (NGU and 562 age-matched controls, were studied. Mycoplasmas were cultivated in liquid PPLO medium tubes containing arionine and urea. Mycoplasmas were isolated in 24 (18.59o of the 130 patients and 76 (13.60/o of the 562 controls. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 18 (13.9% gatients with NGU and in 21 (3.8% controls. Mycoplasma hominiq was isolated in 6 (4.6% patientuft NGU and in 55 (9.8% controls. Ureaplasma urealyticurm has a definite in NGU.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide production and myo-inositol metabolism as important traits for virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, M G; Mucha, S G; Parrot, D; Meiffren, G; Bachega, J F R; Comte, G; Zaha, A; Sagot, M F

    2018-04-06

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia. In our previous work, we reconstructed the metabolic models of this species along with two other mycoplasmas from the respiratory tract of swine: Mycoplasma hyorhinis, considered less pathogenic but which nonetheless causes disease and Mycoplasma flocculare, a commensal bacterium. We identified metabolic differences that partially explained their different levels of pathogenicity. One important trait was the production of hydrogen peroxide from the glycerol metabolism only in the pathogenic species. Another important feature was a pathway for the metabolism of myo-inositol in M. hyopneumoniae. Here, we tested these traits to understand their relation to the different levels of pathogenicity, comparing not only the species but also pathogenic and attenuated strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Regarding the myo-inositol metabolism, we show that only M. hyopneumoniae assimilated this carbohydrate and remained viable when myo-inositol was the primary energy source. Strikingly, only the two pathogenic strains of M. hyopneumoniae produced hydrogen peroxide in complex medium. We also show that this production was dependent on the presence of glycerol. Although further functional tests are needed, we present in this work two interesting metabolic traits of M. hyopneumoniae that might be directly related to its enhanced virulence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Detection of mycoplasmas in goat milk by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Patricia; Davey, Hazel M; Rosales, Ruben S; Antunes, Nuno T; de la Fe, Christian; Ramirez, Ana S; de Galarreta, Carlos M Ruiz; Poveda, Jose B

    2007-12-01

    The detection of mycoplasma in milk can be performed by either culture techniques or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Although PCR can reduce the average diagnostic time to 5 h in comparison with the several days for the isolation of the agent, there is still a need to develop methods, which could give earlier results. For this purpose, we tested the ability of flow cytometry (FC) to detect mycoplasmas in milk samples. Milk samples inoculated with four different mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capricolum, or Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type, known to cause contagious agalactia in goats, were stained with the DNA stain SYBR Green I and analyzed by FC. Three goat milk samples, from which mycoplasmas have been isolated in broth medium were also analyzed. All mycoplasmas were easily distinguished from debris of milk samples, but it was not possible to distinguish between the different mycoplasma species. In our conditions, the detection limit of the technique was of the order of 10(3)-10(4) cells ml(-1). Furthermore, mycoplasmas were also distinguished from Staphylococcus aureus. FC together with SYBR Green I was able to distinguish between mycoplasma cells and debris present in milk samples and gave results in 20-30 min. This is an important first step in developing a robust, routine flow cytometric method for the detection of mycoplasmas in milk samples. (c) 2007 International Society for Analytical Cytology

  16. Characteristics of Factors of Protozoa Blastocystis hominis Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potaturkina-Nesterova, N I; Il'ina, N A; Bugero, N V; Nesterov, A S

    2016-10-01

    Persistence activity manifested in the expression of anti-lysozyme, anti-lactoferrin, and antihistone factors promoting inactivation of natural anti-infection resistance factors in the body was revealed in Blastocystis hominis protozoa. Activities of these factors were ranged. The frequency of these factors in clinical isolates of blastocyst decreased in the following order: anti-lactoferrin activity (84.5±3.7%)→anti-lysozyme activity (64.8±5.7%)→anti-histone activity (48.1±2.3%). In healthy humans, the corresponding parameters were 7.3±1.3, 5.3±0.9, and 3.3±0.4%, respectively (pprotozoa.

  17. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae : A cause for community‑acquired ... Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of ... microscopic and biochemical studies for better diagnosis of these pathogens.

  18. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: A cause for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of ... causing bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ..... Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of exacerbation of bronchial asthma ...

  19. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Israel from local and imported cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Irena; Levisohn, Sharon; Mikula, Inna; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2009-06-12

    Monitoring of susceptibility to antibiotics in field isolates of pathogenic bovine mycoplasmas is important for appropriate choice of treatment. Our study compared in vitro susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma bovis clinical strains, isolated during 2005-2007 from Israeli and imported calves. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for macrolides by the microbroth dilution test, for aminoglycosides by commercial Etest, and for fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines by both methods. Notably, although correlation between the methods was generally good, it was not possible to determine the MIC endpoint for enrofloxacin-resistant strains (MIC > or =2.5 microg/ml in the microtest) by Etest. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility profiles between local and imported M. bovis strains revealed that local strains were significantly more resistant to macrolides than most isolates from imported animals, with MIC(50) of 128 microg/ml vs. 2 microg/ml for tilmicosin and 8 microg/ml vs. 1 microg/ml for tylosin, respectively. However, local strains were more susceptible than most imported strains to fluoroquinolones and spectinomycin. Difference in susceptibility to tetracycline, doxycycline and oxytetracycline between local and imported strains was expressed in MIC(90) values for imported strains in the susceptible range compared to intermediate susceptibility for local strains. The marked difference in susceptibility profiles of M. bovis strains isolated from different geographical regions seen in this study emphasizes the necessity for performing of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing periodically and on a regional basis.

  20. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  1. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in flocks of northeastern Brazil

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    Sandra Batista dos Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate contagious agalactia (CA in flocks from Pernambuco State. The study involved 225 goats and 63 ewes; 288 milk samples and 100 vaginal swabs were collected in total. The PCR assays were carried out using specific primers to Mycoplasma agalactiae and the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Among the goat’s milk samples,12.0% (27/225 were positive for Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA, while 5.3% (12/225 contained the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Of the vaginal swabs taken from goats, 15.4% (12/78 were positive for Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA and 3.8% (3/78 contained the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the case of ewes, 4.3% (1/23 of the milk samples contained Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA, and 7.5% (3/40 were positive for the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Vaginal swabs taken from sheep´s were negative. Analysis of risk factors for mycoplasmosis, showed that goats and sheep flocks on the extensive breeding system are more likely to have mycoplasmosis than those on the intensive breeding system (odds ratio (OR 6.2; p=0.004; meat goat and sheep flocks are more likely to have infection compared to dairy flocks (OR 4.8; p=0.011; unclean animal housing increases the chances of infection (OR 5.0; p=0.031 and not performing quarantine increases the chances of mycoplasmosis (OR 4.6; p=0.042. Based on these findings we conclude that CA syndrome in the semiarid region of Pernambuco state can be associated with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.

  2. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae type I signal peptidase: expression and evaluation of its diagnostic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Heineck, Bianca L; Reolon, Luciano A; Paes, Jéssica A; Klein, Cátia S; Rebelatto, Raquel; Schrank, Irene S; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2012-01-27

    Type I signal peptidase (SPase I) is a membrane-anchored protease of the general secretory pathway, which is encoded by the sipS gene in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). In this study, the expression of the M. hyopneumoniae SPase I (MhSPase I) was analyzed in virulent and avirulent strains, and the recombinant protein (rMhSPase I), expressed in Escherichia coli, was evaluated regarding its potential as an immunodiagnostic antigen. It was demonstrated that the sipS coding DNA sequence (CDS) is most likely part of an operon, being co-transcribed along with four other CDSs. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot assays showed that MhSPase I is expressed by all three strains analyzed, with no transcriptional difference, but with evidence of a higher protein level in a pathogenic strain (7422), in comparison to another pathogenic (7448) and a non-pathogenic (J) strain. rMhSPase I was strongly immunogenic for mice, and the MhSPase I antigenicity was confirmed. Polyclonal serum anti-rMhSPase I presented no detectable cross-reaction with Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a low conservation between MhSPase I and orthologous proteins from other porcine respiratory disease complex-related bacteria, Firmicutes and other Mycoplasma species. The potential of an rMhSPase I-based ELISA for PEP immunodiagnosis was demonstrated. Overall, we investigated the expression of sipS and the encoded MhSPase I in three M. hyopneumoniae strains and showed that this protein is a good antigen for use in PEP serodiagnosis and possibly vaccination, as well as a potential target for antibiotic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences.

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    Samudi Chandramathi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection. METHODS/FINDINGS: Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (acontrol; (bstress-induced; (cB. hominis infected; (dstress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively. Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag. Group (b exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c. Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b showed insignificant difference compared to group (a but was significantly lower compared to group (c. Antioxidant levels in group (c were generally lower compared to group (a and (b. Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c was higher compared to group (a and (b. CONCLUSION: The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in

  4. 9 CFR 113.28 - Detection of mycoplasma contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of mycoplasma contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.28 Detection of mycoplasma contamination. The heart infusion test, using... for mycoplasma contamination is prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the filed...

  5. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  6. Urethral inflammatory response to ureaplasma is significantly lower than to Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Harald; Reinton, Nils; Randjelovic, Ivana; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-07-01

    A non-syndromic approach to treatment of people with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) requires identification of pathogens and understanding of the role of those pathogens in causing disease. The most commonly detected and isolated micro-organisms in the male urethral tract are bacteria belonging to the family of Mycoplasmataceae, in particular Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. To better understand the role of these Ureaplasma species in NGU, we have performed a prospective analysis of male patients voluntarily attending a drop in STI clinic in Oslo. Of 362 male patients who were tested for NGU using microscopy of urethral smears, we found the following sexually transmissible micro-organisms: 16% Chlamydia trachomatis, 5% Mycoplasma genitalium, 14% U. urealyticum, 14% U. parvum and 5% Mycoplasma hominis. We found a high concordance in detecting in turn U. urealyticum and U. parvum using 16s rRNA gene and ureD gene as targets for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Whilst there was a strong association between microscopic signs of NGU and C. trachomatis infection, association of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum infections in turn were found only in patients with severe NGU (>30 polymorphonuclear leucocytes, PMNL/high powered fields, HPF). U. parvum was found to colonise a high percentage of patients with no or mild signs of NGU (0-9 PMNL/HPF). We conclude that urethral inflammatory response to ureaplasmas is less severe than to C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in most patients and that testing and treatment of ureaplasma-positive patients should only be considered when other STIs have been ruled out.

  7. Drug Resistance Mechanisms of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to Macrolide Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Throat swabs from children with suspected Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae infection were cultured for the presence of M. pneumoniae and its species specificity using the 16S rRNA gene. Seventy-six M. pneumoniae strains isolated from 580 swabs showed that 70 were erythromycin resistant with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC around 32–512 mg/L. Fifty M. pneumoniae strains (46 resistant, 4 sensitive were tested for sensitivity to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin had some effect, and gentamicin had an effect on the majority of M. pneumoniae strains. Domains II and V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L4 and L22 genes, both of which are considered to be associated with macrolide resistance, were sequenced and the sequences were compared with the corresponding sequences in M129 registered with NCBI and the FH strain. The 70 resistant strains all showed a 2063 or 2064 site mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA but no mutations in domain II. Site mutations of L4 or L22 can be observed in either resistant or sensitive strains, although it is not known whether this is associated with drug resistance.

  8. Unveiling Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Promoters: Sequence Definition and Genomic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Shana de Souto; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Several Mycoplasma species have had their genome completely sequenced, including four strains of the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Nevertheless, little is known about the nucleotide sequences that control transcriptional initiation in these microorganisms. Therefore, with the objective of investigating the promoter sequences of M. hyopneumoniae, 23 transcriptional start sites (TSSs) of distinct genes were mapped. A pattern that resembles the σ70 promoter −10 element was found upstream of the TSSs. However, no −35 element was distinguished. Instead, an AT-rich periodic signal was identified. About half of the experimentally defined promoters contained the motif 5′-TRTGn-3′, which was identical to the −16 element usually found in Gram-positive bacteria. The defined promoters were utilized to build position-specific scoring matrices in order to scan putative promoters upstream of all coding sequences (CDSs) in the M. hyopneumoniae genome. Two hundred and one signals were found associated with 169 CDSs. Most of these sequences were located within 100 nucleotides of the start codons. This study has shown that the number of promoter-like sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is more frequent than expected by chance, indicating that most of the sequences detected are probably biologically functional. PMID:22334569

  9. Horizontal Gene Transfers in Mycoplasmas (Mollicutes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, C; Dordet-Frisoni, E; Nouvel, L X; Kuo, C H; Baranowski, E

    2018-04-12

    The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to understand the successful adaptation of these minimal bacteria to a broad range of hosts. Mobile genetic elements are being identified in a growing number of mycoplasma species, but integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are emerging as pivotal in HGT. While sharing common traits with other bacterial ICEs, such as their chromosomal integration and the use of a type IV secretion system to mediate horizontal dissemination, mycoplasma ICEs (MICEs) revealed unique features: their chromosomal integration is totally random and driven by a DDE recombinase related to the Mutator-like superfamily. Mycoplasma conjugation is not restricted to ICE transmission, but also involves the transfer of large chromosomal fragments that generates progenies with mosaic genomes, nearly every position of chromosome being mobile. Mycoplasmas have thus developed efficient ways to gain access to a considerable reservoir of genetic resources distributed among a vast number of species expanding the concept of minimal cell to the broader context of flowing information.

  10. Genes involved in cell division in mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Alarcón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. The division and cell wall (dcw cluster, which in E. coli and B. subtilis is composed of 16 and 17 genes, respectively, is represented by only three to four genes in mycoplasmas. Even the most conserved protein, FtsZ, is not present in all mycoplasma genomes analyzed so far. A model for the FtsZ protein from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae has been constructed. The conserved residues, essential for GTP/GDP binding, are present in FtsZ from both species. A strong conservation of hydrophobic amino acid patterns is observed, and is probably necessary for the structural stability of the protein when active. M. synoviae FtsZ presents an extended amino acid sequence at the C-terminal portion of the protein, which may participate in interactions with other still unknown proteins crucial for the cell division process.

  11. In vitro susceptibilities of recent field isolates of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae to valnemulin (Econor), tiamulin and enrofloxacin and the in vitro development of resistance to certain antimicrobial agents in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, P C; Windsor, H M; Ripley, P H

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activities of valnemulin (Econor) and two other antimicrobial agents were determined against recent field strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae using a broth microdilution method. Valnemulin showed exceptional activity against M hyopneumoniae (MIC90 0.0005 microgram ml-1) and M hyosynoviae (MIC range 0.0001 microgram ml-1 to 0.00025 microgram ml-1) field strains. Tiamulin was 100-fold less active (MIC90 0.05 microgram ml-1) and enrofloxacin 20-fold less active (MIC90 0.01 microgram ml-1) than valnemulin against M hyopneumoniae field isolates and 20-fold to 25-fold less active (MIC range 0.0025 microgram ml-1 to 0.005 microgram ml-1) and 400-fold to 500-fold less active (MIC range 0.05 microgram ml-1 to 0.1 microgram ml-1) respectively against M hyosynoviae field isolates. No significant resistance developed to valnemulin or tiamulin in the type strain of M hyopneumoniae (strain J) or in a recent field isolate (MEVT G23) exposed to 10 in vitro passages in broths containing these antibiotics. Only slight resistance to oxytetracycline was observed. High resistance to tylosin developed in both M hyopneumoniae strains within five to seven in vitro passages in tylosin-containing broth. Providing that similar results are obtained in vivo under field conditions, valnemulin may well prove to be effective in the treatment of enzootic pneumonia and acute polyarthritis in pigs.

  12. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-02-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the final MIC had to be read 2 days after color changes had stopped. MICs of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline were low for the three Mycoplasma species tested. MICs of chlortetracycline were 8 to 16 times higher than MICs of the other tetracyclines. Spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, lincomycin, and clindamycin were effective against all strains of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. The quinolones were highly effective against M. hyopneumoniae but less effective against M. hyorhinis. The susceptibility patterns for M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare were similar.

  13. Mycoplasma genitalium attaches to human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, Jens; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium causes urogenital diseases in men and women and is presumed to be sexually transmitted. We wanted to investigate whether spermatozoa could serve as vectors for M.genitalium in order to cause upper genital diseases in women. METHODS: By use of Nomarski light...... microscopy and transmission X-ray microscopy, the attachment of M.genitalium to spermatozoa was studied. Semen was incubated in vitro with M.genitalium. Purified, motile spermatozoa were examined for attachment of M.genitalium by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Mycoplasma genitalium was shown...... to adhere to the head, midpiece and tail of the spermatozoa. The spermatozoa became immotile when many M.genitalium were attached. However, the motile spermatozoa were demonstrated to carry M.genitalium and in this case the mycoplasmas were seen to attach mostly to the midpiece or neck region. Occasionally...

  14. External ophthalmomyiasis due to Dermatobia hominis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Moltó, A; Molina Martín, J C; Mengual Verdú, E; Hueso Abancens, J R

    2018-03-23

    A 46-year-old woman with no relevant medical history, native of Honduras and resident in Spain for one and a half months. The patient went to the Emergency Department due to inflammation of the upper eyelid of the right eye, with an area that simulated an abscess. This was drained (obtaining hardly any purulent content). Treatment was prescribed with oral and topical antibiotics, as well as an anti-inflammatory drug. One week later the patient returned, with improvement of the inflammatory signs, but with discomfort and corneal erosions. After eversion of the upper eyelid, a «worm» type parasite emerged from the tarsus. The extraction was completed with a clamp, and was later identified as Dermatobia hominis (Dh) by examination of a fresh specimen. The subsequent outcome of the patient was favourable. Preseptal cellulitis in patients from tropical and sub-tropical areas can be caused by Dh. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of Blastocystis hominis infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, M A; Orenstein, S R; Proujansky, R; Wadowsky, R M; Putnam, P E; Kocoshis, S A

    1993-02-01

    Blastocystis hominis, a protozoan whose pathogenicity has been questioned, is sometimes found in the human gastrointestinal tract. We sought to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis in stool and to characterize clinical features of infection with Blastocystis in children. Forty-six (3%) of 1,736 patients undergoing fecal microscopy at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1988, harbored Blastocystis. Of these 46 children, 75% had exposure to well water or had been in developing countries. Thirty-nine of the 46 (85%) experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. Blastocystis was the only parasite found in 35 of those 39 symptomatic children. Symptoms resolved within one month in 90% of patients receiving antiparasitic pharmacotherapy, but in only 58% (P < .04) of those receiving no therapy. We conclude that children infected with Blastocystis often experience gastrointestinal symptoms and that treatment increases the rate of symptomatic improvement. We speculate that Blastocystis is a human pathogen.

  16. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  17. Ny Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae vaccine forebygger ikke halthed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Jungersen, Gregers

    Vaccination af smågrise mod Mykoplasma-ledbetændelser viste sig ikke at kunne forebyggede halthed hos slagtesvin. Smitte med Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (M. hyosynoviae) er ofte årsag til ledbetændelse hos slagtesvin. Der er ingen kommerciel vaccine til grise, der beskytter mod mykoplasma-ledbetændels......Vaccination af smågrise mod Mykoplasma-ledbetændelser viste sig ikke at kunne forebyggede halthed hos slagtesvin. Smitte med Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (M. hyosynoviae) er ofte årsag til ledbetændelse hos slagtesvin. Der er ingen kommerciel vaccine til grise, der beskytter mod mykoplasma...

  18. Chitosan-adjuvanted Mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin via intraocular administration enhances Mycoplasma gallisepticum protection in commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsatanun, A; Sasipreeyajan, J; Pakpinyo, S

    2018-06-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes respiratory signs and economic losses in the poultry industry. MG vaccination is one of the effective prevention and control measures that have been used around the world. Our previous study demonstrated that chitosan-adjuvanted MG bacterin could effectively reduce pathological lesions induced by MG and that chitosan could be used as an adjuvant in MG bacterin. The present study determining the efficacy of MG bacterins against the Thai MG strain was based on vaccine programs. Seven groups (25 layers/group) were received MG bacterins containing 0.5% chitosan or a commercial bacterin via intramuscular (IM) or intraocular (IO) route at 6 and 10 wk of age. Sham-negative and sham-positive controls were groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 3: IM route of chitosan bacterin followed by IM route of chitosan bacterin; group 4: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; group 5: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by commercial bacterin via IM route; group 6: chitosan bacterin via IM followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; and group 7: chitosan bacterin via IO route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route were determined. At 16 wk of age, all groups, excluding group 1, were challenged intratracheally with 0.1 mL containing Thai MG strain 107 colony-forming unit. At 17, 18, and 20 wk of age, 5 birds in each group were bled for serological testing and swabbed at the choanal cleft for the quantitative real-time PCR assay, the euthanized and necropsied. The results showed that birds vaccinated with a commercial intramuscular bacterin followed by an intraocularly chitosan adjuvant bacterin showed the best protection against the MG challenge. The study indicated that chitosan could be the effective mucosal adjuvant and increased the effectiveness of MG bacterin.

  19. Secretomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare reveal differences associated to pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Jéssica A; Lorenzatto, Karina R; de Moraes, Sofia N; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-02-10

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare cohabit the porcine respiratory tract. However, M. hyopneumoniae causes the porcine enzootic pneumonia, while M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Comparative analyses demonstrated high similarity between these species, which includes the sharing of all predicted virulence factors. Nevertheless, studies related to soluble secretomes of mycoplasmas were little known, although they are important for bacterial-host interactions. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis between the soluble secreted proteins repertoires of the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and its closely related commensal Mycoplasma flocculare. For that, bacteria were cultured in medium with reduced serum concentration and secreted proteins were identified by a LC-MS/MS proteomics approach. Altogether, 62 and 26 proteins were identified as secreted by M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare, respectively, being just seven proteins shared between these bacteria. In M. hyopneumoniae secretome, 15 proteins described as virulence factors were found; while four putative virulence factors were identified in M. flocculare secretome. For the first time, clear differences related to virulence were found between these species, helping to elucidate the pathogenic nature of M. hyopneumoniae to swine hosts. For the first time, the secretomes of two porcine respiratory mycoplasmas, namely the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae and the commensal M. flocculare were compared. The presented results revealed previously unknown differences between these two genetically related species, some of which are associated to the M. hyopneumoniae ability to cause porcine enzootic pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giono Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients.

  1. Mycoplasma genitalium infections: current treatment options and resistance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunil Sethi, Kamran Zaman, Neha Jain Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Abstract: Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the important causes of non-gonococcal urethritis. Rising incidence and emerging antimicrobial resistance are a major concern these days. The poor clinical outcomes with doxycycline therapy led to the use of azithromycin as the primary drug of choice. Single-dose azithromycin regimen over a period of time was changed to extended regimen following studies showing better clinical cures and less risk of resistance development. However, emerging macrolide resistance, either due to transmission of resistance or drug pressure has further worsened the management of this infection. The issues of drug resistance and treatment failures also exist in cases of M. genitalium infection. At present, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR M. genitalium strains is an alarming sign for its treatment and the associated public health impact due to its complications. However, newer drugs like pristinamycin, solithromycin, sitafloxacin, and others have shown a hope for the clinical cure, but need further clinical trials to optimize the therapeutic dosing schedules and formulate appropriate treatment regimens. Rampant and inappropriate use of these newer drugs will further sabotage future attempts to manage MDR strains. There is currently a need to formulate diagnostic algorithms and etiology-based treatment regimens rather than the syndromic approach, preferably using combination therapy instead of a monotherapy. Awareness about the current guidelines and recommended treatment regimens among clinicians and local practitioners is of utmost importance. Antimicrobial resistance testing and global surveillance are required to assess the efficacy of current treatment regimens and for guiding future research for the early detection and management of MDR M. genitalium infections

  2. Cyto-adherence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides to bovine lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Racheal; Mwirigi, Martin Kiogora; Frey, Joachim; Pilo, Paola; Jores, Joerg; Naessens, Jan

    2015-02-07

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a respiratory disease of cattle, whereas the closely related Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is a goat pathogen. Cyto-adherence is a crucial step in host colonization by mycoplasmas and subsequent pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between Mmm and mammalian host cells by establishing a cyto-adherence flow cytometric assay and comparing tissue and species specificity of Mmm and Mmc strains. There were little significant differences in the adherence patterns of eight different Mmm strains to adult bovine lung epithelial cells. However, there was statistically significant variation in binding to different host cells types. Highest binding was observed with lung epithelial cells, intermediate binding with endothelial cells and very low binding with fibroblasts, suggesting the presence of effective adherence of Mmm on cells lining the airways of the lung, which is the target organ for this pathogen, possibly by high expression of a specific receptor. However, binding to bovine fetal lung epithelial cells was comparably low; suggesting that the lack of severe pulmonary disease seen in many infected young calves can be explained by reduced expression of a specific receptor. Mmm bound with high efficiency to adult bovine lung cells and less efficiently to calves or goat lung cells. The data show that cyto-adherence of Mmm is species- and tissue- specific confirming its role in colonization of the target host and subsequent infection and development of CBPP.

  3. Transposon mutagenesis in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a novel mariner-based system for generating random mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglennon, Gareth A; Cook, Beth S; Deeney, Alannah S; Bossé, Janine T; Peters, Sarah E; Langford, Paul R; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2013-12-21

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, a chronic respiratory disease associated with significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. The molecular pathogenesis of infection is poorly understood due to the lack of genetic tools to allow manipulation of the organism and more generally for the Mycoplasma genus. The objective of this study was to develop a system for generating random transposon insertion mutants in M. hyopneumoniae that could prove a powerful tool in enabling the pathogenesis of infection to be unraveled. A novel delivery vector was constructed containing a hyperactive C9 mutant of the Himar1 transposase along with a mini transposon containing the tetracycline resistance cassette, tetM. M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 was electroporated with the construct and tetM-expressing transformants selected on agar containing tetracycline. Individual transformants contained single transposon insertions that were stable upon serial passages in broth medium. The insertion sites of 44 individual transformants were determined and confirmed disruption of several M. hyopneumoniae genes. A large pool of over 10 000 mutants was generated that should allow saturation of the M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 genome. This is the first time that transposon mutagenesis has been demonstrated in this important pathogen and could be generally applied for other Mycoplasma species that are intractable to genetic manipulation. The ability to generate random mutant libraries is a powerful tool in the further study of the pathogenesis of this important swine pathogen.

  4. Immune Thrombocytopenia Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection

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    Catarina Gouveia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP related to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is a rare condition and usually associated with a severe clinical course. We here report a case of a young man with a clinical diagnosis of severe ITP secondary to M. pneumoniae infection. The clinical features, therapy and outcome are presented.

  5. Ekstrapulmonale komplikationer ved mycoplasma pneumoniae-infektioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anne-Mette Bay; Lebech, Anne-Mette K

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical pneumonia in children and young adults. The infection is generally mild and only a very few patients are admitted to hospital. However, extrapulmonary complications are well recognised--mostly as manifestations from the central nervous system (CNS)....

  6. Azithromycin Failure in Mycoplasma genitalium Urethritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jorgen S.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Read, Timothy R.H.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Hopkins, Carol A.; Moss, Lorna M.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2006-01-01

    We report significant failure rates (28%, 95% confidence interval 15%–45%) after administering 1 g azithromycin to men with Mycoplasma genitalium–positive nongonococcal urethritis. In vitro evidence supported reduced susceptibility of M. genitalium to macrolides. Moxifloxacin administration resulted in rapid symptom resolution and eradication of infection in all cases. These findings have implications for management of urethritis. PMID:16836839

  7. Reactive arthritis associated with Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisment, D; Machelart, I; Wirth, G; Lazaro, E; Greib, C; Pellegrin, J-L; Bébéar, C; Peuchant, O

    2013-11-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of sexually transmitted infections that is gaining recognition and is an independent cause of acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis in men. M. genitalium has been implicated as a possible causative factor in reactive arthritis. We report a case of reactive arthritis complicating M. genitalium urethritis in an HLA-B27-positive patient. © 2013.

  8. A Case of Macrolide-Refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Pregnancy Treated with Garenoxacin

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    Yoko Matsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and foetal outcomes, and intensive treatment with appropriate antibiotics is essential. However, cases caused by pathogens that are resistant to antibiotics suitable for the developing foetus are challenging. We herein report a case of macrolide-refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in pregnancy. A 40-year-old multigravida with twin pregnancy complained of cough and fever at 13 weeks of gestation and was diagnosed with pneumonia. Even though empiric treatment with ceftriaxone and oral azithromycin was started, her condition deteriorated rapidly. The findings of chest computed tomography suggested Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Since azithromycin did not work, this strain was considered to be macrolide-refractory. Garenoxacin, an oral quinolone, was selected and was dramatically effective. The use of quinolone could be justified with the emergence of drug-resistant bacterial/atypical pneumonia and in the maternal life-threatening condition.

  9. Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium are found to be significantly associated with microscopy-confirmed urethritis in a routine genitourinary medicine setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ciara; McKenna, James P; Watt, Alison P; Coyle, Peter V

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation of the urethra defined by an excess of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the absence of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is called non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU). Although Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognised as causing a sexually transmitted infection, the clinical significance of the other Mollicute species is less clear. This study used specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays to detect and quantify four Mollicute species, M. genitalium, M. hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum, in urine specimens from men with and without NCNGU. A total of 165 urine specimens from male patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic were eligible for the study, with microscopy-confirmed (≥5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes in urethral swab) NCNGU in 75 (45.5%) and non-confirmed NCNGU in 90 (54.5%). Chi-squared statistical analysis indicated a significantly higher prevalence of U. parvum (17.3% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.03) and M. genitalium (12% vs. 0%; p < 0.001) in NCNGU. In a subset analysis, M. genitalium was also significantly (p = 0.03) higher in men who have sex with men (MSM; 13.5%) compared to non-MSM (3.1%). No significant associations were reported for U. urealyticum and M. hominis In conclusion, this study supports a clinically significant role in NGNCU for both U. parvum and M. genitalium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Mycoplasma infection of cell lines can simulate the expression of Fc receptors by binding of the carbohydrate moiety of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, H; Krausse, R; Lorenzen, J; Havsteen, B

    1985-05-01

    During the production of Fc receptor (FcR)-bearing hybridomas it was observed with a particular monoclonal anti-sheep red blood cell antibody (anti-SRBC 1/5, IgG1) that the contamination with Mycoplasma arginini of in vitro cultured cell lines leads to an apparent FcR activity. This property did not correspond with the serological typing since other antibodies of the same isotype could not support FcR rosette formation. Another mycoplasma strain M. orale lacked this property. Analysis of the binding reaction revealed that M. arginini contains a lectin which binds the carbohydrate moiety of the anti-SRBC 1/5 antibody, i.e. anti-SRBC 1/5 synthesized under the influence of tunicamycin or deglycosylated by NaIO4 oxidation did not support rosette formation. These data suggest that binding of antibodies to certain mycoplasma strains may be a pathogenic factor during mycoplasma infections by masking the microorganisms with the host's own defense molecules. The experiments with M. arginini-infected cell lines gain immunological importance since we obtained identical results with staphylococcal protein A, as another bacteriological FcR, and cell lines expressing intrinsic membrane FcR. Although it is an open question whether the glycoconjugates are directly bound by the FcR or else by influencing the three-dimensional structure of the antibodies, it seems possible that FcR in general may be lectins.

  11. Eprinomectin 1% Inyectable in control of Dermatobia hominis in naturally infested cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Grisi do Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Nascimento C.G., Correia T.R., Oliveira G.F., Coumendouros K., Moraes P.A., Calado S.B., Bragaglia G.N., Rosa S.C., Toma S.B. & Scott F.B. [Eprinomectin 1% Inyectable in control of Dermatobia hominis in naturally infested cattle.] Eprinomectina 1%Injetável no controle de Dermatobia hominis em bovinos naturalmente infestados. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:81-84, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Tecnologia e Inovação em Agropecuária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, Ecologia, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: scott.fabio@gmail.com The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of injectable eprinomectin 1% on the control of Dermatobia hominis in naturally infested cattle. We selected 20 calves, crossbred Gir and Holstein breed, male and female, separated into two groups, control and treated. The control group of animals received no treatment, while the animals of the treated group received eprinomectin formulation of 1% at a single dose of 1 mL/50 kg body weight (200mcg of eprinomectin/kg per injectable route. On days +7 and +14 a count of the total number of live larvae of D. hominis on both sides of the animal for the purpose of evaluation of the effectiveness was performed. Statistical analysis of average living larvae of D. hominis counted among the groups, control and treated, showed that there was a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 between groups on days +7 and +14. The investigational product showed an efficacy of 100% results in both experimental days. The injectable eprinomectin 1%, shown to be effective in cattle naturally infested by D. hominis (the human bot fly.

  12. Rescue of mutant fitness defects using in vitro reconstituted designer transposons in Mycoplasma mycoides

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    Bogumil Jacek Karas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With only hundreds of genes contained within their genomes, mycoplasmas have become model organisms for precise understanding of cellular processes, as well as platform organisms for predictable engineering of microbial functions for mission-critical applications. Despite the availability of whole genome writing in Mycoplasma mycoides, some traditional methods for genetic engineering are underdeveloped in mycoplasmas. Here we demonstrate two facile transposon-mediated approaches for introducing genes into the synthetic cell based on M. mycoides. The marker-less approach involves preparing a fragment containing only a small genomic region of interest with flanking transposase-binding sites, followed by in vitro transposase loading and introduction into the cells. The marker-driven approach involves cloning an open reading frame (ORF of interest into a vector containing a marker for mycoplasma transformation, as well as sites for transposase loading and random genomic integration. An innovative feature of this construct is to use a single promoter to express the transformation marker and the introduced ORF. The marker-driven approach can be conveniently applied to any exogenous or synthetic gene without any information on the effect of the gene on the strain, whereas the marker-less approach requires that the fragment has a recognizable effect. Using the marker-less method, we found that a region containing the nusG gene rescues a slow growth phenotype of a strain containing a larger deletion encompassing this gene. Using the marker-driven approach, we better defined this finding, thereby establishing that nusG is required for a normal growth rate in synthetic M. mycoides. These methods are suitable for complementation tests to identify genes responsible for assorted functions lacking in deletion mutants. These approaches are also expected to facilitate rapid testing of various natural and engineered genes or gene clusters from numerous sources in

  13. Furuncular Myiasis Caused by Dermatobia hominis in a Traveler Returning from the Amazon Jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuşcu, Ferit; Özsoy, Kerem Mazhar; Ulu, Aslıhan; Kurtaran, Behice; Kömür, Süheyla; İnal, Ayşe Seza; Taşova, Yeşim; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki

    2017-09-01

    A 39-year-old man who was returning from the Amazon Jungle and had no medical history presented with a furuncular lesion on his right parietal scalp. Despite receiving appropriate antimicrobial treatment, his lesion did not heal. After surgical intervention, a Dermatobia hominis larva was extracted. The human botfly D. hominis is the most common causative agent of furuncular myiasis among travelers returning from Central and South America. Surgery is the main treatment option, and secondary bacterial infection should be kept in mind.

  14. [Pyomyositis, sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Staphylococcus hominis in a immunocompetent woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, N; Durán Muñoz, O

    2006-12-01

    In absence of risk factors, osteoarticular infections by coagulase-negative staphylococci are very infrequent. We described the case of a immunocompetent 73-year-old-woman that suffered pyomyositis, left sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis involving the first and second thoracic vertebrae by Staphylococcus hominis. This multifocal infection occurred five-weeks after intramuscular administration of NSAI for treatment of low back pain associated with a herniated disc L4-L5. This is the first know case of a multifocal muscle skeletal infection by Staphylococcus hominis in a patient immunocompetent.

  15. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Semuguruka, W.D.; Kazwala, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated...... from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small...

  16. Development and host compatibility of plasmids for two important ruminant pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukriti Sharma

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae.

  17. Development and Host Compatibility of Plasmids for Two Important Ruminant Pathogens, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shukriti; Citti, Chistine; Sagné, Eveline; Marenda, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and otitis media in cattle throughout the world. However, despite its clinical significance, there is a paucity of tools to genetically manipulate it, impeding our capacity to further explore the molecular basis of its virulence. To address this limitation, we developed a series of homologous and heterologous replicable plasmids from M. bovis and M. agalactiae. The shortest replicable oriC plasmid based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. bovis was 247 bp and contained two DnaA boxes, while oriC plasmids based on the region downstream of dnaA in M. agalactiae strains 5632 and PG2 were 219 bp and 217 bp in length, respectively, and contained only a single DnaA box. The efficiency of transformation in M. bovis and M. agalactiae was inversely correlated with the size of the oriC region in the construct, and, in general, homologous oriC plasmids had a higher transformation efficiency than heterologous oriC plasmids. The larger pWholeoriC45 and pMM21-7 plasmids integrated into the genomic oriC region of M. bovis, while the smaller oriC plasmids remained extrachromosomal for up to 20 serial passages in selective media. Although specific gene disruptions were not be achieved in M. bovis in this study, the oriC plasmids developed here could still be useful as tools in complementation studies and for expression of exogenous genes in both M. bovis and M. agalactiae. PMID:25746296

  18. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-02

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ≤ 0.031/≥ 64, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ≤ 0.031/≤ 0.031, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/2, 1/4, ≤ 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 μg/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular characterization and epidemiological investigation of Cryptosporidium hominis IkA18G1 and C. hominis monkey genotype IiA17, two unusual subtypes diagnosed in Swedish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbad, Marianne; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Insulander, Mona; Beser, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis is considered a strictly human-adapted species, and it is only occasionally diagnosed in animals. However, two variants, C. hominis monkey genotype and C. hominis Ik, were originally described in non-human hosts, monkeys and horses, respectively. During a Swedish national Cryptosporidium study, where all samples were analyzed at the small subunit rRNA and the 60 kDa (gp60) glycoprotein loci, we identified two patients infected with C. hominis monkey genotype (subtype IiA17) and two infected with C. hominis subtype IkA18G1. The isolates were further analyzed at the actin and the 70 kDa heat shock protein loci, and these analyses showed that these two subtype families are closely related to each other and to human-adapted C. hominis as well as to Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The two patients with C. hominis monkey genotype infection (a father and son) had visited a monkey farm in Thailand prior to infection, while the two cases with C. hominis Ik were unrelated, both probably infected in Sweden. This is the first time that a monkey genotype infection in humans has been related to contact with monkeys and where the gp60 subtype was identified. It is also the first time that human infection caused by C. hominis subtype Ik is described. Even though we were not able to detect any parasites in the animal samples, zoonotic transmission cannot be ruled out in any of these cases because both subtype families are regarded as animal adapted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of the Hominis Placenta Herbal acupuncture on Sleep pattern disturbance

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    Youn Hyoun-min

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effects of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture which is usually used in reducing sleep pattern disturbances. Methods : The study subjects studied included 48 patients who were admitted in hospital located in Pusan, and they were classified into 2 groups : 25 patients in the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture and 23 patients in the control group who were treated by acupuncture. The both group injected on GB20, GB12 and HT7 for 5 days without medicine. The sleep pattern disturbance score was measured by using 15 questions according to Korean Sleep Scale A(Oh, Jin Joo. Song, Mi Soon. Kim, Shin Mi. 1998. Results & conclusions : The sleep pattern disturbance score of the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture was significantly lower than that of the control group. (t= 7.00 p= .00 These results provided that Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture of GB20, GB12 and HT7 was effective for relieving sleep pattern disturbances, it is need more sample's number and more treatmentt's duration.

  1. Microbiological and molecular characterization of human clinical isolates of Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus sciuri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-González, Elvira; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Martínez-Vázquez, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Diaz, Esteban; González-Santiago, Omar; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococci reported as causative agents of nosocomial infections has risen in the last decade. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, SCCmec type, and genetic relatedness in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus sciuri recovered from humans. Clinically relevant isolates of S. cohnii (n = 15), S. hominis (n = 9), and S. sciuri (n = 6), were collected from patients. Biofilm formation was evaluated using crystal violet staining, drug susceptibility was assessed using the broth microdilution method, and methicillin resistance was measured using the cefoxitin disk test. SCCmec was typed using 2 different methodologies, and genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty percent (9/15) of S. cohnii, 33% (3/9) of S. hominis, and 50% (3/6) of S. sciuri isolates were categorized as weak producers of biofilm. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. All 3 species showed a high resistance (> 66%) to ampicillin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and ceftriaxone, and the majority of the isolates were methicillin-resistant. PFGE revealed that the S. cohnii isolates comprised 1 dominant clone. The S. cohnii, S. hominis, and S. sciuri isolates analyzed in this study showed a high methicillin resistance and resistance to other antimicrobials. The results of this study strongly suggest that coagulase-negative staphylococci harbour new SCCmec elements. We report the first case of a clone of S. cohnii associated with human disease.

  2. Biological Activities of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture prepared by Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun-young Seo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS are continuously produced at a high rate as a by-product of aerobic metabolism. Since tissue damage by free radical increases with age, the reactive oxygen species(ROS such as hydrogen peroxide(H2O2, nitric oxide(NO. Several lines of evidence provided that ROS appears to cause to develop aging-related various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease. In this study, we have conducted to investigate the biological activities of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture by measuring total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, Superoxide dismutase(SOD-like activity, Nitrite scavenging ability in vitro. The total polyphenol contents of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture was 24.6㎖/㎖. Elctron donation ability on DPPH was 49.4%. The 2,2'-azinobis-3-ehtlbezothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical decolorization (ABTS was 50.01%, similar to the DPPH free radical scavenging. The superoxide dismutase (SOD-like activities of hominis placenta herbal acupuncture was 50.876%. The nitrite scavenging abilities at pH 1.5, pH 3.0, pH 6.0 were 52.8%, 29.4%, 15.4%, respectively; these abilities decreased as pH increased. We conclude that Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture may be useful as potential sources of antioxidant.

  3. A case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamori, Katsushi; Katayama, Toshiko; Kumagai, Masahiro

    2007-08-01

    We report the 34th imported case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in Japan, which is not a habitat of the fly. A 41-year-old Japanese man noticed an insect-sting-like papule on his left upper back during his stay in Ecuador in March 2004. After his return home, the lesion gradually increased to become a red subcutaneous nodule with a central pore from which serosanguineous fluid drained. Because antimicrobial treatment under a diagnosis of inflammatory atheroma was ineffective, the lesion was incised and a 3rd instar larva of D. hominis was then found and removed. We checked the literature on D. hominis myiasis reported from Japan, and noted the fact, which nobody had previously pointed out, that in Japan only one case of D. hominis myiasis had been diagnosed correctly before a larva was found, and most of the cases were misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated, including 11 cases given unnecessary resection of the nodules. Doctors in Japan should be aware of myiasis so that patients are neither anxious about the disease nor suffer pain, and doctors avoid performing unnecessary resections of the lesions.

  4. Pentatrichomonas hominis: prevalence and molecular characterization in humans, dogs, and monkeys in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chao; Ying, Meng; Gong, Peng-Tao; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Ju; Li, He; Zhang, Xi-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic amitochondrial flagellated protist that primarily colonizes the large intestines of a number of species, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, monkeys, and humans is, however, poorly understood. In this study, a total of 362 fecal samples including 252 dogs, 60 monkeys, and 50 humans from northern China were collected for an epidemiological survey of P. hominis infection.The average prevalence of P. hominis infection determined by nested PCR was 27.38% (69/252), 4.00% (2/50), and 46.67% (28/60) in dogs, humans, and monkeys, respectively. The prevalence was significantly higher in 6-month-old dogs (41.53%) and children (7.69%) than in older dogs (14.39%) and adults (0%) (P dogs, monkeys, and humans, especially in children and young dogs. Given the infection prevalence, P. hominis may pose a risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission.

  5. Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Selçuk Bektaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system is the most affected area in mycoplasma pneumoniae infections with exception of respiratory system. It is an important agent of childhood acute encephalitis and respiratory system infections in school-age children and young adults. Routine clinical and laboratory findings to identify spesific diagnosis is limited. Twelve-year-old female patient was admitted with fever, fatigue, sore throat, slipping the right eye, withdrawal of the mouth from the right and right hemiclonic seizures. Test of anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae IgM was positive and IgG antibodies were found to be 4-fold increase in the sera of follow-up. This article was presented with the aim of remembering M. pneumoniae to be an differential diagnosis in children with acute encephalitis.

  6. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  7. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Jessian L.; Goje, Oluwatosin Jaiyeoba

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most eff...

  8. Development of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Recombinant Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Simionatto, Simone; Dellagostin, Odir

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Research using genome-based approach has the potential to elucidate the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines. Here, we describe the protocol for developing M. hyopneumoniae recombinant vaccines using reverse vaccinology approaches.

  9. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates originating from joint lesions and the respiratory tract of commercial poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, W.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Feberwee, A.

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 17 Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial poultry to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin was examined. Three isolates originated from joint lesions and 14 were from the respiratory tract. The type strain M. synoviae WVU 1853 was

  10. Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticums vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a previous study, it was shown to occur in response to an F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers from our laboratory a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation to...

  11. Clinical efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii or metronidazole in symptomatic children with Blastocystis hominis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Eren, Makbule; Dogan, Nihal; Reyhanioglu, Serap; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2011-03-01

    Although many Blastocystis infections remain asymptomatic, recent data suggest it also causes frequent symptoms. Therapy should be limited to patients with persistent symptoms and a complete workup for alternative etiologies. The goal of this study was to compare the natural evolution (no treatment) to the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) or metronidazole for the duration of diarrhea and the duration of colonization in children with gastrointestinal symptoms and positive stool examination for Blastocystis hominis. This randomized single-blinded clinical trial included children presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea-vomiting, flatulence) more than 2 weeks and confirmed B. hominis by stool examination (B. hominis cysts in the stool with microscopic examination of the fresh stool). The primary end points were clinical evaluation and result of microscopic stool examination at day 15. Secondary end points were the same end points at day 30. Randomization was performed by alternating inclusion: group A, S. boulardii (250 mg twice a day, Reflor®) during 10 days; group B, metronidazole (30 mg/kg twice daily) for 10 days; group C, no treatment. At day 15 and 30 after inclusion, the patients were re-evaluated, and stool samples were examined microscopically. On day 15, children that were still symptomatic and/or were still B. hominis-infected in group C were treated with metronidazole for 10 days. There was no statistically significant difference between the three study groups for age, gender, and the presence of diarrhea and abdominal pain. On day 15, clinical cure was observed in 77.7% in group A (n, 18); in 66.6% in group B (n, 15); and 40% in group C (n:15) (p boulardii has potential beneficial effects in B. hominis infection (symptoms, presence of parasites). These findings challenge the actual guidelines.

  12. Co-infection by Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in asymptomatic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Spitz dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite well known for its significance as a venereally transmitted pathogen in cattle, has been identified as a cause of chronic large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats in many countries of the world. In Brazil, several studies on the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis have been performed, but until now, no study was made regarding feline trichomoniasis. Thus, this is the first study to report the occurrence of T. foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in cats using morphological and molecular analysis. Feces from 77 cats were examined, four of which (5.2% were positive for the presence of parabasalids. Morphological analysis of stained smears revealed piriform trophozoites showing the three anterior flagella, elongated nucleus and axostyle ending abruptly in fillet, characteristic of T. foetus. In scanning and transmission electron microscopy, identification characters similar to those previously reported for T. foetus were observed. The cultures containing trophozoites were submitted for molecular analysis, which resulted positive for T. foetus DNA using specific primers (TFR3 and TFR4, and all samples were positive and subjected to sequencing in which they showed 99.7-100% similarity with another isolate sequencing of T. foetus (JX960422. Although no trophozoite with consistent morphology of P. hominis has been visualized in the samples, differential diagnosis was performed using specific primers for P. hominis (TH3 and TH5 amplicon. In three of the four samples (3.89% sequencing revealed 100% similarity when compared with another sequence of P. hominis deposited in Genbank (KC623939. Therefore, the present study revealed through the diagnostic techniques employed the simultaneous infection by T. foetus and P. hominis in the feces of cats. However, it was necessary to use more than one technique for the diagnosis of the co-infection. These results demonstrate the importance of a correct diagnosis to allow an

  13. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  14. Two different nervous system complications of mycoplasma pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk İncecik; M. Özlem Hergüner; Şakir Altunbaşak

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important agent of the lower and upper respiratory system infections. It may resultin some complications and clinical conditions other than infections. Meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, transversemyelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebral infarction and Gullian-Barre syndrome are major neurological complications.We present here two cases with meningoencephalitis and Gullian-Barre syndrome secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniaeinfection.

  15. Two different nervous system complications of mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk İncecik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important agent of the lower and upper respiratory system infections. It may resultin some complications and clinical conditions other than infections. Meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, transversemyelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cerebral infarction and Gullian-Barre syndrome are major neurological complications.We present here two cases with meningoencephalitis and Gullian-Barre syndrome secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniaeinfection.

  16. Genital Mycoplasma Infections Among Women In An Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those who presented with vaginal discharge were infected with Mycoplasma spp. (P< 0.05); also, the incidence of infection among the separated/divorce/widowed group was significantly higher than the married group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mycoplasmas are common genital organisms, hence should be sought out for from ...

  17. Increasing prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in pneumonic bovine lungs was performed on material submitted for diagnostic pul poses at the Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen. Among the 50 examined cases 43 (86.0%) were found to be infected with mycoplasmas. The predominant mycoplasmas were...... Ureaplasma spp. (72.0%), M dispar (48.0%) and M. bovis (24.0%). Other mycoplasmas were M. bovirhinis (20.0%) and M. bovigenitalium (6.0%). Among the infected lungs multiple species infections were predominant (76.7%) over single species infections (23.3%) with M.dispar-Ureaplasma (25.6%), M. bovis......-Ureaplasma (18.6%) and M. dispar-M. bovirhinis-Ureaplasma (11.6%) infections being the most frequently encountered combinations. There appears to be an increasing prevalence of Al. bovis (24.0%) as compared to earlier reports (0.6-2.0%), thus calling fur special attention upon this mycoplasma. Pulsed field gel...

  18. The development and application of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum sequence database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Natalie K; Laibinis, Victoria A; Collett, Stephen R; Ferguson-Noel, Naola

    2013-01-01

    Molecular analysis was conducted on 36 Mycoplasma gallisepticum DNA extracts from tracheal swab samples of commercial poultry in seven South African provinces between 2009 and 2012. Twelve unique M. gallisepticum genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGSR), M. gallisepticum cytadhesin 2 (mgc2), MGA_0319 and gapA genetic regions. The DNA sequences of these genotypes were distinct from those of M. gallisepticum isolates in a database composed of sequences from other countries, vaccine and reference strains. The most prevalent genotype (SA-WT#7) was detected in samples from commercial broilers, broiler breeders and layers in five provinces. South African M. gallisepticum sequences were more similar to those of the live vaccines commercially available in South Africa, but were distinct from that of F strain vaccine, which is not registered for use in South Africa. The IGSR, mgc2 or MGA_0319 sequences of three South African genotypes were identical to those of the ts-11 vaccine strain, necessitating a combination of mgc2 and IGSR targeted sequencing to differentiate South African wild-type genotypes from ts-11 vaccine. To identify and differentiate all 12 wild-types, mgc2, IGSR and MGA_0319 sequencing was required. Sequencing of gapA was least effective at strain differentiation. This research serves as a model for the development of an M. gallisepticum sequence database, and illustrates its application to characterize M. gallisepticum genotypes, select diagnostic tests and better understand the epidemiology of M. gallisepticum.

  19. Genetic diversity of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolates of abattoir pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Audrey; Marois-Créhan, Corinne; Hélie, Pierre; Gagnon, Carl A; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Archambault, Marie

    2014-01-31

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, is present in swine herds worldwide. However, there is little information on strains infecting herds in Canada. A total of 160 swine lungs with lesions suggestive of enzootic pneumonia originating from 48 different farms were recovered from two slaughterhouses and submitted for gross pathology. The pneumonic lesion scores ranged from 2% to 84%. Eighty nine percent of the lungs (143/160) were positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR whereas 10% (16/160) and 8.8% (14/160) were positive by PCR for M. hyorhinis and M. flocculare, respectively. By culture, only 6% of the samples were positive for M. hyopneumoniae (10/160). Among the selected M. hyopneumoniae-positive lungs (n=25), 9 lungs were co-infected with M. hyorhinis, 9 lungs with PCV2, 2 lungs with PRRSV, 12 lungs with S. suis and 10 lungs with P. multocida. MLVA and PCR-RFLP clustering of M. hyopneumoniae revealed that analyzed strains were distributed among three and five clusters respectively, regardless of severity of lesions, indicating that no cluster is associated with virulence. However, strains missing a specific MLVA locus showed significantly less severe lesions and lower numbers of bacteria. MLVA and PCR-RFLP analyses also showed a high diversity among field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae with a greater homogeneity within the same herd. Almost half of the field isolates presented less than 55% homology with selected vaccine and reference strains. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Update on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs: Knowledge gaps for improved disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, D; Sibila, M; Kuhnert, P; Segalés, J; Haesebrouck, F; Pieters, M

    2017-08-23

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease in pigs. Infections occur worldwide and cause major economic losses to the pig industry. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on M. hyopneumoniae infections, with emphasis on identification and analysis of knowledge gaps for optimizing control of the disease. Close contact between infected and susceptible pigs is the main route of M. hyopneumoniae transmission. Management and housing conditions predisposing for infection or disease are known, but further research is needed to better understand M. hyopneumoniae transmission patterns in modern pig production systems, and to assess the importance of the breeding population for downstream disease control. The organism is primarily found on the mucosal surface of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Different adhesins and lipoproteins are involved in the adherence process. However, a clear picture of the virulence and pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae is still missing. The role of glycerol metabolism, myoinositol metabolism and the Mycoplasma Ig binding protein-Mycoplasma Ig protease system should be further investigated for their contribution to virulence. The destruction of the mucociliary apparatus, together with modulating the immune response, enhances the susceptibility of infected pigs to secondary pathogens. Clinical signs and severity of lesions depend on different factors, such as management, environmental conditions and likely also M. hyopneumoniae strain. The potential impact of strain variability on disease severity is not well defined. Diagnostics could be improved by developing tests that may detect virulent strains, by improving sampling in live animals and by designing ELISAs allowing discrimination between infected and vaccinated pigs. The currently available vaccines are often cost-efficient, but the ongoing research on developing new vaccines that confer protective

  1. Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarelli, Patricia E; Keel, Michael K; Yabsley, Michael; Last, Lisa A; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2014-03-24

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas are epicellular erythrocytic bacteria that can cause infectious anemia in some mammalian species. Worldwide, hemotropic mycoplasmas are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens potentially causing serious and significant health problems in wildlife. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with and without Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destrucans, the causative agent of white nose syndrome (WNS) that causes significant mortality events in bats. In order to establish the prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma species in a population of 68 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with (n = 53) and without (n = 15) white-nose syndrome (WNS), PCR was performed targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The overall prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasmas in bats was 47%, with similar (p = 0.5725) prevalence between bats with WNS (49%) and without WNS (40%). 16S rDNA sequence analysis (~1,200 bp) supports the presence of a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species with 91.75% sequence homology with Mycoplasma haemomuris. No differences were found in gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals. Gene sequences generated from WNS and non-WNS animals suggest that little brown bats could serve as a natural reservoir for this potentially novel Mycoplasma species. Currently, there is minimal information about the prevalence, host-specificity, or the route of transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. among bats. Finally, the potential role of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. as co-factors in the development of disease manifestations in bats, including WNS in Myotis lucifugus, remains to be elucidated.

  2. Chronic diarrhea caused by Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. in immunocompetent patient-a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, Y.; Rozi, M. F.; Saragih, R. H.; Darlan, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. are commonly associated with immunocompromised patients. Severe clinical manifestation can be produced by this organism. It varies according to immune status, and subtype of this organism. Unfortunately, we found an immunocompetent patient with chronic diarrhea caused by this organism. A 38- year old male was admitted to Adam Malik General Hospital because of watery diarrhea since four days ago. Administration of fluid replacement was done to this patient, but the frequency of diarrhea did not decrease. Loperamide as anti-spasmodic was also given in each episode of diarrhea. Surprisingly, fecal smear examination revealed that this patient positive for Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. Thus, diarrhea was resolved for four days without giving any anti-parasitic drugs to the patient.

  3. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma ovipneum...oniae ... MeSH D045802 200906092922912910 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

  4. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma pneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma pneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma pneumonia...e ... MeSH D009177 200906010320106380 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma pneumoniae

  5. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma hyopneum...oniae ... MeSH D045705 200906033834508852 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

  6. Genetic recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis virulent subtype IbA10G2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H; Guo, Meijin; Feng, Yaoyu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.

  7. MYCOPLASMA INFECTION IN CHILDREN: CURRENT DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Harlamova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents literary and own data (52 patients on the role of mycoplasma infection. Mycoplasma infection is associated with long-term antigenemia in children, causes recurrent disease and autoimmunity. Among the 52 examined patients diagnosed with pneumonia in 17, bronchitis — from 19, rhinosinusitis  — at 11, StevensJohnson syndrome — in 2 children.  In half the cases mycoplasmosis occurs against the backdrop of persistent active herpes virus infection (in 27 children (52%. To optimize the causal and pathogenetic therapy mycoplasma requires correction of immune disorders.

  8. The role of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, Amy P; Edwards, James M

    2014-12-01

    Genital mycoplasmas are frequently found in the vaginal flora across socioeconomic and ethnic groups and have been demonstrated to be involved in adverse perinatal outcomes. Both Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp cause inflammation potentially leading to spontaneous preterm birth and PPROM as well as postdelivery infectious complications and neonatal infections. Herein we have provided an overview of the existing literature and supportive evidence for genital mycoplasma's role in perinatal complications. Future research will need to focus on clearly delineating the species, allowing for discrimination of their effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus spp. contamination in the ward environment: study on mecA and femA genes in methicillin-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashimoto, A; Hamada, T; Adachi, A; Tanigawa, T; Tanaka, Y

    1995-01-01

    Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from the ward environment and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed. Twenty-nine strains out of 274 isolates were S. aureus, and 41.4% of the S. aureus strains were methicillin resistant (MRSA). All 12 strains of MRSA were also resistant to oxacillin, ceftizoxime, ampicillin and clindamycin. Among the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-resistant (MR) strains of S. epidermidis, S. capitis, S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. auricularis, S. saprophyticus and S. cohnii were isolated. Eight of the 10 S. Haemolyticus strains were methicillin resistant. The femA gene was detected in S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA), but not in CNS by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Southern blot analysis. The mecA gene was found in all the MRSA and MR-S. epidermidis strains tested, and one of the two MR-S. hominis strains, but not in MSSA, MS-S. epidermidis, MS-S. hominis, or MS-S. haemolyticus. DNA from one strain of MR-S. hominis and 2 strains of MR-S. haemolyticus was not amplified by PCR using the mecA gene primer, or hybridized by Southern blotting. The ambiguity that mecA was detected in some MR-CNS strains, but not in others is discussed.

  10. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Koba, Hiroyuki; Mori, Takuji; Mori, Masaki; Tsunematsu, Kazunori; Natori, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Akira; Doi, Mikio.

    1985-01-01

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  11. Intrinsic terminators in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-04-08

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogen of swine, exhibits a low guanine and cytosine (GC) content genome. M. hyopneumoniae genome is organised in long transcriptional units and promoter sequences have been mapped upstream of all transcription units. These analysis provided insights into the gene organisation and transcription initiation at the genome scale. However, the presence of transcriptional terminator sequences in the M. hyopneumoniae genome is poorly understood. In silico analyses demonstrated the presence of putative terminators in 82% of the 33 monocistronic units (mCs) and in 74% of the 116 polycistronic units (pCs) considering different classes of terminators. The functional activity of 23 intrinsic terminators was confirmed by RT-PCR and qPCR. Analysis of all terminators found by three software algorithms, combined with experimental results, allowed us to propose a pattern of RNA hairpin formation during the termination process and to predict the location of terminators in the M. hyopneumoniae genome sequence. The stem-loop structures of intrinsic terminators of mycoplasma diverge from the pattern of terminators found in other bacteria due the low content of guanine and cytosine. In M. hyopneumoniae, transcription can end after a transcriptional unit and before its terminator sequence and can also continue past the terminator sequence with RNA polymerases gradually releasing the RNA.

  12. Antibody response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae: protection of host and influence on outbreaks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eDumke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans of all ages, the cell wall-less and genome-reduced species Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The well-documented occurrence of major peaks in the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia cases reported world-wide, the multifaceted clinical manifestations of infection and the increasing number of resistant strains provide reasons for ongoing interest in the pathogenesis of mycoplasmal disease. The results of recent studies have provided insights into the interaction of the limited virulence factors of the bacterium with its host. In addition, the availability of complete M. pneumoniae genomes from patient isolates and the development of proteomic methods for investigation of mycoplasmas have not only allowed characterization of sequence divergences between strains but have also shown the importance of proteins and protein parts for induction of the immune reaction after infection. This review focuses on selected aspects of the humoral host immune response as a factor that might influence the clinical course of infections, subsequent protection in cases of re-infections and changes of epidemiological pattern of infections. The characterization of antibodies directed to defined antigens and approaches to promote their induction in the respiratory mucosa are also preconditions for the development of a vaccine to protect risk populations from severe disease due to M. pneumoniae.

  13. Eriksson in de kuif gepikt; over een mycoplasma-theorie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetenschapelijke haarkloverij over gele roest (Puccinia striiformis) in tarwe. De Zweed J. Erikson beschreef "latente kiemen" van de gele roest van tarwe in 1901 als "mycoplasma". Hij wilde hiermee de overwintering van de gele roest verklaren. Hij had ongelijk

  14. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  15. The linear chromosome of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'

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    Migdoll Alexander M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted, uncultivable bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants. They represent a monophyletic group within the class Mollicutes (trivial name mycoplasmas and are characterized by a small genome with a low GC content, and the lack of a firm cell wall. All mycoplasmas, including strains of 'Candidatus (Ca. Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Ca. P. australiense', examined so far have circular chromosomes, as is the case for almost all walled bacteria. Results Our work has shown that 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali', the causative agent of apple proliferation disease, has a linear chromosome. Linear chromosomes were also identified in the closely related provisional species 'Ca. P. pyri' and 'Ca. P. prunorum'. The chromosome of 'Ca. P. mali' strain AT is 601,943 bp in size and has a GC content of 21.4%. The chromosome is further characterized by large terminal inverted repeats and covalently closed hairpin ends. Analysis of the protein-coding genes revealed that glycolysis, the major energy-yielding pathway supposed for 'Ca. P. asteris', is incomplete in 'Ca. P. mali'. Due to the apparent lack of other metabolic pathways present in mycoplasmas, it is proposed that maltose and malate are utilized as carbon and energy sources. However, complete ATP-yielding pathways were not identified. 'Ca. P. mali' also differs from 'Ca. P. asteris' by a smaller genome, a lower GC content, a lower number of paralogous genes, fewer insertions of potential mobile DNA elements, and a strongly reduced number of ABC transporters for amino acids. In contrast, 'Ca. P. mali' has an extended set of genes for homologous recombination, excision repair and SOS response than 'Ca. P. asteris'. Conclusion The small linear chromosome with large terminal inverted repeats and covalently closed hairpin ends, the extremely low GC content and the limited metabolic capabilities reflect unique features of 'Ca

  16. New insights on the biology of swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas from a comparative genome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis live in swine respiratory tracts. M. flocculare, a commensal bacterium, is genetically closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of enzootic porcine pneumonia. M. hyorhinis is also pathogenic, causing polyserositis and arthritis. In this work, we present the genome sequences of M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae strain 7422, and we compare these genomes with the genomes of other M. hyoponeumoniae strain and to the a M. hyorhinis genome. These analyses were performed to identify possible characteristics that may help to explain the different behaviors of these species in swine respiratory tracts. Results The overall genome organization of three species was analyzed, revealing that the ORF clusters (OCs) differ considerably and that inversions and rearrangements are common. Although M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae display a high degree of similarity with respect to the gene content, only some genomic regions display considerable synteny. Genes encoding proteins that may be involved in host-cell adhesion in M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display differences in genomic structure and organization. Some genes encoding adhesins of the P97 family are absent in M. flocculare and some contain sequence differences or lack of domains that are considered to be important for adhesion to host cells. The phylogenetic relationship of the three species was confirmed by a phylogenomic approach. The set of genes involved in metabolism, especially in the uptake of precursors for nucleic acids synthesis and nucleotide metabolism, display some differences in copy number and the presence/absence in the three species. Conclusions The comparative analyses of three mycoplasma species that inhabit the swine respiratory tract facilitated the identification of some characteristics that may be related to their different behaviors. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display many differences

  17. Undersøgelse for Mycoplasma bovis i praksislaboratoriet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kaspar; Kokotovic, Branko; Voss, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma anses for at være en medvirkende årsag til en lang række sygdomsforløb hos kvæg og andre dyrearter.......Mycoplasma anses for at være en medvirkende årsag til en lang række sygdomsforløb hos kvæg og andre dyrearter....

  18. Haemotrophic mycoplasmas in South American camelids in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, C; Meli, Marina L; Robert, N; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Wengi, Nicole; Lutz, Hans; Zanolari, P

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cell parasite 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae', formerly Eperythrozoon, is known to be widespread in South American camelids in the USA, causing anaemia in affected animals. Up to now, haemotrophic mycoplasmas were not observed in South American camelids in Europe; however, they were known in a herd of alpacas in Switzerland and to identify them as 'Candidatus M. haemolamae'. Possible ways of transmission are discussed.

  19. A Mycoplasma species of Emydidae turtles in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Niederriter, Holly; Zarate, Brian; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-04-01

    Mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. As part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern US, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (US) of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma. Of 108 turtles tested, 63 (58.3%) were PCR positive for Mycoplasma including 58 of 83 bog turtles (70%), three of three (100%) eastern box turtles, and two of 11 (18%) spotted turtles; all snapping turtles (n = 7) and wood turtles (n = 4) were negative. Sequence analysis of portions of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed a single, unclassified species of Mycoplasma that has been previously reported in eastern box turtles, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata), western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). We document a high incidence of Mycoplasma, in the absence of clinical disease, in wild emydid turtles. These findings, along with wide distribution of the identified Mycoplasma sp. across a broad geographic region, suggest this bacterium is likely a commensal inhabitant of bog turtles, and possibly other species of emydid turtles, in the northeastern US.

  20. HRCT findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Beom; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Park, Jai Soung; Lee, Soo Kyung; Im, Han Hyek; Kim, Young Tong; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    To analyze the HRCT findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia and correlate these with clinical information. HRCT was performed in 17 cases of 15 adult patients (M:F=5:10) in whom mycoplasma pneumonia had been serologically confirmed. The pattern, extent and distribution of abnormalities were reviewed retrospectively and a changing pattern of abnormalities during the course of the disease was correlated with clinical symptoms. Unilateral(n=11) and lower lobe(n=12) involvement and multiplicity in involved lobes(n=10) were the most common abnormalities. Abnormalities on HRCT were as follows:nodules(n=15), areas of consolidation(n=14), nodules and areas of consolidation(n=13). Most abnormalities(n=11) were segmental or subsegmental in distribution. The most common nodular pattern was centrilobular micronodules(<5mm) or branching linear structures(n=15). An air-bronchogram in areas of consolidation was noted in 13 of 14 cases (92.9%). Areas of ground-glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening and dilatation were observed in 11 cases as part of a mixed pattern. Additional findings were interlobular septal thickening(n=9), air-trapping(n=1), pleural effusion(n=2), and mediastinal lymphadenopathy(n=1). The relationship between the pattern of abnormalities and duration of the disease(from the onset of symptoms to the time of HRCT scan) was as follows. Group 1 (similar area ratio of consolidation and nodules) was predominant at 1 week, Group 2 (prominent areas of consolidation(>2/3)) at 2 weeks, and Group 3(prominent areas of nodules(>2/3)) over 3 weeks. The main findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia were nodules or areas of consolidation with segmental or subsegmental distribution. The early stage of the disease may show a pattern of a similar prapertion of areas of consolidation and of nodules, followed by increase in the propertion of areas of consolidation(>2/3) as the disease progresses. At the resolvtion stage, the extent of lesions will decrease and nodules will be

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of genital Mycoplasmas among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa M. Abdel Rahman

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. Alexandria Journal of ... This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ... to pregnant women with preterm rupture of the membranes. (PROM) ... mitted pathogens M. hominis and U. urealyticum among a group of ...

  2. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Sun, Jian; Yang, Tao; Fang, Xi; Cheng, Jie; Xiong, Yan Q; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin using a well-established experimental intratracheal infection model of M. gallisepticum. The efficacy of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum was studied in 8-day-old chickens after intramuscular (i.m.) administration at 10 doses between 0-80 mg/kg. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to evaluate the PK parameters of tiamulin following i.m. administration at doses of 5, 40, and 80 mg/kg in Mycoplasma gallisepticum-infected neutropenic chickens. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used for quantitative detection of M. gallisepticum. The MIC of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum strain S6 was 0.03 μg/mL. The PK/PD index, AUC24h/MIC, correlated well with the in vivo antibacterial efficacy. The in vivo data suggest that animal dosage regimens should supply AUC24h/MIC of tiamulin of 382.68 h for 2 log10 ccu equivalents M. gallisepticum reduction. To attain that goal, the administered dose is expected to be 45 mg/kg b.w. for treatment of M. gallisepticum infection with an MIC90 of 0.03 μg/mL.

  3. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin using a well-established experimental intratracheal infection model of M. gallisepticum. The efficacy of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum was studied in 8-day-old chickens after intramuscular (i.m. administration at 10 doses between 0-80 mg/kg. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to evaluate the PK parameters of tiamulin following i.m. administration at doses of 5, 40 and 80 mg/kg in Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected neutropenic chickens. Real time PCR (RT-PCR was used for quantitative detection of M. gallisepticum. The MIC of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum strain S6 was 0.03 μg/mL. The PK/PD index, AUC24h/MIC, correlated well with the in vivo antibacterial efficacy. The in vivo data suggest that animal dosage regimens should supply AUC24h/MIC of tiamulin of 382.68 h for 2 log10 ccu equivalents M. gallisepticum reduction. To attain that goal, the administered dose is expected to be 45 mg/kg b.w. for treatment of M. gallisepticum infection with an MIC90 of 0.03 μg/mL.

  4. Ultrastructural observation of the airways of recovered and susceptible pigs after inoculation with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irigoyen Luiz Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the morphological differences in the epithelium of the airways of recovered and susceptible pigs after Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae challenge, twenty-four 4-week-old M. hyopneumoniae-free pigs were intratracheally inoculated with 107ccu/ml of a pure low-passaged culture of the P5722-3 strain of M. hyopneumoniae challenge material. Eight pigs (group I were challenged at the beginning of the experiment and rechallenged 3 months later. Group II pigs were also challenged at the beginning of the experiment and necropsied 3 months later. Group III pigs were challenged at the same time as the rechallenge of group I pigs. Eight nonchallenged pigs served as controls (group IV. Three days after the second challenge of group I and the first challenge of group III, and every 3 and 4 days thereafter, two pigs from each group were euthanatized by electrocution and necropsied. Samples of bronchi and lung tissue were examined using light and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM. Macroscopic lesions were observed in the lungs of all group III pigs (average = 4.74% and were characterized by purple-red areas of discoloration and increased firmness affecting the cranioventral aspect of the lungs. Macroscopic lesions of pneumonia in groups I and II were minimal (less than 1%. There were no gross lesions of pneumonia in control (group IV pigs. Microscopic lesions were characterized by hyperplasia of the peribronchial lymphoid tissue and mild neutrophilic infiltrates in alveoli. Electron microscopy showed patchy areas with loss of cilia and presence of leukocytes and mycoplasmas in bronchi of susceptible pigs (group III. The bronchial epithelium of rechallenged (group I, recovered (group II, and control (group IV pigs was ultrastructurally similar indicating recovery of the former two groups. Although mycoplasmas were seen among cilia, a second challenge on pigs of group I did not produce another episode of the disease nor did it enhance morphological changes

  5. Radiographic findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Mi Hye; Choe, Kyu Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    Mycoplasma pneumonia has known to be a not uncommon disease. However, the differential diagnosis of mycoplasm pneumonia with other viral pneumonia is difficult because of its variable clinical symptoms and atypical radiologic findings. A retrospective review was made of plain chest radiologic findings and clinical manifestations of 33 patients, who were admitted at Yonsei University Hospital from January, 1985 to February, 1990. The most prevalent age was 4th decade (33%) and main symptoms were cough (24/33), fever (2/33) and sputum (20/22). The most frequent season was winter (50%). The radiologic patterns were predominently interstitial (15/33), combined (13/33) and predominently alveolar (5/33) lesion. In alveolar infiltration cases (n 18), unilateral single lobe involvement was the most common (17/18) and left lower lobe (8/18) was predominently involved. Associated radiologic findings were hilar lymphadenopathy (4/33), pleural effusion (4/33) and cardiomegaly (7/33)

  6. Lung abscess caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Takashi; Matsubayashi, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    A 10-year-old boy with West syndrome was referred to hospital because of high fever and cough. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed consolidation with an abscess in the right upper lobe. Laboratory data indicated cytokine storm. Various antibacterial agents and additional corticosteroid were unable to control the hypercytokinemia, which was suppressed after cyclosporine A was started. The lung abscess remained, however, and right upper lobectomy was performed. Culture from the abscess showed no growth, while polymerase chain reaction assay indicated Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA. Serum passive agglutinin titer for M. pneumoniae was significantly elevated in the convalescent phase. These findings are strong evidence that the lung abscess was caused by M. pneumoniae infection. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Biofilm formation and determination of minimum biofilm eradication concentration of antibiotics in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Dereje Damte; Mechesso, Abraham Fikru; Park, Na-Hye; Song, Ju-Beom; Shur, Joo-Woon; Park, Seung-Chun

    2017-10-20

    The study was aimed to investigate biofilm forming ability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations of antibiotics. Biofilm forming ability of six strains of M. hyopneumoniae was examined using crystal violet staining on coverslips. The results demonstrated an apparent line of biofilm growth in 3 of the strains isolated from swine with confirmed cases of enzootic pneumonia. BacLight bacterial viability assay revealed that the majority of the cells were viable after 336 hr of incubation. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae persists in the biofilm after being exposed to 10 fold higher concentration of antibiotics than the minimum inhibitory concentrations in planktonic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of biofilm formation in M. hyopneumoniae. However, comprehensive studies on the mechanisms of biofilm formation are needed to combat swine enzootic pneumonia caused by resistant M. hyopneumoniae.

  8. Detection of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR%利用PCR技术检测阴道毛滴虫体内的人型支原体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方顺丽; 肖建春; 伦照荣

    2006-01-01

    采用人型支原体16SrDNA的特异引物,对从广州市多所医院门诊患者分离到的28株阴道毛滴虫进行PCR检测,结果有12株感染了人型支原体,感染率为42.9%.这显示了阴道毛滴虫和人型支原体之间的共生关系在中国具有普遍性.

  9. Cryptosporidium y blastocistis hominis como agentes patógenos en el síndrome diarréico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia I. Moncada

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En una comunidad de escasos recursos de Bogotá se tomaron muestras de heces de niños menores de diez años con diarrea y de niños sin diarrea. Las muestras del grupo de estudio y del grupo control resultaron negativas para el Cryptosporidium. Se encontraron positivas para Blastocistis hominis 17 muestras del grupo de estudio (8.3%. y 5 del grupo control (10.4%. Los síntomas predominantes fueron fiebre, dolor abdominal y pérdida del apetito. El B. hominis se asoció con la Escherichia coli, Salmonella campylobacter, E. histiolytica, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides y rotavírus. No se confirmó el papel que en los últimos años se le atribuye al Cryptosporidium y al B. hominis como agentes productores de diarrea.

  10. Cryptosporidiosis outbreak in a child day-care center caused by an unusual Cryptosporidium hominis subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Pilar; Almagro-Nievas, Diego; Cieloszyk, Joanna; Lóbez, Silvia; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    2015-12-01

    This work describes the genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia involved in an outbreak in a nursery school in Granada, Spain, that affected seven children under the age of 4. Nucleic acids were extracted from the seven stool samples positive to Cryptosporidium or Giardia by microscopy and/or immunochromatography. The species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium were identified by PCR-RFLP and PCR of the SSUrRNA and gp60 genes, respectively. The assemblages of Giardia duodenalis isolates were characterized by PCR of the tpi gene. PCR products were sequenced and analyzed. All of the isolates were positive for Cryptosporidium hominis. Five of them belonged to subtype IaA11R2, one to subtype IbA10G2R2, and the other could not be identified. Three of these samples were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR, two belonging to the assemblage A, and the other one to assemblage B. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IaA11R2 as a cause of an outbreak in Europe where subtype IbA10G2R2 is the most frequently identified. In the case of Giardia, an outbreak could not be confirmed because of the low number of positive samples and the low genetic variability of the amplified fragments for assemblage A of tpi gene. A new subtype, of Cryptosporidium hominis named IaA11R2, has been described as a cause of an outbreak in a nursery school in Granada, Spain. However an outbreak of giardiasis could not be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures treated with ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Soltanian

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that 20 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin was the dilution of choice for mycoplasma elimination followed by 200 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin. Concentrations of 3, 30 and 300 of enrofloxacin, respectively, are appropriate for mycoplasma removal. More detailed works would be needed to verify the authenticity of the proposed simple and affordable way of mycoplasma elimination.

  12. P110 and P140 cytadherence-related proteins are negative effectors of terminal organelle duplication in Mycoplasma genitalium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Q Pich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The terminal organelle is a complex structure involved in many aspects of the biology of mycoplasmas such as cell adherence, motility or cell division. Mycoplasma genitalium cells display a single terminal organelle and duplicate this structure prior to cytokinesis in a coordinated manner with the cell division process. Despite the significance of the terminal organelle in mycoplasma virulence, little is known about the mechanisms governing its duplication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe the isolation of a mutant, named T192, with a transposon insertion close to the 3' end of the mg192 gene encoding for P110 adhesin. This mutant shows a truncated P110, low levels of P140 and P110 adhesins, a large number of non-motile cells and a high frequency of new terminal organelle formation. Further analyses revealed that the high rates of new terminal organelle formation in T192 cells are a direct consequence of the reduced levels of P110 and P140 rather than to the expression of a truncated P110. Consistently, the phenotype of the T192 mutant was successfully complemented by the reintroduction of the mg192 WT allele which restored the levels of P110 and P140 to those of the WT strain. Quantification of DAPI-stained DNA also showed that the increase in the number of terminal organelles in T192 cells is not accompanied by a higher DNA content, indicating that terminal organelle duplication does not trigger DNA replication in mycoplasmas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the existence of a mechanism regulating terminal organelle duplication in M. genitalium and strongly suggest the implication of P110 and P140 adhesins in this mechanism.

  13. Detecção de Mycoplasma genitalium, M. fermentans e M. penetrans em pacientes com sintomas de uretrite e em indivíduos infectados pelo HIV-1 no Brasil Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, M. fermentans and M. penetrans in patients with symptoms of urethritis and in HIV-1 infected persons in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Mauricio Mendes de Cordova

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho investigamos a prevalência de três espécies de micoplasma recém-identificadas como patógenos humanos, M. genitalium, implicado em casos de uretrite não-gonocócica, e M. fermentans e M. penetrans, isolados de pacientes imunodeprimidos, e das duas espécies mais freqüentes no trato geniturinário, M. hominis e U. urealyticum. Foram estudados 110 pacientes com sintomas de uretrite (grupo A e 106 indivíduos infectados pelo HIV-1 (grupo B. M. genitalium foi detectado em 10,9% das amostras de raspado uretral do grupo A, e em 1,9% das amostras de raspado uretral e 0,9% das amostras de urina do grupo B. M. fermentans foi detectado em 0,9% e 5,7% das amostras de raspado uretral dos grupos A e B, respectivamente. M. penetrans foi detectado em 6,6% das amostras de urina somente do grupo B. M. hominis e U. urealyticum tiveram taxas de infecção de 0,9% e 14,5% no grupo A, e de 7,5% e 18,9% no grupo B, respectivamente. A relevante prevalência da infecção por estas novas espécies, em comparação aos micoplasmas mais conhecidos do trato urogenital, sugere que a magnitude do papel destes microrganismos no âmbito das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST e da infecção pelo HIV pode estar sendo subestimada em nossa população.In this work the prevalence of three mycoplasma species recently identified as human pathogens was investigated: M. genitalium, involved in cases of non-gonococcal urethritis, and M. fermentans and M. penetrans, isolated from immunosupressed individuals, and the 2 species more frequently isolated from the urogenital tract: M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Studied groups were composed by 110 patients with symptoms of urethritis (group A and 106 HIV-1-infected individuals (group B. M. genitalium was detected in 10.9% of the urethral swab samples from the group A, and in 1.9% of the urethral swab samples and 0.9% of the urine samples from the group B. M. fermentans was detected in 0.9% and 5.7% of the

  14. Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples

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    Samira Moraes Cunha de Mesquita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mesquita S.M.C., Mansur F.J., Nascimento E.R., Barreto M.L. & Kimura L.M.S. [Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples.] Padroniza- ção e aplicação de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico de Mycoplasma bovis em amostras de soro sanguíneo bovino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:101-107, 2015. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Veteriná- ria, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: samira.veterinaria@gmail.com International researchers presented results indicating frequent involvement of Mycoplasma spp. as a causative agent of mastitis in cattle, associating its presence with significant economic losses to farmers. Mycoplasma bovis is the species most reported and relevant, because it causes more severe disease. The level of antibodies against M. bovis remains high for several months and can be detected by ELISA. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect ELISA with whole cell antigen of M. bovis (strain Donetta PG 45 with subsequent application in bovine blood serum samples for detection of antibodies against M. bovis. The immunization of cows A and B by inoculating an immunogen against M. bovis to obtain hyperimmune blood serum was the first stage of this work, then the stage of standardization of ELISA was proceeded. The concentration of 2 mg of antigen/mL for coating the microtiter plates was decided by statistical analyses. The optical density value 0,2 was determined as the limit of reactivity discrimination of samples (the cut-off point. The hyperimmune blood serum sample of the cow A (collected 30 days after immunization was chosen as the positive control and, the fetal calf serum was chosen as negative control of the assay. In addition, the ideal optimal dilutions found for blood serum samples was 1:400 and for conjugate was 1:10.000 and the substrate used was the ortho

  15. A replicating plasmid-based vector for GFP expression in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishag, H Z A; Liu, M J; Yang, R S; Xiong, Q Y; Feng, Z X; Shao, G Q

    2016-04-28

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP) that significantly affects the pig industry worldwide. Despite the availability of the whole genome sequence, studies on the pathogenesis of this organism have been limited due to the lack of a genetic manipulation system. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to generate a general GFP reporter vector based on a replicating plasmid. Here, we describe the feasibility of GFP reporter expression in M. hyopneumoniae (strain 168L) controlled by the p97 gene promoter of this mycoplasma. An expression plasmid (pMD18-TOgfp) containing the p97 gene promoter, and origin of replication (oriC) of M. hyopneumoniae, tetracycline resistant marker (tetM), and GFP was constructed and used to transform competent M. hyopneumoniae cells. We observed green fluorescence in M. hyopneumoniae transformants under fluorescence microscopy, which indicates that there was expression of the GFP reporter that was driven by the p97 gene promoter. Additionally, an electroporation method for M. hyopneumoniae with an efficiency of approximately 1 x 10(-6) transformants/μg plasmid DNA was optimized and is described herein. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae to genetic manipulation whereby foreign genes are expressed. This work may encourage the development of genetic tools to manipulate the genome of M. hyopneumoniae for functional genomic analyses.

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and convenient detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahe; Minion, F Chris; Petersen, Andrew C; Jiang, Fei; Yang, Sheng; Guo, Panpan; Li, Jinxiang; Wu, Wenxue

    2013-04-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel method of gene amplification, was employed in this study for detecting Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract or lungs of swine. The pathogen can be detected in LAMP reactions containing as few as 10 fg purified target DNA (10 copies of M. hyopneumoniae genome) within 30 min, which was comparable to real-time PCR. After 30-min reaction at 63 °C, the addition of a certain amount of dye (SYBR Green I and hydroxyl naphthol blue at a proper ratio) into the LAMP reaction system makes the results easily determined as positive or negative by visual inspection. In addition, the LAMP was able to distinguish between M. hyopneumoniae and other closely-related mycoplasma strains, indicating a high degree of specificity. The LAMP assay was more simple and cheap, since the reaction could be completed under isothermal conditions and less laboratorial infrastructure are required. And, it was proven reliable for M. hyopneumoniae diagnosis of nasal swab and lung samples from the field.

  17. Mycoplasma genitalium in male urethritis: diagnosis and treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi

    2013-07-01

    Male urethritis is a common disease for urologists, with the most common pathogens being, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. When the tests fail to detect these pathogens, the presented urethritis is called non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the pathogens for non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis. The test for detecting M. genitalium, which is commercially available in Japan, is not accepted by the Japanese insurance system now. The detection rate of M. genitalium from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis is 10-20% in Japan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for M. genitalium showed that macrolide has the strongest activity and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tetracyclines were not substantially lower. Some kinds of fluoroquinolones, such as sitafloxacin and moxifloxacin, have stronger activities against M. genitalium. For non-gonococcal urethritis, macrolides and tetracycline are recommended in some guidelines. In clinical studies, tetracyclines are less effective against M. genitalium than azithromycin, and azithromycin regimens including 1 g stat or 2 g stat are now recommended for urethritis with M. genitalium. However, macrolide-resistant M. genitalium strains have recently emerged and are spreading worldwide. This macrolide-resistance is closely related to mutations on the 23S rRNA gene. Sitafloxacin and moxifloxacin have shown good efficacies for M. genitalium in some clinical studies. If the azithromycin regimens fail, we must consider the use of fluoroquinolones, such as sitafloxacin, in Japan. The most important issues include the acceptance of M. genitalium examinations by the national insurance system and the individual treatment of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in the not-too-distant future. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium. Observations from a Swedish STD clinic.

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    Carin Anagrius

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium infection with doxycycline or azithromycin 1 g compared to five days of azithromycin (total dose 1.5 g. METHODS: A retrospective case study was performed among patients attending the STD-clinic in Falun, Sweden 1998-2005. All patients with a positive PCR test for M. genitalium were routinely offered a test of cure (toc. Response to doxycycline for 9 days, azithromycin 1 g single dose and extended azithromycin (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg o.d. for 4 days was determined. In patients with treatment failure after azithromycin, macrolide resistance was monitored before and after treatment. Furthermore, the rate of macrolide resistance was monitored for positive specimens available from 2006-2011. RESULTS: The eradication rate after doxycycline was 43% (48% for women and 38% for men, for azithromycin 1 g 91% (96% for women and 88% for men and for extended azithromycin 99% (100% for women and 93% for men. Macrolide resistance developed in 7/7 examined (100% of those testing positive after azithromycin 1 g, but in none of those treated with extended azithromycin. Macrolide resistance before treatment increased from 0% in 2006 and 2007 to 18% in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the results from other studies showing that doxycycline is inefficient in eradicating M. genitalium. Although azithromycin 1 g was not significantly less efficient than extended dosage, it was associated with selection of macrolide resistant M. genitalium strains and should not be used as first line therapy for M. genitalium. Monitoring of M. genitalium macrolide resistance should be encouraged.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulrich; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Leon, Rocio; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Rose, Markus; Maes, Dominiek; Pridmore, Andrew; Thomson, Jill R; Ayling, Roger D

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm. MIC 50/ MIC 90 values were 0.031/0.5, 0.031/0.5, 0.062/0.25, ≤0.001/0.004, 0.031/0.125, 0.25/0.5 and 0.062/0.25mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, spiramycin, tulathromycin, tylosin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline respectively against M. hyopneumoniae and 0.25/4, 1/4, 4/16, >64/ >64, 32/ >64, 2/4 and 4/64mg/L, respectively against M. bovis. MIC 50 /MIC 90 values for tiamulin and valnemulin against M. hyopneumoniae were 0.016/0.062 and ≤0.001/ ≤0.001mg/L respectively. The MIC 50 /MIC 90 values of danofloxacin and gamithromycin for M. bovis were 0.25/1 and >64/ >64mg/L respectively. The highest MIC 90 values for M. hyopneumoniae were found in the UK at 1.0mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and florfenicol. In contrast, for M. bovis the lowest MIC 90 value was 1.0mg/L, but ranged to >64mg/L. Specific laboratory standards and clinical breakpoints for veterinary Mycoplasma species are required as no independently validated clinical breakpoints are specified for veterinary Mycoplasma species, which makes data interpretation and correlation to in vivo efficacy difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inorganic pyrophosphatase in uncultivable hemotrophic mycoplasmas: identification and properties of the enzyme from Mycoplasma suis

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    Wittenbrink Max M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma suis belongs to a group of highly specialized hemotrophic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas are uncultivable and the genomes are not sequenced so far. Therefore, there is a need for the clarification of essential metabolic pathways which could be crucial barriers for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system for these veterinary significant bacteria. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase are important enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate PPi to inorganic phosphate Pi. PPases are essential and ubiquitous metal-dependent enzymes providing a thermodynamic pull for many biosynthetic reactions. Here, we describe the identification, recombinant production and characterization of the soluble (sPPase of Mycoplasma suis. Results Screening of genomic M. suis libraries was used to identify a gene encoding the M. suis inorganic pyrophosphatase (sPPase. The M. suis sPPase consists of 164 amino acids with a molecular mass of 20 kDa. The highest identity of 63.7% was found to the M. penetrans sPPase. The typical 13 active site residues as well as the cation binding signature could be also identified in the M. suis sPPase. The activity of the M. suis enzyme was strongly dependent on Mg2+ and significantly lower in the presence of Mn2+ and Zn2+. Addition of Ca2+ and EDTA inhibited the M. suis sPPase activity. These characteristics confirmed the affiliation of the M. suis PPase to family I soluble PPases. The highest activity was determined at pH 9.0. In M. suis the sPPase builds tetramers of 80 kDa which were detected by convalescent sera from experimentally M. suis infected pigs. Conclusion The identification and characterization of the sPPase of M. suis is an additional step towards the clarification of the metabolism of hemotrophic mycoplasmas and, thus, important for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system. As an antigenic and conserved

  1. Determination of the Mutant Selection Window and Evaluation of the Killing of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by Danofloxacin, Doxycycline, Tilmicosin, Tylvalosin and Valnemulin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan; Ye, Xiaomei; Wu, Yuzhi; Huang, Zilong; Gu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Qinren; Shen, Xiangguang; Jiang, Hongxia; Ding, Huanzhong

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a common etiological cause of a chronic respiratory disease in chickens; its increasing antimicrobial resistance compromises the use of tetracyclines, macrolides and quinolones in the farm environment. Mutant selection window (MSW) determination was used to investigate the propensity for future resistance induction by danofloxacin, doxycycline, tilmicosin, tylvalosin and valnemulin. Killing of M. gallisepticum strain S6 by these antimicrobials was also studied by i...

  2. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  3. Post-embrionic development of the digestive tube of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus (Diptera, Cuterebridae

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tube of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 was studied anatomically. The specimens were dissected in buffer saline under a stereomicroscope, and the digestive tubes were placed on slides and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Each tube was measured using a micrometric eye piece, and drawings were made with camera lucida. The results showed that the midgut, the hindgut and the Malpighian tubules with their ducts grow gradually during the larval development. The oesophagus and the salivary glands with their ducts grow only during the moult from the 2nd to the 3rd instar. In the pupal period, salivary glands grow gradually but disappeared after the 20th day. After metamorphosis the digestive tube regressed. This is expected since adult D. hominis lives about nine days without feeding. This fly, similar to other calyptratae muscoid flies shows no vestige of a crop during all post-embrionic development, and the adult has no salivary glands.

  4. Early Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as multiple pulmonary masses: an unusual presentation in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Edward; Altes, Talissa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Because most children are not imaged prior to onset of clinical symptoms, the appearance of early Mycoplasma infection has not been extensively studied. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with large pulmonary masses incidentally detected during spine MRI evaluation for scoliosis. Eight days later, the patient developed acute respiratory symptoms, and the masses seen previously had evolved into a diffuse bronchiolitis. Diagnostic testing identified Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the likely etiology. We briefly review chest CT findings of infection by Mycoplasma and compare them to this unusual presentation of Mycoplasma pneumonia with subclinical imaging findings. (orig.)

  5. Early Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as multiple pulmonary masses: an unusual presentation in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Edward; Altes, Talissa; Anupindi, Sudha A.

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Because most children are not imaged prior to onset of clinical symptoms, the appearance of early Mycoplasma infection has not been extensively studied. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with large pulmonary masses incidentally detected during spine MRI evaluation for scoliosis. Eight days later, the patient developed acute respiratory symptoms, and the masses seen previously had evolved into a diffuse bronchiolitis. Diagnostic testing identified Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the likely etiology. We briefly review chest CT findings of infection by Mycoplasma and compare them to this unusual presentation of Mycoplasma pneumonia with subclinical imaging findings. (orig.)

  6. Prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar, Balantidium coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rito Zerpa Larrauri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Pruebas de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli, así como el cultivo para protozoarios intestinales, han sido publicados escasamente en la literatura médica. En nuestro medio aún no se ha comunicado pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro para los parásitos mencionados. Objetivos: Plantear una alternativa de prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro y conocer su resistencia frente a los antimicrobianos. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo. Instituciones: Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrión", Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, e Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli frente a cinco antimicrobianos. Métodos: Se trabajó con 64 cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, 16 de Entamoeba histolytica-dispar y 16 de Balantidium coli, frente a cinco antimicrobianos: metronidazol, cotrimoxazol, tetraciclina, furazolidona y ciprofloxacina. Las cepas de B. hominis, E. histolytica-E. dispar fueron cultivadas en el medio de Pavlova modificado, de 500 muestras de heces de niños con diagnóstico de parasitosis intestinal y las de B. coli de heces de cerdo. Las pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro se realizaron con el método de microcultivos en el medio de Pavlova modificado, en pocitos con 200 uL del medio sin antiparasitarios (control y con antiparasitarios en 10 concentraciones, desde 128 ug/mL hasta 0,25 ug/mL; luego de incubación a 36º C por 48 horas, la lectura por examen microscópico directo comparó el desarrollo en el medio control con el desarrollo en los pocitos conteniendo los antimicrobianos. Principales medidas de resultados: Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM. Resultados: Se encontró para B. hominis, con metronidazol CIM 90: 64 ug/mL y CIM 50: 2 ug/mL; para E. histolytica-E. dispar con

  7. Detection and differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviaeby PCR from tracheal swabs from birds with respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Cesar E; Ramirez, Gloria; Vera, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are worldwide pathogens that affect the poultry industry causing respiratory illness which cause a negative economic impact. Two mycoplasmas species are the most important in the commercial poultry: mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and mycoplasma synoviae (MS). By its importance and necessity to know and differentiate between mycoplasmas species in local's poultry houses this study used the PCR technique like a diagnosis tool, using tracheal swabs from bird with respiratory symptoms. A total of 91 samples from broilers, layers and breeders farms located in the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyaca was processed. The punctual prevalence founded in this study was 39.6 % for mg and 47.3 % for MS. statistical differences for type of production and positive samples for mg y MS (p < 0.05) were founded, a bigger number of positive samples from layers and breeder in comparison to broilers were found. In the same way, the positive samples for the layers and breeder from the age group between 20 and 60 weeks was greater, while for the broilers group most of the positive samples were from five weeks old birds for mg and two weeks old birds for MS.

  8. Lung abscess in a child secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, E; De Petris, L; Candelotti, P; Tulli, M; Sabatini, M R; Luciani, L; Carlucci, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a lung abscess in a child 6-year-old admitted with a history of right hemithorax pain lasting for 15 days and the onset of mild fever in the last two days. Etiological research showed positivity of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae after seven days of admission. The child has been successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, without the use of macrolides, for a duration of 4 weeks. Our study suggests that the Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection may predispose to severe infections, such as lung abscess, caused by typical respiratory pathogens. The reported case of lung abscess is one of the few reported in the literature in the modern antibiotic era and is the first preceded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

  9. 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemodidelphidis' sp. nov., 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemolamae' sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Walker, Pamela G; Raphael, William; Berent, Linda; Shi, Xun

    2002-05-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence of newly characterized haemotrophic bacteria in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and alpaca (Lama pacos) was determined. In addition, the 16S rRNA sequence of a haemotrophic parasite in the dog (Canis familiaris) was determined. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis as well as secondary structural similarity and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of their 16S rRNA genes, positioned these organisms in the genus Mycoplasma. The highest scoring sequence similarities were 16S rRNA genes from haemotrophic mycoplasma species (Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon spp.). However, the lack of several higher-order structural idiosyncrasies used to define the pneumoniae group, suggests that these organisms and related haemotrophic mycoplasmas represent a new group of mycoplasmas. It is recommended that the organisms be named 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., to provide some indication of the target cell and host species of these parasites, and to reflect their phylogenetic affiliation.

  10. Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination interferes with the metabolism of PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Yongtao; Zhang, Huizhen; Johnson, Caroline H; Jiang, Yiming; Li, Xiangjun; Wu, Zeming; Liu, Tian; Krausz, Kristopher W; Yu, Aiming; Gonzalez, Frank J; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a common problem in cell culture and can alter cellular functions. Since cell metabolism is either directly or indirectly involved in every aspect of cell function, it is important to detect changes to the cellular metabolome after mycoplasma infection. In this study, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics was used to investigate the effect of mycoplasma contamination on the cellular metabolism of human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that mycoplasma contamination induced significant metabolic changes in PANC-1 cells. Twenty-three metabolites were identified and found to be involved in arginine and purine metabolism and energy supply. This study demonstrates that mycoplasma contamination significantly alters cellular metabolite levels, confirming the compelling need for routine checking of cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination, particularly when used for metabolomics studies. Graphical abstract Metabolomics reveals mycoplasma contamination changes the metabolome of PANC-1 cells.

  11. T- and B-cell response analysis following calf immunisation with experimental Mycoplasma bovis vaccine containing saponin and lysozyme dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Mycoplasma bovis is a well-known cause of various disorders in cattle, such as pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis kerato-conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media, meningitis, and reproductive disorders. There are no commercial vaccines against M. bovis in Europe, therefore, experimental ones are still under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental M. bovis vaccine, containing the Polish field M. bovis strain as well as saponin and lysozyme dimer adjuvants, on the T- and B-cell response in calves.

  12. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infection

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    Jessian L. Munoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium has been recognized as a cause of male urethritis, and there is now evidence suggesting that it causes cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. M. genitalium is a slow growing organism, and, with the advent of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT, more studies are being performed, and knowledge about the pathogenicity of this organism elucidated. With NAAT detection, treatment modalities have been studied, and the next challenge is to determine the most effective antimicrobial therapy. Doxycycline, the first-line antibiotic for urethritis, is largely ineffective in the treatment of M. genitalium and furthermore, resistance to macrolide has also emerged. The most effective drug is Moxifloxacin although there are emerging reports of resistance to it in various parts of the world. This paper not only highlights the current research and knowledge, but also reviews the diversity of health implications on the health of men and women infected with M. genitalium. Alternate antibiotics and the impact of M. genitalium on infertility are areas that require more studies as we continue to research into this microorganism.

  13. Mycoplasma genitalium: Should We Treat and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Jennifer M.; Golden, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with acute and chronic urethritis in men. Existing data on infection in women are limited and inconsistent but suggest that M. genitalium is associated with urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and possibly female infertility. Data are inconclusive regarding the role of M. genitalium in adverse pregnancy outcomes and ectopic pregnancy. Available data suggest that azithromycin is superior to doxycycline in treating M. genitalium infection. However, azithromycin-resistant infections have been reported in 3 continents, and the proportion of azithromycin-resistant M. genitalium infection is unknown. Moxifloxacin is the only drug that currently seems to uniformly eradicate M. genitalium. Detection of M. genitalium is hampered by the absence of a commercially available diagnostic test. Persons with persistent pelvic inflammatory disease or clinically significant persistent urethritis or cervicitis should be tested for M. genitalium, if possible. Infected persons who have not previously received azithromycin should receive that drug. Persons in whom azithromycin therapy fails should be treated with moxifloxicin. PMID:22080266

  14. Mix-ups and mycoplasma: the enemies within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Hans G; Uphoff, Cord C; Dirks, Willy G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

    2002-04-01

    Human leukemia-lymphoma (LL) cell lines represent important tools for experimental research. Among the various problems associated with cell lines, the two most common concern contaminations: (1) cross-contamination with unrelated cells and (2) contamination with microorganisms, in particular mycoplasma. The bad news is that about one-third of the cell lines are either cross-contaminated or mycoplasma-infected or both. The good news is that there are means to recognize and overcome these problems. In cases where, during attempts to establish new LL cell lines, primary LL cultures are cross-contaminated with continuous cell lines, intended new cell lines simply cannot be established ("early" cross-contamination). In cases of "late" cross-contamination of existing LL cell lines where the intrusive cells have a growth advantage, the original ("uncontaminated") cell lines may still be available elsewhere. DNA fingerprinting and cytogenetic analysis appear to be the most suitable approaches to detect cross-contaminations and to authenticate LL cell lines. A different but related aspect of "false" LL cell lines is the frequent misclassification of cell lines whereby the actual cell type of the cell line does not correspond to the purported model character of the cell line. Mycoplasma infection can have a multitude of effects on the eukaryotic cells which, due to the variety of infecting mycoplasma species and many other contributing parameters, cannot be predicted, rendering resulting data questionable at best. Practical procedures for the detection and elimination of mycoplasma contamination have been developed. Diagnostic and preventive strategies in order to hem the alarming increase in "false" and mycoplasma-positive LL cell lines are recommended.

  15. Presencia de Blastocystis Hominis como agente causal de enfermedades gatrointestinales en la comuna 7 (Gaira del Distrito de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Liliana Lozano Socarras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La Blastocystis hominis es un protozoo que causa cuadros diarreicos. Es altamente prevalente en poblaciones que no cuentan con servicios adecuados de higiene, alcantarillado y salud pública. La infección con Blastocystis hominis frecuentemente concomita con otros enteropatógenos de reconocida patogenicidad, además se ha reportado como parásito oportunista en pacientes con VIII SIDA. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar la presencia de Blastocystis hominis en pacientes de consulta externa con síntomas asociados a enfermedades gastrointestinales, en la comuna 7 del distrito de Santa Marta, Colombia, durante el mes de Enero a Diciembre de 2004. El método de diagnóstico utilizado fue examen coproparasitológico seriado y el número de pacientes analiza-dos fue de 291. Los resultados muestran una alta presencia de Blastocystis hominken pacientes con enfermedad diarreica residentes en Gaira. Un alto porcentaje de la población parasitada (62,6% presento como único agente causal de la enfermedad diarreica al Blastocystis hominis lo que sugiere la presencia de otras enfermedades que pueden involucrar un compromiso inmunológico, el efecto será una respuesta inmune débil contra el parásito.

  16. Identification of treatment strategies for Mycoplasma genitalium-related urethritis in male patients by culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi

    2013-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium was first isolated from urethral swab specimens of male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. However, the isolation of M. genitalium strains from clinical specimens has been difficult. Co-cultivation with Vero cells is one available technique for the isolation of M. genitalium. The strains that can be used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution or agar dilution methods are limited. Macrolides, such as azithromycin (AZM), have the strongest activity against M. genitalium. However, AZM-resistant strains have emerged and spread. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene contribute to the organism's macrolide resistance, which is similar to the effects of the mutations in macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Of the fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin (MFLX) and sitafloxacin have the strongest activities against M. genitalium, while levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are not as effective. Some clinical trials on the treatment of M. genitalium-related urethritis are available in the literature. A doxycycline regimen was microbiologically inferior to an AZM regimen. For cases of treatment failure with AZM regimens, MFLX regimens were effective.

  17. Comparative genomic analysis reveals occurrence of genetic recombination in virulent Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes and telomeric gene duplications in Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Tang, Kevin; Rowe, Lori A; Li, Na; Roellig, Dawn M; Knipe, Kristine; Frace, Michael; Yang, Chunfu; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-04-18

    Cryptosporidium hominis is a dominant species for human cryptosporidiosis. Within the species, IbA10G2 is the most virulent subtype responsible for all C. hominis-associated outbreaks in Europe and Australia, and is a dominant outbreak subtype in the United States. In recent yearsIaA28R4 is becoming a major new subtype in the United States. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of two field specimens from each of the two subtypes and conducted a comparative genomic analysis of the obtained sequences with those from the only fully sequenced Cryptosporidium parvum genome. Altogether, 8.59-9.05 Mb of Cryptosporidium sequences in 45-767 assembled contigs were obtained from the four specimens, representing 94.36-99.47% coverage of the expected genome. These genomes had complete synteny in gene organization and 96.86-97.0% and 99.72-99.83% nucleotide sequence similarities to the published genomes of C. parvum and C. hominis, respectively. Several major insertions and deletions were seen between C. hominis and C. parvum genomes, involving mostly members of multicopy gene families near telomeres. The four C. hominis genomes were highly similar to each other and divergent from the reference IaA25R3 genome in some highly polymorphic regions. Major sequence differences among the four specimens sequenced in this study were in the 5' and 3' ends of chromosome 6 and the gp60 region, largely the result of genetic recombination. The sequence similarity among specimens of the two dominant outbreak subtypes and genetic recombination in chromosome 6, especially around the putative virulence determinant gp60 region, suggest that genetic recombination plays a potential role in the emergence of hyper-transmissible C. hominis subtypes. The high sequence conservation between C. parvum and C. hominis genomes and significant differences in copy numbers of MEDLE family secreted proteins and insulinase-like proteases indicate that telomeric gene duplications could potentially contribute to

  18. Obliterative bronchiolitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isles, A.F.; Masel, J.; O' Duffy, J.

    1987-02-01

    A six-year-old girl presented with Mycoplasma pneumoniae involving the right upper and lower lobes. She made a slow but complete recovery with resolution of the radiological changes. She represented 5 years later with a productive cough, recurrent wheezing and physical and radiological signs suggestive of obliterative bronchiolitis. This diagnosis was confirmed by ventilation - perfusion (dV/dt/dQ/dt) lung scan, and bronchography. The case highlights the value of dV/dt/dQ/dt scanning in the diagnosis of obliterative bronchiolitis and confirms the previous reports that mycoplasma infections are not always benign.

  19. Presence of Mycoplasma fermentans in the bloodstream of Mexican patients with rheumatoid arthritis and IgM and IgG antibodies against whole microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas Salvador

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence incriminates bacteria, especially Mycoplasma fermentans, as possible arthritogenic agents in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate M. fermentans in the bloodstream of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Two hundred and nineteen blood samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, and healthy individuals were screened by bacterial culture and direct PCR in order to detect mycoplasmas; IgM and IgG against M. fermentans PG18 were also detected by ELISA and Immunoblotting assays in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy individuals. Results Blood samples from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and healthy individuals were negative for mycoplasma by culture or direct PCR. In blood samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were detected by direct PCR M. fermentans in 2/50 (2%, M. hominis in 2/50 (2% and U. urealyticum in 1/50 (0.5%. In patients with RA M. fermentans was detected by culture in 13/87 blood samples and in 13/87 by direct PCR, however, there was only concordance between culture and direct PCR in six samples, so M. fermentans was detected in 20/87(23% of the blood samples from patients with RA by either culture or PCR. Antibody-specific ELISA assay to M. fermentans PG18 was done, IgM was detected in sera from 40/87 patients with RA and in sera of 7/67 control individuals, IgG was detected in sera from 48/87 RA patients and in sera from 7/67 healthy individuals. Antibody-specific immunoblotting to M. fermentans PG18 showed IgM in sera from 35/87 patients with RA and in sera from 4/67 healthy individuals, IgG was detected in sera from 34/87 patients and in sera from 5/67 healthy individuals. Conclusion Our findings show that only M. fermentans produce bacteremia in a high percentage of patients with RA. This finding is similar to those reported in the literature. IgM and IgG against M

  20. Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chilamakuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions.

  1. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in intestinal tissue specimens of cats by chromogenic in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostegl, Meike M; Wetscher, Andreas; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Dinhopl, Nora; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2012-02-10

    In this retrospective study 102 cats were analyzed for the presence of trichomonads in intestinal tissue sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Two intestinal trichomonad species are described in cats: Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus. While P. hominis is considered a mere commensal, T. foetus has been found to be the causative agent of feline large-bowel diarrhea. For the detection of both agents within intestinal tissue CISH assays using three different probes were performed. In the first CISH run a probe specific for all relevant members of the order Trichomonadida (OT probe) was used. In a second CISH run all positive samples were further examined on three consecutive tissue sections using the OT probe, a probe specific for the family of Tritrichomonadidae (Tritri probe) and a newly designed probe specifically detecting P. hominis (Penta hom probe). In total, four of the 102 cats were found to be positive with the OT probe. Thereof, one cat gave a positive reaction with the P. hominis probe and three cats were positive with the T. foetus probe. All Trichomonas-positive cats were pure-bred and between 8 and 32 weeks of age. In one cat positive for T. foetus large amounts of parasites were found in the gut lumen and invading the intestinal mucosa. The species of the detected trichomonads were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, the usefulness of CISH to detect intestinal trichomonads within feline tissue samples was shown. Additionally, the specific detection of P. hominis using CISH was established. Generally, it was shown that CISH is well suited for detection and differentiation of trichomonosis in retrospective studies using tissue samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloning, Expression, Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Mycoplasma Genitalium Protein MG289

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, K.; Boehlein, S; Sakai, Y; Quirit, J; Agbandje-McKenna, M; Rosser, C; McKenna, R

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen that is associated with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the protein MG289 from M. genitalium strain G37 are reported here. Crystals of MG289 diffracted X-rays to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.7, b = 90.9, c = 176.1 {angstrom}. The diffraction data after processing had an overall R{sub merge} of 8.7%. The crystal structure of Cypl, the ortholog of MG289 from M. hyorhinis, has recently been determined, providing a reasonable phasing model; molecular replacement is currently under way.

  3. Vpma phase variation is important for survival and persistence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the immunocompetent host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite very small genomes, mycoplasmas retain large multigene families encoding variable antigens whose exact role in pathogenesis needs to be proven. To understand their in vivo significance, we used Mycoplasma agalactiae as a model exhibiting high-frequency variations of a family of immunodominant Vpma lipoproteins via Xer1-mediated site-specific recombinations. Phase-Locked Mutants (PLMs expressing single stable Vpma products served as first breakthrough tools in mycoplasmology to study the role of such sophisticated antigenic variation systems. Comparing the general clinical features of sheep infected with a mixture of phase-invariable PLMs (PLMU and PLMY and the wild type strain, it was earlier concluded that Vpma phase variation is not necessary for infection. Conversely, the current study demonstrates the in vivo indispensability of Vpma switching as inferred from the Vpma phenotypic and genotypic analyses of reisolates obtained during sheep infection and necropsy. PLMY and PLMU stably expressing VpmaY and VpmaU, respectively, for numerous in vitro generations, switched to new Vpma phenotypes inside the sheep. Molecular genetic analysis of selected 'switchover' clones confirmed xer1 disruption and revealed complex new rearrangements like chimeras, deletions and duplications in the vpma loci that were previously unknown in type strain PG2. Another novel finding is the differential infection potential of Vpma variants, as local infection sites demonstrated an almost complete dominance of PLMY over PLMU especially during early stages of both conjunctival and intramammary co-challenge infections, indicating a comparatively better in vivo fitness of VpmaY expressors. The data suggest that Vpma antigenic variation is imperative for survival and persistence inside the immunocompetent host, and although Xer1 is necessary for causing Vpma variation in vitro, it is not a virulence factor because alternative Xer1-independent mechanisms operate in

  4. Identification of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, I; Brenner, J; Alpert, N; Benjamin, A; Bernstein, M; Elad, D; Blum, S; Friedgut, O; Rotenberg, D

    2009-09-12

    A syndrome in which white foci and granulopustular lesions appeared on the vaginal mucous membranes of Holstein cows in several dairy herds in Israel is described. During clinical and diagnostic investigations, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 11 of 20 clinical cases. Vaginal swabs taken from the same cows yielded three isolates of Mycoplasma canadense, which were all associated with the M bovigenitalium infection. Two isolates of small, round, non-enveloped viral particles were approximately 25 nm in diameter and characteristic of enteroviruses on negative-staining electron microscopy.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae isolated from pigs during 1968 to 1971 and during 1995 and 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Friis, N. F.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for enrofloxacin, lincomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin and tylosin, of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, isolated from pigs at notably different intervals (1968-71 and 1995-96). Each group comprised 21 low passage isolates...... and a Danish reference strain (M60) and the type strain (S16). MICs were determined in liquid medium with both initial and final readings. Enrofloxacin, lincomycin, tetracycline and tiamulin were active against all isolates, and tiamulin showed the highest activity. For tylosin all the isolates from 1968......-71 were highly susceptible, whereas the isolates from 1995-96 could be divided into a highly susceptible (nine isolates) and relatively resistant (12 isolates) group. This difference between old and new strains was statistically significant (p=0.0000415). The remaining agents, enrofloxacin, lincomycin...

  6. Major membrane surface proteins of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae selectively modified by covalently bound lipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.S.; Kim, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Surface protein antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were identified by direct antibody-surface binding or by radioimmunoprecipitation of surface 125 I-labeled proteins with a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Radioimmunoprecipitation of TX-114-phase proteins from cells labeled with [ 35 S] methionine, 14 C-amino acids, or [ 3 H] palmitic acid showed that proteins p65, p50, and p44 were abundant and (with one other hydrophobic protein, p60) were selectively labeled with lipid. Alkaline hydroxylamine treatment of labeled proteins indicated linkage of lipids by amide or stable O-linked ester bonds. Proteins p65, p50, and p44 were highly immunogenic in the natural host as measured by immunoblots of TX-114-phase proteins with antisera from swine inoculated with whole organisms. These proteins were antigenically and structurally unrelated, since hyperimmune mouse antibodies to individual gel-purified proteins were monospecific and gave distinct proteolytic epitope maps. Intraspecies size variants of one surface antigen of M. hyopneumoniae were revealed by a MAb to p70 (defined in strain J, ATCC 25934), which recognized a large p73 component on strain VPP11 (ATCC 25617). In addition, MAb to internal, aqueous-phase protein p82 of strain J failed to bind an analogous antigen in strain VPP11

  7. Major membrane surface proteins of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae selectively modified by covalently bound lipid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise K.S.; Kim, M.F.

    1987-12-01

    Surface protein antigens of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae were identified by direct antibody-surface binding or by radioimmunoprecipitation of surface /sup 125/I-labeled proteins with a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Radioimmunoprecipitation of TX-114-phase proteins from cells labeled with (/sup 35/S) methionine, /sup 14/C-amino acids, or (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid showed that proteins p65, p50, and p44 were abundant and (with one other hydrophobic protein, p60) were selectively labeled with lipid. Alkaline hydroxylamine treatment of labeled proteins indicated linkage of lipids by amide or stable O-linked ester bonds. Proteins p65, p50, and p44 were highly immunogenic in the natural host as measured by immunoblots of TX-114-phase proteins with antisera from swine inoculated with whole organisms. These proteins were antigenically and structurally unrelated, since hyperimmune mouse antibodies to individual gel-purified proteins were monospecific and gave distinct proteolytic epitope maps. Intraspecies size variants of one surface antigen of M. hyopneumoniae were revealed by a MAb to p70 (defined in strain J, ATCC 25934), which recognized a large p73 component on strain VPP11 (ATCC 25617). In addition, MAb to internal, aqueous-phase protein p82 of strain J failed to bind an analogous antigen in strain VPP11.

  8. Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerström, Micael; Schönning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Görel; Ferm, Martin; Björkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Långmark, Jonas; Löfdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

    2014-04-01

    In November 2010, ≈27,000 (≈45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens.

  9. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis GP60 subtypes worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Avendaño V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite very important in animal health as well as in public health. It is because this is one of the main causes of diarrhea in children, calves, lambs and other variety of youth mammalians in a lot of countries. The globalization has enabled the exchange of biological material in different regions worldwide, encouraging the spread of diseases and exposure to these biological agents to different environmental conditions, inducing adaptation through genetic changes. Based in the polymorphism of the gene for GP60, this review intended to present the distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in humans and calves worldwide. The subtype that affects cattle more frequently corresponds to IIaA15G2R; while the subtype most frequently isolated from human samples is IaA19G2.

  10. Blastocystis Hominis and Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children: Is there an Association between Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Monjaraz, Erick Manuel; Vichido Luna, Miguel Angel; Montijo Barrios, Ericka; Cervantes Bustamante, Roberto; Zárate Mondragón, Flora; Huante Anaya, Alfonso; Cadena León, José; Mendez, Monserrat Cazares; López Ugalde, Martha; Ramirez Mayans, Jaime A

    2017-08-03

    Chronic abdominal pain has many etiologies, one of them being parasites. The aim of this study was to find an association between chronic abdominal pain in children and Blastocystis hominis (Bh). Clinical files of patients with Bh and functional abdominal pain were reviewed. A comparison was made between patients who showed an improvement of their symptoms and those who did not. Out of the 138 patients who had functional abdominal pain and Bh, 37 patients did not receive any treatment (26.8%), while 101 received it and were treated with different antimicrobial agents (73.2%); regarding the improvement of symptoms, a statistically significant difference (p abdominal pain in children has different etiologies; however, we have documented through this work that it is appropriate to provide antimicrobial treatment for patients with Bh and chronic abdominal pain. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Clinical Review of the Effects of Hominis Placental Pharmacopuncture in the Treatment of Facial Spasm Patients

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    Jo Na-Young

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of treatment with Hominis Placental pharmacopuncture (HPP for 32 patients with hemifacial spasm. Methods: We treated facial spasm patients with acupuncture and HPP at Sabaek (ST2, Seung-eup (ST1, Gwallyeo (SI18, Chanjuk (BL2, Sajukgong (TE23, Hagwan (ST7, Hyeopgeo (ST6, Jichang (ST4, Wan-gol (SI4 and Yepung (TE17, and we investigated the effect by using Scott’s scale. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS/10.0 for windows program with descriptive statistics, the paired t-test, and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Results: After treatment, the grade of the spasm’s intensity based on Scott’s description were decreased significantly. About 72% of the patients felt that the combination treatment had produced excellent results. Conclusion: These data suggested that HPP can be useful for treating facial spasm patients.

  12. Heterogeneity and compartmentalization of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis genotypes in autopsy lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2001-01-01

    The extent and importance of genotype heterogeneity of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis within lungs have not previously been investigated. Two hundred forty PCR clones obtained from respiratory specimens and lung segments from three patients with fatal P. carinii pneumonia were investigated....... Not all genotypes present in the lungs at autopsy were detected in the diagnostic respiratory samples. Compartmentalization of specific ITS and mtLSU rRNA sequence types was observed in different lung segments. In conclusion, the interpretation of genotype data and in particular ITS sequence types...... in the assessment of epidemiological questions should be cautious since genotyping done on respiratory samples cannot a priori be assumed to represent all genotypes present within the lung....

  13. Biosecurity and geospatial analysis of mycoplasma infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and ...

  14. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  15. Mycoplasma hyosynoviae arthritis in grower-finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E.O.; Nielsen, N.C.; Friis, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    pigs had soft fluctuating joint swellings (odds ratio (OR), 7.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.40-15.47). No indication of suppurative arthritis was observed. Joint infection with Mycoplasma hysoynoviae was found by culture in 20% (17 of 86) of the lame pigs and in 8% (seven of 83) of the non...

  16. Epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Denmark, 2010 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldum, S A; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Denmark experienced two waves of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection during autumn and early winter in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Both affected the whole country. The proportion of positive results was almost the same for both, indicating that the two waves were probably of equal size. High macrolide...

  17. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Bo Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report one case of a three-year-old boy infected with Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP and presenting concomitant multiple organ damage of the heart, kidney, lung and liver, among others, together with a brief review for the diagnosis and treatment of MP infection with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS.

  18. Mycoplasma haemocanis: Sub-clinical and haematological findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the appearance of Mycoplasma haemocanis in a mongrel dog, which has been documented previously in different parts of the world, yet never in Nigeria. An apparently and clinically healthy mongrel was presented for Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parvoviral enteritis, Parainfluenza (DHLPP) vaccination in ...

  19. Systems analysis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to improve vaccine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a bacterial pathogen that has evolved from a gram-positive ancestor and specifically colonizes the lower respiratory tract of pigs where it causes enzootic pneumonia and plays a major role in the development of respiratory disease

  20. Advances in diagnostics and molecular typing of Mycoplasma synoviae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    The increased clinical and economic relevance of M. synoviae a poultry pathogen causing arthritis and eggshell apex abnormalities and egg production drops prompted the Dutch poultry industry to launch a mandatory control and eradication programme for this mycoplasma species in 2013 This programme is

  1. Prevalence of genital Mycoplasmas among patients with discharge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (20- 24 years of age), married, nonemployed and non educated. The main complaint was whitish mucoid urethral or vaginal discharge without other significant symptoms or signs. Amongst patients with Mycoplasma infection, gonorrhoea was detected in 3 patients, syphilis in 3 and trichomonas vaginalis in one patient.

  2. 21 CFR 864.2360 - Mycoplasma detection media and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma detection media and components. 864.2360 Section 864.2360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products...

  3. Mycoplasma mastitis in cattle: To cull or not to cull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Robin A J; Fox, Larry K; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2016-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis, is a major problem for milk production and animal welfare in large dairy herds in the USA and a serious, although sporadic, disease in Europe and the Middle East. It causes severe damage to the udder of cattle and is largely untreatable by chemotherapy. Mycoplasma mastitis has a distinct epidemiology and a unique set of risk factors, the most important of which is large herd size. The disease is often self-limiting, disappearing within months of outbreaks, sometimes without deliberate intervention. Improved molecular diagnostic tests are leading to more rapid detection of mycoplasmas. Typing tests, such as multi-locus sequence typing, can help trace the source of outbreaks. An approach to successful control is proposed, which involves regular monitoring and rapid segregation or culling of infected cows. Serious consideration should be given by owners of healthy dairy herds to the purchase of M. bovis-free replacements. Increased cases of disease could occur in Europe and Israel if the trend for larger dairy herds continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unravelling the transcriptome profile of the Swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.

  5. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  6. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  7. Comparison of detection procedures of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis in lungs, tonsils, and synovial fluid of slaughtered pigs and their distributions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhanon, Metta; Tummaruk, Padet; Thongkamkoon, Pacharee; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct PCR (DP) gave similar results to culture prior to PCR (CPP) for detecting mycoplasmas in different types of pig tissues. A total of 724 samples obtained from lungs, tonsils, or synovial fluids from 270 slaughtered pigs were used. The history of clinical signs, lung score, and the presence of joint lesions were recorded during sample collection. The rates of detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis using both procedures were evaluated. The overall prevalences of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae, and M. hyorhinis were 40.3%, 12.3%, and 64.6%, respectively, and the detection rate depended on the sample type and the procedure used. With lung tissue, DP gave a higher detection rate for M. hyopneumoniae (77.4%) than CPP (38.5%). M. hyorhinis was detected by CPP at 15.6% and 18.1% and by DP at 31.5% and 5.2%, respectively. The positive rate derived from tonsil from CPP was closed to that of DP. Using synovial fluid could not yield any positive M. hyorhinis from CPP whereas 37.2% was positive from DP. In contrast, using sample tissue from lung and tonsil by CPP could show much higher positive number than that of DP. There was a significant relationship between joint lesion and M. hyorhinis detection by DP (P hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis detection by DP and CPP, respectively. Tonsil was likely the community of persistent M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis with highly detection by CPP. Synovial fluid was apparently unsuitable for mycoplasmal culture. The accuracy of mycoplasmal detection may depend upon the type of sample relevant to the detection procedure used.

  8. Species-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies to Escherichia coli-Expressed p36 Cytosolic Protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, J.; Sawyer, N.; Moumen, B. Ben Abdel; Bouh, K. Cheikh Saad; Dea, S.

    2000-01-01

    The p36 protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a cytosolic protein carrying species-specific antigenic determinants. Based on the genomic sequence of the reference strain ATCC 25934, primers were designed for PCR amplification of the p36-encoding gene (948 bp). These primers were shown to be specific to M. hyopneumoniae since no DNA amplicons could be obtained with other mycoplasma species and pathogenic bacteria that commonly colonize the porcine respiratory tract. The amplified p36 gene was subcloned into the pGEX-4T-1 vector to be expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The GST-p36 recombinant fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and cut by thrombin, and the enriched p36 protein was used to immunize female BALB/c mice for the production of anti-p36 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The polypeptide specificity of the nine MAbs obtained was confirmed by Western immunoblotting with cell lysates prepared from the homologous strain. Cross-reactivity studies of the anti-p36 MAbs towards two other M. hyopneumoniae reference strains (ATCC 25095 and J strains) and Quebec field strains that had been isolated in culture suggested that these anti-p36 MAbs were directed against a highly conserved epitope, or closely located epitopes, of the p36 protein. No reactivity was demonstrated against other mycoplasma species tested. Clinical signs and lesions suggestive of enzootic pneumonia were reproduced in specific-pathogen-free pigs infected experimentally with a virulent Quebec field strain (IAF-DM9827) of M. hyopneumoniae. The bacteria could be recovered from lung homogenates of pigs that were killed after the 3-week observation period by both PCR and cultivation procedures. Furthermore, the anti-p36 MAbs permitted effective detection by indirect immunofluorescence of M. hyopneumoniae in frozen lung sections from experimentally infected pigs. However, attempts to use the recombinant p36 protein as an antigen in an

  9. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates originating from joint lesions and the respiratory tract of commercial poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, W J M; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; Feberwee, A

    2008-08-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 17 Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial poultry to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin was examined. Three isolates originated from joint lesions and 14 were from the respiratory tract. The type strain M. synoviae WVU 1853 was included as a control strain. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested quantitatively using the broth microdilution test. Based on initial and final minimum inhibitory concentration values, all tested isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin. Two isolates from the respiratory tract were resistant to enrofloxacin and showed intermediate resistance to difloxacin.

  10. Hepcidin is elevated in mice injected with Mycoplasma arthritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Jerry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma arthritidis causes arthritis in specific mouse strains. M. arthritidis mitogen (MAM, a superantigen produced by M. arthritidis, activates T cells by forming a complex between the major histocompatability complex II on antigen presenting cells and the T cell receptor on CD4+ T lymphocytes. The MAM superantigen is also known to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and 4. Hepcidin, an iron regulator protein, is upregulated by TLR4, IL-6, and IL-1. In this study, we evaluated serum hepcidin, transferrin saturation, ferritin, IL-6, IL-1, and hemoglobin levels in M. arthritidis injected C3H/HeJ (TLR2+/+, TLR4-/- mice and C3H/HeSnJ (TLR2+/+, TLR4+/+ mice over a 21 day period. C3H/HeJ mice have a defective TLR4 and an inability to produce IL-6. We also measured arthritis severity in these mice and the amount of hepcidin transcripts produced by the liver and spleen. C3H/HeJ mice developed a more severe arthritis than that of C3H/HeSnJ mice. Both mice had an increase in serum hepcidin within three days after infection. Hepcidin levels were greater in C3H/HeJ mice despite a nonfunctioning TLR4 and low serum levels of IL-6. Splenic hepcidin production in C3H/HeJ mice was delayed compared to C3H/HeSnJ mice. Unlike C3H/HeSnJ mice, C3H/HeJ mice did not develop a significant rise in serum IL-6 levels but did develop a significant increase in IL-1β during the first ten days after injection. Both mice had an increase in serum ferritin but a decrease in serum transferrin saturation. In conclusion, serum hepcidin regulation in C3H/HeJ mice does not appear to be solely dependent upon TLR4 or IL-6.

  11. Insertion sequences as variability generators in the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and M. synoviae genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgion Lúcio Silva Loreto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the sequenced genomes of three strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and one strain of M. synoviae, and have found three and two different transposable element families, respectively in each species. In M. hyopneumoniae, the Insertion Sequences of the IS4 family is represented by ISMHp1, a putatively active element. The IS3 family is represented by several degenerated sequences. A third element called tMH was found, which shows some characteristics reminiscent of retrotransposons. In M. synoviae, three different possibly active IS4 elements are present (ISMHp1-like; ISMs1 and IS1634-like elements. The IS30 family is represented by the degenerated IS1630-like element. The IS1634-like element is shown to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements and horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The ISMHp1-like element is shown to relate to the HGT of a 25-kb region from M. gallisepticum to M. synoviae. The fractions of these genomes that correspond to mobile elements varied from 1.35 to 3.13% in M. hyopneumonia strains and was 2.08% in M. synoviae. Although these species possess reduced genomes, they maintain mobile elements, perhaps as a mechanism for genetic variability production.

  12. A Clinical Study on 1 Case of Patient with Bilateral Simultaneous Bell's Palsy Treated by Hominis Placenta Herbal-Acupuncture

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    Kwon, Kang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried out to investigate the progress of bilateral simultaneous facial palsy and the effect of Hominis Placenta herbal-acupunture and the other oriental medical therapies. Methods : We used two methods to research the progress of disease. 1. Diagnosis - Facial muscle test, Taste test, Hearing test, Photographies, Lab-finding 2. Treatment - Acupuncture, Herbal-acupuncture, Electroacupuncture, Herb-med Results : The onset of Rt. facial palsy was earlier than Lt. facial palsy 3days. The reaction on the treatment of Rt. facial palsy was more dull than Lt. facial palsy. In terms of treatment period, Rt. facial palsy was very longer than Lt. facial palsy. Conclusion : According to the above results, we discoveried that Hominis Placenta herbal-acupunture and the other oriental medical therapies had good influence on the bilateral simultaneous facial palsy. In the future, we should endeavor to know influence between Rt. and Lt. face in case of bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy.

  13. Development and evaluation of a multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Mycoplasma synoviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, R; Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M

    2016-08-01

    Reproducible molecular Mycoplasma synoviae typing techniques with sufficient discriminatory power may help to expand knowledge on its epidemiology and contribute to the improvement of control and eradication programmes of this mycoplasma species. The present study describes the development and validation of a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. synoviae. Thirteen M. synoviae isolates originating from different poultry categories, farms and lesions, were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Their sequences were compared to that of M. synoviae reference strain MS53. A high number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicating considerable genetic diversity were identified. SNPs were present in over 40 putative target genes for MLST of which five target genes were selected (nanA, uvrA, lepA, ruvB and ugpA) for the MLST scheme. This scheme was evaluated analysing 209 M. synoviae samples from different countries, categories of poultry, farms and lesions. Eleven clonal clusters and 76 different sequence types (STs) were obtained. Clustering occurred following geographical origin, supporting the hypothesis of regional population evolution. M. synoviae samples obtained from epidemiologically linked outbreaks often harboured the same ST. In contrast, multiple M. synoviae lineages were found in samples originating from swollen joints or oviducts from hens that produce eggs with eggshell apex abnormalities indicating that further research is needed to identify the genetic factors of M. synoviae that may explain its variations in tissue tropism and disease inducing potential. Furthermore, MLST proved to have a higher discriminatory power compared to variable lipoprotein and haemagglutinin A typing, which generated 50 different genotypes on the same database.

  14. Generation of a Monoclonal Antibody against Mycoplasma spp. following Accidental Contamination during Production of a Monoclonal Antibody against Lawsonia intracellularis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2012-01-01

    This report describes Mycoplasma contamination of Lawsonia intracellularis cultures that led to the unintended acquisition of a monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma spp. during the attempted generation of a monoclonal antibody against L. intracellularis.

  15. Effect of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture on the Dysmenorrhea (A Pilot study, Single blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Min Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment on Dysmenorrhea of Women. Methods : 49 subjects who were suffering from dysmenorrhea volunteered to answer the MMP(Measure of Menstrual Pain and MSSL(Menstrual Symptom Severity List questionnaire. They were divided into two groups, a Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment group(Experiment al group, n=25 and a Normal Saline(N/S treatment group(Control group, n=24. The two groups were injected on the CV4, S36, Sp9 and Sp6 acupuncture point. They were treated totally five times depending on the individual menstruation cycles. The scores of MMP and MSSL were measured overall three times before and after the menstruation cycle. The collected data were analyzed as paired t-test, independent t-test using SPSS 12.0 WIN Program. Results : As a result of the evaluation by MMP and MSSL, a significant improvement on dysmenorrhea was made in the two groups(p<0.05, and both scores of Experiment group were decreased more than Control group. But there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions : The Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment and the Normal Saline treatment were effective in decreasing the symptom of Dysmenorrhea.

  16. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Mastite bovina por Mycoplasma bovis em rebanhos leiteiros Mastitis caused by Mycoplasma bovis in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne G. Pretto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinadas 713 vacas de três rebanhos leiteiros localizados na região norte do Estado do Paraná e sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, das quais 137 apresentaram mastite. Nas três propriedades foram detectados oito animais (1,12% com mastite clínica por Mycoplasma bovis. Destes animais, quatro tratados com oxitetraciclina e tilosina e três com enrofloxacina, não responderam ao tratamento e foram descartados no decorrer da lactação. Uma vaca medicada com enrofloxacina recuperou quase que totalmente a secreção láctea mas a eliminação de M. bovis persistiu por toda lactação. Esta vaca apresentou cura bacteriológica na lactação seguinte. O descarte dos animais positivos, monitora-mento bacteriológico e a aplicação correta das medidas de prevenção para as mastites contagiosas controlaram a disseminação de M. bovis nos rebanhos.In this study 713 cows were examined. The animals were from three dairy farms in northern Paraná and the southwest of the State of São Paulo. From these cows, 137 had mastitis. On the three farms, 8 cows (1.12% with Mycoplasma bovis mastitis were detected. Four were treated with tylosin and oxytetracyclin and three with enrofloxacin. There was no response to the treatments, and these animals were culled during the lactation period. One cow treated with enrofloxacin almost totally recovered milk production, but elimination of M. bovis continued during the lactation, and there was no bacteriological cure. This cow had a normal milk production in the next lactation period, without elimination of M. bovis. Culling of positive animals, the bacteriological study and correct application of preventive practices for contagious mastitis controlled the dissemination of M. bovis to other animals.

  18. Acute pancreatitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: an unusual etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Lacasa, Teresa; Duarte Borges, María Alejandra; García Marín, Alicia; Gómez Cuervo, Covadonga

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that the most important etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and alcohol consumption. Once these causes have been ruled out, especially in young adults, it is important to consider less frequent etiologic factors such as drugs, trauma, malformations, autoimmunity or systemic diseases. Other rare and less well studied causes of this pathology are infections, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been reported to cause acute pancreatitis as an unusual extrapulmonary manifestation. Here, we report the case of a 21-year-old patient who had acute idiopathic pancreatitis associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. After an in-depth study, all other causes of pancreatitis were ruled out and Mycoplasma was established as the clinical etiology.

  19. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum as the presenting sign of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SP results from nontraumatic mediastinal air leakage. It is uncommon in children requiring a high index of suspicion. Case Report: A 17-year-old tall thin boy, light smoker, with no history of trauma or lung disease presented to our emergency room with symptoms dominated by chest pain and mild dyspnea. He reported a violent cough event in the previous hours. Pneumomediastinum was suspected considering the presence of subcutaneous air in the supraclavicular region, and was confirmed by chest radiograph, which showed mediastinal air. Serology study was positive for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and therefore a macrolide was added to symptomatic treatment, with a complete recovery. Discussion/Conclusion: SP is a diagnosis to consider when facing an adolescent with acute chest pain. This condition is possibly underdiagnosed, given its benign course and mild symptoms. Smoking acts as a predisposing factor. SP has only exceptionally been described in Mycoplasma infection.

  20. Destruction of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk by a commercial on-farm high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabel, J R; Hurd, S; Calvente, L; Rosenbusch, R F

    2004-07-01

    The 2002 NAHM's Dairy Survey indicated that 87.2% of dairy farms in the United States feed waste milk to their neonatal calves. Although cost-effective, this practice can lead to increased calf morbidity and mortality due to ingestion of pathogenic agents. In an effort to reduce the risk of infection, dairy producers are implementing on-farm pasteurization of the waste milk as a control procedure before feeding the milk to calves. In the present study, the efficacy of a commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) on-farm pasteurizer unit to destroy Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella enterica spp., and Mycoplasma spp. in raw milk was evaluated. Replicate experiments were run for 3 isolates of M. paratuberculosis, 3 serovars of Salmonella (derby, dublin, typhimurium); and 4 species of Mycoplasma (bovis, californicum, canadense, serogroup 7) at 2 different levels of experimental inoculation. In addition, HTST pasteurization experiments were performed on colostrum experimentally inoculated with M. paratuberculosis. After culture of the pasteurized milk samples, no viable M. paratuberculosis, Salmonella, or Mycoplasma were recovered, regardless of species, strain, or isolate. Pasteurization of colostrum was also effective in the destruction of M. paratuberculosis but resulted in an average 25% reduction in colostral immunoglobulin. These results suggest that HTST pasteurization is effective in generating a safer product to feed to young calves.

  1. Simultaneous and rapid differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum based on a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to simultaneously detect and differentiate Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female patients suffering from genital complications by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Materials and Methods : Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients. They were transported to the laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline. For PCR, samples were analysed with genus-specific MyUu-R and MyUu-F primers. This primer set, which was originally designed in our laboratory, amplified a 465 bp fragment (M. genitalium and a 559 bp fragment (U. urealyticum. Samples containing a band of the expected sizes for the Mycoplasma strains were subjected to digestion with a restriction endonuclease enzyme of TaqI and Cac8I. Results: Of the 210 samples, a total of 100 (47.6% samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasmas (seven M. genitalium isolates, 3.3%; and 89 U. urealyticum isolates, 42.4%, and coinfections with both species were detected in four samples (1.9%. The PCR-RFLP results showed that M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are different by enzyme patterns. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP offers a rapid and easily applicable protocol to simultaneous detection and differentiation of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum from clinical samples when specific primers and restriction enzymes are used.

  2. Search for OIE-listed ruminant mycoplasma diseases in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahir, W; Omar, O; Rosales, R S; Hlusek, M; Ziay, G; Schauwers, W; Whatmore, A M; Nicholas, R A J

    2017-05-30

    Little is known about the occurrence of important diseases of ruminants in Afghanistan because of the conflict affecting the country over the last 40 years. To address this discrepancy, ruminant herds in Afghanistan were screened for OIE-listed mycoplasma diseases, contagious bovine (CBPP) and caprine pleuropneumonias (CCPP). Of the 825 samples from 24 provinces tested for serological evidence of CBPP caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp.mycoides, 20 (3.4%) had ELISA values greater than the positive threshold of 50% though all were less than 55%. Repeat testing of these suspect sera gave values below 50. A smaller number of sera (330) from cattle in nine provinces were also tested by the rapid latex agglutination test (LAT) for CBPP, 10 of which were considered suspect. However, no positive bands were seen when immunoblotting was carried out on all sera that gave suspect results. Serological evidence of Mycoplasma bovis was detected in half of 28 herds in eight provinces. The cause of CCPP, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae was not detected in any of the 107 nasal swabs and lung tissue collected from goats in seven provinces though sample handling and storage were not optimal. However, strong serological evidence was detected in goat herds in several villages near Kabul some of which were over 50% seropositive by LAT and ELISAs for CCPP; immunoblotting confirmed positive results on a selection of these sera. The data presented here provide a first assessment of the occurrence of the two OIE listed mycoplasma diseases in Afghanistan. From the results of the testing bovine sera from the majority of provinces there is no evidence of the presence of CBPP in Afghanistan. However the samples tested represented only 0.03% of the cattle population so a larger survey is required to confirm these findings. Serological, but not bacterial, evidence was produced during this investigation to show that CCPP is highly likely to be present in parts of Afghanistan.

  3. Atypical Pneumonia: Updates on Legionella, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh; Losier, Ashley; Tolbert, Thomas; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Marion, Chad R

    2017-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has multiple causes and is associated with illness that requires admission to the hospital and mortality. The causes of atypical CAP include Legionella species, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma. Atypical CAP remains a diagnostic challenge and, therefore, likely is undertreated. This article reviews the advancements in the evaluation and treatment of patients and discusses current conflicts and controversies of atypical CAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 9 CFR 147.16 - Procedure for the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). 147.16 Section 147.16 Animals and Animal Products... the evaluation of mycoplasma reactors by in vivo bio-assay (enrichment). This procedure has been shown... publications: (a) Bigland, C. H. and A. J. DaMassa, “A Bio-Assay for Mycoplasma Gallisepticum.” In: United...

  5. Hemotropic mycoplasma infection in wild black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Takehiro; Suzuki, Jin; Sasaoka, Fumina; Sashida, Hinako; Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-04-12

    This is the first report on Mycoplasma infection in wild bears. We report a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma (also called hemoplasma) detected in a free-ranging black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Japan. We then used real-time PCR to look for hemoplasma DNA in blood samples collected from 15 bears and found that eight (53%) were positive. Among these eight PCR samples, seven showed a melting temperature of around 85.5°C, while the remaining one showed a single peak at 82.26°C. Almost the entire region of the 16S rRNA gene as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region from the sample that showed a melting temperature of 82.26°C was successfully amplified by means of end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the ITS region were then determined and compared with those of authentic Mycoplasma species. Our examinations revealed the presence of a novel hemoplasma in Japanese black bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in simulated and true clinical throat swab specimens by nanorod array-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L Hennigan

    Full Text Available The prokaryote Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans, accounting for 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia and the leading cause of pneumonia in older children and young adults. The limitations of existing options for mycoplasma diagnosis highlight a critical need for a new detection platform with high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we evaluated silver nanorod arrays (NA as a biosensing platform for detection and differentiation of M. pneumoniae in culture and in spiked and true clinical throat swab samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. Three M. pneumoniae strains were reproducibly differentiated by NA-SERS with 95%-100% specificity and 94-100% sensitivity, and with a lower detection limit exceeding standard PCR. Analysis of throat swab samples spiked with M. pneumoniae yielded detection in a complex, clinically relevant background with >90% accuracy and high sensitivity. In addition, NA-SERS correctly classified with >97% accuracy, ten true clinical throat swab samples previously established by real-time PCR and culture to be positive or negative for M. pneumoniae. Our findings suggest that the unique biochemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, combined with reproducible spectral enhancement by silver NA, holds great promise as a superior platform for rapid and sensitive detection and identification of M. pneumoniae, with potential for point-of-care application.

  7. Clinical and analytical evaluation of the new Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, with data on M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unemo, M.; Salado-Rasmussen, K.; Hansen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Européene (CE)/. in vitro diagnostics (IVD) Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE/IVD AMG; Hologic); the prevalence of MG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and MG resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016. Methods: From February 2016......B quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Resistance-associated mutations were determined by sequencing. Strains of MG and other mycoplasma species in different concentrations were also tested. Results: In total 5269 patients were included. The prevalence of MG was 7.2% (382/5269; 4.9-9.8% in the countries...

  8. Prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Respiratory Tract of Cattle Slaughtered in Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle lungs (n=1200 obtained from abattoir of 10 districts of Balochistan were processed for isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species. A total of 156 isolates produced typical fried egg colonies on Modified Hayflick’s agar medium and 87.8% were preliminarily identified as Mycoplasma species, 12.2% species were Acholeplasmas. All the digitonin sensitive isolates were further subjected to different biochemical and PCR tests for further identification. Overall prevalence of M. bovis lungs samples obtained from slaughter house samples was 9%. Among the Mycoplasma isolates; 108 M. bovis, 29 Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc and 16 M. arginini were identified through the biochemical tests. M. bovis and Mycoplasma mycoides subcluster members were further validated through PCR and RFLP. Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type (Mmm SC was not isolated from any of the lung samples. Among the Mycoplasma bovis species isolated, the highest number was observed from Quetta district (16% followed by Pishin (15%, Zhob (11 % and Kalat (10%. Conversely the lowest number of M. bovis isolates was found in Bolan (2% district followed by Jaffarabad (3%, 4%, each from Khuzdar, Mustung, Killasaifullah and 7% in Sibi district. Statistical analysis using chi square test, showed a significance difference (χ²=33.38 in the recovery of Mycoplasma bovis from the lungs of cattle slaughtered in 10 districts of Balochistan.

  9. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  10. The functions of the variable lipoprotein family of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in adherence to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiyan; Wang, Jia; Ji, Yan; Ni, Bo; Zhang, Bixiong; Ma, Qinghong; Wei, Yanna; Xiao, Shaobo; Feng, Zhixin; Liu, Maojun; Shao, Guoqing

    2016-04-15

    Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) is a swine pathogen that is associated with various human cancers and contamination in cell cultures. However, no studies on the adhesion molecules of this pathogen have yet been reported. The variable lipoprotein (Vlp) family is an important surface component of M. hyorhinis. Herein, we performed several experiments to identify the function of the Vlp family in adherence to host cells. Seven recombinant Vlp (rVlp) proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The potential role of rVlp adherence to pig kidney (PK-15) and swine tracheal epithelial (STEC) cells was then studied by indirect immunofluorescence assay and microtiter plate adherence assay. Adhesion of M. hyorhinis to PK-15 and STEC cells was specifically inhibited by the addition of a cocktail of rVlp proteins. The rVlp protein mixture was shown to bind to both PK-15 and STEC cells. The binding increased in a dose-dependent manner and could be blocked by antisera against the rVlp proteins. Most of the rVlp proteins could bind individually to both PK-15 and STEC cells except for rVlpD and rVlpF, which bound only to STEC cells. Because Vlp members vary in size among different strains and generations, they may vary in their cytoadhesion capabilities in various strains. In summary, the present results indicate that the Vlp family functions as adhesins of M. hyorhinis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on porcine circovirus type 2 replication in vitro PK-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Feng, Zhixin; Wu, Yuzi; Wei, Yanna; Gan, Yuan; Hua, Lizhong; Li, Bin; Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Maojun; Xiong, Qiyan; Shao, Guoqing

    2016-04-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is a very well-known co-factor that potentially enhances PCV2 replication and thus the development of PMWS. However, co-infection with Mhp and PCV2 in vivo under different conditions can produce divergent clinical signs and lesions. In this study, PCV2 replication could be enhanced by subsequent co-inoculation with Mhp (PCV2+Mhp) in a time and dose dependent method, but not by prior (Mhp+PCV2) or simultaneous (Mhp/PCV2) co-inoculation. Furthermore, different magnitudes of PCV2-infected cells, varying from 150% ± 14% to 351% ± 28%, were detected when co-infected with different Mhp strains. The relative percentage of PCV2-infected cells greatly decreased from 351% ± 28 to 141% ± 18 when the Mhp strain was treated with UV light for 12 h. These results offer the evidences to better understand the complex clinical syndromes in Mhp/PCV2 co-infection cases, and the occurrence of PMWS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates originating from joint lesions and the respiratory tract of commercial poultry

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The in vitro susceptibility of 17 Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates, 3 originating from joint pathology and 14 from the respiratory tract of commercial poultry, for enrofloxacin, difloxacin, doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin was examined. The M. synoviae ATCC 25204 was included as a control strain. The antibiotic susceptibility was tested quantitatively using the broth microdilution test. Based on initial and final MIC values, all tested isolates were susceptible ...

  13. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Amy C., E-mail: aca@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth College, Department of Chemistry, Burke Laboratories, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  14. Survival and replication of Mycoplasma species in recycled bedding sand and association with mastitis on dairy farms in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, A; Trujillo, J; Corbett, R; Harding, R; Goodell, G; Wilson, D

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma spp., usually Mycoplasma bovis, are important bovine pathogens that can cause mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, and arthritis. The currently documented routes of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. are through contaminated milking equipment and by direct animal contact. The existence of environmental sources for Mycoplasma spp. and their role in transmission and clinical disease is poorly characterized. Mycoplasma spp. (confirmed as M. bovis in 2 of 4 samples tested using PCR) was found in recycled bedding sand originating from a dairy experiencing an outbreak of clinical mycoplasma mastitis. Mycoplasma spp. were subsequently found in bedding sand from 2 other dairies whose bulk-tank milk was mycoplasma-positive. The association between the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and mycoplasma mastitis in cows was further investigated using a pile of recycled sand from dairy 1. Study objectives included the determination of factors associated with the concentration of Mycoplasma spp. in recycled bedding sand and the duration of survival of mycoplasmas in the sand. We also evaluated the efficacy of 2 disinfectants at 2 different concentrations each for the elimination of Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated sand. Mycoplasma spp. survived in the sand pile for 8 mo. The concentration of Mycoplasma spp. within the sand pile was directly related to temperature and precipitation. It was also positively associated with the growth of gram-negative microorganisms, suggesting the possibility of the formation of a biofilm. Ideal temperatures for replication of Mycoplasma spp. occurred between 15 and 20 degrees C. Moisture in the sand and movement of the sand pile also appeared to play a role in replication of mycoplasmas. We found that 0.5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine were efficacious in eliminating Mycoplasma spp. from contaminated bedding sand. Recycled bedding sand could be an environmental source of Mycoplasma spp., including M. bovis

  15. Isolation of Mycoplasma gallopavonis from free-ranging wild turkeys in coastal North Carolina seropositive and culture-negative for Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, D T; Ley, D H; Doerr, P D

    1992-01-01

    Serum samples and choanal cleft swabs were collected from livetrapped and hunter killed wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Martin and Bertie counties, North Carolina (USA). Sera were tested for antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma meleagridis by hemagglutination inhibition (HI). Sera from 33% (five of 15) of livetrapped turkeys were positive for antibodies to M. gallisepticum by HI, and all were negative for antibodies to M. synoviae and M. meleagridis. Choanal cleft swabs from 22 livertrapped and five hunter killed wild turkeys cultured in Frey's broth medium resulted in 23 mycoplasma isolations. Using direct immunofluorescence, 74% (17/23) were M. gallopavonis, and 26% (six of 23) were unidentified; no isolate was identified as M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae or M. meleagridis.

  16. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial chickens in Iran

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    Pourbakhsh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been reported from commercial chicken farms in different provinces of Iran. In some reports the phylogenetic analysis of MS isolates based on 16S rRNA and variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin (vlhA genes have been carried out. The PCR product containing partial 16S rRNA genes of Iranain isolates was sequenced, and compared with 16S rRNA gene of MS sequences which were available in GenBank. Variations, polymorphisms, and differences between nucleotides of all isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that all MS isolates from Iran were most closely related to sequences of MS from Brazil. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal end of the hemagglutinin encoding gene vlhA were also used as an alternative for the detection and initial typing of field strains of MS in commercial poultry. The results showed that there was a complete concordance between all Iranian isolates nucleotide sequence and the 5́-vlhA region sequence remained unchanged in all MS isolates and demonstrated differentiation between Iranian isolates and live commercial MS-H vaccine strain. More recently, the single-copy domain of the conserved region of vlhA gene in MS was sequenced, analyzed and verified to type MS field isolates in Iran and live vaccine MS-H strain. In addition, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method was established based on single nucleotide polymorphism that existed in all field isolates of Iran to differentiate between these field isolates and MS-H. This PCR-RFLP method allowed differentiating all MS field isolates from the vaccine strain.

  17. Antibody responses of swine following infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, João Carlos; Strait, Erin L; Raymond, Matthew; Ramirez, Alejandro; Minion, F Chris

    2014-11-07

    Several mycoplasma species possessing a range of virulence have been described in swine. The most commonly described are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma flocculare. They are ubiquitious in many pig producing areas of the world, and except for M. hyopneumoniae, commercial antibody-based assays are lacking for most of these. Antibody cross-reactivity among these four mycoplasma species is not well characterized. Recently, the use of pen-based oral fluids for herd surveillance is of increasing interest. Thus, this study sought to measure pig antibody responses and the level of cross-reactivity in serum and pen-based oral fluids after challenge with four species of swine mycoplasmas. Four groups of four mycoplasma-free growing pigs were separately inoculated with the different mycoplasma species. Pen-based oral fluids and serum samples were collected weekly until necropsy. Species-specific Tween 20 ELISAs were used to measure antibody responses along with four other commercial M. hyopneumoniae ELISAs. Animals from all groups seroconverted to the challenge species of mycoplasma and no evidence of cross-contamination was observed. A delayed antibody response was seen with all but M. hyorhinis-infected pigs. Cross-reactive IgG responses were detected in M. hyopneumoniae- and M. flocculare-infected animals by the M. hyorhinis Tween 20 ELISA, while sera from M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare-infected pigs were positive in one commercial assay. In pen-based oral fluids, specific anti-M. hyopneumoniae IgA responses were detected earlier after infection than serum IgG responses. In summary, while some antibody-based assays may have the potential for false positives, evidence of this was observed in the current study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycoplasma bovis infections and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. with different clinical manifestations in affected cattle herds in eastern region of Poland

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    Szacawa Ewelina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE. The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8% instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1% instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.

  19. Desenvolvimento das gônadas de Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae

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    Edy de Lello

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento das gônadas do berne (D. hominis durante o período pupal. As pupas desenvolvidas de larvas com peso superior a 650 mg, deram imagos fêmeas, enquanto que as desenvolvidas daquelas pesando entre 500 e 650 mg deram macho, tendo havido um erro ao redor de 5%. Até o oitavo dia de pupação os testículos crescem mais que os ovários; a partir daí diminui o desenvolvimento, parando de crescer entre o vigésimo e vigésimo quinto dias. A espermatogênese inicia por volta do sétimo dia de pupa quando é grande o número de espermatócitos. No décimo dia alguns testículos apresentam considerável número de espermátides e os espermatozóides começam a aparecer por volta do vigésimo dia. A espermiogênese desenvolve-se sem interrupção e ao final da pupação quase toda loja testicular está repleta de espermatózóides. Os machos começam a nascer dois dias antes das fêmeas. Nessas, os ovaríolos aparecem formados por volta do oitavo dia de pupa; os folículos se individualizam por volta do vigésimo dia de pupa onde se distingue os trofócitos com núcleos politênicos e citoplasmas bem basófilos, enquanto o ovócito tem citoplasma mais acidófilo e núcleo com cromatina bastante frouxa. A vitelogênese tem início ao redor do vigésimo quinto dia de pupa e se completa ao nascimento da imago. A ligação das gônadas com suas respectivas estruturas somáticas acontece ao redor do décimo terceiro dia de pupação.Gonadal development of Dermatobia hominis during pupal period is described. Pupae developing from larvae weighing above 650 mg turned into female flies whereas the ones from larvae weighing between 500 and 600 mg turned into males (with plus of minus 5% of error. Up to the 8th day of pupation the testes are larger than the ovaries; from that time on they decrease their speed of development and stop growing between the 20th and 25th day. The spermatogenesis starts around the 7th day when there

  20. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

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    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  1. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Thivierge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic.We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons. Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified.In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  2. Development and validation of an attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Xin; Wei, Yan-Na; Li, Gui-Lan; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Pharr, G Todd; Wang, Zhan-Wei; Kong, Meng; Gan, Yuan; Bai, Fang-Fang; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Wu, Xu-Su; Shao, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-27

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) causes a chronic respiratory disease with high morbidity and low mortality in swine, and has been presented as a major cause of growth retardation in the swine industry. Aerosol vaccination presents a needle free, high throughput, and efficient platform for vaccine delivery, and has been widely applied in poultry vaccination. However, aerosol vaccines have rarely been used in swine vaccination primarily because the long and curving respiratory track of swine presents a barrier for vaccine particle delivery. To develop an effective M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine, three major barriers need to be overcome: to optimize particle size for aerosol delivery, to maintain the viability of mycoplasma cells in the vaccine, and to optimize the environmental conditions for vaccine delivery. In this study, an aerosol mycoplasma vaccine was successfully developed based on a conventional live attenuated M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. Specifically, the Pari LCD nebulizer was used to produce an aerosol vaccine particle size less than 5 μm; and a buffer with 5% glycerol was developed and optimized to prevent inactivation of M. hyopneumoniae caused by aerosolization and evaporation. Before nebulization, the room temperature and relative humidity were control to 20-25 °C and 70-75%, respectively, which helped maintain the viability of aerosol vaccine. Animal experiments demonstrated that this newly developed aerosol vaccine was effectively delivered to swine low respiratory track, being confirmed by nested-PCR, in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscope. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae specific sIgA secretion was detected in the nasal swab samples at 14 days post-immunization. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a live M. hyopneumoniae aerosol vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma iguanae proposed sp. nov. isolated from vertebral lesions of green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Megan E; Demcovitz, Dina L; Plourdé, Daisy R; Rotstein, David S; Brown, Daniel R

    2006-06-01

    Mycoplasma iguanae proposed species nova was isolated from vertebral abscesses of two feral iguanas (Iguana iguana) from Florida. Three strains were evaluated for sensitivity to a variety of antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for M. iguanae, assessed by broth dilution methods, of clindamycin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin (all doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were bacteriostatic from 0.1 to 0.5 microg/ml, whereas enrofloxacin was bactericidal at 20 ng/ml. An enrofloxacin dosage of 5-10 mg/kg achieves peak plasma concentrations >1 microg/ml, with an elimination half-life of 6-20 hr, in alligators. Although concentrations achieved in the vertebrae by i.m. or i.v. injection are probably lower than those in plasma, these data suggest that enrofloxacin may be useful to treat M. iguanae mycoplasmosis in iguanas.

  4. Mycoplasmas isolated from stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) used in falconry in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Volker; Spergser, Joachim; Cramer, Kerstin; Di Somma, Antonio; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Bailey, Tom

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. from quarry to hunting falcons in the Middle East. Groups of 17 houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata) and 29 stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) kept at three different private collections in Dubai were evaluated for the presence of Mycoplasma. Additionally, 10 falcons used for hunting were investigated for comparison. The falcons showed no clinical signs and were examined within the scope of a routine health check. From all birds, conjunctival and choanal swabs were taken and analyzed via polymerase chain reaction and culture. Although mycoplasmas were not recovered from choanal and conjunctival swabs taken from the houbara bustards, Mycoplasma gypis and M. falconis were isolated from the majority (28/29; 97%) of the stone curlews from choanal and conjunctival swabs. Most of the birds had no associated pathologic findings. Mycoplasma falconis was also detected in samples collected from 2 of the 10 falcons, and M. buteonis was isolated from the majority of falcons (6/10 falcons) from choanal (n = 5) and conjunctival (n = 1) swabs. Mycoplasma gypis could also be isolated from tissue samples (liver, oviduct, syrinx) of one dead stone curlew. This study presents the first isolation of mycoplasmas from stone curlews.

  5. The effects of mycoplasma contamination upon the ability to form bioengineered 3D kidney cysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M DesRochers

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures is a pervasive, often undiagnosed and ignored problem in many laboratories that can result in reduced cell proliferation and changes in gene expression. Unless contamination is specifically suspected, it is often undetected in two dimensional (2D cultures and the resulting effects of mycoplasma contamination are rarely appreciated and can lead to incorrect conclusions. Three dimensional (3D tissue cultures are increasingly utilized to explore tissue development and phenotype. However, 3D cultures are more complex than 2D cell cultures and require a more controlled cellular environment in order to generate structures necessary to mimic in vivo responses and are often maintained for longer time periods. Changes to the microenvironment are assumed to have a more extreme effect upon the success of 3D tissue cultures than 2D cell cultures, but the effects of mycoplasma have not been studied. To test this hypothesis, we grew 2D cell cultures and 3D tissues from pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 that were contaminated with mycoplasma and the same stock of cells after mycoplasma removal. We did not observe an effect of mycoplasma contamination on proliferation in 2D monolayer cell culture. However, cyst formation in 3D tissues was altered, with effects upon the number, size and structure of cysts formed. These data serve to reinforce the necessity of testing cell stocks for mycoplasma contamination.

  6. Detection of genetic mutations associated with macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Eun Oh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of this study was to identify mutations associated with macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP and to establish a cultural method to determine antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods : Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs were collected from 62 children diagnosed with MP pneumonia by a serologic method or polymerase chain reaction. The 23S rRNA and L4 ribosomal protein genes of MP were amplified and sequenced. To identify mutations in these 2 genes, their nucleotide sequences were compared to those of the reference strain M129. MP cultivation was carried out for 32 (28 frozen and 5 refrigerated NPAs and M129 strain using Chanock’s glucose broth and agar plate in a 5% CO2 incubator at 37?#608;and examined at 2-3 day intervals for 6 weeks. Results : Among the 62 specimens, 17 had M144V mutations in ribosomal protein L4. The A2064G mutation was observed in 1 specimen; its 23S rRNA gene was successfully sequenced. Culture for MP was successful from the M129 strain and 2 of the 5 NPAs that were refrigerated for no longer than 3 days. However, MP did not grow from the 28 NPAs that were kept frozen at -80?#608;since 2003. Conclusion : We found the M144V mutation of L4 protein to be common and that of domain V of 23S rRNA gene was relatively rare among MP. Studies on the prevalence of macrolide-resistant MP and the relationship between the mutations of 23S rRNA gene and ribosomal protein L4 will aid in understanding the mechanism of macrolide resistance in MP.

  7. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Besser

    Full Text Available Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep.In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats.M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of

  8. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep. In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats. M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of pneumonia. However

  9. Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Manaka, Sachie [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Nakane, Daisuke [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

  10. Mycoplasma testing of cell substrates and biologics: Review of alternative non-microbiological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Graham, Laurie J; Brorson, Kurt A; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasmas, particularly species of the genera Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma, are known to be occasional microbial contaminants of cell cultures that produce biologics. This presents a serious concern regarding the risk of mycoplasma contamination for research laboratories and commercial facilities developing and manufacturing cell-derived biological and biopharmaceutical products for therapeutic use. Potential undetected contamination of these products or process intermediates with mycoplasmas represents a potential safety risk for patients and a business risk for producers of biopharmaceuticals. To minimize these risks, monitoring for adventitious agents, such as viruses and mycoplasmas, is performed during the manufacture of biologics produced in cell culture substrates. The "gold standard" microbiological assay, currently recommended by the USP, EP, JP and the US FDA, for the mycoplasma testing of biologics, involves the culture of viable mycoplasmas in broth, agar plates and indicator cells. Although the procedure enables highly efficient mycoplasma detection in cell substrates and cell-derived products, the overall testing strategy is time consuming (a minimum of 28 days) and requires skilled interpretation of the results. The long time period required for these conventional assays does not permit their use for products with short shelf-lives or for timely 'go/no-go' decisions during routine in-process testing. PCR methodology has existed for decades, however PCR based and other alternative methods for mycoplasma detection have only recently been considered for application to biologics manufacture. The application of alternative nucleic acid-based, enzyme-based and/or recombinant cell-culture methods, particularly in combination with efficient sample preparation procedures, could provide advantages over conventional microbiological methods in terms of analytical throughput, simplicity, and turnaround time. However, a challenge to the application of alternative

  11. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30...... from samples originating from Dodoma, Iringa, Mbeya, Morogoro and Shinyanga regions where outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia had been reported. In the examination of goats, mycoplasmas were isolated from 54 (34.0%) of the 159 examined lung samples, 41 (18.1%) of the 226 nasal swabs and 4...

  12. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  13. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H

    2007-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  14. Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep following experimental exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Lahmers, Kevin; Oaks, J Lindsay; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Foreyt, William J

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia. In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy. Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep.

  15. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen-Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J E; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for antigen production. In this study, we sequenced the genome of M. hyopneumoniae strain 11 and constructed a high quality constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model of 284 chemical reactions and 298 metabolites. We validated the model with time-series data of duplicate fermentation cultures to aim for an integrated model describing the dynamic profiles measured in fermentations. The model predicted that 84% of cellular energy in a standard M. hyopneumoniae cultivation was used for non-growth associated maintenance and only 16% of cellular energy was used for growth and growth associated maintenance. Following a cycle of model-driven experimentation in dedicated fermentation experiments, we were able to increase the fraction of cellular energy used for growth through pyruvate addition to the medium. This increase in turn led to an increase in growth rate and a 2.3 times increase in the total biomass concentration reached after 3-4 days of fermentation, enhancing the productivity of the overall process. The model presented provides a solid basis to understand and further improve M. hyopneumoniae fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2339-2347. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High levels of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembizki, Ella; Buckley, Cameron; Bletchly, Cheryl; Nimmo, Graeme R; Whiley, David M

    2017-10-01

    The macrolide azithromycin is recommended for treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection; however, M. genitalium strains possessing macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMMs) are increasingly being reported. Here, we used the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit, which provides simultaneous detection of M. genitalium and MRMMs, to assess MRMM carriage among M. genitalium infections in Queensland, Australia. Performance characteristics of the ResistancePlus MG kit for M. genitalium detection were compared to in-house PCR. Available M. genitalium PCR-positive (n=67) and negative (n=281) samples from the years 2011 to 2017 were tested using the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit. In total, 63.6 % M. genitalium-positive samples were indicated to harbour MRMMs. The ResistancePlus MG method provided sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 99.6 % respectively compared to in-house PCR for M. genitalium detection. Such high levels of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium raise further concerns over future use of azithromycin for treatment of M. genitalium infection.

  17. Post-translational processing targets functionally diverse proteins in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchi, Jessica L; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Haynes, Paul A; Berry, Iain J; Widjaja, Michael; Bogema, Daniel R; Woolley, Lauren K; Jenkins, Cheryl; Minion, F Chris; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2016-02-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a genome-reduced, cell wall-less, bacterial pathogen with a predicted coding capacity of less than 700 proteins and is one of the smallest self-replicating pathogens. The cell surface of M. hyopneumoniae is extensively modified by processing events that target the P97 and P102 adhesin families. Here, we present analyses of the proteome of M. hyopneumoniae-type strain J using protein-centric approaches (one- and two-dimensional GeLC-MS/MS) that enabled us to focus on global processing events in this species. While these approaches only identified 52% of the predicted proteome (347 proteins), our analyses identified 35 surface-associated proteins with widely divergent functions that were targets of unusual endoproteolytic processing events, including cell adhesins, lipoproteins and proteins with canonical functions in the cytosol that moonlight on the cell surface. Affinity chromatography assays that separately used heparin, fibronectin, actin and host epithelial cell surface proteins as bait recovered cleavage products derived from these processed proteins, suggesting these fragments interact directly with the bait proteins and display previously unrecognized adhesive functions. We hypothesize that protein processing is underestimated as a post-translational modification in genome-reduced bacteria and prokaryotes more broadly, and represents an important mechanism for creating cell surface protein diversity. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. In vitro protective efficacy of Lithium chloride against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishag, Hassan Z A; Wu, Yu-Zi; Liu, Mao-Jun; Xiong, Qi-Yan; Feng, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Ruo-Song; Shao, Guo-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) infection affects the swine industry. Lithium chloride (LiCl), is a drug used to treat bipolar disorder and has also shown activity against bacterial and viral infections. Herein, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of LiCl on PK-15 cells infected with M. hyopneumoniae. Incubation of LiCl (40mM) with cells for 24h, did not significantly affect the cell viability. The qRT-PCR showed ~80% reduction in M. hyopneumoniae genome when LiCl added post-infection. A direct effect of LiCl on bacteria was also observed. However, treatment of cells with LiCl prior infection, does not protect against the infection. Anti-bacterial activity of LiCl was further confirmed by IFA, which demonstrated a reduction in the bacterial protein. With 40mM LiCI, the apoptotic cell death, production of nitric oxide and superoxide anion induced by M. hyopneumoniae, were prevented by ~80%, 60% and 58% respectively. Moreover, caspase-3 activity was also reduced (82%) in cells treated with 40mM LiCl. LiCl showed activity against various strains of M. hyopneumoniae examined in our study. Collectively, our data showed that LiCl inhibited the infection of M. hyopneumoniae through anti-apoptotic mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of antimicrobial options for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: focus on macrolide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Qu, Jiu-Xin; Yin, Yu-Dong; Eldere, Johan Van

    2017-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease affecting children and adults of any age. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has emerged as leading causative agent of CAP in some region, and the abrupt increasing resistance to macrolide that widely used for management of M. pneumoniae has reached to the level that it often leads to treatment failures. We aim to discuss the drivers for development of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, antimicrobial stewardship and also the potential treatment options for patients infected with macrolide-resistant M. pneumonia. The articles in English and Chinese published in Pubmed and in Asian medical journals were selected for the review. M. pneumoniae can develop macrolide resistance by point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Inappropriate and overuse of macrolides for respiratory tract infections may induce the resistance rapidly. A number of countries have introduced the stewardship program for restricting the use of macrolide. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are highly effective for macrolide-resistant strains, which may be the substitute in the region of high prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. The problem of macrolide resistant M. pneumonia is emerging. Antibiotic stewardship is needed to inhibit the inappropriate use of macrolide and new antibiotics with a more acceptable safety profile for all ages need to be explored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Hijikata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  1. Nonconserved Residues Ala287 and Ser290 of the Cryptosporidium hominis Thymidylate Synthase Domain Facilitate Its Rapid Rate of Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan,L.; Martucci, W.; Vargo, M.; Atreya, C.; Anderson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis TS-DHFR exhibits an unusually high rate of catalysis at the TS domain, at least 10-fold greater than those of other TS enzymes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have mutated residues Ala287 and Ser290 in the folate-binding helix to phenylalanine and glycine, respectively, the corresponding residues in human and most other TS enzymes. Our results show that the mutant A287F, the mutant S290G, and the double mutant all have reduced affinities for methylene tetrahydrofolate and reduced rates of reaction at the TS domain. Interestingly, the S290G mutant enzyme had the lowest TS activity, with a catalytic efficiency {approx}200-fold lower than that of the wild type (WT). The rate of conformational change of the S290G mutant is {approx}80 times slower than that of WT, resulting in a change in the rate-limiting step from hydride transfer to covalent ternary complex formation. We have determined the crystal structure of ligand-bound S290G mutant enzyme, which shows that the primary effect of the mutation is an increase in the distance between the TS ligands. The kinetic and crystal structure data presented here provide the first evidence explaining the unusually fast TS rate in C. hominis.

  2. Detection of Mycoplasma pulmonis in laboratory rats Detecção de Mycoplasma pulmonis em ratos de biotérios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Barreto

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted on rats in two premises located in Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One is classified as conventional controlled and the other, conventional. The objective of the present study was to detect the presence of Mycoplasma pulmonis in animals with symptoms of respiratory disease and low reproductive performance. In the conventional controlled premises, 16 rats of Wistar-Furth strain were necropsied while in the conventional premises necropsy was performed on 12 rats of Hooded Lister strain. The clinical samples of lungs, trachea, oropharynx, middle ear, uterus and ovaries were subjected to culturing while the sera were tested for antibody detection. From 28 rats, 57.14% (16/28 were culture positive for M. pulmonis, being 81.25% (13/16 from the conventional controlled premises, and 25.00% (3/12 from the conventional premises. The ELISA test was carried out in 20 animals of both colonies. In the conventional controlled premises, 92.86% (13/14 were positive for M. pulmonis, and 7.14% (1/14 were suspicious, while in the conventional premises, 100% (6/6 of the samples were positive. The results confirmed that M. pulmonis was the etiologic agent of the disease that affected the rats under study, and that the ELISA positivity rated higher than culture.O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em ratos de dois biotérios, um em Niterói e outro no Rio de Janeiro, sendo um classificado como convencional controlado e o outro como convencional. O objetivo foi verificar a presença do Mycoplasma pulmonis em animais que apresentavam sintomas de doença respiratória e baixa produtividade. No biotério convencional controlado foram necropsiados 16 ratos da linhagem Wistar-Furth enquanto no biotério convencional a necrópsia foi realizada em 12 ratos da linhagem Hooded Lister. Os espécimes de pulmão, traquéia, orofaringe, ouvido médio, útero e ovário foram submetidas ao cultivo e o soro obtido ao teste de ELISA. Dos 28 ratos que foram

  3. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age {>=}18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  4. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Jin; Oh, Ki Keun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen.

  5. Quality Control of Biotechnological Inputs DetectingMycoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Netto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR as a tool of quality control of bovine sera and cellular cultures used in the biotechnological industry. A total of 46 samples of bovine sera derived from two slaughterhouses and 33 samples of BHK21 cells derived from two biotechnological industries were evaluated using the primers GPO-3 (sense and MGSO (antisense. The PCR technique sensibility analysis showed that 280 bp were amplified for the quantities of 50 ng to 0.006 ng of Micoplasma DNA. The primers specificity was confirmed in the test using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilisand Candida albicans; except by the positive control, none of the samples showed amplification. The presence of Mycoplasma in bovine sera and in the cultures of BHK21 cells showed that 56.5 and 15.2%, respectively, were contaminated. Thus, it was possible to conclude that PCR was a fast and confident technique to detect mycoplasma and that it could be used to control the quality of immunobiological products and inputs, such as sera and cultures of BHK21 cells.

  6. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  7. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age ≥18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  8. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Jin; Oh, Ki Keun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen.

  9. Differential metabolism of Mycoplasma species as revealed by their genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio B.M. Arraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The annotation and comparative analyses of the genomes of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumonie, as well as of other Mollicutes (a group of bacteria devoid of a rigid cell wall, has set the grounds for a global understanding of their metabolism and infection mechanisms. According to the annotation data, M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are able to perform glycolytic metabolism, but do not possess the enzymatic machinery for citrate and glyoxylate cycles, gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Both can synthesize ATP by lactic fermentation, but only M. synoviae can convert acetaldehyde to acetate. Also, our genome analysis revealed that M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are not expected to synthesize polysaccharides, but they can take up a variety of carbohydrates via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS. Our data showed that these two organisms are unable to synthesize purine and pyrimidine de novo, since they only possess the sequences which encode salvage pathway enzymes. Comparative analyses of M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae with other Mollicutes have revealed differential genes in the former two genomes coding for enzymes that participate in carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism and host-pathogen interaction. The identification of these metabolic pathways will provide a better understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of these organisms.

  10. Radiologic and clinical findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Jin; Oh, Ki Keun

    1987-01-01

    Mycoplasma Pneumonia is a cause of primary atypical pneumonia, but it is asymptomatic mostly or may cause of only mild symptoms. School-aged children experienced high attack rate and manifestation if 'unusual pneumonia' are noted. So authors reviewed clinical and radiological features of 110 cases of serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumonia in hospitalized children between November 1984 and January 1987 retrospectively. The results were as follows ; 1. The sex distribution was 57:53 (1.1:1) in male to female ratio and 47% of them were 5 though 8 years old of age with peak incidence between 5 and 6 years old of age. 2. The symptoms were cough, fever, and sore throat in descending order of frequency and mean symptom duration before admission was 8.1 day. The prevalent season was earlier winter. 3. The radiologic findings were air-space consolidation with lobar, segmental distribution in 68%, interstitial infiltration in 12%, bronchopneumonia in 12%, chronic bronchitis pattern in 3.6%, normal in 4.5%, hilar LN enlargement in 37%, pleural effusion in 12%. 4. Radiologic resolution period was usually 10 days around (4-25 days) and after complete recovery, scarring change or calcification was not seen. 5. Extrapulmonary manifestations were uncommon but hepatitis, hematuria, skin rash, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, otitis media occurred. 6. With administration of tetracyclin and erythromycin, clinical and radiologic responses were promptly seen

  11. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos': Transplacental transmission in dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto-Soares, Aline; Soares, João Fabio; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; de Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa; Sandeski, Lígia Mara; Garcia, João Luis; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-11-15

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of 'C. M. haemobos' in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of 'C. M. haemobos' DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained 'C. M. haemobos' DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to 'C. M. haemobos'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Apoptosis induced by lipid-associated membrane proteins from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in a porcine lung epithelial cell line with the involvement of caspase 3 and the MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, B; Bai, F F; Wei, Y; Liu, M J; Feng, Z X; Xiong, Q Y; Hua, L Z; Shao, G Q

    2015-09-25

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) are important in the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma genus of bacteria. We investigated whether Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae LAMPs have pathogenic potential by inducing apoptosis in a St. Jude porcine lung epithelial cell line (SJPL). LAMPs from a pathogenic strain of M. hyopneumoniae (strain 232) were used in the research. Our investigation made use of diamidino-phenylindole (DAPI) and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and Annexin-V-propidium iodide staining. After LAMP treatment for 24 h, typical changes were induced, chromosomes were concentrated, apoptotic bodies were observed, the 3'-OH groups of cleaved genomes were exposed, and the percentage of apoptotic cells reached 36.5 ± 11.66%. Caspase 3 and caspase 8 were activated and cytochrome c (cyt c) was released from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm; poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) was digested into two fragments; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was phosphorylated; and the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax increased while the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 decreased. LAMPs also stimulated SJPL cells to produce nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide. This study demonstrated that LAMPs from M. hyopneumoniae can induce apoptosis in SJPL cells through the activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, cyt c, Bax, and p38 MAPK, thereby contributing to our understanding of the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae, which should improve the treatment of M. hyopneumoniae infections.

  13. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos; Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2016-07-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are two genetically close species found in the swine respiratory tract. Despite their similarities, while M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Genomic and transcriptional comparative analyses so far failed to explain the difference in pathogenicity between these two species. We then hypothesized that such difference might be, at least in part, explained by amino acid sequence and immunological or functional differences between ortholog surface proteins. In line with that, it was verified that approximately 85% of the ortholog surface proteins from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and M. flocculare present one or more differential domains. To experimentally assess possible immunological implications of this kind of difference, the extracellular differential domains from one pair of orthologous surface proteins (MHP7448_0612, from M. hyopneumoniae, and MF_00357, from M. flocculare) were expressed in E. coli and used to immunize mice. The recombinant polypeptides (rMHP61267-169 and rMF35767-196, respectively) induced distinct cellular immune responses. While, rMHP61267-169 induced both Th1 and Th2 responses, rMF35767-196 induced just an early pro-inflammatory response. These results indicate that immunological properties determined by differential domains in orthologous surface protein might play a role in pathogenicity, contributing to elicit specific and differential immune responses against each species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-udløst autoimmun hæmolyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anne Lisbeth; Aagaard, Thomas Granum; Birgens, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is naturally resistant to betalactamase antibiotics but is sensitive to macrolides. Occasionally, infections with M. pneumoniae can lead to severe anaemia due to its ability to cause haemolysis when cold agglutination occurs. Increasing bacterial resistance to macrolid...

  15. Molecular biology of mycoplasmas: from the minimum cell concept to the artificial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Caio M M; Hoeltgebaum, Daniela L; Machado, Laís D P N; Santos, Larissa Dos

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are a large group of bacteria, sorted into different genera in the Mollicutes class, whose main characteristic in common, besides the small genome, is the absence of cell wall. They are considered cellular and molecular biology study models. We present an updated review of the molecular biology of these model microorganisms and the development of replicative vectors for the transformation of mycoplasmas. Synthetic biology studies inspired by these pioneering works became possible and won the attention of the mainstream media. For the first time, an artificial genome was synthesized (a minimal genome produced from consensus sequences obtained from mycoplasmas). For the first time, a functional artificial cell has been constructed by introducing a genome completely synthesized within a cell envelope of a mycoplasma obtained by transformation techniques. Therefore, this article offers an updated insight to the state of the art of these peculiar organisms' molecular biology.

  16. β-D-Glucoside utilization by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC: possible involvement in the control of cytotoxicity towards bovine lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Daniela F

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type (SC is among the most serious threats for livestock producers in Africa. Glycerol metabolism-associated H2O2 production seems to play a crucial role in virulence of this mycoplasma. A wide number of attenuated strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC are currently used in Africa as live vaccines. Glycerol metabolism is not affected in these vaccine strains and therefore it does not seem to be the determinant of their attenuation. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the bgl gene coding for the 6-phospho-β-glucosidase (Bgl has been described recently. The SNP differentiates virulent African strains isolated from outbreaks with severe CBPP, which express the Bgl isoform Val204, from strains to be considered less virulent isolated from CBPP outbreaks with low mortality and vaccine strains, which express the Bgl isoform Ala204. Results Strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC considered virulent and possessing the Bgl isoform Val204, but not strains with the Bgl isoform Ala204, do trigger elevated levels of damage to embryonic bovine lung (EBL cells upon incubation with the disaccharides (i.e., β-D-glucosides sucrose and lactose. However, strains expressing the Bgl isoform Val204 show a lower hydrolysing activity on the chromogenic substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPbG when compared to strains that possess the Bgl isoform Ala204. Defective activity of Bgl in M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC does not lead to H2O2 production. Rather, the viability during addition of β-D-glucosides in medium-free buffers is higher for strains harbouring the Bgl isoform Val204 than for those with the isoform Ala204. Conclusion Our results indicate that the studied SNP in the bgl gene is one possible cause of the difference in bacterial virulence among strains of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. Bgl does not act as

  17. Evaluation of effects of Mycoplasma mastitis on milk composition in dairy cattle from South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farha, Abd Al-Bar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Khazandi, Manouchehr; Hoare, Andrew; Petrovski, Kiro

    2017-11-25

    Mycoplasma mastitis is increasingly posing significant impact on dairy industry. Although the effects of major conventional mastitis pathogens on milk components has been widely addressed in the literature, limited data on the effects of different Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma spp. on milk quality and quantity is available. The aim of this study was to determine the casual relationship of Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii to mastitis and compare them to subclinical mastitis caused by conventional mastitis pathogens from a single dairy herd in South Australia; Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii were detected using PCR applied directly to milk samples. The herd had mastitis problem with high somatic cell count and low response rate to conventional antimicrobial therapy. A total of 288 cow-level milk samples were collected aseptically and used in this study. Conventional culture showed a predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by coagulase-positive staphylococci, Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Klebsiella spp. PCR results showed a high prevalence of mycoplasmas (76.7%), including A. laidlawii (10.8%), M. bovis (6.2%), M. bovirhinis (5.6%), M. arginini (2%), and (52.1%) of cows were co-infected with two or more Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species. Mycoplasma co-infection significantly increased somatic cell counts (SCC) similar to conventional mastitis pathogens and compared to non-infected cows with 389.3, 550.3 and 67.3 respectively; and decreased the milk yield with 29.0, 29.9 and 34.4 l, respectively. Mycoplasma co-infection caused significant increase in protein percentage, and significant decrease in fat percentage and total milk solids, similar to other conventional mastitis pathogens. In contrast, changes in milk composition and yield caused by various individual Mycoplasma species were non-significant. Mycoplasma mastitis had on-farm economic consequences similar to common conventional mastitis pathogens. Results of our study

  18. Electron microscopic observation of the respiratory tract of SPF piglets inoculated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, B.; Vena, M.M.; Cavalier, A.; Lannic, J. Le; Gouranton, J.; Kobisch, M.

    1992-01-01

    Seven hysterectomy derived piglets were repeatedly challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during the first week of life. Samples of trachea, bronchi and lung tissue collected 2-11 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) were examined using light and electron microscopy. Autoradiography was used to study in more detail the site of M. hyopneumoniae multiplication. Gross lesions were observed in lung tissue and were characterized by hyperplasia of the epithelium and an increased mononuclear cell accumulation in perivascular and peribronchiolar areas. Mild lesions of the trachea and the bronchi, including epithelial hyperplasia and infiltration of the lamina propria by inflammatory cells, were noted. Electron microscopy showed that, 2-6 weeks p.i., changes in the mid-trachea and bronchi surface consisted of the loss of cilia. Mycoplasmas covered tufts of cilia remaining on the epithelial cell surface. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed that they were predominantly found closely associated with the top of cilia. No specialized terminal structure could be seen and no mycoplasma cells were identified lying free in the lumen nor in close contact with the plasma membrane of cells or microvilli. Some fine fibrils radiating from one mycoplasma to another or to cilia were seen at higher magnification by scanning electron microscopy. Six to eleven weeks p.i., a disrupted epithelial surface lacking cilia was observed. Cells were desquamated and shed into the lumen with cellular remains containing droplets of mucus. Autoradiography revealed that label corresponded to the observed mycoplasma distribution. At the top of cilia, a high density of labeling was visible in the zone of high mycoplasma concentration. Therefore, incorporation of the label in the mycoplasma is proof or their multiplication in the trachea. The intimate association between the mycoplasma and cilia may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the disease caused by M. hyopneumoniae (swine

  19. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Xia; Sun, Jian; Yang, Tao; Fang, Xi; Cheng, Jie; Xiong, Yan Q.; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin us...

  20. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Xiao; Xia Xiao; Jian Sun; Tao Yang; Xi Fang; Jie Cheng; Yan Q. Xiong; Yan Q. Xiong; Ya-Hong Liu; Ya-Hong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin us...

  1. Suitability of peracetic acid for sterilization of media for mycoplasma cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzler, P; Sprössig, M; Peterseim, H

    1975-01-01

    The utility of peracetic acid for sterilization of serum and yeast extract additions to mycoplasma medium was studied by culturing six Mycoplasma species. Culture media containing additions that had been sterilized with peracetic acid proved to be as good as filtered components. The use of 0.05 to 0.1% peracetic acid is recommended to sterilize the serum and yeast extract additions since savings in time and equipment can be accomplished. PMID:1100656

  2. Mycoplasma in urine and blood following catheterisation of patients undergoing vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Eiberg, J; Skov Jensen, J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if mycoplasmas enter the bloodstream after urinary tract catheterisation in patients undergoing vascular surgery in order to evaluate the efficiency of the routine prophylactic antibiotic treatment.......The purpose of this investigation was to determine if mycoplasmas enter the bloodstream after urinary tract catheterisation in patients undergoing vascular surgery in order to evaluate the efficiency of the routine prophylactic antibiotic treatment....

  3. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  4. Molecular characterization of acquired enrofloxacin resistance in Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, I; Gerchman, I; Mikula, I; Gobbo, F; Catania, S; Levisohn, S

    2013-07-01

    The in vitro activity of enrofloxacin against 73 Mycoplasma synoviae field strains isolated in Israel and Europe was determined by broth microdilution. Decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin was identified in 59% of strains, with the MICs ranging from 1 to >16 μg/ml. The estimated MIC50 and MIC90 values for enrofloxacin were 2 and 8 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, this study showed that 92% of recent Israeli field isolates (2009 to 2011) of M. synoviae have MICs of ≥ 2 μg/ml to enrofloxacin. Comparison of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in M. synoviae isolates revealed a clear correlation between the presence of one of the amino acid substitutions Asp79-Asn, Thr80-Ala/Ile, Ser81-Pro, and Asp84-Asn/Tyr/His of the ParC QRDR and decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin (MIC, ≥ 1 μg/ml). Amino acid substitutions at positions GyrA 87, GyrB 401/402, and ParE 420/454 were also identified, but there was no clear-cut correlation with susceptibility to enrofloxacin. Comparison of vlhA molecular profiles revealed the presence of 9 different genotypes in the Israeli M. synoviae field isolates and 10 genotypes in the European isolates; only one vlhA genotype (type 4) was identified in both cohorts. Based on results of vlhA molecular typing, several mechanisms for emergence and dissemination of Israeli enrofloxacin-resistant M. synoviae isolates are suggested.

  5. Development of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mostafa; El-Gazzar, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a poultry pathogen with reported increased prevalence and virulence in recent years. MS strain identification is essential for prevention, control efforts and epidemiological outbreak investigations. Multiple multilocus based sequence typing schemes have been developed for MS, yet the resolution of these schemes could be limited for outbreak investigation. The cost of whole genome sequencing became close to that of sequencing the seven MLST targets; however, there is no standardized method for typing MS strains based on whole genome sequences. In this paper, we propose a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme as a standardized and reproducible method for typing MS based whole genome sequences. A diverse set of 25 MS whole genome sequences were used to identify 302 core genome genes as cgMLST targets (35.5% of MS genome) and 44 whole genome sequences of MS isolates from six countries in four continents were used for typing applying this scheme. cgMLST based phylogenetic trees displayed a high degree of agreement with core genome SNP based analysis and available epidemiological information. cgMLST allowed evaluation of two conventional MLST schemes of MS. The high discriminatory power of cgMLST allowed differentiation between samples of the same conventional MLST type. cgMLST represents a standardized, accurate, highly discriminatory, and reproducible method for differentiation between MS isolates. Like conventional MLST, it provides stable and expandable nomenclature, allowing for comparing and sharing the typing results between different laboratories worldwide. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characterization and determination of antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolated from chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpinyo, Somsak; Sasipreeyajan, Jiroj

    2007-11-15

    In this study, three consecutive approaches of molecular characterization, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial tested on Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolated from chicken farms were investigated. These approaches were conducted between 2004 and 2005 to 134 MG samples collected from five different regions of the intensive farming area of Thailand. Twenty MG isolates and four reference strains including S6, F, ts-11, and 6/85 were classified according to Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns prior to the antimicrobial tests. These isolates exhibited 5 different genotypes (A-E). Consequently, MG isolates representing each genotype were tested on 11 registered antibiotics. The levels of MIC were determined. Three antibiotics, doxycycline (0.20 microg/ml), tiamulin (0.10 microg/ml), and tylosin (0.33 microg/ml), gave the least MICs among all effective drugs. Break point comparisons of each antimicrobial suggested that the MG isolates were most sensitive to lincomycin, oxytetracycline, tiamulin, and tylosin. Some MG isolates had an intermediate effect on josamycin and were resistant to enrofloxacin and erythromycin. Our results also indicated that MG isolated and collected from the region and nearby districts had similar RAPD patterns showing properties of antimicrobial resistance. The RAPD patterns may imply the frequent use of antibiotics and a resistant strain of MG. This is the first report of genetic characterization using RAPD reflected by the levels of MIC against MG. The information is useful to plan for prophylactic and therapeutic impacts on the poultry industry especially in the area of intensive use of antibiotics.

  7. [Antimycoplasmal activities of ofloxacin and commonly used antimicrobial agents on Mycoplasma gallisepticum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, I; Yoshida, T

    1989-05-01

    In vitro activities of ofloxacin (OFLX), a new quinolone derivative, against 29 strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum was compared with those of 4 commonly used antimicrobial agents, doxycycline (DOXY), tylosin (TS), spectinomycin (SPCM) and thiamphenicol (TP). Antimycoplasmal activities of the drugs were evaluated on the MIC (final MIC) and MPC (minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration) values which were determined by a broth dilution procedure. The following results were obtained. 1. The MIC90s of OFLX and DOXY were both 0.20 micrograms/ml. The MICs of TS were distributed through a wide range (less than or equal to 0.006 - 0.78 micrograms/ml), and its MIC90 was 0.78 micrograms/ml. Of 29 M. gallisepticum strains, 27.6% were recognized as TS-resistant. The MIC90 values of SPCM and TP were 1.56 micrograms/ml and 3.13 micrograms/ml, respectively. The MIC90 of OFLX was equal to that of DOXY and 4- to 16-fold smaller than the values of the other 3 antibiotics. 2. The MPC of OFLX was the lowest among the antibiotics tested, its MPC90 value was 0.39 micrograms/ml and was followed by DOXY (1.56 micrograms/ml). The MPCs of TS were distributed in a wide range (0.012 - 3.13 micrograms/ml), and its MPC90 was 3.13 micrograms/ml. The MPC90 values of SPCM and TP were both 6.25 micrograms/ml. Therefore, the mycoplasmacidal activity of OFLX evaluated with MPC90 values was 4- to 16-fold greater than those of the other 4 antibiotics.

  8. Simultaneous Identification of Potential Pathogenicity Factors of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the Natural Ovine Host by Negative Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Shivanand; Hegde, Shrilakshmi; Zimmermann, Martina; Flöck, Martina; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasmas possess complex pathogenicity determinants that are largely unknown at the molecular level. Mycoplasma agalactiae serves as a useful model to study the molecular basis of mycoplasma pathogenicity. The generation and in vivo screening of a transposon mutant library of M. agalactiae were employed to unravel its host colonization factors. Tn4001mod mutants were sequenced using a novel sequencing method, and functionally heterogeneous pools containing 15 to 19 selected mutants were sc...

  9. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Evolutionary history of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia using next generation sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides "Small Colony".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Dupuy

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides "Small Colony" (MmmSC is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19(th century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20(th century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19(th century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected.

  11. High prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in nongonococcal urethritis: the need for routine testing and the inadequacy of current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Witney, Adam A; Lopeman, Rose C; Butcher, Philip D; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2014-03-01

     Empirical antibiotic therapy for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and cervicitis is aimed at Chlamydia trachomatis, but Mycoplasma genitalium, which also commonly causes undiagnosed NGU, necessitates treatment with macrolides or fluoroquinolones rather than doxycycline, the preferred chlamydia treatment. Prevalence of M. genitalium and associated genotypic markers of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance among men symptomatic of urethritis were investigated. Genetic diversity of M. genitalium populations was determined to infer whether findings were applicable beyond our setting.  Mycoplasma genitalium and other NGU pathogens were detected using nucleic acid amplification methods, and DNA sequencing was used to detect genotypic resistance markers of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in 23S ribosomal RNA, gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes. MG191 single-nucleotide polymorphism typing and MG309 variable number tandem analysis were combined to assign a dual locus sequence type (DLST) to each positive sample.  Among 217 men, M. genitalium prevalence was 16.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%-24.0%) and C. trachomatis prevalence was 14.7% (95% CI, 7.8%-21.6%) in NGU cases. Nine of 22 (41%; 95% CI, 20%-62%) patients with M. genitalium were infected with DLSTs possessing genotypic macrolide resistance and 1 patient was infected with a DLST having genotypic fluoroquinolone resistance. Typing assigned M. genitalium DLSTs to 2 major clusters, broadly distributed among previously typed international strains. Genotypic macrolide resistance was spread within these 2 clusters.  Mycoplasma genitalium is a frequent undiagnosed cause of NGU in this population with rates of macrolide resistance higher than those previously documented. Current guidelines for routine testing and empirical treatment of NGU should be modified to reduce treatment failure of NGU and the development of further resistance.

  12. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  13. Mycoplasma bovis: mechanisms of resistance and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility

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    Inna eLysnyansky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  14. Characterization of Elongation Factor Tu of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

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    Xuan Zhang, Yue-feng Chu, Ping Zhao, Peng-cheng Gao, Ying He, Nu Wang and Zhong-xin Lu*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is considered as an important pathogen of small ruminants, but its antigenic proteins are not well known so far. In this study, we cloned the EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae and analyzed the molecular features of the gene and its coding protein for the first time. The gene was then expressed in E.coli and the antigenicity of the coding protein was evaluated as well. The EF-Tu gene of M. ovipneumoniae is 1209 bp in length, encodes 402 amino acids, and shares the highest DNA sequence identity of 87.5% and deduced amino acid sequence identity of 97.8% with those of M. hyopneumoniae, respectively. The recombinant EF-Tu protein can react with the polyclonal antiserum of M. ovipneumoniae and can induce humoral immune responses in mice, which indicated that the EF-Tu may be used as a candidate protein in developing the technologies to control the disease.

  15. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  16. Mycoplasma suis infection results endothelial cell damage and activation: new insight into the cell tropism and pathogenicity of hemotrophic mycoplasma

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    Sokoli Albina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM are highly specialized red blood cell parasites that cause infectious anemia in a variety of mammals, including humans. To date, no in vitro cultivation systems for HM have been available, resulting in relatively little information about the pathogenesis of HM infection. In pigs, Mycoplasma suis-induced infectious anemia is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis, and coagulation dysfunction. However, intravasal coagulation and subsequent consumption coagulopathy can only partly explain the sequence of events leading to hemorrhagic diathesis manifesting as cyanosis, petechial bleeding, and ecchymosis, and to disseminated coagulation. The involvement of endothelial activation and damage in M. suis-associated pathogenesis was investigated using light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell sorting. M. suis interacted directly with endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial activation, widespread endothelial damage, and adherence of red blood cells to the endothelium were evident in M. suis-infected pigs. These alterations of the endothelium were accompanied by hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation, vascular occlusion, and massive morphological changes within the parenchyma. M. suis biofilm-like microcolonies formed on the surface of endothelial cells, and may represent a putative persistence mechanism of M. suis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that M. suis interacted with the endothelial cytoskeletal protein actin, and induced actin condensation and activation of endothelial cells, as determined by the up-regulation of ICAM, PECAM, E-selectin, and P-selectin. These findings demonstrate an additional cell tropism of HM for endothelial cells and suggest that M. suis interferes with the protective function of the endothelium, resulting in hemorrhagic diathesis.

  17. Ultrafast evolution and loss of CRISPRs following a host shift in a novel wildlife pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

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    Nigel F Delaney

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Measureable rates of genome evolution are well documented in human pathogens but are less well understood in bacterial pathogens in the wild, particularly during and after host switches. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is a pathogenic bacterium that has evolved predominantly in poultry and recently jumped to wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, a common North American songbird. For the first time we characterize the genome and measure rates of genome evolution in House Finch isolates of MG, as well as in poultry outgroups. Using whole-genome sequences of 12 House Finch isolates across a 13-year serial sample and an additional four newly sequenced poultry strains, we estimate a nucleotide diversity in House Finch isolates of only ∼2% of ancestral poultry strains and a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.8-1.2×10(-5 per site per year both in poultry and in House Finches, an exceptionally fast rate rivaling some of the highest estimates reported thus far for bacteria. We also found high diversity and complete turnover of CRISPR arrays in poultry MG strains prior to the switch to the House Finch host, but after the invasion of House Finches there is progressive loss of CRISPR repeat diversity, and recruitment of novel CRISPR repeats ceases. Recent (2007 House Finch MG strains retain only ∼50% of the CRISPR repertoire founding (1994-95 strains and have lost the CRISPR-associated genes required for CRISPR function. Our results suggest that genome evolution in bacterial pathogens of wild birds can be extremely rapid and in this case is accompanied by apparent functional loss of CRISPRs.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulmonary tuberculosis with airspace consolidation vs mycoplasma pneumonia in adults: high-resolution CT findings

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    Cha, Chull Hee; Choi, Gyo Chang; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kyung Rak; Im, Han Haek; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunghyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To analyse and compare high-resolution CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with consolidation and mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [confirmed by sputum culture (n=9) and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=11)] and airspace consolidation on high-resolution CT and 17 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, confirmed by serologic test, were included in this study. High-resolution CT findings were analyzed in terms of ground-glass opacities, distribution of consolidation, type of nodules, cavities, interlobular septal thickening, bronchial dilatations, bronchial wall thickening and pleural effusion. In patients with tuberculosis, average age was 33.5 years (range, 20-67); in those with mycoplasma pneumonia it was 32.5 years (range, 17-74). Segmental and subsegmental distributions were most common in both diseases; the preferred site of consolidation was different, however; for tuberculosis it was the upper lobes (13 cases, 65%; bilateral involvement, 7 cases); for mycoplasma pneumonia it was the lower lobes (11 cases, 64.7%). Non-segmental (diffuse and random) distribution of ground-glass opacities were seen in two patients(11.8%) with mycoplasma pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, branching linear opacities and alveolar nodules were not different in both diseases, but there were nodules above 10mm in 14 cases of tuberculosis and in only one case of mycoplasma pneumonia. Tree-in-bud appearances were seen in five cases of tuberculosis. Cavities without air-fluid level were noted in ten cases of tuberculosis. Other interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation and pleural effusion were not different in both diseases. There was considerable overlap between high resolution CT findings of tuberculosis with airspace consolidation and those of mycoplasma pneumonia. The location of consolidation, type of nodules, and the presence of tree-in-bud appearance and cavities help in the differentiation of the two diseases, however.

  20. Pulmonary tuberculosis with airspace consolidation vs mycoplasma pneumonia in adults: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Chull Hee; Choi, Gyo Chang; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kyung Rak; Im, Han Haek; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin

    1997-01-01

    To analyse and compare high-resolution CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis with consolidation and mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [confirmed by sputum culture (n=9) and bronchoscopic biopsy (n=11)] and airspace consolidation on high-resolution CT and 17 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, confirmed by serologic test, were included in this study. High-resolution CT findings were analyzed in terms of ground-glass opacities, distribution of consolidation, type of nodules, cavities, interlobular septal thickening, bronchial dilatations, bronchial wall thickening and pleural effusion. In patients with tuberculosis, average age was 33.5 years (range, 20-67); in those with mycoplasma pneumonia it was 32.5 years (range, 17-74). Segmental and subsegmental distributions were most common in both diseases; the preferred site of consolidation was different, however; for tuberculosis it was the upper lobes (13 cases, 65%; bilateral involvement, 7 cases); for mycoplasma pneumonia it was the lower lobes (11 cases, 64.7%). Non-segmental (diffuse and random) distribution of ground-glass opacities were seen in two patients(11.8%) with mycoplasma pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, branching linear opacities and alveolar nodules were not different in both diseases, but there were nodules above 10mm in 14 cases of tuberculosis and in only one case of mycoplasma pneumonia. Tree-in-bud appearances were seen in five cases of tuberculosis. Cavities without air-fluid level were noted in ten cases of tuberculosis. Other interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation and pleural effusion were not different in both diseases. There was considerable overlap between high resolution CT findings of tuberculosis with airspace consolidation and those of mycoplasma pneumonia. The location of consolidation, type of nodules, and the presence of tree-in-bud appearance and cavities help in the differentiation of the two diseases, however

  1. Risk of Mycoplasma bovis transmission from contaminated sand bedding to naive dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; Justice-Allen, A; Goodell, G; Baldwin, T J; Skirpstunas, R T; Cavender, K B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible transmission of Mycoplasma bovis from positive sand bedding to naïve dairy calves. Twelve preweaned Holstein bull calves were blocked in pairs and randomly assigned as unexposed controls (n=6) bedded with control sand, or exposed calves (n=6) bedded with sand previously positive for M. bovis at a dairy farm. Bedding sand was cultured weekly. Nasal and ear swabs and sera were collected weekly, tracheal swabs were collected monthly, and by the end of the 105-d study, all calves were euthanized (n=10) or died (n=2). Sera were tested for M. bovis-specific antibody. Mycoplasma spp. culture was performed on nasal and ear swabs; culture and a PCR differentiating multiple Mycoplasma spp. were performed on postmortem samples of lung, retropharyngeal lymph node, and trachea from each calf. A complete necropsy also was performed. During 6 wk, mycoplasma concentration in exposed group sand was between 200 and 32,000 cfu/g. All 166 tracheal swabs, nasal and ear swabs, and postmortem tests from all calves were negative for mycoplasma. All 94 sera were negative for M. bovis-specific antibody. No gross pathology suggestive of mycoplasma disease was detected. The probability of mycoplasma detection, if an exposed calf had become infected 4 wk after exposure, ranged between 97 and 99% depending on time of exposure for individual calves. There was no evidence that sand bedding contaminated with M. bovis might serve as a source of transmission to naïve dairy calves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep following experimental exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Besser

    Full Text Available Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis. The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia.In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy.Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep.

  3. Mycoplasma agalactiae Induces Cytopathic Effects in Infected Cells Cultured In Vitro.

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    Shrilakshmi Hegde

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma agalactiae is the etiological agent of the contagious agalactia syndrome in sheep and goats and causes significant economic losses worldwide. Yet the mechanism of pathogenesis is largely unknown. Even whole-genome sequence analysis of its pathogenic type strain did not lead to any conclusions regarding its virulence or pathogenicity factors. Although inflammation and tissue destruction at the local site of M. agalactiae infection are largely considered as effects of the host immune response, the direct effect of the agent on host cells is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of M. agalactiae infection on the quality and viability of host cells in vitro. Changes in cell morphology including cell elongation, cytoplasm shrinkage and membrane blebbing were observed in infected HeLa cells. Chromatin condensation and increased caspase-3 cleavage in infected HeLa cells 48 h after infection suggests an apoptosis-like phenomenon in M. agalactiae-infected cells. In compliance with these results, decreased viability and cell lysis of M. agalactiae-infected HeLa cells was also observed. Measurement of the amount of LDH released after M. agalactiae infection revealed a time- and dose-dependent increase in HeLa cell lysis. A significant decrease in LDH released after gentamicin treatment of infected cells confirmed the major role of cytadherent M. agalactiae in inducing host cell lysis. This is the first study illustrating M. agalactiae's induction of cytopathic effects in infected HeLa cells. Further detailed investigation of infected host tissue for apoptotic markers might demonstrate the association between M. agalactiae-induced host cell lysis and the tissue destruction observed during M. agalactiae natural infection.

  4. Development of a self-replicating plasmid system for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglennon, Gareth A; Cook, Beth S; Matthews, Dominic; Deeney, Alannah S; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2013-07-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a prevalent swine respiratory pathogen that is a major cause of economic loss to pig producers. Control is achieved by a combination of antimicrobials, vaccination and management practices, but current vaccines offer only partial control and there is a need for improved preventative strategies. A major barrier to advances in understanding the pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and in developing new vaccines is the lack of tools to genetically manipulate the organism. We describe the development and optimisation of the first successful plasmid-based system for the genetic manipulation of M. hyopneumoniae. Our artificial plasmids contain the origin of replication (oriC) of M. hyopneumoniae along with tetM, conferring resistance to tetracycline. With these plasmids, we have successfully transformed M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 by electroporation, generating tetracycline resistant organisms. The persistence of extrachromosomal plasmid and maintenance of plasmid DNA over serial passages shows that these artificial plasmids are capable of self-replication in M. hyopneumoniae. In addition to demonstrating the amenability of M. hyopneumoniae to genetic manipulation and in optimising the conditions necessary for successful transformation, we have used this system to determine the minimum functional oriC of M. hyopneumoniae. In doing so, we have developed a plasmid with a small oriC that is stably maintained over multiple passages that may be useful in generating targeted gene disruptions. In conclusion, we have generated a set of plasmids that will be valuable in studies of M. hyopneumoniae pathogenesis and provide a major step forward in the study of this important swine pathogen.

  5. Persistence of functional protein domains in mycoplasma species and their role in host specificity and synthetic minimal life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Koehorst, Jasper J.; Vermeij, Paul; Slagman, Simen Jan; Santos, dos Vitor A.P.M.; Bijlsma, Jetta J.E.; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are the smallest self-replicating organisms and obligate parasites of a specific vertebrate host. An in-depth analysis of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest forms of life on Earth succeeded in subverting complex hosts with

  6. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Jan B.W.J.; Bree, de Freddy M.; Wal, van der Fimme J.; Kooij, Engbert A.; Koene, Miriam G.J.; Bossers, Alex; Smid, Bregtje; Antonis, Adriaan F.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this study we evaluated the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Mycoplasma (M.) dispar, M. bovis and M. bovirhinis, all three associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Primers and probes of the RespoCheck

  7. Mycoplasma hyorhinis-Contaminated Cell Lines Activate Primary Innate Immune Cells via a Protease-Sensitive Factor.

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    Simon Heidegger

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma are a frequent and occult contaminant of cell cultures, whereby these prokaryotic organisms can modify many aspects of cell physiology, rendering experiments that are conducted with such contaminated cells problematic. Chronic Mycoplasma contamination in human monocytic cells lines has been associated with suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR function. In contrast, we show here that components derived from a Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell line can activate innate immunity in non-infected primary immune cells. Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 by dendritic cells in response to Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell components was critically dependent on the adapter protein MyD88 but only partially on TLR2. Unlike canonical TLR2 signaling that is triggered in response to the detection of Mycoplasma infection, innate immune activation by components of Mycoplasma-infected cells was inhibited by chloroquine treatment and sensitive to protease treatment. We further show that in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, soluble factors from Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cells induce the production of large amounts of IFN-α. We conclude that Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected cell lines release protein factors that can potently activate co-cultured innate immune cells via a previously unrecognized mechanism, thus limiting the validity of such co-culture experiments.

  8. General N-and O-Linked Glycosylation of Lipoproteins in Mycoplasmas and Role of Exogenous Oligosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenspeck, James M; Jordan, David S; Simmons, Warren; Renfrow, Matthew B; Dybvig, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a cell wall, flagella, fimbria, and other extracellular appendages and the possession of only a single membrane render the mycoplasmas structurally simplistic and ideal model organisms for the study of glycoconjugates. Most species have genomes of about 800 kb and code for few proteins predicted to have a role in glycobiology. The murine pathogens Mycoplasma arthritidis and Mycoplasma pulmonis have only a single gene annotated as coding for a glycosyltransferase but synthesize glycolipid, polysaccharide and glycoproteins. Previously, it was shown that M. arthritidis glycosylated surface lipoproteins through O-linkage. In the current study, O-linked glycoproteins were similarly found in M. pulmonis and both species of mycoplasma were found to also possess N-linked glycans at residues of asparagine and glutamine. Protein glycosylation occurred at numerous sites on surface-exposed lipoproteins with no apparent amino acid sequence specificity. The lipoproteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae also are glycosylated. Glycosylation was dependent on the glycosidic linkages from host oligosaccharides. As far as we are aware, N-linked glycoproteins have not been previously described in Gram-positive bacteria, the organisms to which the mycoplasmas are phylogenetically related. The findings indicate that the mycoplasma cell surface is heavily glycosylated with implications for the modulation of mycoplasma-host interactions.

  9. Co-occurrence of Mycoplasma Species and Pigeon Herpesvirus-1 Infection in Racing Pigeons ( Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Göbel, Stephan; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Martel, An

    2017-12-01

    Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 438 live racing pigeons ( Columba livia), with and without signs of respiratory disease, that were housed in 220 lofts in 3 provinces in the western part of the Netherlands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify Mycoplasma species and pigeon herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) from the samples. In 8.6% of the pigeon lofts tested, signs of respiratory disease were present in pigeons at sampling, and in 30.9% of the sampled pigeon lofts, respiratory signs were observed in pigeons during the 6-month period immediately before sampling. A total of 39.8% of tested pigeons (54.5% of tested lofts) were positive for Mycoplasma species, and 30.6% of tested pigeons (48.6% of tested lofts) were positive for PHV-1. In 15.8% of the tested pigeons (26.8% of tested pigeon lofts), coinfection by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was identified. The number of pigeon lofts having pigeons coinfected by Mycoplasma species and PHV-1 was higher than that where only one of the infections was identified. Neither the presence of Mycoplasma species, PHV-1, nor the co-occurrence of both infections was significantly associated with signs of respiratory disease.

  10. Plasmids in Mycoplasma species isolated from goats and sheep and their preliminary typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Elmiro R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One-hundred-five (105 clinical isolates of mycoplasma from caprine origin and one isolate from ovine were surveyed for plasmids, which were present in thirty-three (31% of them. These mycoplasmas originated from 13 herds. Ten of them were symptomatic for mycoplasmal disease (mastitis, polyarthritis, septicemia and three herds were asymptomatic, i.e., clinically normal. Twenty-eight isolates were Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides LC (large colony or caprine biotype, four were Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and one was Mycoplasma cottewii. The isolated plasmids were linearized by EcoRI, EcoRV, EcoRI and EcoRV or BamHI and EcoRV, and were of five sizes (1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9 Kbp. Based on restriction enzyme digestion and size of the linearized supercoiled extrachromosomal DNA, five plasmid types were recovered (p1II, p2III, p2V, p3I, and p4IV. The small size of these DNA elements probably exclude replicative forms of DNA virus, which are equal or larger than 8.0 Kbp.

  11. Update on Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Typing Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variations in Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions of rRNA Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Hung; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Tang, Xing; Jin, Shaoling; Li, Baozheng; Bartlett, Marilyn S.; Lu, Jang-Jih; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens D.; Olsson, Mats; Lucas, Sebastian B.; Roux, Patricia; Cargnel, Antonietta; Atzori, Chiara; Matos, Olga; Smith, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis isolates from 207 clinical specimens from nine countries were typed based on nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2, respectively) of rRNA genes. The number of ITS1 nucleotides has been revised from the previously reported 157 bp to 161 bp. Likewise, the number of ITS2 nucleotides has been changed from 177 to 192 bp. The number of ITS1 sequence types has increased from 2 to 15, and that of ITS2 has increased from 3 to 14. The 15 ITS1 sequence types are designated types A through O, and the 14 ITS2 types are named types a through n. A total of 59 types of P. carinii f. sp. hominis were found in this study. PMID:9508304

  12. Mycoplasma columbinum Isolated From a Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia ) With Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Garmyn, An; De Cooman, Lien; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-09-01

    A juvenile racing pigeon ( Columba livia ) was presented with drooping of the wing and inability to fly. On physical examination, the right shoulder joint was swollen. The pigeon was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. An excessive amount of fibrin was present in the canalis triosseus with severe arthritis of the affected shoulder joint. A pure growth of Mycoplasma-like colonies was obtained on microbiological culture of the shoulder joint. A 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on the isolate and revealed 100% similarity with Mycoplasma columbinum . Although infectious arthritis in homing pigeons is primarily associated with paratyphoid and Streptococcus gallolyticus infection, clinical practitioners should consider the potential role of Mycoplasma columbinum in arthritis in pigeons.

  13. Mycoplasma orale infection affects K+ and Cl- currents in the HSG salivary gland cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, K T; Fatherazi, S; Belton, C M; Oda, D; Cartwright, F D; Kenny, G E

    1996-06-01

    The relations between K+ channel and Cl- channel currents and mycoplasma infection status were studied longitudinally in HSG cells, a human submandibular gland cell line. The K+ channel currents were disrupted by the occurrence of mycoplasma infection: muscarinic activation of K+ channels and K+ channel expression as estimated by ionomycin- or hypotonically induced K+ current responses were all decreased. Similar decreases in ionomycin- and hypotonically induced responses were observed for Cl- channels, but only the latter decrease was statistically significant. Also, Cl- currents could be elicited more frequently than K+ currents (63% of cases versus 0%) in infected cells when tested by exposure to hypotonic media, indicating that mycoplasma infection affects K+ channels relatively more than Cl- channels. These changes occurred in the originally infected cells, were ameliorated when the infection was cleared with sparfloxacin, and recurred when the cells were reinfected. Such changes would be expected to result in hyposecretion of salivary fluid if they occurred in vivo.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

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    Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal factor infertility (TFI, and ectopic pregnancy (EP are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.

  15. Effects of Hominis Placenta Aqua-acupuncture on Kidney and Liver Intoxicated by HgCI2 in Rats

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    Lee, Sang-Keel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was perfomled to examine the therapeutic effect of aqua-acupuncture solution of Hominis Placenta(HP on kidney and liver intoxicated by HgCl2 in rats. Methods: 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture were carried out everyday for 8 days on corresponding bilateral loci of Shinsu(BL23 and Kansu(BL18, respectively, after mercuric chloride intoxication in rats. Thereafter BUN, creatinine, GOT, GPT, ALP, -GT, albumin and total bilirubin were measured before intoxication, and at the 4th and the 8th experimental day. Histopathological and immunochemical observation were also carried out. Results: 1. It showed significant decreases of BUN in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th experimental day as compared with the control group. 2. It showed significant decreases of creatinine in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th and the 8th experimental days as compared with the control group. 3. There were not any significant changes of GOT, GPT, ALP, γ-GT, albumin and total bilirubin in the HP aqua-acupuncture groups compared with the control group. 4. By the histopathological observations on kidney under a light microscope, all the 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu showed the preventive effect on tubulo-interstitial necrosis and muItifocal calcification in tubular lumen respectively compared with the control group. 5. By the histopathological observations on liver under a light mIcroscope, the groups 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Kansu did not show any significant changes in the liver compared with the control group. 6. By the immunochemical analysis of heat shock protein(hsp and glucose-regulated protein(grp in rat renal cortex, the expressions of hsp70 and grp78 were decreased in the and HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu respectively compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Hominis Placenta aqua-acupuncture have an effect on prevention and protection of

  16. Mycoplasma genitalium: An Emerging Cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

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    Catherine L. Haggerty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen that is increasingly identified among women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Although Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae frequently cause PID, up to 70% of cases have an unidentified etiology. This paper summarizes evidence linking M. genitalium to PID and its long-term reproductive sequelae. Several PCR studies have demonstrated that M. genitalium is associated with PID, independent of gonococcal and chlamydial infection. Most have been cross-sectional, although one prospective investigation suggested that M. genitalium was associated with over a thirteenfold risk of endometritis. Further, a nested case-control posttermination study demonstrated a sixfold increased risk of PID among M. genitalium positive patients. Whether or not M. genitalium upper genital tract infection results in long-term reproductive morbidity is unclear, although tubal factor infertility patients have been found to have elevated M. genitalium antibodies. Several lines of evidence suggest that M. genitalium is likely resistant to many frequently used PID treatment regimens. Correspondingly, M. genitalium has been associated with treatment failure following cefoxitin and doxycycline treatment for clinically suspected PID. Collectively, strong evidence suggests that M. genitalium is associated with PID. Further study of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection diagnosis, treatment and long-term sequelae is warranted.

  17. MYCOPLASMA GENITALIUM INFECTION PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

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    Rini Rasianti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium infection in HIV positive patients by PCR examination in Teratai Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in order to reduce sexually transmitted diseases, especially M. genitalium infection in HIV positive patients. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling methods. Eighty one HIV positive patients attending the Teratai Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung were recruited to be the subjects of this study. All subjects underwent history taking, physical examination, and PCR examination for M. genitalium. Specimens were taken from cervical smear in females and first void urine in male. Results: The prevalence of M. genitalium based on the PCR examination in HIV positive patients attended to Teratai Clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung was 9%. Conclusions: Mycoplasmal infection identification based on PCR examination should be considered for routine screening test to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in HIV positive patients.

  18. Involvement of Mycoplasma synoviae in Respiratory Distress Cases of Broilers

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    S. Ehtisham-ul-Haque*, S. U. Rahman, M. Siddique and A. S. Qureshi1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important pathogen of poultry worldwide, causing respiratory tract infection and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys. The study was designed to detect M. synoviae through serology, culture isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to document the involvement of MS infection in respiratory distress cases of broiler birds. The validated PCR assay amplifying the conserved gene region of 16SrRNA gene was applied for the detection of M. synoviae from culture as well as in clinical samples. The results indicated that 04 out of total 17 commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory distress signs were found positive with M. synoviae infection indicating 76.57% sero-positivity as, determined with rapid serum agglutination (RSA test. Out of 85 clinical specimens (collected from sero-positive birds; M. synoviae culture isolation was successfully attained in 36 (42.35% samples. Whereas, PCR test has detected 84 (98.82% positive cases. The prevalence of MS in broiler birds was observed maximum as measured through PCR. It is suggested that the true prevalence of MS may best be reflected by combining RSA and PCR test findings.

  19. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

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    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  20. Atopy: a risk factor of refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi-Xiao; Li, Jing; Tian, Ye; Liu, Quang-Hua; Bao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship of pathogen DNA copies with clinic and laboratory features among children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia. A total of 95 enrolled children with MP pneumonia were assigned into the high-MP-load group (>10 6 /mL) and the low-MP-load group (≤10 6 /mL) according to MP-DNA copies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Clinical characteristics and any allergy history were collected. Aeroallergens and food allergens were detected with a skin test. Serum IgE and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were assessed using enzyme immunoassay. BALF levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α were assessed by ELISA. Compared with the low-MP-load group, 72.7% in the high-MP-load group developed refractory MP pneumonia who failed to respond to at least 1-week treatment with macrolides (72.7% vs 41.9%, P = 0.005). More children in the high-load group than those in the low-load group presented with extrapulmonary manifestations, lung consolidation, pleural effusion and atopic conditions including any allergy history, positive findings of aeroallergen test and increased serum IgE and ECP (P  0.05). Atopy may be a risk factor for the presence and severity of refractory MP pneumonia due to the high pathogen load in airway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.