WorldWideScience

Sample records for mw turbines proposition

  1. Turbines, a manufacturer`s proposal for the reduction of pollutant emissions in turbines lower than 10 MW; Turbines, proposition d`un constructeur pour reduire les emissions polluantes des turbines de moins de 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grienche, G. [Turbomeca, 64 - Bordes (France)

    1997-12-31

    In order to comply with the new French regulations concerning 2-to-20 MW turbines and with regulations in other countries, Turbomeca is already proposing engines with water or steam injection allowing for a 40 pc to 80 pc decrease in NOx emissions. Turbomeca is developing new combustion chambers with lean pre-mixing and low pollutant emissions (NOx inferior to 75 mg/Nm{sup 3} and CO inferior to 50 mg/Nm{sup 3}) that can be adapted to existing engines or installed on developing ones. Turbomeca is also studying catalytic combustion chambers with very low pollutant emission levels (NOx and CO inferior to 20 mg/Nm{sup 3})

  2. A manufacturer`s proposal for the reduction of polluting emissions from turbines with a power lower than 10 MW; Turbines. Proposition d`un constructeur pour reduire les emissions polluantes des turbines de moins de 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grienche, G. [Turbomeca, 64 - Bordes (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies dealing with the industrial turbines manufactured by Turbomeca company and with the way to reduce the pollutant emissions in agreement with the French regulation on combustion and environment. After a recall of the functioning conditions and the performances requested in turbines combustion chamber, the paper analyzes the different existing solutions used for the reduction of pollutants emissions (water injection, weak, rich and dry low NOx combustion, catalytic combustion) and their cost/performance ratio. Then Turbomeca`s applied research on combustion chambers is described (conventional chambers with water injection, specific low emission chamber of Eurodyn turbines and adaptable to other existing engines, 2D numerical simulation of combustion kinetics, low pre-mixed combustion chambers, catalytic combustion chambers). (J.S.)

  3. Aeroelastic optimization of MW wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartvig Hansen, M.; Zahle, F.

    2011-12-15

    This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project ''Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine'' (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beam element for HAWC2. 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis of controlled wind turbines. 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes. 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools. 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils. The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given in Section 2. Thereafter, the results from each Work Package are described in eight subsequent chapters. (Author)

  4. Multilevel converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Several promising multi-level converter configurations for 10 MW Wind Turbines both with direct drive and one-stage gear box drive using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) are proposed, designed and compared. Reliability is a crucial indicator for large scale wind power converters...... that the three-level and five-level H-bridge converter topologies both have potential to achieve improved thermal performances compared to the three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped converter topology in the wind power application....

  5. Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Zahle, Frederik

    This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project “Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine” (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beamelement forHAWC2 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis...... of controlled wind turbines 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given...

  6. 12MW: final report; Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.; Pena, A.; Mikkelsen, T.; Gryning, S.-E.; Courtney, M.; Soerensen, Paul B. (DONG energy)

    2009-06-15

    '12MW: final report' is for the project with the full title '12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore' that had the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The project started 1st October 2005 and ended 31st March 2009. Firstly was conducted a 6-month experiment at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm deploying a lidar and a sodar on the transformer platform. The observed data were successfully compared to offshore mast data and the wind profile was extended 100 m above previous levels observed in this offshore environment. The wind and turbulence was observed up to 160m above mean sea level. A new normalization was introduced to group the wind profiles into stability groups with variable roughness. Secondly two experiments were conducted at Hoevsoere at the North Sea coast in Jutland. Again the wind profile was extended far beyond previous observed levels, up to 300 m above ground. The analysis showed that the profiles extended far beyond the surface layer and therefore surface layer scale alone could not described the profiles well. In addition the boundary layer height has to be used for the scaling. The boundary layer height was observed by an aerosol lidar at Hoevsoere. The results are published widely, please see the list of publications. (au)

  7. Light Rotor: The 10-MW reference wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Bitsche, Robert; Yde, Anders

    2012-01-01

    design show a rather well performing wind turbine both in terms of power and loads, but in the further work towards the final design the challenges in the control needs to be solved and the balance between power performance and loads and between structural performance and mass will be investigated......This paper describes the design of a rotor and a wind turbine for an artificial 10-MW wind turbine carried out in the Light Rotor project. The turbine called the Light Rotor 10-MW Reference Wind Turbine (LR10-MW RWT), is designed with existing methods and techniques and serves as a reference...... like the determination of the specific power and upscaling of the turbine. The design of Iteration #2 of the LR10-MW RWT is carried out in a sequence between aerodynamic rotor design, structural design and aero-servo-elastic design. Each of these topics is described. The results from the Iteration #2...

  8. Structural Optimization of an Innovative 10 MW Wind Turbine Nacelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowski, Dariusz; Natarajan, Anand; Stehouwer, Ewoud

    2015-01-01

    For large wind turbine configurations of 10 MW and higher capacities, direct-drives present a more compact solution over conventional geared drivetrains. Further, if the generator is placed in front of the wind turbine rotor, a compact “king-pin” drive is designed, that allows the generator...... to be directly coupled to the hub. In presented study, the structural re-design of the innovative 10 MW nacelle was made using extreme loads obtained from a 10 MW reference wind turbine. On the basis of extreme loads the ultimate stresses on critical nacelle components were determined to ensure integrity...

  9. The 1.5 MW wind turbine of tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wolff, T.J.; Sondergaard, H. [Nordtank Energy Group, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Danish company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2300 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 350 MW. This paper will describe two major wind turbine technology developments that Nordtank has accomplished during the last year: Site Optimization of Nordtank wind turbines: Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/600 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Nordtank`s 1.5 MW wind turbine: In September 1995, Nordtank was the first company to install a commercial 1.5 NM WTG. This paper will document the development process, the design as well as operations of the Nordtank 1.5 MW WTG.

  10. Main trends of upgrading the 1000 MW steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Parameters are compared for the 1000 MW steam turbine manufactured by the Skoda Works, Czechoslovakia, and turbines in the same power range by other manufacturers, viz. ABB, Siemens/KWU, GEC and LMZ. The Skoda turbine compares well with the other turbines with respect to all design parameters, and moreover, enables the most extensive heat extraction for district heating purposes. The main trends in upgrading this turbine are outlined; in particular, they include an additional increase in the heat extraction, which is made possible by a new design of the low-pressure section or by using a ''satellite'' turbine. The studies performed also indicate that the output of the full-speed saturated steam turbine can be increased to 1300 MW. An experimental turbine representing one flow of the high-pressure part of the 1000 MW turbine is being built on the 1:1 scale. It will serve to verify the methods of calculation of the wet steam flow and to experimentally test the high-pressure part over a wide span of the parameters. (Z.M.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 7 refs

  11. Aero-Elastic Optimization of a 10 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Tibaldi, Carlo; Verelst, David Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a multi-disciplinary optimization and analysis tool for wind turbines that is based on the open-source framework OpenMDAO. Interfaces to several simulation codes have been implemented which allows for a wide variety of problem formulations and combinations of models....... In this article concurrent aeroelastic optimization of a 10 MW wind turbine rotor is carried out with respect to material distribution distribution and planform. The optimizations achieve up to 13% mass reduction while maintaining the same power production compared to the baseline DTU 10MW RWT....

  12. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  13. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  14. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines: 5 MW reference gearbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, Amir Rasekhi [Norwegian Research Center for Offshore Wind Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Guo, Yi [National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado USA; Gao, Zhen [Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Moan, Torgeir [Norwegian Research Center for Offshore Wind Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the four-point supports: two main bearings and two torque arms. The gearbox consists of three stages: two planetary and one parallel stage gears. The gear ratios among the stages are calculated in a way to obtain the minimum gearbox weight. The gearbox components are designed and selected based on the offshore wind turbine design codes and validated by comparison to the data available from large offshore wind turbine prototypes. All parameters required to establish the dynamic model of the gearbox are then provided. Moreover, a maintenance map indicating components with high to low probability of failure is shown. The 5 MW reference gearbox can be used as a baseline for research on wind turbine gearboxes and comparison studies. It can also be employed in global analysis tools to represent a more realistic model of a gearbox in a coupled analysis.

  15. 1000 MW steam turbine for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    Skoda Works started the manufacture of the 1000 MW steam turbine for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine will use saturated steam at 3,000 r.p.m. It will allow steam supply to heat water for district heating, this of an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at a temperature of 150/60 degC or of 570 MW for a two-stage heating at a temperature of 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized as concerns the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum flow rate of the steam entering the turbine. This is 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. It is expected that throughout the life of the turbine, there will be 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts following shutdown for 55 to 88 hours, and 600 starts following shutdown for 8 hours. (Z.M.). 8 figs., 1 ref

  16. Turbine and its turbine control system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongwei; Zhu Jinping

    1996-01-01

    The simulation for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit turbine and turbine control system is briefly introduced. The simulation system includes lube oil system, jacking oil pump system, turning gear system, turbine supervisor system and turbine control system. It not only correctly simulates the process of turbine normal start up, operation, and shut down, but also the response of turbine under the malfunction conditions

  17. 1000 MW steam turbine for Temelin nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    Before the end 1991 the delivery was completed of the main parts (3 low-pressure sections and 1 high-pressure section, all of double-flow design) of the first full-speed (3000 r.p.m.) 1000 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam for the Temelin nuclear power plant. Description of the turbine design and of new technologies and tools used in the manufacture are given. Basic technical parameters of the steam turbine are as follows: maximum output of steam generators 6060 th -1 ; maximum steam flow into turbine 5494.7 th -1 ; output of turbo-set 1024 MW; steam conditions before the turbine inlet: pressure 5.8 MPa, temperature 273.3 degC, steam wetness 0.5%; nominal temperature of cooling water 21 degC; temperature of feed water 220.8 degC; maximum consumption of heat from turbine for heating at 3-stage heating of heating water 60/150 degC. (Z.S.) 7 figs., 2 refs

  18. The new 6 MW industrial gas turbine from MAN; Die neue 6 MW Industriegasturbine von MAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beukenberg, M.; Wiedermann, A.; Orth, U.; Aschenbruck, E.; Reiss, F. [MAN Diesel und Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The development of a completely new series of gas turbines requires significant capital, resources and know-how. MAN Diesel and Turbo strategically decided to create a small gas turbine in the 6 MW-class. The construction of the Gas Turbine has been on the basis of opportunities in current and future markets and the positioning of the competition, this has determined the characteristics and technical parameters which have been optimised in the 6 MW design. The construction uses extremely high precision engineering so that the assembly of sub-components to modules is a smooth flowing process and can guarantee the high standards both quality and performance which MAN Diesel and Turbo are operating to. The individual components must be tested and thoroughly validated many months before actual assembly of the first machine. These include in particular the compressor of the gas turbine and the combustion chamber. The combustion system required special attention, since the emissions are strongly focused to satisfy stringent environmental requirements. The planned tests are a prerequisite for the construction of such a prototype and must be successfully completed before the Gas Turbine will be accepted into service. (orig.)

  19. Experiences and results from Elkraft 1 MW wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raben, N; Jensen, F V [SEAS Distribution A.m.b.A., Wind Power Dept., Haslev (Denmark); Oeye, S [DTU, Inst. for Energiteknik, Lyngby (Denmark); Markkilde Petersen, S; Antoniou, I [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The Elkraft 1 MW Demonstration wind turbine was at the time of installation in 1993 the largest stall controlled wind turbine in the world. It was constructed to allow accurate comparison of two different forms of operation: pitch control and stall control. A comprehensive programme for the investigation of the two operation modes was established. This paper presents the main experiences from five years of operation and measurements. For a three-year period the wind turbine was in operation in stall controlled mode. During this period the turbine faced problems of various significance. Especially lightning strikes and unusually poor wind conditions caused delays of the project. In early 1997, the wind turbine was modified to enable pitch controlled operation. The gearbox ratio was changed in order to allow higher rotor speed, the hydraulic system was altered and new control software was installed. Tests were carried out successfully during the spring of 1997 and the wind turbine has since been operating as a pitch controlled wind turbine. The most significant events and problems are presented and commented in this paper along with results from the measurement programme. The results cover both stall and pitch controlled operation and include power curves, annual energy production, structural loads, fatigue loads etc. (au) 10 refs.

  20. Design of an aeroelastically tailored 10 MW wind turbine rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Tibaldi, Carlo; Pavese, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an integrated multidisciplinary wind turbine optimization framework utilizing state-of-the-art aeroelastic and structural tools, capable of simultaneous design of the outer geometry and internal structure of the blade. The framework is utilized to design a 10 MW rotor constrained...... not to exceed the design loads of an existing reference wind turbine. The results show that through combined geometric tailoring of the internal structure and aerodynamic shape of the blade it is possible to achieve significant passive load alleviation that allows for a 9% longer blade with an increase in AEP...

  1. The new 6 MW gas turbine for the power generation; Die neue 6 MW Gasturbine fuer die Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaswich, Michael; Theis, Sascha [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    MAN Diesel and Turbo SE (Oberhausen, Federal Republic of Germany) had developed a new gas turbine in the 6 MW class. This device is the founding stone for a family of gas turbines which at first cover the power range from 6 to 8 MW for the propulsion of pumps, compressors and electric devices. The two-shaft industrial gas turbine consists of a gas generator with an axial compressor with eleven levels, six external single combustion chambers, one two-step high-pressure turbine and a two-step power turbine. Beside the two-shaft industrial gas turbine, there exists a single-shaft industrial gas turbine for the power generation. The single-shaft industrial gas turbine consists of three turbine stages, a gas turbine compressor and combustion chamber being identical in construction to the two-shaft industrial gas turbine. The gas turbine package contains the gas turbine module as well as a filter module. The gas turbine was successfully tested. Further tests and the commissioning of the first customer's plant are planned for this year.

  2. 5MW Direct Drive Wind Turbine Generator Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidi, Arsalan; Senn, Lucile; Ortega, Iratxe

    2012-01-01

    A 5MW direct drive offshore wind turbine generator was studied and simulated using Vector Fields OPERA. This software allows calculation of the flux density, force, torque, and eddy currents in the machine at different rotor positions. Based on the data obtained from the model, initial assumptions...... for the suitable machine are listed and the modelling process presented. The model of the generator was improved by changing design parameters, e.g the position of the magnets or fitting additional I-Cores, and analyse the effect of it....

  3. Feasibility study of 5MW superconducting wind turbine generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Seiler, E.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of installing a direct drive superconducting generator in the 5MW reference offshore wind turbine of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been examined. The engineering current densities Je obtained in a series of race track coils have been combined with magnetization...... measurements to estimate the properties of suitable field coils for a synchronous generator, which is more light weight than the conventional used combination of a gear box and a fast rotating generator. An analytical model and finite element simulations have been used to estimate the active mass of generators...

  4. Operating results of 220 MW SKODA saturated steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the steam turbines produced by the SKODA Works, the 220 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam of a speed of 3000 r.p.m. is described; it is used in nuclear power plants with 400 MW PWR type reactors. 16 units of 8 turbines each have been in operation in the Jaslovske Bohunice and Dukovany power plants with the total period of operation of all machines exceeding 750,000 hours. The 220 MW steam turbine consists of a two-flow high-pressure section and of two identical two-flow low-pressure sections. The pressure of saturated steam at the inlet of the high-pressure section is 4.32 MPa (the corresponding temperature of the saturation limit being 255 degC) and during the expansion in the high-pressure section it drops to 0.6 MPa; steam moisture reaches 12%. In a separator and two-stage reheater using blend steam, the steam is freed of the moisture and is reheated to a temperature of 217 degC. Some operational problems are discussed, as are the loss of the material of the stator parts of the high-pressure section due to corrosion-erosion wear and corrosion-erosion wear of the guide wheels of the high-pressure section, and measures are presented carried out for the reduction of the corrosion-erosion effects of wet steam. One of the serious problems were the fatigue fractures of the blades of the 4th high-pressure stage, which appeared after 20 000 to 24 000 hours of operation in the dented tee-root. The guide wheels of the 4th stage were substituted by new guide wheels with uniform pitch of the channels and with increased number of guide blades. Also discussed are the dynamic behavior of the low-pressure section of the bridge structure, the operating reliability and the heat off-take for water heating of long-distance heating systems. (Z.S.) 9 figs

  5. Modal Analysis on Fluid-Structure Interaction of MW-Level Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Tower

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Jiqiu; Zhong Dingqing; Wang Qiong

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid resonance problem of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine induced by wind, a flow field model of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine is established by using the fluid flow control equations, calculate flow’s velocity and pressure of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine and load onto tower’s before and after surface, study the Modal analysis of fluid-structure interaction of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower. The results show that fluid-structure interaction fie...

  6. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Rasekhi Nejad, Amir; Guo, Yi; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the ...

  7. Modal Analysis on Fluid-Structure Interaction of MW-Level Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Jiqiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid resonance problem of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine induced by wind, a flow field model of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine is established by using the fluid flow control equations, calculate flow’s velocity and pressure of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine and load onto tower’s before and after surface, study the Modal analysis of fluid-structure interaction of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower. The results show that fluid-structure interaction field of MW- level vertical axis wind turbine tower has little effect on the modal vibration mode, but has a great effect on its natural frequency and the maximum deformation, and the influence will decrease with increasing of modal order; MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower needs to be raised the stiffness and strength, its structure also needs to be optimized; In the case of satisfy the intensity, the larger the ratio of the tower height and wind turbines diameter, the more soft the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower, the lower its frequency.

  8. Statistical fault diagnosis of wind turbine drivetrain applied to a 5MW floating wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Nejad, Amir R.; Blanke, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    to prevent them to develop into failure, statistical change detection is used in this paper. The Cumulative Sum Method (CUSUM) is employed to detect possible defects in the downwind main bearing. A high fidelity gearbox model on a 5-MW spar-type wind turbine is used to generate data for fault-free and faulty...... conditions of the bearing at the rated wind speed and the associated wave condition. Acceleration measurements are utilized to find residuals used to indirectly detect damages in the bearing. Residuals are found to be nonGaussian, following a t-distribution with multivariable characteristic parameters...

  9. development of 100 mw gas turbine shaft sleeve puller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    88888888

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... different forms of energy, include wave, wind-turbine, solar-thermal ... tor, the torque converter, the gas turbine, the gearbox and the generator [2]. ..... on June 4, 2012. 6. Siswanto, Power Generation Project Experiences,.

  10. Statistical fault diagnosis of wind turbine drivetrain applied to a 5MW floating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Nejad, Amir R.; Blanke, Mogens; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-09-01

    Deployment of large scale wind turbine parks, in particular offshore, requires well organized operation and maintenance strategies to make it as competitive as the classical electric power stations. It is important to ensure systems are safe, profitable, and cost-effective. In this regards, the ability to detect, isolate, estimate, and prognose faults plays an important role. One of the critical wind turbine components is the gearbox. Failures in the gearbox are costly both due to the cost of the gearbox itself and also due to high repair downtime. In order to detect faults as fast as possible to prevent them to develop into failure, statistical change detection is used in this paper. The Cumulative Sum Method (CUSUM) is employed to detect possible defects in the downwind main bearing. A high fidelity gearbox model on a 5-MW spar-type wind turbine is used to generate data for fault-free and faulty conditions of the bearing at the rated wind speed and the associated wave condition. Acceleration measurements are utilized to find residuals used to indirectly detect damages in the bearing. Residuals are found to be nonGaussian, following a t-distribution with multivariable characteristic parameters. The results in this paper show how the diagnostic scheme can detect change with desired false alarm and detection probabilities.

  11. The Effect of Mounting Vortex Generators on the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current work is to analyze possible advantages of mounting Vortex Generators (VG's) on a wind turbine blade. Specifically, the project aims at investigating at which radial sections of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine blade it is most beneficial to mount the VG's in order...

  12. Potentials for site-specific design of MW sized wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, K.; Fuglsang, P.; Schepers, G.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for site specific design of MW sized wind turbines is quantified by comparing design loads for wind turbines installed at a range of different sites. The sites comprise on-shore normal flat terrain stand-alone conditions and wind farm conditions together with offshore and mountainous...

  13. Integration of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell into A 10 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver F. Cheddie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using gas turbine power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies. In this work, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency. The SOFC system utilizes four heat exchangers for heat recovery from both the turbine outlet and the fuel cell outlet to ensure a sufficiently high SOFC temperature. The power output of the hybrid plant is 37 MW at 66.2% efficiency. A thermo-economic model predicts a payback period of less than four years, based on future projected SOFC cost estimates.

  14. Aeroelastic Optimization of a 10 MW Wind Turbine Blade with Active Trailing Edge Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios; Tibaldi, Carlo; Zahle, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the aeroelastic optimization of a 10MW wind turbine ‘smart blade’ equipped with active trailing edge flaps. The multi-disciplinary wind turbine analysis and optimization tool HawtOpt2 is utilized, which is based on the open-source framework Open-MDAO. The tool interfaces...... to several state-of-the art simulation codes, allowing for a wide variety of problem formulations and combinations of models. A simultaneous aerodynamic and structural optimization of a 10 MW wind turbine rotor is carried out with respect to material layups and outer shape. Active trailing edge flaps...

  15. The first test results of the new MAN 6 MW gas turbine; Erste Erprobungsergebnisse zur neuen 6-MW-MAN-Gasturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beukenberg, Markus; Wiedermann, Alexander; Orth, Ulrich; Aschenbruck, Emil; Reiss, Frank [MAN Diesel und Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The development of a completely new series of gas turbines requires significant capital, resources and know-how. MAN Diesel and Turbo strategically decided to create a gas turbine in the 6 MW class. The construction of the gas turbine has been on the basis of opportunities in current and future markets and the positioning of competition, this has determined the characteristics and technical parameters which have been optimised in the 6 MW design. (orig.)

  16. Proposition of primary methods for nitrogen oxides emissions reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repic, B.; Mladenovic, R.; Crnomarkovic, N.

    1997-01-01

    The combustion of coal is followed by increased pollution of the environment with toxic products. Together with the generation of other pollutants, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) represents, due to its high toxicity, a great environmental risk. Appropriate measures must be taken for lowering NO x emission, both on new facilities and those already in operation. Basic technologies (primary reduction methods) of several generations, developed until now and used in practice, are presented in the paper. The technologies applicable on domestic facilities and adjusted to domestic coals have been given particular consideration. Proposition of primary methods for NO x emission reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit at TPS 'Nikola Tesla' is analyzed. The following methods have been considered in detail: flue gases recirculation, multi-stage combustion, low-NO x burners, additional over-fire air, multi-stage air intake into the furnace, staged fuel injection, grinding fineness increase, etc. Considerations were performed according to existing constructive characteristics of the furnace and the burners, and characteristics of used fuels, i. e. lignites from Kolubara pit. (Author)

  17. Study on Actuator Line Modeling of Two NREL 5-MW Wind Turbine Wakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziying Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The wind turbine wakes impact the efficiency and lifespan of the wind farm. Therefore, to improve the wind plant performance, research on wind plant control is essential. The actuator line model (ALM is proposed to simulate the wind turbine efficiently. This research investigates the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 Million Watts (NREL 5-MW wind turbine wakes with Open Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM using ALM. Firstly, a single NREL 5-MW turbine is simulated. The comparison of the power and thrust with Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST shows a good agreement below the rated wind speed. The information relating to wind turbine wakes is given in detail. The top working status is proved at the wind speed of 8 m/s and the downstream distance of more than 5 rotor diameters (5D. Secondly, another case with two NREL 5-MW wind turbines aligned is also carried out, in which 7D is validated as the optimum distance between the two turbines. The result also shows that the upstream wind turbine has an obvious influence on the downstream one.

  18. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    energy and an increase in the loading of the wind turbine structure and components. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that there are advantages of basing a yaw system on hydraulic components instead of normal electrical components. This is done through a state of the art analysis followed...... in the wind turbine yaw system along with minor reductions in the blades and main shaft. Optimization of the damping and stiffness of the hydraulic soft yaw system have been conducted and an optimum found for load reduction. Linear control algorithms for control of damping pressure peaks have been developed...... the full turbine code in FAST, and the mathematical model of the hydraulic yaw system in Matlab/Simulink and Amesim is developed in order to analyze a full scale model of the hydraulic yaw system in combination with the implemented friction model for the yaw system. These results are also promising...

  19. Comparison of superconducting generators and permanent magnet generators for 10-MW direct-drive wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2016-01-01

    Large offshore direct-drive wind turbines of 10-MW power levels are being extensively proposed and studied because of a reduced cost of energy. Conventional permanent magnet generators currently dominating the direct-drive wind turbine market are still under consideration for such large wind...... turbines. In the meantime, superconducting generators (SCSGs) have been of particular interest to become a significant competitor because of their compactness and light weight. This paper compares the performance indicators of these two direct-drive generator types in the same 10-MW wind turbine under...... the same design and optimization method. Such comparisons will be interesting and insightful for commercialization of superconducting generators and for development of future wind energy industry, although SCSGs are still far from a high technology readiness level. The results show that the SCSGs may...

  20. Preliminary Design of a Multi-Column TLP Foundation for a 5-MW Offshore Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsheng Zhao; Jianmin Yang; Yanping He

    2012-01-01

    Currently, floating wind turbines (FWTs) may be the more economical and suitable systems with which to exploit offshore wind energy in deep waters. Among the various types of floating foundations for offshore wind farms, a tension leg platform (TLP) foundation can provide a relatively stable platform for currently available offshore wind turbines without requiring major modifications. In this study, a new multi-column TLP foundation (WindStar TLP) was developed for the NREL 5-MW offshore wind...

  1. Full-load converter connected asynchronous generators for MW class wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav

    2005-06-15

    Wind turbines equipped with full-load converter-connected asynchronous generators are a known concept. These have rating up to hundreds of kW and are a feasible concept for MW class wind turbines and may have advantages when compared to conventional wind turbines with directly connected generators. The concept requires the use of full-scale frequency converters, but the mechanical gearbox is smaller than in conventional wind turbines of the same rating. Application of smaller gearbox may reduce the no-load losses in the wind turbines, which is why such wind turbines with converter connected generators may start operation at a smaller wind speed. Wind turbines equipped with such converted connected asynchronous generators are pitch-controlled and variable-speed. This allows better performance and control. The converter control may be applied to support the grid voltage at short-circuit faults and to improve the fault-ride-through capability of the wind turbines, which makes the concepts relevant for large wind farms. The Danish transmission system operator Energinet-DK has implemented the general model of wind turbines equipped with converter connected asynchronous generators with the simulation tool Powerfactory (DlgSilent). The article presents Energinet-DK's experience of modeling this feasible wind turbine concept. (Author)

  2. Efficiency calculation on 10 MW experimental steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoznedl Michal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defining flow path efficiency of an experimental steam turbine by using measurement of flow, torque, pressures and temperatures. The configuration of the steam turbine flow path is briefly described. Measuring points and devices are defined. The paper indicates the advantages as well as disadvantages of flow path efficiency measurement using enthalpy and torque on the shaft. The efficiency evaluation by the help pressure and temperature measurement is influenced by flow parameter distribution and can provide different values of flow path efficiency. The efficiency determination by using of torque and mass flow measurement is more accurate and it is recommended for using. The disadvantage is relatively very complicated and expensive measuring system.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation of 3D aerofoil characteristics on a MW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2013-01-01

    3D aerofoil characteristics on a MW wind turbine is investigated through a combination of field measurements, wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Surface pressuremeasurements as well as the integrated force coefficients for selected aerofoil sections on a blade of the turbine...... is compared to wind tunnel measurements on the same aerofoil sections in order to reveal the difference in performance of aerofoils on full scale rotors in atmospheric conditions and aerofoils in wind tunnels. The findings of the measurements are backed up by analogous CFD analysis involving fully resolved 3D...... computations on the wind turbine as well as 2D aerofoil simulations....

  4. Design, analysis and control of hydraulic soft yaw system for 5MW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    by active control of a hydraulic yaw system. The control is based on a non-linear and linear model derived based on a concept yaw system for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The control strategies show a reduction in pressure pulsations under load and it is concluded that the strategie including high......As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and wereby dampen the loads to the system. This paper presents work done on dampening of these loads...

  5. Field Validation of the Stability Limit of a Multi MW Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne S.; Kragh, Knud A.

    2016-09-01

    Long slender blades of modern multi-megawatt turbines exhibit a flutter like instability at rotor speeds above a critical rotor speed. Knowing the critical rotor speed is crucial to a safe turbine design. The flutter like instability can only be estimated using geometrically non-linear aeroelastic codes. In this study, the estimated rotor speed stability limit of a 7 MW state of the art wind turbine is validated experimentally. The stability limit is estimated using Siemens Wind Powers in-house aeroelastic code, and the results show that the predicted stability limit is within 5% of the experimentally observed limit.

  6. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshio; Nakagami, Yasuo; Fujii, Hisashi; Shibanai, Hirooki.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  7. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Y.; Nakagami, Y.; Fujii, H.; Shibanai, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1,175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  8. Yawing characteristics during slippage of the nacelle of a multi MW wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-G.; Dalhoff, P. H.; Gust, P.

    2016-09-01

    High aerodynamic yaw loads coupled with electrical failures in the wind turbine can result to a slippage of the nacelle, due to limited braking capabilities of the yaw system. A slippage on the other hand can lead to a mechanical malfunction of the yaw system. To analyse the yawing characteristics of a wind turbine during nacelle slippage situations, a detailed multibody system model of the yaw system has been developed and incorporated in a multibody system model of a wind turbine based on a 3.3 MW turbine. Extreme load cases which lead to a nacelle slippage have been simulated. The dynamics and loads on different wind turbine components are presented and discussed. First results show minimal load increases of the rotor torque and the bending moments of the blade root sections during slippage but unfavourable rotational speeds of the yaw drives.

  9. Simulation of a 5MW wind turbine in an atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, Konrad; Lutz, Thorsten; Krämer, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    This article presents detached eddy simulation (DES) results of a 5MW wind turbine in an unsteady atmospheric boundary layer. The evaluation performed in this article focuses on turbine blade loads as well as on the influence of atmospheric turbulence and tower on blade loads. Therefore, the turbulence transport of the atmospheric boundary layer to the turbine position is analyzed. To determine the influence of atmospheric turbulence on wind turbines the blade load spectrum is evaluated and compared to wind turbine simulation results with uniform inflow. Moreover, the influences of different frequency regimes and the tower on the blade loads are discussed. Finally, the normal force coefficient spectrum is analyzed at three different radial positions and the influence of tower and atmospheric turbulence is shown

  10. Reliability-based inspection planning of 20MW offshore wind turbine jacket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a risk and reliability based inspection planning framework (RBI) for the InnWind 20MW reference wind turbine jacket sub-structure. A detailed fracture mechanics based fatigue crack growth model is developed and used as basis to derive optimal inspection plans...

  11. Parametric Analysis of a Two-Shaft Aeroderivate Gas Turbine of 11.86 MW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lugo-Leyte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aeroderivate gas turbines are widely used for power generation in the oil and gas industry. In offshore marine platforms, the aeroderivative gas turbines provide the energy required to drive mechanically compressors, pumps and electric generators. Therefore, the study of the performance of aeroderivate gas turbines based on a parametric analysis is relevant to carry out a diagnostic of the engine, which can lead to operational as well as predictive and/or corrective maintenance actions. This work presents a methodology based on the exergetic analysis to estimate the irrevesibilities and exergetic efficiencies of the main components of a two-shaft aeroderivate gas turbine. The studied engine is the Solar Turbine Mars 100, which is rated to provide 11.86 MW. In this engine, the air is compressed in an axial compressor achieving a pressure ratio of 17.7 relative to ambient conditions and a high pressure turbine inlet temperature of 1220 °C. Even if the thermal efficiency associated to the pressure ratio of 17.7 is 1% lower than the maximum thermal efficiency, the irreversibilities related to this pressure ratio decrease approximately 1 GW with respect to irreversibilities of the optimal pressure ratio for the thermal efficiency. In addition, this paper contributes to develop a mathematical model to estimate the high turbine inlet temperature as well as the pressure ratio of the low and high pressure turbines.

  12. Short Circuits of a 10 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits happen...... at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator’s equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short circuit faults. Afterwards, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10 MW HTS wind turbine generator under four different short...... that the short circuits pose great challenges to the generator, and careful consideration should be given to protect the generator. The results presented in this paper would be beneficial to the design, operation and protection of an HTS wind turbine generator....

  13. Short Circuits of a 10-MW High-Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Direct Drive high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits take...... place at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator's equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short-circuit faults. Afterward, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10-MW HTS wind turbine generator under four...... show that the short circuits pose great challenges to the generator, and careful consideration should be given to protect the generator. The findings presented in this paper would be beneficial to the design, operation and protection of an HTS wind turbine generator....

  14. Power quality issues of 3MW direct-driven PMSG wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, IA; Zobaa, AF; Taylor, GA

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents power quality issues of a grid connected wind generation system with a MW-class direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A variable speed wind turbine model was simulated and developed with the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. The model includes a wind turbine with one mass-model drive train model, a PMSG model and a full-scale voltage source back to back PWM converter. The converter controller model is employed in the dq-synchronous rotating reference f...

  15. Comparison of 10 MW superconducting generator topologies for direct-drive wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2015-01-01

    Large wind turbines of 10 MW or higher power levels are desirable for reducing the cost of energy of offshore wind power conversion. Conventional wind generator systems will be costly if scaled up to 10 MW due to rather large size and weight. Direct drive superconducting generators have been...... magnetic field excitation allows for lightweight non-magnetic composite materials for machine cores instead of iron. A topology would probably not be a good option for an offshore wind turbine generator if it demands a far more expensive active material cost than others, even if it has other advantages...... proposed to address the problem with generator size, because the electrical machines with superconducting windings are capable of achieving a higher torque density of an electrical machine. However, the topology to be adopted for superconducting wind generators has not yet been settled, since the high...

  16. Design study of a 10 MW MgB2 superconductor direct drive wind turbine generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Liu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    A design study of a 10 MW direct drive wind turbine generator based on MgB2 superconducting wires is presented and the cost of the active materials of the generator is estimated to be between 226 €/kW and 84 €/kw, which is lower than the threshold values of 300 €/kW of the INNWIND.EU project. A n...

  17. Power Devices Loading in Multilevel Converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Xu, Dehong

    2011-01-01

    Several promising multilevel converter solutions for 10 MW wind turbines using permanent magnet synchronous generators are proposed, designed and compared both with one-stage gear-box drive and direct drive systems. The current and loss distributions, as well as the utilization of power devices......-level NeutralPoint-Clamped topology with both the direct-drive and one-stage gear box drive systems....

  18. Control design and performance analysis of a 6 MW wind turbine-generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, A.; Winkelman, J. R.; Javid, S. H.; Barton, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to the modeling and performance for the preliminary design phase of a large (6.2 MW) horizontal axis wind turbine generator (WTG). Two control philosophies are presented, both of which are based on linearized models of the WT mechanical and electrical systems. The control designs are compared by showing the performance through detailed non-linear time simulation. The disturbances considered are wind gusts, and electrical faults near the WT terminals.

  19. CFD-based design load analysis of 5MW offshore wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. T.; Ryu, G. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    The structure and aerodynamic loads acting on NREL 5MW reference wind turbine blade are calculated and analyzed based on advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and unsteady Blade Element Momentum (BEM). A detailed examination of the six force components has been carried out (three force components and three moment components). Structure load (gravity and inertia load) and aerodynamic load have been obtained by additional structural calculations (CFD or BEM, respectively,). In CFD method, the Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes approach was applied to solve the continuity equation of mass conservation and momentum balance so that the complex flow around wind turbines was modeled. Written in C programming language, a User Defined Function (UDF) code which defines transient velocity profile according to the Extreme Operating Gust condition was compiled into commercial FLUENT package. Furthermore, the unsteady BEM with 3D stall model has also adopted to investigate load components on wind turbine rotor. The present study introduces a comparison between advanced CFD and unsteady BEM for determining load on wind turbine rotor. Results indicate that there are good agreements between both present methods. It is importantly shown that six load components on wind turbine rotor is significant effect under Extreme Operating Gust (EOG) condition. Using advanced CFD and additional structural calculations, this study has succeeded to construct accuracy numerical methodology to estimate total load of wind turbine that compose of aerodynamic load and structure load.

  20. Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW wind turbines for large offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nygaard Nielsen, Joergen; Thisted, Jan; Groendahl, Erik; Egedal, Per; Noertoft Frydensbjerg, Michael; Jensen, Kim Hoej [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Siemens Wind power A/S is the key player on the offshore wind power market. The Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine is among the word's largest, most advanced and competitive wind turbines with a solid portfolio of large offshore wind farms. Transmission system operators and developers require dynamic wind turbine models for evaluation of fault-ride-through capability and investigations of power system stability. The even larger size of the on- and offshore wind farms has entailed that the grid impact of the voltage and frequency control capability of the wind farm can be appropriated modelled and evaluated. Siemens Wind Power has developed a dynamic model of the 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine with the fault-ride-through sequences and models of the voltage and frequency controllers to be applied for large offshore wind farms. The dynamic models have been implemented in the commercially available simulation tools such as DIgSILENT PowerFactory and Siemens PTI PSS/E and successfully validated from measurements. (orig.)

  1. Design and Aero-elastic Simulation of a 5MW Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a 5MW floating offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The design is based on a new offshore wind turbine concept (DeepWind concept), consisting of a Darrieus rotor mounted on a spar buoy support structure, which is anchored to the sea bed with mooring lines......-DTU. The numerical simulations take into account the fully coupled aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads on the structure, due to wind, waves and currents. The turbine is tested in operative conditions, at different sea states, selected according to the international offshore standards. The research is part...... of the European project DeepWind (2010-2014), which has been financed by the European Union (FP7-Future Emerging Technologies)....

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Roni Sahroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure’s response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT) is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure's response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed. PMID:26550605

  4. Possibility of revitalization of control system of steam turbine 210 MW LMZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racki, Branko

    2004-01-01

    It is a one-shaft, three casing condensing turbine, type K-210-130. A rigid coupling connects it directly to the electric energy generator. There is one intermediate superheat of steam and seven non regulated blending for regenerative condensate heating. A considerate number of such turbines have been used on the territory of the Eastern Europe. There are two blocks installed in TP Sisak, Croatia. There is a survey of the existing control system of turbine, power 210 MW. It points out and describes problems appearing during exploitation. Technical solutions according to complexity of realization have been described. It gives an overview of minimum range of modification with utilization of the existing oil system and maximum range by adding separate high pressure oil system with new solutions for performing segments. (Author)

  5. Statistical fault diagnosis of wind turbine drivetrain applied to a 5MW floating wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Ghane, Mahdi; Rasekhi Nejad, Amir; Blanke, Mogens; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-01-01

    Deployment of large scale wind turbine parks, in particular offshore, requires well organized operation and maintenance strategies to make it as competitive as the classical electric power stations. It is important to ensure systems are safe, profitable, and cost-effective. In this regards, the ability to detect, isolate, estimate, and prognose faults plays an important role. One of the critical wind turbine components is the gearbox. Failures in the gearbox are costly both due to the cost of...

  6. Design, Optimization and Analysis of Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for 5 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hence dampen the loads to the system, which is the focus of the current paper. The paper first p...... on the extrapolated loads, show that it is possible to construct a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly....... presents work previous done on this subject with focus on hydraulic yaw systems. By utilizing the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized. Results show that a significant...... reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw system and rotor shaft are possible, when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. The duty cycles, based...

  7. Layered Multi-mode Optimal Control Strategy for Multi-MW Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Yi-gang; WANG Zhi-xin

    2008-01-01

    The control strategy is one of the most important renewable technology, and an increasing number of multi-MW wind turbines are being developed with a variable speed-variable pitch (VS-VP) technology. The main objective of adopting a VS-VP technology is to improve the fast response speed and capture maximum energy. But the power generated by wind turbine changes rapidly because of the centinuous fluctuation of wind speed and direction. At the same time, wind energy conversion systems are of high order, time delays and strong nonlinear characteristics because of many uncertain factors. Based on analyzing the all dynamic processes of wind turbine, a kind of layered multi-mode optimal control strategy is presented which is that three control strategies: bang-bang, fuzzy and adaptive proportienai integral derivative (PID) are adopted according to different stages and expected performance of wind turbine to capture optimum wind power, compensate the nonlinearity and improve the wind turbine performance at low, rated and high wind speed.

  8. An opportunity for capacity up-rating of 1000 MW steam turbine plant in Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with earlier and forced decommissioning of the Kozloduy NPP units 1 - 4, an alternative has to be found in order to substitute these capacities. As a reasonable options, capacity up-rating of 1000 MW steam turbine plants without nuclear reactor thermal capacity increase, is investigated in the present study. The cooling water for these units is delivered by Danube river. The cooling water temperatures substantially decrease during the winter months. These changes create an opportunity for steam back end pressure reduction. It was found that when the cooling water temperature decreases from 15 0 C to 3 0 C, the steam back end pressure is on the decrease of from 3.92 kPa to 2.3 kPa. As a result capacity of the plant could be raised up to 50 MW without any substantial equipment and systems change

  9. Two 850 MW turbines on daily cycling, design and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodieck, W; Straetz, A [Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nuernberg (M.A.N.) A.G., Nuernberg (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-02-01

    When Pennsylvania Power and Light Company (PPandL) of Allentown, U.S.A. signed a contract in 1970 with M.A.N. for the supply of two 850 MW turbines as part of extension of its existing coal-fired power station at Martins Creek by two oil-fired units, continuous base load operation was planned for the initial years. After about ten years both units should have been curbed to low load operation at night and completely shutdown at weekends. Then in 1973 when the oil crisis led to fuel prices which proved the operation of both units uneconomic the way they were planned for the initial years, all conditions were given to operate both turbines on a daily cycling basis from their commissioning day on. This was due to the installation of quality equipment for the improvement of thermal performance.

  10. Experimental and numerical study of a 10MW TLP wind turbine in waves and wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pegalajar Jurado, Antonio Manuel; Hansen, Anders Mandrup; Laugesen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    with the tests by matching key system features, namely the steady thrust curve and the decay tests in water. The calibrated model is used to reproduce the wind-wave climates in the laboratory, including regular and irregular waves, with and without wind. The model predictions are compared to the measured data......This paper presents tests on a 1:60 version of the DTU 10MW wind turbine mounted on a tension leg platform and their numerical reproduction. Both the experimental setup and the numerical model are Froude-scaled, and the dynamic response of the floating wind turbine to wind and waves is compared......, and a good agreement is found for surge and heave, while some discrepancies are observed for pitch, nacelle acceleration and line tension. The addition of wind generally improves the agreement with test results. The aerodynamic damping is identified in both tests and simulations. Finally, the sources...

  11. Definition of a 5MW/61.5m wind turbine blade reference model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resor, Brian Ray

    2013-04-01

    A basic structural concept of the blade design that is associated with the frequently utilized %E2%80%9CNREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine%E2%80%9D is needed for studies involving blade structural design and blade structural design tools. The blade structural design documented in this report represents a concept that meets basic design criteria set forth by IEC standards for the onshore turbine. The design documented in this report is not a fully vetted blade design which is ready for manufacture. The intent of the structural concept described by this report is to provide a good starting point for more detailed and targeted investigations such as blade design optimization, blade design tool verification, blade materials and structures investigations, and blade design standards evaluation. This report documents the information used to create the current model as well as the analyses used to verify that the blade structural performance meets reasonable blade design criteria.

  12. Characterization of blade throw from a 2.3MW horizontal axis wind turbine upon failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlak, Hamid; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2015-01-01

    The present work concerns aerodynamics of thrown objects from a 2.3 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT), as a consequence of blade failure. The governing set of ordinary differential equations for the flying objects are derived and numerically solved using a 4th order Runge-Kutta time advancing...... on their size. Thereafter, throw distance picks up exponentially with the tip speed. By comparing the throw distance calculations with and without dynamic stall model being active, it is concluded that dynamic stall does not play a major role in throw distances....

  13. Optimization and comparison of superconducting generator topologies for a 10 MW wind turbine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    A direct-drive superconducting generator (DDSCG) is proposed for 10 MW wind turbines in the INNWIND.EU project. To fit the generator into the "king-pin" conceptual nacelle design, the generator structure with inner stationary superconducting (SC) field winding and outer rotating copper armature...... winding is investigated in the first research phase. Since the cost is an important performance indicator for this application, this paper presents a method to minimize the active material cost of the "king-pin" fitted DDSCG. In this method a relatively fast optimization program is developed with 2D non...

  14. A Pole Pair Segment of a 2-MW High-Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    A 2-MW high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator with 24 pole pairs has been designed for the wind turbine application. In order to identify potential challenges and obtain practical knowledge prior to production, a full-size stationary experimental setup, which is one pole pair segment...... and the setup in terms of the flux density, the operating condition of the HTS winding, and the force-generation capability. Finite element (FE) software MagNet is used to carry out numerical simulations. The findings show that the HTS winding in the setup is a good surrogate for these that would be used...

  15. A Pole Pair Segment of a 2 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A 2 MW high temperature superconducting (HTS) generator with 24 pole pairs has been designed for the wind turbine application. In order to identify potential challenges and obtain practical knowledge prior to production, a fullsize stationary experimental set-up, which is one pole pair segment...... generator and the set-up in terms of the flux density, the operating condition of the HTS winding, and the force-generation capability. Finite element (FE) software MagNet is used to carry out numerical simulations. The findings show that the HTS winding in the set-up is a good surrogate...

  16. Dynamic Analysis of A 5-MW Tripod Offshare Wind Turbine by Considering Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-wei; LI Xin

    2017-01-01

    Fixed of fshore wind turbines usually have large underwater supporting structures. The fluid influences the dynamic characteristics of the structure system. The dynamic model of a 5-MW tripod of fshore wind turbine considering the pile–soil system and fluid structure interaction (FSI) is established, and the structural modes in air and in water are obtained by use of ANSYS. By comparing low-order natural frequencies and mode shapes, the influence of sea water on the free vibration characteristics of of fshore wind turbine is analyzed. On basis of the above work, seismic responses under excitation by El-Centro waves are calculated by the time-history analysis method. The results reveal that the dynamic responses such as the lateral displacement of the foundation and the section bending moment of the tubular piles increase substantially under the influence of the added-mass and hydrodynamic pressure of sea water. The method and conclusions presented in this paper can provide a theoretical reference for structure design and analysis of of fshore wind turbines fixed in deep seawater.

  17. Dynamic analysis of a 5-MW tripod offshore wind turbine by considering fluid-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-wei; Li, Xin

    2017-10-01

    Fixed offshore wind turbines usually have large underwater supporting structures. The fluid influences the dynamic characteristics of the structure system. The dynamic model of a 5-MW tripod offshore wind turbine considering the pile-soil system and fluid structure interaction (FSI) is established, and the structural modes in air and in water are obtained by use of ANSYS. By comparing low-order natural frequencies and mode shapes, the influence of sea water on the free vibration characteristics of offshore wind turbine is analyzed. On basis of the above work, seismic responses under excitation by El-Centro waves are calculated by the time-history analysis method. The results reveal that the dynamic responses such as the lateral displacement of the foundation and the section bending moment of the tubular piles increase substantially under the influence of the added-mass and hydrodynamic pressure of sea water. The method and conclusions presented in this paper can provide a theoretical reference for structure design and analysis of offshore wind turbines fixed in deep seawater.

  18. Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines and application to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure: Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahn, T. [Pahn Ingenieure, Am Seegraben 17b 03051 Cottbus Germany; Rolfes, R. [Institut f?r Statik und Dynamik, Leibniz Universit?t Hannover, Appelstra?e 9A 30167 Hannover Germany; Jonkman, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA

    2017-02-20

    A significant number of wind turbines installed today have reached their designed service life of 20 years, and the number will rise continuously. Most of these turbines promise a more economical performance if they operate for more than 20 years. To assess a continued operation, we have to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the support structure with respect to site-specific conditions. Such an analysis requires the comparison of the loads used for the design of the support structure with the actual loads experienced. This publication presents the application of a so-called inverse load calculation to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure. The inverse load calculation determines external loads derived from a mechanical description of the support structure and from measured structural responses. Using numerical simulations with the software fast, we investigated the influence of wind-turbine-specific effects such as the wind turbine control or the dynamic interaction between the loads and the support structure to the presented inverse load calculation procedure. fast is used to study the inverse calculation of simultaneously acting wind and wave loads, which has not been carried out until now. Furthermore, the application of the inverse load calculation procedure to a real 5-MW wind turbine support structure is demonstrated. In terms of this practical application, setting up the mechanical system for the support structure using measurement data is discussed. The paper presents results for defined load cases and assesses the accuracy of the inversely derived dynamic loads for both the simulations and the practical application.

  19. CFD Study on Aerodynamic Power Output Changes with Inter-Turbine Spacing Variation for a 6 MW Offshore Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Joon Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the aerodynamic power output change of wind turbines with inter-turbine spacing variation for a 6 MW wind farm composed of three sets of 2 MW wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The wind farm layout design is becoming increasingly important as the use of wind energy is steadily increasing. Among the many wind farm layout design parameters, the inter-turbine spacing is a key factor in the initial investment cost, annual energy production and maintenance cost. The inter-turbine spacing should be determined to maximize the annual energy production and minimize the wake effect, turbulence effect and fatigue load during the service lifetime of wind turbines. Therefore, some compromise between the aerodynamic power output of wind turbines and the inter-turbine spacing is needed. An actuator disc model with the addition of a momentum source was not used, and instead, a full 3-dimensional model with a tower and nacelle was used for CFD analysis because of its great technical significance. The CFD analysis results, such as the aerodynamic power output, axial direction wind speed change, pressure drop across the rotor of wind turbine, and wind speed deficit due to the wake effect with inter-turbine spacing variation, were studied. The results of this study can be applied effectively to wind farm layout design and evaluation.

  20. Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha; Maness, Michael; Dykes, Katherine

    2017-01-09

    Compared to land-based applications, offshore wind imposes challenges for the development of next generation wind turbine generator technology. Direct-drive generators are believed to offer high availability, efficiency, and reduced operation and maintenance requirements; however, previous research suggests difficulties in scaling to several megawatts or more in size. The resulting designs are excessively large and/or massive, which are major impediments to transportation logistics, especially for offshore applications. At the same time, geared wind turbines continue to sustain offshore market growth through relatively cheaper and lightweight generators. However, reliability issues associated with mechanical components in a geared system create significant operation and maintenance costs, and these costs make up a large portion of overall system costs offshore. Thus, direct-drive turbines are likely to outnumber their gear-driven counterparts for this market, and there is a need to review the costs or opportunities of building machines with different types of generators and examining their competitiveness at the sizes necessary for the next generation of offshore wind turbines. In this paper, we use GeneratorSE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's newly developed systems engineering generator sizing tool to estimate mass, efficiency, and the costs of different generator technologies satisfying the electromagnetic, structural, and basic thermal design requirements for application in a very large-scale offshore wind turbine such as the Technical University of Denmark's (DTU) 10-MW reference wind turbine. For the DTU reference wind turbine, we use the previously mentioned criteria to optimize a direct-drive, radial flux, permanent-magnet synchronous generator; a direct-drive electrically excited synchronous generator; a medium-speed permanent-magnet generator; and a high-speed, doubly-fed induction generator. Preliminary analysis of leveled costs of

  1. Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha; Maness, Michael; Dykes, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Compared to land-based applications, offshore wind imposes challenges for the development of next generation wind turbine generator technology. Direct-drive generators are believed to offer high availability, efficiency, and reduced operation and maintenance requirements; however, previous research suggests difficulties in scaling to several megawatts or more in size. The resulting designs are excessively large and/or massive, which are major impediments to transportation logistics, especially for offshore applications. At the same time, geared wind turbines continue to sustain offshore market growth through relatively cheaper and lightweight generators. However, reliability issues associated with mechanical components in a geared system create significant operation and maintenance costs, and these costs make up a large portion of overall system costs offshore. Thus, direct-drive turbines are likely to outnumber their gear-driven counterparts for this market, and there is a need to review the costs or opportunities of building machines with different types of generators and examining their competitiveness at the sizes necessary for the next generation of offshore wind turbines. In this paper, we use GeneratorSE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's newly developed systems engineering generator sizing tool to estimate mass, efficiency, and the costs of different generator technologies satisfying the electromagnetic, structural, and basic thermal design requirements for application in a very large-scale offshore wind turbine such as the Technical University of Denmark's (DTU) 10-MW reference wind turbine. For the DTU reference wind turbine, we use the previously mentioned criteria to optimize a direct-drive, radial flux, permanent-magnet synchronous generator; a direct-drive electrically excited synchronous generator; a medium-speed permanent-magnet generator; and a high-speed, doubly-fed induction generator. Preliminary analysis of leveled costs of

  2. Turbine-generators for 400 mw coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, W.; Bergmann, D.; Boer, J.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that presently, standard coal-fired power plant concepts including flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and DENO x systems are in the design stage to be built on relatively short delivery schedules. The rating in the 400 MW range has generally been selected, because such small power plant units with short delivery times cause a minimum financial burden during planning, delivery and installation. They also follow more closely the growth of electric energy demand at specific locations. However economical considerations could lead to larger unit ratings, since the planning and building process of higher capacity plants is not significantly different but specific plant costs are certainly smaller with increased unit size. Historically large tandem-compound steam turbine-generators have been built and have proven reliable operation with ratings in excess of 800 MW. Already in the late 1950's main steam pressures and temperatures as high as 4,500 psig and 1,200 degrees F respectively were successfully used for smaller steam turbines

  3. Preliminary Design of a Multi-Column TLP Foundation for a 5-MW Offshore Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, floating wind turbines (FWTs may be the more economical and suitable systems with which to exploit offshore wind energy in deep waters. Among the various types of floating foundations for offshore wind farms, a tension leg platform (TLP foundation can provide a relatively stable platform for currently available offshore wind turbines without requiring major modifications. In this study, a new multi-column TLP foundation (WindStar TLP was developed for the NREL 5-MW offshore wind turbine according to site-specific environmental conditions, which are the same as the OC3-Hywind (NREL conditions. The general arrangement, main structure and mooring system were also designed and investigated through hydrodynamic and natural frequency analyses. The complete system avoids resonance through the rotor excitations. An aero-hydro-servo-elastic coupled analysis was carried out in the time domain with the numerical tool FAST. Statistics of the key parameters were obtained and analysed and comparisons to MIT/NREL TLP are made. As a result, the design requirements were shown to be satisfied, and the proposed WindStar TLP was shown to have favourable motion characteristics under extreme wind and wave conditions with a lighter and smaller structure. The new concept holds great potential for further development.

  4. Proposition algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sequential propositional logic deviates from conventional propositional logic by taking into account that during the sequential evaluation of a propositional statement, atomic propositions may yield different Boolean values at repeated occurrences. We introduce "free valuations" to capture this

  5. Seismic response analyses of turbine hall and electrical building of RBMK-1000 MW type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, M.J.; Karparov, K.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses results obtained during the study of turbine hall and electrical building of RBMK-1000 MW pair units at Leningradskaya NPP (LNPP) for seismic event. The study was performed in the frame of the Coordinated Research Program of the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) on Safety of RBMK type Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in Relation of External Events. A 3-D finite element model of Main Building Complex was developed and seismic response analyses were performed taking into account the soil-structure interaction (SSI). The standard mode superposition method was used for evaluation of dynamic response of structure in time domain. The structure was assumed surface founded at the basemat level. Seismic response analyses were carried out considering shear wave propagation pattern for the input motion. The in-structure time histories and response spectra were generated in referenced locations. Conclusions are drawn for the reliability of the structural response evaluation considering the soil-structure interaction effects. (author)

  6. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads. (paper)

  7. 100 MW turbine foundation plate concreasting during construction of the Rovno NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presman, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    Manufacture technique and the design 1000 MW turbine foundation plate during construction of the Rovno NPP has been described. The plate dimensions are 73.7x26 m, the height is up to 5 m. The plate concrete volume is 5900 m 3 , the mass of reinforcement is 357 t. The main characteristics of concrete are presented. Tests of control samples of concrete with the age 28 and 365 days have shown the strength at compression 3540 and 4580 N/cm 2 , for axial stretch 280 and 426 N/cm 2 respectively. The change of temperature regime of the plate concrete is shown. Control results have shown the corAespondence between the design of the foundation plate and requirements to the working project

  8. Performance Analysis of 20MW gas turbine power plant by Energy and Exergy Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebele-Alawa, B. T.; Asuo, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Energy and exergy analysis were conducted to evaluate the optimal performance of a 20 MW gas turbine power plant. The energy analysis was based on First Law of Thermodynamics, while the exergy method used both First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. The locations and magnitude of losses which inhibited the performance of the power plant were identified by balance system equations. The internal losses associated with each plant component were estimated for improvement to be made to such component for maximum power output. The energy efficiency was 20.73 %, while the exergeric efficiency was 16.39 %; but the exergy loss of 38.62 % in the combustor was the largest among the components of plant. (au)

  9. Composite Structural Analysis of Flat-Back Shaped Blade for Multi-MW Class Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Bang, Hyung-Joon; Shin, Hyung-Ki; Jang, Moon-Seok

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of failure mode estimation based on 3D structural finite element (FE) analysis of the flat-back shaped wind turbine blade. Buckling stability, fiber failure (FF), and inter-fiber failure (IFF) analyses were performed to account for delamination or matrix failure of composite materials and to predict the realistic behavior of the entire blade region. Puck's fracture criteria were used for IFF evaluation. Blade design loads applicable to multi-megawatt (MW) wind turbine systems were calculated according to the Germanischer Lloyd (GL) guideline and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-1 standard, under Class IIA wind conditions. After the post-processing of final load results, a number of principal load cases were selected and converted into applied forces at the each section along the blade's radius of the FE model. Nonlinear static analyses were performed for laminate failure, FF, and IFF check. For buckling stability, linear eigenvalue analysis was performed. As a result, we were able to estimate the failure mode and locate the major weak point.

  10. Load consequences when sweeping blades - A case study of a 5 MW pitch controlled wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verelst, D.R.S.; Larsen, Torben J.

    2010-08-15

    The generic 5 MW NREL wind turbine model is used in Risoe's aeroelastic simulator HAWC2 to investigate 120 different swept blade configurations (forward and backward sweep). Sensitivity for 2 different controllers is considered as well. Backward sweep results in a pitch to feather torsional moment of the blade, effectively reducing blade twist angles under increased loading. This behaviour results in decreased flap-wise fatigue and extreme loads, an increase for edge-wise fatigue loading and status quo or slight decrease in extreme loads (depending on the controller). Tower base and shaft-end bending moments are reduced as well. Forward sweep leads to an increase in angle of attack under loading. For a pitch controlled turbine this leads to an increase in fatigue and extreme loading in all cases. A controller inflicted instability is present for the more extreme forward swept cases. Due to the shape of considered sweep curves, an inherent and significant increase in torsional blade root bending moment is noted. A boomerang shaped sweep curve is proposed to counteract this problematic increased loading. Controller sensitivity shows that adding sweep affects some loadings differently. Power output is reduced for backward sweep since the blade twist is optimized as a rigid structure, ignoring the torsional deformations which for a swept blade can be significant. (author)

  11. Morphing Downwind-Aligned Rotor Concept Based on a 13-MW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichter, Brian; Steele, Adam; Loth, Eric; Moriarty, Patrick; Selig, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale wind turbines (>/=10 MW), a morphing downwind-aligned rotor (MoDaR) concept is proposed herein. The concept employs a downwind rotor with blades whose elements are stiff (no intentional flexibility) but with hub-joints that can be unlocked to allow for moment-free downwind alignment. Aligning the combination of gravitational, centrifugal and thrust forces along the blade path reduces downwind cantilever loads, resulting in primarily tensile loading. For control simplicity, the blade curvature can be fixed with a single morphing degree of freedom using a near-hub joint for coning angle: 22 degrees at rated conditions. The conventional baseline was set as the 13.2-MW Sandia 100-m all glass blade in a three-bladed upwind configuration. To quantify potential mass savings, a downwind load-aligning, two-bladed rotor was designed. Because of the reduced number of blades, the MoDaR concept had a favorable 33% mass reduction. The blade reduction and coning led to a reduction in rated power, but morphing increased energy capture at lower speeds such that both the MoDaR and conventional rotors have the same average power: 5.4 MW. A finite element analysis showed that quasi-steady structural stresses could be reduced, over a range of operating wind speeds and azimuthal angles, despite the increases in loading per blade. However, the concept feasibility requires additional investigation of the mass, cost and complexity of the morphing hinge, the impact of unsteady aeroelastic influence because of turbulence and off-design conditions, along with system-level Levelized Cost of Energy analysis.

  12. Comparison of Levelized Cost of Energy of superconducting direct drive generators for a 10 MW offshore wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Liu, Dong; Magnusson, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    A method for comparing the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) of different superconducting drive trains is introduced. The properties of a 10 MW MgB$_{2}$ superconducting direct drive generator are presented in terms weight scaled to a turbine with a rotor diameter up of 280 m and the cost break down...

  13. Flap controllers applied on the OffshoreWindChina (OWC) 5MW reference wind turbine for Chinese typhoon conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios

    The report describes the development of flap controllers applied on the OffshoreWindChina (OWC) 5MW reference wind turbine for Chinese typhoon conditions. Optimal flap controllers are designed and tuned based on linear aeroelastic models from HawcStab2. The controllers are evaluated in normal......, parked and storm conditions, targeting the alleviation of fatigue and extreme loads....

  14. Concept design and coupled dynamic response analysis on 6-MW spar-type floating offshore wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Zhou, Tao; He, Yan-ping; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Liu, Ya-dong

    2017-10-01

    Tower, Spar platform and mooring system are designed in the project based on a given 6-MW wind turbine. Under wind-induced only, wave-induced only and combined wind and wave induced loads, dynamic response is analyzed for a 6-MW Spar-type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) under operating conditions and parked conditions respectively. Comparison with a platform-fixed system (land-based system) of a 6-MW wind turbine is carried out as well. Results demonstrate that the maximal out-of-plane deflection of the blade of a Spar-type system is 3.1% larger than that of a land-based system; the maximum response value of the nacelle acceleration is 215% larger for all the designed load cases being considered; the ultimate tower base fore-aft bending moment of the Spar-type system is 92% larger than that of the land-based system in all of the Design Load Cases (DLCs) being considered; the fluctuations of the mooring tension is mainly wave-induced, and the safety factor of the mooring tension is adequate for the 6-MW FOWT. The results can provide relevant modifications to the initial design for the Spar-type system, the detailed design and model basin test of the 6-MW Spar-type system.

  15. Four-dimensional characterization of inflow to and wakes from a multi-MW turbine: overview of the Turbine Wake and Inflow Characterization Study (TWICS2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Banta, R. M.; Pichugina, Y.; Brewer, A.; Alvarez, R. J.; Sandberg, S. P.; Kelley, N. D.; Aitken, M.; Clifton, A.; Mirocha, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    To support substantial deployment of renewably-generated electricity from the wind, critical information about the variability of wind turbine wakes in the real atmosphere from multi-MW turbines is required. The assessment of the velocity deficit and turbulence associated with industrial-scale turbines is a major issue for wind farm design, particularly with respect to the optimization of the spacing between turbines. The significant velocity deficit and turbulence generated by upstream turbines can reduce the power production and produce harmful vibrations in downstream turbines, which can lead to excess maintenance costs. The complexity of wake effects depends on many factors arising from both hardware (turbine size, rotor speed, and blade geometry, etc.) and from meteorological considerations such as wind velocity, gradients of wind across the turbine rotor disk, atmospheric stability, and atmospheric turbulence. To characterize the relationships between the meteorological inflow and turbine wakes, a collaborative field campaign was designed and carried out at the Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center (NREL/NWTC) in south Boulder, Colorado, in spring 2011. This site often experiences channeled flow with a consistent wind direction, enabling robust statistics of wake velocity deficits and turbulence enhancements. Using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation, measurements upwind and downwind of multi-megawatt wind turbine in complex terrain quantified the variability of wind turbine inflow and wakes from an industrial-scale turbine. The turbine of interest has a rated power of 2.3 MW, a rotor diameter of 100m, and a hub height of 80m. In addition to several meteorological towers, one extending to hub height (80m) and another extending above the top of the rotor disk (135m), a Triton mini-sodar and a Windcube lidar characterized the inflow to the turbine and the variability across the site. The centerpiece instrument of the TWICS campaign

  16. Feasibility study 6 MW Multiwind MWT 6000 Triple Rotor Offshore Wind Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2000-08-01

    This report contains results of a feasibility study carried out between September 1999 and January 2000. Multi-rotor technology is rather complex compared to conventional wind turbines, largely due to the increased number of components and (sub)systems. There are on the other hand also indications that the application of MULTIWIND features like the turnable subframe has the potential for a substantial reduction in energy generating costs. The study commenced with a set of preconditions and parameters like masses, dimensions, design features, indicative safety and control systems, etc. The key question to be answered was: 'is it possible to design a large 5 - 6 MW multi-rotor offshore wind turbine which can compete with comparable wind turbines of the same capacity and a single rotor, on the basis of overall concept, market acceptance and Costs of Energy (COE)? The main objectives are (1) to improve understanding of primary dynamic system interactions; (2) to quantify 'white spots' in the MULTIWIND know-how base (solvable problems with state-of-the-art solutions and not (immediately) solvable problems, requiring a technological breakthrough); and (3) to determine critical design parameters for various systems and alternative solutions. Secondary objectives were to analyse various concepts on the basis of technical aspects and Costs Of Energy (COE). The expected results are (1) a viable prototype concept based on proven state-of-the-art design solutions; and (2) clear outlines of a workable and cost effective installation and O and M strategy for large MWT-system optimised offshore wind power plants. For the methodology an integrated concept design approach has been adopted. This is considered essential from a project management, system dynamics, and COE points of view. Starting point were conclusions and recommendations of the lv-Marcon report. The structural design commenced with the positioning of the main yawing system and the conceptual dimensioning of the main

  17. Maintenance concept of the gas turbine in a 1640 MW direct cycle HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmied, H.; Karaus, H.; Schenker, E.

    1981-01-01

    The description which follows refers to a helium-cooled high-temperature reactor with a gas turbine and a thermal output of 1640 MW. The turbomachine which comes into contact with the cooling gas is contaminated with radioactivity during its operation. For the maintenance of the turbomachine, a major inspection is planned at six-year intervals. This overhaul involves disassembling and dismantling the turbomachine. Two minor inspections, at two-year intervals, are planned between the major inspections. The minor inspections involve inspection of the bearings, for which purpose the turbomachine does not have to be disassembled and dismantled. This paper presents in summarized form the sequence in which the maintenance work is to be carried out for both the major and minor inspections. The shutdown time and the collective dose were estimated to this end. Costs have not yet been determined. Details of the concept are given and significant results from the areas dealing with release, deposition and decontamination have been appropriately adapted

  18. Coherence Effects on the Power and Tower Loads of a 7 × 2 MW Multi-Rotor Wind Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yoshida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-rotor system (MRS, in which multiple wind turbines are placed on one tower, is a promising concept for super-large wind turbines at over 10 MW due to the cost and weight advantages. The coherence effects on an MRS were investigated in this study. Although a wide range of coherences were measured so far, a decay constant of C = 12 is recommended in the IEC61400-1 standard. Dynamic simulations were performed for a 14-MW MRS, which consists of seven 2-MW turbines and includes wind models with three different coherences. Although the results show that a larger coherence increases the output power and the collective loads due to tower base fore-aft bending, it reduces the differential loads due to tower-base torque and tower-top nodding. The most significant case is the fatigue damage due to tower base fore-aft bending, which was more than doubled between the decay constants of C = 6 and C = 12. The present results indicate that the coherence should be defined carefully in the design of large-scale MRSs because its effect on them is not straightforward.

  19. Investigation of Self Yaw and its Potential using a Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for 5 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on a hydraulic soft yaw system, designed to reduce the loading of the turbine structure, by absorbing wind guest via the hydraulic system, but which also enables the system to be used as a self-aligning yaw system. The system is analyzed with basis in the NREL 5-MW...... turbine, modeled in FAST, in which a new robust method for implementing Coulomb friction is utilized. Based on this model and a model of the hydraulic system, the influence of friction and wind speed is investigated in relation to the possibility to use the system as a self-aligning yaw system. Similarly...... the behavior of the hydraulic system is analyzed and it is concluded that the hydraulic yaw system allows selfyaw under normal operating conditions for the turbine. Self-yaw control is possible in wind speeds above 12 m/s when yaw friction is kept below 1 MNm....

  20. The Triple Spar campaign: Model tests of a 10MW floating wind turbine with waves, wind and pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Lemmer, F.; Borg, Michael Borg

    2017-01-01

    Results of a test campaign for a floating wind turbine in simultaneous wind and wave forcing at scale 1:60 are presented. The floater is the Triple Spar floater, a hybrid between a spar buoy and a semi submersible tri-floater, tested here for the first time. The turbine is a model scale version...... of the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine, which, also for the first time, is tested with active blade pitch control. The tests focus on the effects of aerodynamic damping and interaction effects between the wind forcing, wave forcing and the blade pitch control algorithm. Special focus is devoted...... to the instability of the platform pitch natural mode, that can occur if a standard land-based controller is applied....

  1. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

    2016-01-04

    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  2. Analysis of the malfunctioning and failure of a 15 MW hydraulic turbine; Analisis de malfuncionamiento y de falla de una turbina hidraulica de 15 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Illescas, R.; Perez Rodriguez, N. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    A case history is presented of the rehabilitation process of three hydraulic turbines with a capacity of 15 MW each one. Such units are used for electric power generation, mainly to supply part of the center zone of the Mexican Republic. The turbo-generator units had been practically destroyed by catastrophic floods and only part of the equipment was recovered and reconditioned for its operation. One of the three turbines presented serious functioning problems preventing its reliable operation that was evidenced by excessive mechanical vibrations and heating in the bearing zone. This paper presents the diagnosis of the possible causes of failure and the corrective measures taken. Serious rotor misalignment problems were observed respect to its bearings and the turbine scroll. Additionally, during the inspection of the turbine runner and of the bearing it was observed that important friction have existed, which incremented the vibrations. It is shown that such rubbings are not the cause of the problem but only a manifestation of the same. Finally some of the conclusions and their solution are presented. [Spanish] Se presenta un caso historico del proceso de rehabilitacion de tres turbinas hidraulicas con capacidad de 15 MW cada una. Dichas unidades son empleadas en la generacion electrica, principalmente para abastecer parte de la zona centro de la republica mexicana. Las unidades turbogeneradores habian sido practicamente destruidas por inundaciones catastroficas y solo parte del equipo fue rescatado y rehabilitado para su operacion. Una de las tres turbinas presento graves problemas de funcionamiento, impidiendo su operacion confiable, lo cual se manifestaba mediante vibraciones mecanicas excesivas y calentamiento en zona de chumaceras. En este articulo se presenta el diagnostico de las posibles causas de falla y las acciones correctivas tomandas. Se observan problemas fuertes de desalineamiento del rotor respecto a sus chumaceras y al caracol de la turbina

  3. Analysis of the fault and malfunctioning of a 15 MW hydraulic turbine; Analisis de la falla y malfuncionamiento de una turbina hidraulica de 15 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia I, Rafael; Perez R, Norberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An historical case of the rehabilitation process of three hydraulic turbines with capacity of 15 MW each is presented. These units are used for the electrical generation, mainly to supply part of the central zone of the Mexican Republic. The turbo-generator units had been practically destroyed by catastrophic floods and only part of the equipment was rescued and rehabilitated for its operation. One of the three turbines presented serious operational problems, preventing its reliable operation evidenced by the excessive mechanical vibrations and heating of the bearing zone. This article presents the diagnosis of the possible causes of fault and the remedial actions taken. Strong misalignment problems of the runner with respect to its bearings and to the scroll case of the turbine are observed. In addition, during the inspection of the turbine runner and of the bearings it is observed that important frictions have existed, which increased the vibrations. It is shown that these frictions are not the cause of the problem but only one manifestation of the same. Finally some conclusions of the problem and their solution are presented. [Spanish] Se presenta un caso historico del proceso de rehabilitacion de tres turbinas hidraulicas con capacidad de 15 MW cada una. Dichas unidades son empleadas en la generacion electrica, principalmente para abastecer parte de la zona centro de la Republica Mexicana. Las unidades turbogeneradores habian sido practicamente destruidas por inundaciones catastroficas y solo parte del equipo fue rescatado y rehabilitado para su operacion. Una de las tres turbinas presento graves problemas de funcionamiento, impidiendo su operacion confiable, lo cual se manifestaba mediante vibraciones mecanicas excesivas y calentamiento en zona de chumaceras. En este articulo se presenta el diagnostico de las posibles causas de falla y las acciones correctivas tomadas. Se observan problemas fuertes de desalineamiento del rotor respecto a sus chumaceras y al

  4. Thick airfoil designs for the root of the 10MW INNWIND.EU wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu≁oz, A.; Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the “INNWIND.EU” project is to investigate and demonstrate innovative designs for 10-20MW offshore wind turbines and their key components, such as lightweight rotors. In this context, the present paper describes the development of two new airfoils for the blade root region. From the structural point of view, the root is the region in charge of transmitting all the loads of the blade to the hub. Thus, it is very important to include airfoils with adequate structural properties in this region. The present article makes use of high-thickness and blunt trailing edge airfoils to improve the structural characteristics of the airfoils used to build this blade region. CENER's (National Renewable Energy Center of Spain) airfoil design tool uses the airfoil software XFOIL to compute the aerodynamic characteristics of the designed airfoils. That software is based on panel methods which show some problems with the calculation of airfoils with thickness bigger than 35% and with blunt trailing edge. This drawback has been overcome with the development of an empirical correction for XFOIL lift and drag prediction based on airfoil experiments. From the aerodynamic point of view, thick airfoils are known to be very sensitive to surface contamination or turbulent inflow conditions. Consequently, the design optimization takes into account the aerodynamic torque in both clean and contaminated conditions. Two airfoils have been designed aiming to improve the structural and the aerodynamic behaviour of the blade in clean and contaminated conditions. This improvement has been corroborated with Blade Element Momentum (BEM) computations.

  5. Thick airfoil designs for the root of the 10MW INNWIND.EU wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, A; Méndez, B; Munduate, X

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the “INNWIND.EU” project is to investigate and demonstrate innovative designs for 10-20MW offshore wind turbines and their key components, such as lightweight rotors. In this context, the present paper describes the development of two new airfoils for the blade root region. From the structural point of view, the root is the region in charge of transmitting all the loads of the blade to the hub. Thus, it is very important to include airfoils with adequate structural properties in this region. The present article makes use of high-thickness and blunt trailing edge airfoils to improve the structural characteristics of the airfoils used to build this blade region. CENER's (National Renewable Energy Center of Spain) airfoil design tool uses the airfoil software XFOIL to compute the aerodynamic characteristics of the designed airfoils. That software is based on panel methods which show some problems with the calculation of airfoils with thickness bigger than 35% and with blunt trailing edge. This drawback has been overcome with the development of an empirical correction for XFOIL lift and drag prediction based on airfoil experiments. From the aerodynamic point of view, thick airfoils are known to be very sensitive to surface contamination or turbulent inflow conditions. Consequently, the design optimization takes into account the aerodynamic torque in both clean and contaminated conditions. Two airfoils have been designed aiming to improve the structural and the aerodynamic behaviour of the blade in clean and contaminated conditions. This improvement has been corroborated with Blade Element Momentum (BEM) computations. (paper)

  6. Individual pitch control of NREL 5MW wind turbine blade for load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Yo Han; Nam, Yoon Su; Hoon, Son Jae

    2012-01-01

    As the size of a wind turbine increases, the rotor diameter increases. Rotor blades experience mechanical loads caused by the wind shear and the tower shadow effect. These mechanical loads reduce the life of the wind turbine. Therefore, with increasing size of the wind turbine, wind turbine control system design for the mitigation of mechanical loads is important. In this study, Individual Pitch Control in introduced for reducing the mechanical loads of rotor blades, and a simulation for IPC performance verification is discussed

  7. Analysis of load reduction possibilities using a hydraulic soft yaw system for a 5-MW turbine and its sensitivity to yaw-bearing friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, S.; Pedersen, H. C.; Jonkman, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing size of wind turbines and with increasing lifetime demands, new methods for load reduction in the turbines need to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine flexible, thereby dampening the loads to the system. This paper presents a hydraulic soft yaw...... concept and investigates the effect this has on critical loads in the turbine. To analyze the system, a novel friction model is developed and implemented for the yaw system using the NREL 5-MW turbine in the aerodynamic code FAST. Based on this model, the influence of friction is investigated...

  8. 12 MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mikkelsen, Torben

    '12MW: final report' is for the project with the full title ‘12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore’ that had the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby...... establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The project started 1st October 2005 and ended 31st March 2009. Firstly was conducted a 6-month experiment at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm deploying a lidar and a sodar on the transformer...

  9. Design and Experimental Validation of Hydraulic Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    market. A hydraulic yaw system is such a new technology, and so a mathematical model of the full scale system and test rig system is derived and compared to measurements from the system. This is done in order to have a validated model, which wind turbine manufacturers may use for test in their simulation......To comply with the increasing demands for life time and reliability of wind turbines as these grow in size, new measures needs to be taken in the design of wind turbines and components hereof. One critical point is the initial testing of the components and systems before they are implemented...... in an actual turbine. Full scale hardware testing is both extremely expensive and time consuming, and so the wind turbine industry moves more towards simulations when testing. In order to meet these demands it is necessary with valid models of systems in order to introduce new technologies to the wind turbine...

  10. Advanced LP turbine installation at 1300 MW nuclear power station Unterweser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, G.; Oeynhausen, H.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Preussen Elektra AG's Unterweser power plant. The steam turbine-generator features a disk-type LP turbine rotor design developed in the late 1960's to early 1970's. This rotor design has been installed in 19 nuclear power plants. The 47 rotors in these plants have been in operation for an average of almost 10 years. The design of the 1970 vintage nuclear LP turbine rotors was based on extensive experience gained with disk-type rotors of fossil turbines built in the 1950's. When EPRI reported about corrosion cracking in nuclear LP turbines, a program was initiated by Siemens/KWU as original steam turbine supplier to ultrasonically inspect all their disk-type rotors in nuclear power plats. Indications on one rotor disk in the Unterweser plant was found. This single event was the only one found out of 310 disks inspected in nuclear power plants

  11. Mitigation of mechanical loads of NREL 5MW wind turbine tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yoonsu; Im, Chang Hee

    2012-01-01

    As the size of a wind turbine increases, the mechanical structure has to have an increasing mechanical stiffness that is sufficient to withstand mechanical fatigue loads over a lifespan of more than 20 years. However, this leads to a heavier mechanical design, which means a high material cost during wind turbine manufacturing. Therefore, lightweight design of a wind turbine is an important design constraint. Usually, a lightweight mechanical structure has low damping. Therefore, if it is subjected to a disturbance, it will oscillate continuously. This study deals with the active damping control of a wind turbine tower. An algorithm that mitigates the mechanical loads of a wind turbine tower is introduced. The effectiveness of this algorithm is verified through a numerical simulation using GH Bladed, which is a commercial aero elastic code for wind turbines

  12. Design, numerical modelling and analysis of a spar floater supporting the DTU 10MW wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Wenfei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, wind energy is one of the most promising, sustainable and clean energy solutions for the future. The wind industry in Europe experiences a very fast development these years, moving from onshore to offshore in shallow water and then in deep water. A floating wind turbine is an offshore wind turbine mounted on a floating structure that allows the turbine to generate electricity in water depths where bottom-fixed towers are not accessible. However, the offshore wind energy still has...

  13. Ripple Field AC Losses in 10-MW Wind Turbine Generators With a MgB2 Superconducting Field Winding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Magnusson, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) synchronous generators are proposed as a promising candidate for 10-20-MW direct-drive wind turbines because they can have low weights and small sizes. A common way of designing an SC machine is to use SC wires with high current-carrying capability in the dc field winding...... and the ac armature winding is made with copper conductors. In such generators, the dc field winding is exposed to ac magnetic field ripples due to space harmonics from the armature. In generator design phases, the ac loss caused by these ripple fields needs to be evaluated to avoid local overheating...... and an excessive cooling budget. To determine the applicability of different design solutions in terms of ac losses, this paper estimates the ac loss level of 10-MW wind generator designs employing a MgB2 SC field winding. The effects on ac losses are compared between nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic teeth...

  14. Short Circuits of a 10 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.; Polinder, H.; Liu, D.; Mijatovic, Nenad; Holbøll, Joachim; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    Direct drive high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits happen at

  15. Comparison of MgB2 and Coated Conductor Based 5 MW Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    conductors, but the operation temperature in range of T = 15-20 K and the engineering current density Je is smaller. We have found that a 16 pole synchronous generator with active diameter D = 4.2 m and length L = 1.5 m based on a MgB2 wire with Je = 70 A/mm2 in approximately 4 Tesla field would result...... in a wire usage in the order of 330 km. This has the potential to decrease the price of the superconductor wires in the generator by a factor of 10 compared to the coated conductors, but the cryogenics will be a challenge and is discussed. Finally we will use turbine load simulations to discuss the torque...... events that such a 5 MW generator would experience if installed in the NREL turbine....

  16. Medium voltage three-level converters for the grid connection of a multi-MW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Three-level (3L) neutral point clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC), and H-bridge (HB) voltage source converters (VSCs) as a grid-side full-scale medium voltage (MV) converter are modeled, controlled, and simulated for the grid connection of a hypothetical 6MW wind turbine. Via the converter...... topological features and the simulation results demonstrating the converter performance, these three 3L-VSCs are discussed and compared in terms of power density and reliability, which can be considered as two of the most important criteria for the converters placed in wind turbine nacelles. Given the grid...... connection circuit (without capacitive switching ripple filters), the 3L-HB-VSC is expected to be superior with respect to power density and reliability over the 3L-NPC- and -FC-VSCs....

  17. Medium Voltage Three-level Converters for the Grid Connection of aMulti-MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Three-level (3L) neutral point clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC), and H-bridge (HB) voltage source converters (VSCs) as a grid-side full-scale medium voltage (MV) converter are modeled, controlled, and simulated for the grid connection of a hypothetical 6MW wind turbine. Via the converter...... topological features and the simulation results demonstrating the converter performance, these three 3L-VSCs are discussed and compared in terms of power density and reliability, which can be considered as two of the most important criteria for the converters placed in wind turbine nacelles. Given the grid...... connection circuit (without capacitive switching ripple filters), the 3L-HB-VSC is expected to be superior with respect to power density and reliability over the 3L-NPC- and -FC-VSCs....

  18. Effects of Armature Winding Segmentation with Multiple Converters on the Short Circuit Torque of 10-MW Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) are drawing more attention in large direct-drive wind turbine applications. Despite low weight and compactness, the short circuit torque of an SCSG may be too high for wind turbine constructions due to a large magnetic air gap of an SCSG. This paper...... aims at assessing the effects of armature winding segmentation on reducing the short circuit torque of 10-MW SCSGs. A concept of armature winding segmentation with multiple power electronic converters is presented. Four SCSG designs using different topologies are examined. Results show that armature...... winding segmentation effectively reduce the short circuit torque in all the four SCSG designs when one segment is shorted at the terminal....

  19. RBF neural network based PI pitch controller for a class of 5-MW wind turbines using particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultangari, Iman; Shahnazi, Reza; Sheikhan, Mansour

    2012-09-01

    In order to control the pitch angle of blades in wind turbines, commonly the proportional and integral (PI) controller due to its simplicity and industrial usability is employed. The neural networks and evolutionary algorithms are tools that provide a suitable ground to determine the optimal PI gains. In this paper, a radial basis function (RBF) neural network based PI controller is proposed for collective pitch control (CPC) of a 5-MW wind turbine. In order to provide an optimal dataset to train the RBF neural network, particle swarm optimization (PSO) evolutionary algorithm is used. The proposed method does not need the complexities, nonlinearities and uncertainties of the system under control. The simulation results show that the proposed controller has satisfactory performance. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aeroelastic simulation of multi-MW wind turbines using a free vortex model coupled to a geometrically exact beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverin, Joseph; Peukert, Juliane; Marten, David; Pechlivanoglou, George; Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Greenblatt, David

    2016-01-01

    The current paper investigates the aeroelastic modelling of large, flexible multi- MW wind turbine blades. Most current performance prediction tools make use of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model, based upon a number of simplifying assumptions that hold only under steady conditions. This is why a lifting line free vortex wake (LLFVW) algorithm is used here to accurately resolve unsteady wind turbine aerodynamics. A coupling to the structural analysis tool BeamDyn, based on geometrically exact beam theory, allows for time-resolved aeroelastic simulations with highly deflected blades including bend-twist, coupling. Predictions of blade loading and deformation for rigid and flexible blades are analysed with reference to different aerodynamic and structural approaches. The emergency shutdown procedure is chosen as an examplary design load case causing large deflections to place emphasis on the influence of structural coupling and demonstrate the necessity of high fidelity structural models. (paper)

  1. Topology Comparison of Superconducting Generators for 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbines: Cost of Energy Based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at finding feasible electromagnetic designs of superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine. Since a lower levelized cost of energy (LCoE) increases the feasibility of SCSGs in this application, 12 generator topologies are compared regarding...... their LCoE in a simplified form of levelized equipment cost of energy (LCoE$_{\\text{eq}}$). MgB$_2$ wires are employed in the field winding. Based on the current unit cost and critical current density capability of the MgB $_2$ wire at 20 K, the topologies with more iron have a much lower LCo...

  2. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  3. Automatic regulation of the feedwater turbo-pump capacity for the single-turbine 1000 MW NPP unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlysh, O.N.; Garbuzov, I.P.; Reukov, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    A schematic of the flow regulators (FR) of feedwater turbo-pumps (FTP) for the single-turbine 1000 MW NPP unit is presented. The FR operate in response to feedwoter signals from FTP or in response to FTP rotor rotational speed and control automatic speed governars. The FR automatic regulation ensures limitation of FTP rotor maximum rotational speed at a feedwater flow rate excess equal to 3600 T/h. The transients in the automatic regulation system are considered. Production tests of FTP FR confirmed the FR operation reliability and the right choice of the regulator concept and structure

  4. Flow measurement in a 170-MW hydraulic turbine using the Gibson method; Medicion del flujo de una turbina hidraulica de 170 MW utilizando el metodo Gibson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquiza, Gustavo [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); Adamkowski, Adam [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery (Poland); Kubiak, Janusz; Sierra, Fernando [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); Janicki, Waldemar [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery (Poland); Fernandez, J. Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for measuring water flow through a 170-MW hydraulic turbine. The flow rate was measured using the pressure-time method, also known as the Gibson method. This method uses the well-known water hammer phenomenon in pipelines; in turbine penstocks, for instance. The version of this method used here is based on measuring, during total stop of the water stream, the time-history of pressure change in one section of the turbine penstock and relate it to the pressure in the upper reservoir to which the penstock is connected. The volumetric flow rate is determined from the relevant integration of the measured temporary pressure rise. Flow measurement was possible this way because the influence of the penstock inlet was negligible as far as an error of the measurement is concerned. The length of the penstock was 300 m. Previous experience and a standard IEC-41-1991 were the criteria adopted and applied. A fast and efficient acquisition system, including a 16 bit card, was used. The flow rate was calculated using a computer program developed and tested on several cases. The results obtained with the Gibson method were used for calibration of the on-line flow measuring system based on the Winter-Kennedy method as one of the index methods. This method is very often used for continuous monitoring of the flow rate through hydraulic turbines, when the calibration has been done on site by using the results of measurements obtained by the absolute method. Having measured the flow rate and output power, the efficiency was calculated for any operating conditions. A curve showing the best operating conditions based on the highest efficiency is presented and discussed. The details of the instrumentation, its installation, and the results obtained are discussed in the paper. [Spanish] Este articulo describe la metodologia aplicada para la medicion del flujo en una turbina hidraulica de 170 MW. El flujo se midio utilizando el metodo de presion

  5. Design Optimization of a 5 MW Floating Offshore Vertical-axis Wind Turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulsen, Uwe Schmidt; Madsen, Helge Aagård; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Baran, Ismet; Nielsen, Per Hørlyck

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines results of a proposed layout of a light 2-bladed rotor, with a driving torque constraint matching the generator design, and shows details of the pultruded blade – and rotor geometry. In comparison with the 1st baseline design of a 5 MW VAWT concept this present development

  6. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Glass-Fiber Epoxy-Matrix Composite 5 MW Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Pandurangan, B.; Sellappan, V.; Vallejo, A.; Ozen, M.

    2010-11-01

    A multi-disciplinary design-optimization procedure has been introduced and used for the development of cost-effective glass-fiber reinforced epoxy-matrix composite 5 MW horizontal-axis wind-turbine (HAWT) blades. The turbine-blade cost-effectiveness has been defined using the cost of energy (CoE), i.e., a ratio of the three-blade HAWT rotor development/fabrication cost and the associated annual energy production. To assess the annual energy production as a function of the blade design and operating conditions, an aerodynamics-based computational analysis had to be employed. As far as the turbine blade cost is concerned, it is assessed for a given aerodynamic design by separately computing the blade mass and the associated blade-mass/size-dependent production cost. For each aerodynamic design analyzed, a structural finite element-based and a post-processing life-cycle assessment analyses were employed in order to determine a minimal blade mass which ensures that the functional requirements pertaining to the quasi-static strength of the blade, fatigue-controlled blade durability and blade stiffness are satisfied. To determine the turbine-blade production cost (for the currently prevailing fabrication process, the wet lay-up) available data regarding the industry manufacturing experience were combined with the attendant blade mass, surface area, and the duration of the assumed production run. The work clearly revealed the challenges associated with simultaneously satisfying the strength, durability and stiffness requirements while maintaining a high level of wind-energy capture efficiency and a lower production cost.

  7. Fatigue loading on a 5MW offshore wind turbine due to the combined action of waves and current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeringa, Johan M

    2014-01-01

    In the design of an offshore wind turbine the natural frequencies of the structure are of importance. In the design of fixed offshore wind turbine support structures it cannot be avoided that the first eigenmode of the structure lies in the frequency band of wave excitation. This study indicates that wave-current interaction should be taken into account for support structure design load calculations. Wave-current interaction changes the shape of the wave spectrum and the energy content in the wave frequency range of 0.2 – 0.35Hz. This is in the range of natural frequencies fixed offshore wind turbine structures are designed for. The waves are affected by the current in two ways. First there is a frequency shift, Doppler effect, for the fixed observer when the wave travels on a current. Second the shape of the wave is modified in case the wave travels from an area without current into an area with current. Due to wave-current interaction the wave height and wave length change. For waves on an opposing current the wave energy content increases, while for wave on a following current the wave energy content slightly reduces. Simulations of normal production cases between cut-in and cut-out wind speed are performed for a 5MW wind turbine in 20m water depth including waves with 1) a following current, 2) an opposing current and 3) no current present. In case of waves having an opposing current, the 1Hz equivalent fore-aft tower bending moment at the seabed is about 10% higher compared to load cases with waves only

  8. Increasing the Feasibility of Superconducting Generators for 10 MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) have been proposed as an alternative to permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs). They are expected to reduce the top head mass and the nacelle size for such large wind turbines. In 2012, the INNWIND.EU project initiated this

  9. Status of the Southern California Edison Company 3 MW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    To demonstrate the concept of utility scale electricity production from a high wind energy resource, a program was initiated to construct and test a 3 megawatt (3,000 kW) Schachle wind turbine generator near Palm Springs, California. The background and current status of this program are presented along with a summary of future planned program activities.

  10. 900 MW CP1 nuclear steam turbine retrofit thermal effects on low pressure diaphragms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buguin, A.; Gruau, P.; Lamarque, F.; Huggett, J.

    2015-01-01

    The steam turbines of the Koeberg units 1 and 2 operated by ESKOM in South Africa have been retrofitted in order to mitigate the generic problems of stress corrosion cracking of the original shrunk-on disk rotor design. As already done in Belgium and France, the implementation of welded rotors improves the turbine reliability and availability. Moreover, the new technology implemented associated with a new steam path allows a significant performance improvement. With a wealth of experience in CP1 retrofit, ALSTOM has put in place new technical features in the steam path in order to further improve the heat rate. Among them, steam balance holes drilled in the rotor disks have exacerbated the thermal sensitivity of the LP diaphragms. During the commissioning of the Unit 1 LP turbines following the retrofit, the load increase led to unacceptable vibrations. An investigation program was launched to determine the root causes of the problem. This paper presents the findings following the turbine inspection, as well as the recommendations and modifications to allow a smooth return to service of the unit. In addition, the results of the root cause analysis of the vibration incident are explained. Based on finite element calculations and site measurements, ALSTOM has established that the diaphragm thermal behavior, intensified by the steam balance holes, has led to radial rubbing. It was also established that the phenomena had no effect on the diaphragms mechanical integrity. Design changes have been proposed to ensure a safe and reliable long term operation of the units. These modifications have been successfully implemented onto the Koeberg Unit 2 Nuclear Steam Turbine commissioned in November 2012. (authors)

  11. Torsional analysis of 1 MW gearbox and shaft system in the Avedoere wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, A.

    1993-05-01

    In order to predict undesired high gear noise emission from the Avedoere wind turbine due to critical torsional resonances in the shaft system, the torsional natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes have been calculated. The analysis has involved a comprehensive, detailed model of the gearbox shaft system. The natural frequencies and mode shapes have also been calculated for the test bed shaft system enabling a calibration of the calculations when comparing with measurements made on the test bed system. The natural torsional frequencies of the test bed shaft system and the wind turbine shaft system, both including the Flender, Peak 4375 gearbox, have been calculated together with the corresponding mode shapes. The sensitivity analysis showed that the natural frequencies of one of the torsional modes may be close to or coinciding with the toothmesh frequency of the output gear stage, in the wind turbine shaft system. The shape of this mode indicates however, that this mode is not very likely to be strongly excited by forces acting in the tooth contact at the mesh frequency. This conclusion also counts for a second mode which was calculated to have a natural frequency close to the toothmesh frequency of the output stage. The analysis also shows that the frequencies of the 1st, the 3rd and the 4th harmonics of the toothmesh frequency of the 2nd gear stage, deviate by less than 15% from several modes of the wind turbine shaft system, which seem likely to be excited by forces acting in the tooth contact of this stage. Amplification of the structure-borne noise from the gearbox at these frequencies may be expected. The amplification at these frequencies is not expected to have any critical influence on the tonal gear noise radiated from the wind turbine. (EG)

  12. LP compressor blade vibration characteristics at starting conditions of a 100 MW heavy-duty gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, An Sung; Vedichtchev, Alexandre F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper are presented the blade vibration characteristics at the starting conditions of the low pressure multistage axial compressor of heavy-duty 100 MW gas turbine. Vibration data have been collected through strain gauges during aerodynamic tests of the model compressor. The influences of operating modes at the starting conditions are investigated upon the compressor blade vibrations. The exciting mechanisms and features of blade vibrations are investigated at the surge, rotating stall, and buffeting flutter. The influences of operating modes upon blade dynamic stresses are investigated for the first and second stages. It is shown that a high dynamic stress peak of 120 MPa can occur in the first stage blades due to resonances with stall cell excitations or with inlet strut wake excitations at the stalled conditions

  13. SENECA NATION FINAL REPORT Installation of a 1.5MW WIND TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacobbe, Anthony [Seneca Nation, Salamanca, NY (United States)

    2017-09-21

    In February 2014, Seneca Energy and the Seneca Nation officially kicked off the Cattaraugus wind turbine project. The project began with a nine month NEPA study, which resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact on 10/5/2015. The Seneca Construction Management Company was responsible for the oversight of the civil and foundation construction which commenced shortly after the FONSI was finalized. In April 2017, the Seneca Nation paid its first $25 credit to residents enrolled in the “Seneca Electricity Credit Program”. The $25 credit is applied directly to resident’s utility invoices and will total $300 of savings every year and ~$8,000 of savings over the project lifecycle. The Seneca Nation has already paid $40,000 towards resident’s electricity bills since the commissioning of the wind turbine in April 2017. The Seneca Electricity Credit Program was one of the primary driving factors for the project and we continue to have additional residents enroll for the program each month. Our goal is to continue to add residents to our credit program and assist them in keeping electricity rates down, so that they can use their money for other necessary living expenses. The Seneca Nation and Seneca Energy are extremely proud of the Cattaraugus wind turbine as well as all of the other exciting energy projects taking place on territory. We are continuing to follow our Strategic Energy Plan as we move forward towards achieving energy self-sufficiency.

  14. Vibration analysis of 1 MW gearbox for the Avedoere wind turbine. Test bed measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, A.

    1995-03-01

    The investigations had several purposes: Firstly, to determine and evaluate the structure-borne noise source strength of the gearbox, which is relevant for the final gear noise emission from the wind turbine. Secondly, to select the potentially least noisy gear set out of two, which have been made for the output gear stage. And Thirdly, to obtain the natural vibration modes of the gearbox structure, in order to determine if the structure-borne noise, transmitted to the wind turbine structure, will be amplified due to resonance conditions. Additional vibration tests were carried out. Among these, trials of 'in situ' measurement of the Transmission Error of the output gear stage, and measurements of the torsional vibrations of the input and output shaft. The test of the two output gear sets (from Flender AG and ELKRAFT A.m.b.A.) had the aim to determine the least noisy one of two different tooth profiles. Both gear sets were intended for the Avedoere Wind Turbine when it, in its first period of operation, is going to operate as a stall regulated turbine. After the first mesurements and the exchange of the Flender-designed gear set with the ELKRAFT-designed gear set, troubles with the backmost bearing of the intermediate shaft arose. The evaluation of the structure-borne noise source strength (expressed as the vibration velocity level), has in general been made at load conditions which correspond to the conditions in the wind turibne at a wind speed of 8 m/s, 10 m above terrain (v 10 ). This condition, is the one normally used when the noise emission from wind turbines is evaluated. At the comparison of the two gear sets against each other, the influence of the torque load on the source strength has also been considered. This comparison may indicate the load at which the profile correction is most effective, and may determine the noise potential of the gearbox at wind speeds lower than 8 m/s, which could also be of interest

  15. Control system design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert S.; Hosp, Theodore J.; Schanzenbach, George P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides descriptions of the requirements analysis, hardware development and software development phases of the Control System design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW Wind Turbine Generator. The system, designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN 3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, provides real time regulation of rotor speed by control of both generator torque and rotor torque. A variable speed generator system is used to provide both airgap torque control and reactive power control. The wind rotor is designed with segmented ailerons which are positioned to control blade torque. The central component of the control system, selected early in the design process, is a programmable controller used for sequencing, alarm monitoring, communication, and real time control. Development of requirements for use of aileron controlled blades and a variable speed generator required an analytical simulation that combined drivetrain, tower and blade elastic modes with wind disturbances and control behavior. An orderly two phase plan was used for controller software development. A microcomputer based turbine simulator was used to facilitate hardware and software integration and test.

  16. Calculation of design load for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandy, L.; Strain, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Design loads are presented for the General Electric MOD-SA wind turbine. The MOD-SA system consists of a 400 ft. diameter, upwind, two-bladed, teetered rotor connected to a 7.3 mW variable-speed generator. Fatigue loads are specified in the form of histograms for the 30 year life of the machine, while limit (or maximum) loads have been derived from transient dynamic analysis at critical operating conditions. Loads prediction was accomplished using state of the art aeroelastic analyses developed at General Electric. Features of the primary predictive tool - the Transient Rotor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described in the paper. Key to the load predictions are the following wind models: (1) yearly mean wind distribution; (2) mean wind variations during operation; (3) number of start/shutdown cycles; (4) spatially large gusts; and (5) spatially small gusts (local turbulence). The methods used to develop statistical distributions from load calculations represent an extension of procedures used in past wind programs and are believed to be a significant contribution to Wind Turbine Generator analysis. Test/theory correlations are presented to demonstrate code load predictive capability and to support the wind models used in the analysis. In addition MOD-5A loads are compared with those of existing machines. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department, under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  17. Vibration analysis of 1 MW gearbox for the Avedoere wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, A.

    1993-08-01

    Investigations of the vibrational behaviour of the gearbox for the Avedoere wind turbine, have been carried out by means of test bed measurements. Attention has especially been paid to the structure-borne noise source strength at the frequency of the output gear stage, as tonal gear noise emission from wind turbines, from experience, is dominated by components at this frequency. The structure-borne noise source strength related to the output gear stage of the gearbox has been evaluated and compared for two gear sets with different tooth profile. One is designed by the gear manufacturer, Flender AG, and the other by ELKRAFT A.m.b.A. Vibration measurements at different speeds between 1000 and 2000 rpm showed that the velocity levels at the harmonics of the toothmesth frequencies may change by more than 10 dB in a speed range close to the operational speed. These changes are due to natural vibration modes in the gearbox structure. When resonance conditions between the toothmesh frequency of the output gear stage and torsional modes in the gearbox shaft system may amplify the structure-borne noise generated in the gearbox to an undesirably high level, the natural torsional frequencies of the shaft system have been identified. Comparisons between the identified and calculated natural torsional frequencies show in general a good correlation, with a maximum deviation of 14% between the frequencies. The natural frequencies extracted from the measurements and the torsional calculations, indicate that the structure-borne noise from the gearbox, at the toothmesh frequency of the output gear stage, will not be strongly amplified due to resonance conditions, when the gearbox is operating in the wind turbine at speeds of 1500-1524 rpm. (EG)

  18. Multi-hazard response analysis of a 5MW offshore wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Evangelos; Sanz, A. Arrospide; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2017-01-01

    Wind energy has already dominant role on the scene of the clean energy production. Well-promising markets, like China, India, Korea and Latin America are the fields of expansion for new wind turbines mainly installed in offshore environment, where wind, wave and earthquake loads threat...... of the blades, the nacelle, the tower and the monopile was developed with the use of an aeroelastic code considering the interaction between the elastic and inertial forces, developed in the structure, as well as the generated aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces. Based on the analysis results, the dynamic...

  19. Fiberglass Composite Blades for the 4 MW - WTS-4 Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolari, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The design and fabrication of composite blades for the WTS-4, a four-megawatt horizontal-axis wind turbine, is discussed. The blade consists of a two-cell, monolithic structure of filament-wound, fiberglass/epoxy composite. Filament winding is a low-cost process which can produce a blade with an aerodynamically efficient airfoil and planform with nonlinear twist to achieve high performance in terms of energy capture. Its retention provides a redundant attachment for long, durable life and safety. Advanced tooling concepts and as sophisticated computer control is used to achieve the unique filament-wound shape.

  20. Multi-MW wind turbine power curve measurements using remote sensing instruments - the first Hoevsoere campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Courtney, M.

    2009-02-15

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the scatter in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. LiDAR are found to be more accurate than SoDAR and therefore more suitable for power performance measurement. The equivalent wind speed calculated from LiDAR profile measurements gave a small reduction of the power curve uncertainty. Several factors can explain why this difference is smaller than expected, including the experimental design and errors pertaining to the LiDAR at that time. This first measurement campaign shows that used of the equivalent wind speed at least results in a power curve with no more scatter than using the conventional method. (au)

  1. Sanitary impacts generated by wind turbines. situation of the wind sector. Proposition for the implementation of the setting-up procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The National Academy of Medicine has evaluated the effects on health of wind turbines. This report recommends that the wind turbine construction is at a minimal distance of 1500 m for wind turbines having a power superior to 2.5 MW. The French agency of sanitary safety of environment and work (A.F.S.S.E.T.) is in charge by the Ministry of Health and Environment to evaluate the relevance of this distance recommendation. The work group recommends the implementation of a specifications text of the environmental impact study as well as a compulsory administrative check of the study. It is more particularly a question of: Defining a perimeter of study: indicate all the zones susceptible to be concerned by the noise of wind turbines, even those which are not inhabited; calculating the durations of impact of concerned zones, according to the predictable weather conditions over the year; indicating the measures taken by the developer of the wind farm in case of overtaking of the authorized emergence; the impact studies of the other projects have to take into account a possible incidence in the zones of impact of the wind farm; a cartography of the zones of impact of a wind site must be available in town hall. A particular attention must be attached to the duration and to the representativeness of the study of the existing situation. The method of appreciation of the sound level impact on the environment must be improved, what passes by a deepening of the knowledge in criterion of embarrassment due to the noise, of existence of threshold, spectral validity, validity according to the exposure time. The search for the simplicity in statutory subject should lead to engage efforts of clarification as regards the nuisances criteria. (N.C.)

  2. Development of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind-turbine generator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

    1983-12-01

    The General Electric Company Advanced Energy Programs Department is designing, under DOE/NASA sponsorship through Contract DEN 3-153, the MOD-5A wind-turbine system, which must generate electricity for less than 3.75 cents/kWh (1980 dollars). During the conceptual and preliminary design phases, the basic features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy. During the past year, the program has been in the final design phase, and a reassessment to minimize risk has received strong emphasis in the design process. The program has progressed to the point that an agreement of sale has been reached for the first unit.

  3. Propositional Logics of Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, F.; Väänänen, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study logics of dependence on the propositional level. We prove that several interesting propositional logics of dependence, including propositional dependence logic, propositional intuitionistic dependence logic as well as propositional inquisitive logic, are expressively complete

  4. Tapered joint design for power transmission of MW-grade wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jong Hun; Bae, Jun Woo; Oh, Han Yong [Dept. of Mechatronics, Jungwon University, Geosan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Yong Chul [Kyeongnam Technopark, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    This study focuses on the design of the tapered joints of a wind power turbine. The main variables of the tapered joint are the transmitted torque, shaft diameter, contact area of the tapered ring, and tightening torque of the bolts, which applies a compressive pressure from the hub to the shaft. The stress distribution of the taper fit was calculated under axisymmetric plane strain conditions because of the small taper angle. The axial displacement of the clamp can be calculated from the radial elastic deformation and the taper angle. The stress field of each ring is obtained from the cylinder stress equation. To verify the accuracy of the calculation, finite element (FE) analysis was performed, and the results of the calculation and FE analysis were compared. The hoop stress of the tapered surface showed a discrepancy of approximately 10, but the trends of the stress distributions of each component and the relative movement obtained by FE analysis were in good agreement with the analytical calculation results.

  5. Conceptual design of the 6 MW Mod-5A wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    The General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, is designing under DOE/NASA sponsorship the MOD-5A wind turbine system which must generate electricity for 3.75 cent/KWH (1980) or less. During the Conceptual Design Phase, completed in March, 1981, the MOD-5A WTG system size and features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy (COE). This led to a 400' rotor diameter size. The MOD-5A system which resulted is defined in this paper along with the operational and environmental factors that drive various portions of the design. Development of weight and cost estimating relationships (WCER's) and their use in optimizing the MOD-5A are discussed. The results of major tradeoff studies are also presented. Subsystem COE contributions for the 100th unit are shown along with the method of computation. Detailed descriptions of the major subsystems are given, in order that the results of the various trade and optimization studies can be more readily visualized.

  6. Natural Propositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Preface -- Introduction -- The generality of signs -- Dicisigns -- Some consequences of the dicisign doctrine -- Dicisigns and cognition -- Natural propositions--the evolution of semiotic self-control -- Dicisigns beyond language -- Operational and optimal iconicity in Peirce's diagrammatology...... -- Cows, red cows, and red herrings -- Corollarial and theorematic experiments with diagrams -- Strategies of research: Peirce's enlightenment maxims -- Perspective -- References -- Index....

  7. Comparison of multibody simulations and measurements of wind turbine gearboxes at Hansen’s 13 MW test facility

    OpenAIRE

    Marrant, Ben; Vanhollebeke, Frederik; Peeters, Joris

    2010-01-01

    Continuous up-scaling of wind turbine size into the multi-megawatt class, together with developments for off-shore installation are calling for new wind turbine configurations and technologies. High product reliability is a key factor in these developments, cascaded down to each component manufacturer in the supply chain. Increasing the reliability of wind turbine drive trains for wind turbines with ever increasing size requires dedicated simulation models which can provide more insight in th...

  8. The development of NRTM-turbine flow meter and measurement of the coolant flow rate in-core of 5 MW heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Meisheng; Wang Xiuqin; Ni Mengchen

    1995-01-01

    In order to measure the coolant flow rate in-core of 5 MW Heating Reactor the special turbine flowmeter of the type of NRTM has been developed. It consists of a body, a turbine with long screw blade and six pieces of Alnico magnets, and a coil mounted on the body. The advantage of this turbine flowmeter is of low resistance and long working-life. Another advantage is that when the turbine is working or not working its factor of resistance is about the same. It is very important for a natural circulation heating reactor. Because the cable, which is welded to the coil assembly, is long enough to extend out of the reactor vessel to the control room, the signal of flow rate is easy to be disturbed by noise in the case. The traditional method of counting the frequency of the A-C voltage which is induced in the coil has a poor ability for resisting noise. The method of the frequency-spectrum analysis of the frequency of the A-C voltage is used to make sure the accuracy of the measurement of the turbine flow meter. Compared with the method of the count it has a good ability for resisting noise. After three years operation a lot of valuable data were obtained

  9. Aerodynamic Modeling of NREL 5-MW Wind Turbine for Nonlinear Control System Design: A Case Study Based on Real-Time Nonlinear Receding Horizon Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Galvani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper has two major aspects: (i investigation of a simple, yet efficient model of the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5-MW reference wind turbine; (ii nonlinear control system development through a real-time nonlinear receding horizon control methodology with application to wind turbine control dynamics. In this paper, the results of our simple wind turbine model and a real-time nonlinear control system implementation are shown in comparison with conventional control methods. For this purpose, the wind turbine control problem is converted into an optimization problem and is directly solved by the nonlinear backwards sweep Riccati method to generate the control protocol, which results in a non-iterative algorithm. One main contribution of this paper is that we provide evidence through simulations, that such an advanced control strategy can be used for real-time control of wind turbine dynamics. Examples are provided to validate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented scheme.

  10. Design, Numerical Modelling and Analysis of a Semi-submersible Floater Supporting the DTU 10MW Wind Turbine.

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md Touhidul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable energy has increased significantly because of its lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Wind power is one of the most important sources of renewable energy produced nowadays. As land based turbines have reached their maximum potential, recent market trends are moving into deeper waters with higher capacity turbines. The design of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) foundation poses few technical challenges....

  11. Economic viability of ultra high-performance fiber reinforced concrete in prestressed concrete wind towers to support a 5 MW turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. C. N. GAMA

    Full Text Available Abstract The Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete is a material with remarkable mechanical properties and durability when compared to conventional and high performance concrete, which allows its use even without the reinforcement. This paper proposes the design of prestressed towers for a 5 MW turbine, through regulatory provisions and the limit states method, with UHPFRC and the concrete class C50, comparing the differences obtained in the design by parametric analysis, giving the advantages and disadvantages of using this new type of concrete. Important considerations, simplifications and notes are made to the calculation process, as well as in obtaining the prestressing and passive longitudinal and passive transverse reinforcement, highlighting the shear strength of annular sections comparing a model proposed here with recent experimental results present in the literature, which was obtained good agreement. In the end, it is estimated a first value within the constraints here made to ensure the economic viability of the use of UHPFRC in a 100 m prestressed wind tower with a 5 MW turbine.

  12. Fuzzy logic based power management strategy of a multi-MW doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine with battery and ultracapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrias-Mena, Raúl; Fernández-Ramírez, Luis M.; García-Vázquez, Carlos Andrés; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Integrating energy storage systems (ESS) with wind turbines results to be an interesting option for improving the grid integration capability of wind energy. This paper presents and evaluates a wind hybrid system consisting of a 1.5 MW doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine and double battery-ultracapacitor ESS. Commercially available components are used in this wind hybrid system. A novel supervisory control system (SCS) is designed and implemented, which is responsible for setting the active and reactive power references for each component of the hybrid system. A fuzzy logic controller, taking into account the grid demand, power generation prediction, actual DFIG power generation and state-of-charge (SOC) of the ESSs, sets the active power references. The reactive power references are proportionally delivered to each element regarding their current limitations in the SCS. The appropriate control of the power converters allows each power source to achieve the operation defined by the SCS. The wind hybrid system and SCS are assessed by simulation under wind fluctuations, grid demand changes, and grid disturbances. Results show an improved performance in the overall response of the system with the implementation of the SCS. - Highlights: • We study a wind hybrid system based on DFIG wind turbine, battery and ultracapacitor. • A novel supervisory control system based on fuzzy logic is designed and implemented. • The control improves the system response under different operating conditions

  13. Comparison of technical and economical factors of 1000-MW steam turbines at 3000 and 1500 r.p.m. for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, N.M.; Safonov, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of unification of the low-pressure cilinders (LPC) for turbo-generator units of nuclear power plants with power of 1000 MW on base of the WWER and RBMK type reactors is discussed. The results of the comparison of the K-1000-60/1500 and K-1000-60/3000 turbines in the thermal efficiency of flow passages and arrangements masses and dimensions, static and dynamic strength manoeurrability and reliability are given. To cerry out the correct comparison methods adoped as branch standards thermal calculations, calculation of low-potential part and thermal arrangements, calculations of temperature fields and of low cycle fatigue calculation of the erosion failure accumulation of blades calculation of the blades for the last steps have been used. A conclusion is made that in the nearest future it is necessary to produce the K-1000-60/1500 and K-1000-60/3000 turbines simultaneously. The low-speed lurbines with three LPC are preferable for the nuclear power plants with average annual temperatures of water up to 20 deg C and the high-speed turbines and the K-1000-60/1500 units with two LPC are expedient for nuclear power plants with temperatures higher than 20 deg C. Introduction of the turboplants with reduced number of LPC in the nuclear power engineering provides the increase of reliability, maintenance fitness and the decrease of building costs and transport expenses

  14. Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, S; Bülk, M; Cheng, P W; Schön, L; Erbslöh, S; Boorsma, K; Grasso, F; Kühn, M

    2014-01-01

    Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK

  15. Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, S.; Bülk, M.; Schön, L.; Erbslöh, S.; Boorsma, K.; Grasso, F.; Kühn, M.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK.

  16. Analysis of the reasons for failures of the 1500 MW turbines HP diaphragms on the EDF N4 units. Implementation of a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, J. C.; Franconville, M.

    2002-01-01

    The full text follows. Diaphragms are major components of an impulse type steam turbine since they hold the fixed blades which allow part of the steam expansion (the other part being on the moving blades mounted on the rotor) The 4 impulse type 1500 MW nuclear steam turbines, from the EDF N4 program,were commissioned in 1996 on the CHOOZ and then CIVAUX plants.The diaphragms, located in the HP(high pressure) part of these turbines, have shown signs of failures very soon, due to a cracking of assembly welds,which is dangerous for the machines integrity. These failures questioned a construction mode which had been highly experienced previously. A large campaign of inspections and tests was carried out to feature the ways of failure,on site or in the factory during manufacturing.Site measurements combined with numerical simulations allowed to define excitations, harmful to these components,during operation. Temporary solutions were applied in order to allow immediate restart of the plants.In parallel,a modification of the diaphragms design and assembly method was studied and applied to withstand the various operating stresses. (author)

  17. Reliability Estimation with Uncertainties Consideration for High Power IGBTs in 2.3 MW Wind Turbine Converter System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the lifetime of high power IGBTs (insulated gate bipolar transistors) used in large wind turbine applications. Since the IGBTs are critical components in a wind turbine power converter, it is of great importance to assess their reliability in the design phase of the turbine....... Minimum, maximum and average junction temperatures profiles for the grid side IGBTs are estimated at each wind speed input values. The selected failure mechanism is the crack propagation in solder joint under the silicon die. Based on junction temperature profiles and physics of failure model......, the probabilistic and determinist damage models are presented with estimated fatigue lives. Reliably levels were assessed by means of First Order Reliability Method taking into account uncertainties....

  18. Técnica de monitorado continuo (on – line para la evaluación del estado técnico de los turbogrupos de 64 y 100 MW. // Technique of continuous monitored (on - line for the evaluation of the technical state in steam turbine units of 64 and 100 MW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el resultado del estudio de factibilidad realizado a los turbogrupos de 64 y 100 MW de dosCentrales Termoeléctricas, sobre el empleo de técnicas de monitorado continuo “on line” para la evaluación del estadotécnico de estos turbogrupos.Palabras claves: Turbinas de vapor,vibraciones, monitorado continuo “on line”, diagnóstico.______________________________________________________________________Abstract:In this work an study of feasibility is presented. This study is carried out in steam turbine units of 64 and 100 MW, and show the use ofcontinuous monitored technique (on line for the evaluation of the technical state of these turbine units.Key Words: Steam turbines, vibrations, continuous monitoring on line, turbines supervision, Diagnosis,technical state evaluation.

  19. Tests Performed on Hydraulic Turbines at Commissioning or after Capital Repairs. Part II. Tests Performed on a 6.5 MW Kaplan Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cuzmoş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the tests performed on a hydraulic turbine on commissioning, the devices, test methods and the results obtained from the respective tests, as well as the conclusions and recommendations resulted from these tests. This kind of tests can be performed for the verification of guarantees.

  20. Vestas V90-3MW Wind Turbine Gearbox Health Assessment Using a Vibration-Based Condition Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable monitoring for the early fault diagnosis of gearbox faults is of great concern for the wind industry. This paper presents a novel approach for health condition monitoring (CM and fault diagnosis in wind turbine gearboxes using vibration analysis. This methodology is based on a machine learning algorithm that generates a baseline for the identification of deviations from the normal operation conditions of the turbine and the intrinsic characteristic-scale decomposition (ICD method for fault type recognition. Outliers picked up during the baseline stage are decomposed by the ICD method to obtain the product components which reveal the fault information. The new methodology proposed for gear and bearing defect identification was validated by laboratory and field trials, comparing well with the methods reviewed in the literature.

  1. Influence of steam leakage through vane, gland, and shaft seals on rotordynamics of high-pressure rotor of a 1,000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, P.N. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Turbine Company, Department of R and D, Shanghai (China); Wang, W.Z.; Liu, Y.Z. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China); Meng, G. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2012-02-15

    A comparative analysis of the influence of steam leakage through vane, gland, and shaft seals on the rotordynamics of the high-pressure rotor of a 1,000 MW ultra-supercritical steam turbine was performed using numerical calculations. The rotordynamic coefficients associated with steam leakage through the three labyrinth seals were calculated using the control-volume method and perturbation analysis. A stability analysis of the rotor system subject to the steam forcing induced by the leakage flow was performed using the finite element method. An analysis of the influence of the labyrinth seal forcing on the rotordynamics was carried out by varying the geometrical parameters pertaining to the tooth number, seal clearance, and inner diameter of the labyrinth seals, along with the thermal parameters with respect to pressures and temperatures. The results demonstrated that the steam forcing with an increase in the length of the blade for the vane seal significantly influences the rotordynamic coefficients. Furthermore, the contribution of steam forcing to the instability of the rotor is decreased and increased with increases in the seal clearance and tooth number, respectively. The comparison of the rotordynamic coefficients associated with steam leakage through the vane seal, gland seal, and shaft seal convincingly disclosed that, although the steam forcing attenuates the stability of the rotor system, the steam turbine is still operating under safe conditions. (orig.)

  2. 大型风力机叶片的耦合优化方法%Coupling optimization method for MultiMW wind turbine blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟江; 潘柏松; 陈栋栋

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the cost of manufacturing the wind turbine blade,multidisciplinary design optimization method for MultiMW wind turbine blades with the design objective of minimum of blade efficiency cost was presented, based on the blade element momentum theory(BEM)and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory of composites material. Then,the coupling optimization method was applied in the design of a new wind turbine blade with a length of 50 meters. The results show that the balance between energy efficiency and the cost of manufacture can be easily found through the proposed methodology, and the blade efficiency cost is reduced by 8.84%.%为了降低兆瓦级风力机叶片的制造成本,通过耦合叶素动量理论与复合材料欧拉伯努利梁强度设计理论,综合考虑风能效率和成本,以叶片的风能效率成本最小化为优化目标,提出了大型风力发电机叶片的多学科优化设计方法.并基于该方法,对某50 m风力机叶片进行了优化设计.研究结果表明,该方法能够找到风能效率与成本的平衡设计点,叶片风能效率成本比传统设计方法设计的叶片减少了8.84%.

  3. Some aspects of optimising the reactor core for a 600 MW(e) high temperature helium turbine power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U; Presser, W

    1972-04-24

    For the HHT 600 MW(e) power plant a core design with Triagonal blocks containing 24 channels with directly cooled fuel pins was considered. The design was found to require a low HM loading in the fuel zone to achieve favourable economic merits. For low HM densities a strong incentive exists to aim for burn-ups between 80 and 100 GWd/t. At the present an average discharge irradiation of 80 GWd/t was thought feasible and a reference design with a HM density of 0.6 g/cm {sup 3} in both core zones was chosen. The optimisation is not likely to be upset by local hot channel effects as a special investigation into the influence of safety margins found no changes in fuel cycle economics.

  4. Proposition algebra with projective limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sequential propositional logic deviates from ordinary propositional logic by taking into account that during the sequential evaluation of a proposition, atomic propositions may yield different Boolean values at repeated occurrences. We introduce `free reactive valuations' to capture this dynamics of

  5. Sanitary impacts generated by wind turbines. situation of the wind sector. Proposition for the implementation of the setting-up procedure; Impacts sanitaires du bruit genere par les eoliennes. Etat des lieux de la filiere eolienne. Propositions pour la mise en oeuvre de la procedure d'implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The National Academy of Medicine has evaluated the effects on health of wind turbines. This report recommends that the wind turbine construction is at a minimal distance of 1500 m for wind turbines having a power superior to 2.5 MW. The French agency of sanitary safety of environment and work (A.F.S.S.E.T.) is in charge by the Ministry of Health and Environment to evaluate the relevance of this distance recommendation. The work group recommends the implementation of a specifications text of the environmental impact study as well as a compulsory administrative check of the study. It is more particularly a question of: Defining a perimeter of study: indicate all the zones susceptible to be concerned by the noise of wind turbines, even those which are not inhabited; calculating the durations of impact of concerned zones, according to the predictable weather conditions over the year; indicating the measures taken by the developer of the wind farm in case of overtaking of the authorized emergence; the impact studies of the other projects have to take into account a possible incidence in the zones of impact of the wind farm; a cartography of the zones of impact of a wind site must be available in town hall. A particular attention must be attached to the duration and to the representativeness of the study of the existing situation. The method of appreciation of the sound level impact on the environment must be improved, what passes by a deepening of the knowledge in criterion of embarrassment due to the noise, of existence of threshold, spectral validity, validity according to the exposure time. The search for the simplicity in statutory subject should lead to engage efforts of clarification as regards the nuisances criteria. (N.C.)

  6. Fabrication of a Scaled MgB2 Racetrack Demonstrator Pole for a 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Niklas; Eliassen, Jan Christian; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2018-01-01

    Field windings made of MgB2 wires or tapes are considered for their potential to reduce volume, weight, and cost of large offshore wind turbine generators. To gain experience of how to use this relatively new material in full-scale generators, tests of different winding methodologies and techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe in detail the steps used to wind a racetrack coil with a length of 1 m and a width of 0.5 m out of 4.5 km of MgB2 superconducting tape. The width corresponds to a full-scale pole of a 10-MW generator, whereas the length of the straight section is shorter than...... the corresponding full-scale pole. The coil was built up of ten double pancake coils. Each double pancake coil was wet wound using a semiautomatic winding process, where Stycast 2850 was applied directly to the MgB2 tape without any other dedicated electrical insulation. The strengths and weaknesses of the winding...

  7. Impact of a 90 m/2 MW wind turbine on birds. En 90 m/2 MW vindmoelles indvirkning paa fuglelivet; Fugles reaktioner paa opfoerelsen og idriftsaettelsen af Tjaereborgmoellen ved Det Danske Vadehav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch Pedersen, M; Poulsen, E

    1991-10-01

    It is consluded that the wind turbine has caused a ''vacuum effect'', preventing birds from exploiting the areas close to the wind turbine. The impact of this disturbance on birds is evaluated to be a considerable addition to already existing disturbances from e.g. farming, and has caused further deteriorations of the Tjaereborg polder for breeding, staging and foraging birds. Once the wind turbine has been operating permanently for a longer period it will be possible to evaluate the total impact on birds and thus evluate effects of implementation of a large wind turbine on the avian fauna in the Wadden Sea region. (author) 48 refs.

  8. DANAERO MW: Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Bak, Christian; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    This report describes the results of the EUDP funded DANAERO MW II project carried out by DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø DTU) and the industrial partners, LM Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Siemens Wind Power. An overview of the data available from the project as well as the results from...... analysis of the data is given with the main objective to explore in detail the influence of atmospheric and wake turbulence on MW turbine performance, loading and stability. Finally, validation and demonstration of simulation codes are carried out....

  9. Value Proposition Canvas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhnau, Jan Glæsner

    2017-01-01

    Alexander Osterwalders Value Proposition Canvas hjælper virksomheder med at udvikle produkter og services, som kunderne rent faktisk vil have. Modellen zoomer ind på de to grundlæggende byggesten i Business Model Canvas Customer Segments og Value Propositions og kortlægger, hvilket match der er...... mellem kundernes behov og virksomhedens evne til at opfylde disse. Modellen afslører gaps og dermed hvilke forbedringer eller innovationer der er brug for. "Value Proposition Canvas" er et kapitel i bogen "Marketingmodeller" - en kort og overskuelig håndbog, værktøjskasse og brugervejledning med de...

  10. Environmentally Friendly Replacement of Mature 200 MW Coal-Fired Power Blocks with 2 Boilers Working on One 500 MW Class Steam Turbine Generator (2on1 Unit Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczak, Jan; Grela, Łukasz; Achter, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The paper covers problems of the owners of a fleet of long-operated conventional power plants that are going to be decommissioned soon in result of failing to achieve new admissible emissions levels or exceeding pressure elements design lifetime. Energoprojekt-Katowice SA, Siemens AG and Rafako SA presents their joint concept of the solution which is a 2on1 concept - replacing two unit by two ultra-supercritical boilers feeding one turbine. Polish market has been taken as an example.

  11. Propositional Calculus in Coq

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, Floris

    2015-01-01

    I formalize important theorems about classical propositional logic in the proof assistant Coq. The main theorems I prove are (1) the soundness and completeness of natural deduction calculus, (2) the equivalence between natural deduction calculus, Hilbert systems and sequent calculus and (3) cut elimination for sequent calculus.

  12. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  13. Modelling of the turbo-generator groups dynamical behaviour. Application to the ARABELLE turbine of the N4 1400 MW unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bediou, J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulation of the dynamical behaviour of the EDF turbogenerator groups is based on developments concerning bearing behaviour and shaft line dynamics. A provisional model for the ARABELLE turbine dynamic behaviour is derived. The detailed representation of all the components allows for a fine analysis of the different effects and the evaluation of the stresses transmitted to the structure in anomalistic operating conditions

  14. The DAN-AERO MW Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    a number of coordinated, innovative measurements on full scale MW size rotors as well as on airfoils for MW size turbines in wind tunnels. Shear and turbulence inflow characteristics were measured on a Siemens 3.6 MW turbine with a five hole pitot tube. Pressure and turbulent inflow characteristics were...... on the blade was further instrumented with around 50 microphones for high frequency surface pressure measurements. The surface pressure measurements have been correlated with inflow measurements from four five hole pitot tubes and two sensors for measuring the high frequency (50 Hz to10 kHz) contents...

  15. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  16. Multi-MW wind turbine power curve measurements using remote sensing instruments – the first Høvsøre campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael

    curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. LiDAR are found to be more accurate than SoDAR and therefore more suitable for power performance measurement. The equivalent wind...... that used of the equivalent wind speed at least results in a power curve with no more scatter than using the conventional method....

  17. Training propositional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, K C; Meiser, T; Naumer, B

    2000-08-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of four training conditions on propositional reasoning. A syntactic training demonstrated formal derivations, in an abstract semantic training the standard truth-table definitions of logical connectives were explained, and a domain-specific semantic training provided thematic contexts for the premises of the reasoning task. In a control training, an inductive reasoning task was practised. In line with the account by mental models, both kinds of semantic training were significantly more effective than the control and the syntactic training, whereas there were no significant differences between the control and the syntactic training, nor between the two kinds of semantic training. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern of effects using a different set of syntactic and domain-specific training conditions.

  18. Air quality impact of a pair of 150 MW gas turbines pre-installation study on the Champagne-sur-Oise site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daganaud, A

    1994-12-31

    In the framework of a project for the installation of two gas turbines at the CHAMPAGNE-SUR-OISE power plant, EDF-CNET (Centre National de l`Equipement Thermique) is required to submit an impact report, which includes the present contribution. The purpose of the study was to perform atmospheric dispersion calculations to assess the sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide ground concentration levels liable to be incurred by such installations under specified operating conditions. Using the Gaussian dispersion model MULTIPOL, numerical simulations were performed over a 10-year period, based on the chronological stations. The ``fallout`` calculations were performed with an hourly time step over a 1200 point grid covering a 40 x 40 km zone around the plant. The resulting pollution is expressed for each point in terms of annual mean concentrations and daily and hourly mean concentration distributions. Main results are presented as pollution maps, which can then be easily checked against current regulatory values. Two scenarios were simulated : year-long full power operation, which is a fictitious bounding case scenario, and operation about 12 hours per day on 20 to 25 days per year, during the coldest winter periods, which is the most probable scenario. Pollution liable to result from this type of installation was found to be extremely slight. At the most exposed points of the site, the mean SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} concentrations obtained for all operating days were only 3{mu}g/m{sup 3} and hourly peaks amounted at most to a few tens of {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Such values remain well below the stipulated limits for these pollutants and the future guide values determined by the European authorities. Increasing the existing very low background level by this specific amount should consequently raise no problems. (Author). 18 figs., 3 annexes., 12 refs.

  19. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  20. Megawatt wind turbines gaining momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, K.; Madsen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    Through the short history of the modern wind turbine, electric utilities have made it amply clear that they have held a preference for large scale wind turbines over smaller ones, which is why wind turbine builders through the years have made numerous attempts develop such machines - machines that would meet the technical, aesthetic and economic demands that a customer would require. Considerable effort was put into developing such wind turbines in the early 1980s. There was the U.S. Department of Energy's MOD 1-5 program, which ranged up to 3.2 MW, Denmark's Nibe A and B, 630 kW turbine and the 2 MW Tjaereborg machine, Sweden's Naesudden, 3 MW, and Germany's Growian, 3 MW. Most of these were dismal failures, though some did show the potential of MW technology. (au)

  1. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  2. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  3. Small Wind Turbine Installation Compatibility Demonstration Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    wind turbine (HAWT) and one 2.9-kW vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), we planned to measure radar, acoustic and seismic, turbulence, bird and...non-issue for small turbines . The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind turbines are for large turbines (BPA 2002; Whittam...et al. 2010). The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind energy facil- ities are for utility-scale turbines (> 1 MW) with

  4. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svabcik, A.

    1996-01-01

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer's factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs

  5. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svabcik, A [Atomova Elektraren Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer`s factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs.

  6. Operating experience with 600 MW steam turbosets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinapp, J.

    1978-01-01

    The turbosets of the 600 MW line are machines with 4 casing, with a single-flow high-pressure turbine, a double-flow MD part, and two double-flow low-pressure turbines. The common design of all BBC turbosets of this size is explained, with a few remarks on the typical constructional features of BBC technology. The plant has a mean availability of 96% and a mean forced shutdown rate of 1.2%. A table gives a survey of the start-up procedure and the operating results so far. (GL) [de

  7. NedWind with 80 MW wind power capacity leader in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    At 31 December 1995 1050 wind turbines were in operation in the Netherlands with a total capacity of 255 MW. An overview is given of the top locations of wind turbines in different categories and from different manufacturers and owners. The wind turbine manufacturer NedWind is leading the field. 9 figs

  8. Technical diagnostics of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, B.; Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with practical experience in application of technical diagnostics methods to steam turbines, in particular using pedestal and shaft vibration measurements as well as estimation of bearing metal temperature and ultrasound emission signals. An estimation of effectiveness of the diagnostics methods used is given on the basis of experimental investigations made on a 30-MW turbine. (author)

  9. Steam turbines for PWR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscroft, J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements and mechanical design features applying to modern GEC 3000 rev/min steam turbines for pressurised water reactor power stations are reviewed. The most recent developments include machines of 630 MW and 985 MW output which are currently under construction. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines associated with a variety of types of water cooled reactor and its relevance to the design of modern 3000 rev/min turbines for pressurised water reactor applications is emphasised. (author)

  10. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  11. Transforming equality logic to propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable

  12. Metric propositional neighborhood logics on natural numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...

  13. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  14. Criteria for the provision and assembly of the rotor blades of a 300 MW low pressure steam turbine for electrical generation; Criterios para el suministro y ensambles de la alabes de rotor de turbina de vapor de 300 MW baja presion para generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Galo; Felix, Jorge A; Quijano, Octavio [Especialistas en Turbopartes, S.A. de C.V., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents some of the main criteria to consider from the inspection, disassembling and assembly of blades with different root types of a turbine rotor of steam turbines for power generation, having as an aim to count on a reliable rotor, fulfilling with the equipment original design and norms and international standards. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta algunos de los criterios principales a considerar desde la inspeccion, desmontaje y montaje de alabes de diferentes tipos de raiz de un rotor de turbinas de vapor de generacion electrica, teniendo como finalidad contar con un rotor confiable, cumpliendo con el diseno original del equipo y con normas y estandares internacionales.

  15. Hare and Others on the Proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Corcoran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available History witnesses alternative approaches to “the proposition”. The proposition has been referred to as the object of belief, disbelief, and doubt: generally as the object of propositional attitudes, that which can be said to be believed, disbelieved, understood, etc. It has also been taken to be the object of grasping, judging, assuming, affirming, denying, and inquiring: generally as the object of propositional actions, that which can be said to be grasped, judged true or false, assumed for reasoning purposes, etc. The proposition has also been taken to be the subject of truth and falsity: generally as the subject of propositional properties, that which can be said to be true, false, tautological, informative, inconsistent, etc. It has also been taken as the subject and object of logical relations, e.g. that which can be said to imply, be implied, contradict, be contradicted, etc. Prima facie, such properties and relations are non-mental and objective. It has also been taken to be the resultants or products of propositional operations, usually mental or linguistic; e.g. judging, affirming, and denying have been held to produce propositions called judgments, affirmations, and negations, respectively. Propositions have also been taken to be certain declarative sentences. Finally, propositions have been taken to be meanings of certain declarative sentences. This essay is an informal, selective, and incomplete survey of alternative approaches to “the proposition” with special attention to the views of the late American philosopher Peter Hare (1935–2008 and of those who influenced him.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of a 12 MW Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROZA, V.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The installation of wind turbines in power systems has developed rapidly through the last 20 years. In this paper a complete simulation model of a 6 x 2 MW wind turbines is presented using data from a wind farm installed in Denmark. A model of the wind turbine with cage-rotor induction generator is presented in details. A set of simulations are performed and they show that it is possible to simulate a complete wind farm from wind to the grid. The simulation tool can also be used to simulate bigger wind farms connected to the grid.

  17. A Current Logical Framework: The Propositional Fragment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    We present the propositional fragment CLF of the Concurrent Logical Framework (CLF). CLF extends the Linear Logical Framework to allow the natural representation of concurrent computations in an object language...

  18. Beginning Typewriting: A Fifty-Fifty Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarie, Ted

    1976-01-01

    Beginning typewriting should be a 50-50 proposition with equal time devoted to machine operation and skill development and to language arts instruction in elementary and secondary education. (Author/LH)

  19. Of Prepositions and Propositions: Sharing Experiences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of Prepositions and Propositions: Sharing Experiences and Perspectives on ... and Africanist scholars, written by an African and an Africanist graduate student. ... in the long-standing dispute over FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) research.

  20. Nursing intellectual capital theory: testing selected propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-11-01

    To test the selected propositions of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. The nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes nursing knowledge's influence on patient and organizational outcomes. The theory proposes nursing human capital, nurses' knowledge, skills and experience, is related to the quality of patient care and nurse recruitment and retention of an inpatient care unit. Two factors in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nurse continuing professional development, are proposed to influence nursing human capital's association with patient and organizational outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design. The study took place in 2008 in six Canadian acute care hospitals. Financial, human resource and risk data were collected from hospital departments and unit managers. Clearly specified empirical indicators quantified the study variables. The propositions of the theory were tested with data from 91 inpatient care units using structural equation modelling. The propositions associated with the nursing human capital concept were supported. The propositions associated with the employer support for nurse continuing professional development concept were not. The proposition that nurse staffing's influences on patient outcomes was mediated by the nursing human capital of an inpatient unit, was partially supported. Some of the theory's propositions were empirically validated. Additional theoretical work is needed to refine the operationalization and measurement of some of the theory's concepts. Further research with larger samples of data from different geographical settings and types of hospitals is required to determine if the theory can withstand empirical scrutiny. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  2. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  3. Converter structure-based power loss and static thermal modeling of the press-pack IGBT-based three-level ANPC and HB VSCs applied to Multi-MW wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    and the switch thermal performance which is determined by the converter load profile and the converter structure. In this study, the converter-structure based power loss and thermal models are developed for the medium voltage full-scale 3LANPC- VSC and 3L-HB-VSC utilizing press-pack IGBT-diode pairs......The wind turbine converters demand high power density due to nacelle space limitation and high reliability due to high maintenance cost. Once the converter topology with the semiconductor switch technology is selected, the converter power density and reliability are dependent on the component count...

  4. 6MW solar plant integration feasibility study : Bonaire island case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Yin; De Jong, Erik; Cuk, Vladimir; Cobben, Sjef

    2016-01-01

    The power supply on Bonaire is characterized by a high penetration of wind energy. Currently 5 diesel generators (total capacity 14MW) and 12 wind turbines (total capacity 10.8MW) operated by ContourGlobal generate electricity for Water and Electricity Bonaire (WEB). To meet future power demand

  5. Rehabilitation and extension of the useful operating life of a high pressure casing of the 75 MW steam turbine of the thermoelectric power plant President Juarez in Rosarito, B.C.; Rehabilitacion y extension de vida util de una carcasa de alta presion de la turbina de vapor de 75 MW de la central termoelectrica Presidente Juarez en Rosarito, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Hernandez R, Alejandro; Luna R, Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fernandez, Rafael; Nieblas, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rosarito, Baja California (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The effective operation of the steam turbines is important to the world industries, but as all machinery, it is necessary to constantly examine and give maintenance to this equipment with the purpose of producing better results. Yet, many steam turbines arrive at an operation period of 30 or 40 years, over their original design capacity. A factor like this, only augments the probabilities of future problems with the casings, such as: thermal fatigue fissures, deformation of the horizontal union and erosion problems in the low pressure housings. The deformation of the casing can affect its capacity to maintain aligned the stationary parts of the turbine, as a consequence, damages can appear in the fixed and rotary components by interference or friction. Also, the water induction can deform the casing to such a degree that, the alignment of the stationary parts is altered until it causes contact and friction between stationary and rotary parts. However, depending on the type and degree of the casing deformation, different methods of rehabilitation can be applied. The core goal is to recover the planarity of the union of the flanges, re-machining the plane of the flange of the upper and lower casing or, alternatively, to carry out a scraping by hand. [Spanish] El funcionamiento eficaz de las turbinas de vapor es importante para las industrias del mundo, pero como toda maquinaria, es necesario examinar y dar mantenimiento constantemente a este equipo con la finalidad de producir mejores resultados. Con todo, muchas turbinas de vapor llegan a un periodo de operacion de 30 o 40 anos, por encima de su capacidad de diseno original. Un factor como este, solo eleva las probabilidades de futuros problemas con las carcasas, tales como: fisuras por fatiga termica, deformacion de la union horizontal y problemas de erosion en las carcasas de baja presion. La deformacion de la carcasa puede afectar su capacidad para mantener alineadas las partes estacionarias de la turbina, como

  6. Propositional systems in local field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1980-07-01

    The authors investigate propositional systems for local field theories, which reflect intrinsically the uncertainties of measurements made on the physical system, and satisfy the isotony and local commutativity postulates of Haag and Kastler. The spacetime covariance can be implemented in natural way in these propositional systems. New techniques are introduced to obtain these propositional systems: the lattice-valued logics. The decomposition of the complete orthomodular lattice-valued logics shows that these logics are more general than the usual two-valued ones and that in these logics there is enough structure to characterize the classical and quantum, non relativistic and relativistic local field theories in a natural way. The Hilbert modules give the natural inner product ''spaces'' (modules) for the realization of the lattice-valued logics. (author)

  7. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...

  8. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  9. Specific features of steam turbine design at LMZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichugin, I.I.; Tsvetkov, A.M.; Simkin, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    General structural layouts of the condensation steam turbines produced by the Leningrad metalworks (LM) are considered. Currently LM produced 50 types and modifications of steam turbines with the capacity from 30 up to 1200 MW. Problems of turbine efficiency and ways of the flow section improvement are discussed

  10. Propositional Optimal Trajectory Programming for Improving Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propositional Optimal Trajectory Programming for Improving Stability of Hermite Definite Control System. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... Knowledge of systems operation subjected to heat diffusion constraints is required of systems analysts. In an instance that ...

  11. Complexity of Propositional Proofs Under a Promise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dershowitz, N.; Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 1529-3785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : theory * promise problems * propositional proof complexity * random 3CNF * resolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2010 http://dl.acm.org/ citation .cfm?doid=1740582.1740586

  12. Complexity of Propositional Proofs Under a Promise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dershowitz, N.; Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 1529-3785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : theory * promise problems * propositional proof complexity * random 3CNF * resolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2010 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1740582.1740586

  13. Towards an 'inland terminal centred' value proposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, R.; de Langen, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The two main value propositions in international container transport are ‘port-to-port’ services and ‘door-to-door’ services. In port-to-port services, buyers ‘just’ purchase maritime transport from a shipping line. Door-to-door services comprise the total transport chain and include land-based

  14. New energy technologies. Research program proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the most promising program propositions of research and development and the public financing needed for their realization. The concerned technologies are: the hydrogen and the fuel cell PAN-H, the separation and the storage of the CO 2 , the photovoltaic solar electricity, the PREBAT program of the building energy recovery and the bio-energies. (A.L.B.)

  15. A proposition calculus in quantum mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1987-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, to a set of n+1 observables A 0 , A 1 ...A n and a set of time instants, one can associate a probabilized space (X, B, P) where X is the direct product of the spectra of A 1 ...A n . The sigma-field B has a basis that is not a direct product but constructed in a well-defined order using sets in the spectra or equivalently projectors in the Hilbert space. The probability measure P on B satisfies the axioms of probability theory if some compatibility conditions, first found by R. Griffiths, are satisfied. To do so, one must use some quasi-classical Fefferman approximants for A 1 ...A n . Sets in B can be used as predicates in a proposition calculus using P, such that a proposition π 1 implies a proposition π-2, also gives probability 1 for π 2 . This is consistent with the logical axioms about implication. Here E 0 , projector on a set on the spectrum of A 0 is a common first predicate.This formalism is used to analyze the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedankenexperiment and turns out not to contradict the finite-velocity propogation axiom of special relativity. Since only propositions and no measuring apparatus nor external observer have to be introduced, this theory generalizing quantum mechanics satisfies the criteria of objectivity, and remains non-separable. It turns out that, when an actual measuring apparatus is used, wave-packet reduction is the logico-mathematical operation that takes care of the measurement result as a proposition [fr

  16. Customer value propositions in business markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James C; Narus, James A; van Rossum, Wouter

    2006-03-01

    Examples of consumer value propositions that resonate with customers are exceptionally difficult to find. When properly constructed, value propositions force suppliers to focus on what their offerings are really worth. Once companies become disciplined about understanding their customers, they can make smarter choices about where to allocate scarce resources. The authors illuminate the pitfalls of current approaches, then present a systematic method for developing value propositions that are meaningful to target customers and that focus suppliers' efforts on creating superior value. When managers construct a customer value proposition, they often simply list all the benefits their offering might deliver. But the relative simplicity of this all-benefits approach may have a major drawback: benefit assertion. In other words, managers may claim advantages for features their customers don't care about in the least. Other suppliers try to answer the question, Why should our firm purchase your offering instead of your competitor's? But without a detailed understanding of the customer's requirements and preferences, suppliers can end up stressing points of difference that deliver relatively little value to the target customer. The pitfall with this approach is value presumption: assuming that any favorable points of difference must be valuable for the customer. Drawing on the best practices of a handful of suppliers in business markets, the authors advocate a resonating focus approach. Suppliers can provide simple, yet powerfully captivating, consumer value propositions by making their offerings superior on the few elements that matter most to target customers, demonstrating and documenting the value of this superior performance, and communicating it in a way that conveys a sophisticated understanding of the customer's business priorities.

  17. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  18. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  19. Studi Pemanfaatan Limbah Padat dari Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit pada PLTU 6 MW di Bangka Belitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Harris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Limbah padat dari perkebunan kelapa sawit berupa cangkang dan fibre dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber energi alternatif pada PLTU. Cangkang memiliki kandungan energi sebesar 4115 kkal/kg dan fibre sebesar 3500 kkal/kg. Cangkang dan fibre dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan bakar pada PLTU 6 MW, yang digunakan untuk memanaskan air didalam boiler sehingga menghasilkan temperatur uap dan tekanan uap yang mampu memutar turbin uap. Turbin uap berfungsi sebagai prime mover untuk memutar generator sehingga menghasilkan output berupa daya listrik. Pada saat menggunakan bahan bakar cangkang PLTU 6 MW menghasilkan ouput rata – rata sebesar 4.8 MW/hr dan dalam 1 MW output membutuhkan 1.02 ton cangkang dan pada saat menggunakan bahan bakar fibre PLTU 6 MW menghasilkan output rata – rata 2.3 MW/hr dan dalam 1 MW output membutuhkan 1.83 ton fibre. Karena lebih optimal dalam pengoperasian serta maksimalnya output yang dihasilkan dari bahan bakar cangkang, maka efisiensinya pun lebih baik. Efisiensi PLTU 6 MW pada saat menggunakan bahan bakar cangkang sebesar 20.5 % dan efisiensi PLTU 6 MW dari bahan bakar fibre 13 %. Oleh karena itu bahan bakar cangkang merupakan bahan bakar utama yang digunakan pada PLTU 6 MW.

  20. A Two-Bladed Teetering Hub configuration for the DTU 10 MW RWT: loads considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Rasmussen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    study on an alternative downwind two-bladed rotor configuration. The study is based on a model representative of next generation multi-MW wind turbines: the DTU 10-MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT). As a first design iteration, the aerodynamic characteristics of the original rotor are maintained......As the size of wind turbine rotors continuously grows, the need for innovative solutions that would yield to lighter rotor configurations becomes more urgent. Traditional wind turbine designs have favored the classic three-bladed upwind rotor configuration. This work presents instead a concept...... in load variations, and hence in fatigue damage, affects the turbine blades, shaft and tower, and originates from the aerodynamic unbalance on the rotor, as well as from aeroelastic interaction with the tower frequency. To mitigate the load amplification caused by the interaction between the tower...

  1. A Note on Omitting Types in Propositional Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Kolman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogues of the classical omitting types theorems of first-order logic are proved for propositional logic. For an infinite cardinal $\\kappa$, a sufficient criterion is given for the omission of $\\kappa$-many types in a propositional language with $\\kappa$ propositional variables.

  2. The 8000 MW project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubis, T. [Repsol YPF (Spain); Bressan, L. [Foster Wheeler (Italy); O' Keefe, L. [Texaco Power and Gasification (Netherlands)

    2001-04-01

    The article describes the heavy oil integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) complex designed to process the high sulfur by-products from the nearby Petronor Refinery (in Spain) and produce hydrogen and electricity. The process units and their feedstocks are described. The design and operation of the gasification unit and what it achieves are also described. The raw syngas from the scrubbers in the gasification unit is processed so that it can be fed to the combined cycle. How raw gas syngas cooling is carried out is described in outline. In the sulfur recovery units, the MDEA-rich solution (from the absorption tower) is expanded in a hydraulic turbine to recover power to pump the lean MDEA stream to the absorption tower. The Power Island is described under the sub-headings of: (i) quench gasification technology; (ii) IGCC complex performance; (iii) environmental compact; (iv) the site; (v) project implementation program and (vi) investment cost.

  3. 1st DeepWind 5 MW Baseline design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Vita, Luca; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    The first 5MW baseline design of the DeepWind concept is presented for a Darrieus type floating wind turbine system for water depths of more than 150 m. This design will be used as design reference to test the next technological improvements of sub-component level, being based as much as possible...... trajectory on the water plane. The generator is placed at the bottom of the platform and uses 5MW direct drive technology.The conceptual design is evaluated with numerical simulations in the time domain using the aero-elastic code HAWC2. In order to investigate the concept, a double-disc blade element....... A site has been chosen for the floating turbine off Norway as representative for external conditions. The structure is verified according to an ultimate strength analysis, including loads from wind, waves and currents. The stability of the platform is investigated, considering the displacements...

  4. 350 MW(t) MHTGR preassembly and modularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.C.; Jones, G.; Dilling, D.A.; Parker, W.J.

    1991-05-01

    The Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) provides a safe and economical nuclear power option for the world's electrical generation needs by the turn of the century. The proposed MHTGR plant is composed of four 350 MW(t) prismatic core reactor modules, coupled to a 2(2 x 1) turbine generator producing a net plant electrical output of 538 MW(e). Each of the four reactor module is located in a below-ground level concrete silo, and consists of a reactor vessel and a steam generator vessel interconnected by a cross duct vessel. The modules, along with the service buildings, are contained within a Nuclear Island (NI). The turbine generators and power generation facilities are in the non-nuclear Energy Conversion Area (ECA). The MHTGR design reduces cost and improves schedule by maximizing shop fabrication, minimizing field fit up of the Reactor Internals components and modularizing the NI ampersand ECA facilities. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. High-power condensation turbine application to district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchenko, M.A.; Arkad'ev, B.A.; Ioffe, V.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    In general outline the role of condensation turbines in NPP district heating is considered. The expediency of expansion of central heating loading of turbines of operating as well as newly designed condensation power plants on the basis of the WWER-1000-type reactors is shown. The principle heat flowsheet of the 1000 MW power turbine is given. An advantage in using turbines with uncontrolled steam bleeding is pointed out [ru

  6. On the Predictability of Classical Propositional Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana M. Reis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we provide a statistical form of empirical analysis of classical propositional logic decision methods called SAT solvers. This work is perceived as an empirical counterpart of a theoretical movement, called the enduring scandal of deduction, that opposes considering Boolean Logic as trivial in any sense. For that, we study the predictability of classical logic, which we take to be the distribution of the runtime of its decision process. We present a series of experiments that determines the run distribution of SAT solvers and discover a varying landscape of distributions, following the known existence of a transition of easy-hard-easy cases of propositional formulas. We find clear distributions for the easy areas and the transitions easy-hard and hard-easy. The hard cases are shown to be hard also for the detection of statistical distributions, indicating that several independent processes may be at play in those cases.

  7. On the structure of quantal proposition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Jeffrey

    1994-09-01

    I define sublaltices of quantum propositions that can be taken as having determinate (but perhaps unknown) truth values for a given quantum state, in the sense that sufficiently many two-valued maps satisfying a Boolean homomorphism condition exist on each determinate sublattice to generate a Kolmogorov probability space for the probabilities defined by the slate. I show that these sublattices are maximal, subject to certain constraints, from which it follows easily that they are unique. I discuss the relevance of this result for the measurement problem, relating it to an early proposal by Jauch and Piron for defining a new notion of state for quantum systems, to a recent uniqueness proof by Clifton for the sublattice of propositions specified as determinate by modal interpretations of quantum mechanics that exploit the polar decompostion theorem, and to my own previous suggestions for interpreting quantum mechanics without the projection postulate.

  8. The DAN-AERO MW experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bak, C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Gaunaa, M. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Fuglsang, P. (LM Glasfiber, Kolding (Denmark)); Romblad, J.; Olesen, N.A. (Vestas Wind Systems, Ringkoebing (Denmark)); Enevoldsen, P.; Laursen, J. (Siemens Wind Power, Ballerup (Denmark)); Jensen, Leo (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risoe DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project was to establish an experimental data base which can provide new insight into a number of fundamental aerodynamic and aero-acoustic issues, important for the design and operation of MW size turbines. The most important issue is the difference between airfoil characteristics measured under 2D, steady conditions in a wind tunnel and the unsteady 3D flow conditions on a rotor. The different transition characteristics might explain some of the differences between the 2D and 3D airfoil data and the experiments have been set up to provide data on this subject. The overall experimental approach has been to carry out a number of coordinated, innovative measurements on full scale MW size rotors as well as on airfoils for MW size turbines in wind tunnels. Shear and turbulence inflow characteristics were measured on a Siemens 3.6 MW turbine with a five hole pitot tube. Pressure and turbulent inflow characteristics were measured on a 2MW NM80 turbine with an 80 m rotor. One of the LM38.8 m blades on the rotor was replaced with a new LM38.8 m blade where instruments for surface pressure measurements at four radial sections were build into the blade during the blade production process. Additionally, the outmost section on the blade was further instrumented with around 50 microphones for high frequency surface pressure measurements. The surface pressure measurements have been correlated with inflow measurements from four five hole pitot tubes and two sensors for measuring the high frequency (50 Hz to10 kHz) contents of the inflow turbulence. In parallel, 2D wind tunnel measurements on common airfoils for wind turbine applications have been conducted in three different wind tunnels at Delft

  9. On the Predictability of Classical Propositional Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Marcelo; Reis, Poliana

    2013-01-01

    In this work we provide a statistical form of empirical analysis of classical propositional logic decision methods called SAT solvers. This work is perceived as an empirical counterpart of a theoretical movement, called the enduring scandal of deduction, that opposes considering Boolean Logic as trivial in any sense. For that, we study the predictability of classical logic, which we take to be the distribution of the runtime of its decision process. We present a series of experiments that det...

  10. Orthogonal Bases used for Feed Forward Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    In optimizing wind turbines it can be of a large help to use information of wind speeds at upwind turbine for the control of downwind turbines, it is, however, problematic to use these measurements directly since they are highly influenced by turbulence behind the wind turbine rotor plane. In this....... In this paper an orthogonal basis is use to extract the general trends in the wind signal, which are forward to the down wind turbines. This concept controller is designed and simulated on a generic 4.8 MW wind turbine model, which shows the potential of this proposed scheme....

  11. Peigan Nation to start 101 MW wind farm this month

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-01-01

    A joint venture, named Weather-Dancer Wind Power Inc., between Advanced Thermodynamics Corporation (ATC) and the Peigan First Nation Community in Alberta will begin construction in June of a wind farm on its 39,000 hectare reserve. The construction will be progressive, up to a maximum of 101 MW. If and when the farm reaches its full size, it will have cost around $175 million. The wind farm will utilize Nordex Balcke-Duerr (Nordex BD) wind turbines from Denmark. ATC is the sole distributor of these turbines in Canada, and will seek opportunities to market Nordex BD turbines and components throughout Alberta and Western Canada. ATC is also aggressively pursuing opportunities in Quebec and in Atlantic Canada. Financing for the construction of the wind farm and a long-term power purchase and distribution agreement with TransAlta Utilities are as yet incomplete, but negotiations are reported to be progressing well. The Nordex BD N54/1000, rated at one MW, will be the largest turbine, and the Peigan Nation Farm the largest wind farm in North America. This is the second attempt by the Peigan Nation to develop a wind farm on the reserve. On the first attempt, the development failed to secure access to the land needed for the project. This time around, a referendum will be held well in advance of the starting date for construction to obtain majority band approval of the site

  12. Concurrent Aeroservoelastic Design and Optimization of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo

    This work develops and investigates methods to integrate controllers in the wind turbine design process and to perform wind turbine optimization. These techniques can exploit the synergy between wind turbine components and generate new design solutions. Two frameworks to perform wind turbine...... optimization design are presented. These tools handle workflows to model a wind turbine and to evaluate loads and performances under specific conditions. Three approaches to evaluate loads are proposed and integrated in the optimization codes. The first method is based on time domain simulations, the second...... simulations, allows the selection of any controller parameter. The methods to evaluate loads and the pole-placement technique are then employed to carry out wind turbine optimization design from an aeroservoelastic prospective. Several analysis of the NREL 5 MW Reference Wind Turbine and the DTU 10 MW...

  13. Propositional Attitudes, Intentionality and Lawful Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique de A. Dutra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss Quine’s last analysis of propositional attitudes as involving intentionality and as regards human action and the very subject matter of social sciences. As to this problem, Quine acquiesces in both Davidson’s anomalous monism and Dennett’s intentional stance. An alternative analysis is here presented, which is based on Howard Rachlin’s teleological behaviorism. Some problems regarding this approach are also considered. Intentionality and rationality are still to be saved, but they are construed according to a lawful perspective to human behavior and social contexts of action.

  14. A 20 MW{sub t} pilot plant for the generation of electric power by magnetohydrodynamic process using biomass; Planta piloto de 20 MW{sub t} de geracao de energia eletrica por magnetohidrodinamica a partir da biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, D G; Guimaraes, O L.C.; Silva, A C da; Batista, J F [Fundacao de Tecnologia Industrial (FTI), Lorena, SP (Brazil); Fernandes Filho, G E.F.; Magalhaes Filho, P [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    1991-12-31

    The combustion of celulignin from biomass with addition of 1% of K, generates a plasma with electric conductivity of 100 S/M. This allows the establishment of a small size thermoelectric plants in triple or double cycle with magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHD), gas turbine and steam turbine. It is presented calculations of a pilot plant of 20 MW{sub t} in the MHD circuit and a total of 30 MW{sub t} with net efficiency of 27%. For plants larger than 60 MW{sub t} it is expected net efficiency larger than 37%. 3 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Law Grenelle 1 evaluation and propositions; Loi grenelle 1 evaluation et propositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P

    2008-11-15

    In spite of many positive points proposed in the law project Grenelle 1, some gaps remain. The author provides recommendations for some articles and details this propositions. Particularly he explains that the law project forgets the electricity part in the fight against the CO{sub 2} emissions. (A.L.B.)

  16. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro's estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  17. Large wind turbine development in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Attikis (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Value propositions of mHealth projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Irena; Bram, Joshua T; Sutermaster, Staci; Eckman, Molly; Mehta, Khanjan

    While mHealth holds great potential for addressing global health disparities, a majority of the initiatives never proceed beyond the pilot stage. One fundamental concern is that mHealth projects are seldom designed from the customer's perspective to address their specific problems and/or create appreciable value. A customer-centric view, where direct tangible benefits of interventions are identified and communicated effectively, can drive customer engagement and advance projects toward self-sustaining business models. This article reviews the business models of 234 mHealth projects to identify nine distinct value propositions that solve specific problems for customers. Each of these value propositions is discussed with real-world examples, analyses of their design approaches and business strategies, and common enablers as well as hurdles to surviving past the pilot stage. Furthermore, a deeper analysis of 42 mHealth ventures that have achieved self-sustainability through project revenue provides a host of practical and poignant insights into the design of systems that can fulfil mHealth's promise to address healthcare challenges in the long term.

  19. A One-System Theory Which is Not Propositional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2009-04-01

    We argue that the propositional and link-based approaches to human contingency learning represent different levels of analysis because propositional reasoning requires a basis, which is plausibly provided by a link-based architecture. Moreover, in their attempt to compare two general classes of models (link-based and propositional), Mitchell et al. have referred to only two generic models and ignore the large variety of different models within each class.

  20. Value Proposition: A Common Ground between Company and Customer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    This is a paper that examines the contribution of the value proposition and the interplay between value creation process and value proposition strategy, between competencies and value proposition in competitive market situation. A literature review was carried out to understand the relevant research already in existence. The origin of value and the two main contemporary theories of customer value were reviewed; some models were covered as well. The two theories are Customer-based value ...

  1. Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Van Blokland, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

  2. RBI Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    methods for oil & gas installations, a framework for optimal inspection and maintenance planning of offshore wind turbines is presented. Special aspects for offshore wind turbines considered are the fatigue loading characteristics where usually the wind loading are dominating the wave loading, wake......Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coming years. Offshore wind turbines with an electricity production of 5-10 MW are planned. Typically, the wind turbine...... support structure is a steel structure consisting of a tower and a monopile, tripod or jacket type foundation. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod type of wind turbine support structures. Based on risk-based inspection planning...

  3. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) Microwave (MW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...

  4. Large superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    and the rotation speed is lowered in order to limit the tip speed of the blades. The ability of superconducting materials to carry high current densities with very small losses might facilitate a new class of generators operating with an air gap flux density considerably higher than conventional generators...... and thereby having a smaller size and weight [1, 2]. A 5 MW superconducting wind turbine generator forms the basics for the feasibility considerations, particularly for the YBCO and MgB2 superconductors entering the commercial market. Initial results indicate that a 5 MW generator with an active weight of 34...

  5. RELIABILITY OF MACHINE ELEMENTS IN WIND TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi GRUENDER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide electrical energy production generated by wind turbines grows at a rate of 30 percent. This doubles the total production every three years. At the same time the power of individual stations goes up by 20 percent annually. Whereas today the towers, rotors and drive trains have to handle 5 MW, in about six to eight years they might produce up to fifteen MW. As a consequence, enormous pressure is put on the wind turbine manufacturers, the component suppliers and the operators. And because prototype and field testing is limited by its expense, the design of new turbines demands thorough analysis and simulation. Looking at the critical components of a wind turbine this paper describes advanced design tools which help to anticipate failures, but also assists in optimizing reliability and service life. Development of the software tools has been supported by research activities in many universities.

  6. Failure analysis of turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two 20 MW gas turbines suffered damage in blades belonging to the 2nd. stage of the turbine after 24,000 hours of duty. From research it arises that the fuel used is not quite adequate to guarantee the blade's operating life due to the excess of SO 3 , C and Na existing in combustion gases which cause pitting to the former. Later, the corrosion phenomenon is presented under tension produced by working stress enhanced by pitting where Pb is its main agent. A change of fuel is recommended thus considering the blades will reach the operational life they were designed for. (Author) [es

  7. Low speed turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugol'nikov, V.V.; Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Work of the Kharkov turbine plant on planning and manufacture for nuclear power plants of low-speed (1500 rpm) turbines with a power of 500-1000 MW is described. The selection of a construction diagram for the turbine assembly, determined basically by the presence or absence of parts of average pressure, is considered. Special construction features of the condenser and turbine are described. Turbine K-500, with a rate of 1500 rpm, was calculated for operation in a two-loop nuclear power plant with saturated steam with intermediate separation and two-stage steam regeneration. On the base of this turbine, three models of 1000-MW turbines were developed. The first model has a cylinder of average pressure (TsSD) and a lateral condenser. The second has no TsSD but a low location of the condensers. The third has no TsSD and the condensers are located laterally. Calculations of the heat efficiency of the three types of turbines showed that several advantages are offered by the model with a TsSD. Better aerodynamic properties of the exhaust nozzles and condensers with lateral location allows decreasing the specific heat consumption to 0.5-1% or, at the same power, a 10-20% decrease in cooling water consumption

  8. 12MW Horns Rev experiment[Wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Pena, A; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.; Antoniou, I.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hansen, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Soerensen, P.B. [DONG Energy (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    The 12MW project with the full title '12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore' has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting and operating the instruments on the transformer platform at Horns Rev were overcome by a close collaboration between DONG energy and Risoe National Laboratory DTU. The site is presented. In particular, three tall offshore meteorological masts, up to 70 m tall, provided a useful source of meteorological data for comparison to the remotely sensed wind and turbulence observations. The comparison showed high correlation. The LIDAR and SODAR wind and turbulence observations were collected far beyond the height of the masts (up to 160 m above sea level) and the extended profiles were compared to the logarithmic wind profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported. (au)

  9. An analysis of low frequency noise from large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged, that the noise emitted by the turbines would move down in frequency, and that the contents of low-frequency noise would be enough to cause significant annoyance for the neighbors. The sound emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power......-third-octave-band spectra shows that the relative noise emission is higher in the 63-250 Hz frequency range from turbines above 2 MW than from smaller turbines. The observations confirm a downward shift of the spectrum....

  10. Studies and solutions of steam turbines for nuclear heating power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities of combined generation of heat and electric power and special features of the corresponding equipment for WWER type reactors are considered. Condensing steam turbines with bled steam points and the constructional solution of bled points are presented for heating the network water to 110 0 C, 120 0 C, and 160 0 C, respectively. The dimensions of the low pressure final stage of the turbine are given. Problems concerning condensing and bleeding turbines and combination types of back-pressure and condensing turbines as well as solutions to the design of 250 MW and 500 MW turbines are discussed

  11. Collision risk of birds with modern large wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, K.L.; Akershoek, K.; Schenk, F.; Dijk, van F.; Dirksen, J.

    2009-01-01

    We studied collision rate of birds with modern, large 1.65 MW wind turbines in three wind farms in The Netherlands during three months in autumn and winter. Collision rate, after correction for retrieval and disappearance rate, was 0.08 birds per turbine per day on average (range 0.05-0.19).

  12. The benefits of geographical dispersion of offshore wind turbines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen van, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Summary Wind energy is one of the possible solutions to minimise the greenhouse gas emissions of our electricity production. Therefore, the Dutch government aims to install 6000 MW of wind turbines on the Dutch North Sea. The power output of wind turbine

  13. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    . For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...

  14. Transient stability with grid connection and wind turbine drive-train effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajardo-R, Luis A.; Medina, Aurelio; Iov, Florin

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses transient stability of grid-connected wind turbines, combining grid-connection, wind turbine flexibility, and induction generator stability features. Through a grid-connected 2 MW wind turbine cage-generator, the investigation is conducted to identify the critical clearing time...

  15. Advanced tools for modeling, design and optimization of wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.

    2005-01-01

    As wind turbine technology and control has advanced over the last decade, this has led to a high penetration of wind turbines into the power system. Whether it be for a large wind turbine or an offshore wind farm with hundreds of MW power capacity, the electrical system has become more and more i...

  16. Contradiction-tolerant process algebra with propositional signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous paper, an ACP-style process algebra was proposed in which propositions are used as the visible part of the state of processes and as state conditions under which processes may proceed. This process algebra, called ACPps, is built on classical propositional logic. In this paper, we

  17. Propositional matrices as alternative representation of truth values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considered the subject of representation of truth values in symbolic logic. An alternative representation was given based on the rows and columns properties of matrices, with the operations involving the logical connectives subjected to the laws of algebra of propositions. Matrices of various propositions detailing ...

  18. A condenser for very high power steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardey, Robert.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a condenser for very high power steam turbines under the masonry-block supporting the low-pressure stages of the turbine, that condenser comprises two horizontal aligned water-tube bundles passing through the steam-exhaust sleeves of the low-pressure stages, on both sides of a common inlet water box. The invention can be applied in particular to the 1000-2000 MW turbines of light water nuclear power stations [fr

  19. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  20. IJsselmij realises Europe's largest windfarm (7,5 MW) on the dike of the Noordoostpolder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, H F; Nauta, Y

    1988-01-01

    IJsselmij is an energy distribution company in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The company realized in 1987 a 7.5 MW windfarm along the IJsselmeer-dike north of Urk village. The windfarm, erected in the Noordoostpolder at the inside of the dike, consists of 25 wind turbines with a rotordiameter of 25 meters and a rated power of 300 kW each. The total investment will be 23 million Dutch guilders. Successively the following items with regard to the project are discussed: selection of the location for the wind turbines; construction of the foundations; description of the wind turbines; the electric connection of the wind turbine transformers to the grid; the data-communication system which consists of the wind turbine computer and the central computer in the control building; financial-economical aspects and aspects on sound and birds. Finally technical specifications of the windfarm are given. 6 figs., 1 ref.

  1. Stabilization of gas turbine unit power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolotovskii, I.; Larin, E.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new cycle air preparation unit which helps increasing energy power of gas turbine units (GTU) operating as a part of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units of thermal power stations and energy and water supply systems of industrial enterprises as well as reducing power loss of gas turbine engines of process blowers resulting from variable ambient air temperatures. Installation of GTU power stabilizer at CCGT unit with electric and thermal power of 192 and 163 MW, respectively, has resulted in reduction of produced electrical energy production costs by 2.4% and thermal energy production costs by 1.6% while capital expenditures after installation of this equipment increased insignificantly.

  2. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leble, V.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance.

  3. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leble, V; Barakos, G

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance. (paper)

  4. Impact of modulation strategies on power devices loading for 10 MW multilevel wind power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Isidori, Andrea; Rossi, Fabio Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the control and modulation of a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (3L-NPC) back-to-back full scale converter for a 10 MW direct-drive wind turbine, equipped with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). Emphasis is oriented towards the investigation of the power losses...

  5. Simulation of a MW rotor equipped with vortex generators using CFD and an actuator shape model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of CFD simulations of the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine with and without vortex generators installed on the inboard part of the blades. The vortex generators are modelled by introducing body forces determined using a modified version of the so-called BAY mode...

  6. Turbines, generators and associated plant incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Littler, DJ

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of new 500 MW and 660 MW turbine generator plant in nuclear, coal- and oil-fired power stations has been partly responsible for the increase in generating capacity of the CEGB over the last 30 years. This volume provides a detailed account of experience gained in the development, design, manufacture, operation and testing of large turbine-generators in the last 20 years. With the advance in analytical and computational techniques, the application of this experience to future design and operation of large turbine-generator plant will be of great value to engineers in the indust

  7. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  8. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, I; Pujana, A; Sarmiento, G; Sanz, S; Merino, J M; Tropeano, M; Sun, J; Canosa, T

    2016-01-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB 2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator’s main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator. (paper)

  9. Design Tool for 5-20 MW Direct Drive Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a machine design tool for large (5-10MW) direct drive electrical generator. The aim of the work is to construct a flexible calculation tool that enables the analysis of different ideas and concepts for generator design. The tool is intended for engineers that are involved...... in the design of wind turbine systems. The design tool comprises calculation modules that are kept as independent as possible from each other so that new machine geometries and types can be modelled by reusing, recombining and modifying the different modules. Choice of the most suitable candidates...

  10. Structural Considerations of a 20MW Multi-Rotor Wind Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, P.; Branney, M.

    2014-12-01

    The drive to upscale offshore wind turbines relates especially to possiblereductions in O&M and electrical interconnection costs per MW of installed capacity.Even with best current technologies, designs with rated capacity above about 3 MW are less cost effective exfactory per rated MW(turbine system costs) than smaller machines.Very large offshore wind turbines are thereforejustifiedprimarily by overall offshore project economics. Furthermore, continuing progress in materials and structures has been essential to avoid severe penalties in the power/mass ratio of large multi-MW machines.The multi-rotor concept employs many small rotors to maximise energy capture area withminimum systemvolume. Previous work has indicated that this can enablea very large reduction in the total weight and cost of rotors and drive trains compared to an equivalent large single rotor system.Thus the multi rotor concept may enable rated capacities of 20 MW or more at a single maintenancesite. Establishing the cost benefit of a multi rotor system requires examination of solutions for the support structure and yawing, ensuring aerodynamic losses from rotor interaction are not significant and that overall logistics, with much increased part count (more reliable components) and less consequence of single failuresare favourable. This paper addresses the viability of a support structure in respect of structural concept and likely weight as one necessary step in exploring the potential of the multi rotor concept.

  11. Structural Considerations of a 20MW Multi-Rotor Wind Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, P; Branney, M

    2014-01-01

    The drive to upscale offshore wind turbines relates especially to possiblereductions in O and M and electrical interconnection costs per MW of installed capacity.Even with best current technologies, designs with rated capacity above about 3 MW are less cost effective exfactory per rated MW(turbine system costs) than smaller machines.Very large offshore wind turbines are thereforejustifiedprimarily by overall offshore project economics. Furthermore, continuing progress in materials and structures has been essential to avoid severe penalties in the power/mass ratio of large multi-MW machines.The multi-rotor concept employs many small rotors to maximise energy capture area withminimum systemvolume. Previous work has indicated that this can enablea very large reduction in the total weight and cost of rotors and drive trains compared to an equivalent large single rotor system.Thus the multi rotor concept may enable rated capacities of 20 MW or more at a single maintenancesite. Establishing the cost benefit of a multi rotor system requires examination of solutions for the support structure and yawing, ensuring aerodynamic losses from rotor interaction are not significant and that overall logistics, with much increased part count (more reliable components) and less consequence of single failuresare favourable. This paper addresses the viability of a support structure in respect of structural concept and likely weight as one necessary step in exploring the potential of the multi rotor concept

  12. An parametric investigation into the effect of low induction rotor (LIR) wind turbines on the levelised cost of electricity of a 1 GW offshore wind farm in a North Sea wind climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Quinn; B. Bulder; Gerard Schepers

    In this report, the details of an investigation into the eect of the low induction wind turbines on the Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCoE) in a 1GW oshore wind farm is outlined. The 10 MW INNWIND.EU conventional wind turbine and its low induction variant, the 10 MW AVATAR wind turbine, are

  13. Pre-feasibility study of 80mw onshore wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a pre-feasibility study of 80MW onshore wind farm in the KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) province previously known as NWFP (North West Frontier) Province of Pakistan. The realistic data of wind speed is collected from Laboratory of Meteorology and Climatology (University of the Punjab) to study the feasibility of wind farm. Detailed analysis of wind turbines from four different manufacturers is carried out together with justifications of selecting a particular wind turbine. Issues related to site selection, wind farm civil foundation, recommendations for a particular choice of tower along with environmental effects are presented. Wind data analysis is carried out by using WINDROSE PRO software to determine the resultant direction of wind at the selected site for wind farm layout. The wind distribution at hub height of the wind turbine is calculated and is used to compute annual power production by the wind farm using power curves of the wind turbine. Electrical network integration issues of wind farm to the external grid are studied and the optimum point of connection is proposed. Finally, economic analysis of the whole wind farm project depending upon the LCC (Life Cycle Cost Analysis) is presented and the feasibility of the project from the investor's point of view is identified. The study concludes that the cost per kilowatt hour of electricity generated by this wind power plant will be 10.4 PKR/kWh and the payback period for the whole project is about 11.2 years. (author)

  14. Pre-Feasibility Study of 80MW Onshore Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Almas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a pre-feasibility study of 80MW onshore wind farm in the KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province previously known as NWFP (North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The realistic data of wind speed is collected from Laboratory of Meteorology & Climatology (University of the Punjab to study the feasibility of wind farm. Detailed analysis of wind turbines from four different manufacturers is carried out together with justifications of selecting a particular wind turbine. Issues related to site selection, wind farm civil foundation, recommendations for a particular choice of tower along with environmental effects are presented. Wind data analysis is carried out by using WINDROSE PRO software to determine the resultant direction of wind at the selected site for wind farm layout. The wind distribution at hub height of the wind turbine is calculated and is used to compute annual power production by the wind farm using power curves of the wind turbine. Electrical network integration issues of wind farm to the external grid are studied and the optimum point of connection is proposed. Finally, economic analysis of the whole wind farm project depending upon the LCC (Life Cycle Cost Analysis is presented and the feasibility of the project from the investor?s point of view is identified. The study concludes that the cost per kilowatt hour of electricity generated by this wind power plant will be 10.4 PKR/kWh and the payback period for the whole project is about 11.2 years

  15. Assessment of arrays of in-stream tidal turbines in the Bay of Fundy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Richard; Swan, Amanda; Culina, Joel

    2013-02-28

    Theories of in-stream turbines are adapted to analyse the potential electricity generation and impact of turbine arrays deployed in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy. Linear momentum actuator disc theory (LMADT) is combined with a theory that calculates the flux through the passage to determine both the turbine power and the impact of rows of turbine fences. For realistically small blockage ratios, the theory predicts that extracting 2000-2500 MW of turbine power will result in a reduction in the flow of less than 5 per cent. The theory also suggests that there is little reason to tune the turbines if the blockage ratio remains small. A turbine array model is derived that extends LMADT by using the velocity field from a numerical simulation of the flow through Minas Passage and modelling the turbine wakes. The model calculates the resulting speed of the flow through and around a turbine array, allowing for the sequential positioning of turbines in regions of strongest flow. The model estimates that over 2000 MW of power is possible with only a 2.5 per cent reduction in the flow. If turbines are restricted to depths less than 50 m, the potential power generation is reduced substantially, down to 300 MW. For large turbine arrays, the blockage ratios remain small and the turbines can produce maximum power with a drag coefficient equal to the Betz-limit value.

  16. CEE region offers ample value proposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrova, Helena; Gawenda, Piotr [IHS, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    The Central-Eastern Europe region (CEE) continues to evolve and offer ample value propositions to various types of operators. This area experiences a surge of exploration and production (E and P) interest over the past years. The bulk of the present-day production in the CEE countries is derived from mature oil and gas fields situated in prolific hydrocarbon provinces known since the mid-XIX century (e.g., the Carpathians in Poland and Romania). Yet, these areas still remain the major exploration targets to this day. The authors of the contribution under consideration summarize the E and P activities in the CEE countries during the past 12 to 18 months. This summary shows a fairly heterogeneous petroleum-related exploration picture: some countries have yet to launch their first E and P operations, others maintain a somewhat limited level of activities, while a few states, namely Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Romania, show a very busy contractual and operational shedule. The effords are yielding astounding results in some countries, delivered principally by small-size to medium-size independent explorers, as well as former state entities and a few remaining NOCs.

  17. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  18. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J. [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R.; Nicol, Ch.

    1995-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  19. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R; Nicol, Ch

    1996-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  20. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2011-06-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3-3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low frequencies, and for several of the investigated large turbines, the one-third-octave band with the highest level is at or below 250 Hz. It is thus beyond any doubt that the low-frequency part of the spectrum plays an important role in the noise at the neighbors. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  1. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rinker, Jennifer [Former National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employee

    2018-04-02

    To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor to NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines.

  2. Steam turbine of WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The manufacture was started by Skoda of a saturated steam, 1,000 MW, 3,000 rpm turbine designed for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine provides steam for heating water for district heating, this either with an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at 150/60 degC, or of 570 MW for a two-stage water heating at 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized with respect to the thermal efficiency of the cycle and to the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum through-flow of steam entering the turbine. This makes 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts after shutdowns for 55 to 88 hours and 600 starts after shutdown for 8 hours are envisaged for the entire turbine service life. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  3. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  4. Hydraulic turbines uses for rural electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genta, J.; Nunes, V.

    1994-01-01

    The micro turbines use for electric generation either in autonomous systems or in connection to the national net is presented like an alternative whose viability has been studied in the Agreement taken place between the UTE Administracion Nacional de Usinas y transmisiones Electricas y la Facultad de Ingenieria. The Agreement S tudy for the Installation of Micro turbines that initially considered areas far from the national electric net it extended then to near areas to the same one to analyze the cogeneration alternative. They were considered smaller and bigger powers than 1 MW and up to 5MW. For the whole study range a methodology is described of calculate primary, starting from a minimum of field information that allows a first estimate of viability of a certain place and the selection of the turbine type, for a later detailed study

  5. Proposition 13 and the Future of California's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the California legislature's education-related response to Proposition 13 and analyzes the likely long-range effects of that response--including its effect on revenue stability, expenditure equality, and school governance. (Author/IRT)

  6. Jauch-Piron orthomodular posets and propositional systems: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, C.

    1993-10-01

    We compare the structures obtained via orthomodular posets and via propositional systems, discussing some examples of the links between them. Despite some analogies, the two structures are fundamentally different.

  7. Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logics: Expressiveness, Decidability, and Undecidability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...... that MPNL is decidable in double exponential time and expressively complete with respect to a well-defined subfragment of the two-variable fragment FO2[N, =,...

  8. Gas turbines and operation of gas turbines 2011; Gasturbinen und Gasturbinenbetrieb 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the VGB Conference at 11th and 12th May, 2011 in Offenbach/Main (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The future of high temperature gas turbines in power plants (Konrad Vogeler); (2) Development of reliable thermal barrier coatings for high-loaded turbine and combustor parts (Hans-Peter Bossmann); (3) CCPP Irsching 4 with gas turbine SGT5-8000H, on the way to 60 % CC efficiency (Willibald Fischer); (4) First test results of MAN's new 6 MW gas turbine (Markus Beukenberg); (5) Design characteristics and key thermodynamic parameters of the recuperated 4 MW solar turbines Mercury 50 gas turbines: - Economics and environmental feasibility, - operating experience in combined cycle applications with recuperation (Ulrich Stang); (6) Medium size gas turbines - OEM concept for continued reduction of life cycle costs (Vladimir Navrotsky); (7) Fracture mechanical analysis on fatigue failures of gas turbine components: - Root cause analysis - fracture mechanics - stress corrosion cracking - examples of failure analysis (Peter Verstraete); (8) The effectiveness of blade superalloy reheat treatment (Michael Wood); (9) An innovative combustion technology for high efficient gas turbines (Christian Oliver Paschereit); (10) Damping of thermo-acoustic vibrations in gas turbine combustion chambers (Sermed Sadig); (11) Alstom GT13E2 combustor upgrade for Vattenfalls Berlin Mitte combined heat and power plant (Klaus Doebbeling); (12) Optimisation of air inlet filtration for dust, rain and humidity (Heiko Manstein); (13) Life cycle cost reduction through high efficiency membrane based air intake filters (Helmut Krah); (14) Status and impact of national, European and international standardization on GT plants; GT standardizing status quo? (Gerd Weber); (15) Technical and thermodynamic aspects of compresssed air energy storage (Peter Radgen); (16) Requirements on the gas turbine in the course of time - intelligent OEM-concepts to ensure reliable

  9. 600 MW nuclear power database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ruiding; Chen Guorong; Chen Xianfeng; Zhang Yishu

    1996-01-01

    600 MW Nuclear power database, based on ORACLE 6.0, consists of three parts, i.e. nuclear power plant database, nuclear power position database and nuclear power equipment database. In the database, there are a great deal of technique data and picture of nuclear power, provided by engineering designing units and individual. The database can give help to the designers of nuclear power

  10. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...... optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently......In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed...

  11. Design and numerical study of turbines operating with MDM as working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonowicz, Piotr; Surwiło, Jan; Witanowski, Łukasz; Suchocki, Tomasz K.; Kozanecki, Zbigniew; Lampart, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Design processes and numerical simulations have been presented for a few cases of turbines designated to work in ORC systems. The chosen working fluid isMDM. The considered design configurations include single stage centripetal reaction and centrifugal impulse turbines as well as multistage axial turbines. The power outputs vary from about 75 kW to 1 MW. The flow in single stage turbines is supersonic and requires special design of blades. The internal efficiencies of these configurations exceed 80% which is considered high for these type of machines. The efficiency of axial turbines exceed 90%. Possible turbine optimization directions have been also outlined in the work.

  12. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengxiang X.; Lindner, Jeff S.; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO2 is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO2 hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO2 loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of 11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options

  13. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  14. Multi-fidelity optimization of horizontal axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWilliam, Michael; Zahle, Frederik; Pavese, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical design optimization of wind turbines. Many examples of wind turbine design optimization in literature rely on simplified analysis in some form. This may lead to sub-optimal design, because the optimizer does not see the full fidelity of the problem....... Finally, AMMF was used in full aero-elastic wind turbine rotor design optimization problem based on the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine design. Mixed results were achieved for the final study and further work is needed to find the best configuration for AMMF....

  15. Curvas de arranque de unidades de 100 MW // Starting Graphs of generating units of 100 MW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Rodríguez Olivera

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen las principales consideraciones para los arranques de las unidades de 100 MW en función del estado térmico yse establecen modelos de comportamiento de los principales parámetros a partir de cualquier estado térmico inicial. Paraello se parte de los métodos establecidos en las instrucciones de explotación vigentes y de las curvas de arranques delfabricante. Los modelos de variación de los parámetros fundamentales permiten obtener las curvas de arranque de estasunidades para cualquier estado térmico inicial, lo que reporta una disminución en los tiempos de puesta en servicio, ahorrode combustible en los arranques, el control y evaluación de los arranques y una mayor seguridad durante la explotación delas unidades. Se presenta un software para la obtención de estos gráficos y toda la información de los arranques.Palabras claves: Gráficos de arranque, unidades térmicas, turbinas de vapor.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe principal considerations for the starting of the 100 MW units are exposed in function of thermal state and behavior modelsare established of principal parameters from any thermal initial state are established.The work is based on the performance instructions of stablished methods and starting graphs supply by the manufacturer. Thevariation models of fundamental parameters allow us to obtain the base curves of these units for any thermal initial state. Alsoallow: a diminution in the set times of put on line, saving fuel, evaluation and control of the starting stage and a great securityduring the service of these generating units. A software that allowed to obtain all the starting information and the suitablegraphs is exposed.Key words: Starting graphs, thermal generating units, steam turbine, power plants.

  16. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative...... amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3–3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size...... is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low...

  17. Pelton turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengji

    2016-01-01

    This book concerns the theoretical foundations of hydromechanics of Pelton turbines from the engineering viewpoint. For reference purposes, all relevant flow processes and hydraulic aspects in a Pelton turbine have been analyzed completely and systematically. The analyses especially include the quantification of all possible losses existing in the Pelton turbine and the indication of most available potential for further enhancing the system efficiency. As a guideline the book therefore supports further developments of Pelton turbines with regard to their hydraulic designs and optimizations. It is thus suitable for the development and design engineers as well as those working in the field of turbo machinery. Many laws described in the book can also be directly used to simplify aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or to develop new computational methods. The well-executed examples help better understand the related flow mechanics.

  18. Aerodynamic Optimization of a Wind Turbine Blade Designed for Egypt's Saharan Environment Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Yassin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to optimize the aerodynamic parameters (airfoil chord lengths and twist angles smoothed using Bezier curves of the NREL 5MW wind turbine and a wind turbine designed for site-specific wind conditions to increase the wind turbine's annual energy production (AEP under this site conditions. This optimization process is carried out using a Genetic Algorithm (GA developed in MATLAB and coupled with NREL's FAST Modularization Framework. The results shows that after optimizing the NREL 5MW wind turbine design, the AEP was improved by 5.9% of the baseline design AEP while a site-specific designed wind turbine using Schmitz equations shows 1.2% improvement in AEP. These results shows that optimization of wind turbine blade aerodynamic parameters for site-specific wind conditions leads to improvement in AEP and hence decreasing cost of energy generated by wind turbines.

  19. Five MW Nuclear Heating Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dafang; Dong Duo; Su Qingshan

    1997-01-01

    The 5 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-5) developed and designed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) has been operated for four winter seasons since 1989. During the time of commissioning and operation a number of experiments including self-stability, self-regulation, and simulation of ATWS etc. were carried out. Some operating experiences such as water chemistry, radiation protection and environmental impacts and so on were also obtained at the same time. All of these results demonstrate the design of the NHR-5 is successful. (author). 9 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Five MW Nuclear Heating Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafang, Zhang; Duo, Dong; Qingshan, Su [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsingua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1997-09-01

    The 5 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-5) developed and designed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) has been operated for four winter seasons since 1989. During the time of commissioning and operation a number of experiments including self-stability, self-regulation, and simulation of ATWS etc. were carried out. Some operating experiences such as water chemistry, radiation protection and environmental impacts and so on were also obtained at the same time. All of these results demonstrate the design of the NHR-5 is successful. (author). 9 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs.

  1. Energy and Exergy Analysis of 210 MW Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhib Ali Rajper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, thermodynamic analysis of 210 MW dual-fire, subcritical, reheat steam power plant, situated near Jamshoro, Pakistan has been performed. Firstly, the plant is modeled by EES (Engineering Equation Solver software. Moreover; a parametric study is performed to assess the impacts of various operating parameters on the performance. The net power output, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are considered as performance parameters of the plant whereas, condenser pressure, main steam pressure and main steam temperature are nominated as operating parameters. According to the results, the net power output, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are determined as 186.5 MW, 31.37% and 30.41% respectively, under design operating conditions. The condenser contributed a major share in the total energy loss i.e. 280 MW (68.7% followed by boiler with 89 MW (21.8%. The major exergy destructing area is found in the boiler with 350 MW (82.11% of the total exergy destruction followed by turbine with 43.1 MW (10.12% and condenser 12 MW (5.74 %. According to the parametric study, variation in operating parameters had great influence on the plant performance

  2. A MEMS turbine prototype for respiration harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreke, U.; Habibiabad, S.; Azgin, K.; Beyaz, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The design, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a MEMS-scale turbine prototype is reported. The turbine is designed for integration into a respiration harvester that can convert normal human breathing into electrical power through electromagnetic induction. The device measures 10 mm in radius, and employs 12 blades located around the turbine periphery along with ball bearings around the center. Finite element simulations showed that an average torque of 3.07 μNm is induced at 12 lpm airflow rate, which lies in normal breathing levels. The turbine and a test package were manufactured using CNC milling on PMMA. Tests were performed at respiration flow rates between 5-25 lpm. The highest rotational speed was measured to be 9.84 krpm at 25 lpm, resulting in 8.96 mbar pressure drop across the device and 370 mW actuation power.

  3. Gas Turbines: ''low NOx'' technologies at EGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    For more than 15 years, European Gas Turbines (EGT - GEC Alsthom Group) has gained an important know-how culture and can use its rich feedback experience in the domain of gas turbine emissions. The EGT gas turbine units equipped with denitrogenation technologies cover the 4 to 226 MW power range and cumulate more than 1.7 hours of functioning in the different existing installations in the world. This paper describes the economical and environmental interests of gas turbines for power production and the combustion technologies developed by EGT to reduce the NOx emissions. The selective catalytic reduction technique is the only available secondary technique with can allow NOx and CO emissions lower than 10 ppm. Other technologies involving diluent injection (water, water-fuel mixture, vapor..) are also described and were developed in several countries to reduce the emission of these pollutants. (J.S.)

  4. Development of 52 inch last stage blade for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, Yoshiki; Harada, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Eiichiro

    1985-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the last stage blades with 1320 mm length for a 1800 rpm LP turbine, and the verification by rotating vibration test using actual blades was finished, thus the blades were completed. In a nuclear power plant with an A-PWR of 3800 MW thermal output, the 1350 MW steam turbine has one HP turbine and three LP turbines coupled in tandem, and the optimum last stage blades for the LP turbines became the 1320 mm blades. The completion of these blades largely contributes to the improvement of thermal efficiency and the increase of generator output in large nuclear power plants, and has the possibility to decrease three LP turbines to two in 900 MW plants, which reduces the construction cost. The velocity energy of steam coming out of last stage blades is abandoned as exhaust loss in a condenser, which is the largest loss in a turbine. The increase of exhaust area using long blades reduces this loss. The economy of the 1320 mm blades, the features of the 1320 mm blades, the aerodynamic design and its verification, the prevention of the erosion of the 1320 mm blades due to wet steam, the strength design, the anti-vibration design and its verification, and the CAD/CAM system are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. A 1500-MW(e) HTGR nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinson, R.C.; Hornbuckle, J.D.; Wilson, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design of a 1500-MW(e) HTGR nuclear generating station is described. The design concept was developed under a three-party arrangement among General Atomic Company as nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) supplier, Bechtel Power Corporation as engineer-constructors of the balance of plant (BOP), and Southern California Edison Company as a potential utility user. A typical site in the lower Mojave Desert in southeastern California was assumed for the purpose of establishing the basic site criteria. Various alternative steam cycles, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) and component arrangements, fuel-handling concepts, and BOP layouts were developed and investigated in a programme designed to lead to an economic plant design. The paper describes the NSSS and BOP designs, the general plant arrangement and a description of the site and its unique characteristics. The elements of the design are: the use of four steam generators that are twice the capacity of GA's steam generators for its 770-MW(e) and 1100-MW(e) units; the rearrangement of steam and feedwater piping and support within the PCRV; the elimination of the PCRV star foundation to reduce the overall height of the containment building as well as of the PCRV; a revised fuel-handling concept which permits the use of a simplified, grade-level fuel storage pool; a plant arrangement that permits a substantial reduction in the penetration structure around the containment while still minimizing the lengths of cable and piping runs; and the use of two tandem-compound turbine generators. Plant design bases are discussed, and events leading to the changes in concept from the reference 8-loop PCRV 1500-MW(e) HTGR unit are described. (author)

  6. Load mitigation of unbalanced wind turbines using PI-R individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the load mitigation of unbalanced wind turbines, including balanced and unbalanced loads. Regarding the wind turbine load reduction, it has been shown that individual pitch control (IPC) is more promising in comparison with collective pitch control. However, wind turbine......) controller and two resonant (R) compensators is presented. The PI-R regulator is implemented in the hub reference frame to reduce both the balanced and unbalanced loads of the turbine. The wind turbine code FAST (fatigue, aerodynamics, structures and turbulence) is used for the wind turbine load modelling....... The simulations are conducted on the NREL upwind 1.5 MW wind turbine model. Elimination of both the balanced and unbalanced loads of the wind turbine has been achieved, so that PI-R IPC is demonstrated as an effective means for load mitigation of unbalanced wind turbines....

  7. Energy, Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: Five Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sorrell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances five linked and controversial propositions that have both deep historical roots and urgent contemporary relevance. These are: (a the rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements are significant and limit the potential for decoupling energy consumption from economic growth; (b the contribution of energy to productivity improvements and economic growth has been greatly underestimated; (c the pursuit of improved efficiency needs to be complemented by an ethic of sufficiency; (d sustainability is incompatible with continued economic growth in rich countries; and (e a zero-growth economy is incompatible with a fractional reserve banking system. These propositions run counter to conventional wisdom and each highlights either a "blind spot" or "taboo subject" that deserves closer scrutiny. While accepting one proposition reinforces the case for accepting the next, the former is neither necessary nor sufficient for the latter.

  8. Reasoning about logical propositions and success in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piburn, Michael D.

    1990-12-01

    Students display a number of misconceptions when asked to reason about logical propositions. Rather than being random, these misconceptions are stereotypic, and relate to age, ability, and success in science. The grades in science achieved by tenth-grade general science students from two parochial single-sex schools in Australia correlated with their scores on the Propositional Logic Test. The students' ability level was consistently related to the pattern of errors they committed on that measure. Mean scores were lowest on a subtest of ability to use the biconditional and implication, higher on the disjunction, and highest on the conjunction. Success in science was predicted most strongly by the disjunction and biconditional subtests. Knowledge of the way in which a person reasons about logical propositions provides additional insights into the transformations information is subjected to as it is integrated into mental schemata.

  9. Gas-turbine industry prepares to become base-load supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Gas-turbine technology has entered a new era; the simple-cycle units of yesterday are making room for new, highly sophisticated combined-cycle units. In July 1949, the first U.S. commercial power generation gas turbine was installed at Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co.'s Belle Isle Station. This unit was a General Electric (GE) MS3000 heavy-duty gas turbine rated at 3,5000 kW. In 1994, more than 900 gas turbines totaling over 33,000 MW were ordered worldwide, according to Power-Data Group, LaJolla, Calif. These figures show just how far gas turbines have come in less than 50 years. Today, simple-cycle units rated at up to 150 MW (with efficiencies around 35 percent) and combined-cycle units rated at over 200 MW (approaching 60-percent efficiency) are up and running

  10. An engineering approach to an integrated value proposition design framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Der Merwe, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous problems with product quality and time-to-market launches can be traced back to how the product lifecycle process is managed within the organisation. This article provides insight into how an integrated value proposition design framework shifts product lifecycle management from a product-centric view to a customer-centric view, through the use of good engineering practices as found in the systems engineering discipline. Combining this with methods and tools such as the Refined Kano model, Blue Ocean strategy, and the Generalised Bass model enables the organisation to enhance product and service quality while reducing the time-to-market for new value proposition launches.

  11. Creating Value Propositions Through Configuration of Knowledge and Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    Service providers seek to manage different customer segments using different value propositions. In this paper we investigate how configuring knowledge and resources within organizations can facilitate the creation of value propositions for different customers. A qualitative multiple case study...... is organized around two projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings indicate that, no matter how complex or simple a project is, there is a need for PR person(s) to take care of marketing and sales and to make appointments with the customers, who valued most the KIBS provider...

  12. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  13. Hywind floating wind turbine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crome, Tim

    2010-07-01

    The Hywind floating wind turbine concept was developed by StatoilHydro. Technip was awarded the contract for engineering, fabrication and installation of a demonstration unit in May 2008 and the completed wind turbine was installed mid June 2009 at the west coast of Norway on 220 m water depth. The demonstration unit will generate 2,3 MW and is equipped with instrumentation for monitoring mooring forces, strains and motions. The fabrication of the SPAR type steel substructure was performed at Technip Offshore Finland facilities in Pori and was towed horizontally from Finland to Norway, where it was upended to a vertical position by water filling. The completed floating wind turbine was towed vertically to the final location west of Karmoey and connected to the pre-installed three legged anchor system using an Anchor Handling Tug type vessel. The wind turbine test period is scheduled to start in September 2009. Statoil will monitor the performance of the system for two years before decision will be taken for further development. The paper will present the main challenges and lessons learned through design, fabrication and installation of this first of its kind structure. Main emphasis will be on the special challenges experienced for this floating, catenary moored, slender unit which is highly exposed for wind induced forces in addition to current and waves in hostile North Sea environments. (Author)

  14. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  15. Heat extraction from turbines of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two design are described of SKODA extraction turbines for Czechoslovak nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors. 220 MW steam turbines were originally designed as pure condensation turbines with uncontrolled steam extraction. Optimal ways are now being sought for their use for heating hot water for district heating. For district heating of the town of Trnava, the nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice will provide a two-step heating of water from 70 to 120 degC with a heat supply of 60 MW th from one turbine unit. The ratio of obtained heat power to lost electric power is 5.08. Investigations showed the possibility of extracting 85 MW th of heat from uncontrolled steam extraction, this at three-step water heating from 60 to 145 degC, the ratio of gained and lost power being 7.14. Information is presented on the SKODA 220 MW turbine with steam extraction for heat supply purposes and on the 1000 MW turbine with 893 MW th heat extraction. The specifications of both types are given. (Pu)

  16. Steam turbine generators for Sizewell 'B' nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, J.A.; Muscroft, J.

    1990-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle of the modern 3000 r/min steam turbine as applied at Sizewell 'B' is presented. Review is made of the factors affecting thermal efficiency including the special nature of the wet steam cycle and the use of moisture separation and steam reheating. Consideration is given to the optimization of the machine and cycle parameters, including particular attention to reheating and to the provision of feedheating, in order to achieve a high overall level of performance. A modular design approach has made available a family of machines suitable for the output range 600-1300 MW. The constructional features of the 630 MW Sizewell 'B' turbine generators from this range are described in detail. The importance of service experience with wet steam turbines and its influence on the design of modern turbines for pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications is discussed. (author)

  17. A literature survey on gas turbines materials - recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    The 9001F gas turbine (rating of about 200 MW) is one of the most recent versions of the 9000 series, benefitting from the developments and technological advances, notably in regard to structural materials. In the framework of the EDF gas turbine engineering and construction program, evaluating the nature of these developments can provide guidance in appraising the construction materials proposed by other manufacturers. After a brief comparison between the Gennevilliers 9001F engine and the 85 MW 9000B gas turbine at Bouchain, ordered by EDF in 1971, various research aspects for optimizing gas turbine refractory material mechanical properties and corrosion resistance (superalloys, monolithic ceramics and composite ceramics) are presented; present current and future trends for high power equipment of this type are also discussed

  18. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  19. Site specific optimization of wind turbines energy cost: Iterative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei Mirghaed, Mohammad; Roshandel, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization model of wind turbine parameters plus rectangular farm layout is developed. • Results show that levelized cost for single turbine fluctuates between 46.6 and 54.5 $/MW h. • Modeling results for two specific farms reported optimal sizing and farm layout. • Results show that levelized cost of the wind farms fluctuates between 45.8 and 67.2 $/MW h. - Abstract: The present study was aimed at developing a model to optimize the sizing parameters and farm layout of wind turbines according to the wind resource and economic aspects. The proposed model, including aerodynamic, economic and optimization sub-models, is used to achieve minimum levelized cost of electricity. The blade element momentum theory is utilized for aerodynamic modeling of pitch-regulated horizontal axis wind turbines. Also, a comprehensive cost model including capital costs of all turbine components is considered. An iterative approach is used to develop the optimization model. The modeling results are presented for three potential regions in Iran: Khaf, Ahar and Manjil. The optimum configurations and sizing for a single turbine with minimum levelized cost of electricity are presented. The optimal cost of energy for one turbine is calculated about 46.7, 54.5 and 46.6 dollars per MW h in the studied sites, respectively. In addition, optimal size of turbines, annual electricity production, capital cost, and wind farm layout for two different rectangular and square shaped farms in the proposed areas have been recognized. According to the results, optimal system configuration corresponds to minimum levelized cost of electricity about 45.8 to 67.2 dollars per MW h in the studied wind farms

  20. The HPT Value Proposition in the Larger Improvement Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Guy W.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of human performance technology (HPT) emphasizes the key variable, which is the human variable. Highlights include the Ishikawa Diagram; human performance as one variable of process performance; collaborating with other improvement approaches; value propositions; and benefits to stakeholders, including real return on investments. (LRW)

  1. Education Hangs in Balance: Financing after Proposition 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1979-01-01

    In light of the passage of Proposition 13 in California, which requires rethinking of the state's school financing structure, the author assesses the advantages and disadvantages of complete state financing v retaining some proportion of the revenue function at the local level. (Author/SJL)

  2. Automated Proposition Density Analysis for Discourse in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Davida; Greenhouse, Joel; Hou, Kaiyue; Russell, G. Austin; Cai, Xizhen; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey; MacWhinney, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates how proposition density can differentiate between persons with aphasia (PWA) and individuals in a control group, as well as among subtypes of aphasia, on the basis of procedural discourse and personal narratives collected from large samples of participants. Method: Participants were 195 PWA and 168 individuals in a…

  3. A perceptron network theorem prover for the propositional calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaers, M.F.J.

    In this paper a short introduction to neural networks and a design for a perceptron network theorem prover for the propositional calculus are presented. The theorem prover is a representation of a variant of the semantic tableau method, called the parallel tableau method, by a network of

  4. Appel à propositions pour le concours de 2018 du Programme ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 nov. 2017 ... Zipline uses drone technology to save lives. Sarah Farhat / Banque mondiale. Le CRDI, l'Israel Science Foundation, la Fondation Azrieli et les Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada annoncent l'appel de propositions pour la quatrième ronde du Programme conjoint canado-israélien de recherche en ...

  5. Combined heat and power plants with parallel tandem steam turbines; Smaaskalig kraftvaerme med parallellkopplade tandemturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwall, Pontus; Norstroem, Urban; Pettersson, Camilla; Oesterlin, Erik

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the technical and economical conditions for a concept with parallel coupled tandem turbines in small scale combined heat and power plants fired with bio-fuel and waste. Performance and heat production costs at varying electricity prices for the concept with two smaller tandem coupled steam turbines has been compared to the traditional concept with one single multi-staged turbine. Three different types of plants have been investigated: - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th}; - Waste fired CHP plant with thermal capacity of 20 MW{sub th}; - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 25 MW{sub th}. The simple steam turbines (Curtis turbines) used in the tandem arrangement has an isentropic efficiency of about 49 to 53% compared to the multi-staged steam turbines with isentropic efficiency in the range of 59% to 81%. The lower isentropic efficiency for the single staged turbines is to some extent compensated at partial load when one of the two turbines can be shut down leading to better operational conditions for the one still in operation. For concepts with saturated steam at partial load below 50% the tandem arrangements presents higher electricity efficiency than the conventional single turbine alternative. The difference in annual production of electricity is therefore less than the difference in isentropic efficiency for the two concepts. Production of electricity is between 2% and 42% lower for the tandem arrangements in this study. Investment costs for the turbine island has been calculated for the two turbine concepts and when the costs for turbines, generator, power transmission, condensing system, piping system, buildings, assembling, commissioning and engineering has been added the sum is about the same for the two concepts. For the bio-fuelled plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th} the turbine island amount to about 10-12 MSEK and about 13-15 MSEK for the waste fired plant with a thermal capacity of 20 MW

  6. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2003-10-01

    Rolls-Royce Corporation has completed a cooperative agreement under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FC21-96MC33066 in support of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program to stimulate industrial power generation markets. This DOE contract was performed during the period of October 1995 to December 2002. This final technical report, which is a program deliverable, describes all associated results obtained during Phases 3A and 3B of the contract. Rolls-Royce Corporation (formerly Allison Engine Company) initially focused on the design and development of a 10-megawatt (MW) high-efficiency industrial gas turbine engine/package concept (termed the 701-K) to meet the specific goals of the ATS program, which included single digit NOx emissions, increased plant efficiency, fuel flexibility, and reduced cost of power (i.e., $/kW). While a detailed design effort and associated component development were successfully accomplished for the 701-K engine, capable of achieving the stated ATS program goals, in 1999 Rolls-Royce changed its focus to developing advanced component technologies for product insertion that would modernize the current fleet of 501-K and 601-K industrial gas turbines. This effort would also help to establish commercial venues for suppliers and designers and assist in involving future advanced technologies in the field of gas turbine engine development. This strategy change was partly driven by the market requirements that suggested a low demand for a 10-MW aeroderivative industrial gas turbine, a change in corporate strategy for aeroderivative gas turbine engine development initiatives, and a consensus that a better return on investment (ROI) could be achieved under the ATS contract by focusing on product improvements and technology insertion for the existing Rolls-Royce small engine industrial gas turbine fleet.

  7. Topology and Technology Survey on Medium Voltage Power Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal; Teodorescu, Remus; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Based on state-of-the-art within generator and power converter designs, this paper presents and justifies the most promising converter circuitries and concepts for future 10 MW wind turbines. In order to reduce losses and increase efficiency of the turbine, it is assumed that the bulky step...... by various circuit configurations of previously defined power modules....

  8. Design and verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C.; Gaunaa, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for MW-size wind turbines with variable speed and pitch control. Seven airfoils were designed with thickness-to-chord ratios between 15% and 53% to cover the entire span of a wind turbine blade. The airfoils...

  9. Towards an Industrial Manufactured Morphing Trailing Edge Flap System for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Bergami, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Several numerical studies in the past 10 years have shown big potentials for load reduction on MW turbines using distributed control for alleviation of the fluctuating loads along the blade span. However, the requirements by the wind turbine industry of robust actuator solutions where the stronge...

  10. Damping Estimation of a Prototype Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Identified by Full Scale Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    -3.0 MW offshore wind turbine installed on a prototype bucket foundation. The foundation and the turbine tower are equipped with a monitoring system with 15 Kinemetrics force balance accelerometers and a Digitexx acquisition system. Using free vibration decays from “rotor-stop” tests and operational modal...

  11. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

  12. Feasibility study on rehabilitation of MEPE gas turbine power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Myanmar generates majority of the whole electric power by using thermal power plants consisting of single gas turbines, and gas and steam composite turbines. However, because of chronic power shortage and fund unavailability, the major gas turbines are being operated in quite inadequate environment. As a result, reduction in power generation efficiency has become manifest due to aged deterioration, increasing the quantity of CO2 emission. The present project is, in order to link it to the 'Clean Development Mechanism' being carried out with developing countries, and placing Tharkayta Power Plant as the object, intended to comprehensively discuss a rehabilitation program to renew the existing gas turbines with advanced ones, in relation with feasibility of the project implementation including the effect of CO2 emission reduction, profitability, and proliferation effects. A prospect was acquired that, by replacing the gas turbines alone with 25-MW class gas turbines, the plant output will increase to 97.2 MW (78.5 MW in the existing facilities) and the plant efficiency to 43.3% (36.5% in the existing facilities). The energy saving effect during a period of 40 years would be 708,000 (toe) as heat consumption converted to crude oil, and the CO2 emission reducing effect would be 2,160,000 (t-CO2), respectively. (NEDO)

  13. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines – additional data and assessment of new Danish regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    turbines in Denmark. In this study, the data material has been increased to include more data on noise from modern production turbines up to 5 MW. In addition, the new Danish regulations are assessed. The previous result that the relative amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (> 2 MW...... frequencies, and for several of the investigated large turbines, the one-third-octave band with the highest level is at or below 250 Hz. It is thus beyond any doubt that the low-frequency part of the spectrum plays an important role in the noise at the neighbors. The new Danish regulation is based...

  14. Improvement of Candu-1000 MW(e) power cycle by moderator heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    Four different moderator heat recovery circuits are proposed for CANDU-1000 MW(e) reactors. The proposed circuits utilize all, or part, of the 155 MW(th) moderator heat load (at 70 0 C moderator outlet temperature from calandria) to the first stage of the feed water heating system. An economics study was carried out and indicated that the direct circulation of feed water through the moderator heat exchanger (with full heat recovery) is the most economical scheme. For this scheme the saved steam from the turbine extraction was found to produce additional electric power of 8 MW(e). This additional power represents a 0.7% increase in the plants nominal electric output. The outstanding features and advantages of the selected scheme are also presented. (author)

  15. Risk, innovation and change : design propositions for implementing risk management in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staveren, Martinus Theodorus

    2009-01-01

    This Ph.D. research generated unique design propositions for implementing existing risk management methodologies in organizations. The resulting design propositions incorporate a synthesis of risk management, innovation management and change management. True implementation of risk management is

  16. Conceptual designs for 100-MW space radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A description and comparison of heat rejection systems for multimegawatt space-based power supplies is given. Current concepts are described, and through a common performance parameter, these are compared with three advanced radiator concepts. The comparison is based on a power system that rejects 100 MW of heat while generating 10 MW of electrical power

  17. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon de los Santos, G.

    2009-10-01

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  18. Arabelle: The most powerful steam turbine in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, F.; Deloroix, V.

    1998-01-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1,500 MW turbine was started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It will reach full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1,500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR program. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work which started in the 1980s. It benefits from GEC ALSTHOM's considerable experience in the field of nuclear turbines: 143 machines with a total power output of 100,000 MW and more than ten million hours of operation. It should be remembered that the first 1,000 MW unit for a PWR plant was connected at Fessenheim in 1977, and since then the different EDF plants have been equipped with 58 GEC ALSTHOM turbines, ranging from 1,000 MW to 1,350 MW, this providing the company with a vast amount of information. The process which led to a new design for ARABELLE was based on: Feedback of service experience from previous machines; this provides precious learning material with a view to improving the performance of operating equipment. Research and development work resulting in significant technical advances which could then be integrated into the design of a new generation of turbines. Taking account of the major concerns of the customer-user: Electricite de France (EDF): Improved reliability and operating availability, increased efficiency, reduced investment and maintenance costs

  19. Pengembangan Value Proposition Dalam Penetapan Strategi Pemasaran (Studi Kasus Terhadap Mobil Toyota Agya Di Kota Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Andaru, Rizka Kurnia

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to knowing value proposition that is offered on Toyota Agya, knowing consumer perceptions about value proposition of toyota agya in Malang City, and knowing the development of value proposition in determining the marketing strategy at Toyota Agya in Malang City. The data source of research were informant, documents, places and events. Analysis of the data used interactive data analysis. The results showed that 11 elements of Value proposition according to Alexander Osterwal...

  20. Conceptual design and costs of large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, E.; Harrison, R.; Cockerill, T.T.; Snel, H.

    1996-01-01

    The development of large wind turbines, with capacities in excess of 1 MW is reviewed. Despite statistical evidence to the contrary, there are some reasons to be optimistic that further development will render large machines economic for commercial uses. The direction in which such development should proceed is unclear, however. A cost model, founded on the principles of conceptual design, with the objective of evaluating large wind turbine design options is described. Use of the model allows conclusions to be drawn regarding the potential for development of certain large wind turbine configurations. (author)

  1. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Controller (MPC) developed is based on a model with individual blade pitching to utilize the LIDAR measurements. The MPC must also maintain a given power reference while satisfying a set of actuator constraints. The designed controller was tested on a 5 MW wind turbine in the FAST simulator and compared......Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...

  2. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  3. Site-optimization of wind turbine generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.J. de; Thillerup, J. [Nordtank Energy Group, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Danish Company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2500 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 450 MW. The opening up of new and widely divergent markets has demanded an extremely flexible approach towards wind turbine construction. The Nordtank product range has expanded considerable in recent years, with the main objective to develop wind energy conversion machines that can run profitable in any given case. This paper will describe site optimization of Nordtank wind turbines. Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/750 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Through this flexible design, the 500/750 turbine line can adjust the rotor diameter, tower height and many other components to optimally fit the turbine to each specific project. This design philosophy will be illustrated with some case histories of recently completed projects.

  4. Time program using in automatization of steam turbines start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.; Melamed, A.D.

    Examples and arguments for developing time programs of changing basic parameters of automated start-up of TPP and NPP high-power steam turbines are considered. Basic parameters subject to controlled changing at automatization of turbine start-up are rotation frequency, loading and temperature of steam supplied to the turbine. Principle facility schemes of program regulation of steam temperature at the start-up are presented. The facility scheme of loading the NPP wet steam turbine is given. The principles of developing time programs, of changing basic parameters of automated start-up enable realizing transient processes close to theoretically optimum processes at arbitrary prestart-up state of the turbine by means of rather simple autatic facilities. In particular, for automated temperature increase of steam supplied to the turbine of TES power units and AES turbine loading, it is advisable to use programs in the form of linear dependence of velocity of changing the controlled parameter on the given value, the initial level, from which the parameter increase with a regulated velocity is realized, is given in the form of analogue dependence on the turbine prestart-up state. The programs described and the schemes of their realization have been approved at the automatization of 300 MW power unit starts up with the K-300-240 turbine and K-220-44 turbine as well as used when creating control system for turbines of 500 MW and higher for designed TPP and NPP power units

  5. "Place" as an integrating concept in natural resource politics: propositions for a social science research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony S. Cheng; Linda E. Kruger; Steven E. Daniels

    2003-01-01

    This article lays out six propositions centering on a relationship between peopleplace connections and strategic behavior in natural resource politics. The first two propositions suggest a strong and direct connection between self-identity, place, and how individuals perceive and value the environment. The third, fourth, and fifth propositions tie together social group...

  6. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which

  7. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, M.

    1983-01-01

    A three-cylinder 220 MW saturated steam turbine was developed for WWER reactors by the Skoda concern. Twenty four of these turbines are currently in operation, in production or have been ordered. A 1000 MW four-cylinder turbine is being developed. The disign of the turbines has had to overcome difficulties connected with the unfavourable effects of wet steam at extreme power values. Great attention had to be devoted to the aerodynamics of control valves and to the prevention of flow separation areas. The problem of corrosion-erosion in guide wheels and the high pressure section was resolved by the use of ferritic stainless steels. For the low pressure section it was necessary to separate the moisture and to reheat the steam in the separator-reheater. Difficulties caused by the generation of wet steam in the low pressure section by spontaneous condensation were removed. Also limited was the erosion caused by droplets resulting from the disintegration of water films on the trailing edges. (A.K.)

  8. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-06

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences.

  9. Turbine oil change - the smart way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.; Prenzel, H.; Ertelt, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Unterweser (KKU) was commissioned in 1978. The gross installed capacity amounts to 1,410 MW. Prior to commissioning the nuclear power plant in 1978, the turbine was filled with fresh oil. This turbine oil did not display any significant ageing or operational restrictions in the following 15 years. Based on our experience, we believe that this behaviour is typical for all initial fillings in new plants. Since the beginning of the 90ies, the contamination of the entire turbine cycle has increased due to the precipitation of oil ageing products and additives decomposed by oxygen. Therefore, the initial filling was replaced by a new oil in 1994, without measures to remove ageing products or additive deposits from the oil cycle. Therefore, it is not surprising that after merely four years this oil filling displayed the same properties as the first filling after 15 years. As a consequence, another oil change was urgently required in 1999. (orig.) [de

  10. Control system for NPP powerfull turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, V.D.; Rozhanskij, V.E.; Rokhlenko, V.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for NPP 1000 MW turbines safety is described. The turbine safety system has a hydraulic drive to actuate in case of increasipg of rotational speed of a turbine rotor and an electrohydraulic drce to operate in case of pressure reduction in the lubrication system, axial displacement deviation, etc. The system is highly reliable due to application of a safety system without slide valves and long-term operation of hydraulic controls in guarding conditions; the system epsures multifunctional control with high accuracy and speed due to application of the intricate electronic part, high speed of response with a limited use of high pressure oil due to application of two-pressure pumps, pneumohydraulic accumulators and oil discharge valves. Steady-state serviceability of the system is maintained by devices for valve cooling dawn. A shockless change from electrohydraulic to hydraulic control channels is provided

  11. Nonlinear 3D calculations of turbine blade impact on turbine cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, B.; Adamik, V.; Buchar, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper present the approach used at the VUJE institute for the evaluation of a ruptured blade impact on the current protection cover of a SKODA 220 MW turbine. Firstly, it briefly describes experiments (Hopkinson-Davies split bar facility, Taylor tests) and numerical simulations used to obtain realistic material parameters needed for the Cowper- Symonds material model that is implemented in the code LS-DYNA3D. Then, numerical simulations, by using the code, of the ruptured blade impact on various protection barriers are presented. These simulations make it possible to find an optimal solution for a new turbine protection cover. (author)

  12. Moving Matters of Contemporary Art: Three New Materialist Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katve-Kaisa Kontturi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fashioning a new materialist agenda, this essay calls for sensitivity to subtly moving matters present in the processes of making and encountering art. Otherwise, it claims, we will end up with seriously restricted understandings of art’s capabilities. Indeed, we might even miss art’s most inventive and moving offering: how it can change our thinking-feeling. In this essay, I suggest methods of relating to art in more bodily and material terms, and propose concepts that help to point out the materiality of encountering and making art. To make sense of how a new materialist approach might work in the case of contemporary art, I will offer three propositions that revolve around ontology, ethics and politics. These propositions arise from participation with art and are probed and provoked by a close relation to art.

  13. Modeling non-monotonic properties under propositional argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Lin, Zuoquan

    2013-03-01

    In the field of knowledge representation, argumentation is usually considered as an abstract framework for nonclassical logic. In this paper, however, we'd like to present a propositional argumentation framework, which can be used to closer simulate a real-world argumentation. We thereby argue that under a dialectical argumentation game, we can allow non-monotonic reasoning even under classical logic. We introduce two methods together for gaining nonmonotonicity, one by giving plausibility for arguments, the other by adding "exceptions" which is similar to defaults. Furthermore, we will give out an alternative definition for propositional argumentation using argumentative models, which is highly related to the previous reasoning method, but with a simple algorithm for calculation.

  14. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine....... This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor...

  15. Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca, Cristian; Stan, Ana-Irina; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2010-01-01

    Direct Torque Control (DTC) and Field Oriented Control (FOC) are the most dominant control strategies used in generators for wind turbines. In this paper both control methods were implemented on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The variable speed wind turbine with full scale power...... converter topology was chosen for design. Parameters from a 2 MW wind turbine were used for system modeling. All the components of the wind turbine system (WTS), except the DC-link and the grid site converter were implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The pitch controller was used to limit the output power...... produced by the turbine. DTC and FOC strategies, using SVM were used to control the generator rotor speed. The performance of the two control strategies were compared after different tests have been carried out....

  16. Optimization design of blade shapes for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2010-01-01

    For the optimization design of wind turbines, the new normal and tangential induced factors of wind turbines are given considering the tip loss of the normal and tangential forces based on the blade element momentum theory and traditional aerodynamic model. The cost model of the wind turbines...... and the optimization design model are developed. In the optimization model, the objective is the minimum cost of energy and the design variables are the chord length, twist angle and the relative thickness. Finally, the optimization is carried out for a 2 MW blade by using this optimization design model....... The performance of blades is validated through the comparison and analysis of the results. The reduced cost shows that the optimization model is good enough for the design of wind turbines. The results give a proof for the design and research on the blades of large scale wind turbines and also establish...

  17. Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modalities...... over interval relations. All together, we show that PNL form a quite expressive and nearly maximal decidable fragment of Halpern–Shoham’s interval logic HS....

  18. Simulating non-prenex cuts in quantified propositional calculus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil; Nguyen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2011), s. 524-532 ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : proof complexity * prenex cuts * quantified propositional calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.496, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/malq.201020093/abstract

  19. Jan Dullaert of Ghent on the Foundations of Propositional Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2017), s. 273-306 ISSN 0042-7543 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37038G Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Jan Dullaert of Ghent * the circle of John Mair * scholastic logic * propositional logic * Bradwardine’s principle * infinite expressions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  20. On Formalization of the Concept of Value Proposition

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Winkler; Vladimír Dosoudil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an original description and a semi-formal definition of the concept of a value proposition, which has been so far used in service science rather intuitively. Our approach is based on utility functions and conceptual modelling techniques. The proposed semi-formalization can be exploited to describe services from the point of view of their (potential) utility for their clients. This description can be used especially to organize a service portfolio in an enterprise in a bett...

  1. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  2. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomy of a value proposition for laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christopher P; St John, Andrew

    2014-09-25

    Value is now becoming a key driver in the ongoing development of healthcare delivery; key facets include the identification of what is valuable and how that value can be identified, leveraged, and delivered. The concept of a value proposition is widely used in business but can be used in healthcare as a statement of the benefits, costs and value that an organization can deliver to its customers. The foundation of this statement in laboratory medicine is evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness, not only for the patient, but also for other stakeholders involved in the delivery of healthcare, e.g., the carer, service provider, commissioner, purchaser, and the supplier of the test or device, as well as society as a whole. However the value of any laboratory medicine investigation is only achieved if the output (the test result(s)), is acted upon by the initiator of the investigation. Laboratory medicine is one part of a complex intervention, and so the value proposition should encompass the breadth of that intervention - from addressing the unmet need through the generation of clinical, operational and economic outcomes. A value proposition in laboratory medicine is central to successful innovation and quality improvement in healthcare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulations of wind turbine rotor with vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents simulations of the DTU 10MW wind turbine rotor equipped with vortex generators (VGs) on the inner part of the blades. The objective is to study the influence of different VG configurations on rotor performance and in particular to investigate the radial dependence of VGs, i...

  5. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a preproject. Annex A. Cost-benefit for embedded sensors in large wind turbine blades

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, L.G.; Lading, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of a cost-benefit analysis for the use of embed-ded sensors for damage detection in large wind turbine blades - structural health monitoring - (in connection with remote surveillance) of large wind turbine placedoff-shore. The total operating costs of a three-bladed 2MW turbine placed offshore either without sensors or with sensors are compared. The price of a structural health monitoring system of a price of 100 000 DKK (per tur-bine) results in a break-event...

  6. A parabolic velocity-decomposition method for wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anshul; Briley, W. Roger; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Taylor, Lafayette K.

    2017-02-01

    An economical parabolized Navier-Stokes approximation for steady incompressible flow is combined with a compatible wind turbine model to simulate wind turbine flows, both upstream of the turbine and in downstream wake regions. The inviscid parabolizing approximation is based on a Helmholtz decomposition of the secondary velocity vector and physical order-of-magnitude estimates, rather than an axial pressure gradient approximation. The wind turbine is modeled by distributed source-term forces incorporating time-averaged aerodynamic forces generated by a blade-element momentum turbine model. A solution algorithm is given whose dependent variables are streamwise velocity, streamwise vorticity, and pressure, with secondary velocity determined by two-dimensional scalar and vector potentials. In addition to laminar and turbulent boundary-layer test cases, solutions for a streamwise vortex-convection test problem are assessed by mesh refinement and comparison with Navier-Stokes solutions using the same grid. Computed results for a single turbine and a three-turbine array are presented using the NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine. These are also compared with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solution computed with full rotor resolution. On balance, the agreement in turbine wake predictions for these test cases is very encouraging given the substantial differences in physical modeling fidelity and computer resources required.

  7. New energy technologies. Research program proposition; Nouvelles technologies de l'energie. Proposition de programme de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the most promising program propositions of research and development and the public financing needed for their realization. The concerned technologies are: the hydrogen and the fuel cell PAN-H, the separation and the storage of the CO{sub 2}, the photovoltaic solar electricity, the PREBAT program of the building energy recovery and the bio-energies. (A.L.B.)

  8. Brief introduction to 60 MW CARR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonghua, Yang; Chuntang, Ye [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing BJ (China)

    1998-10-01

    CARR, a 60 MW reactor will be constructed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The reactor type, its safety features, core lay-out, fuel assemblies, main parameters designed, main applications of are briefly described. (author)

  9. Steam turbines for nuclear power stations in Czechoslovakia and their use for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The first generation of nuclear power stations in Czechoslavakia is equipped with 440 MW e pressurized water reactors. Each reactor supplies two 220 MW, 3000 rpm condensing type turbosets operating with saturated steam. After the completion of heating water piping systems, all of the 24 units of 220 MW in Czechoslovak nuclear power stations will be operated as dual purpose units, delivering both electricity and heat. At the present time, second-generation nuclear power stations, with 1000 MW e PWRs, are being built. Each such plant is equipped with one 1000 MW full-speed saturated steam turbine. The turbine is so designed as to permit the extraction of steam corresponding to the following quantities of heat: 893 MJ/s with three-stage water heating (150/60 0 C); and 570 MJ/s with two-stage water heating (120/60 0 C). The steam is taken from uncontrolled steam extraction points. (author)

  10. 30 400 MW worldwide in early 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Accounting for more than 74% of wind power output in the world, Europe is now more than ever the spearhead of the wind energy industry. First estimates for 2002 show a 6 000 MW progression that now places total world output around 30 400 MW, that is enough to electrify 17 million households. Nevertheless, although it's still growing at a remarkable speed, the rate of development for wind energy has slowed down for the first time in years. (authors)

  11. Hydraulic optimization of 'S' characteristics of the pump-turbine for Xianju pumped storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W C; Zheng, J S; Cheng, J; Shi, Q H

    2012-01-01

    The pump-turbine with a rated power capacity of 375MW each at Xianju pumped storage plant is the most powerful one under construction in China. In order to avoid the instability near no-load conditions, the hydraulic design of the pump-turbine has been optimized to improving the 'S' characteristic in the development of the model pump-turbine. This paper presents the cause of 'S' characteristic of a pump-turbine by CFD simulation of the internal flow. Based on the CFD analysis, the hydraulic design optimization of the pump-turbine was carried out to eliminate the 'S' characteristics of the machine at Xianju pumped storage plant and a big step for removing the 'S' characteristic of a pump-turbine has been obtained. The model test results demonstrate that the pump-turbine designed for Xianju pumped storage plant can smoothly operate near no-load conditions without an addition of misaligned guide vanes.

  12. 2002–2012: 10 Years of Research Progress in Horizontal-Axis Marine Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wern Ng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in marine current energy, including tidal and ocean currents, has undergone significant growth in the past decade. The horizontal-axis marine current turbine is one of the machines used to harness marine current energy, which appears to be the most technologically and economically viable one at this stage. A number of large-scale marine current turbines rated at more than 1 MW have been deployed around the World. Parallel to the development of industry, academic research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines has also shown positive growth. This paper reviews previous research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines and provides a concise overview for future researchers who might be interested in horizontal-axis marine current turbines. The review covers several main aspects, such as: energy assessment, turbine design, wakes, generators, novel modifications and environmental impact. Future trends for research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines are also discussed.

  13. Wind Turbine Generator Modeling and Simulation Where Rotational Speed is the Controlled Variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion

    2004-01-01

    the interaction between a wind turbine and the power system. The model is intended to simulate the behaviour of the wind turbine using induction generators both during normal operation. Sample simulation results for two induction generators (2/0.5 MW) validate the fundamental issues.......To optimise the power produced in a wind turbine, the speed of the turbine should vary with the wind speed. A simple control method is proposed that will allow an induction machine to run a turbine at its maximum power coefficient. Various types of power control strategies have been suggested...... for application in variable speed wind turbines. The usual strategy is to control the power or the torque acting on the wind turbine shafts. This paper presents an alternative control strategy, where the rotational speed is the controlled variable. The paper describes a model, which is being developed to simulate...

  14. A wind turbine hybrid simulation framework considering aeroelastic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Su, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    In performing an effective structural analysis for wind turbine, the simulation of turbine aerodynamic loads is of great importance. The interaction between the wake flow and the blades may impact turbine blades loading condition, energy yield and operational behavior. Direct experimental measurement of wind flow field and wind profiles around wind turbines is very helpful to support the wind turbine design. However, with the growth of the size of wind turbines for higher energy output, it is not convenient to obtain all the desired data in wind-tunnel and field tests. In this paper, firstly the modeling of dynamic responses of large-span wind turbine blades will consider nonlinear aeroelastic effects. A strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation will be used for the basic structural dynamic modeling, which will be coupled with unsteady aerodynamic equations and rigid-body rotations of the rotor. Full wind turbines can be modeled by using the multi-connected beams. Then, a hybrid simulation experimental framework is proposed to potentially address this issue. The aerodynamic-dominant components, such as the turbine blades and rotor, are simulated as numerical components using the nonlinear aeroelastic model; while the turbine tower, where the collapse of failure may occur under high level of wind load, is simulated separately as the physical component. With the proposed framework, dynamic behavior of NREL's 5MW wind turbine blades will be studied and correlated with available numerical data. The current work will be the basis of the authors' further studies on flow control and hazard mitigation on wind turbine blades and towers.

  15. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  16. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  17. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  18. Ceramics technology for advanced industrial gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anson, D.; Sheppard, W.J.; DeCorso, M.; Parks, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of high strength ceramic materials and in their application to automotive and aerospace gas turbine engines may lead also to significant improvements in the performance of industrial gas turbines. This paper presents a brief review of the improvements projected in a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The future costs of power generated by small gas turbines (up to 25 MW) are predicted, as well as the potential for fuel savings. Gas turbines in this size range are used extensively for gas compression and for cogeneration, as well as in a variety of more diverse applications. This paper includes results of analyses of the ways in which changes in gas turbine cost and performance are likely to affect market penetration. These results lead to predictions of future savings in U.S. fuel consumption in the industrial sector that would result. The paper also presents a brief overview of the scope of a suggested R and D program, with an appropriate schedule, which would provide a technical basis for achieving the projected results. Important parts of this program would cover ceramic design and fabrication technology, engine development and demonstration, and combustion technology

  19. What is the Value Proposition of Persistent Identifiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Persistent identifiers (PID) are widely used today in scientific communication and documentation. Global unique identification plus persistent resolution of links to referenced digital research objects have been strong selling points for PID Systems as enabling technical infrastructures. Novel applications of PID Systems in research now go beyond the identification of file based objects such as literature or data sets and include the identification of dynamically changing datasets accessed through web services, physical objects, persons and organisations. But not only do we see more use cases but also a proliferation of identifier systems. An analysis of PID Systems used by 1381 repositories listed in the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org, status of 14 Dec 2015) showed that many disciplinary data repositories make use of PID that are not among the systems promoted by the libraries and publishers (DOI, PURL, ARK). This indicates that a number of communities have developed their own PID Systems. This begs the question, do we need more identifier systems? What makes their value proposition more appealing than those of already existing systems? On the other hand, some of these new use cases deal with entities outside the digital domain, the original scope of application for PIDs. It is therefore necessary to critically appraise the value propositions of available PID Systems and compare these against the requirements of new use cases for PID. Undoubtedly, DOI are the most used persistent identifier in scholarly communication. It was originally designed "to link customers with publishers, facilitate electronic commerce, and enable copyright management systems." Today, the DOI system is described as providing "a technical and social infrastructure for the registration and use of persistent interoperable identifiers for use on digital networks". This example shows how value propositions can change over time. Additional value can be gained by cross

  20. Cross-wind fatigue analysis of a full scale offshore wind turbine in the case of wind–wave misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina; Brown, Cameron; Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Wind–wave misalignment is often necessary to consider during the design of offshore wind turbines due to excitation of side–side vibration and the low aerodynamic damping in that direction. The measurements from a fully instrumented 3.6 MW pitch regulated-variable speed offshore wind turbine were...

  1. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 3: Final design and system description, book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 3, book 1 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation is described in detail.

  2. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  3. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  4. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  5. Fault Diagnosis of an Advanced Wind Turbine Benchmark using Interval-based ARRs and Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardi, Hector Eloy Sanchez; Escobet, Teressa; Puig, Vicenc

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a model-based fault diagnosis (FD) approach for wind turbines and its application to a realistic wind turbine FD benchmark. The proposed FD approach combines the use of analytical redundancy relations (ARRs) and interval observers. Interval observers consider an unknown...... turbine and noise/parameter uncertainty bounds. Fault isolation is based on considering a set of ARRs obtained from the structural analysis of the wind turbine model and a fault signature matrix that considers the relation of ARRs and faults. The proposed FD approach has been validated on a 5-MW wind...

  6. The influence of turbulence on the aero-elastic instability of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Modern multi-megawatt wind turbines are designed with longer and slender blades using new composite materials and advanced fabrication methods. The trend towards lighter and more flexible blades may lead to aeroelastic instability of wind turbines under certain circumstances, thus resulting...... calibrated to the NREL 5 MW baseline wind turbine. Aeroelastic stability of the wind turbine system has been evaluated for various values of the rated generator torque, the rated rotational speed of the rotor, the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity. Critical turbulence intensity, at which the wind...

  7. World trend - a 10% growth per year for small wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.

    2016-01-01

    A decline was expected for small wind turbine business with the advent of bigger wind turbines but it is really not the case. In 2014 the growth rate was about 10 % with a cumulated power installed that year of 830 MW for small wind turbines. China (41% of the installed capacity), United-States (30%) and Great-Britain (15%) are the 3 main players. About 1 million wind turbines are operating in the world - it means 8.3% (∼ 70.000 units) more than a year before. (A.C.)

  8. Welding repair of the steam and gas turbines rotors made of Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.; Kubiak, J.; Hernandez, A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of typical steam turbine and gas turbine rotor failures is carried out. On the base of the rotors different failure causes and their mode of occurring, an evaluation of the weldability of the Cr-Mo-V steels and the classification of the common turbine rotors repair possibilities is presented. The developing of specific in-situ welding repair process of the damaged 20.65 MW gas turbine rotor is described. After repair, the rotor was put back into service. (Author) 15 refs

  9. On formally undecidable propositions of Principia mathematica and related systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gödel, Kurt

    1962-01-01

    In 1931, a young Austrian mathematician published an epoch-making paper containing one of the most revolutionary ideas in logic since Aristotle. Kurt Giidel maintained, and offered detailed proof, that in any arithmetic system, even in elementary parts of arithmetic, there are propositions which cannot be proved or disproved within the system. It is thus uncertain that the basic axioms of arithmetic will not give rise to contradictions. The repercussions of this discovery are still being felt and debated in 20th-century mathematics.The present volume reprints the first English translation of

  10. Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    and executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance...... implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed....

  11. Law proposition relative to the ecology transformation of the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugy, F. de; Billard, M.; Cochet, Y.; Mamere, N.

    2009-04-01

    This law proposition presents some fiscal and legal measures aiming to prepare the necessary evolution of the ecological transformation of the economy. The presented articles aim to define a legislative and fiscal framework in favor of a deep change of the production and consumption modes. Four main domains are discussed: the climate-energy contribution, the evolution of the transportation sector, the enhancement of the energy performance of the buildings, the development of the renewable energies and the reconversion of the automobile sector. (A.L.B.)

  12. Calculation of wind turbine mechanical noise transmitted through the wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinther, S.; Kristensen, E.; Johansen, S.; Dam Madsen, K.

    2001-10-01

    A method for calculation of transmission noise radiated from the wind turbine blades has been established. The method is based on a numerical model describing the transmission of vibrations from the gear through the main shaft to the blades. In this project 1 MW and 2 MW wind turbines from BONUS Energy A/S are used as test cases. The numerical model offers the possibility of optimising the transmission system to avoid coincidence between gear excitation frequencies and natural frequencies of the blades. The optimisation can be reached by altering stiffness, mass and damping values for the different elements of the model. The numerical model needs experimental validation and supplementary determination of sound radiation factors for the blades. Therefore, a series of test methods have been developed and tried out. In a test rig for wind turbine, blades dynamic characteristicts and sound radiation factors for the blades were determined. On a 2 MW turbine tests were carried out during normal operation of the turbine. The shaft between the generator and the gearbox was excited in torsion by a hydraulic torsion exciter, and simultaneous response measurements of vibrations on one of the blades were made to estimate frequency response functions between gear and discrete points on the blade. The individual parts of the method have been tested, and the method showed out to supply valuable information about the different means for minimising radiation of transmission noise from the wind turbine blades. In future optimisation of the method, emphasis will be concentrated on the experimental validation provided by measurements on the operating wind turbine to provide a more certain validation of the numerical model. (au)

  13. Clean coal technologies for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, D.M. [GE Industrial & Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The oil- and gas-fired turbine combined-cycle penetration of industrial and utility applications has escalated rapidly due to the lower cost, higher efficiency and demonstrated reliability of gas turbine equipment in combination with fuel economics. Gas turbine technology growth has renewed the interest in the use of coal and other solid fuels in combined cycles for electrical and thermal energy production to provide environmentally acceptable plants without extra cost. Four different types of systems utilizing the gas turbine advantages with solid fuel have been studied: direct coal combustion, combustor processing, fuel processing and indirect cycles. One of these, fuel processing (exemplified by coal gasification), is emerging as the superior process for broad scale commercialization at this time. Advances in gas turbine design, proven in operation above 200 MW, are establishing new levels of combined-cycle net plant efficiencies up to 55% and providing the potential for a significant shift to gas turbine solid fuel power plant technology. These new efficiencies can mitigate the losses involved in gasifying coal and other solid fuels, and economically provide the superior environmental performance required today. Based on demonstration of high baseload reliability for large combined cycles (98%) and the success of several demonstrations of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants in the utility size range, it is apparent that many commercial IGCC plants will be sites in the late 1990s. This paper discusses different gas turbine systems for solid fuels while profiling available IGCC systems. The paper traces the IGCC option as it moved from the demonstration phase to the commercial phase and should now with planned future improvements, penetrate the solid fuel power generation market at a rapid pace.

  14. Using machine learning to predict wind turbine power output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, A; Kilcher, L; Lundquist, J K; Fleming, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine power output is known to be a strong function of wind speed, but is also affected by turbulence and shear. In this work, new aerostructural simulations of a generic 1.5 MW turbine are used to rank atmospheric influences on power output. Most significant is the hub height wind speed, followed by hub height turbulence intensity and then wind speed shear across the rotor disk. These simulation data are used to train regression trees that predict the turbine response for any combination of wind speed, turbulence intensity, and wind shear that might be expected at a turbine site. For a randomly selected atmospheric condition, the accuracy of the regression tree power predictions is three times higher than that from the traditional power curve methodology. The regression tree method can also be applied to turbine test data and used to predict turbine performance at a new site. No new data are required in comparison to the data that are usually collected for a wind resource assessment. Implementing the method requires turbine manufacturers to create a turbine regression tree model from test site data. Such an approach could significantly reduce bias in power predictions that arise because of the different turbulence and shear at the new site, compared to the test site. (letter)

  15. Super titanium blades for advanced steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, the Alsthom Steam Turbines Department launched the manufacture of large titanium alloy blades: airfoil length of 1360 mm and overall length of 1520 mm. These blades are designed for the last-stage low pressure blading of advanced steam turbines operating at full speed (3000 rpm) and rating between 300 and 800 MW. Using titanium alloys for steam turbine exhaust stages as substitutes for chrome steels, due to their high strength/density ratio and their almost complete resistance to corrosion, makes it possible to increase the length of blades significantly and correspondingly that steam passage section (by up to 50%) with a still conservative stresses level in the rotor. Alsthom relies on 8 years of experience in the field of titanium, since as early as 1979 large titanium blades (airfoil length of 1240 mm, overall length of 1430 mm) were erected for experimental purposes on the last stage of a 900 MW unit of the Dampierre-sur-Loire power plant and now totals 45,000 operating hours without problems. The paper summarizes the main properties (chemical, mechanical and structural) recorded on very large blades and is based in particular on numerous fatigue corrosion test results to justify the use of the Ti 6 Al 4 V alloy in a specific context of micrographic structure

  16. Theoretical Propositions for the Citizen Formation Mediated by Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Margarita Martínez de Padrón

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented emerges from the connotations concerning the formation of the citizenship by the information technology and communication. Be part of the conception of the current citizen and the influence that has emerged through the utility of the various social networks, as well as Canaima education project and the guidance provided to schoolchildren in this sense. The general objective was to generate propositions theoretical that guide the formation of citizenship mediated by ICT in the primary schools of Santa Teresa del Tuy. The methodology used was the qualitative paradigm, based on the interpretative phenomenological approach of Heidegger, which is interested in discovering and understanding the meanings, habits and practices of the human being. Castle (2000: 5. The researcher approached the field object of study to observe, describe and interpret a reality. As an instrument used the interview in depth. The information obtained was recorded in pictures which allowed to comply with the development of specific objectives through triangulation. On whose findings prevailed deviating from the use of technological tools and how these have formed the formation of citizenship in school children in their behavior and actions. At the same time, allowed know from educational technological approach, that sparing the teacher provides guidance that redirect the formation of citizenship. Also was the stated objective as it was the theoretical propositions that guide the formation of citizens ICT-mediated.

  17. Positive Leadership and Corporate Entrepreneurship: Theoretical Considerations and Research Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Zbierowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the paper is to describe the approaches to positive leadership and propose research directions on its impact on corporate entrepreneurship. There is much debate within positive leadership domain and the question arises if positive style of leadership supports the entrepreneurship within corporations conceptualised as entrepreneurial orientation. Research Design & Methods: The main method employed in the paper is critical literature review. Based on that, some research propositions are formulated. Findings: Four research propositions concern the possible impact of positive leadership on corporate entrepreneurship. It is proposed that authentic leadership, fundamental state of leadership, psychological capital and positive deviance all positively influence corporate entrepreneurship. Implications & Recommendations: The main implications of the paper concern future research in corporate entrepreneurship domain. Moreover, the indirect impact is expected on managerial practice in future research results concerning supporting corporate entrepreneurship by enhancing positive leadership behaviours. Contribution & Value Added: The paper opens new line of research on the cross-roads of positive organizational scholarship research and entrepreneurship theory. The main contribution of the paper is to draw attention to the models of leadership that might be critical for entrepreneurship inside organisations.

  18. Exploring propositions about perceptions of energy security: An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Valentine, Scott Victor; Jain Bambawale, Malavika; Brown, Marilyn A.; Fátima Cardoso, Terezinha de; Nurbek, Sayasat; Suleimenova, Gulimzhan; Li Jinke; Xu Yang; Jain, Anil; Alhajji, A.F.; Zubiri, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how energy users from government, industry, civil society, and academia perceive of energy security challenges. It also analyzes how demographic characteristics influence such perceptions, and how geography, economic structure, modes of domestic energy production, and culture shape energy security priorities. Its primary source of data is a four-part survey distributed in seven languages (English, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, German, and Japanese) to 2167 respondents in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Kazakhstan, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and the United States. These countries were selected because they represent a mix of urban and rural populations, developed and developing economies, import- and export-oriented energy trading flows, communist and capitalist societies, liberalized and state-owned energy markets, and small and large geographic sizes. The survey results are used to test four propositions about energy security related to the education, age, occupation, and gender of respondents, as well five propositions about national energy priorities and the interconnected attributes of security of supply, energy efficiency, energy research and development, energy trade, diversification and decentralization, affordability, environmental quality, climate change, and energy governance.

  19. WPS criterion proposition based on experimental data base interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuliot, S.; Izard, J.P.; Moinereau, D.; Marie, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives the background and the methodology developed to define a K J based criterion for brittle fracture of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) submitted to Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS), and taking into account Warm Pre Stressing effect (WPS). The first step of this methodology is the constitution of an experimental data base. This work was performed through bibliography and partnerships, and allows merging experimental results dealing with: -) Various ferritic steels; -) Various material states (as received, thermally aged, irradiated...); -) Various mode of fracture (cleavage, inter-granular, mixed mode); -) Various specimen geometry and size (CT, SENB, mock-ups); -) Various thermo-mechanical transients. Based on this experimental data base, a simple K J based limit is proposed and compared to experimental results. Parametric studies are performed in order to define the main parameters of the problem. Finally, a simple proposition based on a detailed analysis of tests results is performed. This proposition giving satisfactory results in every cases, it constitutes a good candidate for integration in French RSE-M code for in service assessment. (authors)

  20. Semantics and pragmatics of social influence: how affirmations and denials affect beliefs in referent propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenfeld, D H; Wyer, R S

    1992-01-01

    Ss read either affirmations or denials of target propositions that ostensibly came from either newspapers or reference volumes. Denials of the validity of a proposition that was already assumed to be false increased Ss' beliefs in this proposition. The effect generalized to beliefs in related propositions that could be used to support the target's validity. When denials came from a newspaper, their "boomerang effect" was nearly equal in magnitude to the direct effect of affirming the target proposition's validity. When Ss were asked explicitly to consider the implications of the assertions, however, the impact of denials was eliminated. Affirmations of a target proposition that was already assumed to be true also had a boomerang effect. Results have implications for the effects of both semantic and pragmatic processing of assertions on belief change.

  1. Analysis of the Environmental Impact on Remanufacturing Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Skrainka, Manuel R.

    To deliver clean energy the use of wind turbines is essential. In June 2011 there was an installed wind capacity equivalent to 211,000MW world-wide (WWEA, 2011). By the end of the year 2009 the U.S. had 35,100MW of wind energy installed capacity to generate electricity (AWEA, 2010). This industry has grown in recent years and is expected to grow even more in the future. The environmental impacts that will arise from the increased number of wind turbines and their end-of-life should be addressed, as large amounts of resources will be required to satisfy the current and future market demands for wind turbines. Since future 10MW wind turbines are expected to be as heavy as 1000 tons each, the study of the environmental response of profitable retirement strategies, such as remanufacturing for these machines, must be considered. Because of the increased number of wind turbines and the materials used, this study provides a comparison between the environmental impacts from remanufacturing the components installed inside the nacelle of multi-megawatt wind turbines and wind turbines manufactured using new components. The study methodology is the following: • Describe the life-cycle and the materials and processes employed for the manufacture and remanufacturing for components inside the nacelle. • Identify remanufacturing alternatives for the components inside the nacelle at the end of the expected life-time service of wind turbines. • Evaluate the environmental impacts from the remanufactured components and compare the results with the impacts of the manufacturing of new components using SimaPro. • Conduct sensitivity analysis over the critical parameters of the life cycle assessment • Propose the most environmentally friendly options for the retirement of each major component of wind turbines. After an analysis of the scenarios the goal of the study is to evaluate remanufacturing as an end-of-life option from an environmental perspective for commercial multi

  2. Detailed Load Analysis of the baseline 5MW DeepWind Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    This report presents an overview of the design of the DeepWind vertical axis oating wind turbine. One could present this as the "nal design", however, it is hoped that more design iterations will follow in the future, but under the umbrella of new and dierent projects. The state of the design...... that is reported here will be called version 2.2.0. The numbering system has just been introduced at the present design version, but the rst 5MW design called the "baseline design" [1] was developed in 2011 and this will therefore be called version 1.0.0. In this report, the design loads of the DeepWind 5 MW...

  3. Offshore wind turbines and bird activity at Blyth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In 1996, a study was implemented to ultimately determine the impact of two 2MW wind turbines situated 900 metres offshore of the north-east of England. The turbines, with a hub height of 66 metres, began operation in December 2000. Earlier, similar studies were carried out on a row of wind turbines mounted on the harbour wall of the nearby town of Blyth. The report gives details of (i) total mortality and mortality due to the turbines; (ii) number of bird strikes; (iii) habitat displacement; (iv) feeding grounds; (v) flight routes and (vi) impact on bird populations of a nearby Site of Special Scientific Interest. The study was conducted by AMEC Wind Limited under contract to the DTI.

  4. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  5. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    networks and more and more wind power stations, acting as power plants, are connected directly to the transmission networks. As the grid penetration and power level of the wind turbines increase steadily, the wind power starts to have significant impacts to the power grid system. Therefore, more advanced...... generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  6. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  7. The swirl turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

    2012-11-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHηh = -u2vu2. From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  8. Integrating a Hypernymic Proposition Interpreter into a Semantic Processor for Biomedical Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Kilicoglu, Halil

    2003-01-01

    Semantic processing provides the potential for producing high quality results in natural language processing (NLP) applications in the biomedical domain. In this paper, we address a specific semantic phenomenon, the hypernymic proposition, and concentrate on integrating the interpretation of such predications into a more general semantic processor in order to improve overall accuracy. A preliminary evaluation assesses the contribution of hypernymic propositions in providing more specific semantic predications and thus improving effectiveness in retrieving treatment propositions in MEDLINE abstracts. Finally, we discuss the generalization of this methodology to additional semantic propositions as well as other types of biomedical texts. PMID:14728170

  9. Calculation and design of steel bearing structure for wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešević Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind represents directed movement of the air and is caused by differences in atmospheric pressure which are caused by uneven heating of air masses. Global and local winds can be distinguished. Global winds have high altitude, while local winds occur in the ground layer of the atmosphere. Given that the global wings have high altitude they cannot be used as propellant for wind generators, but they should be known for their effects on the winds in the lower atmosphere. Modern wind turbines are made with a horizontal axle that has a system for the swiveling axis in the horizontal plane for tracking wind direction changes. They can have different number of blades, but for larger forces three blades are commonly used because they provide the greatest efficiency. Rotor diameter of these turbines depends on the strength and it ranges from 30 m for the power of 300 kW to 115 m for the power of 5 MW. Wind turbines are mounted on vertical steel tower which can be high even more than 100 m. Depending on the diameter of the turbine rotor, column is usually built as steel conical and less often as a steel-frame. This study includes analysis and design of steel tower for wind generator made by manufacturer Vestas, type V112 3MW HH 119 (power 3.2 MW for the construction of wind farm 'Kovačica'.

  10. Development of 1800 rpm, 43in. blade for large steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Michio; Yamazaki, Yoshiaki; Namura, Kiyoshi; Taki, Takamitsu; Ninomiya, Satoshi.

    1978-01-01

    In the turbines for nuclear power generation, the inlet conditions of steam is low pressure and low temperature as compared with the turbines for thermal power generation, therefore generally the required steam flow rate is much more. It is the main problem to cope with this steam of large flow rate effectively with long final stage blades and to make a turbine compact. This newly developed blade aims at the turbines from 1100 to 1300 MW class for nuclear power generation and those of 1000 MW class for thermal power generation, and it is the first low revolution, long blade in Japan used for large capacity machines of 60 Hz. Hereinafter, the outline of various examinations carried out at the time of the tests on this blade and the features of this blade are described. There is large margin in the exhaust area with this blade, therefore the turbines with large power output and good performance can be produced. The loss of exhaust energy at turbine exit can be reduced, and thermal efficiency can be raised. Large capacity machines from 1100 to 1300 MW class can be manufactured with six-flow exhaust, tandem compound turbines. In order to confirm the reliability, the vibration characteristics of the blade were investigated in the test of this time, and also the overspeed test and endurance test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  11. Modification to 200 MW(e) CANDU for improved dynamic behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamany, B.F.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ray, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    Rajasthan Atomic Power Station is inherently suitable for base load operation. Its control philosophy is based on turbine following the reactor. However, due to load fluctuations and inherent limitation of the control system, there had been considerable number of outages of the station. This limitation is further enhanced by improper choice of the operating pressure range of the boilers. Besides, existing fuel design does not permit thermal cycling and hence there is no use in attempting to make the reactor follow the turbine. Design modifications have been suggested for incorporation in the further 200 MW(e) systems. The method adopted is complete decoupling of the reactor from the load. Dynamic behaviour of the station with the suggested modifications and its comparison with the existing situation has been brought out. (author)

  12. Gas cooled solar tower power plant (GAST) KWU approach to a 20 MW hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Martin

    1980-07-01

    The gas cooled solar tower powerplant with a hybrid solar-fossil heating system in the form given here represents a significant step towards the industrial use of solar energy. The transition from fossil fuels to solar energy can be facilitated for the power plant operators if the transition is gradual and if conventional technology is used. Using solar energy and with a turbine inlet temperature of 800/sup 0/C the GAST power plant reaches an output of approximately 20 MW and a thermal efficiency of approximately 40% reference to the heat supplied by the receiver. In the absence of solar radiation the plant can be operated exclusively on fossil fuel. Increasing the turbine inlet temperature to 1000/sup 0/C enables an efficiency of about 47% to be reached in the GUD cycle.

  13. Ijsselmij exploits a large wind park of 7. 5 MW in the Noordoostpolder, Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauta, Y

    1988-07-01

    The energy industry Ijsselmij constructed in 1987, along the Westermeerdijk north of Urk, Netherlands, a wind park of 7.5 MW. The wind park, built on the landside of the dike, consists of 25 wind turbines with a rotor diameter of 25 m and a capacity of 300 kW each. The total investment was about 21 million Dutch guilders. The park generates more than 10 million kWh annually supplied to the public electricity grid. The site selection, the foundations, the wind turbines, the electric connection, control unit to generate data, the economic feasibility and some aspects concerning noise pollution and bird damage are discussed. Finally technical data on the wind park are given. 9 figs.

  14. Materials for MW sized aerogenerators. I - The influence of design on operating parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, L. M.

    1983-09-01

    Materials and fatigue design deficiencies in the development and production of MW-scale wind turbines with 30-yr, reliable, cost-effective lifetimes are surveyed. Attention is given to existing wind turbines, the performance of materials to date, and fundamental materials properties. Failures thus far have arisen from the coincidence of fundamental vibration frequency or a low order harmonic of components with an exciting frequency, malfunction of control mechanisms, and inadequate engineering. All the failures can be avoided, and most occur in the rotor. Two-bladed horizontal configurations permit use of a through-center section while requiring teetering to reduce stresses; three-bladed designs offer higher output for the same diameter and less of a stress moment on the tower and yaw components. Hydraulic components have caused trouble, which could be eliminated with redundancy. The torsional vibrations to which a Darrieus wind turbine is subject in every revolution can be ameliorated with three blades and eradicated with four. The Musgrove wind turbine requires thin blades to maintain a high aspect ratio, but simultaneously introduces buckling stresses. Blade materials used or proposed are carbon steel, GFRP, wood, stainless steel, CFRP, aluminum, titanium, and prestressed concrete.

  15. Dismantling of the 50 MW steam generator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Onojima, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Isozaki, T.; Gunji, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have been dismantling the 50MW Steam Generator Test Facility (50MWSGTF). The objectives of the dismantling are reuse of sodium components to a planned large scale thermal hydraulics sodium test facility and the material examination of component that have been operated for long time in sodium. The facility consisted of primary sodium loop with sodium heater by gas burner as heat source instead of reactor, secondary sodium loop with auxiliary cooling system (ACS) and water/steam system with steam temperature and pressure reducer instead of turbine. It simulated the 1 loop of the Monju cooling system. The rated power of the facility was 50MWt and it was about 1/5 of the Monju power plant. Several sodium removal methods are applied. As for the components to be dismantled such as piping, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), air cooled heat exchangers (AC), sodium is removed by steam with nitrogen gas in the air or sodium is burned in the air. As for steam generators which material tests are planned, sodium is removed by steam injection with nitrogen gas to the steam generator. The steam generator vessel is filled with nitrogen and no air in the steam generator during sodium removal. As for sodium pumps, pump internal structure is pulled out from the casing and installed into the tank. After the installation, sodium is removed by the same method of steam generator. As for relatively small reuse components such as sodium valves, electromagnet flow meters (EMFs) etc., sodium is removed by alcohol process. (author)

  16. Investigation of ambient temperature on the performance of GE-F5 gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazikhani, M.; Taffazoli, D.; Manshori, N.

    2002-01-01

    The role of ambient temperature in determining the performance of GE-F5 gas turbine is analysed by investigating the Shirvan gas turbine power plant 10 MW , 15 MW and 20 MW power output. These parameters have been brought as a function of ambient temperature. The results show when ambient temperature increases 1 deg C, The compressor pressure decreases about 20 k Pa, compressor outlet temperature increases about 1.13 deg C and exhaust temperature increases about 2.5 deg C. It is revealed that variations are due to decreasing the efficiency of compressor and less due to mass flow rate of air reduction as ambient temperature increases at constant power output. The results shows cycle efficiency reduces 3% with increasing 50 of ambient temperature, also the m increases as ambient temperature increase for constant turbine work. These are also because of reducing the compressor efficiency as ambient temperature increases

  17. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  18. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  19. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  20. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  1. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  2. California's Proposition 15: the what and why of its defeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This analysis of the June 8, 1976 California Nuclear Initiative was prepared by the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. The defeat of Proposition 15 in the California election was successful for several reasons. A record 70 percent of the voters in California went to the polls and 97 percent of those voted on the nuclear issue with the results showing defeat by two-to-one. Apparently, the voters perceived the Nuclear Initiative as being too drastic. The campaign for defeat of the initiative stressed the consequences of closing down existing plants and closing off the nuclear option in California, namely: higher costs, job losses, and less-desirable alternatives. The campaign waged for the Initiative seems to have suffered from weak management and lack of consistent messages

  3. Relating Sequent Calculi for Bi-intuitionistic Propositional Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bi-intuitionistic logic is the conservative extension of intuitionistic logic with a connective dual to implication. It is sometimes presented as a symmetric constructive subsystem of classical logic. In this paper, we compare three sequent calculi for bi-intuitionistic propositional logic: (1 a basic standard-style sequent calculus that restricts the premises of implication-right and exclusion-left inferences to be single-conclusion resp. single-assumption and is incomplete without the cut rule, (2 the calculus with nested sequents by Gore et al., where a complete class of cuts is encapsulated into special "unnest" rules and (3 a cut-free labelled sequent calculus derived from the Kripke semantics of the logic. We show that these calculi can be translated into each other and discuss the ineliminable cuts of the standard-style sequent calculus.

  4. Propositions for a PDF model based on fluid particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes theoretical propositions to model the acceleration of a fluid particle in a turbulent flow. Such a model is useful for the PDF approach to turbulent reactive flows as well as for the Lagrangian modelling of two-phase flows. The model developed here draws from ideas already put forward by Sawford but which are generalized to the case of non-homogeneous flows. The model is built so as to revert continuously to Pope's model, which uses a Langevin equation for particle velocities, when the Reynolds number becomes very high. The derivation is based on the technique of fast variable elimination. This technique allow a careful analysis of the relations between different levels of modelling. It also allows to address certain problems in a more rigorous way. In particular, application of this technique shows that models presently used can in principle simulate bubbly flows including the pressure-gradient and added-mass forces. (author)

  5. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  6. Maximum Energy Yield Oriented Turbine Control in PMSG based Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    : In the modern power systems, with the fast integration of the wind power into the grid, it turns to develop large-scale offshore wind farms equipped with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine. In large-scale offshore wind farms, the wind turbine operating reliability...... and the wake effect in the wind farm became important issues. The pitch angle and tip speed ratio are the two degrees of freedom for the PMSG wind turbine active power control, which are also the determining factors of the wind turbine lifetime. As the energy production of the wind turbine is the product...... of its active power and lifetime, the energy production can be maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. In this study, the energy production of a 2 MW PMSG wind turbine is maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. Moreover, taking into account the wake effect...

  7. An Integrated Structural Strength Analysis Method for Spar Type Floating Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志强; 刘毅; 王晋

    2016-01-01

    An integrated structural strength analysis method for a Spar type floating wind turbine is proposed in this paper, and technical issues related to turbine structure modeling and stress combination are also addressed. The NREL-5MW “Hywind” Spar type wind turbine is adopted as study object. Time-domain dynamic coupled simulations are performed by a fully-coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool, FAST, on the purpose of obtaining the dynamic characteristics of the floating wind turbine, and determining parameters for design load cases of finite element calculation. Then design load cases are identified, and finite element analyses are performed for these design load cases. The structural stresses due to wave-induced loads and wind-induced loads are calculated, and then combined to assess the structural strength of the floating wind turbine. The feasibility of the proposed structural strength analysis method for floating wind turbines is then validated.

  8. Flicker study on variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    to a conclusion that the factors mentioned above have different influences on flicker emission compared with that in the case of the fixed speed wind turbine. Flicker mitigation is realized by output reactive power control of the variable speed wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. Simulation results...... show the wind turbine output reactive power control provides an effective means for flicker mitigation regardless of mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and short circuit capacity ratio.......Grid connected wind turbines may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines...

  9. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  10. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  11. Seven propositions of the science of improvement: exploring foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J; Provost, Lloyd P; Parry, Gareth J

    2013-01-01

    The phrase "Science of Improvement" or "Improvement Science" is commonly used today by a range of people and professions to mean different things, creating confusion to those trying to learn about improvement. In this article, we briefly define the concepts of improvement and science, and review the history of the consideration of "improvement" as a science. We trace key concepts and ideas in improvement to their philosophical and theoretical foundation with a focus on Deming's System of Profound Knowledge. We suggest that Deming's system has a firm association with many contemporary and historic philosophic and scientific debates and concepts. With reference to these debates and concepts, we identify 7 propositions that provide the scientific and philosophical foundation for the science of improvement. A standard view of the science of improvement does not presently exist that is grounded in the philosophical and theoretical basis of the field. The 7 propositions outlined here demonstrate the value of examining the underpinnings of improvement. This is needed to both advance the field and minimize confusion about what the phrase "science of improvement" represents. We argue that advanced scientists of improvement are those who like Deming and Shewhart can integrate ideas, concepts, and models between scientific disciplines for the purpose of developing more robust improvement models, tools, and techniques with a focus on application and problem solving in real world contexts. The epistemological foundations and theoretical basis of the science of improvement and its reasoning methods need to be critically examined to ensure its continued development and relevance. If improvement efforts and projects in health care are to be characterized under the canon of science, then health care professionals engaged in quality improvement work would benefit from a standard set of core principles, a standard lexicon, and an understanding of the evolution of the science of

  12. Shape Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2009-01-01

    of the rotor. The design variables used in the current study are the blade shape parameters, including chord, twist and relative thickness. To validate the implementation of the aerodynamic/aero-elastic model, the computed aerodynamic results are compared to experimental data for the experimental rotor used...... in the European Commision-sponsored project Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions, (MEXICO) and the computed aero-elastic results are examined against the FLEX code for flow post the Tjereborg 2 MW rotor. To illustrate the optimization technique, three wind turbine rotors of different sizes (the MEXICO 25 k...

  13. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  14. Comparative evaluation of different offshore wind turbine installation vessels for Korean west–south wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Ahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate various means of wind power turbines installation in the Korean west–south wind farm (Test bed 100 MW, Demonstrate site 400 MW. We presented the marine environment of the southwest offshore wind farm in order to decide the appropriate installation vessel to be used in this site. The various vessels would be WTIV (Wind turbine installation vessel, jack-up barge, or floating crane … etc. We analyzed the installation cost of offshore wind turbine and the transportation duration for each vessel. The analysis results showed the most suitable installation means for offshore wind turbine in the Korean west–south wind farm.

  15. Upscaling wind turbines: theoretical and practical aspects and their impact on the cost of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieros, G.; Chaviaropoulos, P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines with a rated power of 5 to 6 MW are now being designed and installed, mostly for offshore operation. Within the EU supported UpWind research project, the barriers for a further increase of size, up to 20 MW, are considered. These wind turbines are expected to have a rotor diameter up......‐efficient way. Finally, a theoretical framework for optimal design of large wind turbines is developed. This is based on a life cycle cost approach, with the introduction of generic models for the costs, as functions of the design parameters and using basic upscaling laws adjusted for technology improvement...... to 250 m and a hub height of more than 150 m. Initially, the theoretical implications of upscaling to such sizes on the weight and loads of the wind turbines are examined, where it is shown that unfavourable increases in weight and load will have to be addressed. Following that, empirical models...

  16. Flicker Mitigation by Individual Pitch Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With DFIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    generatorto investigate the flicker emission and mitigation issues. An individual pitch control (IPC) strategy is proposed to reduce the flicker emission at different wind speed conditions. The IPC scheme is proposed and the individual pitch controller is designed according to the generator active power...... and the azimuth angle of the wind turbine. The simulations are performed on the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 1.5-MW upwind reference wind turbine model. Simulation results show that damping the generator active power by IPC is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind......Due to the wind speed variation, wind shear and tower shadow effects, grid connected wind turbines are the sources of power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a model of an MW-level variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction...

  17. Annoyance, detection and recognition of wind turbine noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy; Bockstael, Annelies; De Weirt, Valentine; Botteldooren, Dick

    2013-07-01

    Annoyance, recognition and detection of noise from a single wind turbine were studied by means of a two-stage listening experiment with 50 participants with normal hearing abilities. In-situ recordings made at close distance from a 1.8-MW wind turbine operating at 22 rpm were mixed with road traffic noise, and processed to simulate indoor sound pressure levels at LAeq 40 dBA. In a first part, where people were unaware of the true purpose of the experiment, samples were played during a quiet leisure activity. Under these conditions, pure wind turbine noise gave very similar annoyance ratings as unmixed highway noise at the same equivalent level, while annoyance by local road traffic noise was significantly higher. In a second experiment, listeners were asked to identify the sample containing wind turbine noise in a paired comparison test. The detection limit of wind turbine noise in presence of highway noise was estimated to be as low as a signal-to-noise ratio of -23 dBA. When mixed with local road traffic, such a detection limit could not be determined. These findings support that noticing the sound could be an important aspect of wind turbine noise annoyance at the low equivalent levels typically observed indoors in practice. Participants that easily recognized wind-turbine(-like) sounds could detect wind turbine noise better when submersed in road traffic noise. Recognition of wind turbine sounds is also linked to higher annoyance. Awareness of the source is therefore a relevant aspect of wind turbine noise perception which is consistent with previous research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Importance of Dynamic Inflow Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Knudsen, Torben; Overgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of including dynamic inflow in the model based design of wind turbine controller has been discussed for many years in the wind energy community with out getting to a safe conclusion. This paper delivers a good argument in favor of including dynamic inflow. The main contributions...... pronounces. For this the well accepted NREL 5MW reference turbine simulated with FAST is used. The main result is a reduction in tower fatigue load at 22% while power error, rotor speed error, generator torque and pitch rate is improved from 2 to 33%....

  19. The 52-inch last-stage blades for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last-stage blades (LSB) of steam turbines are one of the most important components determining the plant's maximum capacity and efficiency. The development of LSBs necessitates high-technology including advanced methods of analyses and verifications as well as ample accumulation of technical data. The 52-inch LSB recently developed by Toshiba has raised nuclear power plant's capacity up to 1,300 ∼ 1,800 MW, has effected compact design of turbine units, and has improved thermal efficiency, keeping high reliability. (author)

  20. Sequence Domain Harmonic Modeling of Type-IV Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    -sampled pulsewidth modulation and an analysis of converter generated voltage harmonics due to compensated dead-time. The decoupling capabilities of the proposed the SD harmonic model are verified through a power quality (PQ) assessment of a 3MW Type-IV wind turbine. The assessment shows that the magnitude and phase...... of low-order odd converter generated voltage harmonics are dependent on the converter operating point and the phase of the fundamental component of converter current respectively. The SD harmonic model can be used to make PQ assessments of Type-IV wind turbines or incorporated into harmonic load flows...... for computation of PQ in wind power plants....

  1. Measurements of Operational Wind Turbine Noise in UK Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of wind farm operational noise have not been addressed to the same extent as their construction methods such as piling and drilling of the foundations despite their long operational lifetimes compared with weeks of construction. The results of five postconstruction underwater sound-monitoring surveys on wind farms located throughout the waters of the British Isles are discussed. These wind farms consist of differing turbine power outputs, from 3 to 3.6 MW, and differing numbers of turbines. This work presents an overview of the results obtained and discusses both the levels and frequency components of the sound in several metrics.

  2. Propositional density and cognitive function in later life: findings from the Precursors Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M; Meoni, Lucy A; Klag, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    We used longitudinal data from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study to test the hypothesis that written propositional density measured early in life is lower for people who develop dementia categorized as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association was reported in 1996 for the Nun Study, and the Precursors Study offered an unprecedented chance to reexamine it among respondents with different gender, education, and occupation profiles. Eighteen individuals classified as AD patients (average age at diagnosis: 74) were assigned 2 sex-and-age matched controls, and propositional density in medical school admission essays (average age at writing: 22) was assessed via Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater 3 linguistic analysis software. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the matched case-control study were calculated using conditional (fixed-effects) logistic regression. Mean propositional density is lower for cases than for controls (4.70 vs. 4.99 propositions per 10 words, 1-sided p = .01). Higher propositional density substantially lowers the odds of AD (OR = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.90, 1-sided p = .02). Propositional density scores in writing samples from early adulthood appear to predict AD in later life for men as well as women. Studies of cognition across the life course might beneficially incorporate propositional density as a potential marker of cognitive reserve.

  3. Gann Limit & Proposition 13: Negative Effects on Local Government Agencies, Inlcuding Schools & Community College Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Albert S.

    In fall 1978, Paul Gann, who worked with Howard Jarvis to pass California's Proposition 13 in June 1978, sought to qualify an intitiative placing a constitutional limit on state and local government expenditures. This initiative qualified and was approved by voters in November 1979 as Proposition 4. Gann's solicitation set the limitation's base…

  4. Results, advantages, cost effectivity and installation potential of cooperation wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbach, J.; De Vries, J.

    1990-01-01

    September 1987 a cooperation of small electricity consumers installed the first cooperative wind turbine in Delft, Netherlands. At present there are 25 such cooperatives with more than 4000 members. In February 1990 14 cooperative wind turbines were in operation with a total capacity of 1,030 kWh. An extension to 23 wind turbines with a total capacity of circa 1.8 MW and a total investment of 3.8 million Dutch guilders is expected for 1990. In 1989 1.1 million kWh has been generated, and in 1990 a production of more than 2 million kWh is expected. The most important advantages of cooperative exploitation of wind turbines are the positive public opinion, extensive possibilities to install the wind turbines, the free choice of location, and cost effectivity. At the present level of investment subsidies and kWh compensations the installed capacity can increase to a maximum of 10 MW in 1995. If a national regulation for cooperative exploitation will be implemented, the kWh compensations increase to DFl 0.17-0.20 and the investment subsidies gradually decrease to zero, the total capacity can mount to 40 MW in 1995 and 125 MW in the year 2000. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  5. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the overall program status of the General Electric Advanced Gas Turbine Development program, and reports progress on three main task areas. The program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70-MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology, utilizing a new air cooling methodology; and (2) a 200-MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy-duty machine, utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. The emphasis for the industrial system is placed on cycle design and low emission combustion. For the utility system, the focus is on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while achieving low emission combustion. The three tasks included in this progress report are on: conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system, integrated program plan, and design and test of critical components. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  7. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  8. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions

  9. Operating experiences with 1 MW steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, A; Kanamori, A; Tsuchiya, T

    1975-07-01

    1 MW steam generator, which was planned as the first stage of steam generator development in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Corp. (PNC) in Japan, is a single-unit, once-through, integrated shell and tube type with multi-helical coil tubes. It was completed in Oarai Engineering Center of PNC in March of 1971, and the various performance tests were carried out up to April, 1972. After the dismantle of the steam generator for structural inspection and material test, it was restored with some improvements. In this second 1 MW steam generator, small leak occurred twice during normal operation. After repairing the failure, the same kind of performance tests as the first steam generator were conducted in order to verify the thermal insulation effect of argon gas in downcomer zone from March to June, 1974. In this paper the above operating experiences were presented including the outline of some performance test results. (author)

  10. 1-MW klystron for fusion plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tadashi; Miyake, Setsuo; Ohno, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    A plasma test apparatus to bring about the critical plasma conditions for nuclear fusion is now under construction in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Among various means of plasma heating, the most promising is the lower hybrid resonance heating (LHRF) in the 2-GHz region. Although it has so far requied 7 to 8 MW of microwave power for the plasma test apparatus, the new klystron, E3778, now constructed by Toshiba has the world's highest output power of 1 MW in the 2-GHz region. In addition to the excellent high-power operation for 10 seconds, the wide operating frequency range of 1.7 to 2.26 GHz by dint of sophisticated high-speed tuning mechanism, and the high durability to reflected power of up to 2.0 of VSWR are the high-lighted features of this klystron, which have never been achieved by conventional klystrons. (author)

  11. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design Load Cases Investigation and Comparison with Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinos, Christos; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the applicability of the IEC 61400-1 ed.3, 2005 International Standard of wind turbine minimum design requirements in the case of an onshore Darrieus VAWT and compares the results of basic Design Load Cases (DLCs) with those of a 3-bladed HAWT. The study is based on aeroelastic...... computations using the HAWC2 aero-servo-elastic code A 2-bladed 5 MW VAWT rotor is used based on a modified version of the DeepWind rotor For the HAWT simulations the NREL 3-bladed 5 MW reference wind turbine model is utilized Various DLCs are examined including normal power production, emergency shut down...... and parked situations, from cut-in to cut-out and extreme wind conditions. The ultimate and 1 Hz equivalent fatigue loads of the blade root and turbine base bottom are extracted and compared in order to give an insight of the load levels between the two concepts. According to the analysis the IEC 61400-1 ed...

  12. The Winfrith 9MW heat transfer rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obertelli, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Winfrith 9MW Rig is used for studying heat transfer and flow resistance in a variety of test sections at system pressures up to 68 bar. The basic rig and its instrumentation are discussed together with the characteristics of the test section design. The rig has been used in studies involving the full scale simulation of Steam Generating Heavy Water (SGHW) fuel assemblies and the paper discusses the measurements made in this type of study. (author)

  13. Micro-turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a principle of micro-turbines operation, type of micro-turbines and their characteristics is presented. It is shown their usage in cogeneration and three generation application with the characteristics, the influence of more factors on micro-turbines operation as well as the possibility for application in Macedonia. The paper is result of the author's participation in the training program 'Micro-turbine technology' in Florida, USA. The characteristics of different types micro-turbines by several world producers are shown, with accent on US micro-turbines producers (Capstone, Elliott). By using the gathered Author's knowledge, contacts and the previous knowledge, conclusions and recommendations for implementation of micro-turbines in Macedonia are given. (Author)

  14. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  15. Analisis Customer Segment, Channels, Dan Customer Relationship Dalam Pembentukan Value Proposition Di Starbucks Coffee (Studi Kasus Pada Starbucks Coffee Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmanisa, Aisy; Wilopo,; Sanawiri, Brillyanes

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand and explain; How to Starbucks Coffee create value proposition for their customer? How to Starbucks Coffee segmented the customer, to create the value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build and choose the channels to grab the customer and create value proposition? How to Starbucks Coffee build a customer relationship and create value proposition from the process? .This reaserch uses primery data descriptive analysis method with fenomelogy kualitative o...

  16. Study of regeneration system of 300 MW power unit based on nondeaerating heat balance diagram at reduced load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S. B.; Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Snegin, I. P.; Zhivykh, D. A.; Medvedkin, A. V.; Ryabich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 30 power units of thermal power stations, based on the nondeaerating heat balance diagram, successfully operate in the former Soviet Union. Most of them are power units with a power of 300 MW, equipped with HTGZ and LMZ turbines. They operate according to a variable electric load curve characterized by deep reductions when undergoing night minimums. Additional extension of the range of power unit adjustment makes it possible to maintain the dispatch load curve and obtain profit for the electric power plant. The objective of this research is to carry out estimated and experimental processing of the operating regimes of the regeneration system of steam-turbine plants within the extended adjustment range and under the conditions when the constraints on the regeneration system and its equipment are removed. Constraints concerning the heat balance diagram that reduce the power unit efficiency when extending the adjustment range have been considered. Test results are presented for the nondeaerating heat balance diagram with the HTGZ turbine. Turbine pump and feed electric pump operation was studied at a power unit load of 120-300 MW. The reliability of feed pump operation is confirmed by a stable vibratory condition and the absence of cavitation noise and vibration at a frequency that characterizes the cavitation condition, as well as by oil temperature maintenance after bearings within normal limits. Cavitation performance of pumps in the studied range of their operation has been determined. Technical solutions are proposed on providing a profitable and stable operation of regeneration systems when extending the range of adjustment of power unit load. A nondeaerating diagram of high-pressure preheater (HPP) condensate discharge to the mixer. A regeneration system has been developed and studied on the operating power unit fitted with a deaeratorless thermal circuit of the system for removing the high-pressure preheater heating steam condensate to the mixer

  17. Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.

    2015-02-01

    The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.

  18. Assessing the Ecological Footprint of Ecotourism Packages: A Methodological Proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serena Mancini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents a key economic sector worldwide, constituting great leverage for local economic development but also putting noticeable environmental pressures on local natural resources. Ecotourism may be a viable alternative to mass tourism to minimize impacts on ecosystems, but it needs shared sustainability standards and monitoring tools to evaluate impacts. This paper presents a first methodological proposition to calculate the environmental impact of ecotourism packages through the use of an ad-hoc, customized version of the Ecological Footprint methodology. It follows a participatory, bottom-up approach to collecting input data for the four main services (Accommodation, Food & Drinks, Activity & Service, and Mobility & Transfer provided to tourists through the use of surveys and stakeholders engagement. The outcome of our approach materializes in an excel-based ecotourism workbook capable of processing input data collected through surveys and returning Ecological Footprint values for specific ecotourism packages. Although applied to ecotourism in Mediterranean Protected Areas within the context of the DestiMED project, we believe that the methodology and approach presented here can constitute a blueprint and a benchmark for future studies dealing with the impact of ecotourism packages.

  19. 60-MW test using the 30-MW klystrons for the KEKB project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, S.; Michizono, S.; Nakao, K.; Saito, Y.; Anami, S.

    1995-07-01

    The B-Factory is a future plan, requiring an energy upgrade of the KEK linac from 2.5 GeV to 8.0 GeV (KEKB Project). This paper describes the recent development of an S-band high-power pulse klystron to be used as the PF-linac rf-source of the B-Factory. This tube is a modified version of the existing 30-MW tube, which produces 51 MW at a 310 kV beam voltage by optimizing the focusing magnetic field. In order to increase the reliability, the cathode diameter, the gun housing, and the insulation ceramic-seal were enlarged. This tube was redesigned so as to have the same characteristics as the test results of 30-MW tubes at a higher applied voltage without changing the rf interaction region. Four prototype tubes have been manufactured; final test results showed that these new tubes produce an output power of more than 50 MW at 310 kV with an efficiency of 46%. Recently this tube has produced more than 60 MW at a 350 kV beam voltage for a demonstration test. A comparison between the FCI-code prediction and the test results is also given in this paper.

  20. Future development of large steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevance, A.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to forecast the future of the large steam turbines till 1985. Three parameters affect the development of large turbines: 1) unit output; and a 2000 to 2500MW output may be scheduled; 2) steam quality: and two steam qualities may be considered: medium pressure saturated or slightly overheated steam (light water, heavy water); light enthalpie drop, high pressure steam, high temperature; high enthalpic drop; and 3) the quality of cooling supply. The largest range to be considered might be: open system cooling for sea-sites; humid tower cooling and dry tower cooling. Bi-fluid cooling cycles should be also mentioned. From the study of these influencing factors, it appears that the constructor, for an output of about 2500MW should have at his disposal the followings: two construction technologies for inlet parts and for high and intermediate pressure parts corresponding to both steam qualities; exhaust sections suitable for the different qualities of cooling supply. The two construction technologies with the two steam qualities already exist and involve no major developments. But, the exhaust section sets the question of rotational speed [fr

  1. Superconductivity for Large Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Fair; W. Stautner; M. Douglass; R. Rajput-Ghoshal; M. Moscinski; P. Riley; D. Wagner; J. Kim; S. Hou; F. Lopez; K. Haran; J. Bray; T. Laskaris; J. Rochford; R. Duckworth

    2012-10-12

    A conceptual design has been completed for a 10MW superconducting direct drive wind turbine generator employing low temperature superconductors for the field winding. Key technology building blocks from the GE Wind and GE Healthcare businesses have been transferred across to the design of this concept machine. Wherever possible, conventional technology and production techniques have been used in order to support the case for commercialization of such a machine. Appendices A and B provide further details of the layout of the machine and the complete specification table for the concept design. Phase 1 of the program has allowed us to understand the trade-offs between the various sub-systems of such a generator and its integration with a wind turbine. A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) analysis have been completed resulting in the identification of high risk components within the design. The design has been analyzed from a commercial and economic point of view and Cost of Energy (COE) calculations have been carried out with the potential to reduce COE by up to 18% when compared with a permanent magnet direct drive 5MW baseline machine, resulting in a potential COE of 0.075 $/kWh. Finally, a top-level commercialization plan has been proposed to enable this technology to be transitioned to full volume production. The main body of this report will present the design processes employed and the main findings and conclusions.

  2. Design of large Francis turbine using optimal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E.; Bornard, L.; Tomas, L.; Liu, J.; Couston, M.

    2012-11-01

    Among a high number of Francis turbine references all over the world, covering the whole market range of heads, Alstom has especially been involved in the development and equipment of the largest power plants in the world : Three Gorges (China -32×767 MW - 61 to 113 m), Itaipu (Brazil- 20x750 MW - 98.7m to 127m) and Xiangjiaba (China - 8x812 MW - 82.5m to 113.6m - in erection). Many new projects are under study to equip new power plants with Francis turbines in order to answer an increasing demand of renewable energy. In this context, Alstom Hydro is carrying out many developments to answer those needs, especially for jumbo units such the planned 1GW type units in China. The turbine design for such units requires specific care by using the state of the art in computation methods and the latest technologies in model testing as well as the maximum feedback from operation of Jumbo plants already in operation. We present in this paper how a large Francis turbine can be designed using specific design methods, including the global and local optimization methods. The design of the spiral case, the tandem cascade profiles, the runner and the draft tube are designed with optimization loops involving a blade design tool, an automatic meshing software and a Navier-Stokes solver, piloted by a genetic algorithm. These automated optimization methods, presented in different papers over the last decade, are nowadays widely used, thanks to the growing computation capacity of the HPC clusters: the intensive use of such optimization methods at the turbine design stage allows to reach very high level of performances, while the hydraulic flow characteristics are carefully studied over the whole water passage to avoid any unexpected hydraulic phenomena.

  3. Design of large Francis turbine using optimal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, E; Bornard, L; Tomas, L; Couston, M; Liu, J

    2012-01-01

    Among a high number of Francis turbine references all over the world, covering the whole market range of heads, Alstom has especially been involved in the development and equipment of the largest power plants in the world : Three Gorges (China −32×767 MW - 61 to 113 m), Itaipu (Brazil- 20x750 MW - 98.7m to 127m) and Xiangjiaba (China - 8x812 MW - 82.5m to 113.6m - in erection). Many new projects are under study to equip new power plants with Francis turbines in order to answer an increasing demand of renewable energy. In this context, Alstom Hydro is carrying out many developments to answer those needs, especially for jumbo units such the planned 1GW type units in China. The turbine design for such units requires specific care by using the state of the art in computation methods and the latest technologies in model testing as well as the maximum feedback from operation of Jumbo plants already in operation. We present in this paper how a large Francis turbine can be designed using specific design methods, including the global and local optimization methods. The design of the spiral case, the tandem cascade profiles, the runner and the draft tube are designed with optimization loops involving a blade design tool, an automatic meshing software and a Navier-Stokes solver, piloted by a genetic algorithm. These automated optimization methods, presented in different papers over the last decade, are nowadays widely used, thanks to the growing computation capacity of the HPC clusters: the intensive use of such optimization methods at the turbine design stage allows to reach very high level of performances, while the hydraulic flow characteristics are carefully studied over the whole water passage to avoid any unexpected hydraulic phenomena.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under Emergency Shutdown Using Hydrodynamic Brake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency shutdown is always a challenge for an operating vertical axis wind turbine. A 5-MW vertical axis wind turbine with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure was examined in this study. Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of the floating vertical...... axis wind turbine were carried out for emergency shutdown cases over a range of environmental conditions based on correlated wind and wave data. When generator failure happens, a brake should be applied to stop the acceleration of the rotor to prevent the rotor from overspeeding and subsequent disaster...

  5. Low-Voltage Ride-Through of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and a full-scale converter developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. The low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of the wind turbine is investigated. A new...... control scheme for the wind turbine that keeps it connected to the grid during grid faults is designed and simulated. Its design has special focus on the regulation of the DC-link voltage. Simulation results show the proposed control scheme is an effective measure to improve LVRT capability of variable...

  6. Dynamics and control modeling of the closed-cycle gas turbine (GT-HTGR) power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardia, A.

    1980-02-01

    The simulation if presented for the 800-MW(e) two-loop GT-HTGR plant design with the REALY2 transient analysis computer code, and the modeling of control strategies called for by the inherently unique operational requirements of a multiple loop GT-HTGR is described. Plant control of the GT-HTGR is constrained by the nature of its power conversion loops (PCLs) in which the core cooling flow and the turbine flow are directly related and thus changes in flow affect core cooling as well as turbine power. Additionally, the high thermal inertia of the reactor core precludes rapid changes in the temperature of the turbine inlet flow

  7. Analyses of the mechanisms of amplitude modulation of aero-acoustic wind turbine sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the source mechanism which cause amplitude modulation of the emitted sound of a wind turbine at large distances from the turbine, named as other amplitude modulation. Measurements of the fluctuating surface pressure on a 2.3MW wind turbine showed a considerable variation over...... give further evidence that transient stall is a main mechanism to cause other amplitude modulation. Wind shear was identified as a critical condition to cause angle of attack variations. Dierent control strategies to mitigate other amplitude modulation were proposed....

  8. Validated Loads Prediction Models for Offshore Wind Turbines for Enhanced Component Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina

    To improve the reliability of offshore wind turbines, accurate prediction of their response is required. Therefore, validation of models with site measurements is imperative. In the present thesis a 3.6MW pitch regulated-variable speed offshore wind turbine on a monopole foundation is built...... are used for the modification of the sub-structure/foundation design for possible material savings. First, the background of offshore wind engineering, including wind-wave conditions, support structure, blade loading and wind turbine dynamics are presented. Second, a detailed description of the site...

  9. Study on Determination Method of Fatigue Testing Load for Wind Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gaohua; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the load calculation method of the fatigue test was studied for the wind turbine blade under uniaxial loading. The characteristics of wind load and blade equivalent load were analyzed. The fatigue property and damage theory of blade material were studied. The fatigue load for 2MW blade was calculated by Bladed, and the stress calculated by ANSYS. Goodman modified exponential function S-N curve and linear cumulative damage rule were used to calculate the fatigue load of wind turbine blades. It lays the foundation for the design and experiment of wind turbine blade fatigue loading system.

  10. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary

  11. 34 GHz, 45 MW pulsed magnicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhevenko, Oleg A.; LaPointe, Michael A.; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav P.; Hirshfield, Jay L.; Serdobintsev, Gennady V.; Kuznetsov, Gennady I.; Persov, Boris Z.; Fix, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    A high efficiency, high power magnicon at 34.272 GHz has been designed and built as a microwave source to develop RF technology for a future multi-TeV electron-positron linear collider. The tube is designed to provide a peak output power of ∼45 MW in a 1 microsecond pulse, with a gain of 55 dB, using a 500 kV, 220 A, 1 mm-diameter electron beam. The status of the tube itself as well as the near-term experimental program is presented

  12. A five MW nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dafang; Don Duo; Su Quingshan

    1997-01-01

    The 5 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-5) developed and designed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology (INET) and has been operated for four winter seasons since 1989. During the time of commissioning and operation a number of experiments including self-stability, self-regulation and simulation of ATWS etc. were carried out. Some operating experiences such as water chemistry, radiation protection, and environmental impacts and so on, were also obtained at the same time. All of these demonstrate that the design of NHR-5 is successful. (author)

  13. PLC control of 50 MW klystron modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Lei; Liu Gongfa; Chen Liping; Lu Yeming; Hong Jun; Zhang Yi; Zhao Feng

    2004-01-01

    Upgrade project of the 50 MW klystron modulators of Hefei Light Source (HLS) was firstly introduced. PLC control system of modulators was employed to replace the old control and monitor system, which was based on relay logic circuit and manual operation method. the PLC system becomes a sub system of the new EPICS control system of HLS. Constant-current, switch-mode and high voltage power supplies were adopted to replace the old 50 Hz power supplies. The technology of modulators was improved and operation was more reliable. The design method, hardware and software of PLC control of modulators were described and the performance was presented. (authors)

  14. GE will finance 614-MW cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The General Electric Power Funding Corporation, a unit of GE Capital, will provide up to $870 million in construction and permanent financing, and letters of credit to Cogen Technologies of Houston, Texas. The agreement will fund the construction of a 614-megawatt (MW), combined-cycle cogeneration plant to be built in Linden, New Jersey, and for the purchase of gas properties. The plant will be owned by Cogen Technologies. The financing is one of the largest packages ever for a cogeneration plant, GE said

  15. Impact of wind turbine noise in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Edwin; Jabben, Jan; Schreurs, Eric; Smith, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government aims at an increase of wind energy up to 6 000 MW in 2020 by placing new wind turbines on land or offshore. At the same time, the existing noise legislation for wind turbines is being reconsidered. For the purpose of establishing a new noise reception limit value expressed in L den , the impact of wind turbine noise under the given policy targets needs to be explored. For this purpose, the consequences of different reception limit values for the new Dutch noise legislation have been studied, both in terms of effects on the population and regarding sustainable energy policy targets. On the basis of a nation-wide noise map containing all wind turbines in The Netherlands, it is calculated that 3% of the inhabitants of The Netherlands are currently exposed to noise from wind turbines above 28 dB(A) at the faηade. Newly established dose-response relationships indicate that about 1500 of these inhabitants are likely to be severely annoyed inside their dwellings. The available space for new wind turbines strongly depends on the noise limit value that will be chosen. This study suggests an outdoor A-weighted reception limit of L den = 45 dB as a trade-off between the need for protection against noise annoyance and the feasibility of national targets for renewable energy.

  16. Wind turbine operated sailboat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.

    1990-07-31

    A wind powered boat is disclosed which incorporates a vertical axis rotary turbine. A shaft portion extends downwardly from the turbine to a water pump, with the boat being provided with a forwardly opening inlet and a rearwardly opening outlet from the water pump. When rotating, the turbine operates the pump by the shaft to draw in water through the inlet, thereby creating a low pressure area in front of the boat, and to force the water out through the outlet for propelling the boat. In a preferred embodiment, the boat has a catamaran construction or is a large ocean going vessel with enough width to provide a buffer to either side of the turbine, and the turbine is the Darrieus rotor type. The pump is a standard centrifugal type of pump. A self adjusting braking device for the turbine is also disclosed, which prevents over-rotation and is also capable of storing heat energy generated during braking. 4 figs.

  17. The swirl turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, M; Pochylý, F; Rudolf, P

    2012-01-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHη h = −u 2 v u2 . From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  18. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  19. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  20. Wind Resource Assessment and Requested Wind Turbine Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ken [Municipal Civil Corporation, Gas City, IN (United States); Wolar, John [Municipal Civil Corporation, Gas City, IN (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Alternate Energy Solutions, Inc. (“AESWR”) was engaged by the Town of Brookston (“Brookston”) to assemble, erect and maintain one 60 m XHD meteorological tower manufactured by NRG Systems, Inc.; for monitoring, recording and evaluating collected wind data. It is the opinion of AESWR staff that study results support the development of a wind turbine project at the Bol Family Farm provided: a) additional land is leased for the project; b) project construction costs are controlled; and c) a prudent power purchase agreement is negotiated with a power take-off entity. We believe that a project having an aggregate nameplate rating sized from 6.0 MW to 20 MW would be appropriate for this location. We recommend 100-125 acres of land per installed MW be used as a general rule for acquiring wind energy land lease agreements, total land lease holdings to be acquired would then approach 750 acres to 2,500 acres.

  1. Computational analysis of vertical axis wind turbine arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremseth, J.; Duraisamy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Canonical problems involving single, pairs, and arrays of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are investigated numerically with the objective of understanding the underlying flow structures and their implications on energy production. Experimental studies by Dabiri (J Renew Sustain Energy 3, 2011) suggest that VAWTs demand less stringent spacing requirements than their horizontal axis counterparts and additional benefits may be obtained by optimizing the placement and rotational direction of VAWTs. The flowfield of pairs of co-/counter-rotating VAWTs shows some similarities with pairs of cylinders in terms of wake structure and vortex shedding. When multiple VAWTs are placed in a column, the extent of the wake is seen to spread further downstream, irrespective of the direction of rotation of individual turbines. However, the aerodynamic interference between turbines gives rise to regions of excess momentum between the turbines which lead to significant power augmentations. Studies of VAWTs arranged in multiple columns show that the downstream columns can actually be more efficient than the leading column, a proposition that could lead to radical improvements in wind farm productivity.

  2. Low frequency noise from large wind turbines - updated 2011; Lavfrekvent stoej fra store vindmoeller - opdateret 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.; Sejer Pedersen, C.; Pedersen, Steffen

    2011-07-01

    The study analyzed measurements of noise from 65 wind turbines, 25 large turbines (2.3 to 3.6 MW) and 40 small ones (up to 2 MW). The large mills (2.3 to 3.6 MW) emit relatively more low frequency noise than the small ones (up to 2 MW). The difference is statistically significant for the frequency range 63-250 Hz, regardless of whether calculations are performed on all the large mills or only on new wind turbines. There are no significant differences between prototype turbines and the new mills. Because of wind noise in the measurements of the small mills, it is not possible to determine whether the difference between small and large turbines continues further down in frequency. Looking at the A-weighted sound pressure in relevant neighbor distances, the lower frequencies constitute an essential part of the noise from the large mills, and there is no doubt that the low frequency noise is both audible and annoying. When the total A-weighted sound pressure level is the same, there will on average be about 3 dB more low frequency noise from large turbines than from small ones. At large distances the noise character becomes yet more low frequency because atmospheric absorption reduces the high frequencies more than the low frequencies. Depending on the sound insulation the low frequency noise can also be annoying indoors. If the total A-weighted sound pressure level outdoors is 44 dB, the low frequency noise can be heard indoors in all the houses and for all the large turbines. The sound pressure level will in many cases exceed the indoor limit for evening night at 20 dB. (ln)

  3. Flow in Pelton turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Kjartan

    2013-01-01

    The flow in Pelton turbines is subsonic, turbulent, multiphase (water, air, and water vapor from cavitation), has high speeds, sharp gradients, free surface and dynamic boundary conditions. A static grid is unsuitable for modeling this mainly due to the turbine wheel and the liquid having a non-stationary relative motion.In recent times, significant progress in CFD simulation has been made, which also is relevant for Pelton turbines.Nevertheless, it is still common to perform costly model tes...

  4. Extrapolation of the Dutch 1 MW tunable free electron maser to a 5 MW ECRH source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, M.; Nelson, S.; Kamin, G.; Antonsen, T. Levush, B.; Urbanus, W.; Tulupov, A.

    1995-01-01

    A Free Electron Maser (FEM) is now under construction at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz with wall plug efficiencies of 50% (Verhoeven, et al EC-9 Conference). An extrapolated version of this device is proposed which by scaling up the beam current, would produce microwave power levels of up to 5 MW CW in order to reduce the cost per watt and increase the power per module, thus providing the fusion community with a practical ECRH source

  5. Marketing research with respect to centralized electric power generation with wind turbines. Verkenning van de markt voor centrale elektriciteitsopwekking met windenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Van den Doel, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The electric utilities so far are not eager to invest in wind power as long as the price per kWh wind power is higher than saved fuel costs. The price the electric utilities are willing to pay for surplus wind power still remains low. Combined with price expectations in the near future for fossil fuels the market does not show great prospects. Wind turbine manufacturers were asked about price-quantity curves of wind turbine types: 3 MW, 1 MW, and 300 kW respectively. Combining the demand and supply side of the market it seems possible in areas having a good wind regime to exploit wind power in a cost-effective way. For a market incentive a wind power capacity of 400 MW: 75-3 MW wind turbines, 120-1 MW wind turbines, 15-300 kW wind turbines and 50 MW for demonstration projects for proving the viability of the technology. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    United Technologies Research Center, Pratt Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

  7. Gravo-Aeroelastic Scaling for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Loth, Eric [University of Virginia; Kaminski, Meghan [University of Virginia; Qin, Chao [University of Virginia; Griffith, D. Todd [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-06-09

    A scaling methodology is described in the present paper for extreme-scale wind turbines (rated at 10 MW or more) that allow their sub-scale turbines to capture their key blade dynamics and aeroelastic deflections. For extreme-scale turbines, such deflections and dynamics can be substantial and are primarily driven by centrifugal, thrust and gravity forces as well as the net torque. Each of these are in turn a function of various wind conditions, including turbulence levels that cause shear, veer, and gust loads. The 13.2 MW rated SNL100-03 rotor design, having a blade length of 100-meters, is herein scaled to the CART3 wind turbine at NREL using 25% geometric scaling and blade mass and wind speed scaled by gravo-aeroelastic constraints. In order to mimic the ultralight structure on the advanced concept extreme-scale design the scaling results indicate that the gravo-aeroelastically scaled blades for the CART3 are be three times lighter and 25% longer than the current CART3 blades. A benefit of this scaling approach is that the scaled wind speeds needed for testing are reduced (in this case by a factor of two), allowing testing under extreme gust conditions to be much more easily achieved. Most importantly, this scaling approach can investigate extreme-scale concepts including dynamic behaviors and aeroelastic deflections (including flutter) at an extremely small fraction of the full-scale cost.

  8. Prospective gas turbine and combined-cycle units for power engineering (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2013-02-01

    The modern state of technology for making gas turbines around the world and heat-recovery combined-cycle units constructed on their basis are considered. The progress achieved in this field by Siemens, Mitsubishi, General Electric, and Alstom is analyzed, and the objectives these companies set forth for themselves for the near and more distant future are discussed. The 375-MW gas turbine unit with an efficiency of 40% produced by Siemens, which is presently the largest one, is subjected to a detailed analysis. The main specific features of this turbine are that the gas turbine unit's hot-path components have purely air cooling, due to which the installation has enhanced maneuverability. The single-shaft combined-cycle plant constructed on the basis of this turbine has a capacity of 570 MW and efficiency higher than 60%. Programs adopted by different companies for development of new-generation gas turbine units firing synthesis gas and fitted with low-emission combustion chambers and new cooling systems are considered. Concepts of rotor blades for new gas turbine units with improved thermal barrier coatings and composite blades different parts of which are made of materials selected in accordance with the conditions of their operation are discussed.

  9. Experimental study on the heavy-duty gas turbine combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonovsky, V.; Ahn, Kook Young

    2000-01-01

    The results of stand and field testing of a combustion chamber for a heavy-duty 150 MW gas turbine are discussed. The model represented one of 14 identical segments of a tubular multican combustor constructed in the scale 1:1. The model experiments were executed at a pressure smaller than in the real gas turbine. The combustion efficiency, pressure loss factor, pattern factor, liner wall temperature, flame radiation, fluctuating pressure, and NOx emission were measured at partial and full load for both model and on-site testing. The comparison of these items of information, received on similar modes in the stand and field tests, has allowed the development of a method of calculation and the improvement of gas turbine combustors

  10. DOE-EPRI distributed wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowin, C.; DeMeo, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Calvert, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP). The goal of the program is to evaluate prototype advanced wind turbines at several sites developed by U.S. electric utility companies. Two six MW wind projects have been installed under the TVP program by Central and South West Services in Fort Davis, Texas and Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, Vermont. In early 1997, DOE and EPRI selected five more utility projects to evaluate distributed wind generation using smaller {open_quotes}clusters{close_quotes} of wind turbines connected directly to the electricity distribution system. This paper presents an overview of the objectives, scope, and status of the EPRI-DOE TVP program and the existing and planned TVP projects.

  11. Design of a New Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Brincker, Rune

    2004-01-01

    was installed at the test field in Frederikshavn in late 2003, with a 3 MW wind turbine in normal operation. The R&D work is continued the complete the bucket concept and having the design standards for the construction and installation methodologies recognised. The design saves about half of the steel weight...... as compared to a traditional pile foundation, it is much easier to install and it can easily be removed when the wind turbine is taken down. However, the new design is suffering from uncertainties in the accumulated fatigue in the both the steel structure and the surrounding earth material. Therefore an on......The gravitation platform and the monopile have in the previous major offshore wind turbine projects been dominating. A four-year research and development project has proven the bucket foundation to be feasible in suitable soil condition in water depth from near shore to app. 40 meters. A prototype...

  12. Measuring and model validation at a 1 MW wind power plant gondola system test rig in view of future certification procedures; Messung und Modellvalidierung an einem 1 MW WEA Gondelsystempruefstand im Hinblick auf zukuenftige Zertifizierungsprozeduren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelenz, R.; Jacobs, G.; Barenhorst, F.; Bi, L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Maschinenelemente und Maschinengestaltung (IME)

    2013-06-01

    Wind Turbines (WT) are highly dynamical stressed vibration systems with complex interactions among their separate components. The request for turbines with higher performance and at the same time higher profitability leads to a conflict between required stiffness and reduction of masses. This has a significant influence on the turbines dynamic response behaviour. Through the realistic reproduction of the de facto loads it is possible to design the profoundly connected components safely and profitable at the same time during the early stages of WT-development. Because of the high speed of WT-development there is a lack of needful long time experience. Nowadays the tests of actual WT are based on both time and cost intensive field tests under undefined wind conditions. At AWTH Aachen University there are two test benches for the testing of nacelles to supplement and partial substitute these aforementioned field tests, one with 1 MW power in use and one with 4 MW power under construction. Findings from the test bench operation are to be combined with simulation results. In this way comprehensive knowledge about the single components and their interactions can be gained to further support the industrial development of WT. (orig.)

  13. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  14. Potential Size of and Value Proposition for H2@Scale Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-11-09

    The H2@Scale concept is focused on developing hydrogen as an energy carrier and using hydrogen's properties to improve the national energy system. Specifically hydrogen has the abilities to (1) supply a clean energy source for industry and transportation and (2) increase the profitability of variable renewable electricity generators such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic (PV) farms by providing value for otherwise potentially-curtailed electricity. Thus the concept also has the potential to reduce oil dependency by providing a low-carbon fuel for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants such as NOx, and support domestic energy production, manufacturing, and U.S. economic competitiveness. The analysis reported here focuses on the potential market size and value proposition for the H2@Scale concept. It involves three analysis phases: 1. Initial phase estimating the technical potential for hydrogen markets and the resources required to meet them; 2. National-scale analysis of the economic potential for hydrogen and the interactions between willingness to pay by hydrogen users and the cost to produce hydrogen from various sources; and 3. In-depth analysis of spatial and economic issues impacting hydrogen production and utilization and the markets. Preliminary analysis of the technical potential indicates that the technical potential for hydrogen use is approximately 60 million metric tons (MMT) annually for light duty FCEVs, heavy duty vehicles, ammonia production, oil refining, biofuel hydrotreating, metals refining, and injection into the natural gas system. The technical potential of utility-scale PV and wind generation independently are much greater than that necessary to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen. Uranium, natural gas, and coal reserves are each sufficient to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen in addition to their current uses for decades to centuries. National estimates of the economic potential of

  15. Consistent modelling of wind turbine noise propagation from source to receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The unsteady nature of wind turbine noise is a major reason for annoyance. The variation of far-field sound pressure levels is not only caused by the continuous change in wind turbine noise source levels but also by the unsteady flow field and the ground characteristics between the turbine...... propagation of a 5 MW wind turbine is investigated. Sound pressure level time series evaluated at the source time are studied for varying wind speeds, surface roughness, and ground impedances within a 2000 m radius from the turbine....... and receiver. To take these phenomena into account, a consistent numerical technique that models the sound propagation from the source to receiver is developed. Large eddy simulation with an actuator line technique is employed for the flow modelling and the corresponding flow fields are used to simulate sound...

  16. Guidelines on the environmental risk of wind turbines in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, H.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.

    2004-02-01

    A structural failure of a wind turbine might lead to loss of blade (or parts of it) and thus cause a risk to nearby people and property. In the Netherlands, more densely populated areas are considered to achieve the target set by the Dutch government of implementing 1,500 MW wind power onshore. Because of the public opinion locations close to highways, railways, canals or existing industrial zones are preferred. This development brings about that the risk of wind turbines for the environment becomes more significant as more people might be present near a wind turbine for a longer period. To deal with risks of wind turbine in a rational manner, a handbook with procedures for the risk assessment of wind turbines has been drawn up by order of Novem (the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment). This paper discusses the contents of the handbook and the status of the handbook in the legal framework

  17. LQR Feedback Control Development for Wind Turbines Featuring a Digital Fluid Power Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    with a DFP motor, which has been combined with the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine model. A classical variable speed control strategy for wind speeds below rated is proposed for the turbine, where the pump displacement is fixed and the digital motor displacement is varied for pressure control. The digital...... for such digital systems are complicated by its non-smooth behavior. In this paper a control design approach for a digital displacement machine® is proposed and a performance analysis of a wind turbine using a DFP transmission is presented. The performance evaluation is based on a dynamic model of the transmission...... invariant model. Using full-field flow wind profiles as input, the design approach and control performance is verified by simulation in the dynamic model of the wind turbine featuring the DFP transmission. Additionally, the performance is compared to that of the conventional NREL reference turbine...

  18. Calculation of transient potential rise on the wind turbine struck by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqing, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A circuit model is proposed in this paper for calculating the transient potential rise on the wind turbine struck by lightning. The model integrates the blade, sliding contact site, and tower and grounding system of the wind turbine into an equivalent circuit. The lightning current path from the attachment point to the ground can be fully described by the equivalent circuit. The transient potential responses are obtained in the different positions on the wind turbine by solving the circuit equations. In order to check the validity of the model, the laboratory measurement is made with a reduced-scale wind turbine. The measured potential waveform is compared with the calculated one and a better agreement is shown between them. The practical applicability of the model is also examined by a numerical example of a 2 MW Chinese-built wind turbine.

  19. Advanced modelling of doubly fed induction generator wind turbine under network disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seman, S.; Iov, Florin; Niiranen, J.

    This paper presents a variable speed wind turbine simulator. The simulator is used for a 2 MW wind turbine transient behavior study during a short-term symmetrical network disturbance. The mechanical part of wind turbine model consists of the rotor aerodynamic model, the wind turbine control...... converter, the model of the main transformer and a simple model of the grid. The simulation results obtained by means of the detailed wind turbine model are compared with the results obtained from a simplified simulator with an analytical model and FEM model of DFIG. The comparison of the results shows...... and the drive train model. The Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is represented by an analytical two-axis model with constant lumped parameters and by Finite Element Method (FEM) based model. The model of the DFIG is coupled with the model of the passive crowbar protected and DTC controlled frequency...

  20. Power and loads for wind turbines in yawed conditions. Analysis of field measurements and aerodynamic predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorsma, K. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    A description is given of the work carried out within the framework of the FLOW (Far and Large Offshore Wind) project on single turbine performance in yawed flow conditions. Hereto both field measurements as well as calculations with an aerodynamic code are analyzed. The rotors of horizontal axis wind turbines follow the changes in the wind direction for optimal performance. The reason is that the power is expected to decrease for badly oriented rotors. So, insight in the effects of the yaw angle on performance is important for optimization of the yaw control of each individual turbine. The effect of misalignment on performance and loads of a single 2.5 MW wind turbine during normal operation is investigated. Hereto measurements at the ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer (EWTW) are analyzed from December 2004 until April 2009. Also, the influence of yaw is studied using a design code and results from this design code are compared with wind tunnel measurements.