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Sample records for mutations causing familial

  1. Recurrent LDL-receptor mutation causes familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... 3. eaudet . New. Recurrent LDL-receptor mutation causes familial hypercholesterolaemia in ... amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)" and single- strand conformation .... Location. Afrikaner. Mixed race. ApaLl.

  2. Novel GABRG2 mutations cause familial febrile seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, Morgane; Morin-Brureau, Mélanie; Picard, Fabienne; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Lambrecq, Virginie; Minetti, Carlo; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico; Iacomino, Michele; Ishida, Saeko; An-Gourfinkel, Isabelle; Daniau, Mailys; Hardies, Katia; Baulac, Michel; Dulac, Olivier; Leguern, Eric; Nabbout, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic cause in a large family with febrile seizures (FS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and subsequently search for additional mutations in a cohort of 107 families with FS, with or without epilepsy. Methods: The cohort consisted of 1 large family with FS and TLE, 64 smaller French families recruited through a national French campaign, and 43 Italian families. Molecular analyses consisted of whole-exome sequencing and mutational screening. Results: Exome sequencing revealed a p.Glu402fs*3 mutation in the γ2 subunit of the GABAA receptor gene (GABRG2) in the large family with FS and TLE. Three additional nonsense and frameshift GABRG2 mutations (p.Arg136*, p.Val462fs*33, and p.Pro59fs*12), 1 missense mutation (p.Met199Val), and 1 exonic deletion were subsequently identified in 5 families of the follow-up cohort. Conclusions: We report GABRG2 mutations in 5.6% (6/108) of families with FS, with or without associated epilepsy. This study provides evidence that GABRG2 mutations are linked to the FS phenotype, rather than epilepsy, and that loss-of-function of GABAA receptor γ2 subunit is the probable underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:27066572

  3. Progranulin mutation causes frontotemporal dementia in the Swedish Karolinska family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Rosvall, Lina; Brohede, Jesper; Axelman, Karin; Björk, Behnosh F; Nennesmo, Inger; Robins, Tiina; Graff, Caroline

    2008-11-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment, language dysfunction, and/or changes in personality. Recently it has been shown that progranulin (GRN) mutations can cause FTD as well as other neurodegenerative phenotypes. DNA from 30 family members, of whom seven were diagnosed with FTD, in the Karolinska family was available for GRN sequencing. Fibroblast cell mRNA from one affected family member and six control individuals was available for relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the effect of the mutation. Furthermore, the cDNA of an affected individual was sequenced. Clinical and neuropathologic findings of a previously undescribed family branch are presented. A frameshift mutation in GRN (g.102delC) was detected in all affected family members and absent in four unaffected family members older than 70 years. Real-time polymerase chain reaction data showed an approximately 50% reduction of GRN fibroblast mRNA in an affected individual. The mutated mRNA transcripts were undetectable by cDNA sequencing. Segregation and RNA analyses showed that the g.102delC mutation, previously reported, causes FTD in the Karolinska family. Our findings add further support to the significance of GRN in FTD etiology and the presence of modifying genes, which emphasize the need for further studies into the mechanisms of clinical heterogeneity. However, the results already call for attention to the complexity of predictive genetic testing of GRN mutations.

  4. KITLG Mutations Cause Familial Progressive Hyper- and Hypopigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amyere, Mustapha; Vogt, Thomas; Hoo, Joe

    2011-01-01

    by familial café-au-lait spots and skin fold freckling, caused by mutations in SPRED1. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in seven families with FPHH, and identified linkage on 12q21.12-q22, which overlaps with the DUH2 locus. We investigated whether KITLG in the locus is mutated in FPHH. We......Familial progressive hyper- and hypopigmentation (FPHH) is thought to be an autosomal dominant disorder with reduced penetrance. Clinical signs consist of progressive diffuse, partly blotchy hyperpigmented lesions, multiple café-au-lait spots, intermingled with scattered hypopigmented......-strand in KITLG, suggesting its important role in the activation of the KITLG receptor c-Kit. In aggregate, mutations in a single gene cause various pigmentation disorders: FPH, FPHH, and likely DUH2. Therefore, KITLG is an important modulator of skin pigmentation.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance...

  5. Familial gigantism caused by an NSD1 mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, M.M. van; Hoogeboom, J.J.; Baujat, G.; Bruggenwirth, H.T.; Laar, I. van de; Coleman, K.; Rahman, N.; Niermeijer, M.F.; Drop, S.L.; Scambler, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    A three-generation family with autosomal dominant segregation of a novel NSD1 mutation (6605G --> A, resulting in Cys2202Tyr) is reported. Haploinsufficiency of NSD1 has been identified as the major cause of Sotos syndrome. The overgrowth condition (MIM 117550) is characterized by facial anomalies,

  6. A novel MKRN3 missense mutation causing familial precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, L; Gat-Yablonski, G; Dror, N; Singer, A; Phillip, M

    2014-12-01

    Central precocious puberty may be familial in about a quarter of the idiopathic cases. However, little is known about the genetic causes responsible for the disorder. In this report we describe a family with central precocious puberty associated with a mutation in the makorin RING-finger protein 3 (MKRN3) gene. A novel missense mutation (p.H420Q) in the imprinted MKRN3 gene was identified in the four affected siblings, in their unaffected father and in his affected mother. An in silico mutant MKRN3 model predicts that the mutation p.H420Q leads to reduced zinc binding and, subsequently, impaired RNA binding. These findings support the fundamental role of the MKRN3 protein in determining pubertal timing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Yilmaz, Rüstem; Müller, Kathrin; Grehl, Torsten; Petri, Susanne; Meyer, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Weydt, Patrick; Ruf, Wolfgang; Neuwirth, Christoph; Weber, Markus; Pinto, Susana; Claeys, Kristl G; Schrank, Berthold; Jordan, Berit; Knehr, Antje; Günther, Kornelia; Hübers, Annemarie; Zeller, Daniel; Kubisch, Christian; Jablonka, Sibylle; Sendtner, Michael; Klopstock, Thomas; de Carvalho, Mamede; Sperfeld, Anne; Borck, Guntram; Volk, Alexander E; Dorst, Johannes; Weis, Joachim; Otto, Markus; Schuster, Joachim; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko; Danzer, Karin M; Freischmidt, Axel; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Ludolph, Albert C; Andersen, Peter M; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-12

    Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 × 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p.Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele

  8. Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Rüstem; Müller, Kathrin; Grehl, Torsten; Petri, Susanne; Meyer, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Weydt, Patrick; Ruf, Wolfgang; Neuwirth, Christoph; Weber, Markus; Pinto, Susana; Claeys, Kristl G; Schrank, Berthold; Jordan, Berit; Knehr, Antje; Günther, Kornelia; Hübers, Annemarie; Zeller, Daniel; Kubisch, Christian; Jablonka, Sibylle; Klopstock, Thomas; de Carvalho, Mamede; Sperfeld, Anne; Borck, Guntram; Volk, Alexander E; Dorst, Johannes; Weis, Joachim; Otto, Markus; Schuster, Joachim; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko; Danzer, Karin M; Freischmidt, Axel; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Ludolph, Albert C; Andersen, Peter M; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Weyen, Ute; Hermann, Andreas; Hagenacker, Tim; Koch, Jan Christoph; Lingor, Paul; Göricke, Bettina; Zierz, Stephan; Baum, Petra; Wolf, Joachim; Winkler, Andrea; Young, Peter; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek., Jan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 × 10−3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p.Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor

  9. Novel USH2A compound heterozygous mutations cause RP/USH2 in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Tang, Zhaohui; Li, Chang; Yang, Kangjuan; Gan, Guanqi; Zhang, Zibo; Liu, Jingyu; Jiang, Fagang; Wang, Qing; Liu, Mugen

    2010-03-17

    To identify the disease-causing gene in a four-generation Chinese family affected with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Linkage analysis was performed with a panel of microsatellite markers flanking the candidate genetic loci of RP. These loci included 38 known RP genes. The complete coding region and exon-intron boundaries of Usher syndrome 2A (USH2A) were sequenced with the proband DNA to screen the disease-causing gene mutation. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and direct DNA sequence analysis were done to demonstrate co-segregation of the USH2A mutations with the family disease. One hundred normal controls were used without the mutations. The disease-causing gene in this Chinese family was linked to the USH2A locus on chromosome 1q41. Direct DNA sequence analysis of USH2A identified two novel mutations in the patients: one missense mutation p.G1734R in exon 26 and a splice site mutation, IVS32+1G>A, which was found in the donor site of intron 32 of USH2A. Neither the p.G1734R nor the IVS32+1G>A mutation was found in the unaffected family members or the 100 normal controls. One patient with a homozygous mutation displayed only RP symptoms until now, while three patients with compound heterozygous mutations in the family of study showed both RP and hearing impairment. This study identified two novel mutations: p.G1734R and IVS32+1G>A of USH2A in a four-generation Chinese RP family. In this study, the heterozygous mutation and the homozygous mutation in USH2A may cause Usher syndrome Type II or RP, respectively. These two mutations expand the mutant spectrum of USH2A.

  10. Mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sandy Chan; Sears, Renee L.; Lemos, Roberta R.; Quintáns, Beatriz; Huang, Alden; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Nevarez, Lisette; Mamah, Catherine; Zatz, Mayana; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Fullerton, Janice M.; Adair, John C.; Berner, Jon E.; Bower, Matthew; Brodaty, Henry; Carmona, Olga; Dobricić, Valerija; Fogel, Brent L.; García-Estevez, Daniel; Goldman, Jill; Goudreau, John L.; Hopfer, Suellen; Janković, Milena; Jaumà, Serge; Jen, Joanna C.; Kirdlarp, Suppachok; Klepper, Joerg; Kostić, Vladimir; Lang, Anthony E.; Linglart, Agnès; Maisenbacher, Melissa K.; Manyam, Bala V.; Mazzoni, Pietro; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia; Mitarnun, Witoon; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mueller, Jennifer; Novaković, Ivana; Paucar, Martin; Paulson, Henry; Simpson, Sheila A.; Svenningsson, Per; Tuite, Paul; Vitek, Jerrold; Wetchaphanphesat, Suppachok; Williams, Charles; Yang, Michele; Schofield, Peter R.; de Oliveira, João R. M.; Sobrido, María-Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr’s disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient’s disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41 % of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation. PMID:23334463

  11. MAFA missense mutation causes familial insulinomatosis and diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacovazzo, D. (Donato); Flanagan, S.E. (Sarah E.); Walker, E. (Emily); Quezado, R. (Rosana); De Sousa Barros, F.A. (Fernando Antonio); Caswell, R. (Richard); Johnson, M.B. (Matthew B.); Wakeling, M. (Matthew); Brändle, M. (Michael); Guo, M. (Min); Dang, M.N. (Mary N.); Gabrovska, P. (Plamena); B. Niederle (Bruno); E. Christ (Emanuel); Jenni, S. (Stefan); Sipos, B. (Bence); Nieser, M. (Maike); A. Frilling (Andrea); Dhatariya, K. (Ketan); P. Chanson (Philippe); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); Konukiewitz, B. (Björn); Klöppel, G. (Günter); Stein, R. (Roland); M. Korbonits; S. Ellard (Sian)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe β-cell–enriched MAFA transcription factor plays a central role in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion while also demonstrating oncogenic transformation potential in vitro. No disease-causing MAFA variants have been previously described. We investigated a large pedigree

  12. [Novel CHST6 compound heterozygous mutations cause macular corneal dystrophy in a Chinese family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-hua; Dang, Xiu-hong; Su, Hong; Zhou, Nan; Liang, Ting; Wang, Zheng; Huang, Shang-zhi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify mutations of CHST6 gene in a Chinese family with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) and to investigate the histopathological changes of MCD. Corneal button of the proband was obtained from penetrating keratoplasty for the treatment of severe corneal dystrophy. The sections and ultrathin sections of this specimen were examined under light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes in peripheral blood from the family members. The coding region of CHST6 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were analyzed by direct sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion. Histochemical study revealed positive results of colloidal iron stain. TEM revealed enlargement of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Two mutations, Q298X Y358H, were identified in exon 3 of CHST6. Three patients were compound heterozygotes of these two mutations. The C892T transversion occurred at codon 298 turned the codon of glutamine to a stop codon; the T1072C transversion occurred at codon 358 caused a missense mutation, tyrosine to histidine. All six unaffected family members were heterozygotes. These two mutations were not detected in any of the 100 control subjects. The novel compound heterozygous mutation results in loss of CHST6 function and causes the occurrence of MCD. This is the first report of this gene mutation.

  13. A novel NHS mutation causes Nance-Horan Syndrome in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Li, Yunping; Kousar, Rizwana; Guo, Hui; Peng, Fenglan; Zheng, Yu; Yang, Xiaohua; Long, Zhigao; Tian, Runyi; Xia, Kun; Lin, Haiying; Pan, Qian

    2017-01-07

    Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) (OMIM: 302350) is a rare X-linked developmental disorder characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts, with occasional dental anomalies, characteristic dysmorphic features, brachymetacarpia and mental retardation. Carrier females exhibit similar manifestations that are less severe than in affected males. Here, we report a four-generation Chinese family with multiple affected individuals presenting Nance-Horan Syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing combined with RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing was used to search for a genetic cause underlying the disease phenotype. Whole-exome sequencing identified in all affected individuals of the family a novel donor splicing site mutation (NM_198270: c.1045 + 2T > A) in intron 4 of the gene NHS, which maps to chromosome Xp22.13. The identified mutation results in an RNA processing defect causing a 416-nucleotide addition to exon 4 of the mRNA transcript, likely producing a truncated NHS protein. The donor splicing site mutation NM_198270: c.1045 + 2T > A of the NHS gene is the causative mutation in this Nance-Horan Syndrome family. This research broadens the spectrum of NHS gene mutations, contributing to our understanding of the molecular genetics of NHS.

  14. A Japanese Family with Central Hypothyroidism Caused by a Novel IGSF1 Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, Satsuki; Hamazaki, Takashi; Fujita, Keinosuke; Morikawa, Shuntaro; Tajima, Toshihiro; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-12-01

    Hemizygous mutations in the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene have been demonstrated to cause congenital central hypothyroidism in males. This study reports a family with a novel mutation in the IGSF1 gene located on the long arm of the X chromosome. A two-month-old boy was diagnosed with central hypothyroidism because of prolonged jaundice. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test indicated dysfunction in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, and prompted the IGSF1 gene to be analyzed. The patient had a novel nonsense variant, c.2713C>T (p.Q905X), in exon 14 of the IGSF1 gene. Studies of the family revealed that the patient's sister and mother were heterozygous carriers of the IGSF1 mutation. The patient's maternal uncle carried the same mutation as the proband but had no overt symptoms. The mother and uncle started levothyroxine supplementation because of subclinical hypothyroidism. A novel mutation (c.2713C>T, p.Q905X) of the IGSF1 gene was identified that causes congenital central hypothyroidism in a Japanese family. The findings further expand the clinical heterogeneity of this entity.

  15. Founder Fukutin mutation causes Walker-Warburg syndrome in four Ashkenazi Jewish families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wendy; Winder, Thomas L; LeDuc, Charles A; Simpson, Lynn L; Millar, William S; Dungan, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Norman; Plaga, Stacey; Moore, Steven A; Chung, Wendy K

    2009-06-01

    Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital muscular dystrophy caused by abnormal glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) that is associated with brain malformations and eye anomalies. The Fukutin (FKTN) gene, which causes autosomal recessively inherited WWS is most often associated with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in Japan. We describe the clinical features of four nonconsanguinous Ashkenazi Jewish families with WWS and identify the underlying genetic basis for WWS. We screened for mutations in POMGnT1, POMT1, POMT2, and FKTN, genes causing WWS, by dideoxy sequence analysis. We identified an identical homozygous c.1167insA mutation in the FKTN gene on a common haplotype in all four families and identified 2/299 (0.7%) carriers for the c.1167insA mutation among normal American Ashkenazi Jewish adults. These data suggest that the c.1167insA FKTN mutation described by us is a founder mutation that can be used to target diagnostic testing and carrier screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Mutations in the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Potter, Carol J.; Xiao, Rui; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Kang Ho; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Picarsic, Jennifer L.; Jacobson, Theodora A.; Zhang, Jing; He, Weimin; Liu, Pengfei; Knisely, A. S.; Finegold, Milton J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lupski, James R.; Plon, Sharon E.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Eng, Christine M.; Yang, Yaping; Washington, Gabriel C.; Porteus, Matthew H.; Berquist, William E.; Kambham, Neeraja; Singh, Ravinder J.; Xia, Fan; Enns, Gregory M.; Moore, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal cholestasis is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis. Mutations in several different genes can cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, but known genes cannot account for all familial cases. Here we report four individuals from two unrelated families with neonatal cholestasis and mutations in NR1H4, which encodes the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor that regulates bile acid metabolism. Clinical features of severe, persistent NR1H4-related cholestasis include neonatal onset with rapid progression to end-stage liver disease, vitamin K-independent coagulopathy, low-to-normal serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and undetectable liver bile salt export pump (ABCB11) expression. Our findings demonstrate a pivotal function for FXR in bile acid homeostasis and liver protection. PMID:26888176

  17. WDR73 missense mutation causes infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia in a consanguineous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chen; Gai, Nan; Zou, Yongyi; Zheng, Yu; Ma, Ruiyu; Wei, Xianda; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2017-01-01

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GMS) is a very rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, and various central nervous system abnormalities, mostly cerebral hypoplasia or cerebellar atrophy, intellectual disability and neural-migration defects. WDR73 is the only gene known to cause GMS, and has never been implicated in other disease. Here we present a Chinese consanguineous family with infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia but no microcephaly. Whole exome sequencing identified a WDR73 p.W371G missense mutation. The mutation is confirmed to be segregated in this family by Sanger sequencing according to a recessive inheritance pattern. It is predicted to be deleterious by multiple algorithms and affect highly conserved site. Structural modeling revealed conformational differences between the wild type protein and the p.W371G protein. Real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed altered mRNA and protein levels in mutated samples. Our study indicates the novel WDR73 p.W371G missense mutation causes infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia in recessive mode of inheritance. Our findings imply that microcephaly is a variable phenotype in WDR73-related disease, suggest WDR73 to be a candidate gene of severe intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia, and expand the molecular spectrum of WDR73-related disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel association of neurofibromatosis type 1-causing mutations in families with neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Sara; Sjörs, Kerstin; Jonzon, Anders; Vihinen, Mauno; Annerén, Göran; Bondeson, Marie-Louise

    2014-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS) is a rare condition with clinical features of both neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Noonan syndrome (NS). All three syndromes belong to the RASopathies, which are caused by dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK pathway. The major gene involved in NFNS is NF1, but co-occurring NF1 and PTPN11 mutations in NFNS have been reported. Knowledge about possible involvement of additional RASopathy-associated genes in NFNS is, however, very limited. We present a comprehensive clinical and molecular analysis of eight affected individuals from three unrelated families displaying features of NF1 and NFNS. The genetic etiology of the clinical phenotypes was investigated by mutation analysis, including NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, SPRED1, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, and CBL. All three families harbored a heterozygous NF1 variant, where the first family had a missense variant, c.5425C>T;p.R1809C, the second family a recurrent 4bp-deletion, c.6789_6792delTTAC;p.Y2264Tfs*6, and the third family a splice-site variant, c.2991-1G>A, resulting in skipping of exon 18 and an in-frame deletion of 41 amino acids. These NF1 variants have all previously been reported in NF1 patients. Surprisingly, both c.6789_6792delTTAC and c.2991-1G>A are frequently associated with NF1, but association to NFNS has, to our knowledge, not previously been reported. Our results support the notion that NFNS represents a variant of NF1, genetically distinct from NS, and is caused by mutations in NF1, some of which also cause classical NF1. Due to phenotypic overlap between NFNS and NS, we propose screening for NF1 mutations in NS patients, preferentially when café-au-lait spots are present. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mutations in XPR1 cause primary familial brain calcification associated with altered phosphate export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Legati (Andrea); D. Giovannini (Donatella); G. Nicolas (Gaël); U. López-Sánchez (Uriel); B. Quintáns (Beatriz); J.R. Oliveira (Joao); R.L. Sears (Renee L); E.M. Ramos (Eliana Marisa); E. Spiteri (Elizabeth); M.J. Sobrido (Maria); A. Carracedo (Angel); C. Castro-Fernández (Cristina); S. Cubizolle (Stéphanie); B.L. Fogel (Brent L); C. Goizet (Cyril); J.C. Jen (Joanna C); S. Kirdlarp (Suppachok); A.E. Lang (Anthony E); Z. Miedzybrodzka (Zosia); W. Mitarnun (Witoon); M. Paucar (Martin); H.L. Paulson (Henry); J. Pariente (Jérémie); A.-C. Richard (Anne-Claire); N.S. Salins (Naomi S); S.A. Simpson (Sheila A); P. Striano (Pasquale); P. Svenningsson (Per); F. Tison (François); V.K. Unni (Vivek K); O. Vanakker (Olivier); M.W. Wessels (Marja); S. Wetchaphanphesat (Suppachok); M. Yang (Michele); F. Boller (Francois); D. Campion (Dominique); D. Hannequin (Didier); M. Sitbon (Marc); H. Geschwind; J.-L. Battini (Jean-Luc); D. Coppola (Domenico)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPrimary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurological disease characterized by calcium phosphate deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions and has thus far been associated with SLC20A2, PDGFB or PDGFRB mutations. We identified in multiple families with PFBC mutations

  20. Amelogenesis imperfecta in familial hypomagnesaemia and hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis caused by CLDN19 gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguti, Paulo Marcio; Neves, Francisco de Assis Rocha; Hotton, Dominique; Bardet, Claire; de La Dure-Molla, Muriel; Castro, Luiz Claudio; Scher, Maria do Carmo; Barbosa, Maristela Estevão; Ditsch, Christophe; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; de La Faille, Renaud; Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Houillier, Pascal; Chaussain, Catherine; Babajko, Sylvie; Berdal, Ariane; Acevedo, Ana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of genetic diseases characterised by tooth enamel defects. AI was recently described in patients with familial hypercalciuria and hypomagnesaemia with nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) caused by CLDN16 mutations. In the kidney, claudin-16 interacts with claudin-19 to control the paracellular passage of calcium and magnesium. FHHNC can be linked to mutations in both genes. Claudin-16 was shown to be expressed during amelogenesis; however, no data are available on claudin-19. Moreover, the enamel phenotype of patients with CLDN19 mutations has never been described. In this study, we describe the clinical and genetic features of nine patients with FHHNC carrying CLDN19 mutations and the claudin-19 expression profile in rat ameloblasts. Six FHHNC Brazilian patients were subjected to mutational analysis. Three additional French patients were recruited for orodental characterisation. The expression profile of claudin-19 was evaluated by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence using enamel epithelium from rat incisors. All patients presented AI at different degrees of severity. Two new likely pathogenic variations in CLDN19 were found: p.Arg200Gln and p.Leu90Arg. RT-qPCR revealed low Cldn19 expression in ameloblasts. Confocal analysis indicated that claudin-19 was immunolocalised at the distal poles of secretory and maturing ameloblasts. For the first time, it was demonstrated that AI is associated with FHHNC in patients carrying CLDN19 mutations. The data suggest claudin-19 as an additional determinant in enamel formation. Indeed, the coexistence of hypoplastic and hypomineralised AI in the patients was consistent with claudin-19 expression in both secretory and maturation stages. Additional indirect systemic effects cannot be excluded. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Mutations in ALDH1A3 represent a frequent cause of microphthalmia/anophthalmia in consanguineous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Hana; Favez, Tatiana; Schmid, Angélique; Agosti, Céline; Youssef, Mohammed; Marzouk, Iman; El Shakankiry, Nihal; Bayoumi, Nader; Munier, Francis L; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2014-08-01

    Anophthalmia or microphthalmia (A/M), characterized by absent or small eye, can be unilateral or bilateral and represent developmental anomalies due to the mutations in several genes. Recently, mutations in aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, member A3 (ALDH1A3) also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3, have been reported to cause A/M. Here, we screened a cohort of 75 patients with A/M and showed that mutations in ALDH1A3 occurred in six families. Based on this series, we estimate that mutations in ALDH1A3 represent a major cause of A/M in consanguineous families, and may be responsible for approximately 10% of the cases. Screening of this gene should be performed in a first line of investigation, together with SOX2. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  2. Exome sequencing reveals VCP mutations as a cause of familial ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Janel O.; Mandrioli, Jessica; Benatar, Michael; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Gibbs, J Raphael; Brunetti, Maura; Gronka, Susan; Wuu, Joanne; Ding, Jinhui; McCluskey, Leo; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Falcone, Dana; Hernandez, Dena G.

    2010-01-01

    Using exome sequencing, we identified a p.R191Q amino acid change in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene in an Italian family with autosomal dominantly inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutations in VCP have previously been identified in families with Inclusion Body Myopathy, Paget’s disease and Frontotemporal Dementia (IBMPFD). Screening of VCP in a cohort of 210 familial ALS cases and 78 autopsy-proven ALS cases identified four additional mutations including a p.R155H mut...

  3. Heterozygous Mutations in TREX1 Cause Familial Chilblain Lupus and Dominant Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gillian; Newman, William G.; Dean, John; Patrick, Teresa; Parmar, Rekha; Flintoff, Kim; Robins, Peter; Harvey, Scott; Hollis, Thomas; O’Hara, Ann; Herrick, Ariane L.; Bowden, Andrew P.; Perrino, Fred W.; Lindahl, Tomas; Barnes, Deborah E.; Crow, Yanick J.

    2007-01-01

    TREX1 constitutes the major 3′→5′ DNA exonuclease activity measured in mammalian cells. Recently, biallelic mutations in TREX1 have been shown to cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome at the AGS1 locus. Interestingly, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both clinical and pathological levels. Here, we report a heterozygous TREX1 mutation causing familial chilblain lupus. Additionally, we describe a de novo heterozygous mutation, affecting a critical catalytic residue in TREX1, that results in typical Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. PMID:17357087

  4. Point mutation in the MITF gene causing Waardenburg syndrome type II in a three-generation Indian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, A K; Attaie, A; Randolph, F T; Deshmukh, D; Wang, C; Mhatre, A; Wilcox, E

    1998-12-04

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal-dominant neural crest cell disorder phenotypically characterized by hearing impairment and disturbance of pigmentation. A presence of dystopia canthorum is indicative of WS type 1, caused by loss of function mutation in the PAX3 gene. In contrast, type 2 WS (WS2) is characterized by normally placed medial canthi and is genetically heterogeneous; mutations in MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor) associated with WS2 have been identified in some but not all affected families. Here, we report on a three-generation Indian family with a point mutation in the MITF gene causing WS2. This mutation, initially reported in a Northern European family, creates a stop codon in exon 7 and is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the HLH-Zip or Zip structure necessary for normal interaction with its target DNA motif. Comparison of the phenotype between the two families demonstrates a significant difference in pigmentary disturbance of the eye. This family, with the first documented case of two unrelated WS2 families harboring identical mutations, provides additional evidence for the importance of genetic background on the clinical phenotype.

  5. A Turkish family with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome caused by a novel ALDH3A2 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Incecik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member A2 (ALDH3A2 gene that encodes fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase. Affected patients display ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spastic diplegia. More than 70 mutations in ALDH3A2 have been discovered in SLS patients. We diagnosed two brothers age of 12 and 20 years with characteristic features of this rare syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed demyelinating disease in both of them. We described a novel homozygous, c. 835 T > A (p.Y279N mutation in exon 6 in two patients.

  6. A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Shi, Wei; Song, Liming; Zhang, Xiao; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Min, Qingjie; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4 bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy.

  7. Constitutional SAMD9L mutations cause familial myelodysplastic syndrome and transient monosomy 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Victor B; Sahoo, Sushree S; Boklan, Jessica; Schwabe, Georg C; Saribeyoglu, Ebru; Strahm, Brigitte; Lebrecht, Dirk; Voss, Matthias; Bryceson, Yenan T; Erlacher, Miriam; Ehninger, Gerhard; Niewisch, Marena; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Baumann, Irith; Achermann, John C; Shimamura, Akiko; Hochrein, Jochen; Tedgård, Ulf; Nilsson, Lars; Hasle, Henrik; Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Wlodarski, Marcin W

    2018-03-01

    Familial myelodysplastic syndromes arise from haploinsufficiency of genes involved in hematopoiesis and are primarily associated with early-onset disease. Here we describe a familial syndrome in seven patients from four unrelated pedigrees presenting with myelodysplastic syndrome and loss of chromosome 7/7q. Their median age at diagnosis was 2.1 years (range, 1-42). All patients presented with thrombocytopenia with or without additional cytopenias and a hypocellular marrow without an increase of blasts. Genomic studies identified constitutional mutations (p.H880Q, p.R986H, p.R986C and p.V1512M) in the SAMD9L gene on 7q21, with decreased allele frequency in hematopoiesis. The non-random loss of mutated SAMD9L alleles was attained via monosomy 7, deletion 7q, UPD7q, or acquired truncating SAMD9L variants p.R1188X and p.S1317RfsX21. Incomplete penetrance was noted in 30% (3/10) of mutation carriers. Long-term observation revealed divergent outcomes with either progression to leukemia and/or accumulation of driver mutations (n=2), persistent monosomy 7 (n=4), and transient monosomy 7 followed by spontaneous recovery with SAMD9L -wildtype UPD7q (n=2). Dysmorphic features or neurological symptoms were absent in our patients, pointing to the notion that myelodysplasia with monosomy 7 can be a sole manifestation of SAMD9L disease. Collectively, our results define a new subtype of familial myelodysplastic syndrome and provide an explanation for the phenomenon of transient monosomy 7. Registered at: www.clinicaltrials.gov; #NCT00047268 . Copyright© 2018 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a mutation in the arginine-vasopressin II gene in four generations of a Korean family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myo-Jing Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a rare form of central diabetes insipidus that is caused by mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII gene. It is characterized by persistent polydipsia and polyuria induced by deficient or absent secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP. Here we report a case of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in four generations of a Korean family, caused by heterozygous missense mutation in exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene (c.286G>T. This is the first report of such a case in Korea.

  9. A novel mutation in PGAP2 gene causes developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy and microcephaly in consanguineous Saudi family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Rasool, Mahmood; Jan, Mohammed M; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H

    2016-12-15

    PGAP2 (Post-GPI Attachment to Proteins 2) gene is involved in lipid remodeling steps of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor maturation. At the surface of the cell this gene is required for proper expression of GPI-anchored proteins. Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder usually characterized by severe mental retardation. Mutations in the PGAP2 gene cause hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome-3. We have identified a large consanguineous family from Saudi origin segregating developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy and microcephaly. Whole exome sequencing with 100× coverage was performed on two affected siblings of the family. Data analysis in the patient revealed a novel missense mutation c.191C>T in PGAP2 gene resulting in Alanine to Valine substitution (Ala64Val). The mutation was reconfirmed and validated by subsequent Sanger sequencing method. The mutation was ruled out in 100 unrelated healthy controls. We suggest that this pathogenic mutation disrupts the proper function of the gene proteins resulting in the disease state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A case report of novel mutation in PRF1 gene, which causes familial autosomal recessive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Modarresi, Farzaneh; Farazi Fard, Mohammad Ali; Dastsooz, Hassan; Shakib Azad, Nader; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-05-03

    Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immunodeficiency and multi-organ disease that affects people of all ages and ethnic groups. Common symptoms and signs of this disease are high fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and cytopenias. Familial form of HLH disease, which is an autosomal recessive hematological disorder is due to disease-causing mutations in several genes essential for NK and T-cell granule-mediated cytotoxic function. For an effective cytotoxic response from cytotoxic T lymphocyte or NK cell encountering an infected cell or tumor cell, different processes are required, including trafficking, docking, priming, membrane fusion, and entry of cytotoxic granules into the target cell leading to apoptosis. Therefore, genes involved in these steps play important roles in the pathogenesis of HLH disease which include PRF1, UNC13D (MUNC13-4), STX11, and STXBP2 (MUNC18-2). Here, we report a novel missense mutation in an 8-year-old boy suffered from hepatosplenomegaly, hepatitis, epilepsy and pancytopenia. The patient was born to a first-cousin parents with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify mutated gene in the proband, Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) utilizing next generation sequencing was used on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform on DNA sample from the patient. Results showed a novel deleterious homozygous missense mutation in PRF1 gene (NM_001083116: exon3: c. 1120 T > G, p.W374G) in the patient and then using Sanger sequencing it was confirmed in the proband and his parents. Since his parents were heterozygous for the identified mutation, autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance was confirmed in the family. Our study identified a rare new pathogenic missense mutation in PRF1 gene in patient with HLH disease and it is the first report of mutation in PRF1 in Iranian patients with this disease.

  11. Familial knockin mutation of LRRK2 causes lysosomal dysfunction and accumulation of endogenous insoluble α-synuclein in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapansky, Jason; Khasnavis, Saurabh; DeAndrade, Mark P; Nardozzi, Jonathan D; Falkson, Samuel R; Boyd, Justin D; Sanderson, John B; Bartels, Tim; Melrose, Heather L; LaVoie, Matthew J

    2018-03-01

    Missense mutations in the multi-domain kinase LRRK2 cause late onset familial Parkinson's disease. They most commonly with classic proteinopathy in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites comprised of insoluble α-synuclein, but in rare cases can also manifest tauopathy. The normal function of LRRK2 has remained elusive, as have the cellular consequences of its mutation. Data from LRRK2 null model organisms and LRRK2-inhibitor treated animals support a physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating lysosome function. Since idiopathic and LRRK2-linked PD are associated with the intraneuronal accumulation of protein aggregates, a series of critical questions emerge. First, how do pathogenic mutations that increase LRRK2 kinase activity affect lysosome biology in neurons? Second, are mutation-induced changes in lysosome function sufficient to alter the metabolism of α-synuclein? Lastly, are changes caused by pathogenic mutation sensitive to reversal with LRRK2 kinase inhibitors? Here, we report that mutation of LRRK2 induces modest but significant changes in lysosomal morphology and acidification, and decreased basal autophagic flux when compared to WT neurons. These changes were associated with an accumulation of detergent-insoluble α-synuclein and increased neuronal release of α-synuclein and were reversed by pharmacologic inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity. These data demonstrate a critical and disease-relevant influence of native neuronal LRRK2 kinase activity on lysosome function and α-synuclein homeostasis. Furthermore, they also suggest that lysosome dysfunction, altered neuronal α-synuclein metabolism, and the insidious accumulation of aggregated protein over decades may contribute to pathogenesis in this late-onset form of familial PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel COL4A3 mutation causes autosomal-recessive Alport syndrome in a large Turkish family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzak, Asli Subasioglu; Tokgoz, Bulent; Dundar, Munis; Tekin, Mustafa

    2013-03-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by hematuria, progressive renal failure typically resulting in end-stage renal disease, sensorineural hearing loss, and variable ocular abnormalities. Only 15% of cases with AS are autosomal recessive and are caused by mutations in the COL4A3 or COL4A4 genes, encoding type IV collagen. Clinical data in a large consanguineous family with four affected members were reviewed, and genomic DNA was extracted. For mapping, 15 microsatellite markers flanking COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 in 16 family members were typed. For mutation screening, all coding exons of COL4A3 were polymerase chain reaction- amplified and Sanger-sequenced from genomic DNA. The disease locus was mapped to chromosome 2q36.3, where COL4A3 and COL4A4 reside. Sanger sequencing revealed a novel mis-sense mutation (c.2T>C; p.M1T) in exon 1 of COL4A3. The identified nucleotide change was not found in 100 healthy ethnicity-matched controls via Sanger sequencing. We present a large consanguineous Turkish family with AS that was found to have a COL4A3 mutation as the cause of the disease. Although the relationship between the various genotypes and phenotypes in AS has not been fully elucidated, detailed clinical and molecular analyses are helpful for providing data to be used in genetic counseling. It is important to identify new mutations to clarify their clinical importance, to assess the prognosis of the disease, and to avoid renal biopsy for final diagnosis.

  13. Clinical intrafamilial variability in lethal familial neonatal seizure disorder caused by TBC1D24 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Reymundo; Herman, Kristin; Rothfuss, Melanie; Rieger, Hillary; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Aprile, Davide; Fruscione, Floriana; Zara, Federico; Fassio, Anna

    2016-12-01

    TBC1D24-related disorders include a wide phenotypic ranging from mild to lethal seizure disorders, non-syndromic deafness, and composite syndromes such as DOORS (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). The TBC1D24 gene has a role in cerebral cortex development and in presynaptic neurotransmission. Here, we present a familial case of a lethal early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, associated with two novel compound heterozygous missense variants on the TBC1D24 gene, which were detected by exome sequencing. The detailed clinical data of the three siblings is summarized in order to support the variability of the phenotype, severity, and progression of this disorder among these family members. Functional studies demonstrated that the identified novel missense mutations result in a loss of expression of the protein, suggesting a correlation between residual expression, and the disease severity. This indicates that protein expression analysis is important for interpreting genetic results when novel variants are found, as well as for complementing clinical assessment by predicting the functional impact. Further analysis is necessary to delineate the clinical presentation of individuals with TBC1D24 pathogenic variants, as well as to develop markers for diagnosis, prognosis, and potential targeted treatments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. APOA5 Q97X Mutation Identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussaillant Catalina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. Methods We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel. Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. Results A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. Conclusion The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family.

  15. APOA5 Q97X mutation identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaillant, Catalina; Serrano, Valentina; Maiz, Alberto; Eyheramendy, Susana; Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Chavez, Matías; Smalley, Susan V; Fuentes, Marcela; Rigotti, Attilio; Rubio, Lorena; Lagos, Carlos F; Martinez, José Alfredo; Santos, José Luis

    2012-11-15

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis) were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel). Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter) found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family.

  16. Mutation of CDH23, encoding a new member of the cadherin gene family, causes Usher syndrome type 1D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolz, H; von Brederlow, B; Ramírez, A; Bryda, E C; Kutsche, K; Nothwang, H G; Seeliger, M; del C-Salcedó Cabrera, M; Vila, M C; Molina, O P; Gal, A; Kubisch, C

    2001-01-01

    Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction and visual impairment due to early onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). So far, six loci (USH1A-USH1F) have been mapped, but only two USH1 genes have been identified: MYO7A for USH1B and the gene encoding harmonin for USH1C. We identified a Cuban pedigree linked to the locus for Usher syndrome type 1D (MIM 601067) within the q2 region of chromosome 10). Affected individuals present with congenital deafness and a highly variable degree of retinal degeneration. Using a positional candidate approach, we identified a new member of the cadherin gene superfamily, CDH23. It encodes a protein of 3,354 amino acids with a single transmembrane domain and 27 cadherin repeats. In the Cuban family, we detected two different mutations: a severe course of the retinal disease was observed in individuals homozygous for what is probably a truncating splice-site mutation (c.4488G-->C), whereas mild RP is present in individuals carrying the homozygous missense mutation R1746Q. A variable expression of the retinal phenotype was seen in patients with a combination of both mutations. In addition, we identified two mutations, Delta M1281 and IVS51+5G-->A, in a German USH1 patient. Our data show that different mutations in CDH23 result in USH1D with a variable retinal phenotype. In an accompanying paper, it is shown that mutations in the mouse ortholog cause disorganization of inner ear stereocilia and deafness in the waltzer mouse.

  17. Diverse functional consequences of mutations in the Na+/K+-ATPase alpha2-subunit causing familial hemiplegic migraine type 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavraz, N.N.; Friedrich, T.; Durr, K.L.; Koenderink, J.B.; Bamberg, E.; Freilinger, T.; Dichgans, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in ATP1A2, the gene coding for the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha(2)-subunit, are associated with both familial hemiplegic migraine and sporadic cases of hemiplegic migraine. In this study, we examined the functional properties of 11 ATP1A2 mutations associated with familial or sporadic

  18. Polyuria and polydipsia in a young child: diagnostic considerations and identification of novel mutation causing familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Matthew D; Fenwick, Raymond G; Brosnan, Patrick G

    2012-12-01

    A 3-year 5-month-old boy was seen for second opinion regarding polydipsia and polyuria. Previously, a diagnosis of primary polydipsia was made after normal urine concentration after overnight water deprivation testing. The boy's father, paternal grandfather, and paternal aunt had diabetes insipidus treated with desmopressin acetate. Based on this young boy's symptoms, ability to concentrate urine after informal overnight water deprivation, and family history of diabetes insipidus, we performed AVP gene mutation testing. Analysis of the AVP gene revealed a novel mutation G54E that changes a normal glycine to glutamic acid, caused by a guanine to adenine change at nucleotide g.1537 (exon 2) of the AVP gene. Commonly, patients with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNHDI) present within the first 6 years of life with progressively worsening polyuria and compensatory polydipsia. Since these patients have progressive loss of arginine vasopressin (AVP), they may initially respond normally to water deprivation testing and have normal pituitary findings on brain MRI. Genetic testing may be helpful in these patients, as well as preemptively diagnosing those with a mutation, thereby avoiding unnecessary surveillance of those unaffected.

  19. Mutations in the Matrin 3 gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Janel O; Pioro, Erik P; Boehringer, Ashley; Chia, Ruth; Feit, Howard; Renton, Alan E; Pliner, Hannah A; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Marangi, Giuseppe; Winborn, Brett J; Gibbs, J Raphael; Nalls, Michael A; Morgan, Sarah; Shoai, Maryam; Hardy, John; Pittman, Alan; Orrell, Richard W; Malaspina, Andrea; Sidle, Katie C; Fratta, Pietro; Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H; Pestronk, Alan; Weihl, Conrad C; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Zinman, Lorne; Drory, Vivian E; Borghero, Giuseppe; Mora, Gabriele; Calvo, Andrea; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Drepper, Carsten; Sendtner, Michael; Singleton, Andrew B; Taylor, J Paul; Cookson, Mark R; Restagno, Gabriella; Sabatelli, Mario; Bowser, Robert; Chiò, Adriano; Traynor, Bryan J

    2014-05-01

    MATR3 is an RNA- and DNA-binding protein that interacts with TDP-43, a disease protein linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. Using exome sequencing, we identified mutations in MATR3 in ALS kindreds. We also observed MATR3 pathology in ALS-affected spinal cords with and without MATR3 mutations. Our data provide more evidence supporting the role of aberrant RNA processing in motor neuron degeneration.

  20. Mutations in the gene for lipoprotein lipase. A cause for low HDL cholesterol levels in individuals heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimstone, S. N.; Gagné, S. E.; Gagné, C.; Lupien, P. J.; Gaudet, D.; Williams, R. R.; Kotze, M.; Reymer, P. W.; Defesche, J. C.; Kastelein, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by elevated plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol resulting from mutations in the gene for the LDL receptor. Low HDL cholesterol levels are seen frequently in patients both heterozygous and homozygous for mutations in this gene. Suggested

  1. Alzheimer disease-like clinical phenotype in a family with FTDP-17 caused by a MAPT R406W mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, S.G.; Holm, I.E.; Schwartz, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report clinical, molecular, neuroimaging and neuropathological features of a Danish family with autosomal dominant inherited dementia, a clinical phenotype resembling Alzheimer's disease and a pathogenic mutation (R406W) in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene. Pre-symptomatic an......We report clinical, molecular, neuroimaging and neuropathological features of a Danish family with autosomal dominant inherited dementia, a clinical phenotype resembling Alzheimer's disease and a pathogenic mutation (R406W) in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene. Pre...

  2. Pseudodominant inheritance pattern in a family with CMT2 caused by GDAP1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Paassen, Barbara W.; Bronk, Marieke; Verhamme, Camiel; van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; de Visser, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    We report a family in which an autosomal dominantly inherited Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 was suspected. The affected family members (proband, sister, father, and paternal aunt) showed intrafamilial clinical variability. The proband needed walking aids since adolescence because of

  3. A new mutation causing autosomal dominant periodic fever syndrome in a Danish family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weyhreter, Heike; Schwartz, Marianne; Kristensen, Tim D

    2003-01-01

    We describe four members in a family of 8 individuals over 3 generations with the autosomal dominant inherited periodic fever syndrome tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). The patients had recurrent episodes of fever, abdominal pain, arthritis, and rash. We examined...

  4. Mutations causative of familial hypercholesterolaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    causing mutations in 98 098 participants from the general population, the Copenhagen General Population Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped for LDLR[W23X;W66G;W556S] and APOB[R3500Q] accounting for 38.7% of pathogenic FH mutations in Copenhagen. Clinical FH assessment excluded mutation information......-cholesterol concentration to discriminate between mutation carriers and non-carriers was 4.4 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: Familial hypercholesterolaemia-causing mutations are estimated to occur in 1:217 in the general population and are best identified by a definite or probable phenotypic diagnosis of FH based on the DLCN criteria....... The prevalence of the four FH mutations was 0.18% (1:565), suggesting a total prevalence of FH mutations of 0.46% (1:217). Using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria, odds ratios for an FH mutation were 439 (95% CI: 170-1 138) for definite FH, 90 (53-152) for probable FH, and 18 (13-25) for possible FH...

  5. Mutations in Splicing Factor Genes Are a Major Cause of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in Belgian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Frauke; Roels, Dimitri; De Jaegere, Sarah; Flipts, Helena; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Walraedt, Sophie; Claes, Charlotte; Fransen, Erik; Van Camp, Guy; Depasse, Fanny; Casteels, Ingele; de Ravel, Thomy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) is characterized by an extensive genetic heterogeneity, implicating 27 genes, which account for 50 to 70% of cases. Here 86 Belgian probands with possible adRP underwent genetic testing to unravel the molecular basis and to assess the contribution of the genes underlying their condition. Methods Mutation detection methods evolved over the past ten years, including mutation specific methods (APEX chip analysis), linkage analysis, gene panel analysis (Sanger sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing or whole exome sequencing), high-resolution copy number screening (customized microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization). Identified variants were classified following American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations. Results Molecular genetic screening revealed mutations in 48/86 cases (56%). In total, 17 novel pathogenic mutations were identified: four missense mutations in RHO, five frameshift mutations in RP1, six mutations in genes encoding spliceosome components (SNRNP200, PRPF8, and PRPF31), one frameshift mutation in PRPH2, and one frameshift mutation in TOPORS. The proportion of RHO mutations in our cohort (14%) is higher than reported in a French adRP population (10.3%), but lower than reported elsewhere (16.5–30%). The prevalence of RP1 mutations (10.5%) is comparable to other populations (3.5%-10%). The mutation frequency in genes encoding splicing factors is unexpectedly high (altogether 19.8%), with PRPF31 the second most prevalent mutated gene (10.5%). PRPH2 mutations were found in 4.7% of the Belgian cohort. Two families (2.3%) have the recurrent NR2E3 mutation p.(Gly56Arg). The prevalence of the recurrent PROM1 mutation p.(Arg373Cys) was higher than anticipated (3.5%). Conclusions Overall, we identified mutations in 48 of 86 Belgian adRP cases (56%), with the highest prevalence in RHO (14%), RP1 (10.5%) and PRPF31 (10.5%). Finally, we expanded the molecular

  6. A novel mutation in ABCA1 gene causing Tangier Disease in an Italian family with uncommon neurological presentation

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    Marco Ceccanti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tangier disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe reduction in HDL-cholesterol and peripheral lipid storage. We describe a family with c.5094C>A p.Tyr16980* mutation in the ABCA1 gene, clinically characterized by syringomyelic-like anesthesia, demyelinating multineuropathy and reduction in intraepidermal small fibers innervation. In the proband patient, cardiac involvement determined a myocardial infarction; lipid storage was demonstrated in gut, cornea and aortic wall. The reported ABCA1 mutation has never been described before in a Tangier family.

  7. Whole-exome re-sequencing in a family quartet identifies POP1 mutations as the cause of a novel skeletal dysplasia.

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    Evgeny A Glazov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in DNA sequencing have enabled mapping of genes for monogenic traits in families with small pedigrees and even in unrelated cases. We report the identification of disease-causing mutations in a rare, severe, skeletal dysplasia, studying a family of two healthy unrelated parents and two affected children using whole-exome sequencing. The two affected daughters have clinical and radiographic features suggestive of anauxetic dysplasia (OMIM 607095, a rare form of dwarfism caused by mutations of RMRP. However, mutations of RMRP were excluded in this family by direct sequencing. Our studies identified two novel compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in POP1, which encodes a core component of the RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP complex that directly interacts with the RMRP RNA domains that are affected in anauxetic dysplasia. We demonstrate that these mutations impair the integrity and activity of this complex and that they impair cell proliferation, providing likely molecular and cellular mechanisms by which POP1 mutations cause this severe skeletal dysplasia.

  8. In silico analysis of a disease-causing mutation in PCDH15 gene in a consanguineous Pakistani family with Usher phenotype

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    Shamim Saleha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To map Usher phenotype in a consanguineous Pakistani family and identify disease-associated mutation in a causative gene to establish phenotype-genotype correlation. METHODS: A consanguineous Pakistani family in which Usher phenotype was segregating as an autosomal recessive trait was ascertained. On the basis of results of clinical investigations of affected members of this family disease was diagnosed as Usher syndrome (USH. To identify the locus responsible for the Usher phenotype in this family, genomic DNA from blood sample of each individual was genotyped using microsatellite Short Tandem Repeat (STR markers for the known Usher syndrome loci. Then direct sequencing was performed to find out disease associated mutations in the candidate gene. RESULTS: By genetic linkage analysis, the USH phenotype of this family was mapped to PCDH15 locus on chromosome 10q21.1. Three different point mutations in exon 11 of PCDH15 were identified and one of them, c.1304A>C was found to be segregating with the disease phenotype in Pakistani family with Usher phenotype. This, c.1304A>C transversion mutation predicts an amino-acid substitution of aspartic acid with an alanine at residue number 435 (p.D435A of its protein product. Moreover, in silico analysis revealed conservation of aspartic acid at position 435 and predicated this change as pathogenic. CONCLUSION: The identification of c.1304A>C pathogenic mutation in PCDH15 gene and its association with Usher syndrome in a consanguineous Pakistani family is the first example of a missense mutation of PCDH15 causing USH1 phenotype. In previous reports, it was hypothesized that severe mutations such as truncated protein of PCDH15 led to the Usher I phenotype and that missense variants are mainly responsible for non-syndromic hearing impairment.

  9. In silico analysis of a disease-causing mutation in PCDH15 gene in a consanguineous Pakistani family with Usher phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleha, Shamim; Ajmal, Muhammad; Jamil, Muhammad; Nasir, Muhammad; Hameed, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    To map Usher phenotype in a consanguineous Pakistani family and identify disease-associated mutation in a causative gene to establish phenotype-genotype correlation. A consanguineous Pakistani family in which Usher phenotype was segregating as an autosomal recessive trait was ascertained. On the basis of results of clinical investigations of affected members of this family disease was diagnosed as Usher syndrome (USH). To identify the locus responsible for the Usher phenotype in this family, genomic DNA from blood sample of each individual was genotyped using microsatellite Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers for the known Usher syndrome loci. Then direct sequencing was performed to find out disease associated mutations in the candidate gene. By genetic linkage analysis, the USH phenotype of this family was mapped to PCDH15 locus on chromosome 10q21.1. Three different point mutations in exon 11 of PCDH15 were identified and one of them, c.1304A>C was found to be segregating with the disease phenotype in Pakistani family with Usher phenotype. This, c.1304A>C transversion mutation predicts an amino-acid substitution of aspartic acid with an alanine at residue number 435 (p.D435A) of its protein product. Moreover, in silico analysis revealed conservation of aspartic acid at position 435 and predicated this change as pathogenic. The identification of c.1304A>C pathogenic mutation in PCDH15 gene and its association with Usher syndrome in a consanguineous Pakistani family is the first example of a missense mutation of PCDH15 causing USH1 phenotype. In previous reports, it was hypothesized that severe mutations such as truncated protein of PCDH15 led to the Usher I phenotype and that missense variants are mainly responsible for non-syndromic hearing impairment.

  10. Naxos disease in an Arab family is not caused by the Pk2157del2 mutation; evidance for exclusion of the plakoglobin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhmann, M.; El-Harith, A.; Bukhari, Iqbal A.

    2004-01-01

    Nax os disease is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair and cardiomyopathy. This study aims to determine whether Naxos disease in a Saudi Arab family is caused by the Pk2157del2 mutation that was identified in Greek families from Naxos Island where the disease had originally been described. This study was undertaken at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, and the Medical University of Hannover, in the spring of 2003. Naxos disease has been encountered in a 2-year-old girl and her 30-year-old aunt of a Saudi Arab family. Deoxyribonucleic acid samples of this family were analyzed by polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) amplification of the respective region of the plakoglobin gene, and direct nucleotide sequencing of the PCR-products. Segregation analysis was performed employing the newly detected IVS11+22G/A polymorphism. Molecular genetic analysis of the DNA sample of the child diagnosed with Naxos disease showed absence of the Pk2157del2 mutation. In addition, the segregation analysis revealed heterozygosity for IVS11+22G/A in the affected girl. Absence of the Pk2157del2 frameshift in the affected child proved that Naxos disease in this Saudi Arab family is not caused by the same mutation that was identified in the Greek families. Furthermore, heterozygosity for the IVS11+22G/A polymorphism provided evidence for exclusion of the plakoglobin gene in this consanguineous family. (author)

  11. A Novel Splicesite Mutation in the EDAR Gene Causes Severe Autosomal Recessive Hypohydrotic (Anhidrotic) Ectodermal Dysplasia in an Iranian Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamandi, Shahram; Gholami, Milad; Mohammadi-Asl, Javad; Rezaie, Somaye; Zaimy, Mohammad Ali; Omrani, Mir Davood

    2016-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare congenital disorder arising from deficient development of ectoderm-derived structures including skin, nails, glands and teeth. The phenotype of HED is associated with mutation in EDA, EDAR, EDARADD and NEMO genes, all of them disruptingNF-κB signaling cascade necessary for initiation, formation and differentiation in the embryo and adult. Here we describe a novel acceptor splice site mutation c.730-2 A>G(IVS 8-2 A>G) in EDAR gene in homozygous form in all affected members of a family,and in heterozygous form in carriers. Bioinformatics analysis showed that this mutation can create a new broken splicing site and lead to aberrant splicing.

  12. Hearing impairment caused by mutations in two different genes responsible for nonsyndromic and syndromic hearing loss within a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepokój, Katarzyna; Rygiel, Agnieszka M; Jurczak, Piotr; Kujko, Aleksandra A; Śniegórska, Dominika; Sawicka, Justyna; Grabarczyk, Alicja; Bal, Jerzy; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna

    2018-02-01

    Usher syndrome is rare genetic disorder impairing two human senses, hearing and vision, with the characteristic late onset of vision loss. This syndrome is divided into three types. In all cases, the vision loss is postlingual, while loss of hearing is usually prelingual. The vestibular functions may also be disturbed in Usher type 1 and sometimes in type 3. Vestibular areflexia is helpful in making a proper diagnosis of the syndrome, but, often, the syndrome is misdiagnosed as a nonsyndromic hearing loss. Here, we present a Polish family with hearing loss, which was clinically classified as nonsyndromic. After excluding mutations in the DFNB1 locus, we implemented the next-generation sequencing method and revealed that hearing loss was syndromic and mutations in the USH2A gene indicate Usher syndrome. This research highlights the importance of molecular analysis in establishing a clinical diagnosis of congenital hearing loss.

  13. A novel mutation in the PAX3 gene causes Waardenburg syndrome type I in an Iranian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Farhadi, Mohammad; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) is one of the most frequent congenital defects, with a prevalence of 1 in 500 among neonates. Although there are over 400 syndromes involving HI, most cases of HI are nonsyndromic (70%), 20% of which follow autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Waardenburg syndrome (WS) ranks first among autosomal dominant syndromic forms of HI. WS is characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment, pigmentation abnormalities of hair and skin and hypoplastic blue eyes or heterochromia iridis. WS is subdivided into four major types, WS1-WS4. WS1 is diagnosed by the presence of dystopia canthorum and PAX3 is the only gene involved. This study aims to determine the pathogenic mutation in a large Iranian pedigree affected with WS1 in order to further confirm the clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a family segregating HI was ascertained in a genetic counseling center. Upon clinical inspection, white forelock, dystopia canthorum, broad high nasal root and synophrys, characteristic of WS1 were evident. In order to clarify the genetic etiology and confirm the clinical data, primers were designed to amplify exons and exon-intron boundaries of the responsible gene, PAX3 with 10 exons, followed by the Sanger DNA sequencing method. Genetic analysis of PAX3 revealed a novel mutation in PAX3 (c.1024_1040 del AGCACGATTCCTTCCAA). Our data provide genotype-phenotype correlation for the mutation in PAX3 and WS1 in the studied family, with implications for genetic counseling, which necessitates detailed clinical inspection of HI patients to distinguish syndromic HI from the more common non-syndromic cases. Our results reveal the value of phenotype-directed genetic analysis and could further expand the spectrum of PAX3 mutations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel TNNI2 mutation causes Freeman-Sheldon syndrome in a Chinese family with an affected adult with only facial contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuefu; Jiang, Miao; Han, Weitian; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Wei; Sui, Yu; Lu, Yongping; Li, Jianxin

    2013-09-25

    Distal arthrogryposes (DAs), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by congenital contractures with predominant involvement of the hands and feet, can be classified into at least 12 different forms. These autosomal dominant disorders are of variable expressivity and reduced penetrance. Mutations in sarcomeric protein genes, including troponin I2 (TNNI2), troponin T3 (TNNT3), tropomyosin 2 (TPM2), embryonic myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3), and myosin binding protein C1 (MYBPC1), have been identified in distal arthrogryposis type 1 (DA1, MIM 108120), type 2B (DA2B, MIM 601680) and type 2A (DA2A)/Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS, MIM 193700). However, mutations causing FSS have only been reported in MYH3. Herein we describe a Chinese DA family whose members meet classical strict criteria for FSS, as well as one member of the family who has isolated facial features consistent with FSS. No disease-causing mutation was found in MYH3. Segregation of microsatellite markers flanking the TNNI2 and TNNT3 genes at 11p15.5 was compatible with linkage. Subsequent sequencing of TNNI2 revealed a novel mutation, c.A493T (p.I165F), located in the C-terminal region, which is critical for proper protein function. This mutation was found to cosegregate with the FSS phenotype in this family, and assessment using SIFT and PolyPhen-2 predicted a damaging effect. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first TNNI2 mutation in classical FSS and describe an atypical adult FSS case with only facial contractures resulting from somatic mosaicism. We infer that DA1, DA2B and FSS represent a phenotypic continuum of the same disorder and provide further genetic evidence for this hypothesis. © 2013.

  15. Frameshift mutation in the APOA5 gene causing hypertriglyceridemia in a Pakistani family: Management and considerations for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Sébastien; Don-Wauchope, Andrew; Chong, Michael; Lali, Ricky; Morrison, Katherine M; Paré, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel homozygous apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) frameshift mutation (c.G425del-C, p.Arg143AlafsTer57) identified in a 12-year-old boy of Pakistani origin with severe hypertriglyceridemia (up to 35 mmol/L) and type V hyperlipoproteinemia. The patient did not respond to fibrate therapy, but his condition improved under a very low fat diet, although compliance was suboptimal. Heterozygous status was detected in both parents (consanguineous union) and one sibling, all showing moderate hypertriglyceridemia (between 5 and 10 mmol/L). There was a significant family history of premature cardiovascular disease. The index case was also diagnosed with a coronary artery anomaly. Considering the recently reported association of rare mutations in APOA5 with the risk of early myocardial infarction, we discuss the implications of these findings for the young man and his family. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fanconi Bickel Syndrome: Novel Mutations in GLUT 2 Gene Causing a Distinguished Form of Renal Tubular Acidosis in Two Unrelated Egyptian Families

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    Mohammad Al-Haggar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 or SLC2A2 gene mapped on chromosome 3q26.1-26.3, that codes for the glucose transporter protein 2. Methods. Two unrelated Egyptian families having suspected cases of FBS were enrolled after taking a written informed consent; both had positive consanguinity, and index cases had evidences of proximal renal tubular defects with hepatomegaly; they were subjected to history taking, signs of rickets as well as anthropometric measurements. Laboratory workup included urinalysis, renal and liver function tests including fasting and postprandial blood sugar; serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, sodium and potassium, lipid profile, and detailed blood gas. Imaging including bone survey and abdominal ultrasound, and liver biopsy were done to confirm diagnosis. Molecular analysis of the GLUT2 gene was done for DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood leukocyte. All coding sequences, including flanking introns in GLUT2 gene, were amplified using PCR followed by direct sequencing. Results. Two new mutations had been detected, one in each family, in exon 3 two bases (GA were deleted (c.253 254delGA and in exon 6 in the second family, G-to-C substitution at position-1 of the splicing acceptor site (c.776-1G>C or IVS5-1G>A. Conclusion. FBS is a rare disease due to mutation in GLUT2 gene; many mutations were reported, about half were novel mutations; yet none of these mutations is more frequent. A more extensive survey for the most frequent mutations among FBS has to be contemplated to allow for use of molecular screening tests like ARMS.

  17. A novel HSF4 gene mutation (p.R405X causing autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in a large consanguineous family from Pakistan

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    Cheema Abdul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary cataracts are most frequently inherited as autosomal dominant traits, but can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive or X-linked fashion. To date, 12 loci for autosomal recessive cataracts have been mapped including a locus on chromosome 16q22 containing the disease-causing gene HSF4 (Genbank accession number NM_001040667. Here, we describe a family from Pakistan with the first nonsense mutation in HSF4 thus expanding the mutational spectrum of this heat shock transcription factor gene. Methods A large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataracts was collected from Quetta. Genetic linkage analysis was performed for the common known autosomal recessive cataracts loci and linkage to a locus containing HSF4 (OMIM 602438 was found. All exons and adjacent splice sites of the heat shock transcription factor 4 gene (HSF4 were sequenced. A mutation-specific restriction enzyme digest (HphI was performed for all family members and unrelated controls. Results The disease phenotype perfectly co-segregated with markers flanking the known cataract gene HSF4, whereas other autosomal recessive loci were excluded. A maximum two-point LOD score with a Zmax = 5.6 at θ = 0 was obtained for D16S421. Direct sequencing of HSF4 revealed the nucleotide exchange c.1213C > T in this family predicting an arginine to stop codon exchange (p.R405X. Conclusion We identified the first nonsense mutation (p.R405X in exon 11 of HSF4 in a large consanguineous Pakistani family with autosomal recessive cataract.

  18. Whole-exome sequencing reveals a recurrent mutation in the cathepsin C gene that causes Papillon–Lefevre syndrome in a Saudi family

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    Yaser Mohammad Alkhiary

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Papillon–Lefevre syndrome (PALS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by periodontitis and hyperkeratosis over the palms and soles. Mutations in the cathepsin C gene (CTSC have been recognized as the cause of PALS since the late 1990s. More than 75 mutations in CTSC have been identified, and phenotypic variability between different mutations has been described. Next generation sequencing is widely used for efficient molecular diagnostics in various clinical practices. Here we investigated a large consanguineous Saudi family with four affected and four unaffected individuals. All of the affected individuals suffered from hyperkeratosis over the palms and soles and had anomalies of both primary and secondary dentition. For molecular diagnostics, we combined whole-exome sequencing and genome-wide homozygosity mapping procedures, and identified a recurrent homozygous missense mutation (c.899G>A; p.Gly300Asp in exon 7 of CTSC. Validation of all eight family members by Sanger sequencing confirmed co-segregation of the pathogenic variant (c.899G>A with the disease phenotype. This is the first report of whole-exome sequencing performed for molecular diagnosis of PALS in Saudi Arabia. Our findings provide further insights into the genotype–phenotype correlation of CTSC pathogenicity in PALS.

  19. Phenotypic Variability in a Family with Acrodysostosis Type 2 Caused by a Novel PDE4D Mutation Affecting the Serine Target of Protein Kinase-A Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Julia; Gesing, Julia; Silve, Caroline; Leroy, Chrystel; Bertsche, Astrid; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang; Kiess, Wieland; Pfäffle, Roland; Schuster, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Acrodysostosis is a very rare congenital multisystem condition characterized by skeletal dysplasia with severe brachydactyly, midfacial hypoplasia, and short stature, varying degrees of intellectual disability, and possible resistance to multiple G protein-coupled receptor signalling hormones. Two distinct subtypes are differentiated: acrodysostosis type 1 resulting from defects in protein kinase type 1-α regulatory subunit and acrodysostosis type 2 caused by mutations in phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D). Most cases are sporadic. We report on a rare multigenerational familial case of acrodysostosis type 2 due to a novel autosomal dominantly inherited PDE4D mutation. A 3.5-year-old boy presented with short stature, midfacial hypoplasia, severe brachydactyly, developmental delay, and behavioural problems. Laboratory investigations revealed mild thyrotropin resistance. His mother shared some characteristic features, such as midfacial hypoplasia and severe brachydactyly, but did not show short stature, intellectual disability or hormonal resistance. Genetic analysis identified the identical, novel heterozygous missense mutation of the PDE4D gene c.569C>T (p.Ser190Phe) in both patients. This case illustrates the significant phenotypic variability of acrodysostosis even within one family with identical mutations. Hence, a specific clinical diagnosis of acrodysostosis remains challenging because of great interindividual variability and a substantial overlap of the two subtypes as well as with other related Gsα-cAMP-signalling-linked disorders. PMID:28515031

  20. Infection-triggered familial or recurrent cases of acute necrotizing encephalopathy caused by mutations in a component of the nuclear pore, RANBP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neilson, Derek E; Adams, Mark D; Orr, Caitlin M D

    2009-01-01

    a susceptibility locus (ANE1) in a family segregating recurrent ANE as an incompletely penetrant, autosomal-dominant trait. We now report that all affected individuals and obligate carriers in this family are heterozygous for a missense mutation (c.1880C-->T, p.Thr585Met) in the gene encoding the nuclear pore...... protein Ran Binding Protein 2 (RANBP2). To determine whether this mutation is the susceptibility allele, we screened controls and other patients with ANE who are unrelated to the index family. Patients from 9 of 15 additional kindreds with familial or recurrent ANE had the identical mutation. It arose de...... novo in two families and independently in several other families. Two other patients with familial ANE had different RANBP2 missense mutations that altered conserved residues. None of the three RANBP2 missense mutations were found in 19 patients with isolated ANE or in unaffected controls. We conclude...

  1. A novel mutation in CDK5RAP2 gene causes primary microcephaly with speech impairment and sparse eyebrows in a consanguineous Pakistani family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullah, Uzma; Farooq, Muhammad; Mang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    2 mutations is still under explored as only eleven families have been reported worldwide. Here, we analyzed a consanguineous Pakistani MCPH family, characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, speech impairment, moderately short stature and sparse eyebrows. Whole exome sequencing...

  2. New mutations in APOB100 involved in familial hypobetalipoproteinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus; Kjaersgaard, Lars; Hansen, Anne-Birthe Bo

    2011-01-01

    Familial hypolipoproteinemia (FHBL) is characterized by an inherited low plasma level of apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins. FHBL may be caused by mutations of APOB. Individuals with FHBL typically have intestinal malabsorption and frequently suffer from a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins....... Most mutations that cause FHBL are APOB truncating mutations. Here we describe a patient with FHBL caused by a novel truncating mutation together with a novel missense mutation....

  3. A missense mutation in the alpha-actinin 1 gene (ACTN1 is the cause of autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia in a large French family.

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    Paul Guéguen

    Full Text Available Inherited thrombocytopenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a reduced number of blood platelets. Despite the identification of nearly 20 causative genes in the past decade, approximately half of all subjects with inherited thrombocytopenia still remain unexplained in terms of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Here we report a six-generation French pedigree with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and the identification of its genetic basis. Of the 55 subjects available for analysis, 26 were diagnosed with isolated macrothrombocytopenia. Genome-wide linkage analysis mapped a 10.9 Mb locus to chromosome 14 (14q22 with a LOD score of 7.6. Candidate gene analysis complemented by targeted next-generation sequencing identified a missense mutation (c.137GA; p.Arg46Gln in the alpha-actinin 1 gene (ACTN1 that segregated with macrothrombocytopenia in this large pedigree. The missense mutation occurred within actin-binding domain of alpha-actinin 1, a functionally critical domain that crosslinks actin filaments into bundles. The evaluation of cultured mutation-harboring megakaryocytes by electron microscopy and the immunofluorescence examination of transfected COS-7 cells suggested that the mutation causes disorganization of the cellular cytoplasm. Our study concurred with a recently published whole-exome sequence analysis of six small Japanese families with congenital macrothrombocytopenia, adding ACTN1 to the growing list of thrombocytopenia genes.

  4. Homozygosity mapping reveals new nonsense mutation in the FAM161A gene causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in a Palestinian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobor, Ditta; Balousha, Ghassan; Baumann, Britta; Wissinger, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogenous group of inherited retinal degenerations caused by mutations in at least 45 genes. Recently, the FAM161A gene was identified as the causative gene for RP28, an autosomal recessive form of RP. We performed a clinical and molecular genetic study of a consanguineous Palestinian family with two three siblings affected with retinitis pigmentosa. DNA samples were collected from the index patient, his father, his affected sister, and two non-affected brothers. DNA sample from the index was subjected to high resolution genome-wide SNP array. Assuming identity-by-descent in this consanguineous family we applied homozygosity mapping to identify disease causing genes. The index patient reported night blindness since the age of 20 years, followed by moderate disease progression with decrease of peripheral vision, the development of photophobia and later on reduced central vision. At the age of 40 his visual acuity was counting fingers (CF) for both eyes, color discrimination was not possible and his visual fields were severely constricted. Funduscopic examination revealed a typical appearance of advanced RP with optic disc pallor, narrowed retinal vessels, bone-spicule like pigmentary changes in the mid-periphery and atrophic changes in the macula. His younger affected brother (37 years) was reported with overall milder symptoms, while the youngest sister (21 years) reported problems only with night vision. Applying high-density SNP arrays we identified several homozygous genomic regions one of which included the recently identified FAM161A gene mutated in RP28-linked autosomal recessive RP. Sequencing analysis revealed the presence of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation, c.1003C>T/p.R335X in the index patient and the affected sister. We identified an RP28-linked RP family in the Palestinian population caused by a novel nonsense mutation in FAM161A. RP in this family shows a typical disease onset with moderate to rapid progression

  5. A novel frameshift mutation of SMPX causes a rare form of X-linked nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Chinese family.

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    Zhijie Niu

    Full Text Available X-linked hearing impairment is the rarest form of genetic hearing loss (HL and represents only a minor fraction of all cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of X-linked inherited sensorineural HL in a four-generation Chinese family. A novel duplication variant (c.217dupA, p.Ile73Asnfs*5 in SMPX was identified by whole-exome sequencing. The frameshift mutation predicted to result in the premature truncation of the SMPX protein was co-segregated with the HL phenotype and was absent in 295 normal controls. Subpopulation screening of the coding exons and flanking introns of SMPX was further performed for 338 Chinese patients with nonsydromic HL by Sanger sequencing, and another two potential causative substitutions (c.238C>A and c.55A>G in SMPX were identified in additional sporadic cases of congenital deafness. Collectively, this study is the first to report the role of SMPX in Chinese population and identify a novel frameshift mutation in SMPX that causes not only nonsyndromic late-onset progressive HL, but also congenital hearing impairment. Our findings extend the mutation and phenotypic spectrum of the SMPX gene.

  6. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, A M; Johannsen, P; Holm, I

    2011-01-01

    CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The best studied example is frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) which occurs in a large Danish family, with a further CHMP2B mutation identified in an unrelated Belgian familial FTD patient. ...

  7. Mutation G805R in the transmembrane domain of the LDL receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia by inducing ectodomain cleavage of the LDL receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Bismo Strøm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 1700 mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene have been found to cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. These are commonly divided into five classes based upon their effects on the structure and function of the LDLR. However, little is known about the mechanism by which mutations in the transmembrane domain of the LDLR gene cause FH. We have studied how the transmembrane mutation G805R affects the function of the LDLR. Based upon Western blot analyses of transfected HepG2 cells, mutation G805R reduced the amounts of the 120 kDa precursor LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. This led to reduced amounts of the mature 160 kDa LDLR at the cell surface. However, significant amounts of a secreted 140 kDa G805R-LDLR ectodomain fragment was observed in the culture media. Treatment of the cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat largely restored the amounts of the 120 and 160 kDa forms in cell lysates, and prevented secretion of the 140 kDa ectodomain fragment. Together, these data indicate that a metalloproteinase cleaved the ectodomain of the 120 kDa precursor G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. It was the presence of the polar Arg805 and not the lack of Gly805 which led to ectodomain cleavage. Arg805 also prevented γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain. It is conceivable that introducing a charged residue within the hydrophobic membrane lipid bilayer, results in less efficient incorporation of the 120 kDa G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and makes it a substrate for metalloproteinase cleavage.

  8. Recurrent APC gene mutations in Polish FAP families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pławski Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular diagnostics of genetically conditioned disorders is based on the identification of the mutations in the predisposing genes. Hereditary cancer disorders of the gastrointestinal tracts are caused by mutations of the tumour suppressor genes or the DNA repair genes. Occurrence of recurrent mutation allows improvement of molecular diagnostics. The mutation spectrum in the genes causing hereditary forms of colorectal cancers in the Polish population was previously described. In the present work an estimation of the frequency of the recurrent mutations of the APC gene was performed. Eight types of mutations occurred in 19.4% of our FAP families and these constitute 43% of all Polish diagnosed families.

  9. A mutation in the FOXE3 gene causes congenital primary aphakia in an autosomal recessive consanguineous Pakistani family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjum, Iram; Eiberg, Hans; Baig, Shahid Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    of the population in this region of Pakistan which has prevailed for many months. CONCLUSIONS: FOXE3 is responsible for the early developmental arrest of the lens placode, and the complete loss of a functional FOXE3 protein results in primary aphakia. It can also be deduced that this mutation is quite primitive...

  10. Characterization of an aquaporin-2 water channel gene mutation causing partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a Mexican family: evidence of increased frequency of the mutation in the town of origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boccalandro, C.; Mattia, F.P. de; Guo, D.C.; Xue, L.; Orlander, P.; King, T.M.; Gupta, P.; Deen, P.M.T.; Lavis, V.R.; Milewicz, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    A Mexican family with partial congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) that resulted from a mutation in the aquaporin-2 water channel (AQP2) was characterized, and the source of this rare mutation was traced to the family's town of origin in Mexico. Affected individuals with profound polyuria

  11. Familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism/hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome caused by germline gross deletion or point mutations of CDC73 gene in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Wang, Ou; Nie, Min; Shi, Jie; Hu, Yingying; Jiang, Yan; Li, Mei; Xia, Weibo; Meng, Xunwu; Xing, Xiaoping

    2014-08-01

    Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT) and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) are two subtypes of familial primary hyperparathyroidism, which are rarely reported in Chinese population. Here, we reported three FIHP families and one HPT-JT family with long-term follow-up and genetic analysis. A total of 22 patients, from four FIHP/HPT-JT families of Chinese descent, were recruited and genomic DNA was extracted from their peripheral blood lymphocytes. Direct sequencing for MEN1, CDC73, CASR gene was conducted. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to study the effect of splice site mutations and gross deletion mutations. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyse parafibromin expression in parathyroid tumours. Genotype-phenotype correlations were assessed through clinical characteristics and long-term follow-up data. Genetic analysis revealed four CDC73 germline mutations that were responsible for the four kindreds, including two novel point mutation (c.157 G>T and IVS3+1 G>A), one recurrent point mutation (c.664 C>T) and one deletion mutation (c.307+?_513-?del exons 4, 5, 6). RT-PCR confirmed that IVS3+1 G>A generated an aberrant transcript with exon3 deletion. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated reduced nuclear parafibromin expression in tumours supporting the pathogenic effects of these mutations. This study supplies information on mutations and phenotypes of HPT-JT/FIHP syndrome in Chinese. Screening for gross deletion and point mutations of the CDC73 gene is necessary in susceptible subjects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. PPIB mutations cause severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Fleur S; Nesbitt, Isabel M; Zwikstra, Eline H; Nikkels, Peter G J; Piersma, Sander R; Fratantoni, Silvina A; Jimenez, Connie R; Huizer, Margriet; Morsman, Alice C; Cobben, Jan M; van Roij, Mirjam H H; Elting, Mariet W; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Wijnaendts, Liliane C D; Shaw, Nick J; Högler, Wolfgang; McKeown, Carole; Sistermans, Erik A; Dalton, Ann; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Pals, Gerard

    2009-10-01

    Deficiency of cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) or prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1(P3H1) has been reported in autosomal-recessive lethal or severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). CRTAP, P3H1, and cyclophilin B (CyPB) form an intracellular collagen-modifying complex that 3-hydroxylates proline at position 986 (P986) in the alpha1 chains of collagen type I. This 3-prolyl hydroxylation is decreased in patients with CRTAP and P3H1 deficiency. It was suspected that mutations in the PPIB gene encoding CyPB would also cause OI with decreased collagen 3-prolyl hydroxylation. To our knowledge we present the first two families with recessive OI caused by PPIB gene mutations. The clinical phenotype is compatible with OI Sillence type II-B/III as seen with COL1A1/2, CRTAP, and LEPRE1 mutations. The percentage of 3-hydroxylated P986 residues in patients with PPIB mutations is decreased in comparison to normal, but it is higher than in patients with CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations. This result and the fact that CyPB is demonstrable independent of CRTAP and P3H1, along with reported decreased 3-prolyl hydroxylation due to deficiency of CRTAP lacking the catalytic hydroxylation domain and the known function of CyPB as a cis-trans isomerase, suggest that recessive OI is caused by a dysfunctional P3H1/CRTAP/CyPB complex rather than by the lack of 3-prolyl hydroxylation of a single proline residue in the alpha1 chains of collagen type I.

  13. A canonical splice site mutation in GIPC3 causes sensorineural hearing loss in a large Pakistani family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiqi, S.; Ismail, M.; Oostrik, J.; Munawar, S.; Mansoor, A.; Kremer, H.; Qamar, R.; Schraders, M.

    2014-01-01

    With homozygosity mapping we have identified two large homozygous regions on chromosome 3q13.11-q13.31 and chromosome 19p13.3-q31.32 in a large Pakistani family suffering from autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (arNSHI). The region on chromosome 19 overlaps with the previously

  14. A novel RUNX2 missense mutation predicted to disrupt DNA binding causes cleidocranial dysplasia in a large Chinese family with hyperplastic nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoqin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by hypoplastic or absent clavicles, large fontanels, dental dysplasia, and delayed skeletal development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic basis of Chinese family with CCD. Methods Here, a large Chinese family with CCD and hyperplastic nails was recruited. The clinical features displayed a significant intrafamilial variation. We sequenced the coding region of the RUNX2 gene for the mutation and phenotype analysis. Results The family carries a c.T407C (p.L136P mutation in the DNA- and CBFβ-binding Runt domain of RUNX2. Based on the crystal structure, we predict this novel missense mutation is likely to disrupt DNA binding by RUNX2, and at least locally affect the Runt domain structure. Conclusion A novel missense mutation was identified in a large Chinese family with CCD with hyperplastic nails. This report further extends the mutation spectrum and clinical features of CCD. The identification of this mutation will facilitate prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  15. In silico analysis of a disease-causing mutation in PCDH15 gene in a consanguineous Pakistani family with Usher phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Saleha; Muhammad Ajmal; Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To map Usher phenotype in a consanguineous Pakistani family and identify disease-associated mutation in a causative gene to establish phenotype-genotype correlation. METHODS: A consanguineous Pakistani family in which Usher phenotype was segregating as an autosomal recessive trait was ascertained. On the basis of results of clinical investigations of affected members of this family disease was diagnosed as Usher syndrome (USH). To identify the locus responsible for the Usher phenotype...

  16. Characterization of a disease-causing Glu119-Lys mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in two Danish families with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H K; Jensen, T G; Jensen, L G

    1994-01-01

    acid residue 119 in the third repeat of the cysteine-rich ligand binding domain of the mature LDL receptor. Disruption of LDL receptor function by the Glu119-Lys mutation was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and expression in COS-7 cells. By Western blotting the mutation was found to affect...

  17. Hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by the PLP1 'rumpshaker mutation'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Kirsten; Giraud, Geneviève; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile

    2010-01-01

    with the 'rumpshaker mutation.' PATIENTS: A family with HSP caused by the 'rumpshaker mutation.' RESULTS: The patients showed nystagmus during infancy and had early onset of HSP. They had normal cognition, and cerebral MRI showed relatively unspecific white matter abnormalities on T2 sequences without clear...

  18. Recent origin and spread of a common Lithuanian mutation, G197del LDLR, causing familial hypercholesterolemia: positive selection is not always necessary to account for disease incidence among Ashkenazi Jews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durst, R.; Colombo, R.; Shpitzen, S.; Avi, L. B.; Friedlander, Y.; Wexler, R.; Raal, F. J.; Marais, D. A.; Defesche, J. C.; Mandelshtam, M. Y.; Kotze, M. J.; Leitersdorf, E.; Meiner, V.

    2001-01-01

    G197del is the most prevalent LDL receptor (LDLR) mutation causing familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Ashkenazi Jew (AJ) individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin, age, and population distribution of G197del, as well as to explore environmental and genetic effects on

  19. Report of Chinese family with severe dermatitis, multiple allergies and metabolic wasting syndrome caused by novel homozygous desmoglein-1 gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruhong; Yan, Ming; Ni, Cheng; Zhang, Jia; Li, Ming; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, homozygous mutations in the desmoglein-1 (DSG1) gene and heterozygous mutation in the desmoplakin (DSP) gene have been demonstrated to be associated with severe dermatitis, multiple allergies and metabolic wasting (SAM) syndrome (Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 615508). We aim to identify the molecular basis for a Chinese pedigree of SAM syndrome. A Chinese pedigree of SAM syndrome was subjected to mutation detection in the DSG1 gene. Sequence analysis of the DSG1 gene and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis for gene expression of DSG1 using cDNA derived from the epidermis of patients and controls were both performed. Skin biopsies were also taken from patients for pathological study and transmission electron microscopy observation. Novel homozygous splicing mutation c.1892-1delG in the exon-intron border of the DSG1 gene has been demonstrated to be associated with SAM syndrome. We report a new family of SAM syndrome of Asian decent and expand the spectrum of mutations in the DSG1 gene. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. CLRN1 mutations cause nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Kersten, F.F.J.; Azam, M.; Collin, R.W.J.; Hussain, A.; Shah, S.T.; Keunen, J.E.E.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Qamar, R.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the mutations in the CLRN1 gene in patients from 2 consanguineous Pakistani families diagnosed with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). DESIGN: Case-series study. PARTICIPANTS: Affected and unaffected individuals of 2 consanguineous Pakistani families and 90

  1. A Retrospective Study of Clinical and Mutational Findings in 45 Danish Families with Ectodermal Dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Henningsen, Emil; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2014-01-01

    covering 17 different diagnoses. Forty-five families were identified of which 26 were sporadic cases with no affected family members. In 27 tested families a disease-causing mutation was identified in 23 families. Eleven mutations were novel mutations. To our knowledge, we present the first large...

  2. Small Mutations of the DMD Gene in Taiwanese Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lin Hwa

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: Most identified mutations either led to a predictable premature stop codon or resulted in splicing defects, which caused defective function of dystrophin. Our findings extend the mutation spectrum of the DMD gene. Molecular characterization of the affected families is important for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

  3. APC gene mutations and extraintestinal phenotype of familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardiello, F. M.; Petersen, G. M.; Piantadosi, S.; Gruber, S. B.; Traboulsi, E. I.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Muro, K.; Krush, A. J.; Booker, S. V.; Luce, M. C.; Laken, S. J.; Kinzler, K. W.; Vogelstein, B.; Hamilton, S. R.

    1997-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene on chromosome 5q. This study assessed genotype-phenotype correlations for extraintestinal lesions in FAP. Mutations of the APC gene were compared with the occurrence of seven

  4. SPATACSIN mutations cause autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Orlacchio, Antonio; Babalini, Carla; Borreca, Antonella; Patrono, Clarice; Massa, Roberto; Basaran, Sarenur; Munhoz, Renato P.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina A.; St George-Hyslop, Peter H.; Bernardi, Giorgio; Kawarai, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    The mutation of the spatacsin gene is the single most common cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum. Common clinical, pathological and genetic features between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia motivated us to investigate 25 families with autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and long-term survival for mutations in the spatascin gene. The inclusion criterion was a diagnosis of clinically definite ...

  5. A novel AMELX mutation causes hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Youn Jung; Kang, Jenny; Shin, Teo Jeon; Hyun, Hong-Keun; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Zang Hee; Kim, Jung-Wook

    2017-04-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary genetic defect affecting tooth enamel. AI is heterogeneous in clinical phenotype as well as in genetic etiology. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with the etiology of AI. Amelogenin is the most abundant enamel matrix protein, most of which is encoded by the amelogenin gene in the X-chromosome (AMELX). More than 16 alternative splicing transcripts have been identified in the murine Amelx gene. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic cause of an AI family. We recruited a family with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis on the candidate gene based on the clinical phenotype. Mutational analysis revealed a missense mutation in exon 6 (NM_182680.1; c.242C > T), which changes a sequence in a highly conserved amino acid (NP_872621.1; p.Pro81Leu). Furthermore, a splicing assay using a minigene displayed that the mutation changed the mRNA splicing repertory. In this study, we identified a novel AMELX missense mutation causing hypoplastic AI, and this mutation also resulted in altered mRNA splicing. These results will not only expand the mutation spectrum causing AI but also broaden our understanding of the biological mechanism of enamel formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of eight new mutations in familial neurogenic diabetes insipidus supports the concept that defective folding of the mutant provasopressin-neurophysin causes the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittig, S.; Siggaard, C.; Pedersen, E.B. [University Hospital in Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial neurogenic diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a uniform phenotype characterized by polyuria, polydipsia and a severe deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP). These abnormalities develop postnatally and appear to be due to progressive degeneration of AVP producing neurons. Previous studies in 8 FNDI kindreds have identified 5 different mutations in the gene that codes for the AVP-neurophysin (NP) precursor, AVP-NP. Four kindreds had the same missense mutation in the part of exon 1 that codes for the C-terminal amino acid of the signal peptide (SP). The other 4 had different missense mutations or a codon deletion in exon 2 which codes for the highly conserved part of NP. In the present study, the AVP-NP genes from 8 other kindreds with FNDI were sequenced bidirectionally using sequence and single-stranded DNA amplified by PCR with biotinylated primers flanking each of the 3 exons. We find that each of the 8 kindreds has a different, previously unreported mutation in either the SP coding part of exon 1, in exon 2 or in the variable, NP-coding part of exon 3. Combining these 8 new mutations with the 5 described previously reveals a distribution pattern that corresponds closely to the domains involved in the mutually interactive processes of AVP binding, folding and dimerization of NP. Based on these findings and the clinical features of FNDI, we postulate that the precursors produced by the mutant alleles are cytotoxic because they do not fold or dimerize properly for subsequent packaging and processing.

  7. Novel autosomal dominant TNNT1 mutation causing nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konersman, Chamindra G; Freyermuth, Fernande; Winder, Thomas L; Lawlor, Michael W; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Patel, Shailendra B

    2017-11-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NEM) is one of the three major forms of congenital myopathy and is characterized by diffuse muscle weakness, hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and the presence of nemaline rod structures on muscle biopsy. Mutations in troponin T1 (TNNT1) is 1 of 10 genes known to cause NEM. To date, only homozygous nonsense mutations or compound heterozygous truncating or internal deletion mutations in TNNT1 gene have been identified in NEM. This extended family is of historical importance as some members were reported in the 1960s as initial evidence that NEM is a hereditary disorder. Proband and extended family underwent Sanger sequencing for TNNT1. We performed RT-PCR and immunoblot on muscle to assess TNNT1 RNA expression and protein levels in proband and father. We report a novel heterozygous missense mutation of TNNT1 c.311A>T (p.E104V) that segregated in an autosomal dominant fashion in a large family residing in the United States. Extensive sequencing of the other known genes for NEM failed to identify any other mutant alleles. Muscle biopsies revealed a characteristic pattern of nemaline rods and severe myofiber hypotrophy that was almost entirely restricted to the type 1 fiber population. This novel mutation alters a residue that is highly conserved among vertebrates. This report highlights not only a family with autosomal dominant inheritance of NEM, but that this novel mutation likely acts via a dominant negative mechanism. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Clinical findings in members of a Czech family with retinitis pigmentosa caused by the c.2426_2427delAG mutation in RPGR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousal, B; Skalická, P; Diblík, P; Kuthan, P; Langrová, H; Lišková, P

    2013-03-01

    To describe the phenotype of members of the first Czech retinitis pigmentosa family with an identified molecular genetic cause (c.2426_2427delAG in RPGR), followed for more than 13 years. Medical records were reviewed and a detailed ophthalmic examination including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and full-field and multifocal electroretinography (ERG) was performed in two affected males, three female carriers and one unaffected female. A 22-year-old male who denied suffering from nyctalopia had a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 0.63 in both eyes. Moderate myopia and myopic astigmatism were present bilaterally. Color vision and contrast sensitivity were normal. There was an eccentric constriction of the visual fields that spared the central 20 degrees in both eyes. Fundus examination revealed bilateral pigmentary changes in the mid-periphery. Full-field ERG documented a 10% rod and 20% cone response. The phenotype of his cousin, also aged 22 years, was more severe. He complained of nyctalopia since 12 years of age. His BCVA was 0.3 in the right eye and 0.5 in the left eye. Myopia and astigmatism were present bilaterally. Contrast sensitivity and color vision were severely impaired. Full field ERG was extinct, but some activity on multifocal ERG was still detectable. The constriction of the visual fields reached 5 degrees in both eyes. Fundus examination showed the typical retinitis pigmentosa appearance. All carriers denied that they suffered from nyctalopia, but two of them had decreased BCVA in at least one eye. None exhibited typical bone spicules or a tapetal-like reflex. Significant refractive errors were present in all eyes of the carriers. The finding of moderate or high myopia and astigmatism in males with retinitis pigmentosa as well as refractive errors in female relatives indicates possible X-linked inheritance, which may be especially important in pedigrees where the transmission pattern can not be clearly established. Our study

  9. A CGG-repeat expansion mutation in ZNF713 causes FRA7A: association with autistic spectrum disorder in two families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsu, Sofie; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Debacker, Kim; Bernhard, Birgitta; Rooms, Liesbeth; Grafodatskaya, Daria; Weksberg, Rosanna; Fombonne, Eric; Taylor, Martin S; Scherer, Stephen W; Kooy, R Frank; FitzPatrick, David R

    2014-11-01

    We report de novo occurrence of the 7p11.2 folate-sensitive fragile site FRA7A in a male with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) due to a CGG-repeat expansion mutation (∼450 repeats) in a 5' intron of ZNF713. This expanded allele showed hypermethylation of the adjacent CpG island with reduced ZNF713 expression observed in a proband-derived lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). His unaffected mother carried an unmethylated premutation (85 repeats). This CGG-repeat showed length polymorphism in control samples (five to 22 repeats). In a second unrelated family, three siblings with ASD and their unaffected father were found to carry FRA7A premutations, which were partially or mosaically methylated. In one of the affected siblings, mitotic instability of the premutation was observed. ZNF713 expression in LCLs in this family was increased in three of these four premutation carriers. A firm link cannot yet be established between ASD and the repeat expansion mutation but plausible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. An ochre mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene causes hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-resistant rickets in three families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, H.H.; Hughes, M.R.; Thompson, E.T.; Pike, J.W.; O'Malley, B.W.; Malloy, P.J.; Feldman, D.; Hochberg, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets is a rare autosomal-recessive disease resulting from target-organ resistance to the action of the active hormonal form of vitamin D. Four affected children from three related families with the classical syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets and the absence of detectable binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in cultured fibroblasts or lymphoblasts were examined for genetic abnormalities in the VDR gene. Genomic DNA from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts of eight family members was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Amplified fragments containing the eight structural exons encoding the VDR protein were sequenced. The DNA from all affected children exhibited a single C → A base substitution within exon 7 at nucleotide 970. Although the affected children were all homozygotic for the mutation, the four parents tested all exhibited both wild-type and mutant alleles, indicating a heterozygous state. Recreated mutant receptor exhibited no specific 1,25-[ 3 H]dihydroxyvitamin D 3 binding and failed to activate a cotransfected VDR promoter-reporter gene construct. Thus these findings identify an ochre mutation in a human steroid hormone receptor in patients with hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -resistant rickets

  11. An ochre mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene causes hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 -resistant rickets in three families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, H.H.; Hughes, M.R.; Thompson, E.T.; Pike, J.W.; O' Malley, B.W. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Malloy, P.J.; Feldman, D. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA)); Hochberg, Z. (Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel))

    1989-12-01

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets is a rare autosomal-recessive disease resulting from target-organ resistance to the action of the active hormonal form of vitamin D. Four affected children from three related families with the classical syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets and the absence of detectable binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in cultured fibroblasts or lymphoblasts were examined for genetic abnormalities in the VDR gene. Genomic DNA from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts of eight family members was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Amplified fragments containing the eight structural exons encoding the VDR protein were sequenced. The DNA from all affected children exhibited a single C {yields} A base substitution within exon 7 at nucleotide 970. Although the affected children were all homozygotic for the mutation, the four parents tested all exhibited both wild-type and mutant alleles, indicating a heterozygous state. Recreated mutant receptor exhibited no specific 1,25-({sup 3}H)dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} binding and failed to activate a cotransfected VDR promoter-reporter gene construct. Thus these findings identify an ochre mutation in a human steroid hormone receptor in patients with hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets.

  12. A novel missense KIT mutation causing piebaldism in one Chinese family associated with café-au-lait macules and intertriginous freckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia WX

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Xue Jia,1,2 Xue-Min Xiao,1,2 Jian-Bing Wu,1,2 Yi-Ping Ma,1,2 Yi-Ping Ge,1,2 Qi Li,1,2 Qiu-Xia Mao,1,2 Cheng-Rang Li1,2 1Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Skin Diseases and STIs, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China Abstract: Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, manifesting as congenital and stable depigmentation of the skin and white forelock. It has been found to be associated with mutations in the KIT or SLUG genes. We report a Chinese piebaldism family including a 28-year-old woman and her 3-year-old son with characteristics of white patches and forelock associated with numerous brown macules and patches. Genomic DNA samples of the proband and her son were extracted from their peripheral blood. One hundred unrelated healthy individuals were used as controls. All coding regions of KIT, SLUG, and NF1 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using exon flanking intronic primers and Sanger sequencings were performed. DNA sequencing revealed heterozygous missense c.2431T>G mutation in exon 17 of the KIT gene in the proband and the affected son. No potentially pathogenic variant was identified in SLUG or NF1 genes. The nucleotide substitution was not found in 100 unrelated control individuals. This study reveals a novel KIT mutation in piebaldism, and it further supports that café-au-lait macules and intertriginous freckling of piebaldism are parts of pigmented anomaly in piebaldism, which does not necessarily represent coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Keywords: novel mutation, KIT gene, neurofibromatosis type 1 

  13. A Novel Mutation in ERCC8 Gene Causing Cockayne Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Taghdiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by impaired neurological and sensory functions, cachectic dwarfism, microcephaly, and photosensitivity. This syndrome shows a variable age of onset and rate of progression, and its phenotypic spectrum include a wide range of severity. Due to the progressive nature of this disorder, diagnosis can be more important when additional signs and symptoms appear gradually and become steadily worse over time. Therefore, mutation analysis of genes involved in CS pathogenesis can be helpful to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Here, we report a novel mutation in ERCC8 gene in a 16-year-old boy who suffers from poor weight gain, short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity. The patient was born to consanguineous family with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify disease-causing mutation in the patient, whole exome sequencing utilizing next-generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. Results revealed a novel homozygote mutation in ERCC8 gene (NM_000082: exon 11, c.1122G>C in our patient. Another gene (ERCC6, which is also involved in CS did not have any disease-causing mutations in the proband. The new identified mutation was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband, his parents, and extended family members, confirming co-segregation with the disease. In addition, different bioinformatics programs which included MutationTaster, I-Mutant v2.0, NNSplice, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion, The PhastCons, Genomic Evolutationary Rate Profiling conservation score, and T-Coffee Multiple Sequence Alignment predicted the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified a rare novel mutation in ERCC8 gene and help to provide accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to minimize new affected individuals in this family.

  14. A Novel Mutation in ERCC8 Gene Causing Cockayne Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghdiri, Maryam; Dastsooz, Hassan; Fardaei, Majid; Mohammadi, Sanaz; Farazi Fard, Mohammad Ali; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by impaired neurological and sensory functions, cachectic dwarfism, microcephaly, and photosensitivity. This syndrome shows a variable age of onset and rate of progression, and its phenotypic spectrum include a wide range of severity. Due to the progressive nature of this disorder, diagnosis can be more important when additional signs and symptoms appear gradually and become steadily worse over time. Therefore, mutation analysis of genes involved in CS pathogenesis can be helpful to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Here, we report a novel mutation in ERCC8 gene in a 16-year-old boy who suffers from poor weight gain, short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity. The patient was born to consanguineous family with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify disease-causing mutation in the patient, whole exome sequencing utilizing next-generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. Results revealed a novel homozygote mutation in ERCC8 gene (NM_000082: exon 11, c.1122G>C) in our patient. Another gene ( ERCC6 ), which is also involved in CS did not have any disease-causing mutations in the proband. The new identified mutation was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband, his parents, and extended family members, confirming co-segregation with the disease. In addition, different bioinformatics programs which included MutationTaster, I-Mutant v2.0, NNSplice, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion, The PhastCons, Genomic Evolutationary Rate Profiling conservation score, and T-Coffee Multiple Sequence Alignment predicted the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified a rare novel mutation in ERCC8 gene and help to provide accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to minimize new affected individuals in this family.

  15. Common Variable Immunodeficiency Caused by FANC Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekinaka, Yujin; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Imai, Kohsuke; Yabe, Miharu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Mitsui-Sekinaka, Kanako; Honma, Kenichi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Arai, Ayako; Yoshida, Kenichi; Okuno, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Muramatsu, Hideki; Kojima, Seiji; Hira, Asuka; Takata, Minoru; Ohara, Osamu; Ogawa, Seishi; Morio, Tomohiro; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2017-07-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common adult-onset primary antibody deficiency disease due to various causative genes. Several genes, which are known to be the cause of different diseases, have recently been reported as the cause of CVID in patients by performing whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis. Here, we found FANC gene mutations as a cause of adult-onset CVID in two patients. B cells were absent and CD4 + T cells were skewed toward CD45RO + memory T cells. T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and signal joint kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (sjKRECs) were undetectable in both patients. Both patients had no anemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia. Using WES, we identified compound heterozygous mutations of FANCE in one patient and homozygous mutation of FANCA in another patient. The impaired function of FANC protein complex was confirmed by a monoubiquitination assay and by chromosome fragility test. We then performed several immunological evaluations including quantitative lymphocyte analysis and TRECs/sjKRECs analysis for 32 individuals with Fanconi anemia (FA). In total, 22 FA patients (68.8%) were found to have immunological abnormalities, suggesting that such immunological findings may be common in FA patients. These data indicate that FANC mutations are involved in impaired lymphogenesis probably by the accumulation of DNA replication stress, leading to CVID. It is important to diagnose FA because it drastically changes clinical management. We propose that FANC mutations can cause isolated immunodeficiency in addition to bone marrow failure and malignancy.

  16. SOX10 mutation causes Waardenburg syndrome associated with distinctive phenotypic features in an Iranian family: A clue for phenotype-directed genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Alimadadi, Hossein; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2017-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a neurocristopathy characterized by hearing impairment and pigmentary disturbances in hair, eyes, and skin. WS is clinically heterogeneous and can be subdivided into four major types (WS1-WS4) where WS4 or Shah-Waardenburg is diagnosed when WS2 is accompanied by Hirschsprung disease (HD). Mutations of SOX10, EDN3/EDNRB have been identified in association with WS4. This study was aimed to determine the pathogenic variant in an Iranian pedigree affected with WS4. A two-generation pedigree with three affected members and considerable phenotypic heterogeneity was recruited. The proband was a 15-year-old boy, with severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment, heterochromia iridis, hypoplastic blue eyes and Hirschprung disease. The other two also presented characteristics of WS2 and complained of chronic constipation with normal anorectal reflex. Sequencing of all exons and exon-intron boundaries of SOX10, EDN3/EDNRB revealed a heterozygous variant c.422T > C in exon 3 of SOX10 confirmed by a series of evidence to be pathogenic. It resulted in p.L141P at the protein level. Leucin 141 is located in Nuclear Export signal, HMG box of the protein. This study is the first report of a WS4 family in the Iranian population. The mutation is associated with distinctive phenotypic profile (association of anosmia and chronic constipation with SOX10 mutations) and could further improve diagnosis and counseling of WS in the Iranian population and can contribute to phenotype-directed genetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterozygous ABCC8 mutations are a cause of MODY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, P; Flanagan, S E; Edghill, E L; Damhuis, A; Shepherd, M H; Paisey, R; Hattersley, A T; Ellard, S

    2012-01-01

    The ABCC8 gene encodes the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) subunit of the pancreatic beta cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel. Inactivating mutations cause congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) and activating mutations cause transient neonatal diabetes (TNDM) or permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) that can usually be treated with sulfonylureas. Sulfonylurea sensitivity is also a feature of HNF1A and HNF4A MODY, but patients referred for genetic testing with clinical features of these types of diabetes do not always have mutations in the HNF1A/4A genes. Our aim was to establish whether mutations in the ABCC8 gene cause MODY that is responsive to sulfonylurea therapy. We sequenced the ABCC8 gene in 85 patients with a BMI MODY criteria, with two diagnosed after 25 years and one patient, who had no family history of diabetes, as a result of a proven de novo mutation. ABCC8 mutations can cause MODY in patients whose clinical features are similar to those with HNF1A/4A MODY. Therefore, sequencing of ABCC8 in addition to the known MODY genes should be considered if such features are present, to facilitate optimal clinical management of these patients.

  18. Genes and Mutations Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiger, Stephen P.; Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has a prevalence of approximately one in 4000; 25%–30% of these cases are autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Like other forms of inherited retinal disease, adRP is exceptionally heterogeneous. Mutations in more than 25 genes are known to cause adRP, more than 1000 mutations have been reported in these genes, clinical findings are highly variable, and there is considerable overlap with other types of inherited disease. Currently, it is possible to detect disease-causing mutations in 50%–75% of adRP families in select populations. Genetic diagnosis of adRP has advantages over other forms of RP because segregation of disease in families is a useful tool for identifying and confirming potentially pathogenic variants, but there are disadvantages too. In addition to identifying the cause of disease in the remaining 25% of adRP families, a central challenge is reconciling clinical diagnosis, family history, and molecular findings in patients and families. PMID:25304133

  19. Spectrum of mutations in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in India, with four novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Nitika; Saxena, Renu; Arora, Anjali; Verma, Ishwar C

    2016-12-01

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a rare but serious, inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by very high total and LDL cholesterol levels from birth. It presents as cutaneous and tendon xanthomas since childhood, with or without cardiac involvement. FH is commonly caused by mutations in three genes, i.e. LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and PCSK9. We aimed to determine the spectrum of mutations in cases of homozygous FH in Asian Indians and evaluate if there was any similarity to the mutations observed in Caucasians. Sixteen homozygous FH subjects from eleven families were analyzed for mutations by Sanger sequencing. Large rearrangements in LDLR gene were evaluated by multiplex ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technique. Ten mutations were observed in LDLR gene, of which four mutations were novel. No mutation was detected in ApoB gene and common PCSK9 mutation (p.D374Y). Fourteen cases had homozygous mutations; one had compound heterozygous mutation, while no mutation was detected in one clinically homozygous case. We report an interesting "Triple hit" case with features of homozygous FH. The spectrum of mutations in the Asian Indian population is quite heterogeneous. Of the mutations identified, 40% were novel. No mutation was observed in exons 3, 9 and 14 of LDLR gene, which are considered to be hot spots in studies done on Asian Indians in South Africa. Early detection followed by aggressive therapy, and cascade screening of extended families has been initiated to reduce the morbidity and mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Germline KRAS mutations cause Noonan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubbert, S.; Zenker, M.; Rowe, S.L.; Boll, S.; Klein, C.; Bollag, G.; Burgt, I. van der; Musante, L.; Kalscheuer, V.M.M.; Wehner, L.E.; Nguyen, H.; West, B.; Zhang, K.Y.; Sistermans, E.A.; Rauch, A.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Shannon, K.; Kratz, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (MIM 163950) is characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphism and cardiac defects. Heterozygous mutations in PTPN11, which encodes SHP-2, cause approximately 50% of cases of Noonan syndrome. The SHP-2 phosphatase relays signals from activated receptor complexes to downstream

  1. Novel folliculin (FLCN) mutation and familial spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J-F; Shen, X-Q; Zhu, F; Tian, L

    2017-01-01

    Familial spontaneous pneumothorax is one of the characteristics of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), which is an autosomal dominant disease caused by the mutation of folliculin (FLCN). To investigate the mutation of FLCN gene in a familial spontaneous pneumothorax. Prospective case study. Clinical and genetic data of a Chinese family with four patients who presented spontaneous pneumothorax in the absence of skin lesions or renal tumors were collected. CT scan of patient's lung was applied for observation of pneumothorax. DNA sequencing of the coding exons (4-14 exons) of FLCN was performed for all 11 members of the family and 100 unrelated healthy controls. CT scan of patient's lung showed spontaneous pneumothorax. A mutation (c. 510C > G) that leads to a premature stop codon (p. Y170X) was found in the proband using DNA sequencing of coding exons (4-14 exons) of FLCN. This mutation was also observed in the other affected members of the family. A nonsense mutation of FLCN was found in a spontaneous pneumothorax family. Our results expand the mutational spectrum of FLCN in patients with BHDS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Compound heterozygous ASPM mutations in Pakistani MCPH families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammad, Farooq; Mahmood Baig, Shahid; Hansen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is characterized by reduced head circumference (50% of all reported families. In spite of the high frequency of MCPH in Pakistan only one case of compound heterozygosity for mutations in ASPM has been reported yet. In this large MCPH study we...... confirmed compound heterozygosity in two and homozygous mutations in 20 families, respectively, showing that up to 10% of families with MCPH caused by ASPM are compound heterozygous. In total we identified 16 different nonsense or frameshift mutations of which 12 were novel thereby increasing the number...... of mutations in ASPM significantly from 35 to 47. We found no correlation between the severity of the condition and the site of truncation. We suggest that the high frequency of compound heterozygosity observed in this study is taken into consideration as part of future genetic testing and counseling...

  3. Similar phenotypes caused by mutations in OTOG and OTOGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Anne M.M.; Leijendeckers, Joop M.; Huygen, Patrick L.M.; Schraders, Margit; del Campo, Miguel; del Castillo, Ignacio; Tekin, Mustafa; Feenstra, Ilse; Beynon, Andy J.; Kunst, Henricus P.M.; Snik, Ad F.M.; Kremer, Hannie; Admiraal, Ronald J.C.; Pennings, Ronald J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives recently, OTOG and OTOGL were identified as human deafness genes. Currently, only four families are known to have autosomal recessive hearing loss based on mutations in these genes. Since the two genes code for proteins (otogelin and otogelin-like) that are strikingly similar in structure and localization in the inner ear, this study is focused on characterizing and comparing the hearing loss caused by mutations in these genes. Design To evaluate this type of hearing, an extensive set of audiometric and vestibular examinations was performed in the 13 patients from four families. Results all families show a flat to downsloping configuration of the audiogram with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Speech recognition scores remain good (>90%). Hearing loss is not significantly different in the four families and the psychophysical test results also do not differ between the families. Vestibular examinations show evidence for vestibular hyporeflexia. Conclusion since otogelin and otogelin-like are localized in the tectorial membrane, one could expect a cochlear conductive hearing loss, as was previously shown in DFNA13 (COL11A2) and DFNA8/12 (TECTA) patients. Results of psychophysical examinations, however, do not support this. Furthermore, the authors can conclude that there are no phenotypic differences between hearing loss based on mutations in OTOG or OTOGL. This phenotype description will facilitate counseling of hearing loss caused by defects in either of these two genes. PMID:24378291

  4. Novel FAM20A mutation causes autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodarsky, Michael; Zilberman, Uri; Birk, Ohad S

    2015-06-01

    To relate the peculiar phenotype of amelogenesis imperfecta in a large Bedouin family to the genotype determined by whole genome linkage analysis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a broad group of inherited pathologies affecting enamel formation, characterized by variability in phenotypes, causing mutations and modes of inheritance. Autosomal recessive or compound heterozygous mutations in FAM20A, encoding sequence similarity 20, member A, have been shown to cause several AI phenotypes. Five members from a large consanguineous Bedouin family presented with hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta with unerupted and resorbed permanent molars. Following Soroka Medical Center IRB approval and informed consent, blood samples were obtained from six affected offspring, five obligatory carriers and two unaffected siblings. Whole genome linkage analysis was performed followed by Sanger sequencing of FAM20A. The sequencing unravelled a novel homozygous deletion mutation in exon 11 (c.1523delC), predicted to insert a premature stop codon (p.Thr508Lysfs*6). We provide an interesting case of novel mutation in this rare disorder, in which the affected kindred is unique in the large number of family members sharing a similar phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Sondergaard, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe......Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause...... calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac...

  6. Dominant KCNA2 mutation causes episodic ataxia and pharmacoresponsive epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Mark A; Bellows, Susannah T; Li, Melody; Carroll, Renée; Micallef, Silvana; Carvill, Gemma L; Myers, Candace T; Howell, Katherine B; Maljevic, Snezana; Lerche, Holger; Gazina, Elena V; Mefford, Heather C; Bahlo, Melanie; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Gecz, Jozef

    2016-11-08

    To identify the genetic basis of a family segregating episodic ataxia, infantile seizures, and heterogeneous epilepsies and to study the phenotypic spectrum of KCNA2 mutations. A family with 7 affected individuals over 3 generations underwent detailed phenotyping. Whole genome sequencing was performed on a mildly affected grandmother and her grandson with epileptic encephalopathy (EE). Segregating variants were filtered and prioritized based on functional annotations. The effects of the mutation on channel function were analyzed in vitro by voltage clamp assay and in silico by molecular modeling. KCNA2 was sequenced in 35 probands with heterogeneous phenotypes. The 7 family members had episodic ataxia (5), self-limited infantile seizures (5), evolving to genetic generalized epilepsy (4), focal seizures (2), and EE (1). They had a segregating novel mutation in the shaker type voltage-gated potassium channel KCNA2 (CCDS_827.1: c.765_773del; p.255_257del). A rare missense SCN2A (rs200884216) variant was also found in 2 affected siblings and their unaffected mother. The p.255_257del mutation caused dominant negative loss of channel function. Molecular modeling predicted repositioning of critical arginine residues in the voltage-sensing domain. KCNA2 sequencing revealed 1 de novo mutation (CCDS_827.1: c.890G>A; p.Arg297Gln) in a girl with EE, ataxia, and tremor. A KCNA2 mutation caused dominantly inherited episodic ataxia, mild infantile-onset seizures, and later generalized and focal epilepsies in the setting of normal intellect. This observation expands the KCNA2 phenotypic spectrum from EE often associated with chronic ataxia, reflecting the marked variation in severity observed in many ion channel disorders. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. A De novo Mutation in Dystrophin Causing Muscular Dystrophy in a Female Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We identified two novel de novo mutations of DMD gene in two Chinese pedigrees, one of which caused a female patient with muscular dystrophy. The mutational analysis is important for DMD patients and carriers in the absence of a family history. The NGS can help detect the mutations in MLPA-negative patients.

  8. CtIP Mutations Cause Seckel and Jawad Syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Qvist

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is a recessively inherited dwarfism disorder characterized by microcephaly and a unique head profile. Genetically, it constitutes a heterogeneous condition, with several loci mapped (SCKL1-5 but only three disease genes identified: the ATR, CENPJ, and CEP152 genes that control cellular responses to DNA damage. We previously mapped a Seckel syndrome locus to chromosome 18p11.31-q11.2 (SCKL2. Here, we report two mutations in the CtIP (RBBP8 gene within this locus that result in expression of C-terminally truncated forms of CtIP. We propose that these mutations are the molecular cause of the disease observed in the previously described SCKL2 family and in an additional unrelated family diagnosed with a similar form of congenital microcephaly termed Jawad syndrome. While an exonic frameshift mutation was found in the Jawad family, the SCKL2 family carries a splicing mutation that yields a dominant-negative form of CtIP. Further characterization of cell lines derived from the SCKL2 family revealed defective DNA damage induced formation of single-stranded DNA, a critical co-factor for ATR activation. Accordingly, SCKL2 cells present a lowered apoptopic threshold and hypersensitivity to DNA damage. Notably, over-expression of a comparable truncated CtIP variant in non-Seckel cells recapitulates SCKL2 cellular phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. This work thus identifies CtIP as a disease gene for Seckel and Jawad syndromes and defines a new type of genetic disease mechanism in which a dominant negative mutation yields a recessively inherited disorder.

  9. Heterozygous RTEL1 mutations are associated with familial pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannengiesser, Caroline; Borie, Raphael; Ménard, Christelle; Réocreux, Marion; Nitschké, Patrick; Gazal, Steven; Mal, Hervé; Taillé, Camille; Cadranel, Jacques; Nunes, Hilario; Valeyre, Dominique; Cordier, Jean François; Callebaut, Isabelle; Boileau, Catherine; Cottin, Vincent; Grandchamp, Bernard; Revy, Patrick; Crestani, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal disease with progressive loss of respiratory function. Defective telomere maintenance leading to telomere shortening is a cause of pulmonary fibrosis, as mutations in the telomerase component genes TERT (reverse transcriptase) and TERC (RNA component) are found in 15% of familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF) cases. However, so far, about 85% of FPF remain genetically uncharacterised.Here, in order to identify new genetic causes of FPF, we performed whole-exome sequencing, with a candidate-gene approach, of 47 affected subjects from 35 families with FPF without TERT and TERC mutations.We identified heterozygous mutations in regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) in four families. RTEL1 is a DNA helicase with roles in DNA replication, genome stability, DNA repair and telomere maintenance. The heterozygous RTEL1 mutations segregated as an autosomal dominant trait in FPF, and were predicted by structural analyses to severely affect the function and/or stability of RTEL1. In agreement with this, RTEL1-mutated patients exhibited short telomeres in comparison with age-matched controls.Our results provide evidence that heterozygous RTEL1 mutations are responsible for FPF and, thereby, extend the clinical spectrum of RTEL1 deficiency. Thus, RTEL1 enlarges the number of telomere-associated genes implicated in FPF. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  10. Splice, insertion-deletion and nonsense mutations that perturb the phenylalanine hydroxylase transcript cause phenylketonuria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyam, Murali D; Chaudhary, Ajay K; Kiran, Manjari; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu A; Devi, Radha Rama; Ranganath, Prajnya; Dalal, Ashwin; Bashyam, Leena; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika; Muranjan, Mamta; Puri, Ratna D; Verma, Ishwar C; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Kadandale, Jayarama S

    2014-03-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutational inactivation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Missense mutations are the most common PAH mutation type detected in PKU patients worldwide. We performed PAH mutation analysis in 27 suspected Indian PKU families (including 7 from our previous study) followed by structure and function analysis of specific missense and splice/insertion-deletion/nonsense mutations, respectively. Of the 27 families, disease-causing mutations were detected in 25. A total of 20 different mutations were identified of which 7 "unique" mutations accounted for 13 of 25 mutation positive families. The unique mutations detected exclusively in Indian PKU patients included three recurrent mutations detected in three families each. The 20 mutations included only 5 missense mutations in addition to 5 splice, 4 each nonsense and insertion-deletion mutations, a silent variant in coding region and a 3'UTR mutation. One deletion and two nonsense mutations were characterized to confirm significant reduction in mutant transcript levels possibly through activation of nonsense mediated decay. All missense mutations affected conserved amino acid residues and sequence and structure analysis suggested significant perturbations in the enzyme activity of respective mutant proteins. This is probably the first report of identification of a significantly low proportion of missense PAH mutations from PKU families and together with the presence of a high proportion of splice, insertion-deletion, and nonsense mutations, points to a unique PAH mutation profile in Indian PKU patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mutations in HPSE2 Cause Urofacial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Sarah B.; Urquhart, Jill E.; Hilton, Emma; McKenzie, Edward A.; Kammerer, Richard A.; Lewis, Malcolm; Kerr, Bronwyn; Stuart, Helen; Donnai, Dian; Long, David A.; Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Derbent, Murat; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Reardon, Willie; Gener, Blanca; Shalev, Stavit; Smith, Rupert; Woolf, Adrian S.; Black, Graeme C.; Newman, William G.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary voiding dysfunction in childhood, manifesting as incontinence, dysuria, and urinary frequency, is a common condition. Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by facial grimacing when attempting to smile and failure of the urinary bladder to void completely despite a lack of anatomical bladder outflow obstruction or overt neurological damage. UFS individuals often have reflux of infected urine from the bladder to the upper renal tract, with a risk of kidney damage and renal failure. Whole-genome SNP mapping in one affected individual defined an autozygous region of 16 Mb on chromosome 10q23-q24, within which a 10 kb deletion encompassing exons 8 and 9 of HPSE2 was identified. Homozygous exonic deletions, nonsense mutations, and frameshift mutations in five further unrelated families confirmed HPSE2 as the causative gene for UFS. Mutations were not identified in four additional UFS patients, indicating genetic heterogeneity. We show that HPSE2 is expressed in the fetal and adult central nervous system, where it might be implicated in controlling facial expression and urinary voiding, and also in bladder smooth muscle, consistent with a role in renal tract morphology and function. Our findings have broader implications for understanding the genetic basis of lower renal tract malformations and voiding dysfunction. PMID:20560210

  12. Mutations in HPSE2 cause urofacial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Sarah B; Urquhart, Jill E; Hilton, Emma; McKenzie, Edward A; Kammerer, Richard A; Lewis, Malcolm; Kerr, Bronwyn; Stuart, Helen; Donnai, Dian; Long, David A; Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Derbent, Murat; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Reardon, Willie; Gener, Blanca; Shalev, Stavit; Smith, Rupert; Woolf, Adrian S; Black, Graeme C; Newman, William G

    2010-06-11

    Urinary voiding dysfunction in childhood, manifesting as incontinence, dysuria, and urinary frequency, is a common condition. Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by facial grimacing when attempting to smile and failure of the urinary bladder to void completely despite a lack of anatomical bladder outflow obstruction or overt neurological damage. UFS individuals often have reflux of infected urine from the bladder to the upper renal tract, with a risk of kidney damage and renal failure. Whole-genome SNP mapping in one affected individual defined an autozygous region of 16 Mb on chromosome 10q23-q24, within which a 10 kb deletion encompassing exons 8 and 9 of HPSE2 was identified. Homozygous exonic deletions, nonsense mutations, and frameshift mutations in five further unrelated families confirmed HPSE2 as the causative gene for UFS. Mutations were not identified in four additional UFS patients, indicating genetic heterogeneity. We show that HPSE2 is expressed in the fetal and adult central nervous system, where it might be implicated in controlling facial expression and urinary voiding, and also in bladder smooth muscle, consistent with a role in renal tract morphology and function. Our findings have broader implications for understanding the genetic basis of lower renal tract malformations and voiding dysfunction.

  13. A mouse genetic model for familial cholestasis caused by ATP8B1 mutations reveals perturbed bile salt homeostasis but no impairment in bile secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Groen, Annemiek; Eppens, Elaine F.; Kunne, Cindy; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Looije, Norbert; Knisely, A. S.; Killeen, Nigel P.; Bull, Laura N.; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in ATP8B1, a broadly expressed P-type ATPase, result, through unknown mechanisms, in disorders of bile secretion. These disorders vary in severity from mild and episodic to progressive with liver failure. We generated Atp8b1(G308V/G308V) mutant mice, which carry a mutation orthologous to

  14. A novel mutation of the fibrillin gene causing Ectopia lentis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennqvist, L.; Kainulainen, K.; Puhakka, L.; Peltonen, L. (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland)); Child, A. (St. George' s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)); Peltonen, L. (Duncan Guthrie Institute, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom))

    1994-02-01

    Ectopia lentis (EL), a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder, has been genetically linked to the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 (FBN1) in earlier studies. Here, the authors report the first EL mutation in the FBN1 gene confirming that EL is caused by mutations of this gene. So far, several mutations in the FBN1 gene have been reported in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). EL and MFS are clinically related but distinct conditions with typical manifestations in the ocular and skeletal systems, the fundamental difference between them being the absence of cardiovascular involvement in EL. They report a point mutation, cosegregating with the disease in the described family, that displays EL over four generations. The mutation changes a conserved glutamic acid residue in an EGF-like motif, which is the major structural component of the fibrillin and is repeated throughout the polypeptide. In vitro mutagenetic studies have demonstrated the necessity of an analogous glutamic acid residue for calcium binding in an EGF-like repeat of human factor IX. This provides a possible explanation for the role of this mutation in the disease pathogenesis. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. LRIG2 mutations cause urofacial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Helen M; Roberts, Neil A; Burgu, Berk; Daly, Sarah B; Urquhart, Jill E; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Dickerson, Jonathan E; Mermerkaya, Murat; Silay, Mesrur Selcuk; Lewis, Malcolm A; Olondriz, M Beatriz Orive; Gener, Blanca; Beetz, Christian; Varga, Rita E; Gülpınar, Omer; Süer, Evren; Soygür, Tarkan; Ozçakar, Zeynep B; Yalçınkaya, Fatoş; Kavaz, Aslı; Bulum, Burcu; Gücük, Adnan; Yue, Wyatt W; Erdogan, Firat; Berry, Andrew; Hanley, Neil A; McKenzie, Edward A; Hilton, Emma N; Woolf, Adrian S; Newman, William G

    2013-02-07

    Urofacial syndrome (UFS) (or Ochoa syndrome) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by congenital urinary bladder dysfunction, associated with a significant risk of kidney failure, and an abnormal facial expression upon smiling, laughing, and crying. We report that a subset of UFS-affected individuals have biallelic mutations in LRIG2, encoding leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 2, a protein implicated in neural cell signaling and tumorigenesis. Importantly, we have demonstrated that rare variants in LRIG2 might be relevant to nonsyndromic bladder disease. We have previously shown that UFS is also caused by mutations in HPSE2, encoding heparanase-2. LRIG2 and heparanase-2 were immunodetected in nerve fascicles growing between muscle bundles within the human fetal bladder, directly implicating both molecules in neural development in the lower urinary tract. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel inactivating mutations of the DCAF17 gene in American and Turkish families cause male infertility and female subfertility in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, F; Desai, S; Diao, F; Turkkahraman, D; Wranitz, F; Wood-Trageser, M; Shin, Y-H; Kotan, L D; Jiang, H; Witchel, S; Gurtunca, N; Yatsenko, S; Mysliwec, D; Topaloglu, K; Rajkovic, A

    2018-04-01

    Loss-of-function DCAF17 variants cause hypogonadism, partial alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and deafness with variable clinical presentation. DCAF17 pathogenic variants have been largely reported in the Middle Eastern populations, but the incidence in American families is rare and animal models are lacking. Exome sequencing in 5 women with syndromic hypergonadotropic hypogonadism from 2 unrelated families revealed novel pathogenic variants in the DCAF17 gene. DCAF17 exon 2 (c.127-1G > C) novel homozygous variants were discovered in 4 Turkish siblings, while 1 American was compound heterozygous for 1-stop gain variant in exon 5 (c.C535T; p.Gln179*) and previously described stop gain variant in exon 9 (c.G906A; p.Trp302*). A mouse model mimicking loss of function in exon 2 of Dcaf17 was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 and showed female subfertility and male infertility. Our results identify 2 novel variants, and show that Dcaf17 plays a significant role in mammalian gonadal development and infertility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. SPATACSIN mutations cause autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlacchio, Antonio; Babalini, Carla; Borreca, Antonella; Patrono, Clarice; Massa, Roberto; Basaran, Sarenur; Munhoz, Renato P; Rogaeva, Ekaterina A; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Bernardi, Giorgio; Kawarai, Toshitaka

    2010-02-01

    The mutation of the spatacsin gene is the single most common cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum. Common clinical, pathological and genetic features between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia motivated us to investigate 25 families with autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and long-term survival for mutations in the spatascin gene. The inclusion criterion was a diagnosis of clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria. The exclusion criterion was a diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum in line with an established protocol. Additional pathological and genetic evaluations were also performed. Surprisingly, 12 sequence alterations in the spatacsin gene (one of which is novel, IVS30 + 1 G > A) were identified in 10 unrelated pedigrees with autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and long-term survival. The countries of origin of these families were Italy, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Turkey. The variants seemed to be pathogenic since they co-segregated with the disease in all pedigrees, were absent in controls and were associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis neuropathology in one member of one of these families for whom central nervous system tissue was available. Our study indicates that mutations in the spatascin gene could cause a much wider spectrum of clinical features than previously recognized, including autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  18. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination.

  19. A Missense Mutation in Epsilon-subunit of Acetylcholine Receptor Causing Autosomal Dominant Slow-channel Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome in a Chinese Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ze Tan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We reported a SCCMS family of Chinese origin. In the family, classical clinical phenotype with phenotypic variability among different members was found. Genetic testing could help diagnose this rare disease.

  20. Cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania eVecchia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1 is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the EPSC were all similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action

  1. Abnormal cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI) mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the excitatory postsynaptic current were similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action

  2. Homozygous STIL mutation causes holoprosencephaly and microcephaly in two siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Mouden

    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly (HPE is a frequent congenital malformation of the brain characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage and midline facial anomalies. Heterozygous mutations in 14 genes have been identified in HPE patients that account for only 30% of HPE cases, suggesting the existence of other HPE genes. Data from homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in a consanguineous Turkish family were combined to identify a homozygous missense mutation (c.2150G>A; p.Gly717Glu in STIL, common to the two affected children. STIL has a role in centriole formation and has previously been described in rare cases of microcephaly. Rescue experiments in U2OS cells showed that the STIL p.Gly717Glu mutation was not able to fully restore the centriole duplication failure following depletion of endogenous STIL protein indicating the deleterious role of the mutation. In situ hybridization experiments using chick embryos demonstrated that expression of Stil was in accordance with a function during early patterning of the forebrain. It is only the second time that a STIL homozygous mutation causing a recessive form of HPE was reported. This result also supports the genetic heterogeneity of HPE and increases the panel of genes to be tested for HPE diagnosis.

  3. IDH Mutation Analysis in Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Na

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield α-ketoglutarate (α-KG with production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. Dysfunctional IDH leads to reduced production of α-KG and NADH and increased production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite. This results in increased oxidative damage and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α, causing cells to be prone to tumorigenesis. Methods: This study investigated IDH mutations in 61 Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs, using a pentose nucleic acid clamping method and direct sequencing. Results: We identified four cases of ESFTs harboring IDH mutations. The number of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations was equal and the subtype of IDH mutations was variable. Clinicopathologic analysis according to IDH mutation status did not reveal significant results. Conclusions: This study is the first to report IDH mutations in ESFTs. The results indicate that ESFTs can harbor IDH mutations in previously known hot-spot regions, although their incidence is rare. Further validation with a larger case-based study would establish more reliable and significant data on prevalence rate and the biological significance of IDH mutations in ESFTs.

  4. Cardiovascular malformations caused by NOTCH1 mutations do not keep left : data on 428 probands with left-sided CHD and their families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Vos, Yvonne J.; Verhagen, Judith M. A.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D.; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S. Klein; van der Zwaag, Paul A.; Sarvaas, Gideon J. du Marchie; Bergman, Klasien A.; Bilardo, Catia M.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Janssen, Johan H. P.; Frohn-Mulder, Ingrid M.; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; Melle, van Joost P.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Wessels, M. W.

    Purpose: We aimed to determine the prevalence and phenotypic spectrum of NOTCH1 mutations in left-sided congenital heart disease (LS-CHD). LS-CHD includes aortic valve stenosis, a bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Methods: NOTCH1 was screened for

  5. A familial case of achondrogenesis type II caused by a dominant COL2A1 mutation and "patchy" expression in the mosaic father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, F; Lituania, M; Viassolo, A; Superti-Furga, V; Wildhardt, G; Zabel, B; Faravelli, F

    2007-12-01

    Achondrogenesis type II (ACG2) is the most severe disorder that can be produced by dominant mutations in COL2A1. We report on four pregnancies of an apparently healthy, nonconsanguineous young couple. The father had scoliosis as a child, and has slight body disproportion with short trunk. The first child was born at 32 weeks and died neonatally. In the second pregnancy, short limbs and fetal hygroma were noted on ultrasound at 17 weeks' gestation. Similar findings were observed in the third fetus. Clinical, radiological, and histological evaluation of the fetuses after termination of the pregnancies showed findings consistent with ACG2. Molecular analysis of genomic DNA extracted from amniotic cells of the second and third fetuses revealed heterozygosity for a 10370G > T missense mutation (G346V) in the COL2A1 gene. This mutation was also found in the father, as a mosaic. The couple had a fourth pregnancy, and at 11 weeks fetal hydrops with a septated cystic hygroma were obvious. DNA from CVS demonstrated the same COL2A1 mutation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Mutations in KPTN Cause Macrocephaly, Neurodevelopmental Delay, and Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baple, Emma L.; Maroofian, Reza; Chioza, Barry A.; Izadi, Maryam; Cross, Harold E.; Al-Turki, Saeed; Barwick, Katy; Skrzypiec, Anna; Pawlak, Robert; Wagner, Karin; Coblentz, Roselyn; Zainy, Tala; Patton, Michael A.; Mansour, Sahar; Rich, Phillip; Qualmann, Britta; Hurles, Matt E.; Kessels, Michael M.; Crosby, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    The proper development of neuronal circuits during neuromorphogenesis and neuronal-network formation is critically dependent on a coordinated and intricate series of molecular and cellular cues and responses. Although the cortical actin cytoskeleton is known to play a key role in neuromorphogenesis, relatively little is known about the specific molecules important for this process. Using linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing on samples from families from the Amish community of Ohio, we have demonstrated that mutations in KPTN, encoding kaptin, cause a syndrome typified by macrocephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, and seizures. Our immunofluorescence analyses in primary neuronal cell cultures showed that endogenous and GFP-tagged kaptin associates with dynamic actin cytoskeletal structures and that this association is lost upon introduction of the identified mutations. Taken together, our studies have identified kaptin alterations responsible for macrocephaly and neurodevelopmental delay and define kaptin as a molecule crucial for normal human neuromorphogenesis. PMID:24239382

  7. Congenital myopathy is caused by mutation of HACD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Emad; Reish, Orit; Ohno, Yusuke; Scheetz, Todd; Deluca, Adam; Searby, Charles; Regev, Miriam; Benyamini, Lilach; Fellig, Yakov; Kihara, Akio; Sheffield, Val C; Parvari, Ruti

    2013-12-20

    Congenital myopathies are heterogeneous inherited diseases of muscle characterized by a range of distinctive histologic abnormalities. We have studied a consanguineous family with congenital myopathy. Genome-wide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous non-sense mutation in 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase 1 (HACD1) in affected individuals. The mutation results in non-sense mediated decay of the HACD1 mRNA to 31% of control levels in patient muscle and completely abrogates the enzymatic activity of dehydration of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, the third step in the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). We describe clinical findings correlated with a deleterious mutation in a gene not previously known to be associated with congenital myopathy in humans. We suggest that the mutation in the HACD1 gene causes a reduction in the synthesis of VLCFAs, which are components of membrane lipids and participants in physiological processes, leading to congenital myopathy. These data indicate that HACD1 is necessary for muscle function.

  8. Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jennie E; van der Burg, Mirjam; IJspeert, Hanna; Carroll, Paula; Wu, Qian; Ochi, Takashi; Leitch, Andrea; Miller, Edward S; Kysela, Boris; Jawad, Alireza; Bottani, Armand; Brancati, Francesco; Cappa, Marco; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Deshpande, Charu; Faqeih, Eissa A; Graham, Gail E; Ranza, Emmanuelle; Blundell, Tom L; Jackson, Andrew P; Stewart, Grant S; Bicknell, Louise S

    2015-03-05

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a key cellular process ensuring genome integrity. Mutations in several components of the NHEJ pathway have been identified, often associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), consistent with the requirement for NHEJ during V(D)J recombination to ensure diversity of the adaptive immune system. In contrast, we have recently found that biallelic mutations in LIG4 are a common cause of microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD), a phenotype characterized by prenatal-onset extreme global growth failure. Here we provide definitive molecular genetic evidence supported by biochemical, cellular, and immunological data for mutations in XRCC4, encoding the obligate binding partner of LIG4, causing MPD. We report the identification of biallelic mutations in XRCC4 in five families. Biochemical and cellular studies demonstrate that these alterations substantially decrease XRCC4 protein levels leading to reduced cellular ligase IV activity. Consequently, NHEJ-dependent repair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is compromised in XRCC4 cells. Similarly, immunoglobulin junctional diversification is impaired in cells. However, immunoglobulin levels are normal, and individuals lack overt signs of immunodeficiency. Additionally, in contrast to individuals with LIG4 mutations, pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure has not been observed. Hence, alterations that alter different NHEJ proteins give rise to a phenotypic spectrum, from SCID to extreme growth failure, with deficiencies in certain key components of this repair pathway predominantly exhibiting growth deficits, reflecting differential developmental requirements for NHEJ proteins to support growth and immune maturation. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RTTN Mutations Cause Primary Microcephaly and Primordial Dwarfism in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldin, Hanan; Alazami, Anas M; Manning, Melanie; Hashem, Amal; Caluseiu, Oana; Tabarki, Brahim; Esplin, Edward; Schelley, Susan; Innes, A Micheil; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Lamont, Ryan; Majewski, Jacek; Bernier, Francois P; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2015-12-03

    Primary microcephaly is a developmental brain anomaly that results from defective proliferation of neuroprogenitors in the germinal periventricular zone. More than a dozen genes are known to be mutated in autosomal-recessive primary microcephaly in isolation or in association with a more generalized growth deficiency (microcephalic primordial dwarfism), but the genetic heterogeneity is probably more extensive. In a research protocol involving autozygome mapping and exome sequencing, we recruited a multiplex consanguineous family who is affected by severe microcephalic primordial dwarfism and tested negative on clinical exome sequencing. Two candidate autozygous intervals were identified, and the second round of exome sequencing revealed a single intronic variant therein (c.2885+8A>G [p.Ser963(∗)] in RTTN exon 23). RT-PCR confirmed that this change creates a cryptic splice donor and thus causes retention of the intervening 7 bp of the intron and leads to premature truncation. On the basis of this finding, we reanalyzed the exome file of a second consanguineous family affected by a similar phenotype and identified another homozygous change in RTTN as the likely causal mutation. Combined linkage analysis of the two families confirmed that RTTN maps to the only significant linkage peak. Finally, through international collaboration, a Canadian multiplex family affected by microcephalic primordial dwarfism and biallelic mutation of RTTN was identified. Our results expand the phenotype of RTTN-related disorders, hitherto limited to polymicrogyria, to include microcephalic primordial dwarfism with a complex brain phenotype involving simplified gyration. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. LPIN1 gene mutations: a major cause of severe rhabdomyolysis in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michot, Caroline; Hubert, Laurence; Brivet, Michèle; de Meirleir, Linda; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang; Venkateswaran, Ramesh; Ogier, Hélène; Desguerre, Isabelle; Altuzarra, Cécilia; Thompson, Elizabeth; Smitka, Martin; Huebner, Angela; Husson, Marie; Horvath, Rita; Chinnery, Patrick; Vaz, Frederic M.; Munnich, Arnold; Elpeleg, Orly; Delahodde, Agnès; de Keyzer, Yves; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal recessive LPIN1 mutations have been recently described as a novel cause of rhabdomyolysis in a few families. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of LPIN1 mutations in patients exhibiting severe episodes of rhabdomyolysis in infancy. After exclusion of primary fatty acid

  11. A novel mutation in MED12 causes FG syndrome (Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rump, P.; Niessen, R. C.; Verbruggen, K. T.; Brouwer, O. F.; de Raad, M.; Hordijk, R.

    Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome is a rare X-linked multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability disorder caused by the recurrent p.R961W mutation in the MED12 gene. Twenty-three affected males from 10 families with this mutation in the MED12 gene have been described so far. Here we report on a

  12. CSB-PGBD3 Mutations Cause Premature Ovarian Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Qin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a rare, heterogeneous disorder characterized by cessation of menstruation occurring before the age of 40 years. Genetic etiology is responsible for perhaps 25% of cases, but most cases are sporadic and unexplained. In this study, through whole exome sequencing in a non-consanguineous family having four affected members with POF and Sanger sequencing in 432 sporadic cases, we identified three novel mutations in the fusion gene CSB-PGBD3. Subsequently functional studies suggest that mutated CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein was impaired in response to DNA damage, as indicated by delayed or absent recruitment to damaged sites. Our data provide the first evidence that mutations in the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein can cause human disease, even in the presence of functional CSB, thus potentially explaining conservation of the fusion protein for 43 My since marmoset. The localization of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein to UVA-induced nuclear DNA repair foci further suggests that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein, like many other proteins that can cause POF, modulates or participates in DNA repair.

  13. Epilepsy caused by CDKL5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrén, Maija; Gaily, Eija; Tengström, Carola; Lähdetie, Jaana; Archer, Hayley; Ala-Mello, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been identified in female patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy and severe mental retardation with a Rett-like phenotype. Subsequently CDKL5 mutations were shown to be associated with more diverse phenotypes including mild epilepsy and autism without epilepsy. Furthermore, CDKL5 mutations were found in patients with Angelman-like phenotype. The severity of epilepsy associated with CDKL5 mutations was recently shown to correlate with the type of CDKL5 mutations and epilepsy was identified to involve three distinct sequential stages. Here, we describe the phenotype of a severe form of neurodevelopmental disease in a female patient with a de novo nonsense mutation of the CDKL5 gene c.175C > T (p.R59X) affecting the catalytic domain of CDKL5 protein. Mutations in the CDKL5 gene are less common in males and can be associated with a genomic deletion as found in our male patient with a deletion of 0.3 Mb at Xp22.13 including the CDKL5 gene. We review phenotypes associated with CDKL5 mutations and examine putative relationships between the clinical epilepsy phenotype and the type of the mutation in the CDKL5 gene. © 2010 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New mutations in the NHS gene in Nance-Horan Syndrome families from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florijn, Ralph J; Loves, Willem; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, Liesbeth J J M; Mannens, Marcel M A M; Tijmes, Nel; Brooks, Simon P; Hardcastle, Alison J; Bergen, Arthur A B

    2006-09-01

    Mutations in the NHS gene cause Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS), a rare X-chromosomal recessive disorder with variable features, including congenital cataract, microphthalmia, a peculiar form of the ear and dental anomalies. We investigated the NHS gene in four additional families with NHS from the Netherlands, by dHPLC and direct sequencing. We identified an unique mutation in each family. Three out of these four mutations were not reported before. We report here the first splice site sequence alteration mutation and three protein truncating mutations. Our results suggest that X-linked cataract and NHS are allelic disorders.

  15. A New PAX8 Mutation Causing Congenital Hypothyroidism in Three Generations of a Family Is Associated with Abnormalities in the Urogenital Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Ana; Hermanns, Pia; Rodrigues, Ana-Luísa; Sousa, Isabel; Anselmo, João; Bikker, Hennie; Cabral, Rita; Pereira-Duarte, Carlos; Mota-Vieira, Luísa; Pohlenz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although thyroid dysgenesis is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), its molecular basis remains largely elusive. Indeed, in only a minority of cases with thyroid dysgenesis (2%-3%) was it possible to identify an underlying genetic defect. The objective of this study

  16. Comprehensive mutational screening in a cohort of Danish families with hereditary congenital cataract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Mikkelsen, Annemette; Nürnberg, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , and a gene conversion is the most likely mutational event causing this variant. Ten families had microcornea cataract, and a mutation was identified in eight of those. Most families displayed mixed phenotypes with nuclear, lamellar, and polar opacities and no apparent genotype-phenotype correlation emerged......PURPOSE: Identification of the causal mutations in 28 unrelated families and individuals with hereditary congenital cataract identified from a national Danish register of hereditary eye diseases. Seven families have been published previously, and the data of the remaining 21 families are presented...... together with an overview of the results in all families. METHODS: A combined screening approach of linkage analysis and sequencing of 17 cataract genes were applied to mutation analyses of total 28 families. RESULTS: The study revealed a disease locus in seven of eight families that were amenable...

  17. Adverse events in families with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy and mutations in the MYBPC3 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehrke Stephanie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in MYBPC3 encoding myosin binding protein C belong to the most frequent causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and may also lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. MYBPC3 mutations initially were considered to cause a benign form of HCM. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical outcome of patients and their relatives with 18 different MYBPC3 mutations. Methods 87 patients with HCM and 71 patients with DCM were screened for MYBPC3 mutations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Close relatives of mutation carriers were genotyped for the respective mutation. Relatives with mutation were then evaluated by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. A detailed family history regarding adverse clinical events was recorded. Results In 16 HCM (18.4% and two DCM (2.8% index patients a mutation was detected. Seven mutations were novel. Mutation carriers exhibited no additional mutations in genes MYH7, TNNT2, TNNI3, ACTC and TPM1. Including relatives of twelve families, a total number of 42 mutation carriers was identified of which eleven (26.2% had at least one adverse event. Considering the twelve families and six single patients with mutations, 45 individuals with cardiomyopathy and nine with borderline phenotype were identified. Among the 45 patients, 23 (51.1% suffered from an adverse event. In eleven patients of seven families an unexplained sudden death was reported at the age between 13 and 67 years. Stroke or a transient ischemic attack occurred in six patients of five families. At least one adverse event occurred in eleven of twelve families. Conclusion MYBPC3 mutations can be associated with cardiac events such as progressive heart failure, stroke and sudden death even at younger age. Therefore, patients with MYBPC3 mutations require thorough clinical risk assessment.

  18. a photoreceptor gene mutation in an indigenous black african family

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUTATION IN AN INDIGENOUS. BLACK AFRICAN FAMILY WITH. RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. IDENTIFIED USING A RAPID. SCREENING APPROACH FOR. COMMON RHODOPSIN. MUTATIONS. JGreenberg, T Franz, R Goliath, R Ramesar. Hereditary retinal degenerations may be subdivided into those affecting ...

  19. Mutations in CDK5RAP2 cause Seckel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Gökhan; Brown, Karen E; Kayserili, Hülya; Pohl, Esther; Caliebe, Almuth; Zahnleiter, Diana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Bögershausen, Nina; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Altunoglu, Umut; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Rauch, Anita; Li, Yun; Thiel, Christian Thomas; Wollnik, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Seckel syndrome is a heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder marked by prenatal proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. Here, we describe the novel homozygous splice-site mutations c.383+1G>C and c.4005-9A>G in CDK5RAP2 in two consanguineous families with Seckel syndrome. CDK5RAP2 (CEP215) encodes a centrosomal protein which is known to be essential for centrosomal cohesion and proper spindle formation and has been shown to be causally involved in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. We establish CDK5RAP2 as a disease-causing gene for Seckel syndrome and show that loss of functional CDK5RAP2 leads to severe defects in mitosis and spindle organization, resulting in cells with abnormal nuclei and centrosomal pattern, which underlines the important role of centrosomal and mitotic proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, we present an intriguing case of possible digenic inheritance in Seckel syndrome: A severely affected child of nonconsanguineous German parents was found to carry heterozygous mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. This finding points toward a potential additive genetic effect of mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152.

  20. Mutations in CDK5RAP2 cause Seckel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Gökhan; Brown, Karen E; Kayserili, Hülya; Pohl, Esther; Caliebe, Almuth; Zahnleiter, Diana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Bögershausen, Nina; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Altunoglu, Umut; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Rauch, Anita; Li, Yun; Thiel, Christian Thomas; Wollnik, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Seckel syndrome is a heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder marked by prenatal proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. Here, we describe the novel homozygous splice-site mutations c.383+1G>C and c.4005-9A>G in CDK5RAP2 in two consanguineous families with Seckel syndrome. CDK5RAP2 (CEP215) encodes a centrosomal protein which is known to be essential for centrosomal cohesion and proper spindle formation and has been shown to be causally involved in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. We establish CDK5RAP2 as a disease-causing gene for Seckel syndrome and show that loss of functional CDK5RAP2 leads to severe defects in mitosis and spindle organization, resulting in cells with abnormal nuclei and centrosomal pattern, which underlines the important role of centrosomal and mitotic proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, we present an intriguing case of possible digenic inheritance in Seckel syndrome: A severely affected child of nonconsanguineous German parents was found to carry heterozygous mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. This finding points toward a potential additive genetic effect of mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. PMID:26436113

  1. GCM2-Activating Mutations in Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Welch, James M; Sapp, Julie C; Ling, Hua; Li, Yulong; Johnston, Jennifer J; Kebebew, Electron; Biesecker, Leslie G; Simonds, William F; Marx, Stephen J; Agarwal, Sunita K

    2016-11-03

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease characterized by parathyroid hormone excess and hypercalcemia and caused by hypersecreting parathyroid glands. Familial PHPT occurs in an isolated nonsyndromal form, termed familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), or as part of a syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The specific genetic or other cause(s) of FIHP are unknown. We performed exome sequencing on germline DNA of eight index-case individuals from eight unrelated kindreds with FIHP. Selected rare variants were assessed for co-segregation in affected family members and screened for in an additional 32 kindreds with FIHP. In eight kindreds with FIHP, we identified three rare missense variants in GCM2, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for parathyroid development. Functional characterization of the GCM2 variants and deletion analyses revealed a small C-terminal conserved inhibitory domain (CCID) in GCM2. Two of the three rare variants were recurrent, located in the GCM2 CCID, and found in seven of the 40 (18%) kindreds with FIHP. These two rare variants acted as gain-of-function mutations that increased the transcriptional activity of GCM2, suggesting that GCM2 is a parathyroid proto-oncogene. Our results demonstrate that germline-activating mutations affecting the CCID of GCM2 can cause FIHP. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Lynch Syndrome Caused by Germline PMS2 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Broeke, Sanne W; Brohet, Richard M; Tops, Carli M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The clinical consequences of PMS2 germline mutations are poorly understood compared with other Lynch-associated mismatch repair gene (MMR) mutations. The aim of this European cohort study was to define the cancer risk faced by PMS2 mutation carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 98...... PMS2 families ascertained from family cancer clinics that included a total of 2,548 family members and 377 proven mutation carriers. To adjust for potential ascertainment bias, a modified segregation analysis model was used to calculate colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) risks....... Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to estimate risks for other Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. RESULTS: The cumulative risk (CR) of CRC for male mutation carriers by age 70 years was 19%. The CR among female carriers was 11% for CRC and 12% for EC. The mean age of CRC development was 52...

  3. Dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 cause Cantu syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakalova, M.; van Harssel, J.J.; Terhal, P.A.; van Lieshout, S.; Duran, K.; Renkens, I.; Amor, D.J.; Wilson, L.C.; Kirk, E.P.; Turner, C.L.; Shears, D.; Garcia-Minaur, S.; Lees, M.M.; Ross, A.; Venselaar, H.; Vriend, G.; Takanari, H.; Rook, M.B.; van der Heyden, M.A.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Breur, H.M.; Swinkels, M.E.; Scurr, I.J.; Smithson, S.F.; Knoers, N.V.; van der Smagt, J.J.; Nijman, I.J.; Kloosterman, W.P.; van Haelst, M.M.; van Haaften, G.; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cantu syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, distinctive facial features, osteochondrodysplasia and cardiac defects. By using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation in ABCC9. Subsequently, we discovered novel dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 in 14 of the

  4. Dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 cause Cantu syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakalova, M.; Harssel, J.J. van; Terhal, P.A.; Lieshout, S. van; Duran, K.; Renkens, I.; Amor, D.J.; Wilson, L.C.; Kirk, E.P.; Turner, C.L.; Shears, D.; Garcia-Minaur, S.; Lees, M.M.; Ross, A.; Venselaar, H.; Vriend, G.; Takanari, H.; Rook, M.B.; Heyden, M.A. van der; Asselbergs, F.W.; Breur, H.M.; Swinkels, M.E.; Scurr, I.J.; Smithson, S.F.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Smagt, J.J. van der; Nijman, IJ; Kloosterman, W.P.; Haelst, M.M. van; Haaften, G. van; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cantu syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis, distinctive facial features, osteochondrodysplasia and cardiac defects. By using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation in ABCC9. Subsequently, we discovered novel dominant missense mutations in ABCC9 in 14 of the

  5. Mutations in FLNB cause boomerang dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, L S; Morgan, T; Bonafé, L; Wessels, M W; Bialer, M G; Willems, P J; Cohn, D H; Krakow, D; Robertson, S P

    2005-07-01

    Boomerang dysplasia (BD) is a perinatal lethal osteochondrodysplasia, characterised by absence or underossification of the limb bones and vertebrae. The BD phenotype is similar to a group of disorders including atelosteogenesis I, atelosteogenesis III, and dominantly inherited Larsen syndrome that we have recently shown to be associated with mutations in FLNB, the gene encoding the actin binding cytoskeletal protein, filamin B. We report the identification of mutations in FLNB in two unrelated individuals with boomerang dysplasia. The resultant substitutions, L171R and S235P, lie within the calponin homology 2 region of the actin binding domain of filamin B and occur at sites that are evolutionarily well conserved. These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum resulting from mutations in FLNB and underline the central role this protein plays during skeletogenesis in humans.

  6. Mutations in FUS cause FALS and SALS in French and French Canadian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzil, V V; Valdmanis, P N; Dion, P A; Daoud, H; Kabashi, E; Noreau, A; Gauthier, J; Hince, P; Desjarlais, A; Bouchard, J-P; Lacomblez, L; Salachas, F; Pradat, P-F; Camu, W; Meininger, V; Dupré, N; Rouleau, G A

    2009-10-13

    The identification of mutations in the TARDBP and more recently the identification of mutations in the FUS gene as the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is providing the field with new insight about the mechanisms involved in this severe neurodegenerative disease. To extend these recent genetic reports, we screened the entire gene in a cohort of 200 patients with ALS. An additional 285 patients with sporadic ALS were screened for variants in exon 15 for which mutations were previously reported. In total, 3 different mutations were identified in 4 different patients, including 1 3-bp deletion in exon 3 of a patient with sporadic ALS and 2 missense mutations in exon 15 of 1 patient with familial ALS and 2 patients with sporadic ALS. Our study identified sporadic patients with mutations in the FUS gene. The accumulation and description of different genes and mutations helps to develop a more comprehensive picture of the genetic events underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  7. Unstable mutations: cause of some neurological hereditary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenca Berger, P.; Morales Montero, F.

    1999-01-01

    Unstable mutations or amplification of triplets constitute a kind of genetic alteration discovered during the last decade. They had been found inside or near genes important for the normal neurological function of the human being. In some cases, the presence of the amplification causes the inactivation of the gene or the synthesis of a new product which functions different from the original protein. Some common characteristics of diseases caused by the amplification of triplets are that it affects the nervous system and are degenerative in nature. The expression of the manifestations varies according to age. Most of them show genetic anticipation in which the severity of the manifestations increases with each generation and appear at an earlier age. In most cases, the severity of the symptoms is correlated positively to the size of the amplification. The diagnosis of an affected individual in a family may indicate the presence of an altered gene in other relatives. These relatives may not present evident signs of the illness either because it is of late onset or because they carry premutations. The molecular diagnosis of these mutations is important to estimate the risk of developing the disease and/or of transmitting the illness to the descendants and to eliminate the fears of healthy relatives who have inherited normal copies of the gene. (Author) [es

  8. Germinal mosaicism of PAX3 mutation caused Waardenburg syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaitian; Zhan, Yuan; Wu, Xuan; Zong, Ling; Jiang, Hongyan

    2018-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome mutations are most often recurrent or de novo. The rate of familial recurrence is low and families with several affected children are extremely rare. In this study, we aimed to clarify the underlying hereditary cause of Waardenburg syndrome type I in two siblings in a Chinese family, with a mother affected by prelingual mild hearing loss and a father who was negative for clinical symptoms of Waardenburg syndrome and had a normal hearing threshold. Complete characteristic features of the family members were recorded and genetic sequencing and parent-child relationship analyses were performed. The two probands were found to share double mutations in the PAX3/GJB2 genes that caused concurrent hearing loss in Waardenburg syndrome type I. Their mother carried the GJB2 c.109G > A homozygous mutation; however, neither the novel PAX3 c.592delG mutation, nor the Waardenburg syndrome phenotype, was observed in either parent. These previously unreported digenic mutations in PAX3/GJB2 resulted in deafness associated with Waardenburg syndrome type I in this family. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing germinal mosaicism in Waardenburg syndrome. This concept is important because it complicates genetic counseling of this family regarding the risk of recurrence of the mutations in subsequent pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of APC and MUTYH mutations to familial adenomatous polyposis susceptibility in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Janos; Kovacs, Marietta Eva; Matrai, Zoltan; Orosz, Enikő; Kásler, Miklós; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Olah, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome with considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, defined by the development of multiple adenomas throughout the colorectum. FAP is caused either by monoallelic mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene APC, or by biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH, this latter usually presenting with milder phenotype. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genotype and phenotype of Hungarian FAP patients. Mutation screening of 87 unrelated probands from FAP families (21 of them presented as the attenuated variant of the disease, showing APC were identified in 65 patients (75 %), including nine cases (37.5 %) with large genomic alterations. Twelve of the point mutations were novel. In addition, APC-negative samples were also tested for MUTYH mutations and we were able to identify biallelic pathogenic mutations in 23 % of these cases (5/22). Correlations between the localization of APC mutations and the clinical manifestations of the disease were observed, cases with a mutation in the codon 1200-1400 region showing earlier age of disease onset (p APC- and MUTYH-associated FAP in our cohort: the age at onset of polyposis was significantly delayed for biallelic MUTYH mutation carriers as compared to patients with an APC mutation. Our data represent the first comprehensive study delineating the mutation spectra of both APC and MUTYH in Hungarian FAP families, and underscore the overlap between the clinical characteristics of APC- and MUTYH-associated phenotypes, necessitating a more appropriate clinical characterization of FAP families.

  10. A phenotype of atypical apraxia of speech in a family carrying SQSTM1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Camuzat, Agnès; Le Ber, Isabelle; Bouya-Ahmed, Kawtar; Guerreiro, Rita; Deruet, Anne-Laure; Evrard, Christelle; Bras, José; Lamy, Estelle; Auffray-Calvier, Elisabeth; Pallardy, Amandine; Hardy, John; Brice, Alexis; Derkinderen, Pascal; Vercelletto, Martine

    2015-01-01

    SQSTM1 mutations, coding for the p62 protein, were identified as a monogenic cause of Paget disease of bone and of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. More recently, SQSTM1 mutations were identified in few families with frontotemporal dementia. We report a new family carrying SQSTM1 mutation and presenting with a clinical phenotype of speech apraxia or atypical behavioral disorders, associated with early visuo-contructional deficits. This study further supports the implication of SQSTM1 in frontotemporal dementia, and enlarges the phenotypic spectrum associated with SQSTM1 mutations.

  11. ENG mutational mosaicism in a family with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Pernille M; Kjeldsen, Anette D; Ousager, Lilian Bomme

    2018-01-01

    mutation using Sanger sequencing. Analyzing her DNA by NGS HHT panel sequencing when extracted from both peripheral blood leukocytes, and cheek swabs, identified the familial ENG mutation at low levels. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence of ENG mutational mosaicism in an individual presenting with clinical...

  12. Splicing aberrations caused by constitutional RB1 gene mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in this family revealed skipping of exon 22 in three members of this family. In one proband, a ... This study reveals novel effects of RB1 mutations on splicing and suggests the utility of RNA analysis as an ... of life) and presence of multiple tumors (multifocal). The ..... spliced RNA have been linked to parent of origin as well as.

  13. Mutations in the G6PC3 gene cause Dursun syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G; Ozgül, R Koksal; Dursun, Ali

    2010-10-01

    Dursun syndrome is a triad of familial primary pulmonary hypertension, leucopenia, and atrial septal defect. Here we demonstrate that mutations in G6PC3 cause Dursun syndrome. Mutations in G6PC3 are known to also cause severe congenital neutropenia type 4. Identification of the genetic basis of Dursun syndrome expands the pre-existing knowledge about the phenotypic effects of mutations in G6PC3. We propose that Dursun syndrome should now be considered as a subset of severe congenital neutropenia type 4 with pulmonary hypertension as an important clinical feature. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Identification of a Novel Mutation in a Pseudohypoparathyroidism Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Miao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia is defined as a series of disorders characterized by multihormone resistance in end-organs and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO phenotype. PHP Ia is caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in GNAS, which encodes the stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit (Gsa. A patient with typical clinical manifestations of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP (round face, short stature, centripetal obesity, brachydactyly, and multi-hormone resistance: parathyroid hormone (PTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and gonadotropins presented at our center. The sequence of the GNAS gene from the patient and her families revealed a novel missense mutation (Y318H in the proband and her mother. An in vitro Gsa functional study showed that Gsa function was significantly impaired. These results stress the importance of GNAS gene investigation.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Printable PDF Open All Close ... on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID Sources for This Page Carmichael CL, Wilkins EJ, ...

  16. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Rikke S.; Heron, Sarah E.; Larsen, Line H. G.; Lim, Chiao Xin; Ricos, Michael G.; Bayly, Marta A.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Andrews, Ian; Kelley, Kent; Ronen, Gabriel M.; Callen, David; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Yendle, Simone C.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Nabbout, Rima; Poduri, Annapurna; Striano, Pasquale; Baglietto, Maria G.; Zara, Federico; Smith, Nicholas J.; Pridmore, Clair; Gardella, Elena; Nikanorova, Marina; Dahl, Hans Atli; Gellert, Pia; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Gunning, Boudewijn; Kragh-Olsen, Bente; Dibbens, Leanne M.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associated with KCNT1, we examined individuals affected with focal epilepsy or an epileptic encephalopathy for mutations in the gene. We identified KCNT1 mutations in 12 previously unreported patients with focal epilepsy, multifocal epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and in a family with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), in addition to patients with NFLE and MMFSI. In contrast to the 100% penetrance so far reported for KCNT1 mutations, we observed incomplete penetrance. It is notable that we report that the one KCNT1 mutation, p.Arg398Gln, can lead to either of the two distinct phenotypes, ADNFLE or MMFSI, even within the same family. This indicates that genotype–phenotype relationships for KCNT1 mutations are not straightforward. We demonstrate that KCNT1 mutations are highly pleiotropic and are associated with phenotypes other than ADNFLE and MMFSI. KCNT1 mutations are now associated with Ohtahara syndrome, MMFSI, and nocturnal focal epilepsy. They may also be associated with multifocal epilepsy and cardiac disturbances. PMID:26122718

  17. GATA3 mutation in a family with hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zi-Yang; Zhou, Qiao-Li; Ni, Shi-Ning; Gu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder primarily caused by GATA3 gene mutation. We report here a case that both of a Chinese boy and his father had HDR syndrome which caused by a novel mutation of GATA3. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing was performed to detect the exons of the GATA3 gene for mutation analysis. Sequence analysis of GATA3 revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation in this family: a mutation of GATA3 at exon 2 (c.515C >A) that resulted in a premature stop at codon 172 (p.S172X) with a loss of two zinc finger domains. We identified a novel nonsense mutation which will expand the spectrum of HDR-associated GATA3 mutations.

  18. Identification of novel mutations in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa families and implications for diagnostic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaus, Esther; Lorenz, Birgit; Netzer, Christian; Li, Yün; Schambeck, Maria; Wittmer, Mariana; Feil, Silke; Kirschner-Schwabe, Renate; Rosenberg, Thomas; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Bergen, Arthur A.B.; Barthelmes, Daniel; Baraki, Husnia; Schmid, Fabian; Tanner, Gaby; Fleischhauer, Johannes; Orth, Ulrike; Becker, Christian; Wegscheider, Erika; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Bolz, Hanno Jörn; Gal, Andreas; Berger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to identify mutations in X-chromosomal genes associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in patients from Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Switzerland. Methods In addition to all coding exons of RP2, exons 1 through 15, 9a, ORF15, 15a and 15b of RPGR were screened for mutations. PCR products were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples and analyzed by direct sequencing. In one family with apparently dominant inheritance of RP, linkage analysis identified an interval on the X chromosome containing RPGR, and mutation screening revealed a pathogenic variant in this gene. Patients of this family were examined clinically and by X-inactivation studies. Results This study included 141 RP families with possible X-chromosomal inheritance. In total, we identified 46 families with pathogenic sequence alterations in RPGR and RP2, of which 17 mutations have not been described previously. Two of the novel mutations represent the most 3’-terminal pathogenic sequence variants in RPGR and RP2 reported to date. In exon ORF15 of RPGR, we found eight novel and 14 known mutations. All lead to a disruption of open reading frame. Of the families with suggested X-chromosomal inheritance, 35% showed mutations in ORF15. In addition, we found five novel mutations in other exons of RPGR and four in RP2. Deletions in ORF15 of RPGR were identified in three families in which female carriers showed variable manifestation of the phenotype. Furthermore, an ORF15 mutation was found in an RP patient who additionally carries a 6.4 kbp deletion downstream of the coding region of exon ORF15. We did not identify mutations in 39 sporadic male cases from Switzerland. Conclusions RPGR mutations were confirmed to be the most frequent cause of RP in families with an X-chromosomal inheritance pattern. We propose a screening strategy to provide molecular diagnostics in these families. PMID:18552978

  19. Congenital myopathy is caused by mutation of HACD1

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Emad; Reish, Orit; Ohno, Yusuke; Scheetz, Todd; DeLuca, Adam; Searby, Charles; Regev, Miriam; Benyamini, Lilach; Fellig, Yakov; Kihara, Akio; Sheffield, Val C.; Parvari, Ruti

    2013-01-01

    Congenital myopathies are heterogeneous inherited diseases of muscle characterized by a range of distinctive histologic abnormalities. We have studied a consanguineous family with congenital myopathy. Genome-wide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous non-sense mutation in 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase 1 (HACD1) in affected individuals. The mutation results in non-sense mediated decay of the HACD1 mRNA to 31% of control levels in patient muscle and completely abro...

  20. Loss-of-activity-mutation in the cardiac chloride-bicarbonate exchanger AE3 causes short QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Kasper; Dam, Vibeke S.; Kjaer-Sorensen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    unrelated families with SQTS. The mutation causes reduced surface expression of AE3 and reduced membrane bicarbonate transport. Slc4a3 knockdown in zebrafish causes increased cardiac pHi, short QTc, and reduced systolic duration, which is rescued by wildtype but not mutated SLC4A3. Mechanistic analyses...

  1. A restricted spectrum of NRAS mutations causes Noonan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirstea, Ion C.; Kutsche, Kerstin; Dvorsky, Radovan; Gremer, Lothar; Carta, Claudio; Horn, Denise; Roberts, Amy E.; Lepri, Francesca; Merbitz-Zahradnik, Torsten; Koenig, Rainer; Kratz, Christian P.; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Dentici, Maria L.; Joshi, Victoria A.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Mazzanti, Laura; Mundlos, Stefan; Patton, Michael A.; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Rossi, Cesare; Zampino, Giuseppe; Digilio, Cristina; Stuppia, Liborio; Seemanova, Eva; Pennacchio, Len A.; Gelb, Bruce D.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.; Tartaglia, Marco; Zenker, Martin

    Noonan syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by congenital heart defects, reduced growth, facial dysmorphism and variable cognitive deficits, is caused by constitutional dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Here we report that germline NRAS mutations conferring enhanced

  2. Fifteen novel FBN1 mutations causing Marfan syndrome detected by heteroduplex analysis of genomic amplicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijbroek, G.; Sood, S.; McIntosh, I. [John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), a component of the extracellular microfibril, cause the Marfan syndrome (MFS). This statement is supported by the observations that the classic Marfan phenotype cosegregates with intragenic and/or flanking marker alleles in all families tested and that a significant number of FBN1 mutations have been identified in affected individuals. We have now devised a method to screen the entire coding sequence and flanking splice junctions of FBN1. On completion for a panel of nine probands with classic MFS, six new mutations were identified that accounted for disease in seven (78%) of nine patients. Nine additional new mutations have been characterized in the early stages of a larger screening project. These 15 mutations were equally distributed throughout the gene and, with one exception, were specific to single families. One-third of mutations created premature termination codons, and 6 of 15 substituted residues with putative significance for calcium finding to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. Mutations causing severe and rapidly progressive disease that presents in the neonatal period can occur in a larger region of the gene than previously demonstrated, and the nature of the mutation is as important a determinant as its location, in predisposing to this phenotype. 56 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Activating mutation in MET oncogene in familial colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schildkraut Joellen M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC is 5%, and it is the second leading cause of death from cancer. The presence of family history is a well established risk factor with 25-35% of CRCs attributable to inherited and/or familial factors. The highly penetrant inherited colon cancer syndromes account for approximately 5%, leaving greater than 20% without clear genetic definition. Familial colorectal cancer has been linked to chromosome 7q31 by multiple affected relative pair studies. The MET proto-oncogene which resides in this chromosomal region is considered a candidate for genetic susceptibility. Methods MET exons were amplified by PCR from germline DNA of 148 affected sibling pairs with colorectal cancer. Amplicons with altered sequence were detected with high-resolution melt-curve analysis using a LightScanner (Idaho Technologies. Samples demonstrating alternative melt curves were sequenced. A TaqMan assay for the specific c.2975C >T change was used to confirm this mutation in a cohort of 299 colorectal cancer cases and to look for allelic amplification in tumors. Results Here we report a germline non-synonymous change in the MET proto-oncogene at amino acid position T992I (also reported as MET p.T1010I in 5.2% of a cohort of sibling pairs affected with CRC. This genetic variant was then confirmed in a second cohort of individuals diagnosed with CRC and having a first degree relative with CRC at prevalence of 4.1%. This mutation has been reported in cancer cells of multiple origins, including 2.5% of colon cancers, and in Conclusions Although the MET p.T992I genetic mutation is commonly found in somatic colorectal cancer tissues, this is the first report also implicating this MET genetic mutation as a germline inherited risk factor for familial colorectal cancer. Future studies on the cancer risks associated with this mutation and the prevalence in different at-risk populations will

  4. Recessive Mutations in ACPT, Encoding Testicular Acid Phosphatase, Cause Hypoplastic Amelogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, Figen; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Ye Ji; Kang, Jenny; Kim, Tak-Heun; Choi, Hwajung; Koruyucu, Mine; Kasimoglu, Yelda; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Gencay, Koray; Shin, Teo Jeon; Hyun, Hong-Keun; Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Zang Hee; Zhang, Hong; Hu, Jan C-C; Simmer, James P; Cho, Eui-Sic; Kim, Jung-Wook

    2016-11-03

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders affecting tooth enamel. The affected enamel can be hypoplastic and/or hypomineralized. In this study, we identified ACPT (testicular acid phosphatase) biallelic mutations causing non-syndromic, generalized hypoplastic autosomal-recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) in individuals from six apparently unrelated Turkish families. Families 1, 4, and 5 were affected by the homozygous ACPT mutation c.713C>T (p.Ser238Leu), family 2 by the homozygous ACPT mutation c.331C>T (p.Arg111Cys), family 3 by the homozygous ACPT mutation c.226C>T (p.Arg76Cys), and family 6 by the compound heterozygous ACPT mutations c.382G>C (p.Ala128Pro) and 397G>A (p.Glu133Lys). Analysis of the ACPT crystal structure suggests that these mutations damaged the activity of ACPT by altering the sizes and charges of key amino acid side chains, limiting accessibility of the catalytic core, and interfering with homodimerization. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed localization of ACPT in secretory-stage ameloblasts. The study results provide evidence for the crucial function of ACPT during amelogenesis. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inactivating mutations in ESCO2 cause SC phocomelia and Roberts syndrome: no phenotype-genotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Birgitt; Oviedo, Angelica; Johnston, Kathreen; Pai, Shashidhar; Francke, Uta

    2005-12-01

    The rare, autosomal recessive Roberts syndrome (RBS) is characterized by tetraphocomelia, profound growth deficiency of prenatal onset, craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and mental deficiency. SC phocomelia (SC) has a milder phenotype, with a lesser degree of limb reduction and with survival to adulthood. Since heterochromatin repulsion (HR) is characteristic for both disorders and is not complemented in somatic-cell hybrids, it has been hypothesized that the disorders are allelic. Recently, mutations in ESCO2 (establishment of cohesion 1 homolog 2) on 8p21.1 have been reported in RBS. To determine whether ESCO2 mutations are also responsible for SC, we studied three families with SC and two families in which variable degrees of limb and craniofacial abnormalities, detected by fetal ultrasound, led to pregnancy terminations. All cases were positive for HR. We identified seven novel mutations in exons 3-8 of ESCO2. In two families, affected individuals were homozygous--for a 5-nucleotide deletion in one family and a splice-site mutation in the other. In three nonconsanguineous families, probands were compound heterozygous for a single-nucleotide insertion or deletion, a nonsense mutation, or a splice-site mutation. Abnormal splice products were characterized at the RNA level. Since only protein-truncating mutations were identified, regardless of clinical severity, we conclude that genotype does not predict phenotype. Having established that RBS and SC are caused by mutations in the same gene, we delineated the clinical phenotype of the tetraphocomelia spectrum that is associated with HR and ESCO2 mutations and differentiated it from other types of phocomelia that are negative for HR.

  6. The importance of conventional radiography in the mutational analysis of skeletal dysplasias (the TRPV4 mutational family)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Stefan F.; Cohn, Daniel H.; Krakow, Deborah; Funari, Vincent A.; Rimoin, David L.; Lachman, Ralph S. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The spondylo and spondylometaphyseal dysplasias (SMDs) are characterized by vertebral changes and metaphyseal abnormalities of the tubular bones, which produce a phenotypic spectrum of disorders from the mild autosomal-dominant brachyolmia to SMD Kozlowski to autosomal-dominant metatropic dysplasia. Investigations have recently drawn on the similar radiographic features of those conditions to define a new family of skeletal dysplasias caused by mutations in the transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). This review demonstrates the significance of radiography in the discovery of a new bone dysplasia family due to mutations in a single gene. (orig.)

  7. Novel heterozygous nonsense mutation of the OPTN gene segregating in a Danish family with ALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tümer, Zeynep; Bertelsen, Birgitte; Gredal, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. About 10% of ALS cases are familial (FALS) and the genetic defect is known only in approximately 20%-30% of these cases. The most common genetic cause of ALS is SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1) mutation. Very recently......, mutations of the optineurin gene (OPTN), which is involved in open-angle glaucoma, were identified in 3 Japanese patients/families with ALS, and subsequently in a few FALS patients of European descent. We found a heterozygous nonsense mutation (c.493C>T, p.Gln165X, exon 6) in the OPTN gene in a Danish...... patient with ALS, and the mutation segregated from his affected father. The p.Gln165X mutation could not be detected in 1070 healthy Danish controls, in 1000 Danish individuals with metabolic phenotypes or in 64 sporadic ALS (SALS) cases. The p.Gln165X mutation described in this study is the first...

  8. [Gene mutation analysis and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Ma, Na; Li, Xiu-Rong; Gong, Fei; DU, Juan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the mutation of related genes and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome (BS). The high-throughput capture sequencing technique and PCR-Sanger sequencing were used to detect pathogenic genes in the proband of this family and analyze the whole family at the genomic level. After the genetic cause was clarified, the amniotic fluid was collected from the proband's mother who was pregnant for 5 months for prenatal diagnosis. The proband carried compound heterozygous mutations of c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene; c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) had been reported as a pathogenic mutation, and c.968+2T>A was a new mutation. Pedigree analysis showed that the two mutations were inherited from the mother and father, respectively. Prenatal diagnosis showed that the fetus did not inherit the mutations from parents and had no mutations at the two loci. The follow-up visit confirmed that the infant was in a healthy state, which proved the accuracy of genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. The compound heterozygous mutations c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene are the cause of BS in the proband, and prenatal diagnosis can prevent the risk of recurrence of BS in this family.

  9. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Erin L.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Hitomi, Yuki; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Nicole, Sophie; de Vries, Boukje; Tiziano, F. Danilo; Fontaine, Bertrand; Walley, Nicole M.; Heavin, Sinéad; Panagiotakaki, Eleni; Fiori, Stefania; Abiusi, Emanuela; Di Pietro, Lorena; Sweney, Matthew T.; Newcomb, Tara M.; Viollet, Louis; Huff, Chad; Jorde, Lynn B.; Reyna, Sandra P.; Murphy, Kelley J.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Gumbs, Curtis E.; Little, Latasha; Silver, Kenneth; Ptác̆ek, Louis J.; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel D.; Bye, Ann M.; Herkes, Geoffrey K.; Whitelaw, Charlotte M.; Webb, David; Lynch, Bryan J.; Uldall, Peter; King, Mary D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Neri, Giovanni; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Goldstein, David B.; Nicole, Sophie; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Neri, Giovanni; de Vries, Boukje; Koelewijn, Stephany; Kamphorst, Jessica; Geilenkirchen, Marije; Pelzer, Nadine; Laan, Laura; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Zucca, Claudio; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Franchini, Filippo; Vavassori, Rosaria; Giannotta, Melania; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Granata, Tiziana; Nardocci, Nardo; De Grandis, Elisa; Veneselli, Edvige; Stagnaro, Michela; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Neri, Giovanni; Vigevano, Federico; Panagiotakaki, Eleni; Oechsler, Claudia; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Nicole, Sophie; Giannotta, Melania; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Ninan, Miriam; Neville, Brian; Ebinger, Friedrich; Fons, Carmen; Campistol, Jaume; Kemlink, David; Nevsimalova, Sona; Laan, Laura; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Casaer, Paul; Casari, Giorgio; Sange, Guenter; Spiel, Georg; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Zucca, Claudio; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Schyns, Tsveta; Crawley, Francis; Poncelin, Dominique; Vavassori, Rosaria

    2012-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare, severe neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by recurrent hemiplegic episodes and distinct neurologic manifestations. AHC is usually a sporadic disorder with unknown etiology. Using exome sequencing of seven patients with AHC, and their unaffected parents, we identified de novo nonsynonymous mutations in ATP1A3 in all seven AHC patients. Subsequent sequence analysis of ATP1A3 in 98 additional patients revealed that 78% of AHC cases have a likely causal ATP1A3 mutation, including one inherited mutation in a familial case of AHC. Remarkably, six ATP1A3 mutations explain the majority of patients, including one observed in 36 patients. Unlike ATP1A3 mutations that cause rapid-onset-dystonia-parkinsonism, AHC-causing mutations revealed consistent reductions in ATPase activity without effects on protein expression. This work identifies de novo ATP1A3 mutations as the primary cause of AHC, and offers insight into disease pathophysiology by expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with mutations in this gene. PMID:22842232

  10. Recurring dominant-negative mutations in the AVP-NPII gene cause neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repaske, D.R. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Phillips, J.A.; Krishnamani, M.R.S. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a familial form of arginine vasopressin (or antidiuretic hormone) deficiency that is usually manifest in early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia and an antidiuretic response to exogenous vasopressin or its analogs. The phenotype is postulated to arise from gliosis and depletion of the magnocellular neurons that produce vasopressin in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. ADNDI is caused by heterozygosity for a variety of mutations in the AVP-NPII gene which encodes vasopressin, its carrier protein (NPII) and a glycoprotein (copeptin) of unknown function. These mutations include: (1) Ala 19{r_arrow}Thr (G279A) in AVP`s signal peptide, (2) Gly 17{r_arrow}Val (G1740T), (3) Pro 24{r_arrow}Leu (C1761T), (4) Gly 57{r_arrow}Ser (G1859A) and (5) del Glu 47({delta}AGG 1824-26), all of which occur in NPII. In characterizing the AVP-NPII mutations in five non-related ADNDI kindreds, we have detected two kindreds having mutation 1 (G279A), two having mutation 3 (C1761T) and one having mutation 4 (G1859A) without any other allelic changes being detected. Two of these recurring mutations (G279A and G1859A) are transitions that occur at CpG dinucleotides while the third (C1761T) does not. Interestingly, families with the same mutations differed in their ethnicity or in their affected AVP-NPII allele`s associated haplotype of closely linked DNA polymorphisms. Our data indicated that at least three of five known AVP-NPII mutations causing ADNDI tend to recur but the mechanisms by which these dominant-negative mutations cause variable or progressive expression of the ADNDI phenotype remain unclear.

  11. Novel NTRK1 mutations cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV: demonstration of a founder mutation in the Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Bayrakli, Fatih; DiLuna, Michael L; Bilguvar, Kaya; Bayri, Yasar; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz; Bursali, Aysegul; Ozdamar, Elif; Korkmaz, Baris; Mason, Christopher E; Ozturk, Ali K; Lifton, Richard P; State, Matthew W; Gunel, Murat

    2008-05-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV), or congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by insensitivity to noxious stimuli, anhidrosis from deinnervated sweat glands, and delayed mental and motor development. Mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (NTRK1), a receptor in the neurotrophin signaling pathway phosphorylated in response to nerve growth factor, are associated with this disorder. We identified six families from Northern Central Turkey with HSAN IV. We screened the NTRK1 gene for mutations in these families. Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on the Affymetrix 250K chip platform were used to determine the haplotypes for three families harboring the same mutation. Screening for mutations in the NTRK1 gene demonstrated one novel frameshift mutation, two novel nonsense mutations, and three unrelated kindreds with the same splice-site mutation. Genotyping of the three families with the identical splice-site mutation revealed that they share the same haplotype. This report broadens the spectrum of mutations in NTRK1 that cause HSAN IV and demonstrates a founder mutation in the Turkish population.

  12. A De Novo Mutation in Causes Generalized Dystonia in 2 Unrelated Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gulcan Kurt MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is often associated with the symmetrical basal ganglia lesions of Leigh syndrome. However, it has also been associated with mitochondrial ND mutations, with or without Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. The m.14459G>A mutation in ND6 causes dystonia with or without familial Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. We report heteroplasmic 14459G>A mutations in 2 unrelated children with nonmaternally inherited generalized dystonia and showing bilateral magnetic resonance imaging lesions in nucleus pallidus and putamen. Both children have reached their teenage years, and they are intellectually active, despite their motor problems.

  13. Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy : report on a new mutation and a pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhotta, Karl; Gehringer, A; Jennings, P; Kronenberg, F.; Brezinka, C; Andersone, I; Strazdins, V

    BACKGROUND: Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the uromodulin gene (UMOD) and leading to gout, tubulointerstitial nephropathy and end-stage renal disease. CASE REPORTS AND RESULTS: A Latvian family suffering from FJHN is

  14. Primary ciliary dyskinesia-causing mutations in Amish and Mennonite communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkol, Thomas W; Puffenberger, Erik G; Lie, Hauw; Helms, Cynthia; Strauss, Kevin A; Bowcock, Anne; Carson, John L; Hazucha, Milan; Morton, D Holmes; Patel, Anand C; Leigh, Margaret W; Knowles, Michael R; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) from unrelated Amish and Mennonite families harbor a single and unique founder mutation. Subjects from Amish and Mennonite communities in several states were enrolled in the study. All subjects were clinically characterized, and nasal nitric oxide levels were measured. Nasal epithelial scrapings were collected from several subjects for ciliary ultrastructural analyses. DNA was isolated from patients with PCD and their unaffected first- and second-degree relatives. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping, linkage analyses, targeted mutation analyses, and exome sequencing were performed. All subjects from Old-Order Amish communities from Pennsylvania were homozygous for a nonsense mutant DNAH5 allele, c.4348C>T (p.Q1450X). Two affected siblings from an unrelated Mennonite family in Arkansas were homozygous for the same nonsense DNAH5 mutation. Children with PCD from an Amish family from Wisconsin had biallelic DNAH5 mutations, c.4348C>T (p.Q1450X) and c.10815delT (p.P3606HfsX23), and mutations in other genes associated with PCD were also identified in this community. The Amish and Mennonite subjects from geographically dispersed and socially isolated communities had the same founder DNAH5 mutation, owing to the common heritage of these populations. However, disease-causing mutations in other PCD-associated genes were also found in affected individuals in these communities, illustrating the genetic heterogeneity in this consanguineous population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. c.376G>A mutation in WFS1 gene causes Wolfram syndrome without deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarpour Lima, Behnam; Ghaedi, Hamid; Daftarian, Narsis; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Jamshidi, Javad; Khorrami, Mehdi; Noroozi, Rezvan; Sohrabifar, Nasim; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Hesami, Omid; Taghavi, Shaghayegh; Ahmadifard, Azadeh; Atakhorrami, Minoo; Rahimi-Aliabadi, Simin; Shahmohammadibeni, Neda; Alehabib, Elham; Andarva, Monavvar; Darvish, Hossein; Emamalizadeh, Babak

    2016-02-01

    Wolfram syndrome is one of the rare autosomal recessive, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. Several other features are observed in patients including deafness, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. A gene called WFS1 is identified on chromosome 4p, responsible for Wolfram syndrome. We investigated a family consisted of parents and 8 children, which 5 of them have been diagnosed for Wolfram syndrome. WFS1 gene in all family members was sequenced for causative mutations. A mutation (c.376G>A, p.A126T) was found in all affected members in homozygous state and in both parents in heterozygous state. The bioinformatics analysis showed the deleterious effects of this nucleotide change on the structure and function of the protein product. As all of the patients in the family showed the homozygote mutation, and parents were both heterozygote, this mutation is probably the cause of the disease. We identified this mutation in homozygous state for the first time as Wolfram syndrome causation. We also showed that this mutation probably doesn't cause deafness in affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus associated with a signal peptide mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, J.F.; Gaskill, M.B.; Bradley, G.S.; Robertson, G.L. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kovacs, L. (Comenius Univ. Medical School, Bratislava (Slovakia)); Rittig, S. (Univ. of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1993-09-01

    The authors studied the pathophysiology, natural history, and genetic basis of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) in a caucasian kindred. Twelve members had polyuria and a deficiency of plasma vasopressin (AVP), which progressed in severity over time. Another had normal urine volumes and plasma AVP when first tested at age 3 yr, but developed severe FNDI a year later. For unknown reasons, one man had a normal urine volume despite severe AVP deficiency and a history of polyuria in the past. When the AVP-neurophysin-II gene was amplified and sequenced, exon 2/3 was normal, but 7 of 12 clones of exon 1 contained a base substitution (G[yields]A) predicting a substitution of threonine for alanine at the -1 position of the signal peptide. Restriction analysis found the mutation in all 14 affected members, but in none of the 41 controls of 19 adult members with normal urine volumes and plasma or urinary AVP (lod score = 5.7). The mutation was also found in 2 infants in whom AVP was normal when tested at 6 and 9 months of age. We hypothesize that a mutation in exon 1 of the AVP-neurophysin-II gene caused FNDI in this kindred by making an abnormally processed precursor that gradually destroys vasopressinergic neurons. 46 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Homozygosity mapping in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa families detects novel mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouka, Nour al Dain; Hebrard, Maxime; Manes, Gaël; Sénéchal, Audrey; Meunier, Isabelle; Hamel, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease resulting in progressive loss of photoreceptors that leads to blindness. To date, 36 genes are known to cause arRP, rendering the molecular diagnosis a challenge. The aim of this study was to use homozygosity mapping to identify the causative mutation in a series of inbred families with arRP. Methods arRP patients underwent standard ophthalmic examination, Goldman perimetry, fundus examination, retinal OCT, autofluorescence measurement, and full-field electroretinogram. Fifteen consanguineous families with arRP excluded for USH2A and EYS were genotyped on 250 K SNP arrays. Homozygous regions were listed, and known genes within these regions were PCR sequenced. Familial segregation and mutation analyzes were performed. Results We found ten mutations, seven of which were novel mutations in eight known genes, including RP1, IMPG2, NR2E3, PDE6A, PDE6B, RLBP1, CNGB1, and C2ORF71, in ten out of 15 families. The patients carrying RP1, C2ORF71, and IMPG2 mutations presented with severe RP, while those with PDE6A, PDE6B, and CNGB1 mutations were less severely affected. The five families without mutations in known genes could be a source of identification of novel genes. Conclusions Homozygosity mapping combined with systematic screening of known genes results in a positive molecular diagnosis in 66.7% of families. PMID:24339724

  18. A retrospective study of clinical and mutational findings in 45 Danish families with ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann Svendsen, Mathias; Henningsen, Emil; Hertz, Jens Michael; Vestergaard Grejsen, Dorthe; Bygum, Anette

    2014-09-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias form a complex, nosologic group of diseases with defects in at least 2 ectodermal structures. A retrospective study of patients with ectodermal dysplasia seen at our department over a period of 19 years (1994-2013) was performed. The study population consisted of 67 patients covering 17 different diagnoses. Forty-five families were identified of which 26 were sporadic cases with no affected family members. In 27 tested families a disease-causing mutation was identified in 23 families. Eleven mutations were novel mutations. To our knowledge, we present the first large ectodermal dysplasia cohort focusing on clinical manifestations in combination with mutational analysis. We recommend a nationwide study to estimate the prevalence of the ectodermal dysplasia and to ensure relevant molecular genetic testing which may form the basis of a national ectodermal dysplasia database.

  19. Two novel mutations in ILDR1 gene cause autosomal recessive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent screening programme on hearing loss (HL), we examined 17 common autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) genes in every consanguineous Ira- nian family with ARNSHL that was referred to our centre. We first screened GJB2 mutations and then utilized a panel of three to four short ...

  20. A nonsense mutation in FMR1 causing fragile X syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Dedic, Alma

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a common cause of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by lack of the FMR1 gene product FMRP. The most frequent cause is the expansion of a CGG repeat located in the 5'UTR of FMR1. Alleles with 200 or more repeats become hypermethylated and transcriptionally silent....... Only few patients with intragenic point mutations in FMR1 have been reported and, currently, routine analysis of patients referred for fragile X syndrome includes solely analysis for repeat expansion and methylation status. We identified a substitution in exon 2 of FMR1, c.80C>A, causing a nonsense...... mutation p.Ser27X, in a patient with classical clinical symptoms of fragile X syndrome. The mother who carried the mutation in heterozygous form presented with mild intellectual impairment. We conclude that further studies including western blot and DNA sequence analysis of the FMR1 gene should...

  1. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Montero, Fernando; Cuenca Berger, Patricia; Castro Volio, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome are two genetically determined relatively common disabilities. Both are examples of a new type of mutation mechanism called unstable or dynamic mutations, triple repeats expansions or DNA amplification. Fragile X syndrome is recognized as the main cause of hereditary mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy is considered the most common muscular dystrophy of adults. This is a prospective non randomized study of clinically affected people,...

  2. NDP gene mutations in 14 French families with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ghislaine; Hanein, Sylvain; Raclin, Valérie; Gigarel, Nadine; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Munnich, Arnold; Steffann, Julie; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Kaplan, Josseline; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul

    2003-12-01

    Norrie disease is a rare X-inked recessive condition characterized by congenital blindness and occasionally deafness and mental retardation in males. This disease has been ascribed to mutations in the NDP gene on chromosome Xp11.1. Previous investigations of the NDP gene have identified largely sixty disease-causing sequence variants. Here, we report on ten different NDP gene allelic variants in fourteen of a series of 21 families fulfilling inclusion criteria. Two alterations were intragenic deletions and eight were nucleotide substitutions or splicing variants, six of them being hitherto unreported, namely c.112C>T (p.Arg38Cys), c.129C>G (p.His43Gln), c.133G>A (p.Val45Met), c.268C>T (p.Arg90Cys), c.382T>C (p.Cys128Arg), c.23479-1G>C (unknown). No NDP gene sequence variant was found in seven of the 21 families. This observation raises the issue of misdiagnosis, phenocopies, or existence of other X-linked or autosomal genes, the mutations of which would mimic the Norrie disease phenotype. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Germline TERT promoter mutations are rare in familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harland, Mark; Petljak, Mia; Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Germline CDKN2A mutations occur in 40 % of 3-or-more case melanoma families while mutations of CDK4, BAP1, and genes involved in telomere function (ACD, TERF2IP, POT1), have also been implicated in melanomagenesis. Mutation of the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (c.-57...... T>G variant) has been reported in one family. We tested for the TERT promoter variant in 675 multicase families wild-type for the known high penetrance familial melanoma genes, 1863 UK population-based melanoma cases and 529 controls. Germline lymphocyte telomere length was estimated in carriers....... The c.-57 T>G TERT promoter variant was identified in one 7-case family with multiple primaries and early age of onset (earliest, 15 years) but not among population cases or controls. One family member had multiple primary melanomas, basal cell carcinomas and a bladder tumour. The blood leukocyte...

  4. A novel mutation in MIP associated with congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai Jie; Li, Sha Sha; Yun, Bo; Ma, Wen Xian; Jiang, Tian Ge; Zhu, Si Quan

    2011-01-08

    To identify the underlying genetic defect in a Chinese family affected with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract. A four-generation Chinese family with inherited nuclear cataract phenotype was recruited. Detailed family history and clinical data were recorded. All reported nuclear cataract-related candidate genes were screened for causative mutations by direct DNA sequencing. Effects of amino acid changes on the structure and function of protein were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. All affected individuals in this family showed nuclear cataracts. Sequencing of the candidate genes revealed a heterozygous c.559C>T change in the coding region of the major intrinsic protein (MIP), which caused a substitution of highly conserved arginine by cysteine at codon 187 (p.R187C). This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals and was not observed in unaffected family members or 110 ethnically matched controls. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the mutation was predicted to affect the function and secondary structure of MIP protein. This study identified a novel disease-causing mutation p.R187C in MIP in a Chinese cataract family, expanding the mutation spectrum of MIP causing congenital cataract.

  5. Mutations in STX1B, encoding a presynaptic protein, cause fever-associated epilepsy syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, J.; Siekierska, A.; Langlois, M.

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures affect 2-4% of all children(1) and have a strong genetic component(2). Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2)(3-5) have been identified that cause febrile seizures with or without epilepsy. Here we report the identification of mutations in STX1B, encoding...... syntaxin-1B(6), that are associated with both febrile seizures and epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing in independent large pedigrees(7,8) identified cosegregating STX1B mutations predicted to cause an early truncation or an in-frame insertion or deletion. Three additional nonsense or missense mutations...... and a de novo microdeletion encompassing STX1B were then identified in 449 familial or sporadic cases. Video and local field potential analyses of zebrafish larvae with antisense knockdown of stx1b showed seizure-like behavior and epileptiform discharges that were highly sensitive to increased temperature...

  6. Constitutional mutations in RTEL1 cause severe dyskeratosis congenita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walne, Amanda J; Vulliamy, Tom; Kirwan, Michael; Plagnol, Vincent; Dokal, Inderjeet

    2013-03-07

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and its phenotypically severe variant, Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS), are multisystem bone-marrow-failure syndromes in which the principal pathology is defective telomere maintenance. The genetic basis of many cases of DC and HHS remains unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified biallelic mutations in RTEL1, encoding a helicase essential for telomere maintenance and regulation of homologous recombination, in an individual with familial HHS. Additional screening of RTEL1 identified biallelic mutations in 6/23 index cases with HHS but none in 102 DC or DC-like cases. All 11 mutations in ten HHS individuals from seven families segregated in an autosomal-recessive manner, and telomere lengths were significantly shorter in cases than in controls (p = 0.0003). This group had significantly higher levels of telomeric circles, produced as a consequence of incorrect processing of telomere ends, than did controls (p = 0.0148). These biallelic RTEL1 mutations are responsible for a major subgroup (∼29%) of HHS. Our studies show that cells harboring these mutations have significant defects in telomere maintenance, but not in homologous recombination, and that incorrect resolution of T-loops is a mechanism for telomere shortening and disease causation in humans. They also demonstrate the severe multisystem consequences of its dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel ENAM and LAMB3 mutations in Chinese families with hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yuming; Yang, Yuan; Qin, Man

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited diseases affecting the quality and quantity of dental enamel. To date, mutations in more than ten genes have been associated with non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Among these, ENAM and LAMB3 mutations are known to be parts of the etiology of hypoplastic AI in human cases. When both alleles of LAMB3 are defective, it could cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), while with only one mutant allele in the C-terminus of LAMB3, it could result in severe hypoplastic AI without skin fragility. We enrolled three Chinese families with hypoplastic autosomal-dominant AI. Despite the diagnosis falling into the same type, the characteristics of their enamel hypoplasia were different. Screening of ENAM and LAMB3 genes was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from blood samples. Disease-causing mutations were identified and perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in three families: a 19-bp insertion mutation in the exon 7 of ENAM (c.406_407insTCAAAAAAGCCGACCACAA, p.K136Ifs*16) in Family 1, a single-base deletion mutation in the exon 5 of ENAM (c. 139delA, p. M47Cfs*11) in Family 2, and a LAMB3 nonsense mutation in the last exon (c.3466C>T, p.Q1156X) in Family 3. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutations in ENAM and LAMB3 genes can cause hypoplastic AI with markedly different phenotypes in Chinese patients. And these findings extend the mutation spectrum of both genes and can be used for mutation screening of AI in the Chinese population.

  8. Novel ENAM and LAMB3 mutations in Chinese families with hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited diseases affecting the quality and quantity of dental enamel. To date, mutations in more than ten genes have been associated with non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI. Among these, ENAM and LAMB3 mutations are known to be parts of the etiology of hypoplastic AI in human cases. When both alleles of LAMB3 are defective, it could cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB, while with only one mutant allele in the C-terminus of LAMB3, it could result in severe hypoplastic AI without skin fragility. We enrolled three Chinese families with hypoplastic autosomal-dominant AI. Despite the diagnosis falling into the same type, the characteristics of their enamel hypoplasia were different. Screening of ENAM and LAMB3 genes was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from blood samples. Disease-causing mutations were identified and perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in three families: a 19-bp insertion mutation in the exon 7 of ENAM (c.406_407insTCAAAAAAGCCGACCACAA, p.K136Ifs*16 in Family 1, a single-base deletion mutation in the exon 5 of ENAM (c. 139delA, p. M47Cfs*11 in Family 2, and a LAMB3 nonsense mutation in the last exon (c.3466C>T, p.Q1156X in Family 3. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutations in ENAM and LAMB3 genes can cause hypoplastic AI with markedly different phenotypes in Chinese patients. And these findings extend the mutation spectrum of both genes and can be used for mutation screening of AI in the Chinese population.

  9. Exclusion of homozygous PLCE1 (NPHS3) mutations in 69 families with idiopathic and hereditary FSGS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gbadegesin, Rasheed

    2009-02-01

    Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common glomerular cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Although the etiology of FSGS has not been fully elucidated, recent results from the positional cloning of genes mutated in nephrotic syndromes are now beginning to provide insight into the pathogenesis of these diseases. Mutations in PLCE1\\/NPHS3 have recently been reported as a cause of nephrotic syndrome characterized by diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) histology. One single family with a missense mutation had late onset of the disease that was characterized by FSGS. To further define the role of PLCE1 mutations in the etiology of FSGS, we performed mutational analysis in 69 families with FSGS. A total of 69 families with 231 affected individuals were examined. The median age of disease onset was 26 years (range 1-66 years). Onset of ESKD was at a median age of 35.5 years. Seven variants leading to non-synonymous changes were found, of which only two are new variants (exon 4 c.1682 G>A R561Q, exon 31 c.6518A>G K2173R). No known disease-causing mutations were identified in the families screened. PLCE1\\/NPHS3 mutations are not a cause of FSGS in this cohort. The absence of mutations in PLCE1\\/NPHS3 in this study indicates that there are additional genetic causes of FSGS and that hereditary FSGS is a heterogeneous disease. Kindreds appropriate for genome-wide screening are currently being subjected to analysis with the aim of identifying other genetic causes of FSGS.

  10. Molecular genetics and phenotypic characteristics of MODY caused by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha mutations in a large European collection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, E.R.; Pruhova, S.; Tack, C.J.J.; Johansen, A.; Castleden, H.A.; Lumb, P.J.; Wierzbicki, A.S.; Clark, P.M.; Lebl, J.; Pedersen, O.; Ellard, S.; Hansen, T.; Hattersley, A.T.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Heterozygous mutations in the gene of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) are considered a rare cause of MODY with only 14 mutations reported to date. The description of the phenotype is limited to single families. We investigated the genetics and

  11. Simultaneous Occurence of an Autosomal Dominant Inherited MSX1 Mutation and an X-linked Recessive Inherited EDA Mutation in One Chinese Family with Non-syndromic Oligodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Xia; Wong, Sing Wai; Han, Dong; Feng, Hai Lan

    2015-01-01

    To describe the simultaneous occurence of an autosomal dominant inherited MSX1 mutation and an X-linked recessive inherited EDA mutation in one Chinese family with nonsyndromic oligodontia. Clinical data of characteristics of tooth agenesis were collected. MSX1 and EDA gene mutations were detected in a Chinese family of non-syndromic oligodontia. Mild hypodontia in the parents and severe oligodontia in the son was recorded. A novel missense heterozygous mutation c.517C>A (p.Arg173Ser) was detected in the MSX1 gene in the boy and the father. A homozygous missense mutation c.1001G>A (p.Arg334His) was detected in the EDA gene in the boy and the same mutant occurred heterozygously in the mother. Simultaneous occurence of two different gene mutations with different inheritence patterns, which both caused oligodontia, which occurred in one subject and in one family, was reported.

  12. CDKN2A-mutation hos en familie med arveligt malignt melanom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djursby, Malene; Wadt, Karin; Lorentzen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is a frequent form of cancer with increasing incidence. 6-10% of patients with MM report a family history of MM, and in most populations 2% of unselected cases of MM carry a CDKN2A mutation. tvWe present a family with 24 cases of MM in nine persons from several generations......, caused by a previously undescribed germ-line intronic mutation in CDKN2A. Through genetic counselling and genetic testing high-risk persons in the family are located and offered regular screening for MM....

  13. Identification of three novel NHS mutations in families with Nance-Horan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kristen M; Wu, Junhua; Brooks, Simon P; Hardcastle, Alison J; Lewis, Richard Alan; Stambolian, Dwight

    2007-03-27

    Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) is an infrequent and often overlooked X-linked disorder characterized by dense congenital cataracts, microphthalmia, and dental abnormalities. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the NHS gene, whose function is not known. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and distribution of NHS gene mutations and compare genotype with Nance-Horan phenotype in five North American NHS families. Genomic DNA was isolated from white blood cells from NHS patients and family members. The NHS gene coding region and its splice site donor and acceptor regions were amplified from genomic DNA by PCR, and the amplicons were sequenced directly. We identified three unique NHS coding region mutations in these NHS families. This report extends the number of unique identified NHS mutations to 14.

  14. [Mutation analysis of FGFR3 gene in a family featuring hereditary dwarfism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, Hai-ou; Quan, Qing-li; Li, Jun; He, Ting; Huang, Xue-shuang

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the clinical symptoms and potential mutation in FGFR3 gene for a family featuring hereditary dwarfism in order to attain diagnosis and provide prenatal diagnosis. Five patients and two unaffected relatives from the family, in addition with 100 healthy controls, were recruited. Genome DNA was extracted. Exons 10 and 13 of the FGFR3 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were sequenced in both directions. All patients had similar features including short stature, short limbs, lumbar hyperlordosis but normal craniofacial features. A heterozygous mutation G1620T (N540K) was identified in the cDNA from all patients but not in the unaffected relatives and 100 control subjects. A heterozygous G380R mutation was excluded. The hereditary dwarfism featured by this family has been caused by hypochondroplasia (HCH) due to a N540K mutation in the FGFR3 gene.

  15. Norrie disease: first mutation report and prenatal diagnosis in an Indian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Manju; Sharma, Shipra; Shastri, Shivaram; Arora, Sadhna; Shukla, Rashmi; Gupta, Neerja; Deka, Deepika; Kabra, Madhulika

    2012-11-01

    Norrie Disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterised by congenital blindness due to severe retinal dysgenesis. Hearing loss and intellectual disability is present in 30-50 % cases. ND is caused by mutations in the NDP gene, located at Xp11.3. The authors describe mutation analysis of a proband with ND and subsequently prenatal diagnosis. Sequence analysis of the NDP gene revealed a hemizygous missense mutation arginine to serine in codon 41 (p.Arg41Ser) in the affected child. Mother was carrier for the mutation. In a subsequent di-chorionic di-amniotic pregnancy, the authors performed prenatal diagnosis by mutation analysis on chorionic villi sample at 11 wk of gestation. The fetuses were unaffected. This is a first mutation report and prenatal diagnosis of a familial case of Norrie disease from India. The importance of genetic testing of Norrie disease for confirmation, carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling is emphasized.

  16. A frame-shift mutation of PMS2 is a widespread cause of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenning, M; Senter, L; Hampel, H; Robinson, K Lagerstedt; Sun, S; Buchanan, D; Walsh, M D; Nilbert, M; Green, J; Potter, J; Lindblom, A; de la Chapelle, A

    2008-06-01

    When compared to the other mismatch repair genes involved in Lynch syndrome, the identification of mutations within PMS2 has been limited (PMS2. This disparity is primarily due to complications in the study of this gene caused by interference from pseudogene sequences. Using a recently developed method for detecting PMS2 specific mutations, we have screened 99 patients who are likely candidates for PMS2 mutations based on immunohistochemical analysis. We have identified a frequently occurring frame-shift mutation (c.736_741del6ins11) in 12 ostensibly unrelated Lynch syndrome patients (20% of patients we have identified with a deleterious mutation in PMS2, n = 61). These individuals all display the rare allele (population frequency 10 000 carriers of this mutation in the USA alone. The identification of both the mutation and the common haplotype in one Swedish control sample (n = 225), along with evidence that Lynch syndrome associated cancers are rarer than expected in the probands' families, would suggest that this is a prevalent mutation with reduced penetrance.

  17. FATP4 missense and nonsense mutations cause similar features in Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Niklas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ichthyosis Prematurity Syndrome (IPS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature birth, non-scaly ichthyosis and atopic manifestations. The disease was recently shown to be caused by mutations in the gene encoding the fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 and a specific reduction in the incorporation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA into cellular lipids. Findings We screened probands from five families segregating IPS for mutations in the FATP4 gene. Four probands were compound heterozygous for four different mutations of which three are novel. Four patients were heterozygous and one patient homozygous for the previously reported non-sense mutation p.C168X (c.504c > a. All patients had clinical characteristics of IPS and a similar clinical course. Conclusions Missense mutations and non-sense mutations in FATP4 are associated with similar clinical features suggesting that missense mutations have a severe impact on FATP4 function. The results broaden the mutational spectrum in FATP4 associated with IPS for molecular diagnosis of and further functional analysis of FATP4.

  18. Founder Fukutin mutation causes Walker-Warburg syndrome in four Ashkenazi Jewish families†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wendy; Winder, Thomas L.; LeDuc, Charles A.; Simpson, Lynn L.; Millar, William S.; Dungan, Jeffrey; Ginsberg, Norman; Plaga, Stacey; Moore, Steven A.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital muscular dystrophy caused by abnormal glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) that is associated with brain malformations and eye anomalies. The Fukutin (FKTN) gene, which causes autosomal recessively inherited WWS is most often associated with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy in Japan. We describe the clinical features of four nonconsanguinous Ashkenazi Jewish families with WWS and identify the underlying genetic basis for WWS. Method We screened for mutations in POMGnT1, POMT1, POMT2, and FKTN, genes causing WWS, by dideoxy sequence analysis. Results We identified an identical homozygous c.1167insA mutation in the FKTN gene on a common haplotype in all four families and identified 2/299 (0.7%) carriers for the c.1167insA mutation among normal American Ashkenazi Jewish adults. Conclusion These data suggest that the c.1167insA FKTN mutation described by us is a founder mutation that can be used to target diagnostic testing and carrier screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. PMID:19266496

  19. Detecting novel genetic mutations in Chinese Usher syndrome families using next-generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ling-Hui; Jin, Xin; Xu, Hai-Wei; Li, Shi-Ying; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2015-02-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common cause of combined blindness and deafness inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. Molecular diagnosis is of great significance in revealing the molecular pathogenesis and aiding the clinical diagnosis of this disease. However, molecular diagnosis remains a challenge due to high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity in USH. This study explored an approach for detecting disease-causing genetic mutations in candidate genes in five index cases from unrelated USH families based on targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Through systematic data analysis using an established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, 10 pathogenic mutations in the USH disease genes were identified in the five USH families. Six of these mutations were novel: c.4398G > A and EX38-49del in MYO7A, c.988_989delAT in USH1C, c.15104_15105delCA and c.6875_6876insG in USH2A. All novel variations segregated with the disease phenotypes in their respective families and were absent from ethnically matched control individuals. This study expanded the mutation spectrum of USH and revealed the genotype-phenotype relationships of the novel USH mutations in Chinese patients. Moreover, this study proved that targeted NGS is an accurate and effective method for detecting genetic mutations related to USH. The identification of pathogenic mutations is of great significance for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology of USH.

  20. Mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene cause primordial dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, Anita; Thiel, Christian T.; Schindler, Detlev; Wick, Ursula; Crow, Yanick J.; Ekici, Arif B.; van Essen, Anthonie J.; Goecke, Timm O.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H.; Zweier, Christiane; Brunner, Han G.; Becker, Kristin; Curry, Cynthia J.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Devriendt, Koenraad; Dörfler, Arnd; Kinning, Esther; Megarbane, André; Meinecke, Peter; Semple, Robert K.; Spranger, Stephanie; Toutain, Annick; Trembath, Richard C.; Voss, Egbert; Wilson, Louise; Hennekam, Raoul; de Zegher, Francis; Dörr, Helmuth-Günther; Reis, André

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental processes influencing human growth can be revealed by studying extreme short stature. Using genetic linkage analysis, we find that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the centrosomal pericentrin (PCNT) gene on chromosome 21q22.3 cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism

  1. Mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene cause primordial dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, Anita; Thiel, Christian T.; Schindler, Detlev; Wick, Ursula; Crow, Yanick J.; Ekici, Arif B.; van Essen, Anthonie J.; Goecke, Timm O.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H.; Zweier, Christiane; Brunner, Han G.; Becker, Kristin; Curry, Cynthia J.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Devriendt, Koenraad; Doerfler, Arnd; Kinning, Esther; Megarbane, Andre; Meinecke, Peter; Semple, Robert K.; Spranger, Stephanie; Toutain, Annick; Trembath, Richard C.; Voss, Egbert; Wilson, Louise; Hennekam, Raoul; de Zegher, Francis; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Reis, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental processes influencing human growth can be revealed by studying extreme short stature. Using genetic linkage analysis, we find that biallelic loss- of- function mutations in the centrosomal pericentrin ( PCNT) gene on chromosome 21q22.3 cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial

  2. A sodium-channel mutation causes isolated cardiac conduction disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, HL; Bink-Boelkens, MTE; Bezzina, CR; Viswanathan, PC; Beaufort-Krol, GCM; van Tintelen, PJ; van den Berg, MP; Wilde, AAM; Balser, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders slow the heart rhythm and cause disability in millions of people worldwide. Inherited mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the human cardiac sodium (Na+) channel, have been associated with rapid heart rhythms that occur suddenly and are life-threatening(1-3); however, a

  3. A sodium-channel mutation causes isolated cardiac conduction disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. L.; Bink-Boelkens, M. T.; Bezzina, C. R.; Viswanathan, P. C.; Beaufort-Krol, G. C.; van Tintelen, P. J.; van den Berg, M. P.; Wilde, A. A.; Balser, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders slow the heart rhythm and cause disability in millions of people worldwide. Inherited mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the human cardiac sodium (Na+) channel, have been associated with rapid heart rhythms that occur suddenly and are life-threatening; however, a

  4. Mutations found in the Danish population causing Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Pernille M; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    University Hospital, Denmark HHT is an autosomal vascular disorder caused by mutations of either of three loci ENG, ACVLR1 or MADH4. HHT is characterised by recurrent nosebleeds, mucocutaneous telangiectases, and more severe visceral malformations. During the last decade the Danish HHT centre has...

  5. Mutations in ROGDI Cause Kohlschutter-Tonz Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schossig, A.; Wolf, N.I.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, M.; Stocker, G.; Pabinger, S.; Dander, A.; Steiner, B.; Tonz, O.; Kotzot, D.; Haberlandt, E.; Amberger, A.; Burwinkel, B.; Wimmer, K.; Fauth, C.; Grond-Ginsbach, C.; Koch, M.J.; Deichmann, A.; von Kalle, C.; Bartram, C.R.; Kohlschutter, A.; Trajanoski, Z.; Zschocke, J.

    2012-01-01

    Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome (KTS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of epilepsy, psychomotor regression, and amelogenesis imperfecta. The molecular basis has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report that KTS is caused by mutations in ROGDI. Using a combination of

  6. R54C Mutation of NOTCH3 Gene in the First Rungus Family with CADASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng-Seang Lim

    Full Text Available Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is a rare hereditary stroke caused by mutations in NOTCH3 gene. We report the first case of CADASIL in an indigenous Rungus (Kadazan-Dusun family in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia confirmed by a R54C (c.160C>T, p.Arg54Cys mutation in the NOTCH3. This mutation was previously reported in a Caucasian and two Korean cases of CADASIL. We recruited two generations of the affected Rungus family (n = 9 and found a missense mutation (c.160C>T in exon 2 of NOTCH3 in three siblings. Two of the three siblings had severe white matter abnormalities in their brain MRI (Scheltens score 33 and 50 respectively, one of whom had a young stroke at the age of 38. The remaining sibling, however, did not show any clinical features of CADASIL and had only minimal changes in her brain MRI (Scheltens score 17. This further emphasized the phenotype variability among family members with the same mutation in CADASIL. This is the first reported family with CADASIL in Rungus subtribe of Kadazan-Dusun ethnicity with a known mutation at exon 2 of NOTCH3. The penetrance of this mutation was not complete during the course of this study.

  7. Identification of three novel NHS mutations in families with Nance-Horan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Kristen M.; Wu, Junhua; Brooks, Simon P.; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Lewis, Richard Alan; Stambolian, Dwight

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) is an infrequent and often overlooked X-linked disorder characterized by dense congenital cataracts, microphthalmia, and dental abnormalities. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the NHS gene, whose function is not known. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and distribution of NHS gene mutations and compare genotype with Nance-Horan phenotype in five North American NHS families. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from white blood cells f...

  8. SDHAF2 mutations in familial and sporadic paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Jean-Pierre; Kunst, Henricus P M; Cascon, Alberto; Sampietro, Maria Lourdes; Gaal, José; Korpershoek, Esther; Hinojar-Gutierrez, Adolfo; Timmers, Henri J L M; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Hermsen, Mario A; Suárez, Carlos; Hussain, A Karim; Vriends, Annette H J T; Hes, Frederik J; Jansen, Jeroen C; Tops, Carli M; Corssmit, Eleonora P; de Knijff, Peter; Lenders, Jacques W M; Cremers, Cor W R J; Devilee, Peter; Dinjens, Winand N M; de Krijger, Ronald R; Robledo, Mercedes

    2010-04-01

    Paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumours associated frequently with germline mutations of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB. Previous studies have shown the imprinted SDHAF2 gene to be mutated in a large Dutch kindred with paragangliomas. We aimed to identify SDHAF2 mutation carriers, assess the clinical genetic significance of SDHAF2, and describe the associated clinical phenotype. We undertook a multicentre study in Spain and The Netherlands in 443 apparently sporadic patients with paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas who did not have mutations in SDHD, SDHC, or SDHB. We analysed DNA of 315 patients for germline mutations of SDHAF2; a subset (n=200) was investigated for gross gene deletions. DNA from a group of 128 tumours was studied for somatic mutations. We also examined a Spanish family with head and neck paragangliomas with a young age of onset for the presence of SDHAF2 mutations, undertook haplotype analysis in this kindred, and assessed their clinical phenotype. We did not identify any germline or somatic mutations of SDHAF2, and no gross gene deletions were noted in the subset of apparently sporadic patients analysed. Investigation of the Spanish family identified a pathogenic germline DNA mutation of SDHAF2, 232G-->A (Gly78Arg), identical to the Dutch kindred. SDHAF2 mutations do not have an important role in phaeochromocytoma and are rare in head and neck paraganglioma. Identification of a second family with the Gly78Arg mutation suggests that this is a crucial residue for the function of SDHAF2. We conclude that SDHAF2 mutation analysis is justified in very young patients with isolated head and neck paraganglioma without mutations in SDHD, SDHC, or SDHB, and in individuals with familial antecedents who are negative for mutations in all other risk genes. Dutch Cancer Society, European Union 6th Framework Program, Fondo Investigaciones Sanitarias, Fundación Mutua Madrileña, and Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Cáncer. 2010

  9. A Novel Missense Mutation in Oncostatin M Receptor Beta Causing Primary Localized Cutaneous Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Saeedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis (PLCA is a chronic skin disorder, caused by amyloid material deposition in the upper dermis. Autosomal dominant PLCA has been mapped earlier to pathogenic missense mutations in the OSMR gene, which encodes the oncostatin M receptor ß subunit (OSMRß. OSMRß is interleukin-6 family cytokine receptors and possesses two ligands, oncostatin M and interleukin-31, which both have biologic roles in inflammation and keratinocyte cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we identified a new OSMR mutation in a Kurdish family for the first time. Blood samples were taken from all the affected individuals in the family. DNA extraction was performed using salting out technique. Primers were designed for intron flanking individual exons of OSMR gene which were subjected to direct sequencing after PCR amplification for each sample. Sequencing showed a C/T substitution at position 613 in the proband. This mutation results in an L613S (leucine 613 to serine amino acid change. The identified mutation was observed in all affected family members but not in 100 ethnically matched healthy controls. Elucidating the molecular basis of familial PLCA provides new insight into mechanisms of itch in human skin and may lead to new therapeutic targets for pruritus.

  10. A novel GJA8 mutation (p.V44A causing autosomal dominant congenital cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhu

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism by which a novel connexin 50 (Cx50 mutation, Cx50 V44A, in a Chinese family causes suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts.Family history and clinical data were recorded and direct gene sequencing was used to identify the disease-causing mutation. The Cx50 gene was cloned from a human lens cDNA library. Connexin protein distributions were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Hemichannel functions were analyzed by dye uptake assay. Formation of functional channels was assessed by dye transfer experiments.Direct sequencing of the candidate GJA8 gene revealed a novel c.131T>C transition in exon 2, which cosegregated with the disease in the family and resulted in the substitution of a valine residue with alanine at codon 44 (p. V44A in the extracellular loop 1 of the Cx50 protein. Both Cx50 and Cx50V44A formed functional gap junctions, as shown by the neurobiotin transfer assay. However, unlike wild-type Cx50, Cx50V44A was unable to form open hemichannels in dye uptake experiments.This work identified a unique congenital cataract in the Chinese population, caused by the novel mutation Cx50V44A, and it showed that the V44A mutation specifically impairs the gating of the hemichannels but not the gap junction channels. The dysfunctional hemichannels resulted in the development of human congenital cataracts.

  11. Two desmin gene mutations associated with myofibrillar myopathies in Polish families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Piotr Fichna

    Full Text Available Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein which forms a network connecting the sarcomere, T tubules, sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, mitochondria and other organelles. Mutations in the gene coding for desmin (DES cause skeletal myopathies often combined with cardiomyopathy, or isolated cardiomyopathies. The molecular pathomechanisms of the disease remain ambiguous. Here, we describe and comprehensively characterize two DES mutations found in Polish patients with a clinical diagnosis of desminopathy. The study group comprised 16 individuals representing three families. Two mutations were identified: a novel missense mutation (Q348P and a small deletion of nine nucleotides (A357_E359del, previously described by us in the Polish population. A common ancestry of all the families bearing the A357_E359del mutation was confirmed. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using a bioinformatics approach, including molecular dynamics simulations which helped to rationalize abnormal behavior at molecular level. To test the impact of the mutations on DES expression and the intracellular distribution of desmin muscle biopsies were investigated. Elevated desmin levels as well as its atypical localization in muscle fibers were observed. Additional staining for M-cadherin, α-actinin, and myosin heavy chains confirmed severe disruption of myofibrill organization. The abnormalities were more prominent in the Q348P muscle, where both small atrophic fibers as well large fibers with centrally localized nuclei were observed. We propose that the mutations affect desmin structure and cause its aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation, triggering disruption of myofibrils organization.

  12. Two Desmin Gene Mutations Associated with Myofibrillar Myopathies in Polish Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdynski, Mariusz; Sikorska, Agata; Filipek, Slawomir; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta; Kaminska, Anna; Zekanowski, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein which forms a network connecting the sarcomere, T tubules, sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, mitochondria and other organelles. Mutations in the gene coding for desmin (DES) cause skeletal myopathies often combined with cardiomyopathy, or isolated cardiomyopathies. The molecular pathomechanisms of the disease remain ambiguous. Here, we describe and comprehensively characterize two DES mutations found in Polish patients with a clinical diagnosis of desminopathy. The study group comprised 16 individuals representing three families. Two mutations were identified: a novel missense mutation (Q348P) and a small deletion of nine nucleotides (A357_E359del), previously described by us in the Polish population. A common ancestry of all the families bearing the A357_E359del mutation was confirmed. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using a bioinformatics approach, including molecular dynamics simulations which helped to rationalize abnormal behavior at molecular level. To test the impact of the mutations on DES expression and the intracellular distribution of desmin muscle biopsies were investigated. Elevated desmin levels as well as its atypical localization in muscle fibers were observed. Additional staining for M-cadherin, α-actinin, and myosin heavy chains confirmed severe disruption of myofibrill organization. The abnormalities were more prominent in the Q348P muscle, where both small atrophic fibers as well large fibers with centrally localized nuclei were observed. We propose that the mutations affect desmin structure and cause its aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation, triggering disruption of myofibrils organization. PMID:25541946

  13. Novel mutations in Norrie disease gene in Japanese patients with Norrie disease and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroyuki; Qin, Minghui; Kusaka, Shunji; Tahira, Tomoko; Hasebe, Haruyuki; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2007-03-01

    To search for mutations in the Norrie disease gene (NDP) in Japanese patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND) and to delineate the mutation-associated clinical features. Direct sequencing after polymerase chain reaction of all exons of the NDP gene was performed on blood collected from 62 probands (31 familial and 31 simplex) with FEVR, from 3 probands with ND, and from some of their family members. The clinical symptoms and signs in the patients with mutations were assessed. X-inactivation in the female carriers was examined in three FEVR families by using leukocyte DNA. Four novel mutations-I18K, K54N, R115L, and IVS2-1G-->A-and one reported mutation, R97P, in the NDP gene were identified in six families. The severity of vitreoretinopathy varied among these patients. Three probands with either K54N or R115L had typical features of FEVR, whereas the proband with R97P had those of ND. Families with IVS2-1G-->A exhibited either ND or FEVR characteristics. A proband with I18K presented with significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the two eyes. In addition, affected female carriers in a family harboring the K54N mutation presented with different degrees of vascular abnormalities in the periphery of the retina. X-inactivation profiles indicated that the skewing was not significantly different between affected and unaffected women. These observations indicate that mutations of the NDP gene can cause ND and 6% of FEVR cases in the Japanese population. The X-inactivation assay with leukocytes may not be predictive of the presence of a mutation in affected female carriers.

  14. Mutations in the VEGFR3 signaling pathway explain 36% of familial lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendola, A; Schlögel, M J; Ghalamkarpour, A

    2013-01-01

    Lymphedema is caused by dysfunction of lymphatic vessels, leading to disabling swelling that occurs mostly on the extremities. Lymphedema can be either primary (congenital) or secondary (acquired). Familial primary lymphedema commonly segregates in an autosomal dominant or recessive manner. It can...... of these putative genes. We screened 78 index patients from families with inherited lymphedema for mutations in FLT4, GJC2, FOXC2, SOX18, GATA2, CCBE1, and PTPN14. Altogether, we discovered 28 mutations explaining 36% of the cases. Additionally, 149 patients with sporadic primary lymphedema were screened for FLT4......, FOXC2, SOX18, CCBE1, and PTPN14. Twelve mutations were found that explain 8% of the cases. Still unidentified is the genetic cause of primary lymphedema in 64% of patients with a family history and 92% of sporadic cases. Identification of those genes is important for understanding of etiopathogenesis...

  15. Dominant de novo DSP mutations cause erythrokeratodermia-cardiomyopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Lynn M; Kam, Chen Y; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Zhou, Jing; Craiglow, Brittany G; Sidbury, Robert; Mathes, Erin F; Maguiness, Sheilagh M; Crumrine, Debra A; Williams, Mary L; Hu, Ronghua; Lifton, Richard P; Elias, Peter M; Green, Kathleen J; Choate, Keith A

    2016-01-15

    Disorders of keratinization (DOK) show marked genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. In most cases, disease is primarily cutaneous, and further clinical evaluation is therefore rarely pursued. We have identified subjects with a novel DOK featuring erythrokeratodermia and initially-asymptomatic, progressive, potentially fatal cardiomyopathy, a finding not previously associated with erythrokeratodermia. We show that de novo missense mutations clustered tightly within a single spectrin repeat of DSP cause this novel cardio-cutaneous disorder, which we term erythrokeratodermia-cardiomyopathy (EKC) syndrome. We demonstrate that DSP mutations in our EKC syndrome subjects affect localization of desmosomal proteins and connexin 43 in the skin, and result in desmosome aggregation, widening of intercellular spaces, and lipid secretory defects. DSP encodes desmoplakin, a primary component of desmosomes, intercellular adhesion junctions most abundant in the epidermis and heart. Though mutations in DSP are known to cause other disorders, our cohort features the unique clinical finding of severe whole-body erythrokeratodermia, with distinct effects on localization of desmosomal proteins and connexin 43. These findings add a severe, previously undescribed syndrome featuring erythrokeratodermia and cardiomyopathy to the spectrum of disease caused by mutation in DSP, and identify a specific region of the protein critical to the pathobiology of EKC syndrome and to DSP function in the heart and skin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease caused by uromodulin mutations: seek and you will find.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffler, Gabriele; Zitt, Emanuel; Sprenger-Mähr, Hannelore; Nagel, Mato; Lhotta, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Uromodulin (UMOD)-associated kidney disease belongs to the group of autosomal dominant interstitial kidney diseases and is caused by mutations in the UMOD gene. Affected patients present with hyperuricemia, gout, and progressive renal failure. The disease is thought to be very rare but is probably underdiagnosed. Two index patients from two families with tubulointerstitial nephropathy and hyperuricemia were examined, including blood and urine chemistry, ultrasound, and mutation analysis of the UMOD gene. In addition, other available family members were studied. In a 46-year-old female patient with a fractional excretion of uric acid of 3 %, analysis of the UMOD gene revealed a p.W202S missense mutation. The same mutation was found in her 72-year-old father, who suffers from gout and end-stage renal disease. The second index patient was a 47-year-old female with chronic kidney disease and gout for more than 10 years. Her fractional uric acid excretion was 3.5 %. Genetic analysis identified a novel p.H250Q UMOD mutation that was also present in her 12-year-old son, who had normal renal function and uric acid levels. In patients suffering from chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, hyperuricemia, and a low fractional excretion of uric acid mutation, analysis of the UMOD gene should be performed to diagnose UMOD-associated kidney disease.

  17. A novel mutation in HSD11B2 causes apparent mineralocorticoid excess in an Omani kindred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Azkawi, Hanan Said Al; Haider, Shozeb; Khattab, Ahmed; Badi, Maryam Al; Abdullah, Wafa; Senani, Aisha Al; Wilson, Robert C; Yuen, Tony; Zaidi, Mone; New, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing severe hypertension in childhood due to a deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2), which is encoded by HSD11B2. Without treatment, chronic hypertension leads to early development of end-organ damage. Approximately 40 causative mutations in HSD11B2 have been identified in ∼100 AME patients worldwide. We have studied the clinical presentation, biochemical parameters, and molecular genetics in six patients from a consanguineous Omani family with AME. DNA sequence analysis of affected members of this family revealed homozygous c.799A>G mutations within exon 4 of HSD11B2, corresponding to a p.T267A mutation of 11βHSD2. The structural change and predicted consequences owing to the p.T267A mutation have been modeled in silico. We conclude that this novel mutation is responsible for AME in this family. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Kufs disease, the major adult form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, caused by mutations in CLN6.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arsov, Todor

    2011-05-13

    The molecular basis of Kufs disease is unknown, whereas a series of genes accounting for most of the childhood-onset forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) have been identified. Diagnosis of Kufs disease is difficult because the characteristic lipopigment is largely confined to neurons and can require a brain biopsy or autopsy for final diagnosis. We mapped four families with Kufs disease for whom there was good evidence of autosomal-recessive inheritance and found two peaks on chromosome 15. Three of the families were affected by Kufs type A disease and presented with progressive myoclonus epilepsy, and one was affected by type B (presenting with dementia and motor system dysfunction). Sequencing of a candidate gene in one peak shared by all four families identified no mutations, but sequencing of CLN6, found in the second peak and shared by only the three families affected by Kufs type A disease, revealed pathogenic mutations in all three families. We subsequently sequenced CLN6 in eight other families, three of which were affected by recessive Kufs type A disease. Mutations in both CLN6 alleles were found in the three type A cases and in one family affected by unclassified Kufs disease. Mutations in CLN6 are the major cause of recessive Kufs type A disease. The phenotypic differences between variant late-infantile NCL, previously found to be caused by CLN6, and Kufs type A disease are striking; there is a much later age at onset and lack of visual involvement in the latter. Sequencing of CLN6 will provide a simple diagnostic strategy in this disorder, in which definitive identification usually requires invasive biopsy.

  19. Ela2 mutations and clinical manifestations in familial congenital neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Masaaki; Shigemura, Tomonari; Saito, Shoji; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Ryu; Sakashita, Kazuo; Asada, Hiroshi; Ishii, Eizaburo; Koike, Kazutoshi; Chin, Motoaki; Kobayashi, Masao; Koike, Kenichi

    2009-05-01

    Three familial cases of each of severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and cyclic neutropenia (CN) in addition to 3 sporadic cases of SCN were analyzed for neutrophil elastase (Ela2) gene mutation. The contents of the neutrophil-specific granule proteins cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were also analyzed in SCN. Genomic DNA was extracted from the patients' peripheral blood or bone marrow, and the coding sequence of the Ela2 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to direct sequencing. The contents of antimicrobial peptides were analyzed by flow cytometry. Three cases of familial SCN (P13L, R52P, and S97L), 2 of familial CN (W212stop and P110L), and 1 of sporadic SCN (V72M) were shown to have heterozygous mutations in the Ela2 gene. W212stop found in a familial CN case was a novel mutation of Ela2. Prophylactic treatment for growth factors or antibiotic prophylaxis against bacterial infection was useful for lowering the frequency of infectious episodes. Adult patients tended to have less frequent infections compared with minors in the same family. The contents of both cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were significantly reduced in SCN compared with healthy controls. Prophylaxis by growth factor or antibiotics is useful for decreasing risks of bacterial infections in SCN and CN. Adults were likely to have less frequent infections than children in familial cases of SCN and CN with the same mutation of Ela2.

  20. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including...

  1. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203 containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  2. Alanyl-tRNA synthetase mutation in a family with dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.; Hashiguchi, A.; Sakiyama, Y.; Okamoto, Y.; Tokunaga, S.; Zhu, L.; Shen, H.; Takashima, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify a new genetic cause of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), which is also known as a variant of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), in a Chinese family. Methods: We investigated a Chinese family with dHMN clinically, electrophysiologically, and genetically. We screened for the mutations of 28 CMT or related pathogenic genes using an originally designed microarray resequencing DNA chip. Results: Investigation of the family history revealed an autosomal dominant transmission pattern. The clinical features of the family included mild weakness and wasting of the distal muscles of the lower limb and foot deformity, without clinical sensory involvement. Electrophysiologic studies revealed motor neuropathy. MRI of the lower limbs showed accentuated fatty infiltration of the gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles. All 4 affected family members had a heterozygous missense mutation c.2677G>A (p.D893N) of alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS), which was not found in the 4 unaffected members and control subjects. Conclusion: An AARS mutation caused dHMN in a Chinese family. AARS mutations result in not only a CMT phenotype but also a dHMN phenotype. PMID:22573628

  3. A novel mutation in the SH3BP2 gene causes cherubism: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shi-Feng

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cherubism is a rare hereditary multi-cystic disease of the jaws, characterized by its typical appearance in early childhood, and stabilization and remission after puberty. It is genetically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion and the gene coding for SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2 may be involved. Case presentation We investigated a family consisting of 21 members with 3 female affected individuals with cherubism from Northern China. Of these 21 family members, 17 were recruited for the genetic analysis. We conducted the direct sequence analysis of the SH3BP2 gene among these 17 family members. A disease-causing mutation was identified in exon 9 of the gene. It was an A1517G base change, which leads to a D419G amino acid substitution. Conclusion To our knowledge, the A1517G mutation has not been reported previously in cherubism. This finding is novel.

  4. Mutations in noncoding regions of GJB1 are a major cause of X-linked CMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Pedro J.; Rossor, Alexander M.; Horga, Alejandro; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Carr, Aisling; Saveri, Paola; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Laura, Matilde; Blake, Julian C.; Poh, Roy; Polke, James; Houlden, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) due to mutations in noncoding regions of the gap junction β-1 gene (GJB1). Methods: Mutations were identified by bidirectional Sanger sequence analysis of the 595 bases of the upstream promoter region, and 25 bases of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) sequence in patients in whom mutations in the coding region had been excluded. Clinical and neurophysiologic data were retrospectively collected. Results: Five mutations were detected in 25 individuals from 10 kindreds representing 11.4% of all cases of CMTX1 diagnosed in our neurogenetics laboratory between 1996 and 2016. Four pathogenic mutations, c.-17G>A, c.-17+1G>T, c.-103C>T, and c.-146-90_146-89insT were detected in the 5′UTR. A novel mutation, c.*15C>T, was detected in the 3′ UTR of GJB1 in 2 unrelated families with CMTX1 and is the first pathogenic mutation in the 3′UTR of any myelin-associated CMT gene. Mutations segregated with the phenotype, were at sites predicted to be pathogenic, and were not present in the normal population. Conclusions: Mutations in noncoding DNA are a major cause of CMTX1 and highlight the importance of mutations in noncoding DNA in human disease. Next-generation sequencing platforms for use in inherited neuropathy should therefore include coverage of these regions. PMID:28283593

  5. [Study of gene mutation and pathogenetic mechanism for a family with Waardenburg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liao, Xinbin; Liu, Yalan; He, Chufeng; Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Lu; Feng, Yong; Mei, Lingyun

    2017-08-10

    To explore the pathogenetic mechanism of a family affected with Waardenburg syndrome. Clinical data of the family was collected. Potential mutation of the MITF, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes were screened. Plasmids for wild type (WT) and mutant MITF proteins were constructed to determine their exogenous expression and subcellular distribution by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. A heterozygous c.763C>T (p.R255X) mutation was detected in exon 8 of the MITF gene in the proband and all other patients from the family. No pathological mutation of the SOX10 and SNAI2 genes was detected. The DNA sequences of plasmids of MITF wild and mutant MITF R255X were confirmed. Both proteins were detected with the expected size. WT MITF protein only localized in the nucleus, whereas R255X protein showed aberrant localization in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. The c.763C>T mutation of the MITF gene probably underlies the disease in this family. The mutation can affect the subcellular distribution of MITF proteins in vitro, which may shed light on the molecular mechanism of Waardenburg syndrome caused by mutations of the MITF gene.

  6. Multigenerational Brazilian family with malignant hyperthermia and a novel mutation in the RYR1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, A R; Sambuughin, N; Rumjanek, F D; Amoedo, N D; Cunha, L B P; Zapata-Sudo, G; Sudo, R T

    2009-12-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disease triggered in susceptible individuals by the administration of volatile halogenated anesthetics and/or succinylcholine, leading to the development of a hypermetabolic crisis, which is caused by abnormal release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, through the Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1). Mutations in the RYR1 gene are associated with MH in the majority of susceptible families. Genetic screening of a 5-generation Brazilian family with a history of MH-related deaths and a previous MH diagnosis by the caffeine halothane contracture test (CHCT) in some individuals was performed using restriction and sequencing analysis. A novel missense mutation, Gly4935Ser, was found in an important functional and conserved locus of this gene, the transmembrane region of RyR1. In this family, 2 MH-susceptible individuals previously diagnosed with CHCT carry this novel mutation and another 24 not previously diagnosed members also carry it. However, this same mutation was not found in another MH-susceptible individual whose CHCT was positive to the test with caffeine but not to the test with halothane. None of the 5 MH normal individuals of the family, previously diagnosed by CHCT, carry this mutation, nor do 100 controls from control Brazilian and USA populations. The Gly4932Ser variant is a candidate mutation for MH, based on its co-segregation with disease phenotype, absence among controls and its location within the protein.

  7. Screening for NDP mutations in 44 unrelated patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy or Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiqin; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Guo, Xiangming; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2012-08-01

    To screen mutations in the norrin (NDP) gene in 44 unrelated Chinese patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR, 38 cases) or Norrie disease (6 cases) and to describe the associated phenotypes. Of the 44 patients, mutation in FZD4, LRP5, and TSPAN12 was excluded in 38 patients with FEVR in previous study. Sanger sequencing was used to analyze the 2 coding exons and their adjacent regions of NDP in the 44 patients. Clinical data were presented for patients with mutation. NDP variants in 5 of the 6 patients with Norrie disease were identified, including a novel missense mutation (c.164G>A, p.Cys55Phe) in one patient, two known missense mutations (c.122G>A, p.Arg41Lys; c.220C>T, p.Arg74Cys) in two patients, and a gross deletion encompassing the two coding exons in two patients. Of the 5 patients, 3 had a family history and 2 were singleton cases. No mutation in NDP was detected in the 38 patients with FEVR. NDP mutations are common cause of Norrie disease but might be rare cause for FEVR in Chinese.

  8. parkin mutation dosage and the phenomenon of anticipation: a molecular genetic study of familial parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg Gerard D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background parkin mutations are a common cause of parkinsonism. Possessing two parkin mutations leads to early-onset parkinsonism, while having one mutation may predispose to late-onset disease. This dosage pattern suggests that some parkin families should exhibit intergenerational variation in age at onset resembling anticipation. A subset of familial PD exhibits anticipation, the cause of which is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if anticipation was due to parkin mutation dosage. Methods We studied 19 kindreds that had early-onset parkinsonism in the offspring generation, late-onset parkinsonism in the parent generation, and ≥ 20 years of anticipation. We also studied 28 early-onset parkinsonism cases without anticipation. Patients were diagnosed by neurologists at a movement disorder clinic. parkin analysis included sequencing and dosage analysis of all 12 exons. Results Only one of 19 cases had compound parkin mutations, but contrary to our postulate, the affected relative with late-onset parkinsonism did not have a parkin mutation. In effect, none of the anticipation cases could be attributed to parkin. In contrast, 21% of early-onset parkinsonism patients without anticipation had parkin mutations. Conclusion Anticipation is not linked to parkin, and may signify a distinct disease entity.

  9. Rare mutations predisposing to familial adenomatous polyposis in Greek FAP patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalatos, Markos; Fountzilas, George; Agnantis, Niki J; Nasioulas, Georgios; Apessos, Angela; Dauwerse, Hans; Velissariou, Voula; Psychias, Aristidis; Koliopanos, Alexander; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Triantafillidis, John K; Danielidis, Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene. The vast majority of APC mutations are point mutations or small insertions / deletions which lead to truncated protein products. Splicing mutations or gross genomic rearrangements are less common inactivating events of the APC gene. In the current study genomic DNA or RNA from ten unrelated FAP suspected patients was examined for germline mutations in the APC gene. Family history and phenotype were used in order to select the patients. Methods used for testing were dHPLC (denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography), sequencing, MLPA (Multiplex Ligation – dependent Probe Amplification), Karyotyping, FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription – Polymerase Chain Reaction). A 250 Kbp deletion in the APC gene starting from intron 5 and extending beyond exon 15 was identified in one patient. A substitution of the +5 conserved nucleotide at the splice donor site of intron 9 in the APC gene was shown to produce frameshift and inefficient exon skipping in a second patient. Four frameshift mutations (1577insT, 1973delAG, 3180delAAAA, 3212delA) and a nonsense mutation (C1690T) were identified in the rest of the patients. Screening for APC mutations in FAP patients should include testing for splicing defects and gross genomic alterations

  10. Analysis of SLX4/FANCP in non-BRCA1/2-mutated breast cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Rodríguez Juana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes that, when mutated, cause Fanconi anemia or greatly increase breast cancer risk encode for proteins that converge on a homology-directed DNA damage repair process. Mutations in the SLX4 gene, which encodes for a scaffold protein involved in the repair of interstrand cross-links, have recently been identified in unclassified Fanconi anemia patients. A mutation analysis of SLX4 in German or Byelorussian familial cases of breast cancer without detected mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 has been completed, with globally negative results. Methods The genomic region of SLX4, comprising all exons and exon-intron boundaries, was sequenced in 94 Spanish familial breast cancer cases that match a criterion indicating the potential presence of a highly-penetrant germline mutation, following exclusion of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Results This mutational analysis revealed extensive genetic variation of SLX4, with 21 novel single nucleotide variants; however, none could be linked to a clear alteration of the protein function. Nonetheless, genotyping 10 variants (nine novel, all missense amino acid changes in a set of controls (138 women and 146 men did not detect seven of them. Conclusions Overall, while the results of this study do not identify clearly pathogenic mutations of SLX4 contributing to breast cancer risk, further genetic analysis, combined with functional assays of the identified rare variants, may be warranted to conclusively assess the potential link with the disease.

  11. Analysis of SLX4/FANCP in non-BRCA1/2-mutated breast cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Juana; Schindler, Detlev; Capellá, Gabriel; Brunet, Joan; Lázaro, Conxi; Pujana, Miguel Angel; Quiles, Francisco; Blanco, Ignacio; Teulé, Alex; Feliubadaló, Lídia; Valle, Jesús del; Salinas, Mónica; Izquierdo, Àngel; Darder, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Genes that, when mutated, cause Fanconi anemia or greatly increase breast cancer risk encode for proteins that converge on a homology-directed DNA damage repair process. Mutations in the SLX4 gene, which encodes for a scaffold protein involved in the repair of interstrand cross-links, have recently been identified in unclassified Fanconi anemia patients. A mutation analysis of SLX4 in German or Byelorussian familial cases of breast cancer without detected mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 has been completed, with globally negative results. The genomic region of SLX4, comprising all exons and exon-intron boundaries, was sequenced in 94 Spanish familial breast cancer cases that match a criterion indicating the potential presence of a highly-penetrant germline mutation, following exclusion of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. This mutational analysis revealed extensive genetic variation of SLX4, with 21 novel single nucleotide variants; however, none could be linked to a clear alteration of the protein function. Nonetheless, genotyping 10 variants (nine novel, all missense amino acid changes) in a set of controls (138 women and 146 men) did not detect seven of them. Overall, while the results of this study do not identify clearly pathogenic mutations of SLX4 contributing to breast cancer risk, further genetic analysis, combined with functional assays of the identified rare variants, may be warranted to conclusively assess the potential link with the disease

  12. New mutations in the NHS gene in Nance-Horan Syndrome families from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, Ralph J.; Loves, Willem; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; Mannens, Marcel M. A. M.; Tijmes, Nel; Brooks, Simon P.; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the NHS gene cause Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS), a rare X-chromosomal recessive disorder with variable features, including congenital cataract, microphthalmia, a peculiar form of the ear and dental anomalies. We investigated the NHS gene in four additional families with NHS from the

  13. Linkage studies and mutation analysis of the PDEB gene in 23 families with Leber congenital amaurosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riess, O; Weber, B; Nørremølle, Anne

    1992-01-01

    as to whether mutations in the human PDEB gene might cause LCA. We have previously cloned and characterized the human homologue of the mouse Pdeb gene and have mapped it to chromosome 4p16.3. In this study, a total of 23 LCA families of various ethnic backgrounds have been investigated. Linkage analysis using...

  14. ITGB6 loss-of-function mutations cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Kai; Choi, Murim; Richardson, Amelia S; Reid, Bryan M; Lin, Brent P; Wang, Susan J; Kim, Jung-Wook; Simmer, James P; Hu, Jan C-C

    2014-04-15

    Integrins are cell-surface adhesion receptors that bind to extracellular matrices (ECM) and mediate cell-ECM interactions. Some integrins are known to play critical roles in dental enamel formation. We recruited two Hispanic families with generalized hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Analysis of whole-exome sequences identified three integrin beta 6 (ITGB6) mutations responsible for their enamel malformations. The female proband of Family 1 was a compound heterozygote with an ITGB6 transition mutation in Exon 4 (g.4545G > A c.427G > A p.Ala143Thr) and an ITGB6 transversion mutation in Exon 6 (g.27415T > A c.825T > A p.His275Gln). The male proband of Family 2 was homozygous for an ITGB6 transition mutation in Exon 11 (g.73664C > T c.1846C > T p.Arg616*) and hemizygous for a transition mutation in Exon 6 of Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS Xp22.13; g.355444T > C c.1697T > C p.Met566Thr). These are the first disease-causing ITGB6 mutations to be reported. Immunohistochemistry of mouse mandibular incisors localized ITGB6 to the distal membrane of differentiating ameloblasts and pre-ameloblasts, and then ITGB6 appeared to be internalized by secretory stage ameloblasts. ITGB6 expression was strongest in the maturation stage and its localization was associated with ameloblast modulation. Our findings demonstrate that early and late amelogenesis depend upon cell-matrix interactions. Our approach (from knockout mouse phenotype to human disease) demonstrates the power of mouse reverse genetics in mutational analysis of human genetic disorders and attests to the need for a careful dental phenotyping in large-scale knockout mouse projects.

  15. Novel skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor mutation in a large Brazilian family with malignant hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, S; Nelson, T; Sudo, R T; Zapata-Sudo, G; Batti, M; Sambuughin, N

    2002-07-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes susceptible individuals to a potentially life-threatening crisis when exposed to commonly used anesthetics. Mutations in the skeletal muscle calcium release channel, ryanodine receptor (RYR1) are associated with MH in over 50% of affected families. Linkage analysis of the RYR1 gene region at 19q13 was performed in a large Brazilian family and a distinct disease co-segregating haplotype was revealed in the majority of members with diagnosis of MH. Subsequent sequencing of RYR1 mutational hot spots revealed a nucleotide substitution of C to T at position 7062, causing a novel amino acid change from Arg2355 to Cys associated with MH in the family. Haplotype analysis of the RYR1 gene area at 19q13 in the family with multiple MH members is an important tool in identification of genetic cause underlying this disease.

  16. Impaired growth and intracranial calcifications in autosomal dominant hypocalcemia caused by a GNA11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo; Reyes, Monica; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Jüppner, Harald; Mäkitie, Outi

    2016-09-01

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is characterized by hypocalcemia and inappropriately low PTH concentrations. ADH type 1 is caused by activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), a G-protein-coupled receptor signaling through α11 (Gα11) and αq (Gαq) subunits. Heterozygous activating mutations in GNA11, the gene encoding Gα11, underlie ADH type 2. This study describes disease characteristics in a family with ADH caused by a gain-of-function mutation in GNA11. A three-generation family with seven members (3 adults, 4 children) presenting with ADH. Biochemical parameters of calcium metabolism, clinical, genetic and brain imaging findings were analyzed. Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous GNA11 missense mutation (c.1018G>A, p.V340M) in all seven hypocalcemic subjects, but not in the healthy family members (n=4). The adult patients showed clinical symptoms of hypocalcemia, while the children were asymptomatic. Plasma ionized calcium ranged from 0.95 to 1.14mmol/L, yet plasma PTH was inappropriately low for the degree of hypocalcemia. Serum 25OHD was normal. Despite hypocalcemia 1,25(OH)2D and urinary calcium excretion were inappropriately in the reference range. None of the patients had nephrocalcinosis. Two adults and one child (of the two MRI scanned children) had distinct intracranial calcifications. All affected subjects had short stature (height s.d. scores ranging from -3.4 to -2.3 vs -0.5 in the unaffected children). The identified GNA11 mutation results in biochemical abnormalities typical for ADH. Additional features, including short stature and early intracranial calcifications, cosegregated with the mutation. These findings may indicate a wider role for Gα11 signaling besides calcium regulation. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism caused by germline mutation in GNA11: phenotypic and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Opas, Evan E; Tuluc, Florin; Metzger, Daniel L; Hou, Cuiping; Hakonarson, Hakon; Levine, Michael A

    2014-09-01

    Most cases of autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism (ADH) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in CASR or dominant inhibitor mutations in GCM2 or PTH. Our objectives were to identify the genetic basis for ADH in a multigenerational family and define the underlying disease mechanism. Here we evaluated a multigenerational family with ADH in which affected subjects had normal sequences in these genes and were shorter than unaffected family members. We collected clinical and biochemical data from 6 of 11 affected subjects and performed whole-exome sequence analysis on DNA from two affected sisters and their affected father. Functional studies were performed after expression of wild-type and mutant Gα11 proteins in human embryonic kidney-293-CaR cells that stably express calcium-sensing receptors. Whole-exome-sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.179G>T; p.R60L, in GNA11, which encodes the α-subunit of G11, the principal heterotrimeric G protein that couples calcium-sensing receptors to signal activation in parathyroid cells. Functional studies of Gα11 R60L showed increased accumulation of intracellular concentration of free calcium in response to extracellular concentration of free calcium with a significantly decreased EC50 compared with wild-type Gα11. By contrast, R60L was significantly less effective than the oncogenic Q209L form of Gα11 as an activator of the MAPK pathway. Compared to subjects with CASR mutations, patients with GNA11 mutations lacked hypercalciuria and had normal serum magnesium levels. Our findings indicate that the germline gain-of-function mutation of GNA11 is a cause of ADH and implicate a novel role for GNA11 in skeletal growth.

  18. BRF1 mutations alter RNA polymerase III–dependent transcription and cause neurodevelopmental anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hög, Friederike; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Tan, Perciliz L.; Sowada, Nadine; Medeira, Ana; Gueneau, Lucie; Thiele, Holger; Kousi, Maria; Lepri, Francesca; Wenzeck, Larissa; Blumenthal, Ian; Radicioni, Antonio; Schwarzenberg, Tito Livio; Mandriani, Barbara; Fischetto, Rita; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J.; Altmüller, Janine; Reymond, Alexandre; Nürnberg, Peter; Merla, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Katsanis, Nicholas; Cramer, Patrick; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes tRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs to regulate protein synthesis. Dysregulation of Pol III transcription has been linked to cancer, and germline mutations in genes encoding Pol III subunits or tRNA processing factors cause neurogenetic disorders in humans, such as hypomyelinating leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Here we describe an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia and intellectual disability, as well as facial dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, and dental anomalies. Whole-exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense alterations of BRF1 in three families. In support of the pathogenic potential of the discovered alleles, suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletion of brf1 in zebrafish embryos recapitulated key neurodevelopmental phenotypes; in vivo complementation showed all four candidate mutations to be pathogenic in an apparent isoform-specific context. BRF1 associates with BDP1 and TBP to form the transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB), which recruits Pol III to target genes. We show that disease-causing mutations reduce Brf1 occupancy at tRNA target genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and impair cell growth. Moreover, BRF1 mutations reduce Pol III–related transcription activity in vitro. Taken together, our data show that BRF1 mutations that reduce protein activity cause neurodevelopmental anomalies, suggesting that BRF1-mediated Pol III transcription is required for normal cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:25561519

  19. Null missense ABCR (ABCA4) mutations in a family with stargardt disease and retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroyer, N F; Lewis, R A; Yatsenko, A N; Lupski, J R

    2001-11-01

    To determine the type of ABCR mutations that segregate in a family that manifests both Stargardt disease (STGD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and the functional consequences of the underlying mutations. Direct sequencing of all 50 exons and flanking intronic regions of ABCR was performed for the STGD- and RP-affected relatives. RNA hybridization, Western blot analysis, and azido-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) labeling was used to determine the effect of disease-associated ABCR mutations in an in vitro assay system. Compound heterozygous missense mutations were identified in patients with STGD and RP. STGD-affected individual AR682-03 was compound heterozygous for the mutation 2588G-->C and a complex allele, [W1408R; R1640W]. RP-affected individuals AR682-04 and-05 were compound heterozygous for the complex allele [W1408R; R1640W] and the missense mutation V767D. Functional analysis of the mutation V767D by Western blot and ATP binding revealed a severe reduction in protein expression. In vitro analysis of ABCR protein with the mutations W1408R and R1640W showed a moderate effect of these individual mutations on expression and ATP-binding; the complex allele [W1408R; R1640W] caused a severe reduction in protein expression. These data reveal that missense ABCR mutations may be associated with RP. Functional analysis reveals that the RP-associated missense ABCR mutations are likely to be functionally null. These studies of the complex allele W1408R; R1640W suggest a synergistic effect of the individual mutations. These data are congruent with a model in which RP is associated with homozygous null mutations and with the notion that severity of retinal disease is inversely related to residual ABCR activity.

  20. DMD and BMD in the same family due to two distinct mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morandi, L.; Mora, M.; Di Blasi, C.; Brugnoni, R. [National Inst. C. Besta, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-04

    We report on a family with a boy affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and an asymptomatic cousin with a Becker-type dystrophin abnormality, diagnosed by chance. Dystrophin gene analysis showed that these conditions were caused by two distinct deletions with breakpoints in different exons. In Xp21 families, DNA analysis and dystrophin testing of asymptomatic males with high CK plasma levels might detect different dystrophin mutations in separate haplotypes as in our family, although we stress there should be clear clinical or familial indications for such testing. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IID caused by an SCN9A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junhui; Matsuura, Eiji; Higuchi, Yujiro; Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tomonori; Nozuma, Satoshi; Sakiyama, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Akiko; Izumo, Shuji; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2013-04-30

    To identify the clinical features of Japanese patients with suspected hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) on the basis of genetic diagnoses. On the basis of clinical, in vivo electrophysiologic, and pathologic findings, 9 Japanese patients with sensory and autonomic nervous dysfunctions were selected. Eleven known HSAN disease-causing genes and 5 related genes were screened using a next-generation sequencer. A homozygous mutation, c.3993delGinsTT, was identified in exon 22 of SCN9A from 2 patients/families. The clinical phenotype was characterized by adolescent or congenital onset with loss of pain and temperature sensation, autonomic nervous dysfunctions, hearing loss, and hyposmia. Subsequently, this mutation was discovered in one of patient 1's sisters, who also exhibited sensory and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions, with recurrent fractures being the most predominant feature. Nerve conduction studies revealed definite asymmetric sensory nerve involvement in patient 1. In addition, sural nerve pathologic findings showed loss of large myelinated fibers in patient 1, whereas the younger patient showed normal sural nerve pathology. We identified a novel homozygous mutation in SCN9A from 2 Japanese families with autosomal recessive HSAN. This loss-of-function SCN9A mutation results in disturbances in the sensory, olfactory, and autonomic nervous systems. We propose that SCN9A mutation results in the new entity of HSAN type IID, with additional symptoms including hyposmia, hearing loss, bone dysplasia, and hypogeusia.

  2. A Dutch family with autosomal recessively inherited lower motor neuron predominant motor neuron disease due to optineurin mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeldman, Emma; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; van Maarle, Merel C.; van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of motor neuron disease (MND) patients report a familial predisposition for MND. Autosomal recessively inherited MND is less common and is most often caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. In 2010, autosomal recessively inherited mutations in the optineurin

  3. Mutation in filamin A causes periventricular heterotopia, developmental regression, and West syndrome in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masruha, Marcelo R; Caboclo, Luis O S F; Carrete, Henrique; Cendes, Iscia L; Rodrigues, Murilo G; Garzon, Eliana; Yacubian, Elza M T; Sakamoto, Américo C; Sheen, Volney; Harney, Megan; Neal, Jason; Hill, R Sean; Bodell, Adria; Walsh, Christopher; Vilanova, Luiz C P

    2006-01-01

    Familial periventricular heterotopia (PH) represents a disorder of neuronal migration resulting in multiple gray-matter nodules along the lateral ventricular walls. Prior studies have shown that mutations in the filamin A (FLNA) gene can cause PH through an X-linked dominant pattern. Heterozygotic female patients usually remain asymptomatic until the second or third decade of life, when they may have predominantly focal seizures, whereas hemizygotic male fetuses typically die in utero. Recent studies have also reported mutations in FLNA in male patients with PH who are cognitively normal. We describe PH in three male siblings with PH due to FLNA, severe developmental regression, and West syndrome. The study includes the three affected brothers and their parents. Video-EEG recordings and magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanning were performed on all individuals. Mutations for FLNA were detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on genomic DNA followed by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis or sequencing. Two of the siblings are monozygotic twins, and all had West syndrome with hypsarrhythmia on EEG. MRI of the brain revealed periventricular nodules of cerebral gray-matter intensity, typical for PH. Mutational analyses demonstrated a cytosine-to-thymidine missense mutation (c. C1286T), resulting in a threonine-to-methionine amino acid substitution in exon 9 of the FLNA gene. The association between PH and West syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Males with PH have been known to harbor FLNA mutations, although uniformly, they either show early lethality or survive and have a normal intellect. The current studies show that FLNA mutations can cause periventricular heterotopia, developmental regression, and West syndrome in male patients, suggesting that this type of FLNA mutation may contribute to severe neurologic deficits.

  4. ALDH1A3 mutations cause recessive anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares-Taie, Lucas; Gerber, Sylvie; Chassaing, Nicolas; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Hanein, Sylvain; Silva, Eduardo; Serey, Margaux; Serre, Valérie; Gérard, Xavier; Baumann, Clarisse; Plessis, Ghislaine; Demeer, Bénédicte; Brétillon, Lionel; Bole, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Calvas, Patrick; Kaplan, Josseline; Ragge, Nicola; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2013-02-07

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are early-eye-development anomalies resulting in absent or small ocular globes, respectively. A/M anomalies occur in syndromic or nonsyndromic forms. They are genetically heterogeneous, some mutations in some genes being responsible for both anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Using a combination of homozygosity mapping, exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing, we identified homozygosity for one splice-site and two missense mutations in the gene encoding the A3 isoform of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3) in three consanguineous families segregating A/M with occasional orbital cystic, neurological, and cardiac anomalies. ALDH1A3 is a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic acid gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during early eye development. Transitory expression of mutant ALDH1A3 open reading frames showed that both missense mutations reduce the accumulation of the enzyme, potentially leading to altered retinoic acid synthesis. Although the role of retinoic acid signaling in eye development is well established, our findings provide genetic evidence of a direct link between retinoic-acid-synthesis dysfunction and early-eye-development anomalies in humans. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GFI1B mutation causes a bleeding disorder with abnormal platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, W S; Morel-Kopp, M-C; Chen, Q; Liang, H P; Bromhead, C J; Wright, S; Turakulov, R; Ng, A P; Roberts, A W; Bahlo, M; Ward, C M

    2013-11-01

    GFI1B is a transcription factor important for erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte development but previously unknown to be associated with human disease. A family with a novel bleeding disorder was identified and characterized. Genetic linkage analysis and massively parallel sequencing were used to localize the mutation causing the disease phenotype on chromosome 9. Functional studies were then performed in megakaryocytic cell lines to determine the biological effects of the mutant transcript. We have identified a family with an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia, red cell anisopoikilocytosis, and platelet dysfunction. The severity of bleeding is variable with some affected individuals experiencing spontaneous bleeding while other family members exhibit only abnormal bleeding with surgery. A single nucleotide insertion was identified in GFI1B that predicts a frameshift mutation in the fifth zinc finger DNA-binding domain. This mutation alters the transcriptional activity of the protein, resulting in a reduction in platelet α-granule content and aberrant expression of key platelet proteins. GFI1B mutation represents a novel human bleeding disorder, and the described phenotype identifies GFI1B as a critical regulator of platelet shape, number, and function. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. Causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, T S; Juel, K; Bülow, S

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due to du...... to duodenal/periampullary cancer and desmoid tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the causes of death with special emphasis on duodenal/periampullary cancer.......The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due...

  7. Genetic study of the PAH locus in the Iranian population: familial gene mutations and minihaplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razipour, Masoumeh; Alavinejad, Elaheh; Sajedi, Seyede Zahra; Talebi, Saeed; Entezam, Mona; Mohajer, Neda; Kazemi-Sefat, Golnaz-Ensieh; Gharesouran, Jalal; Setoodeh, Aria; Mohaddes Ardebili, Seyyed Mojtaba; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), one of the most common inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, is caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene (PAH). PKU has wide allelic heterogeneity, and over 600 different disease-causing mutations in PAH have been detected to date. Up to now, there have been no reports on the minihaplotype (VNTR/STR) analysis of PAH locus in the Iranian population. The aims of the present study were to determine PAH mutations and minihaplotypes in Iranian families with PAH deficiency and to investigate the correlation between them. A total of 81 Iranian families with PAH deficiency were examined using PCR-sequencing of all 13 PAH exons and their flanking intron regions to identify sequence variations. Fragment analysis of the PAH minihaplotypes was performed by capillary electrophoresis for 59 families. In our study, 33 different mutations were found accounting for 95% of the total mutant alleles. The majority of these mutations (72%) were distributed across exons 7, 11, 2 and their flanking intronic regions. Mutation c.1066-11G > A was the most common with a frequency of 20.37%. The less frequent mutations, p.Arg261Gln (8%), p.Arg243Ter (7.4%), p.Leu48Ser (7.4%), p.Lys363Asnfs*37 (6.79%), c.969 + 5G > A (6.17%), p.Pro281Leu (5.56), c.168 + 5G > C (5.56), and p.Arg261Ter (4.94) together comprised about 52% of all mutant alleles. In this study, a total of seventeen PAH gene minihaplotypes were detected, six of which associated exclusively with particular mutations. Our findings indicate a broad PAH mutation spectrum in the Iranian population, which is consistent with previous studies reporting a wide range of PAH mutations, most likely due to ethnic heterogeneity. High prevalence of c.1066-11G > A mutation linked to minihaplotype 7/250 among both Iranian and Mediterranean populations is indicative of historical and geographical links between them. Also, strong association between particular mutations and minihaplotypes

  8. ENPP1 Mutation Causes Recessive Cole Disease by Altering Melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourabi, Marwa; Liew, Mei Shan; Lim, Shawn; H'mida-Ben Brahim, Dorra; Boussofara, Lobna; Dai, Liang; Wong, Pui Mun; Foo, Jia Nee; Sriha, Badreddine; Robinson, Kim Samirah; Denil, Simon; Common, John Ea; Mamaï, Ons; Ben Khalifa, Youcef; Bollen, Mathieu; Liu, Jianjun; Denguezli, Mohamed; Bonnard, Carine; Saad, Ali; Reversade, Bruno

    2018-02-01

    Cole disease is a genodermatosis of pigmentation following a strict dominant mode of inheritance. In this study, we investigated eight patients affected with an overlapping genodermatosis after recessive inheritance. The patients presented with hypo- and hyperpigmented macules over the body, resembling dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria in addition to punctuate palmoplantar keratosis. By homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, a biallelic p.Cys120Arg mutation in ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) was identified in all patients. We found that this mutation, like those causing dominant Cole disease, impairs homodimerization of the ENPP1 enzyme that is mediated by its two somatomedin-B-like domains. Histological analysis revealed structural and molecular changes in affected skin that were likely to originate from defective melanocytes because keratinocytes do not express ENPP1. Consistently, RNA-sequencing analysis of patient-derived primary melanocytes revealed alterations in melanocyte development and in pigmentation signaling pathways. We therefore conclude that germline ENPP1 cysteine-specific mutations, primarily affecting the melanocyte lineage, cause a clinical spectrum of dyschromatosis, in which the p.Cys120Arg allele represents a recessive and more severe form of Cole disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.Myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome are two genetically determined relatively common disabilities. Both are examples of a new type of mutation mechanism called unstable or dynamic mutations, triple repeats expansions or DNA amplification. Fragile X syndrome is recognized as the main cause of hereditary mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy is considered the most common muscular dystrophy of adults. This is a prospective non randomized study of clinically affected people, in order to confirm the diagnosis with

  10. A de novo nonsense PDGFB mutation causing idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with laryngeal dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Jacquin, Agnès; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Rouaud, Olivier; Pottier, Cyril; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Rousseau, Stéphane; Wallon, David; Duvillard, Christian; Béjot, Yannick; Frébourg, Thierry; Giroud, Maurice; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by brain calcification and a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In families with autosomal dominant inheritance, three causative genes have been identified: SLC20A2, PDGFRB, and, very recently, PDGFB. Whereas in clinical practice sporadic presentation of IBGC is frequent, well-documented reports of true sporadic occurrence are rare. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented laryngeal dystonia revealing IBGC. Her healthy parents' CT scans were both normal. We identified in the proband a new nonsense mutation in exon 4 of PDGFB, c.439C>T (p.Gln147*), which was absent from the parents' DNA. This mutation may result in a loss-of-function of PDGF-B, which has been shown to cause IBGC in humans and to disrupt the blood-brain barrier in mice, resulting in brain calcification. The c.439C>T mutation is located between two previously reported nonsense mutations, c.433C>T (p.Gln145*) and c.445C>T (p.Arg149*), on a region that could be a hot spot for de novo mutations. We present the first full demonstration of the de novo occurrence of an IBGC-causative mutation in a sporadic case.

  11. Two novel mutations in the PPIB gene cause a rare pedigree of osteogenesis imperfecta type IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Pan, Jingxin; Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jie; Fang, Zishui; Guo, Chunmiao; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Weiying; Guo, Yibin

    2017-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic skeletal disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. PPIB is identified as a candidate gene for OI-IX, here we detect two pathogenic mutations in PPIB and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation in a Chinese family with OI. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the whole exome of the parents of proband. Screening of variation frequency, evolutionary conservation comparisons, pathogenicity evaluation, and protein structure prediction were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of the novel mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the candidate variants. RTQ-PCR was used to analyze the PPIB gene expression. All mutant genes screened out by NGS were excluded except PPIB. Two novel heterozygous PPIB mutations (father, c.25A>G; mother, c.509G>A) were identified in relation to osteogenesis imperfecta type IX. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and RTQ-PCR analysis revealed downregulated PPIB expression in the two carriers. We report a rare pedigree with an autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type IX (OI-IX) caused by two novel PPIB mutations identified for the first time in China. The current study expands our knowledge of PPIB mutations and their associated phenotypes, and provides new information on the genetic defects associated with this disease for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The smallest teeth in the world are caused by mutations in the PCNT gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantaputra, Piranit; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot; Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Ohazama, Atsushi; Sharpe, Paul; Rauch, Anita; Hussadaloy, Atiwat; Thiel, Christian T

    2011-06-01

    We report a follow up study on two MOPD II Thai families with severe dental anomalies and hypoplastic alveolar bone. Striking dental anomalies comprise severe microdontia, opalescent and abnormally shaped teeth, and rootless molars. As a result of severe hypoplastic alveolar bone, most permanent teeth have been lost. Mutation analysis of PCNT revealed 2 novel mutations (p.Lys3154del and p.Glu1154X) and a recurrent mutation (p.Pro1923X). Teeth of the patient who carried a homozygous novel mutation of p.Glu1154X are probably the smallest ever reported. The sizes of the mandibular permanent incisors and all premolars were approximately 2-2.5 mm, mesiodistally. All previously reported, PCNT mutations have been described to cause premature truncation of the pericentrin protein. p.Lys3154del mutation was unique as it was pathogenic as a result of missing only a single amino acid. In situ hybridization of Pcnt shows its expression in the epithelium and mesenchyme during early stages of rodent tooth development. It is evident that PCNT has crucial role in tooth development. The permanent dentition is more severely affected than the one. This implies that PCNT appears to have more role in the development of the permanent dentition. As pericentrin is a critical centrosomal protein, the dental phenotype found in MOPD II patients is postulated to be the consequence of loss of microtubule integrity which leads to defective centrosome function. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. A PLK4 mutation causing azoospermia in a man with Sertoli cell-only syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Bando, Y; Koh, E; Tsujimura, A; Miyagawa, Y; Iijima, M; Namiki, M; Shiina, M; Ogata, K; Matsumoto, N; Sengoku, K

    2016-01-01

    About 15% of couples wishing to have children are infertile; approximately half these cases involve a male factor. Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK-4) is a member of the polo protein family and a key regulator of centriole duplication. Male mice with a point mutation in the Plk4 gene show azoospermia associated with germ cell loss. Mutational analysis of 81 patients with azoospermia and Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) identified one man with a heterozygous 13-bp deletion in the Ser/Thr kinase domain of PLK4. Division of centrioles occurred in wild-type PLK4-transfected cells, but was hampered in PLK-4-mutant transfectants, which also showed abnormal nuclei. Thus, this PLK4 mutation might be a cause of human SCOS and nonobstructive azoospermia. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. De novo SOX11 mutations cause Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Koshimizu, Eriko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Phadke, Shubha; Kou, Ikuyo; Shiina, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Shintaro; Yamashita, Michiaki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kodera, Hirofumi; Miyatake, Satoko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Ikegawa, Shiro; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-06-02

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is a congenital disorder characterized by growth deficiency, intellectual disability, microcephaly, characteristic facial features and hypoplastic nails of the fifth fingers and/or toes. We previously identified mutations in five genes encoding subunits of the BAF complex, in 55% of CSS patients. Here we perform whole-exome sequencing in additional CSS patients, identifying de novo SOX11 mutations in two patients with a mild CSS phenotype. sox11a/b knockdown in zebrafish causes brain abnormalities, potentially explaining the brain phenotype of CSS. SOX11 is the downstream transcriptional factor of the PAX6-BAF complex, highlighting the importance of the BAF complex and SOX11 transcriptional network in brain development.

  15. Mutations in PYCR1 cause cutis laxa with progeroid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reversade, Bruno; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Dimopoulou, Aikaterini; Fischer, Björn; Chng, Serene C; Li, Yun; Shboul, Mohammad; Tham, Puay-Yoke; Kayserili, Hülya; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Shahwan, Monzer; Brancati, Francesco; Lee, Hane; O'Connor, Brian D; Schmidt-von Kegler, Mareen; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stanley F; Masri, Amira; Alkazaleh, Fawaz; Guerra, Deanna; Ferrari, Paola; Nanda, Arti; Rajab, Anna; Markie, David; Gray, Mary; Nelson, John; Grix, Arthur; Sommer, Annemarie; Savarirayan, Ravi; Janecke, Andreas R; Steichen, Elisabeth; Sillence, David; Hausser, Ingrid; Budde, Birgit; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Seemann, Petra; Kunkel, Désirée; Zambruno, Giovanna; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Schuelke, Markus; Robertson, Stephen; Hamamy, Hanan; Wollnik, Bernd; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Mundlos, Stefan; Kornak, Uwe

    2009-09-01

    Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) describes a group of syndromal disorders that are often associated with a progeroid appearance, lax and wrinkled skin, osteopenia and mental retardation. Homozygosity mapping in several kindreds with ARCL identified a candidate region on chromosome 17q25. By high-throughput sequencing of the entire candidate region, we detected disease-causing mutations in the gene PYCR1. We found that the gene product, an enzyme involved in proline metabolism, localizes to mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial morphology, membrane potential and increased apoptosis rate upon oxidative stress were evident in fibroblasts from affected individuals. Knockdown of the orthologous genes in Xenopus and zebrafish led to epidermal hypoplasia and blistering that was accompanied by a massive increase of apoptosis. Our findings link mutations in PYCR1 to altered mitochondrial function and progeroid changes in connective tissues.

  16. Inflammatory peeling skin syndrome caused a novel mutation in CDSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana Fuchs; Israeli, Shirli; Sarig, Ofer; Sprecher, Eli

    2012-04-01

    Generalized peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare autosomal recessive dermatosis manifesting with continuous exfoliation of the stratum corneum. The inflammatory (type B) subtype of PSS was recently found to be caused by deleterious mutations in the CDSN gene encoding corneodesmosin, a major component of desmosomal junctions in the uppermost layers of the epidermis. In the present study, we assessed a 10-month-old baby, who presented with generalized superficial peeling of the skin. Using PCR amplification and direct sequencing, we identified the third PSS-associated mutation in CDSN, a homozygous 4 bp duplication in the second exon of the gene (c.164_167dup GCCT; p.Thr57ProfsX6). These data further support the notion that corneodesmosin deficiency impairs cell-cell adhesion in the upper epidermis, paving the way for an abnormal inflammatory response due to epidermal barrier disruption.

  17. Dystonia-Causing Mutations as a Contribution to the Etiology of Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gusmão, Claudio M; Fuchs, Tania; Moses, Andrew; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha; Song, Phillip C; Ozelius, Laurie J; Franco, Ramon A; Sharma, Nutan

    2016-10-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a focal dystonia of the larynx with heterogeneous manifestations and association with familial risk factors. There are scarce data to allow precise understanding of etiology and pathophysiology. Screening for dystonia-causing genetic mutations has the potential to allow accurate diagnosis, inform about genotype-phenotype correlations, and allow a better understanding of mechanisms of disease. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic medical center. We enrolled patients presenting with spasmodic dysphonia to the voice clinic of our academic medical center. Data included demographics, clinical features, family history, and treatments administered. The following genes with disease-causing mutations previously associated with spasmodic dysphonia were screened: TOR1A (DYT1), TUBB4 (DYT4), and THAP1 (DYT6). Eighty-six patients were recruited, comprising 77% females and 23% males. A definite family history of neurologic disorder was present in 15% (13 of 86). Average age (± standard deviation) of symptom onset was 42.1 ± 15.7 years. Most (99%; 85 of 86) were treated with botulinum toxin, and 12% (11 of 86) received oral medications. Genetic screening was negative in all patients for the GAG deletion in TOR1A (DYT1) and in the 5 exons currently associated with disease-causing mutations in TUBB4 (DYT4). Two patients tested positive for novel/rare variants in THAP1 (DYT6). Genetic screening targeted at currently known disease-causing mutations in TOR1A, THAP1, and TUBB4 appears to have low diagnostic yield in sporadic spasmodic dysphonia. In our cohort, only 2 patients tested positive for novel/rare variants in THAP1. Clinicians should make use of genetic testing judiciously and in cost-effective ways. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. [Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a mutation in TFG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by proximal predominant weakness and muscle atrophy accompanied by distal sensory disturbance. Linkage analysis using 4 families identified a region on chromosome 3 showing a LOD score exceeding 4. Further refinement of candidate region was performed by haplotype analysis using high-density SNP data, resulting in a minimum candidate region spanning 3.3 Mb. Exome analysis of an HMSN-P patient revealed a mutation (c.854C>T, p.Pro285Leu) in TRK-fused gene (TFG). The identical mutation was found in the four families, which cosegregated with the disease. The mutation was neither found in Japanese control subjects nor public databases. Detailed haplotype analysis suggested two independent origins of the mutation. These findings indicate that the mutation in TFG causes HMSN-P.

  19. Novel mutations in TARDBP (TDP-43 in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Rutherford

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 has been identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U, defining a novel class of neurodegenerative conditions: the TDP-43 proteinopathies. The first pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (TARDBP were recently reported in familial and sporadic ALS patients, supporting a direct role for TDP-43 in neurodegeneration. In this study, we report the identification and functional analyses of two novel and one known mutation in TARDBP that we identified as a result of extensive mutation analyses in a cohort of 296 patients with variable neurodegenerative diseases associated with TDP-43 histopathology. Three different heterozygous missense mutations in exon 6 of TARDBP (p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V were identified in the analysis of 92 familial ALS patients (3.3%, while no mutations were detected in 24 patients with sporadic ALS or 180 patients with other TDP-43-positive neurodegenerative diseases. The presence of p.M337V, p.N345K, and p.I383V was excluded in 825 controls and 652 additional sporadic ALS patients. All three mutations affect highly conserved amino acid residues in the C-terminal part of TDP-43 known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Biochemical analysis of TDP-43 in ALS patient cell lines revealed a substantial increase in caspase cleaved fragments, including the approximately 25 kDa fragment, compared to control cell lines. Our findings support TARDBP mutations as a cause of ALS. Based on the specific C-terminal location of the mutations and the accumulation of a smaller C-terminal fragment, we speculate that TARDBP mutations may cause a toxic gain of function through novel protein interactions or intracellular accumulation of TDP-43 fragments leading to apoptosis.

  20. [Analysis of USH2A gene mutation in a Chinese family affected with Usher syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Mingchang; Wang, Qiufen; Liu, Mugen

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the disease-causing mutation in a Chinese family affected with Usher syndrome type II. All of the 11 members from the family underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and hearing test, and their genomic DNA were isolated from venous leukocytes. PCR and direct sequencing of USH2A gene were performed for the proband. Wild type and mutant type minigene vectors containing exon 42, intron 42 and exon 43 of the USH2A gene were constructed and transfected into Hela cells by lipofectamine reagent. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was carried out to verify the splicing of the minigenes. Pedigree analysis and clinical diagnosis indicated that the patients have suffered from autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type II. DNA sequencing has detected a homozygous c.8559-2A>G mutation of the USH2A gene in the proband, which has co-segregated with the disease in the family. The mutation has affected a conserved splice site in intron 42, which has led to inactivation of the splice site. Minigene experiment has confirmed the retaining of intron 42 in mature mRNA. The c.8559-2A>G mutation in the USH2A gene probably underlies the Usher syndrome type II in this family. The splice site mutation has resulted in abnormal splicing of USH2A pre-mRNA.

  1. Recurrent recessive mutation in deoxyguanosine kinase causes idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Sílvia; Sari, Sinan; Yilmaz, Güldal; Stiegler, Amy L; Boggon, Titus J; Jain, Dhanpat; Akyol, Gulen; Dalgic, Buket; Günel, Murat; Lifton, Richard P

    2016-06-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and management of idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension, its pathogenesis remains elusive. Insight may be gained from study of early-onset familial idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension, in which Mendelian mutations may account for disease. We performed exome sequencing of eight subjects from six kindreds with onset of portal hypertension of indeterminate etiology during infancy or childhood. Three subjects from two consanguineous families shared the identical rare homozygous p.N46S mutation in DGUOK, a deoxyguanosine kinase required for mitochondrial DNA replication; haplotype sharing demonstrated that the mutation in the two families was inherited from a remote common ancestor. All three affected subjects had stable portal hypertension with noncirrhotic liver disease for 6-16 years of follow-up. This mutation impairs adenosine triphosphate binding and reduces catalytic activity. Loss-of-function mutations in DGUOK have previously been implicated in cirrhosis and liver failure but not in isolated portal hypertension. Interestingly, treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency viral infection with the nucleoside analogue didanosine is known to cause portal hypertension in a subset of patients and lowers deoxyguanosine kinase levels in vitro; the current findings implicate these effects on deoxyguanosine kinase in the causal mechanism. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms mediating inherited and acquired noncirrhotic portal hypertension, expand the phenotypic spectrum of DGUOK deficiency, and provide a new genetic test for a specific cause of idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension. (Hepatology 2016;63:1977-1986). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Mutation analysis for DJ-1 in sporadic and familial parkinsonism: screening strategy in parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Kubo, Shin-Ichiro; Toda, Tatsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2009-05-22

    DJ-1 mutations cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism (ARP). Although some reports of DJ-1 mutations have been published, there is lack of information on the prevalence of these mutations in large-scale studies of both familial and sporadic parkinsonism. In this genetic screening study, we analyzed the distribution and frequency of DJ-1 mutations by direct nucleotide sequencing of coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of DJ-1, in 386 parkin-negative parkinsonism patients (371 index cases: 67 probands of autosomal recessive parkinsonism families, 90 probands of autosomal dominant parkinsonism families, 201 patients with sporadic parkinsonism, and 13 with unknown family histories) from 12 countries (Japan 283, China 27, Taiwan 22, Korea 22, Israel 16, Turkey 5, Philippines 2, Bulgaria 2, Greece 2, Tunisia 1, USA 2, Ukraine 1, unknown 1). None had causative mutation in DJ-1, suggesting DJ-1 mutation is very rare among patients with familial and sporadic parkinsonism from Asian countries and those with other ethnic background. This is in contrast to the higher frequencies and worldwide distribution of parkin- and PINK1-related parkinsonism in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism. Thus, after obtaining clinical information, screening for mutations in (1) parkin, (2) PINK1, (3) DJ-1, (4) ATP13A2 should be conducted in that order, in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, based on their reported frequencies. In addition, haplotype analysis should be employed to check for homozygosity of 1p36, which harbors a cluster of causative genes for ARP such as DJ-1, PINK1 and ATP13A2 in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, especially in parkinsonism with consanguinity.

  3. Maternal and infantile hypercalcemia caused by vitamin-D-hydroxylase mutations and vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Dganit; Davidovits, Miriam; Aviner, Shraga; Ganon, Liat; Michael, Leonid; Modan-Moses, Dalit; Vered, Iris; Bibi, Haim; Frishberg, Yaacov; Holtzman, Eli J

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is caused by many different conditions and may lead to severe complications. Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, encoding vitamin D-24-hydroxylase, have recently been identified in idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia and in adult kidney stone disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetics and clinical features of both infantile and maternal hypercalcemia. We studied members of four unrelated Israeli families with hypercalcemia, namely, one woman during pregnancy and after delivery and three infants. Clinical and biochemical data were obtained from probands' medical charts. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and CYP24A1 was sequenced. Typical symptoms of hypercalcemia associated with the intake of recommended doses of vitamin D developed in the infants and pregnant woman. Four different loss-of-function CYP24A1 mutations were identified, two of which are reported here for the first time (p.Trp134Gly and p.Glu315*). The infants from families 1 and 2, respectively, were found to be compound heterozygotes, and the infant from family 3 and the pregnant woman were found to be homozygous. This is the first report of maternal hypercalcemia caused by a CYP24A1 mutation, showing that not only infants are at risk for this complication. Our findings emphasize the importance of recognition, genetic diagnosis and proper treatment of this recently identified hypercalcemic disorder in this era of widespread vitamin D supplements.

  4. UBIAD1 mutation alters a mitochondrial prenyltransferase to cause Schnyder corneal dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Nickerson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in a novel gene, UBIAD1, were recently found to cause the autosomal dominant eye disease Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD. SCD is characterized by an abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in the cornea resulting in progressive corneal opacification and visual loss. We characterized lesions in the UBIAD1 gene in new SCD families and examined protein homology, localization, and structure.We characterized five novel mutations in the UBIAD1 gene in ten SCD families, including a first SCD family of Native American ethnicity. Examination of protein homology revealed that SCD altered amino acids which were highly conserved across species. Cell lines were established from patients including keratocytes obtained after corneal transplant surgery and lymphoblastoid cell lines from Epstein-Barr virus immortalized peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These were used to determine the subcellular localization of mutant and wild type protein, and to examine cholesterol metabolite ratios. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for UBIAD1 protein in keratocytes revealed that both wild type and N102S protein were localized sub-cellularly to mitochondria. Analysis of cholesterol metabolites in patient cell line extracts showed no significant alteration in the presence of mutant protein indicating a potentially novel function of the UBIAD1 protein in cholesterol biochemistry. Molecular modeling was used to develop a model of human UBIAD1 protein in a membrane and revealed potentially critical roles for amino acids mutated in SCD. Potential primary and secondary substrate binding sites were identified and docking simulations indicated likely substrates including prenyl and phenolic molecules.Accumulating evidence from the SCD familial mutation spectrum, protein homology across species, and molecular modeling suggest that protein function is likely down-regulated by SCD mutations. Mitochondrial UBIAD1 protein appears to have a highly

  5. FAMILY ANAMNESIS OF CHILDREN WITH MUTATION OF THE INHERITED HEMOCHROMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Polyakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherited burdened is studied on diseases, associated with an overload iron in 41 children with frequent mutations of the inherited hemochromatosis (IG of a 1 type (C282y, H63d, S65c. Control group was made by 27 children with undiscovered frequent mutations of NG. Frequencies of iron-associated diseases are compared for 560 members of families which have children with mutations of IG and 390 members of families which have children without IG mutations. Some features of medical-genealogical anamnesis, which can be conditioned of siderosis, are exposed, and indirectly specify in the presence of mutations in the gene of HFE. So, the high frequency of oncologic diseases, diabetes mellitus, hepatocirrhosis and deaths of relatives under the age of 50 years are the foundation for research of exchange of iron and holding of molecular-genetic research of the inherited hemochromatosis. Key words: inherited hemochromatosis, heredity, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:52-56

  6. Hb H Hydrops Fetalis Syndrome Caused by Association of the - -(SEA) Deletion and Hb Constant Spring (HBA2: c.427T > C) Mutation in a Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sheng; Zheng, Chenguang; Meng, Dahua; Chen, Rongyu; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Xiaoxian; Chen, Shaoke

    2015-01-01

    Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS; HBA2: c.427T > C) is an unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variant that results from a nucleotide substitution at the termination codon of the α2-globin gene. Compound heterozygosity for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal) and Hb CS (- -(SEA)/α(CS)α) results in Hb H/Hb CS disease, which is generally characterized with mild hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. Here, we describe one case with Hb H/Hb CS disease that presented with fetal anemia and fetal hydrops, known as Hb H (β4) hydrops fetalis. This is the first report of fetal hydrops caused by association of the - -(SEA) deletion and the α(CS)α mutation. Our study highlights the significance of watchful observation using a serial ultrasound method and care of pregnant women who have fetuses found to carry Hb H/Hb CS disease during pregnancy, to guard against the occurrence of fetal hydrops.

  7. GBA2 Mutations Cause a Marinesco-Sjögren-Like Syndrome: Genetic and Biochemical Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Haugarvoll

    Full Text Available With the advent new sequencing technologies, we now have the tools to understand the phenotypic diversity and the common occurrence of phenocopies. We used these techniques to investigate two Norwegian families with an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with cataracts and mental retardation.Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip analysis followed by Exome sequencing identified a 2 bp homozygous deletion in GBA2 in both families, c.1528_1529del [p.Met510Valfs*17]. Furthermore, we report the biochemical characterization of GBA2 in these patients. Our studies show that a reduced activity of GBA2 is sufficient to elevate the levels of glucosylceramide to similar levels as seen in Gaucher disease. Furthermore, leucocytes seem to be the proper enzyme source for in vitro analysis of GBA2 activity.We report GBA2 mutations causing a Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndrome in two Norwegian families. One of the families was originally diagnosed with Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome based on an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with cataracts and mental retardation. Our findings highlight the phenotypic variability associated with GBA2 mutations, and suggest that patients with Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndromes should be tested for mutations in this gene.

  8. Phenotypic Variability of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V Caused by an IFITM5 Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jay R; Lietman, Caressa; Grover, Monica; Lu, James T; Nagamani, Sandesh CS; Dawson, Brian C; Baldridge, Dustin M; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Cohn, Dan H; Blazo, Maria; Roberts, Timothy T; Brennen, Feng-Shu; Wu, Yimei; Gibbs, Richard A; Melvin, Pamela; Campeau, Philippe M; Lee, Brendan H

    2013-01-01

    In a large cohort of osteogenesis imperfecta type V (OI type V) patients (17 individuals from 12 families), we identified the same mutation in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5 (IFITM5) gene by whole exome and Sanger sequencing (IFITM5 c.–14C > T) and provide a detailed description of their phenotype. This mutation leads to the creation of a novel start codon adding five residues to IFITM5 and was recently reported in several other OI type V families. The variability of the phenotype was quite large even within families. Whereas some patients presented with the typical calcification of the forearm interosseous membrane, radial head dislocation and hyperplastic callus (HPC) formation following fractures, others had only some of the typical OI type V findings. Thirteen had calcification of interosseous membranes, 14 had radial head dislocations, 10 had HPC, 9 had long bone bowing, 11 could ambulate without assistance, and 1 had mild unilateral mixed hearing loss. The bone mineral density varied greatly, even within families. Our study thus highlights the phenotypic variability of OI type V caused by the IFITM5 mutation. PMID:23408678

  9. Benign infantile seizures and paroxysmal dyskinesia caused by an SCN8A mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardella, Elena; Becker, Felicitas; Møller, Rikke S

    2016-01-01

    by stretching, motor initiation or by emotional stimuli. In one case, we recorded typical PKD spells by video-EEG-polygraphy, documenting a cortical involvement. INTERPRETATION: Our study establishes SCN8A as a novel gene in which a recurrent mutation causes BFIS/ICCA, expanding the clinical-genetic spectrum...... patient had seizures only at school age. All patients stayed otherwise seizure-free, most without medication. Interictal EEG was normal in all cases but two. Five/16 patients developed additional brief paroxysmal episodes in puberty, either dystonic/dyskinetic or "shivering" attacks, triggered...... identified as the major gene in all three conditions, found to be mutated in 80-90% of familial and 30-35% of sporadic cases. METHODS: We searched for the genetic defect in PRRT2-negative, unrelated families with BFIS or ICCA using whole exome or targeted gene panel sequencing, and performed a detailed...

  10. FAM20A mutations can cause enamel-renal syndrome (ERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Enamel-renal syndrome (ERS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe enamel hypoplasia, failed tooth eruption, intrapulpal calcifications, enlarged gingiva, and nephrocalcinosis. Recently, mutations in FAM20A were reported to cause amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome (AIGFS, which closely resembles ERS except for the renal calcifications. We characterized three families with AIGFS and identified, in each case, recessive FAM20A mutations: family 1 (c.992G>A; g.63853G>A; p.Gly331Asp, family 2 (c.720-2A>G; g.62232A>G; p.Gln241_Arg271del, and family 3 (c.406C>T; g.50213C>T; p.Arg136* and c.1432C>T; g.68284C>T; p.Arg478*. Significantly, a kidney ultrasound of the family 2 proband revealed nephrocalcinosis, revising the diagnosis from AIGFS to ERS. By characterizing teeth extracted from the family 3 proband, we demonstrated that FAM20A(-/- molars lacked true enamel, showed extensive crown and root resorption, hypercementosis, and partial replacement of resorbed mineral with bone or coalesced mineral spheres. Supported by the observation of severe ectopic calcifications in the kidneys of Fam20a null mice, we conclude that FAM20A, which has a kinase homology domain and localizes to the Golgi, is a putative Golgi kinase that plays a significant role in the regulation of biomineralization processes, and that mutations in FAM20A cause both AIGFS and ERS.

  11. IARS mutation causes prenatal death in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takashi; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Takeda, Kenji; Hara, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Kita, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Hanzawa, Kei

    2016-09-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS) c.235G > C (p.V79L) is a causative mutation for a recessive disease called IARS disorder in Japanese black cattle. The disease is involved in weak calf syndrome and is characterized by low birth weight, weakness and poor suckling. The gestation period is often slightly extended, implying that intrauterine growth is retarded. In a previous analysis of 2597 artificial insemination (AI) procedures, we suggested that the IARS mutation might contribute toward an increase in the incidence of prenatal death. In this study, we extended this analysis to better clarify the association between the IARS mutation and prenatal death. The IARS genotypes of 92 animals resulting from crosses between carrier (G/C) × G/C were 27 normal (G/G), 55 G/C and 10 affected animals (C/C) (expected numbers: 23, 46 and 23, respectively). Compared to the expected numbers, there were significantly fewer affected animals in this population (P causes calf death, but also embryonic or fetal death. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. SKIV2L Mutations Cause Syndromic Diarrhea, or Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Alexandre; Charroux, Bernard; Martinez-Vinson, Christine; Roquelaure, Bertrand; Odul, Egritas; Sayar, Ersin; Smith, Hilary; Colomb, Virginie; Andre, Nicolas; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Goulet, Olivier; Lacoste, Caroline; Sarles, Jacques; Royet, Julien; Levy, Nicolas; Badens, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Syndromic diarrhea (or trichohepatoenteric syndrome) is a rare congenital bowel disorder characterized by intractable diarrhea and woolly hair, and it has recently been associated with mutations in TTC37. Although databases report TTC37 as being the human ortholog of Ski3p, one of the yeast Ski-complex cofactors, this lead was not investigated in initial studies. The Ski complex is a multiprotein complex required for exosome-mediated RNA surveillance, including the regulation of normal mRNA and the decay of nonfunctional mRNA. Considering the fact that TTC37 is homologous to Ski3p, we explored a gene encoding another Ski-complex cofactor, SKIV2L, in six individuals presenting with typical syndromic diarrhea without variation in TTC37. We identified mutations in all six individuals. Our results show that mutations in genes encoding cofactors of the human Ski complex cause syndromic diarrhea, establishing a link between defects of the human exosome complex and a Mendelian disease. PMID:22444670

  13. Mutation analysis of the cathepsin C gene in Indian families with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Satish

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PLS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset periodontopathia and palmar plantar keratosis. PLS is caused by mutations in the cathepsin C (CTSC gene. Dipeptidyl-peptidase I encoded by the CTSC gene removes dipeptides from the amino-terminus of protein substrates and mainly plays an immune and inflammatory role. Several mutations have been reported in this gene in patients from several ethnic groups. We report here mutation analysis of the CTSC gene in three Indian families with PLS. Methods Peripheral blood samples were obtained from individuals belonging to three Indian families with PLS for genomic DNA isolation. Exon-specific intronic primers were used to amplify DNA samples from individuals. PCR products were subsequently sequenced to detect mutations. PCR-SCCP and ASOH analyses were used to determine if mutations were present in normal control individuals. Results All patients from three families had a classic PLS phenotype, which included palmoplantar keratosis and early-onset severe periodontitis. Sequence analysis of the CTSC gene showed three novel nonsense mutations (viz., p.Q49X, p.Q69X and p.Y304X in homozygous state in affected individuals from these Indian families. Conclusions This study reported three novel nonsense mutations in three Indian families. These novel nonsense mutations are predicted to produce truncated dipeptidyl-peptidase I causing PLS phenotype in these families. A review of the literature along with three novel mutations reported here showed that the total number of mutations in the CTSC gene described to date is 41 with 17 mutations being located in exon 7.

  14. A R54L mutation of CRYAA associated with autosomal dominant nuclear cataracts in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenfei; Su, Dongmei; Li, Qian; Ma, Zicheng; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Siquan; Ma, Xu

    2013-12-01

    To identify the genetic defect in a three-generation Chinese family with congenital cataracts. The phenotype of a three-generation Chinese family with congenital cataract was recruited. Detailed family history and clinical data of the family were recorded. Candidate genes sequencing was performed to screen out the disease-causing mutation. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the function of mutant gene. The phenotype of the family was identified as nuclear cataract. Direct sequencing revealed a c.161 G > T transversion in exon 1 of crystallin alpha-A (CRYAA). This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not found in unaffected family members nor in the 100 unrelated controls. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the 54th amino acid position was highly conserved and the mutation R54L caused an increase of local hydrophobicity around the substitution site. This study identified a novel disease-causing mutation c.161 G > T (p.R54L) in CRYAA in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant nuclear cataracts, this is the first report relating a G > T mutation in CRYAA leading to congenital nuclear cataract.

  15. Homozygous YME1L1 mutation causes mitochondriopathy with optic atrophy and mitochondrial network fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Bianca; Wai, Timothy; Hu, Hao; MacVicar, Thomas; Musante, Luciana; Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Stenzel, Werner; Gräf, Ralph; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Langer, Thomas; Kaindl, Angela M

    2016-08-06

    Mitochondriopathies often present clinically as multisystemic disorders of primarily high-energy consuming organs. Assembly, turnover, and surveillance of mitochondrial proteins are essential for mitochondrial function and a key task of AAA family members of metalloproteases. We identified a homozygous mutation in the nuclear encoded mitochondrial escape 1-like 1 gene YME1L1, member of the AAA protease family, as a cause of a novel mitochondriopathy in a consanguineous pedigree of Saudi Arabian descent. The homozygous missense mutation, located in a highly conserved region in the mitochondrial pre-sequence, inhibits cleavage of YME1L1 by the mitochondrial processing peptidase, which culminates in the rapid degradation of YME1L1 precursor protein. Impaired YME1L1 function causes a proliferation defect and mitochondrial network fragmentation due to abnormal processing of OPA1. Our results identify mutations in YME1L1 as a cause of a mitochondriopathy with optic nerve atrophy highlighting the importance of YME1L1 for mitochondrial functionality in humans.

  16. Homozygous YME1L1 mutation causes mitochondriopathy with optic atrophy and mitochondrial network fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Bianca; Wai, Timothy; Hu, Hao; MacVicar, Thomas; Musante, Luciana; Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Stenzel, Werner; Gräf, Ralph; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Langer, Thomas; Kaindl, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondriopathies often present clinically as multisystemic disorders of primarily high-energy consuming organs. Assembly, turnover, and surveillance of mitochondrial proteins are essential for mitochondrial function and a key task of AAA family members of metalloproteases. We identified a homozygous mutation in the nuclear encoded mitochondrial escape 1-like 1 gene YME1L1, member of the AAA protease family, as a cause of a novel mitochondriopathy in a consanguineous pedigree of Saudi Arabian descent. The homozygous missense mutation, located in a highly conserved region in the mitochondrial pre-sequence, inhibits cleavage of YME1L1 by the mitochondrial processing peptidase, which culminates in the rapid degradation of YME1L1 precursor protein. Impaired YME1L1 function causes a proliferation defect and mitochondrial network fragmentation due to abnormal processing of OPA1. Our results identify mutations in YME1L1 as a cause of a mitochondriopathy with optic nerve atrophy highlighting the importance of YME1L1 for mitochondrial functionality in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16078.001 PMID:27495975

  17. Characterization of the factor VIII defect in 147 patients with sporadic hemophilia A: Family studies indicate a mutation type-dependent sex ratio of mutation frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.; Schmidt, W.; Olek, K. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The clinical manifestation of hemophilia A is caused by a wide range of different mutations. In this study the factor VIII genes of 147 severe hemophilia A patients-all exclusively from sporadic families-were screened for mutations by use of the complete panel of modern DNA techniques. The pathogenous defect could be characterized in 126 patients (85.7%). Fifty-five patients (37.4%) showed a F8A-gene inversion, 47 (32.0%) a point mutation, 14 (9.5%) a small deletion, 8 (5.4%) a large deletion, and 2 (1.4%) a small insertion. Further, four (2.7%) mutations were localized but could not be sequenced yet. No mutation could be identified in 17 patients (11.6%). Sixteen (10.9%) of the P identified mutations occurred in the B domain. Four of these were located in an adenosine nucleotide stretch at codon 1192, indicating a mutation hotspot. Somatic mosaicisms were detected in 3 (3.9%) of 76 patients` mothers, comprising 3 of 16 de novo mutations in the patients` mothers. Investigation of family relatives allowed detection of a de novo mutation in 16 of 76 two-generation and 28 of 34 three-generation families. On the basis of these data, the male:female ratio of mutation frequencies (k) was estimated as k = 3.6. By use of the quotients of mutation origin in maternal grandfather to patient`s mother or to maternal grandmother, k was directly estimated as k = 15 and k = 7.5, respectively. Considering each mutation type separately, we revealed a mutation type-specific sex ratio of mutation frequencies. Point mutations showed a 5-to-10-fold-higher and inversions a >10-fold- higher mutation rate in male germ cells, whereas deletions showed a >5-fold-higher mutation rate in female germ cells. Consequently, and in accordance with the data of other diseases like Duchenne muscular dystrophy, our results indicate that at least for X-chromosomal disorders the male:female mutation rate of a disease is determined by its proportion of the different mutation types. 68 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Missense mutations in ITPR1 cause autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lijia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia is characterized by early gross motor delay, hypotonia, gait ataxia, mild dysarthria and dysmetria. The clinical presentation remains fairly stable and may be associated with cerebellar atrophy. To date, only a few families with autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia have been reported. Linkage to 3pter was demonstrated in one large Australian family and this locus was designated spinocerebellar ataxia type 29. The objective of this study is to describe an unreported Canadian family with autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia and to identify the underlying genetic causes in this family and the original Australian family. Methods and Results Exome sequencing was performed for the Australian family, resulting in the identification of a heterozygous mutation in the ITPR1 gene. For the Canadian family, genotyping with microsatellite markers and Sanger sequencing of ITPR1 gene were performed; a heterozygous missense mutation in ITPR1 was identified. Conclusions ITPR1 encodes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1, a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deletions of ITPR1 are known to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, a distinct and very slowly progressive form of cerebellar ataxia with onset in adulthood. Our study demonstrates for the first time that, in addition to spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, alteration of ITPR1 function can cause a distinct congenital nonprogressive ataxia; highlighting important clinical heterogeneity associated with the ITPR1 gene and a significant role of the ITPR1-related pathway in the development and maintenance of the normal functions of the cerebellum.

  19. Novel CLCNKB mutations causing Bartter syndrome affect channel surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Mathilde; Andrini, Olga; Lahuna, Olivier; Burgos, Johanna; Cid, L Pablo; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; L'hoste, Sébastien; Blanchard, Anne; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Lourdel, Stéphane; Teulon, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    Mutations in the CLCNKB gene encoding the ClC-Kb Cl(-) channel cause Bartter syndrome, which is a salt-losing renal tubulopathy. Here, we investigate the functional consequences of seven mutations. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, four mutants carried no current (c.736G>C, p.Gly246Arg; c.1271G>A, p.Gly424Glu; c.1313G>A, p.Arg438His; c.1316T>C, p.Leu439Pro), whereas others displayed a 30%-60% reduction in conductance as compared with wild-type ClC-Kb (c.242T>C, p.Leu81Pro; c.274C>T, p.Arg92Trp; c.1052G>C, p.Arg351Pro). Anion selectivity and sensitivity to external Ca(2+) and H(+), typical of the ClC-Kb channel, were not modified in the partially active mutants. In oocytes, we found that all the mutations reduced surface expression with a profile similar to that observed for currents. In HEK293 cells, the currents in the mutants had similar profiles to those obtained in oocytes, except for p.Leu81Pro, which produced no current. Furthermore, p.Arg92Trp and p.Arg351Pro mutations did not modify the unit-conductance of closely related ClC-K1. Western blot analysis in HEK293 cells showed that ClC-Kb protein abundance was lower for the nonconducting mutants but similar to wild-type for other mutants. Overall, two classes of mutants can be distinguished: nonconducting mutants associated with low total protein expression, and partially conducting mutants with unaltered channel properties and ClC-Kb protein abundance. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  20. Case reports of juvenile GM1 gangliosidosisis type II caused by mutation in GLB1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Naderi, Samaneh; Modarresi, Farzaneh; Dastsooz, Hassan; Nemati, Hamid; Farokhashtiani, Tayebeh; Shamsian, Bibi Shahin; Inaloo, Soroor; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-07-17

    Type II or juvenile GM1-gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, which is clinically distinct from infantile form of the disease by the lack of characteristic cherry-red spot and hepatosplenomegaly. The disease is characterized by slowly progressive neurodegeneration and mild skeletal changes. Due to the later age of onset and uncharacteristic presentation, diagnosis is frequently puzzled with other ataxic and purely neurological disorders. Up to now, 3-4 types of GM1-gangliosidosis have been reported and among them type I is the most common phenotype with the age of onset around 6 months. Various forms of GM1-gangliosidosis are caused by GLB1 gene mutations but severity of the disease and age of onset are directly related to the position and the nature of deleterious mutations. However, due to its unique genetic cause and overlapping clinical features, some researchers believe that GM1 gangliosidosis represents an overlapped disease spectrum instead of four distinct types. Here, we report a less frequent type of autosomal recessive GM1 gangliosidosis with perplexing clinical presentation in three families in the southwest part of Iran, who are unrelated but all from "Lurs" ethnic background. To identify disease-causing mutations, Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) utilizing next generation sequencing was performed. Four patients from three families were investigated with the age of onset around 3 years old. Clinical presentations were ataxia, gate disturbances and dystonia leading to wheelchair-dependent disability, regression of intellectual abilities, and general developmental regression. They all were born in consanguineous families with no previous documented similar disease in their parents. A homozygote missense mutation in GLB1 gene (c. 601 G > A, p.R201C) was found in all patients. Using Sanger sequencing this identified mutation was confirmed in the proband, their parents, grandparents, and extended family members, confirming

  1. Heterozygous Germline Mutations in the CBL Tumor-Suppressor Gene Cause a Noonan Syndrome-like Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Simone; De Luca, Alessandro; Stellacci, Emilia; Rossi, Cesare; Checquolo, Saula; Lepri, Francesca; Caputo, Viviana; Silvano, Marianna; Buscherini, Francesco; Consoli, Federica; Ferrara, Grazia; Digilio, Maria C.; Cavaliere, Maria L.; van Hagen, Johanna M.; Zampino, Giuseppe; van der Burgt, Ineke; Ferrero, Giovanni B.; Mazzanti, Laura; Screpanti, Isabella; Yntema, Helger G.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Zenker, Martin; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gelb, Bruce D.; Tartaglia, Marco

    2010-01-01

    RAS signaling plays a key role in controlling appropriate cell responses to extracellular stimuli and participates in early and late developmental processes. Although enhanced flow through this pathway has been established as a major contributor to oncogenesis, recent discoveries have revealed that aberrant RAS activation causes a group of clinically related developmental disorders characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies, and increased risk for certain malignancies. Here, we report that heterozygous germline mutations in CBL, a tumor-suppressor gene that is mutated in myeloid malignancies and encodes a multivalent adaptor protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, can underlie a phenotype with clinical features fitting or partially overlapping Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common condition of this disease family. Independent CBL mutations were identified in two sporadic cases and two families from among 365 unrelated subjects who had NS or suggestive features and were negative for mutations in previously identified disease genes. Phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity were documented. Mutations were missense changes altering evolutionarily conserved residues located in the RING finger domain or the linker connecting this domain to the N-terminal tyrosine kinase binding domain, a known mutational hot spot in myeloid malignancies. Mutations were shown to affect CBL-mediated receptor ubiquitylation and dysregulate signal flow through RAS. These findings document that germline mutations in CBL alter development to cause a clinically variable condition that resembles NS and that possibly predisposes to malignancies. PMID:20619386

  2. The heartstrings mutation in zebrafish causes heart/fin Tbx5 deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Deborah M; Childs, Sarah; Fishman, Mark C

    2002-10-01

    Holt-Oram syndrome is one of the autosomal dominant human "heart-hand" disorders, with a combination of upper limb malformations and cardiac defects. Holt-Oram syndrome is caused by mutations in the TBX5 gene, a member of a large family of T-box transcription factors that play important roles in cell-type specification and morphogenesis. In a screen for mutations affecting zebrafish cardiac function, we isolated the recessive lethal mutant heartstrings, which lacks pectoral fins and exhibits severe cardiac dysfunction, beginning with a slow heart rate and progressing to a stretched, non-functional heart. We mapped and cloned the heartstrings mutation and find it to encode the zebrafish ortholog of the TBX5 gene. The heartstrings mutation causes premature termination at amino acid 316. Homozygous mutant embryos never develop pectoral fin buds and do not express several markers of early fin differentiation. The total absence of any fin bud differentiation distinguishes heartstrings from most other mutations that affect zebrafish fin development, suggesting that Tbx5 functions very early in the pectoral fin induction pathway. Moderate reduction of Tbx5 by morpholino causes fin malformations, revealing an additional early requirement for Tbx5 in coordinating the axes of fin outgrowth. The heart of heartstrings mutant embryos appears to form and function normally through the early heart tube stage, manifesting only a slight bradycardia compared with wild-type siblings. However, the heart fails to loop and then progressively deteriorates, a process affecting the ventricle as well as the atrium. Relative to mammals, fish require lower levels of Tbx5 to produce malformed appendages and display whole-heart rather than atrial-predominant cardiac defects. However, the syndromic deficiencies of tbx5 mutation are remarkably well retained between fish and mammals.

  3. Biallelic mutations in BRCA1 cause a new Fanconi anemia subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Sarah L; Tian, Lei; Kähkönen, Marketta; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Kircher, Martin; Majewski, Jacek; Dyment, David A; Innes, A Micheil; Boycott, Kym M; Moreau, Lisa A; Moilanen, Jukka S; Greenberg, Roger A

    2015-02-01

    Deficiency in BRCA-dependent DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair is intimately connected to breast cancer susceptibility and to the rare developmental syndrome Fanconi anemia. Bona fide Fanconi anemia proteins, BRCA2 (FANCD1), PALB2 (FANCN), and BRIP1 (FANCJ), interact with BRCA1 during ICL repair. However, the lack of detailed phenotypic and cellular characterization of a patient with biallelic BRCA1 mutations has precluded assignment of BRCA1 as a definitive Fanconi anemia susceptibility gene. Here, we report the presence of biallelic BRCA1 mutations in a woman with multiple congenital anomalies consistent with a Fanconi anemia-like disorder and breast cancer at age 23. Patient cells exhibited deficiency in BRCA1 and RAD51 localization to DNA-damage sites, combined with radial chromosome formation and hypersensitivity to ICL-inducing agents. Restoration of these functions was achieved by ectopic introduction of a BRCA1 transgene. These observations provide evidence in support of BRCA1 as a new Fanconi anemia gene (FANCS). We establish that biallelic BRCA1 mutations cause a distinct FA-S, which has implications for risk counselling in families where both parents harbor BRCA1 mutations. The genetic basis of hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes provides diagnostic information, insights into treatment strategies, and more accurate recurrence risk counseling to families. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Mutations in REEP6 Cause Autosomal-Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Gavin; Agrawal, Smriti A; Eblimit, Aiden; Bellingham, James; Xu, Mingchu; Wang, Feng; Chakarova, Christina; Parfitt, David A; Lane, Amelia; Burgoyne, Thomas; Hull, Sarah; Carss, Keren J; Fiorentino, Alessia; Hayes, Matthew J; Munro, Peter M; Nicols, Ralph; Pontikos, Nikolas; Holder, Graham E; Asomugha, Chinwe; Raymond, F Lucy; Moore, Anthony T; Plagnol, Vincent; Michaelides, Michel; Hardcastle, Alison J; Li, Yumei; Cukras, Catherine; Webster, Andrew R; Cheetham, Michael E; Chen, Rui

    2016-12-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most frequent form of inherited retinal dystrophy. RP is genetically heterogeneous and the genes identified to date encode proteins involved in a wide range of functional pathways, including photoreceptor development, phototransduction, the retinoid cycle, cilia, and outer segment development. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in Receptor Expression Enhancer Protein 6 (REEP6) in seven individuals with autosomal-recessive RP from five unrelated families. REEP6 is a member of the REEP/Yop1 family of proteins that influence the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum but is relatively unstudied. The six variants identified include three frameshift variants, two missense variants, and a genomic rearrangement that disrupts exon 1. Human 3D organoid optic cups were used to investigate REEP6 expression and confirmed the expression of a retina-specific isoform REEP6.1, which is specifically affected by one of the frameshift mutations. Expression of the two missense variants (c.383C>T [p.Pro128Leu] and c.404T>C [p.Leu135Pro]) and the REEP6.1 frameshift mutant in cultured cells suggest that these changes destabilize the protein. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing was used to produce Reep6 knock-in mice with the p.Leu135Pro RP-associated variant identified in one RP-affected individual. The homozygous knock-in mice mimic the clinical phenotypes of RP, including progressive photoreceptor degeneration and dysfunction of the rod photoreceptors. Therefore, our study implicates REEP6 in retinal homeostasis and highlights a pathway previously uncharacterized in retinal dystrophy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I in a Chinese family: British C133W mutation exists in the Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongyan; Gao, Yunying; Yao, Sheng; Dong, Mingrui; Headley, Alexander Peter; Yuan, Yun

    2007-10-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN I) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by marked progressive sensory loss, with variable autonomic and motor involvement. The HSAN I locus maps to chromosome 9q22.1-22.3 and is caused by mutations in the gene coding for serine palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 1 (SPTLC1). Sequencing in HSAN I families have previously identified mutations in exons 5, 6 and 13 of this gene. Here we report the clinical, electrophysiological and pathological findings of a proband in a Chinese family with HSAN I. The affected members showed almost typical clinical features. Electrophysiological findings showed an axonal, predominantly sensory, neuropathy with motor and autonomic involvement. Sural nerve biopsy showed loss of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. SPTLC1 mutational analysis revealed the C133W mutation, a mutation common in British HSAN I families.

  6. Mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 Cause Hydrocephalus, Laterality Defects, and Sinusitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungshin Ha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have previously described a forward genetic screen in mice for abnormalities of brain development. Characterization of two hydrocephalus mutants by whole-exome sequencing after whole-genome SNP mapping revealed novel recessive mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48. Mouse mutants of these two genes have not been previously reported. The Dnaaf1 mutant carries a mutation at the splice donor site of exon 4, which results in abnormal transcripts. The Lrrc48 mutation is a missense mutation at a highly conserved leucine residue, which is also associated with a decrease in Lrrc48 transcription. Both Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 belong to a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein family and are components of the ciliary axoneme. Their Chlamydomonas orthologs are known to be required for normal ciliary beat frequency or flagellar waveform, respectively. Some Dnaaf1 or Lrrc48 homozygote mutants displayed laterality defects, suggesting a motile cilia defect in the embryonic node. Mucus accumulation and neutrophil infiltration in the maxillary sinuses suggested sinusitis. Dnaaf1 mutants showed postnatal lethality, and none survived to weaning age. Lrrc48 mutants survive to adulthood, but had male infertility. ARL13B immunostaining showed the presence of motile cilia in the mutants, and the distal distribution of DNAH9 in the axoneme of upper airway motile cilia appeared normal. The phenotypic abnormalities suggest that mutations in Dnaaf1 and Lrrc48 cause defects in motile cilia function.

  7. Exome sequencing in a breast canner family without BRCA mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, amsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hun; Cho, Dae Yeon [LabGenomics Clinical Research Institute, LabGenomics, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    We performed exome sequencing in a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. A family that three sisters have a history of breast cancer was selected for analysis. There were no family members with breast cancer in the previous generation. Genetic testing for BRCA mutation was negative, even by the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. Two sisters with breast cancer were selected as affected members, while the mother of the sisters was a non-affected member. Whole exome sequencing was performed on the HiSeq 2000 platform with paired-end reads of 101 bp in the three members. We identified 19,436, 19,468, and 19,345 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions. Among them, 8,759, 8,789, and 8,772 were non-synonymous SNPs, respectively. After filtering out 12,843 synonymous variations and 12,105 known variations with indels found in the dbSNP135 or 1000 Genomes Project database, we selected 73 variations in the samples from the affected sisters that did not occur in the sample from the unaffected mother. Using the Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), PolyPhen-2, and MutationTaster algorithms to predict amino acid substitutions, the XCR1, DLL1, TH, ACCS, SPPL3, CCNF, and SRL genes were risky among all three algorithms, while definite candidate genes could not be conclusively determined. Using exome sequencing, we found 7 variants for a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. Genetic evidence of disease association should be confirmed by future studies.

  8. Unusual AIP mutation and phenocopy in the family of a young patient with acromegalic gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Syed Ali; Aldahmani, Khaled A; Penney, Lynette; Croul, Sidney E; Clarke, David B; Collier, David M; Iacovazzo, Donato; Korbonits, Márta

    2018-01-01

    Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein ( AIP ) mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. He had typical facial features of acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, secondary hypogonadism and a large macroadenoma. His paternal aunt had a history of acromegaly presenting at the age of 35 years. Following transsphenoidal surgery, his IGF-1 normalized and clinical symptoms improved. He was found to have a novel AIP mutation destroying the stop codon c.991T>C; p.*331R. Unexpectedly, his father and paternal aunt were negative for this mutation while his mother and older sister were unaffected carriers, suggesting that his aunt represents a phenocopy. Typical presentation for a patient with AIP mutation with excess growth and eunuchoid proportions.Unusual, previously not described AIP variant with loss of the stop codon.Phenocopy may occur in families with a disease-causing germline mutation.

  9. A novel nonsense mutation in the NDP gene in a Chinese family with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Deyuan; Hu, Zhengmao; Peng, Yu; Yu, Changhong; Liu, Yalan; Mo, Xiaoyun; Li, Xiaoping; Lu, Lina; Xu, Xiaojuan; Su, Wei; Pan, Qian; Xia, Kun

    2010-12-08

    Norrie disease (ND), a rare X-linked recessive disorder, is characterized by congenital blindness and, occasionally, mental retardation and hearing loss. ND is caused by the Norrie Disease Protein gene (NDP), which codes for norrin, a cysteine-rich protein involved in ocular vascular development. Here, we report a novel mutation of NDP that was identified in a Chinese family in which three members displayed typical ND symptoms and other complex phenotypes, such as cerebellar atrophy, motor disorders, and mental disorders. We conducted an extensive clinical examination of the proband and performed a computed tomography (CT) scan of his brain. Additionally, we performed ophthalmic examinations, haplotype analyses, and NDP DNA sequencing for 26 individuals from the proband's extended family. The proband's computed tomography scan, in which the fifth ventricle could be observed, indicated cerebellar atrophy. Genome scans and haplotype analyses traced the disease to chromosome Xp21.1-p11.22. Mutation screening of the NDP gene identified a novel nonsense mutation, c.343C>T, in this region. Although recent research has shown that multiple different mutations can be responsible for the ND phenotype, additional research is needed to understand the mechanism responsible for the diverse phenotypes caused by mutations in the NDP gene.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA mutation load in a family with the m.8344A>G point mutation and lipomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Al-Hashimi, Noor; Duno, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that difference in mtDNA mutation load among tissues is a result of postnatal modification. We present five family members with the m.8344A>G with variable phenotypes but uniform intrapersonal distribution of mutation load, indicating that there is no postnatal modification of mt......DNA mutation load in this genotype....

  11. CCDC103 mutations cause primary ciliary dyskinesia by disrupting assembly of ciliary dynein arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Becker-Heck, Anita; Castleman, Victoria H.; Al-Mutairi, Dalal; Liu, Yan; Loges, Niki T.; Pathak, Narendra; Austin-Tse, Christina; Sheridan, Eamonn; Schmidts, Miriam; Olbrich, Heike; Werner, Claudius; Häffner, Karsten; Hellman, Nathan; Chodhari, Rahul; Gupta, Amar; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Olale, Felix; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Schier, Alexander F.; O’Callaghan, Christopher; Chung, Eddie MK; Reinhardt, Richard; Mitchison, Hannah M.; King, Stephen M.; Omran, Heymut; Drummond, Iain A.

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are essential for fertilization, respiratory clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and to establish laterality1. Cilia motility defects cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, MIM 242650), a disorder affecting 1:15-30,000 births. Cilia motility requires the assembly of multisubunit dynein arms that drive cilia bending2. Despite progress in understanding the genetic basis of PCD, mutations remain to be identified for several PCD linked loci3. Here we show that the zebrafish cilia paralysis mutant schmalhanstn222 (smh) mutant encodes the coiled-coil domain containing 103 protein (Ccdc103), a foxj1a regulated gene. Screening 146 unrelated PCD families identified patients in six families with reduced outer dynein arms, carrying mutations in CCDC103. Dynein arm assembly in smh mutant zebrafish was rescued by wild-type but not mutant human CCDC103. Chlamydomonas Ccdc103 functions as a tightly bound, axoneme-associated protein. The results identify Ccdc103 as a novel dynein arm attachment factor that when mutated causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. PMID:22581229

  12. Waardenburg syndrome type 4: report of two new cases caused by SOX10 mutations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Raquel M; Núñez-Ramos, Raquel; Enguix-Riego, M Valle; Román-Rodríguez, Francisco José; Galán-Gómez, Enrique; Blesa-Sánchez, Emilio; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Núñez-Núñez, Ramón; Borrego, Salud

    2014-02-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a neurocristopathy characterized by the association of deafness, depigmentation and Hirschsprung disease. Three disease-causing genes have been identified so far for WS4: EDNRB, EDN3, and SOX10. SOX10 mutations, found in 45-55% of WS4 patients, are inherited in autosomal dominant way. In addition, mutations in SOX10 are also responsible for an extended syndrome involving peripheral and central neurological phenotypes, referred to as PCWH (peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leucodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, Hirschsprung disease). Such mutations are mostly private, and a high intra- and inter-familial variability exists. In this report, we present a patient with WS4 and a second with PCWH due to SOX10 mutations supporting again the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of these syndromes. Interestingly, the WS4 family carries an insertion of 19 nucleotides in exon 5 of SOX10, which results in distinct phenotypes along three different generations: hypopigmentation in the maternal grandmother, hearing loss in the mother, and WS4 in the proband. Since mosaicism cannot explain the three different related-WS features observed in this family, we propose as the most plausible explanation the existence of additional molecular events, acting in an additive or multiplicative fashion, in genes or regulatory regions unidentified so far. On the other hand, the PCWH case was due to a de novo deletion in exon 5 of the gene. Efforts should be devoted to unravel the mechanisms underlying the intrafamilial phenotypic variability observed in the families affected, and to identify new genes responsible for the still unsolved WS4 cases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Causes of Cancer Death Among First-Degree Relatives in Japanese Families with Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanakaya, Kohji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Ishikawa, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Furukawa, Yoichi; Hirata, Keiji; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Arai, Masami; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Sugano, Kokichi; Ishioka, Chikashi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Ishida, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2016-04-01

    To elucidate the causes of cancer death in Japanese families with Lynch syndrome (LS). The distributions of cancer deaths in 485 individuals from 67 families with LS (35, 30, and two families with MutL homologue 1 (MLH1), MSH2, and MSH6 gene mutations, respectively), obtained from the Registry of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum were analyzed. Among 98 cancer deaths of first-degree relatives of unknown mutation status, 53%, 19%, 13% (among females), 7% (among females) and 5% were due to colorectal, gastric, uterine, ovarian, and hepatobiliary cancer, respectively. The proportion of deaths from extra-colonic cancer was significantly higher in families with MSH2 mutation than in those with MLH1 mutation (p=0.003). In addition to colonic and uterine cancer, management and surveillance targeting gastric, ovarian and hepatobiliary cancer are considered important for Japanese families with LS. Extra-colonic cancer in families with MSH2 mutation might require for more intensive surveillance. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. A mutation in the Norrie disease gene (NDP) associated with X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Y; Battinelli, E M; Fielder, A; Bundey, S; Sims, K; Breakefield, X O; Craig, I W

    1993-10-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disorder characterized by an abnormality of the peripheral retina. Both autosomal dominant (adFEVR) and X-linked (XLFEVR) forms have been described, but the biochemical defect(s) underlying the symptoms are unknown. Molecular analysis of the Norrie gene locus (NDP) in a four generation FEVR family (shown previously to exhibit linkage to the X-chromosome markers DXS228 and MAOA (Xp11.4-p11.3)) reveals a missense mutation in the highly conserved region of the NDP gene, which caused a neutral amino acid substitution (Leu124Phe), was detected in all of the affected males, but not in the unaffected family members, nor in normal controls. The observations suggest that phenotypes of both XLFEVR and Norrie disease can result from mutations in the same gene.

  15. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis identifies novel mutations in families with severe familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Hong; Wu, Ji-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang; Hu, Fang-Yuan; Zheng, Yu; Tellier, Laurent Christian Asker M.; Zhang, Sheng-Hai; Gao, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, characterized by failure of vascular development of the peripheral retina. The symptoms of FEVR vary widely among patients in the same family, and even between the two eyes of a given patient. This study was designed to identify the genetic defect in a patient cohort of ten Chinese families with a definitive diagnosis of FEVR. Methods To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members by using Sanger sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Results Of the cohort of ten FEVR families, six pathogenic variants were identified, including four novel and two known heterozygous mutations. Of the variants identified, four were missense variants, and two were novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del]. The two novel heterozygous deletion mutations were not observed in the control subjects and could give rise to a relatively severe FEVR phenotype, which could be explained by the protein function prediction. Conclusions We identified two novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del] using targeted NGS as a causative mutation for FEVR. These genetic deletion variations exhibit a severe form of FEVR, with tractional retinal detachments compared with other known point mutations. The data further enrich the mutation spectrum of FEVR and enhance our understanding of genotype–phenotype correlations to provide useful information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and effective genetic counseling. PMID:28867931

  16. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A in a Chinese family with Usher syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Ying; Li, Weirong; Wong, Fulton; Du, Rong; Wang, Lei; Li, Chang; Jiang, Fagang; Tang, Zhaohui; Liu, Mugen

    2013-01-01

    To identify the disease-causing mutation(s) in a Chinese family with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). An ophthalmic examination and an audiometric test were conducted to ascertain the phenotype of two affected siblings. The microsatellite marker D11S937, which is close to the candidate gene MYO7A (USH1B locus), was selected for genotyping. From the DNA of the proband, all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of MYO7A were sequenced to identify the disease-causing mutation(s). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to exclude the alternative conclusion that the mutations are non-pathogenic rare polymorphisms. Based on severe hearing impairment, unintelligible speech, and retinitis pigmentosa, a clinical diagnosis of Usher syndrome type 1 was made. The genotyping results did not exclude the USH1B locus, which suggested that the MYO7A gene was likely the gene associated with the disease-causing mutation(s) in the family. With direct DNA sequencing of MYO7A, two novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.3742G>A and c.6051+1G>A) of MYO7A were identified in the proband. DNA sequence analysis and RFLP analysis of other family members showed that the mutations cosegregated with the disease. Unaffected members, including the parents, uncle, and sister of the proband, carry only one of the two mutations. The mutations were not present in the controls (100 normal Chinese subjects=200 chromosomes) according to the RFLP analysis. In this study, we identified two novel mutations, c.3742G>A (p.E1248K) and c.6051+1G>A (donor splice site mutation in intron 44), of MYO7A in a Chinese non-consanguineous family with USH1. The mutations cosegregated with the disease and most likely cause the phenotype in the two affected siblings who carry these mutations compound heterozygously. Our finding expands the mutational spectrum of MYO7A.

  17. Exome Sequencing Identified a Recessive RDH12 Mutation in a Family with Severe Early-Onset Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is the most important hereditary retinal disease caused by progressive degeneration of the photoreceptor cells. This study is to identify gene mutations responsible for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP in a Chinese family using next-generation sequencing technology. A Chinese family with 7 members including two individuals affected with severe early-onset RP was studied. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Exome sequencing was performed on a single RP patient (the proband of this family and direct Sanger sequencing on other family members and normal controls was followed to confirm the causal mutations. A homozygous mutation c.437Tfamily. This homozygous mutation was detected in the two affected patients, but not present in other family members and 600 normal controls. Another three normal members in the family were found to carry this heterozygous missense mutation. Our results emphasize the importance of c.437Tmutation in the pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis of RP.

  18. The bioenergetic status relates to dopamine neuron loss in familial PD with PINK1 mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüediger Hilker

    Full Text Available Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD. The gene encodes a mitochondrial protein kinase that plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function and integrity. However, the pathophysiological link between mutation-related bioenergetic deficits and the degenerative process in dopaminergic neurons remains to be elucidated. We performed phosphorous ((31P and proton ((1H 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI in 11 members of a German family with hereditary PD due to PINK1 mutations (PARK6 compared to 23 age-matched controls. All family members had prior 18-Fluorodopa (FDOPA positron emission tomography (PET. The striatal FDOPA uptake was correlated with quantified metabolic brain mapping in MRSI. At group level, the heterozygous PINK1 mutation carriers did not show any MRSI abnormalities relative to controls. In contrast, homozygous individuals with manifest PD had putaminal GPC, PCr, HEP and β-ATP levels well above the 2SD range of controls. Across all subjects, the FDOPA K(i values correlated positively with MI (r = 0.879, p<0.001 and inversely with β-ATP (r = -0.784, p = 0.008 and GPC concentrations (r = -0.651, p = 0.030 in the putamen. Our combined imaging data suggest that the dopaminergic deficit in this family with PD due to PINK1 mutations relates to osmolyte dysregulation, while the delivery of high energy phosphates was preserved. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that PINK1 mutations result in reduced neuronal survival, most likely due to impaired cellular stress resistance.

  19. Amelogenesis Imperfecta: 1 Family, 2 Phenotypes, and 2 Mutated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M K; Laouina, S; El Alloussi, M; Dollfus, H; Bloch-Zupan, A

    2016-12-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by enamel defects. The authors have identified a large consanguineous Moroccan family segregating different clinical subtypes of hypoplastic and hypomineralized AI in different individuals within the family. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, the authors identified a novel heterozygous nonsense mutation in COL17A1 (c.1873C>T, p.R625*) segregating with hypoplastic AI and a novel homozygous 8-bp deletion in C4orf26 (c.39_46del, p.Cys14Glyfs*18) segregating with hypomineralized-hypoplastic AI in this family. This study highlights the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity of AI that can exist even within a single consanguineous family. Furthermore, the identification of novel mutations in COL17A1 and C4orf26 and their correlation with distinct AI phenotypes can contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of AI and the contribution of these genes to amelogenesis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  20. A novel nonsense mutation in the NDP gene in a Chinese family with Norrie disease

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Deyuan; Hu, Zhengmao; Peng, Yu; Yu, Changhong; Liu, Yalan; Mo, Xiaoyun; Li, Xiaoping; Lu, Lina; Xu, Xiaojuan; Su, Wei; Pan, Qian; Xia, Kun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Norrie disease (ND), a rare X-linked recessive disorder, is characterized by congenital blindness and, occasionally, mental retardation and hearing loss. ND is caused by the Norrie Disease Protein gene (NDP), which codes for norrin, a cysteine-rich protein involved in ocular vascular development. Here, we report a novel mutation of NDP that was identified in a Chinese family in which three members displayed typical ND symptoms and other complex phenotypes, such as cerebellar atrophy, ...

  1. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A gene associated with autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yalin; Xiao, Yun; Zhang, Fengguo; Han, Yuechen; Li, Jianfeng; Xu, Lei; Bai, Xiaohui; Wang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in MYO7A gene have been reported to be associated with Usher Syndrome type 1B (USH1B) and nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB2, DFNA11). Most mutations in MYO7A gene caused USH1B, whereas only a few reported mutations led to DFNB2 and DFNA11. The current study was designed to investigate the mutations among a Chinese family with autosomal recessive hearing loss. In this study, we present the clinical, genetic and molecular characteristics of a Chinese family. Targeted capture of 127 known deafness genes and next-generation sequencing were employed to study the genetic causes of two siblings in the Chinese family. Sanger sequencing was employed to examine those variant mutations in the members of this family and other ethnicity-matched controls. We identified the novel compound heterozygous mutant alleles of MYO7A gene: a novel missense mutation c.3671C>A (p.A1224D) and a reported insert mutation c.390_391insC (p.P131PfsX9). Variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. These two compound heterozygous variants were co-segregated with autosomal recessive hearing loss phenotype. The gene mutation analysis and protein sequence alignment further supported that the novel compound heterozygous mutations were pathogenic. The novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.3671C>A and c.390_391insC) in MYO7A gene identified in this study were responsible for the autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss of this Chinese family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly prevalent LIPH founder mutations causing autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis in Japan and the genotype/phenotype correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Tanahashi

    Full Text Available Mutations in LIPH cause of autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis (ARWH, and the 2 missense mutations c.736T>A (p.Cys246Ser and c.742C>A (p.His248Asn are considered prevalent founder mutations for ARWH in the Japanese population. To reveal genotype/phenotype correlations in ARWH cases in Japan and the haplotypes in 14 Japanese patients from 14 unrelated Japanese families. 13 patients had woolly hair, and 1 patient had complete baldness since birth. An LIPH mutation search revealed homozygous c.736T>A mutations in 10 of the patients. Compound heterozygous c.736T>A and c.742C>A mutations were found in 3 of the patients, and homozygous c.742C>A mutation in 1 patient. The phenotype of mild hypotrichosis with woolly hair was restricted to the patients with the homozygous c.736T>A mutation. The severe phenotype of complete baldness was seen in only 1 patient with homozygous c.742C>A. Haplotype analysis revealed that the alleles containing the LIPH c.736T>A mutation had a haplotype identical to that reported previously, although 4 alleles out of 5 chromosomes containing the LIPH c.742C>A mutation had a different haplotype from the previously reported founder allele. These alleles with c.742C>A are thought to be the third founder LIPH mutation causing ARWH. To accurately determine the prevalence of the founder mutations, we investigated allele frequencies of those mutations in 819 Japanese controls. Heterozygous c.736T>A mutations were found in 13 controls (allele frequency: 0.0079; carrier rate: 0.016, and heterozygous c.742C>A mutations were found in 2 controls (allele frequency: 0.0012; carrier rate: 0.0024. In conclusion, this study confirms the more accurate allele frequencies of the pathogenic founder mutations of LIPH and shows that there is a third founder mutation in Japan. In addition, the present findings suggest that the mutation patterns of LIPH might be associated with hypotrichosis severity in ARWH.

  3. Short-Rib Polydactyly and Jeune Syndromes Are Caused by Mutations in WDR60

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney-Leo, Aideen M.; Schmidts, Miriam; Cortés, Claudio R.; Leo, Paul J.; Gener, Blanca; Courtney, Andrew D.; Gardiner, Brooke; Harris, Jessica A.; Lu, Yeping; Marshall, Mhairi; Scambler, Peter J.; Beales, Philip L.; Brown, Matthew A.; Zankl, Andreas; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Duncan, Emma L.; Wicking, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS I–V) are a group of lethal congenital disorders characterized by shortening of the ribs and long bones, polydactyly, and a range of extraskeletal phenotypes. A number of other disorders in this grouping, including Jeune and Ellis-van Creveld syndromes, have an overlapping but generally milder phenotype. Collectively, these short-rib dysplasias (with or without polydactyly) share a common underlying defect in primary cilium function and form a subset of the ciliopathy disease spectrum. By using whole-exome capture and massive parallel sequencing of DNA from an affected Australian individual with SRPS type III, we detected two novel heterozygous mutations in WDR60, a relatively uncharacterized gene. These mutations segregated appropriately in the unaffected parents and another affected family member, confirming compound heterozygosity, and both were predicted to have a damaging effect on the protein. Analysis of an additional 54 skeletal ciliopathy exomes identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR60 in a Spanish individual with Jeune syndrome of relatively mild presentation. Of note, these two families share one novel WDR60 missense mutation, although haplotype analysis suggested no shared ancestry. We further show that WDR60 localizes at the base of the primary cilium in wild-type human chondrocytes, and analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed a defect in ciliogenesis and aberrant accumulation of the GLI2 transcription factor at the centrosome or basal body in the absence of an obvious axoneme. These findings show that WDR60 mutations can cause skeletal ciliopathies and suggest a role for WDR60 in ciliogenesis. PMID:23910462

  4. Short-rib polydactyly and Jeune syndromes are caused by mutations in WDR60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney-Leo, Aideen M; Schmidts, Miriam; Cortés, Claudio R; Leo, Paul J; Gener, Blanca; Courtney, Andrew D; Gardiner, Brooke; Harris, Jessica A; Lu, Yeping; Marshall, Mhairi; Scambler, Peter J; Beales, Philip L; Brown, Matthew A; Zankl, Andreas; Mitchison, Hannah M; Duncan, Emma L; Wicking, Carol

    2013-09-05

    Short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS I-V) are a group of lethal congenital disorders characterized by shortening of the ribs and long bones, polydactyly, and a range of extraskeletal phenotypes. A number of other disorders in this grouping, including Jeune and Ellis-van Creveld syndromes, have an overlapping but generally milder phenotype. Collectively, these short-rib dysplasias (with or without polydactyly) share a common underlying defect in primary cilium function and form a subset of the ciliopathy disease spectrum. By using whole-exome capture and massive parallel sequencing of DNA from an affected Australian individual with SRPS type III, we detected two novel heterozygous mutations in WDR60, a relatively uncharacterized gene. These mutations segregated appropriately in the unaffected parents and another affected family member, confirming compound heterozygosity, and both were predicted to have a damaging effect on the protein. Analysis of an additional 54 skeletal ciliopathy exomes identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR60 in a Spanish individual with Jeune syndrome of relatively mild presentation. Of note, these two families share one novel WDR60 missense mutation, although haplotype analysis suggested no shared ancestry. We further show that WDR60 localizes at the base of the primary cilium in wild-type human chondrocytes, and analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed a defect in ciliogenesis and aberrant accumulation of the GLI2 transcription factor at the centrosome or basal body in the absence of an obvious axoneme. These findings show that WDR60 mutations can cause skeletal ciliopathies and suggest a role for WDR60 in ciliogenesis. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutations of CDKL5 Cause a Severe Neurodevelopmental Disorder with Infantile Spasms and Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Linda S.; Christodoulou, John; Williamson, Sarah L.; Friend, Kathie L.; McKenzie, Olivia L. D.; Archer, Hayley; Evans, Julie; Clarke, Angus; Pelka, Gregory J.; Tam, Patrick P. L.; Watson, Catherine; Lahooti, Hooshang; Ellaway, Carolyn J.; Bennetts, Bruce; Leonard, Helen; Gécz, Jozef

    2004-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused, in most classic cases, by mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2). A large degree of phenotypic variation has been observed in patients with RTT, both those with and without MECP2 mutations. We describe a family consisting of a proband with a phenotype that showed considerable overlap with that of RTT, her identical twin sister with autistic disorder and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and a brother with profound intellectual disability and seizures. No pathogenic MECP2 mutations were found in this family, and the Xq28 region that contains the MECP2 gene was not shared by the affected siblings. Three other candidate regions were identified by microsatellite mapping, including 10.3 Mb at Xp22.31-pter between Xpter and DXS1135, 19.7 Mb at Xp22.12-p22.11 between DXS1135 and DXS1214, and 16.4 Mb at Xq21.33 between DXS1196 and DXS1191. The ARX and CDKL5 genes, both of which are located within the Xp22 region, were sequenced in the affected family members, and a deletion of nucleotide 183 of the coding sequence (c.183delT) was identified in CDKL5 in the affected family members. In a screen of 44 RTT cases, a single splice-site mutation, IVS13-1G→A, was identified in a girl with a severe phenotype overlapping RTT. In the mouse brain, Cdkl5 expression overlaps—but is not identical to—that of Mecp2, and its expression is unaffected by the loss of Mecp2. These findings confirm CDKL5 as another locus associated with epilepsy and X-linked mental retardation. These results also suggest that mutations in CDKL5 can lead to a clinical phenotype that overlaps RTT. However, it remains to be determined whether CDKL5 mutations are more prevalent in specific clinical subgroups of RTT or in other clinical presentations. PMID:15492925

  6. A novel AVP gene mutation in a Turkish family with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, M; Tiryakioglu, N O; Karaman, O; Coskunpinar, E; Yildiz, R S; Turgut, S; Tiryakioglu, D; Toprak, H; Tasan, E

    2016-03-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare, autosomal dominant, inherited disorder which is characterized by severe polydipsia and polyuria generally presenting in early childhood. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the AVP gene in a Turkish family with FNDI. Four patients with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus and ten healthy members of the family were studied. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed by the water deprivation test in affected family members. Mutation analysis was performed by sequencing the whole coding region of AVP-NPII gene using DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples. Urine osmolality was low (C in all patients. c.-3A>C mutation in 5'UTR of AVP gene in this family might lead to the truncation of signal peptide, aggregation of AVP in the cytoplasm instead of targeting in the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby could disrupt AVP secretion without causing neuronal cytotoxicity, which might explain the presence of bright spot. The predicted effect of this mutation should be investigated by further in vitro molecular studies.

  7. Mutations in EXTL3 Cause Neuro-immuno-skeletal Dysplasia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Machteld M; Tuijnenburg, Paul; Hempel, Maja; van Vlies, Naomi; Ren, Zemin; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jansen, Machiel H; Santer, René; Johannsen, Jessika; Bacchelli, Chiara; Alders, Marielle; Li, Rui; Davies, Rosalind; Dupuis, Lucie; Cale, Catherine M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Pals, Steven T; Ocaka, Louise; James, Chela; Müller, Ingo; Lehmberg, Kai; Strom, Tim; Engels, Hartmut; Williams, Hywel J; Beales, Phil; Roepman, Ronald; Dias, Patricia; Brunner, Han G; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Hall, Christine; Hartley, Taila; Le Quesne Stabej, Polona; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Davies, E Graham; de Sousa, Sérgio B; Lessel, Davor; Arts, Heleen H; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2017-02-02

    EXTL3 regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), important for both skeletal development and hematopoiesis, through the formation of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). By whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous missense mutations c.1382C>T, c.1537C>T, c.1970A>G, and c.2008T>G in EXTL3 in nine affected individuals from five unrelated families. Notably, we found the identical homozygous missense mutation c.1382C>T (p.Pro461Leu) in four affected individuals from two unrelated families. Affected individuals presented with variable skeletal abnormalities and neurodevelopmental defects. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with a complete absence of T cells was observed in three families. EXTL3 was most abundant in hematopoietic stem cells and early progenitor T cells, which is in line with a SCID phenotype at the level of early T cell development in the thymus. To provide further support for the hypothesis that mutations in EXTL3 cause a neuro-immuno-skeletal dysplasia syndrome, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder, we analyzed the localization of EXTL3 in fibroblasts derived from affected individuals and determined glycosaminoglycan concentrations in these cells as well as in urine and blood. We observed abnormal glycosaminoglycan concentrations and increased concentrations of the non-sulfated chondroitin disaccharide D0a0 and the disaccharide D0a4 in serum and urine of all analyzed affected individuals. In summary, we show that biallelic mutations in EXTL3 disturb glycosaminoglycan synthesis and thus lead to a recognizable syndrome characterized by variable expression of skeletal, neurological, and immunological abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel c.240_241insGG mutation in NDP gene in a family with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarva, Monavvar; Jamshidi, Javad; Ghaedi, Hamid; Daftarian, Narsis; Emamalizadeh, Babak; Alehabib, Elham; Taghavi, Shaghyegh; Pouriran, Ramin; Darvish, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare, X-linked recessive disorder with the main characteristic of early childhood blindness. The aim of the present study was to identify the genetic cause of the disease and the phenotypic characteristics of the patients in an Iranian family with four affected males with ND. Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene was sequenced and clinical examination was performed on patients. A GG dinucleotide insertion in exon 3 (c.240_241insGG) of NDP was detected in all patients. The mutation caused a frameshift and an early stop codon (p.Phe81Glyfs*23). A novel mutation was found in the NDP gene in the affected males of the family. As the mutation was absent in the normal male members of the family, it should be the genetic cause of the disease. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  9. A family of oculofaciocardiodental syndrome (OFCD) with a novel BCOR mutation and genomic rearrangements involving NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yukiko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Ryoo, Na-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-03-01

    Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome (OFCD) is an X-linked dominant disorder associated with male lethality, presenting with congenital cataract, dysmorphic face, dental abnormalities and septal heart defects. Mutations in BCOR (encoding BCL-6-interacting corepressor) cause OFCD. Here, we report on a Korean family with common features of OFCD including bilateral 2nd-3rd toe syndactyly and septal heart defects in three affected females (mother and two daughters). Through the mutation screening and copy number analysis using genomic microarray, we identified a novel heterozygous mutation, c.888delG, in the BCOR gene and two interstitial microduplications at Xp22.2-22.13 and Xp21.3 in all the three affected females. The BCOR mutation may lead to a premature stop codon (p.N297IfsX80). The duplication at Xp22.2-22.13 involved the NHS gene causative for Nance-Horan syndrome, which is an X-linked disorder showing similar clinical features with OFCD in affected males, and in carrier females with milder presentation. Considering the presence of bilateral 2nd-3rd toe syndactyly and septal heart defects, which is unique to OFCD, the mutation in BCOR is likely to be the major determinant for the phenotypes in this family.

  10. EDA mutation as a cause of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S X; Liang, J L; Sui, W G; Lin, H; Xue, W; Chen, J J; Zhang, Y; Gong, W W; Dai, Y; Ou, M L

    2015-08-28

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) represents a collection of rare disorders that result from a failure of development of the tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. ED is often associated with hair, teeth, and skin abnormalities, which are serious conditions affecting the quality of life of the patient. To date, a large number of genes have been found to be associated with this syndrome. Here, we report a patient with hypohidrotic ED (HED) without family history. We identified that this patient's disorder arises from an X-linked HED with a mutation in the EDA gene (G299D) found by whole-exome sequencing. In addition, in this paper we summarize the disease-causing mutations based on current literature. Overall, recent clinical and genetic research involving patients with HED have uncovered a large number of pathogenic mutations in EDA, which might contribute to a full understanding of the function of EDA and the underlying mechanisms of HED caused by EDA mutations.

  11. Treatable childhood neuronopathy caused by mutations in riboflavin transporter RFVT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A. Reghan; Menezes, Manoj P.; Pandraud, Amelie; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Al-Odaib, Ahmad; Abrams, Alexander J.; Sugano, Kumiko; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Manzur, Adnan Y.; Burns, Joshua; Hughes, Imelda; McCullagh, B. Gary; Jungbluth, Heinz; Lim, Ming J.; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J. Andoni; Shah, Ayaz H.; Antony, Jayne; Webster, Richard; Broomfield, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Mathew, Ann A.; O’Byrne, James J.; Forman, Eva; Scoto, Mariacristina; Prasad, Manish; O’Brien, Katherine; Olpin, Simon; Oppenheim, Marcus; Hargreaves, Iain; Land, John M.; Wang, Min X.; Carpenter, Kevin; Horvath, Rita; Straub, Volker; Lek, Monkol; Gold, Wendy; Farrell, Michael O.; Brandner, Sebastian; Phadke, Rahul; Matsubara, Kazuo; McGarvey, Michael L.; Scherer, Steven S.; Baxter, Peter S.; King, Mary D.; Clayton, Peter; Rahman, Shamima; Reilly, Mary M.; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Christodoulou, John; Züchner, Stephan; Muntoni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Childhood onset motor neuron diseases or neuronopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. A particularly severe subgroup first described in 1894, and subsequently called Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, is characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensorineural hearing loss and respiratory insufficiency. There has been no treatment for this progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to respiratory failure and usually death during childhood. We recently reported the identification of SLC52A2, encoding riboflavin transporter RFVT2, as a new causative gene for Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. We used both exome and Sanger sequencing to identify SLC52A2 mutations in patients presenting with cranial neuropathies and sensorimotor neuropathy with or without respiratory insufficiency. We undertook clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characterization of patients with mutations in SLC52A2, functionally analysed the most prevalent mutations and initiated a regimen of high-dose oral riboflavin. We identified 18 patients from 13 families with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SLC52A2. Affected individuals share a core phenotype of rapidly progressive axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (manifesting with sensory ataxia, severe weakness of the upper limbs and axial muscles with distinctly preserved strength of the lower limbs), hearing loss, optic atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. We demonstrate that SLC52A2 mutations cause reduced riboflavin uptake and reduced riboflavin transporter protein expression, and we report the response to high-dose oral riboflavin therapy in patients with SLC52A2 mutations, including significant and sustained clinical and biochemical improvements in two patients and preliminary clinical response data in 13 patients with associated biochemical improvements in 10 patients. The clinical and biochemical responses of this SLC52A2-specific cohort suggest that riboflavin supplementation can

  12. Confirmation of mutations in PROSC as a novel cause of vitamin B 6 -dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecko, Barbara; Zweier, Markus; Begemann, Anaïs; Mathis, Deborah; Schmitt, Bernhard; Striano, Pasquale; Baethmann, Martina; Vari, Maria Stella; Beccaria, Francesca; Zara, Federico; Crowther, Lisa M; Joset, Pascal; Sticht, Heinrich; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Rauch, Anita

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsies are a heterogenous group of treatable disorders due to mutations in several genes ( ALDH7A1, PNPO, ALPL or ALDH4A1 ). In neonatal seizures, defects in ALDH7A1 and PNPO explain a major fraction of cases. Very recently biallelic mutations in PROSC were shown to be a novel cause in five families. We identified four further unrelated patients harbouring a total of six different mutations, including four novel disease mutations. Vitamin B 6 plasma profiles on pyridoxine did not enable the differentiation of patients with PROSC mutations. All four patients were normocephalic and had normal cranial imaging. Pyridoxine monotherapy allowed complete seizure control in one, while two patients had occasional febrile or afebrile seizures and one needed additional valproate therapy for photosensitive seizures. Two patients underwent a controlled pyridoxine withdrawal with signs of encephalopathy within a couple of days. Three had favourable outcome with normal intellectual properties at age 12.5, 15.5 and 30 years, respectively, while one child had marked developmental delay at age 27 months. The clinical and electroencephalographic phenotype in patients with PROSC mutations was indistinguishable from ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiency. We therefore confirm PROSC as a novel gene for vitamin-B 6 -dependent epilepsy and delineate a non-specific plasma vitamin B 6 profile under pyridoxine treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Mutation K42E in dehydrodolichol diphosphate synthase (DHDDS) causes recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Byron L; Züchner, Stephan L; Dallman, Julia; Wen, Rong; Alfonso, Eduardo C; Vance, Jeffery M; Peričak-Vance, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    A single-nucleotide mutation in the gene that encodes DHDDS has been identified by whole exome sequencing as the cause of the non-syndromic recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in a family of Ashkenazi Jewish origin in which three of the four siblings have early onset retinal degeneration. The peripheral retinal degeneration in the affected siblings was evident in the initial examination in 1992 and only one had detectable electroretinogram (ERG) that suggested cone-rod dysfunction. The pigmentary retinal degeneration subsequently progressed rapidly. The identified mutation changes the highly conserved residue Lys42 to Glu, resulting in lower catalytic efficiency. Patterns of plasma transferrin isoelectric focusing gel were normal in all family members, indicating no significant abnormality in protein glycosylation. Dolichols have been shown to influence the fluidity and of the membrane and promote vesicle fusion. Considering that photoreceptor outer segments contain stacks of membrane discs, we believe that the mutation may lead to low dolichol levels in photoreceptor outer segments, resulting in unstable membrane structure that leads to photoreceptor degeneration.

  14. A Mayan founder mutation is a common cause of deafness in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, C; Menendez, I; Herrera, M; Castellanos, P; Amado, C; Maldonado, F; Rosales, L; Escobar, N; Guerra, M; Alvarez, D; Foster, J; Guo, S; Blanton, S H; Bademci, G; Tekin, M

    2015-09-08

    Over 5% of the world's population has varying degrees of hearing loss. Mutations in GJB2 are the most common cause of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNHL) in many populations. The frequency and type of mutations are influenced by ethnicity. Guatemala is a multi-ethnic country with four major populations: Maya, Ladino, Xinca, and Garifuna. To determine the mutation profile of GJB2 in a ARNHL population from Guatemala, we sequenced both exons of GJB2 in 133 unrelated families. A total of six pathogenic variants were detected. The most frequent pathogenic variant is c.131G>A (p.Trp44*) detected in 21 of 266 alleles. We show that c.131G>A is associated with a conserved haplotype in Guatemala suggesting a single founder. The majority of Mayan population lives in the west region of the country from where all c.131G>A carriers originated. Further analysis of genome-wide variation of individuals carrying the c.131G>A mutation compared with those of Native American, European, and African populations shows a close match with the Mayan population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nephrocalcinosis in Amelogenesis Imperfecta Caused by the FAM20A Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruyucu, Mine; Seymen, Figen; Gencay, Genco; Gencay, Koray; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Shin, Teo Jeon; Hyun, Hong-Keun; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Jung-Wook

    2018-01-01

    Enamel-renal syndrome is characterized by nephrocalcinosis, enamel defects, gingival hyperplasia and eruption failures. It has been recently identified that recessive mutations in the FAM20A gene result in amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-gingival fibromatosis. The aim of this research to determine whether AI patients with known -FAM20A mutations also have nephrocalcinosis. Complete oral and radiological examinations were performed for all participating family members. Renal examinations were performed using ultrasound. The teeth were evaluated for severe loss, and multiple eruption failures were evident from the clinical and radiological examinations. Unexpected extensive and fast crown resorption was found by radiological examination. Renal ultrasound revealed bilateral nephrocalcinosis in both affected individuals. Recessive FAM20A mutations can cause nephrocalcinosis in addition to the oral phenotype. AI patients with similar clinical phenotypes and FAM20A mutations should be examined for nephropathy even if they lack pertinent symptoms. Nephrology referral is warranted for patients who have clinical phenotypes related to AI-gingival fibromatosis even if they are not symptomatic. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Mutations in the VNTR of the carboxyl-ester lipase gene (CEL) are a rare cause of monogenic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsvik, Janniche; Johansson, Stefan; Johansen, Anders; Ek, Jakob; Minton, Jayne; Raeder, Helge; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Molven, Anders; Njølstad, Pål R

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that heterozygous single-base deletions in the carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene cause exocrine and endocrine pancreatic dysfunction in two multigenerational families. These deletions were found in the first and fourth repeats of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), which has proven challenging to sequence due to high GC-content and considerable length variation. We have therefore developed a screening method consisting of a multiplex PCR followed by fragment analysis. The method detected putative disease-causing insertions and deletions in the proximal repeats of the VNTR, and determined the VNTR-length of each allele. When blindly testing 56 members of the two families with known single-base deletions in the CEL VNTR, the method correctly assessed the mutation carriers. Screening of 241 probands from suspected maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) families negative for mutations in known MODY genes (95 individuals from Denmark and 146 individuals from UK) revealed no deletions in the proximal repeats of the CEL VNTR. However, we found one Danish patient with a short, novel CEL allele containing only three VNTR repeats (normal range 7-23 in healthy controls). This allele co-segregated with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in the patient's family as six of seven mutation carriers were affected. We also identified individuals who had three copies of a complete CEL VNTR. In conclusion, the CEL gene is highly polymorphic, but mutations in CEL are likely to be a rare cause of monogenic diabetes.

  17. Functional characterization of a CRH missense mutation identified in an ADNFLE family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sansoni

    Full Text Available Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy has been historically considered a channelopathy caused by mutations in subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor or in a recently reported potassium channel. However, these mutations account for only a minority of patients, and the existence of at least a new locus for the disease has been demonstrated. In 2005, we detected two nucleotide variations in the promoter of the CRH gene coding for the corticotropin releasing hormone in 7 patients. These variations cosegregated with the disease and were demonstrated to alter the cellular levels of this hormone. Here, we report the identification in an Italian affected family of a novel missense mutation (hpreproCRH p.Pro30Arg located in the region of the CRH coding for the protein pro-sequence. The mutation was detected in heterozygosity in the two affected individuals. In vitro assays demonstrated that this mutation results in reduced levels of protein secretion in the short time thus suggesting that mutated people could present an altered capability to respond immediately to stress agents.

  18. A new compound heterozygous CFTR mutation in a Chinese family with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingjun; Huang, Xueqiong; Liang, Yujian; Xu, Lingling; Pei, Yuxin; Cheng, Yucai; Zhang, Lidan; Tang, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease among Caucasians but is rarer in the Chinese population, because mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. To elucidate the causative role of a novel compound heterozygous mutation of CF. In this study, clinical samples were obtained from two siblings with recurrent airway infections, clubbed fingers, salt-sweat and failure to gain weight in a non-consanguineous Chinese family. Next-generation sequencing was performed on the 27 coding exons of CFTR in both children, with confirmation by Sanger sequencing. Next-generation sequencing showed the same compound heterozygous CFTR mutation (c.865A>T p.Arg289X and c.3651_3652insAAAT p.Tyr1219X) in both children. As this mutation is consistent with the clinical manifestations of CF and no other mutations were detected after scanning the gene sequence, we suggest that the CF phenotype is caused by compound heterozygosity for c.865A>T and c.3651_3652insAAAT. As c865A>T is not currently listed in the "Cystic Fibrosis Mutation Database", this information about CF in a Chinese population is of interest. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Genetic analysis of a four generation Indian family with Usher syndrome: a novel insertion mutation in MYO7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Babu, Mohan; Kimberling, William J; Venkatesh, Conjeevaram P

    2004-11-24

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deafness and retinitis pigmentosa. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic cause of USH in a four generation Indian family. Peripheral blood samples were collected from individuals for genomic DNA isolation. To determine the linkage of this family to known USH loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions of known loci and used to genotype the family. Exon specific intronic primers for the MYO7A gene were used to amplify DNA samples from one affected individual from the family. PCR products were subsequently sequenced to detect mutation. PCR-SSCP analysis was used to determine if the mutation segregated with the disease in the family and was not present in 50 control individuals. All affected individuals had a classic USH type I (USH1) phenotype which included deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Pedigree analysis suggested an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of USH in the family. Haplotype analysis suggested linkage of this family to the USH1B locus on chromosome 11q. DNA sequence analysis of the entire coding region of the MYO7A gene showed a novel insertion mutation c.2663_2664insA in a homozygous state in all affected individuals, resulting in truncation of MYO7A protein. This is the first study from India which reports a novel MYO7A insertion mutation in a four generation USH family. The mutation is predicted to produce a truncated MYO7A protein. With the novel mutation reported here, the total number of USH causing mutations in the MYO7A gene described to date reaches to 75.

  20. New parkin mutations and atypical phenotypes in families with autosomal recessive parkinsonism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawal, N.; Periquet, M.; Lohmann, E.; Lucking, C.B.; Teive, H.; Ambrosio, G.; Raskin, S.; Lincoln, S.; Hattori, N.; Guimaraes, J.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Santos Bele, W. Dos; Brousolle, E.; Destee, A.; Mizuno, Y.; Farrer, M.; Deleuze, J.F.; Michele, G. de; Agid, Y.; Durr, A.; Brice, A.

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of parkin mutations was evaluated in 30 families of highly diverse geographic origin with early-onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Twelve different mutations, six of which were new, were found in 10 families from Europe and Brazil. Patients with parkin mutations had significantly

  1. Unusual AIP mutation and phenocopy in the family of a young patient with acromegalic gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Imran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein (AIP mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. He had typical facial features of acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, secondary hypogonadism and a large macroadenoma. His paternal aunt had a history of acromegaly presenting at the age of 35 years. Following transsphenoidal surgery, his IGF-1 normalized and clinical symptoms improved. He was found to have a novel AIP mutation destroying the stop codon c.991T>C; p.*331R. Unexpectedly, his father and paternal aunt were negative for this mutation while his mother and older sister were unaffected carriers, suggesting that his aunt represents a phenocopy.

  2. XLID-Causing Mutations and Associated Genes Challenged in Light of Data From Large-Scale Human Exome Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Piton, Amélie; Redin, Claire; Mandel, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Because of the unbalanced sex ratio (1.3–1.4 to 1) observed in intellectual disability (ID) and the identification of large ID-affected families showing X-linked segregation, much attention has been focused on the genetics of X-linked ID (XLID). Mutations causing monogenic XLID have now been reported in over 100 genes, most of which are commonly included in XLID diagnostic gene panels. Nonetheless, the boundary between true mutations and rare non-disease-causing variants often remains elusive...

  3. Consequences of a novel caveolin-3 mutation in a large German family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dirk; Schroers, Anja; Blümcke, Ingmar; Urbach, Horst; Zerres, Klaus; Mortier, Wilhelm; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schröder, Rolf

    2003-02-01

    Mutations in the human caveolin-3 gene (cav-3) on chromosome 3p25 have been described in limb girdle muscular dystrophy, rippling muscle disease, hyperCKemia, and distal myopathy. Here, we describe the genetic, myopathological, and clinical findings in a large German family harboring a novel heterozygous mutation (GAC-->GAA) in codon 27 of the cav-3 gene. This missense mutation causes an amino acid change from asparagine to glutamate (Asp27Glu) in the N-terminal region of the Cav-3 protein, which leads to a drastic decrease of Cav-3 protein expression in skeletal muscle tissue. In keeping with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, this novel cav-3 mutation was found to cosegregate with neuromuscular involvement in the reported family. Ultrastructural analysis of Cav-3-deficient muscle showed an abnormal folding of the plasma membrane as well as multiple vesicular structures in the subsarcolemmal region. Neurological examination of all nine subjects from three generations harboring the novel cav-3 mutation showed clear evidence of rippling muscle disease. However, only two of these nine patients showed isolated signs of rippling muscle disease without muscle weakness or atrophy, whereas five had additional signs of a distal myopathy and two fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of a coexisting limb girdle muscular dystrophy. These findings indicate that mutations in the human cav-3 gene can lead to different and overlapping clinical phenotypes even within the same family. Different clinical phenotypes in caveolinopathies may be attributed to so far unidentified modifying factors/genes in the individual genetic background of affected patients.

  4. Direct sequencing of FAH gene in Pakistani tyrosinemia type 1 families reveals a novel mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Sadaqat; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Imran, Muhammad; Afzal, Sibtain; Bhinder, Munir A; Ullah, Ihsan; Cheema, Huma Arshad; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Shehzad, Wasim

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine catabolism with a worldwide prevalence of one out of 100,000 live births. HT1 is clinically characterized by hepatic and renal dysfunction resulting from the deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) enzyme, caused by recessive mutations in the FAH gene. We present here the first report on identification of FAH mutations in HT1 patients from Pakistan with a novel one. Three Pakistani families, each having one child affected with HT1, were enrolled over a period of 1.5 years. Two of the affected children had died as they were presented late with acute form. All regions of the FAH gene spanning exons and splicing sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mutation analysis was carried out by direct sequencing. Results of sequencing were confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Three different FAH mutations, one in each family, were found to co-segregate with the disease phenotype. Two of these FAH mutations have been known (c.192G>T and c.1062+5G>A [IVS12+5G>A]), while c.67T>C (p.Ser23Pro) was a novel mutation. The novel variant was not detected in any of 120 chromosomes from normal ethnically matched individuals. Most of the HT1 patients die before they present to hospitals in Pakistan, as is indicated by enrollment of only three families in 1.5 years. Most of those with late clinical presentation do not survive due to delayed diagnosis followed by untimely treatment. This tragic condition advocates the establishment of expanded newborn screening program for HT1 within Pakistan.

  5. Early presentation of cystic kidneys in a family with a homozygous INVS mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Machteld M; van Bon, Bregje W; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Hoischen, Alexander; Marcelis, Carlo L; de Leeuw, Nicole; Mol, Suzanne J J; Mortier, Geert; Knoers, Nine V A M; Brunner, Han G; Roepman, Ronald; Arts, Heleen H

    2014-07-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease that is the most frequent monogenic cause of end-stage renal disease in children. Infantile NPHP, often in combination with other features like situs inversus, are commonly caused by mutations in the INVS gene. INVS encodes the ciliary protein inversin, and mutations induce dysfunction of the primary cilia. In this article, we present a family with two severely affected fetuses that were aborted after discovery of grossly enlarged cystic kidneys by ultrasonography before 22 weeks gestation. Exome sequencing showed that the fetuses were homozygous for a previously unreported nonsense mutation, resulting in a truncation in the IQ1 domain of inversin. This mutation induces nonsense-mediated RNA decay, as suggested by a reduced RNA level in fibroblasts derived from the fetus. However, a significant amount of mutant INVS RNA was present in these fibroblasts, yielding mutant inversin protein that was mislocalized. In control fibroblasts, inversin was present in the ciliary axoneme as well as at the basal body, whereas in the fibroblasts from the fetus, inversin could only be detected at the basal body. The phenotype of both fetuses is partly characteristic of infantile NPHP and Potter sequence. We also identified that the fetuses had mild skeletal abnormalities, including shortening and bowing of long bones, which may expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with INVS mutations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Deep intronic GPR143 mutation in a Japanese family with ocular albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Takuya; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Endo, Takao; Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Imoto, Issei

    2015-06-10

    Deep intronic mutations are often ignored as possible causes of human disease. Using whole-exome sequencing, we analysed genomic DNAs of a Japanese family with two male siblings affected by ocular albinism and congenital nystagmus. Although mutations or copy number alterations of coding regions were not identified in candidate genes, the novel intronic mutation c.659-131 T > G within GPR143 intron 5 was identified as hemizygous in affected siblings and as heterozygous in the unaffected mother. This mutation was predicted to create a cryptic splice donor site within intron 5 and activate a cryptic acceptor site at 41nt upstream, causing the insertion into the coding sequence of an out-of-frame 41-bp pseudoexon with a premature stop codon in the aberrant transcript, which was confirmed by minigene experiments. This result expands the mutational spectrum of GPR143 and suggests the utility of next-generation sequencing integrated with in silico and experimental analyses for improving the molecular diagnosis of this disease.

  7. A large deletion in GPR98 causes type IIC Usher syndrome in male and female members of an Iranian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, N; Kahrizi, K; Dieltjens, N; Bazazzadegan, N; Najmabadi, H; Smith, R J H; Van Camp, G

    2009-04-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. The three recognised clinical phenotypes (types I, II and III; USH1, USH2 and USH3) are caused by mutations in nine different genes. USH2C is characterised by moderate to severe hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and normal vestibular function. One earlier report describes mutations in GPR98 (VLGR1) in four families segregating this phenotype. To detect the disease-causing mutation in an Iranian family segregating USH2C. In this family, five members had a phenotype compatible with Usher syndrome, and two others had nonsyndromic hearing loss. Mutation analysis of all 90 coding exons of GPR98. Consistent with these clinical findings, the five subjects with USH carried a haplotype linked to the USH2C locus, whereas the two subjects with nonsyndromic hearing loss did not. We identified a new mutation in GPR98 segregating with USH2C in this family. The mutation is a large deletion g.371657_507673del of exons 84 and 85, presumably leading to a frameshift. A large GPR98 deletion of 136 017 bp segregates with USH2C in an Iranian family. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a GPR98 mutation, and the first report on male subjects with USH2C and a GPR98 mutation.

  8. Mutations in the evolutionarily highly conserved KEOPS complex genes cause nephrotic syndrome with microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Daniela A.; Rao, Jia; Mollet, Geraldine; Schapiro, David; Daugeron, Marie-Claire; Tan, Weizhen; Gribouval, Olivier; Boyer, Olivia; Revy, Patrick; Jobst-Schwan, Tilman; Schmidt, Johanna Magdalena; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Schanze, Denny; Ashraf, Shazia; Boddaert, Nathalie; Collinet, Bruno; Martin, Gaëlle; Liger, Dominique; Lovric, Svjetlana; Furlano, Monica; Guerrera, I. Chiara; Sanchez-Ferras, Oraly; Menten, Björn; Vergult, Sarah; De Rocker, Nina; Airik, Merlin; Hermle, Tobias; Shril, Shirlee; Widmeier, Eugen; Gee, Heon Yung; Choi, Won-Il; Sadowski, Carolin E.; Pabst, Werner L.; Warejko, Jillian; Daga, Ankana; LeBerre, Tamara Basta; Matejas, Verena; Behnam, Babak; Beeson, Brendan; Begtrup, Amber; Bruce, Malcolm; Ch'ng, Gaik-Siew; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Chao-Huei; Cho, Megan T.; Gipson, Patrick E.; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Kari, Jameela A.; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Lai, Wai-ming; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okasha; Masri, Amira; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Praet, Marleen; Prasad, Chitra; Prytula, Agnieszka; Roeder, Elizabeth; Rump, Patrick; Schnur, Rhonda E.; Shiihara, Takashi; Sinha, Manish; Soliman, Neveen A; Soulami, Kenza; Sweetser, David A.; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Vester, Udo; Viskochil, David H.; Vatanavicharn, Nithiwat; Waxler, Jessica L.; Wolf, Matthias T.F.; Wong, Sik-Nin; Poduri, Annapurna; Truglio, Gessica; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P.; Bouchard, Maxime; Kannu, Peter; Chitayat, David; Magen, Daniella; Calleweart, Bert; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Zenker, Martin; Antignac, Corinne; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2018-01-01

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a severe autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. To date, mutations of WDR73 are the only known monogenic cause of GAMOS and in most affected individuals the molecular diagnosis remains elusive. We here identify recessive mutations of OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, or LAGE3, encoding the 4 subunits of the KEOPS complex in 33 individuals of 30 families with GAMOS. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulates the human phenotype of microcephaly and results in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibits cell proliferation, which human mutations fail to rescue, and knockdown of either gene activates DNA damage response signaling and induces apoptosis. OSGEP and TP53RK molecularly interact and co-localize with the actin-regulating ARP2/3 complex. Furthermore, knockdown of OSGEP and TP53RK induces defects of the actin cytoskeleton and reduces migration rate of human podocytes, an established intermediate phenotype of SRNS. We thus identify 4 novel monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe the first link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:28805828

  9. Homozygous ARHGEF2 mutation causes intellectual disability and midbrain-hindbrain malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethiraj Ravindran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mid-hindbrain malformations can occur during embryogenesis through a disturbance of transient and localized gene expression patterns within these distinct brain structures. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARHGEF family members are key for controlling the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPase, to modulate cytoskeleton dynamics, cell division, and cell migration. We identified, by means of whole exome sequencing, a homozygous frameshift mutation in the ARHGEF2 as a cause of intellectual disability, a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and mild microcephaly in a consanguineous pedigree of Kurdish-Turkish descent. We show that loss of ARHGEF2 perturbs progenitor cell differentiation and that this is associated with a shift of mitotic spindle plane orientation, putatively favoring more symmetric divisions. The ARHGEF2 mutation leads to reduction in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway crucial for cell migration. We demonstrate that the human brain malformation is recapitulated in Arhgef2 mutant mice and identify an aberrant migration of distinct components of the precerebellar system as a pathomechanism underlying the midbrain-hindbrain phenotype. Our results highlight the crucial function of ARHGEF2 in human brain development and identify a mutation in ARHGEF2 as novel cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder.

  10. Homozygous ARHGEF2 mutation causes intellectual disability and midbrain-hindbrain malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Ethiraj; Hu, Hao; Yuzwa, Scott A; Hernandez-Miranda, Luis R; Kraemer, Nadine; Ninnemann, Olaf; Musante, Luciana; Boltshauser, Eugen; Schindler, Detlev; Hübner, Angela; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Birchmeier, Carmen; Miller, Freda D; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M

    2017-04-01

    Mid-hindbrain malformations can occur during embryogenesis through a disturbance of transient and localized gene expression patterns within these distinct brain structures. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARHGEF) family members are key for controlling the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPase, to modulate cytoskeleton dynamics, cell division, and cell migration. We identified, by means of whole exome sequencing, a homozygous frameshift mutation in the ARHGEF2 as a cause of intellectual disability, a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and mild microcephaly in a consanguineous pedigree of Kurdish-Turkish descent. We show that loss of ARHGEF2 perturbs progenitor cell differentiation and that this is associated with a shift of mitotic spindle plane orientation, putatively favoring more symmetric divisions. The ARHGEF2 mutation leads to reduction in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway crucial for cell migration. We demonstrate that the human brain malformation is recapitulated in Arhgef2 mutant mice and identify an aberrant migration of distinct components of the precerebellar system as a pathomechanism underlying the midbrain-hindbrain phenotype. Our results highlight the crucial function of ARHGEF2 in human brain development and identify a mutation in ARHGEF2 as novel cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder.

  11. Homozygous ARHGEF2 mutation causes intellectual disability and midbrain-hindbrain malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzwa, Scott A.; Hernandez-Miranda, Luis R.; Musante, Luciana; Boltshauser, Eugen; Schindler, Detlev; Hübner, Angela; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Miller, Freda D.; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Mid-hindbrain malformations can occur during embryogenesis through a disturbance of transient and localized gene expression patterns within these distinct brain structures. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARHGEF) family members are key for controlling the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPase, to modulate cytoskeleton dynamics, cell division, and cell migration. We identified, by means of whole exome sequencing, a homozygous frameshift mutation in the ARHGEF2 as a cause of intellectual disability, a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and mild microcephaly in a consanguineous pedigree of Kurdish-Turkish descent. We show that loss of ARHGEF2 perturbs progenitor cell differentiation and that this is associated with a shift of mitotic spindle plane orientation, putatively favoring more symmetric divisions. The ARHGEF2 mutation leads to reduction in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK/MLC pathway crucial for cell migration. We demonstrate that the human brain malformation is recapitulated in Arhgef2 mutant mice and identify an aberrant migration of distinct components of the precerebellar system as a pathomechanism underlying the midbrain-hindbrain phenotype. Our results highlight the crucial function of ARHGEF2 in human brain development and identify a mutation in ARHGEF2 as novel cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:28453519

  12. CAV3 mutations causing exercise intolerance, myalgia and rhabdomyolysis: Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of caveolinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata Siciliani; Gardiner, Alice R; Pitceathly, Robert D S; Hilton-Jones, David; Schapira, Anthony H; Turner, Chris; Parton, Matt; Desikan, Mahalekshmi; Barresi, Rita; Marsh, Julie; Manzur, Adnan Y; Childs, Anne-Marie; Feng, Lucy; Murphy, Elaine; Lamont, Phillipa J; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Wallefeld, William; Davis, Mark R; Laing, Nigel G; Holton, Janice L; Fialho, Doreen; Bushby, Kate; Hanna, Michael G; Phadke, Rahul; Jungbluth, Heinz; Houlden, Henry; Quinlivan, Ros

    2016-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is often due to a combination of environmental trigger(s) and genetic predisposition; however, the underlying genetic cause remains elusive in many cases. Mutations in CAV3 lead to various neuromuscular phenotypes with partial overlap, including limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C (LGMD1C), rippling muscle disease, distal myopathy and isolated hyperCKemia. Here we present a series of eight patients from seven families presenting with exercise intolerance and rhabdomyolysis caused by mutations in CAV3 diagnosed by next generation sequencing (NGS) (n = 6). Symptoms included myalgia (n = 7), exercise intolerance (n = 7) and episodes of rhabdomyolysis (n = 2). Percussion-induced rapid muscle contractions (PIRCs) were seen in five out of six patients examined. A previously reported heterozygous mutation in CAV3 (p.T78M) and three novel variants (p.V14I, p.F41S, p.F54V) were identified. Caveolin-3 immunolabeling in muscle was normal in 3/4 patients; however, immunoblotting showed more than 50% reduction of caveolin-3 in five patients compared with controls. This case series demonstrates that exercise intolerance, myalgia and rhabdomyolysis may be caused by CAV3 mutations and broadens the phenotypic spectrum of caveolinopathies. In our series, immunoblotting was a more sensitive method to detect reduced caveolin-3 levels than immunohistochemistry in skeletal muscle. Patients presenting with muscle pain, exercise intolerance and rhabdomyolysis should be routinely tested for PIRCs as this may be an important clinical clue for caveolinopathies, even in the absence of other "typical" features. The use of NGS may expand current knowledge concerning inherited diseases, and unexpected/atypical phenotypes may be attributed to well-known human disease genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. SPG20 mutation in three siblings with familial hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardour, Leila; Roelens, Filip; Race, Valerie; Souche, Erika; Holvoet, Maureen; Devriendt, Koen

    2017-07-01

    Troyer syndrome (MIM#275900) is an autosomal recessive form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia. It is characterized by progressive lower extremity spasticity and weakness, dysarthria, distal amyotrophy, developmental delay, short stature, and subtle skeletal abnormalities. It is caused by deleterious mutations in the SPG20 gene, encoding spartin, on Chromosome 13q13. Until now, six unrelated families with a genetically confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Here we report the clinical findings in three brothers of a consanguineous Moroccan family, aged 24, 17, and 7 yr old, with spastic paraplegia, short stature, motor and cognitive delay, and severe intellectual disability. Targeted exon capture and sequencing showed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the SPG20 gene, c.1369C>T (p.Arg457*), in the three affected boys. © 2017 Dardour et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. MASA syndrome is caused by mutations in the neural cell adhesion gene, L1CAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.E.; Wang, Y.; Schroer, R.J.; Stevenson, R.E. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The MASA syndrome is a recessive X-linked disorder characterized by Mental retardation, Adducted thumbs, Shuffling gait and Aphasia. Recently we found that MASA in one family was likely caused by a point mutation in exon 6 of the L1CAM gene. This gene has also been shown to be involved in X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS). We have screened 60 patients with either sporadic HSAS or MASA as well as two additional families with MASA. For the screening, we initially utilized 3 cDNA probes for the L1CAM gene. In one of the MASA families, K8310, two affected males were found to have an altered BglII band. The band was present in their carrier mother but not in their normal brothers. This band was detected by the entire cDNA probe as well as the cDNA probe for 3{prime} end of the gene. Analysis of the L1CAM sequence indicated the altered BglII site is distal to the exon 28 but proximal to the punative poly A signal site. It is hypothesized that this point mutation alters the stability of the L1CAM mRNA. This is being tested using cell lines established from the two affected males.

  15. Two α1-Globin Gene Point Mutations Causing Severe Hb H Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Huang, Lv-Yin; Zhen, Li; Jiang, Fan; Li, Dong-Zhi

    Hb H disease is generally a moderate form of α-thalassemia (α-thal) that rarely requires regular blood transfusions. In this study, two Chinese families with members carrying transfusion-dependent Hb H disease were investigated for rare mutations on the α-globin genes (HBA1, HBA2). In one family, Hb Zürich-Albisrieden [α59(E8)Gly→Arg; HBA1: c.178G>C] in combination with the Southeast Asian (- - SEA ) deletion was the defect responsible for the severe phenotype. In another family, a novel hemoglobin (Hb) variant named Hb Sichuan (HBA1: c.393_394insT), causes α-thal and a severe phenotype when associated with the - - SEA deletion. As these two HBA1 mutations can present as continuous blood transfusion-dependent α-thal, it is important to take this point into account for detecting the carriers, especially in couples in which one partner is already a known α 0 -thal carrier.

  16. The TMEM43 Newfoundland mutation p.S358L causing ARVC-5 was imported from Europe and increases the stiffness of the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milting, Hendrik; Klauke, Bärbel; Christensen, Alex Hoerby; Müsebeck, Jörg; Walhorn, Volker; Grannemann, Sören; Münnich, Tamara; Šarić, Tomo; Rasmussen, Torsten Bloch; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Mogensen, Jens; Baecker, Carolin; Romaker, Elena; Laser, Kai Thorsten; zu Knyphausen, Edzard; Kassner, Astrid; Gummert, Jan; Judge, Daniel P; Connors, Sean; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Young, Terry-L; van der Zwaag, Paul A; van Tintelen, J Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

    2015-04-07

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare genetic condition caused predominantly by mutations within desmosomal genes. The mutation leading to ARVC-5 was recently identified on the island of Newfoundland and caused by the fully penetrant missense mutation p.S358L in TMEM43. Although TMEM43-p.S358L mutation carriers were also found in the USA, Germany, and Denmark, the genetic relationship between North American and European patients and the disease mechanism of this mutation remained to be clarified. We screened 22 unrelated ARVC patients without mutations in desmosomal genes and identified the TMEM43-p.S358L mutation in a German ARVC family. We excluded TMEM43-p.S358L in 22 unrelated patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The German family shares a common haplotype with those from Newfoundland, USA, and Denmark, suggesting that the mutation originated from a common founder. Examination of 40 control chromosomes revealed an estimated age of 1300-1500 years for the mutation, which proves the European origin of the Newfoundland mutation. Skin fibroblasts from a female and two male mutation carriers were analysed in cell culture using atomic force microscopy and revealed that the cell nuclei exhibit an increased stiffness compared with TMEM43 wild-type controls. The German family is not affected by a de novo TMEM43 mutation. It is therefore expected that an unknown number of European families may be affected by the TMEM43-p.S358L founder mutation. Due to its deleterious clinical phenotype, this mutation should be checked in any case of ARVC-related genotyping. It appears that the increased stiffness of the cell nucleus might be related to the massive loss of cardiomyocytes, which is typically found in ventricles of ARVC hearts. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Low-level APC mutational mosaicism is the underlying cause in a substantial fraction of unexplained colorectal adenomatous polyposis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spier, Isabel; Drichel, Dmitriy; Kerick, Martin; Kirfel, Jutta; Horpaopan, Sukanya; Laner, Andreas; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Peters, Sophia; Adam, Ronja; Zhao, Bixiao; Becker, Tim; Lifton, Richard P; Perner, Sven; Hoffmann, Per; Kristiansen, Glen; Timmermann, Bernd; Nöthen, Markus M; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Schweiger, Michal R; Aretz, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    In 30-50% of patients with colorectal adenomatous polyposis, no germline mutation in the known genes APC, causing familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH, causing MUTYH-associated polyposis, or POLE or POLD1, causing polymerase-proofreading-associated polyposis can be identified, although a hereditary aetiology is likely. This study aimed to explore the impact of APC mutational mosaicism in unexplained polyposis. To comprehensively screen for somatic low-level APC mosaicism, high-coverage next-generation sequencing of the APC gene was performed using DNA from leucocytes and a total of 53 colorectal tumours from 20 unrelated patients with unexplained sporadic adenomatous polyposis. APC mosaicism was assumed if the same loss-of-function APC mutation was present in ≥ 2 anatomically separated colorectal adenomas/carcinomas per patient. All mutations were validated using diverse methods. In 25% (5/20) of patients, somatic mosaicism of a pathogenic APC mutation was identified as underlying cause of the disease. In 2/5 cases, the mosaic level in leucocyte DNA was slightly below the sensitivity threshold of Sanger sequencing; while in 3/5 cases, the allelic fraction was either very low (0.1-1%) or no mutations were detectable. The majority of mosaic mutations were located outside the somatic mutation cluster region of the gene. The present data indicate a high prevalence of pathogenic mosaic APC mutations below the detection thresholds of routine diagnostics in adenomatous polyposis, even if high-coverage sequencing of leucocyte DNA alone is taken into account. This has important implications for both routine work-up and strategies to identify new causative genes in this patient group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Mutation of Elfn1 in mice causes seizures and hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Dolan

    Full Text Available A growing number of proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs have been implicated in directing neuronal connectivity. We previously identified a novel family of eLRR proteins in mammals: the Elfns are transmembrane proteins with 6 LRRs, a fibronectin type-3 domain and a long cytoplasmic tail. The recent discovery that Elfn1 protein, expressed postsynaptically, can direct the elaboration of specific electrochemical properties of synapses between particular cell types in the hippocampus strongly reinforces this hypothesis. Here, we present analyses of an Elfn1 mutant mouse line and demonstrate a functional requirement for this gene in vivo. We first carried out detailed expression analysis of Elfn1 using a β-galactosidase reporter gene in the knockout line. Elfn1 is expressed in distinct subsets of interneurons of the hippocampus and cortex, and also in discrete subsets of cells in the habenula, septum, globus pallidus, dorsal subiculum, amygdala and several other regions. Elfn1 is expressed in diverse cell types, including local GABAergic interneurons as well as long-range projecting GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Elfn1 protein localises to axons of excitatory neurons in the habenula, and long-range GABAergic neurons of the globus pallidus, suggesting the possibility of additional roles for Elfn1 in axons or presynaptically. While gross anatomical analyses did not reveal any obvious neuroanatomical abnormalities, behavioural analyses clearly illustrate functional effects of Elfn1 mutation. Elfn1 mutant mice exhibit seizures, subtle motor abnormalities, reduced thigmotaxis and hyperactivity. The hyperactivity is paradoxically reversible by treatment with the stimulant amphetamine, consistent with phenotypes observed in animals with habenular lesions. These analyses reveal a requirement for Elfn1 in brain function and are suggestive of possible relevance to the etiology and pathophysiology of epilepsy and attention

  19. XLMR in MRX families 29, 32, 33 and 38 results from the dup24 mutation in the ARX (Aristaless related homeobox gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Andrée

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked mental retardation (XLMR is the leading cause of mental retardation in males. Mutations in the ARX gene in Xp22.1 have been found in numerous families with both nonsyndromic and syndromic XLMR. The most frequent mutation in this gene is a 24 bp duplication in exon 2. Based on this fact, a panel of XLMR families linked to Xp22 was tested for this particular ARX mutation. Methods Genomic DNA from XLMR families linked to Xp22.1 was amplified for exon 2 in ARX using a Cy5 labeled primer pair. The resulting amplicons were sized using the ALFexpress automated sequencer. Results A panel of 11 families with X-linked mental retardation was screened for the ARX 24dup mutation. Four nonsyndromic XLMR families – MRX29, MRX32, MRX33 and MRX38 – were found to have this particular gene mutation. Conclusion We have identified 4 additional XLMR families with the ARX dup24 mutation from a panel of 11 XLMR families linked to Xp22.1. This finding makes the ARX dup24 mutation the most common mutation in nonsyndromic XLMR families linked to Xp22.1. As this mutation can be readily tested for using an automated sequencer, screening should be considered for any male with nonsyndromic MR of unknown etiology.

  20. Mutations in PCBD1 Cause Hypomagnesemia and Renal Magnesium Wasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, S.; Baaij, J.H.F. de; Ferreira, P.; Germann, R.; Klerk, J.B. De; Lavrijsen, M.; Zeeland, F. van; Venselaar, H.; Kluijtmans, L.A.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in PCBD1 are causative for transient neonatal hyperphenylalaninemia and primapterinuria (HPABH4D). Until now, HPABH4D has been regarded as a transient and benign neonatal syndrome without complications in adulthood. In our study of three adult patients with homozygous mutations in the

  1. Homozygous mutation in the NPHP3 gene causing foetal nephronophthisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullah, Uzma; Farooq, Muhammad; Fatima, Ambrin

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a foetal sonographic finding of hyper-echogenic kidneys, which led to a strategic series of genetic tests and identified a homozygous mutation (c.424C > T, p. R142*) in the NPHP3 gene. Our study provides a rare presentation of NPHP3-related ciliopathy and adds to the mutation...

  2. Generation and analysis of knock-in mice carrying pseudohypoaldosteronism type II-causing mutations in the cullin 3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Yuya; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sohara, Eisei; Mori, Takayasu; Inoue, Yuichi; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Eriko; Ohta, Akihito; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-10-21

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is a hereditary hypertensive disease caused by mutations in four different genes: with-no-lysine kinases (WNK) 1 and 4, Kelch-like family member 3 (KLHL3), and cullin 3 (Cul3). Cul3 and KLHL3 form an E3 ligase complex that ubiquitinates and reduces the expression level of WNK4. PHAII-causing mutations in WNK4 and KLHL3 impair WNK4 ubiquitination. However, the molecular pathogenesis of PHAII caused by Cul3 mutations is unclear. In cultured cells and human leukocytes, PHAII-causing Cul3 mutations result in the skipping of exon 9, producing mutant Cul3 protein lacking 57 amino acids. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in the kidneys and is responsible for the pathogenesis of PHAII in vivo is unknown. We generated knock-in mice carrying a mutation in the C-terminus of intron 8 of Cul3, c.1207-1G>A, which corresponds to a PHAII-causing mutation in the human Cul3 gene. Heterozygous Cul3(G(-1)A/+) knock-in mice did not exhibit PHAII phenotypes, and the skipping of exon 9 was not evident in their kidneys. However, the level of Cul3 mRNA expression in the kidneys of heterozygous knock-in mice was approximately half that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, homozygous knock-in mice were nonviable. It suggested that the mutant allele behaved like a knockout allele and did not produce Cul3 mRNA lacking exon 9. A reduction in Cul3 expression alone was not sufficient to develop PHAII in the knock-in mice. Our findings highlighted the pathogenic role of mutant Cul3 protein and provided insight to explain why PHAII-causing mutations in Cul3 cause kidney-predominant PHAII phenotypes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Mutational Analysis of the TYR and OCA2 Genes in Four Chinese Families with Oculocutaneous Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Zhi; Chen, Mengping; Fan, Ning; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xuyang

    2015-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder. The most common type OCA1 and OCA2 are caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the tyrosinase gene (TYR) and OCA2 gene, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular basis of oculocutaneous albinism in four Chinese families. Four non-consanguineous OCA families were included in the study. The TYR and OCA2 genes of all individuals were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and compared with a reference database. Four patients with a diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism, presented with milky skin, white or light brown hair and nystagmus. Genetic analyses demonstrated that patient A was compound heterozygous for c.1037-7T.A, c.1037-10_11delTT and c.1114delG mutations in the TYR gene; patient B was heterozygous for c.593C>T and c.1426A>G mutations in the OCA2 gene, patients C and D were compound heterozygous mutations in the TYR gene (c.549_550delGT and c.896G>A, c.832C>T and c.985T>C, respectively). The heterozygous c.549_550delGT and c.1114delG alleles in the TYR gene were two novel mutations. Interestingly, heterozygous members in these pedigrees who carried c.1114delG mutations in the TYR gene or c.1426A>G mutations in the OCA2 gene presented with blond or brown hair and pale skin, but no ocular disorders when they were born; the skin of these patients accumulated pigment over time and with sun exposure. This study expands the mutation spectrum of oculocutaneous albinism. It is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, to report that c.549_550delGT and c.1114delG mutations in the TYR gene were associated with OCA. The two mutations (c.1114delG in the TYR gene and c.1426A>G in the OCA2 gene) may be responsible for partial clinical manifestations of OCA.

  4. Germ-line origins of mutation in families with hemophilia B: The sex ratio varies with the type of mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Bottema, C.D.K.; Schaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)); Cohen, M.P. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); Sexauer, C.L. (Children' s Hospital, Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Previous epidemiological and biochemical studies have generated conflicting estimates of the sex ratio of mutation. Direct genomic sequencing in combination with haplotype analysis extends previous analyses by allowing the precise mutation to be determined in a given family. From analysis of the factor IX gene of 260 consecutive families with hemophilia B, the authors report the germ-line origin of mutation in 25 families. When combined with 14 origins of mutation reported by others and with 4 origins previously reported by them, a total of 25 occur in the female germ line, and 18 occur in the male germ line. The excess of germ-line origins in females does not imply an overall excess mutation rate per base pair in the female germ line. Bayesian analysis of the data indicates that the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation. The aggregate of single-base substitutions shows a male predominance of germ-line mutations (P < .002). The maximum-likelihood estimate of the male predominance is 3.5-fold. Of the single-base substitutions, deletions display a sex ratio of unity. Analysis of the parental age at transmission of a new mutation suggests that germ-line mutations are associated with a small increase in parental age in females but little, if any, increase in males. Although direct genomic sequencing offers a general method for defining the origin of mutation in specific families, accurate estimates of the sex ratios of different mutational classes require large sample sizes and careful correction for multiple biases of ascertainment. The biases in the present data result in an underestimate of the enhancement of mutation in males. 62 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Novel and recurrent NDP gene mutations in familial cases of Norrie disease and X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcastre, Erika L; Villanueva-Mendoza, Cristina; Zenteno, Juan C

    2010-05-01

    To present the results of molecular analysis of the NDP gene in Mexican families with Norrie disease (ND) and X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (XL-FEVR). Two unrelated families with ND and two with XL-FEVR were studied. Clinical diagnosis was suspected on the basis of a complete ophthalmologic examination. Molecular methods included DNA isolation from peripheral blood leucocytes, polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct nucleotide sequencing analysis of the complete coding region and exon-intron junctions of NDP. Haplotype analysis using NDP-linked microsatellites markers was performed in both ND families. A novel Norrin missense mutation, p.Arg41Thr, was identified in two apparently unrelated families with ND. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that affected males in these two families shared the same ND-linked haplotype, suggesting a common origin for this novel mutation. The previously reported p.Arg121Trp and p.Arg121Gln Norrin mutations were identified in the two families with XL-FEVR. Our results expand the mutational spectrum in ND. This is the first report of ND resulting from mutation at arginine position 41 of Norrin. Interestingly, mutations at the same residue but resulting in a different missense change were previously described in subjects with XL-FEVR (p.Arg41Lys) or persistent fetal vasculature syndrome (p.Arg41Ser), indicating that the novel p.Arg41Thr change causes a more severe retinal phenotype. Preliminary data suggest a founder effect for the ND p.Arg41Thr mutation in these two Mexican families.

  6. Muckle-Wells syndrome in an Indian family associated with NLRP3 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muckle - Wells syndrome (MWS is a rare autosomal dominant disease that belongs to a group of hereditary periodic fever syndromes. It is part of the wider spectrum of the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS which has only rarely been described in non-Caucasian individuals. It is characterized by recurrent self-limiting episodes of fever, urticaria, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis from childhood. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss and amyloidosis are two late complications. MWS is caused by gain of function mutations in the NLRP3 gene, which encodes cryopyrin, a protein involved in regulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We report two patients with MWS in an Indian family associated with the p.D303N mutation in the NLRP3 gene. These findings promote awareness of these hereditary periodic fever syndromes as a cause for recurrent fevers from childhood in the Indian population.

  7. Different clinical phenotypes in familial severe congenital neutropenia cases with same mutation of the ELANE gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Kyung; Jeon, In Sang

    2014-03-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with a defect in granulopoiesis causing marked neutropenia and severe bacterial infections. A 17-month-old girl (patient 1) was admitted due to cervical lymphadenitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with neutropenia. She had Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and peritonitis with perforated appendicitis at 8-month of age. Her sister, a 37-month-old girl (patient 2), had recurrent stomatitis with profound neutropenia, and her mother, a 32-yr-old woman (patient 3), had had recurrent stomatitis until her early 20s with neutropenia. We found an ELANE gene mutation (c.597+1G > A) from them in direct DNA sequencing analysis. Patients 1 and 2 did not respond to granulocyte colony stimulating factor and patient 1 was treated with prolonged antibiotics and excision. We demonstrated inherited SCN cases showing different severity even with the same mutation of the ELANE gene in a family.

  8. Prevalance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in familial breast cancer patients in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkh Nadine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women in Western countries, currently accounting for one third of all female cancers. Familial aggregation is thought to account for 5–10 % of all BC cases, and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for less of the half of these inherited cases. In Lebanon, breast cancer represents the principal death-causing malignancy among women, with 50 % of the cases diagnosed before the age of 50 years. In order to study BRCA1/2 mutation spectra in the Lebanese population, 72 unrelated patients with a reported family history of breast and/or ovarian cancers or with an early onset breast cancer were tested. Fluorescent direct sequencing of the entire coding region and intronic sequences flanking each exon was performed. A total of 38 BRCA1 and 40 BRCA2 sequence variants were found. Seventeen of them were novel. Seven confirmed deleterious mutations were identified in 9 subjects providing a frequency of mutations of 12.5 %. Fifteen variants were considered of unknown clinical significance according to BIC and UMD-BRCA1/BRCA2 databases. In conclusion, this study represents the first evaluation of the deleterious and unclassified genetic variants in the BRCA1/2 genes found in a Lebanese population with a relatively high risk of breast cancer.

  9. Familial cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome in a father and a son with a novel MEK2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Kadri; Lissewski, Christina; Zenker, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder belonging to the group of RASopathies. It is typically characterized by congenital heart defects, short stature, dysmorphic craniofacial features, intellectual disability, failure to thrive, and ectodermal abnormalities such as hyperkeratosis and sparse, brittle, curly hair. CFC syndrome is caused by dominant mutations in one of the four genes BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, and KRAS. Only three familial cases of CFC syndrome have been reported to date, whereas the vast majorities are sporadic cases due to de novo mutations. We report on a fourth familial case with transmission of CFC syndrome from father to son due to a novel heterozygous sequence change c.376A>G (p.N126D) in exon 3 of MEK2 gene. This observation further documents the possibility of vertical transmission of CFC syndrome, which appears to be associated with rare mutations and relatively mild intellectual disability in affected individual. The hypomorphic effect of specific mutations particularly regarding neurocognitive issues may be related to the variable fertility of affected individuals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A novel T→G splice site mutation of CRYBA1/A3 associated with autosomal dominant nuclear cataracts in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenfei; Su, Dongmei; Li, Qian; Yang, Fan; Ma, Zicheng; Zhu, Siquan; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the disease-causing mutation and the molecular phenotype that are responsible for the presence of an autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract disease in a Chinese family. The family history and clinical data were recorded. The patients were given a physical examination and their blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Direct sequencing was used to detect the mutation. Transcription analysis of the mutant crystallin, beta A1 (CRYBA1/A3) gene was performed to verify whether the defective mutation had influenced the splice of the mature mRNA. The phenotype of the congenital cataract in the family was identified as a nuclear cataract type, by using slit-lamp photography. Direct sequencing revealed a novel mutation IVS3+2 T→G in CRYBA1/A3. This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, but was not found in unaffected family members nor in the 100 unrelated controls. Transcription analysis of the mutant CRYBA1/A3 gene indicated that this mutation had influenced the splice of the mature mRNA. Our study identified a novel splice site mutation in CRYBA1/A3. This mutation was responsible for aberrant splicing of the mature mRNA and had caused the congenital nuclear cataracts in the family. This is the first report relating an IVS3+2 T→G mutation of CRYBA1/A3 to congenital cataracts.

  11. Mutation analysis of the WFS1 gene in seven Danish Wolfram syndrome families; four new mutations identified

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Eiberg, Hans Rudolf Lytchoff; Barrett, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    loss (LFSNHL). WFS1 variants were identified in eight subjects from seven families with WS, leading to the identification of four novel mutations, Q194X (nonsense), H313Y (missense), L313fsX360 (duplication frame shift) and F883fsX951 (deletion frame shift), and four previously reported mutations, A133...

  12. First description of mutational analysis of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 in Algerian families with suspected Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziada-Bouchaar, H; Sifi, K; Filali, T; Hammada, T; Satta, D; Abadi, N

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the early onset of colorectal cancer (CRC) linked to germline defects in Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes. We present here, the first molecular study of the correlation between CRC and mutations occurring in these genes performed in twenty-one unrelated Algerian families. The presence of germline mutations in MMR genes, MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was tested by sequencing all exons plus adjacent intronic sequences and Multiplex ligand-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for testing large genomic rearrangements. Pathogenic mutations were identified in 20 % of families with clinical suspicion on HNPCC. Two novel variants described for the first time in Algerian families were identified in MLH1, c.881_884delTCAGinsCATTCCT and a large deletion in MSH6 gene from a young onset of CRC. Moreover, the variants of MSH2 gene: c.942+3A>T, c.1030C>T, the most described ones, were also detected in Algerian families. Furthermore, the families HNPCC caused by MSH6 germline mutation may show an age of onset that is comparable to this of patients with MLH1 and MSH2 mutations. In this study, we confirmed that MSH2, MLH1, and MSH6 contribute to CRC susceptibility. This work represents the implementation of a diagnostic algorithm for the identification of Lynch syndrome patients in Algerian families.

  13. Opinions of hearing parents about the causes of hearing impairment of their children with biallelic GJB2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, Aisen V; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Posukh, Olga L; Barashkov, Nikolay A; Bady-Khoo, Marita S; Lobov, Semen L; Popova, Natalya Yu; Romanov, Georgii P; Sazonov, Nikolay N; Bondar, Alexander A; Morozov, Igor V; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Fedorova, Sardana A; Khusnutdinova, Elza K

    2017-07-01

    Hereditary hearing impairment (HI) caused by recessive GJB2 mutations is a frequent sensory disorder. The results of the molecular-based studies of HI are widely used in various genetic test systems. However, the ethical aspects are less described than the genetic aspects. The concerns expressed by individuals from groups with genetic risks must be included in the counseling of patients and their families. For evaluation of subjective opinions of hearing parents about the presumed causes of HI of their children, we analyze the cohort of parents having children with confirmed hereditary HI caused by biallelic recessive GJB2 mutations (in a homozygous or a compound heterozygous state). This study included 70 deaf children with HI due to mutations in the GJB2 gene and 91 questionnaires about the presumed causes of their deafness filled by their parents. Most of the parents at 78% (CI 68.4-85.4%) attributed their children's HI to "non-hereditary" causes and 22% (CI 14.7-31.6%) to "hereditary" causes (p < 0.05). Therefore, the prior opinions of the parents did not correspond to positive GJB2 genetic testing results. The subjective opinions of parents are probably partly based on family history, since respondents with deaf relatives in their pedigree more likely supposed hereditary causes for HI in their children than the respondents without deaf relatives (p < 0.001).

  14. Dominant mutations in KAT6A cause intellectual disability with recognizable syndromic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Emma; Lindstrand, Anna; Santani, Avni; Malmgren, Helena; Nesbitt, Addie; Dubbs, Holly A; Zackai, Elaine H; Parker, Michael J; Millan, Francisca; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Wilson, Golder N; Nordgren, Ann

    2015-03-05

    Through a multi-center collaboration study, we here report six individuals from five unrelated families, with mutations in KAT6A/MOZ detected by whole-exome sequencing. All five different de novo heterozygous truncating mutations were located in the C-terminal transactivation domain of KAT6A: NM_001099412.1: c.3116_3117 delCT, p.(Ser1039∗); c.3830_3831insTT, p.(Arg1278Serfs∗17); c.3879 dupA, p.(Glu1294Argfs∗19); c.4108G>T p.(Glu1370∗) and c.4292 dupT, p.(Leu1431Phefs∗8). An additional subject with a 0.23 MB microdeletion including the entire KAT6A reading frame was identified with genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization. Finally, by detailed clinical characterization we provide evidence that heterozygous mutations in KAT6A cause a distinct intellectual disability syndrome. The common phenotype includes hypotonia, intellectual disability, early feeding and oromotor difficulties, microcephaly and/or craniosynostosis, and cardiac defects in combination with subtle facial features such as bitemporal narrowing, broad nasal tip, thin upper lip, posteriorly rotated or low-set ears, and microretrognathia. The identification of human subjects complements previous work from mice and zebrafish where knockouts of Kat6a/kat6a lead to developmental defects. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics, causes and evolutionary consequences of male-biased mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegren, Hans

    2007-01-07

    Mutation has traditionally been considered a random process, but this paradigm is challenged by recent evidence of divergence rate heterogeneity in different genomic regions. One facet of mutation rate variation is the propensity for genetic change to correlate with the number of germ cell divisions, reflecting the replication-dependent origin of many mutations. Haldane was the first to connect this association of replication and mutation to the difference in the number of cell divisions in oogenesis (low) and spermatogenesis (usually high), and the resulting sex difference in the rate of mutation. The concept of male-biased mutation has been thoroughly analysed in recent years using an evolutionary approach, in which sequence divergence of autosomes and/or sex chromosomes are compared to allow inference about the relative contribution of mothers and fathers in the accumulation of mutations. For instance, assuming that a neutral sequence is analysed, that rate heterogeneity owing to other factors is cancelled out by the investigation of many loci and that the effect of ancestral polymorphism is properly taken into account, the male-to-female mutation rate ratio, alpham, can be solved from the observed difference in rate of X and Y chromosome divergence. The male mutation bias is positively correlated with the relative excess of cell divisions in the male compared to the female germ line, as evidenced by a generation time effect: in mammals, alpham is estimated at approximately 4-6 in primates, approximately 3 in carnivores and approximately 2 in small rodents. Another life-history correlate is sexual selection: when there is intense sperm competition among males, increased sperm production will be associated with a larger number of mitotic cell divisions in spermatogenesis and hence an increase in alpham. Male-biased mutation has implications for important aspects of evolutionary biology such as mate choice in relation to mutation load, sexual selection and the

  16. Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisinger Charlotta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin gene (INS mutations have recently been described as a common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM and a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Methods INS was sequenced in 116 maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODYX patients (n = 48 Danish and n = 68 Czech, 83 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, 34 type 1 diabetic patients screened negative for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, and 96 glucose tolerant individuals. The control group was randomly selected from the population-based sampled Inter99 study. Results One novel heterozygous mutation c.17G>A, R6H, was identified in the pre-proinsulin gene (INS in a Danish MODYX family. The proband was diagnosed at 20 years of age with mild diabetes and treated with diet and oral hypoglycaemic agent. Two other family members who carried the INS R6H were diagnosed with diabetes when 51 years old and with GDM when 27 years old, respectively. A fourth mutation carrier had normal glucose tolerance when 20 years old. Two carriers of INS R6H were also examined twice with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT with 5 years interval. They both had a ~30% reduction in beta-cell function measured as insulinogenic index. In a Czech MODYX family a previously described R46Q mutation was found. The proband was diagnosed at 13 years of age and had been treated with insulin since onset of diabetes. Her mother and grandmother were diagnosed at 14 and 35 years of age, respectively, and were treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents and/or insulin. Conclusion Mutations in INS can be a rare cause of MODY and we conclude that screening for mutations in INS should be recommended in MODYX patients.

  17. Presymptomatic generalized brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrer, Jonathan D; Ahsan, R Laila; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2009-01-01

    mutation carriers with a control group of 7 mutation-negative family members. Volumetric MRI brain scans were performed on all subjects at two time points, and rates of volume change were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: We demonstrate that generalized atrophy occurs presymptomatically in CHMP2B...... gene mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: This finding suggests that mutations in CHMP2B have widespread effects throughout the brain, leading to a neuro-anatomical signature distinct from other diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum........ There are no detailed studies of brain imaging in CHMP2B mutation-associated FTD. This study aimed to investigate whether there were early or presymptomatic changes in this group of patients. METHODS: Subjects comprised 16 members of a Danish family with CHMP2B mutation-associated FTD. Nine subjects were presymptomatic...

  18. Presymptomatic identification of CDH1 germline mutation in a healthy korean individual with family history of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ki, Chang-Seok; Suh, Soon-Pal; Kim, Jong-Won

    2014-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers with high morbidity and mortality. Familial GC is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of familial GC cases arise owing to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). CDH1, which encodes the protein E-cadherin, is the only gene whose mutations are associated with HDGC. Screening for the familial GC-predisposing gene has been neglected in high-risk countries such as Korea, China, and Japan, where all the cases have been attributed to Helicobacter pylori or other carcinogens. Screening for the GC-causing CDH1 mutation may provide valuable information for genetic counseling, testing, and risk-reduction management for the as-yet unaffected family members. An asymptomatic 44-yr-old Korean male visited our genetic clinic for consultation owing to his family history of GC. Eventually, c.1018A>G in CDH1, a known disease-causing mutation, was found. As of the publication time, the individual is alive without the evidence of GC, and is on surveillance. To our knowledge, this is the first Korean case of presymptomatic detection of CDH1 mutation, and it highlights the importance of genetic screening for individuals with a family history of GC, especially in high-risk geographical areas.

  19. De novo dominant mutation of SOX10 gene in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaitian; Zong, Ling; Liu, Min; Zhan, Yuan; Wu, Xuan; Zou, Wenting; Jiang, Hongyan

    2014-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The condition is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigment disturbances of the hair, skin, and iris. The de novo mutation in the SOX10 gene, responsible for Waardenburg syndrome type II, is rarely seen. The present study aimed to identify the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a Chinese family. Clinical and molecular evaluations were conducted in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II. A novel SOX10 heterozygous c.259-260delCT mutation was identified. Heterozygosity was not observed in the parents and sister of the proband, indicating that the mutation has arisen de novo. The novel frameshift mutation, located in exon 3 of the SOX10 gene, disrupted normal amino acid coding from Leu87, leading to premature termination at nucleotide 396 (TGA). The high mobility group domain of SOX10 was inferred to be partially impaired. The novel heterozygous c.259-260delCT mutation in the SOX10 gene was considered to be the cause of Waardenburg syndrome in the proband. The clinical and genetic characterization of this family would help elucidate the genetic heterogeneity of SOX10 in Waardenburg syndrome type II. Moreover, the de novo pattern expanded the mutation data of SOX10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mosaicism for dominant collagen 6 mutations as a cause for intrafamilial phenotypic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkervoort, Sandra; Hu, Ying; Stojkovic, Tanya; Voermans, Nicol C; Foley, A Reghan; Leach, Meganne E; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Bolduc, Véronique; Cullup, Thomas; de Becdelièvre, Alix; Yang, Lin; Su, Hai; Meilleur, Katherine; Schindler, Alice B; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Richard, Pascale; Butterfield, Russell J; Winder, Thomas L; Crawford, Thomas O; Weiss, Robert B; Muntoni, Francesco; Allamand, Valérie; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2015-01-01

    Collagen 6-related dystrophies and myopathies (COL6-RD) are a group of disorders that form a wide phenotypic spectrum, ranging from severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, intermediate phenotypes, to the milder Bethlem myopathy. Both inter- and intrafamilial variable expressivity are commonly observed. We present clinical, immunohistochemical, and genetic data on four COL6-RD families with marked intergenerational phenotypic heterogeneity. This variable expression seemingly masquerades as anticipation is due to parental mosaicism for a dominant mutation, with subsequent full inheritance and penetrance of the mutation in the heterozygous offspring. We also present an additional fifth simplex patient identified as a mosaic carrier. Parental mosaicism was confirmed in the four families through quantitative analysis of the ratio of mutant versus wild-type allele (COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3) in genomic DNA from various tissues, including blood, dermal fibroblasts, and saliva. Consistent with somatic mosaicism, parental samples had lower ratios of mutant versus wild-type allele compared with the fully heterozygote offspring. However, there was notable variability of the mutant allele levels between tissues tested, ranging from 16% (saliva) to 43% (fibroblasts) in one mosaic father. This is the first report demonstrating mosaicism as a cause of intrafamilial/intergenerational variability of COL6-RD, and suggests that sporadic and parental mosaicism may be more common than previously suspected. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. In silico analysis of a novel MKRN3 missense mutation in familial central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neocleous, Vassos; Shammas, Christos; Phelan, Marie M; Nicolaou, Stella; Phylactou, Leonidas A; Skordis, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The onset of puberty is influenced by the interplay of stimulating and restraining factors, many of which have a genetic origin. Premature activation of the GnRH secretion in central precocious puberty (CPP) may arise either from gain-of-function mutations of the KISS1 and KISS1R genes or from loss-of-function manner mutations of the MKRN3 gene leading to MKRN3 deficiency. To explore the genetic causes responsible for CPP and the potential role of the RING finger protein 3 (MKRN3) gene. We investigated potential sequence variations in the intronless MKRN3 gene by Sanger sequencing of the entire 507 amino acid coding region of exon 1 in a family with two affected girls presented with CPP at the age of 6 and 5·7 years, respectively. A novel heterozygous g.Gly312Asp missense mutation in the MKRN3 gene was identified in these siblings. The imprinted MKRN3 missense mutation was also identified as expected in the unaffected father and followed as expected an imprinted mode of inheritance. In silico analysis of the altered missense variant using the computational algorithms Polyphen2, SIFT and Mutation Taster predicted a damage and pathogenic alteration causing CPP. The pathogenicity of the alteration at the protein level via an in silico structural model is also explored. A novel mutation in the MKRN3 gene in two sisters with CPP was identified, supporting the fundamental role of this gene in the suppression of the hypothalamic GnRH neurons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in familial Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisha Elias

    2017-12-01

    In this study we identified three families with Lynch syndrome from a rural cancer center in western India (KCHRC, Goraj, Gujarat, where 70-75 CRC patients are seen annually. DNA isolated from the blood of consented family members of all three families (8-10 members/family was subjected to NGS sequencing methods on an Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. We identified unique mutations in the MLH1 gene in all three HNPCC family members. Two of the three unrelated families shared a common mutation (154delA and 156delA. Total 8 members of a family were identified as carriers for 156delA mutation of which 5 members were unaffected while 3 were affected (age of onset: 1 member <30yrs & 2 were>40yr. The family with 154delA mutation showed 2 affected members (>40yr carrying the mutations.LYS618DEL mutation found in 8 members of the third family showed that both affected and unaffected carried the mutation. Thus the common mutations identified in the MLH1 gene in two unrelated families had a high risk for lynch syndrome especially above the age of 40.

  3. Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus due to a novel mutation in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fost, M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.; van Santen, H. M.; Endert, E.; van den Elzen, C.; Kamsteeg, E. J.; Swaab, D. F.; Fliers, E.

    2011-01-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal (central) diabetes insipidus (DI) is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. The majority of cases is inherited in an autosomal dominant way. In this study, we present the clinical features of a mother and her son with autosomal

  4. Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus due to a novel mutation in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fost, M. de; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Santen, H.M. van; Endert, E.; Elzen, C. van den; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Swaab, D.F.; Fliers, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Familial neurohypophyseal (central) diabetes insipidus (DI) is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. The majority of cases is inherited in an autosomal dominant way. In this study, we present the clinical features of a mother and her son with

  5. Association of the M1V PRKAR1A mutation with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in two large families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Alberto M.; Hes, Frederik J.; Horvath, Anelia; Woortman, Sanne; Greene, Elizabeth; Bimpaki, Eirini; Alatsatianos, Anton; Boikos, Sosipatros; Smit, Johannes W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2010-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a familial multiple neoplasia syndrome frequently associated with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), a bilateral form of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia that leads to Cushing's syndrome (CS). Germline PRKAR1A mutations cause CNC and only rarely

  6. IHH Gene Mutations Causing Short Stature With Nonspecific Skeletal Abnormalities and Response to Growth Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Gabriela A; Funari, Mariana F A; Ferreira, Frederico M; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Sentchordi-Montané, Lucia; Barraza-García, Jimena; Lerario, Antonio M; Yamamoto, Guilherme L; Naslavsky, Michel S; Duarte, Yeda A O; Bertola, Debora R; Heath, Karen E; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2018-02-01

    Genetic evaluation has been recognized as an important tool to elucidate the causes of growth disorders. To investigate the cause of short stature and to determine the phenotype of patients with IHH mutations, including the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. We studied 17 families with autosomal-dominant short stature by using whole exome sequencing and screened IHH defects in 290 patients with growth disorders. Molecular analyses were performed to evaluate the potential impact of N-terminal IHH variants. We identified 10 pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in IHH, an important regulator of endochondral ossification. Molecular analyses revealed a smaller potential energy of mutated IHH molecules. The allele frequency of rare, predicted to be deleterious IHH variants found in short-stature samples (1.6%) was higher than that observed in two control cohorts (0.017% and 0.08%; P IHH variants segregate with short stature in a dominant inheritance pattern. Affected individuals typically manifest mild disproportional short stature with a frequent finding of shortening of the middle phalanx of the fifth finger. None of them have classic features of brachydactyly type A1, which was previously associated with IHH mutations. Five patients heterozygous for IHH variants had a good response to rhGH therapy. The mean change in height standard deviation score in 1 year was 0.6. Our study demonstrated the association of pathogenic variants in IHH with short stature with nonspecific skeletal abnormalities and established a frequent cause of growth disorder, with a preliminary good response to rhGH. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. A novel mutation in the ELOVL4 gene causes autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maugeri, A.; Meire, F.; Hoyng, C.B.; Vink, C.W.; Regemorter, N. van; Karan, G.; Yang, Z.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zhang, K.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct clinical and genetic studies in a European family with autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (adSTGD-like MD) and to investigate the functional consequences of a novel ELOVL4 mutation. METHODS: Ophthalmic examination and mutation screening by direct sequencing of

  8. Compound Heterozygosity for Null Mutations and a Common Hypomorphic Risk Haplotype in TBX6 Causes Congenital Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Kou, Ikuyo; Kawakami, Noriaki; Iida, Aritoshi; Nakajima, Masahiro; Ogura, Yoji; Imagawa, Eri; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Sudo, Hideki; Kotani, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2017-03-01

    Congenital scoliosis (CS) occurs as a result of vertebral malformations and has an incidence of 0.5-1/1,000 births. Recently, TBX6 on chromosome 16p11.2 was reported as a disease gene for CS; about 10% of Chinese CS patients were compound heterozygotes for rare null mutations and a common haplotype defined by three SNPs in TBX6. All patients had hemivertebrae. We recruited 94 Japanese CS patients, investigated the TBX6 locus for both mutations and the risk haplotype, examined transcriptional activities of mutant TBX6 in vitro, and evaluated clinical and radiographic features. We identified TBX6 null mutations in nine patients, including a missense mutation that had a loss of function in vitro. All had the risk haplotype in the opposite allele. One of the mutations showed dominant negative effect. Although all Chinese patients had one or more hemivertebrae, two Japanese patients did not have hemivertebra. The compound heterozygosity of null mutations and the common risk haplotype in TBX6 also causes CS in Japanese patients with similar incidence. Hemivertebra was not a specific type of spinal malformation in TBX6-associated CS (TACS). A heterozygous TBX6 loss-of-function mutation has been reported in a family with autosomal-dominant spondylocostal dysostosis, but it may represent a spectrum of the same disease with TACS. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  9. Next-generation sequencing reveals a novel NDP gene mutation in a Chinese family with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Mao; Li, Jiankang; Cui, Ling; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked genetic disorder, the main symptoms of which are congenital blindness and white pupils. It has been reported that ND is caused by mutations in the NDP gene. Although many mutations in NDP have been reported, the genetic cause for many patients remains unknown. In this study, the aim is to investigate the genetic defect in a five-generation family with typical symptoms of ND. To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members using Sanger sequencing. We identified a novel missense variant (c.314C>A) located within the NDP gene. The mutation cosegregated within all affected individuals in the family and was not found in unaffected members. By happenstance, in this family, we also detected a known pathogenic variant of retinitis pigmentosa in a healthy individual. c.314C>A mutation of NDP gene is a novel mutation and broadens the genetic spectrum of ND.

  10. Next-generation sequencing reveals a novel NDP gene mutation in a Chinese family with Norrie disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Norrie disease (ND is a rare X-linked genetic disorder, the main symptoms of which are congenital blindness and white pupils. It has been reported that ND is caused by mutations in the NDP gene. Although many mutations in NDP have been reported, the genetic cause for many patients remains unknown. In this study, the aim is to investigate the genetic defect in a five-generation family with typical symptoms of ND. Methods: To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members using Sanger sequencing. Results: We identified a novel missense variant (c.314C>A located within the NDP gene. The mutation cosegregated within all affected individuals in the family and was not found in unaffected members. By happenstance, in this family, we also detected a known pathogenic variant of retinitis pigmentosa in a healthy individual. Conclusion: c.314C>A mutation of NDP gene is a novel mutation and broadens the genetic spectrum of ND.

  11. Lynch syndrome caused by germline PMS2 mutations: delineating the cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Sanne W; Brohet, Richard M; Tops, Carli M; van der Klift, Heleen M; Velthuizen, Mary E; Bernstein, Inge; Capellá Munar, Gabriel; Gomez Garcia, Encarna; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Letteboer, Tom G W; Menko, Fred H; Lindblom, Annika; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Moller, Pal; van Os, Theo A; Rahner, Nils; Redeker, Bert J W; Sijmons, Rolf H; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Suerink, Manon; Vos, Yvonne J; Wagner, Anja; Hes, Frederik J; Vasen, Hans F; Nielsen, Maartje; Wijnen, Juul T

    2015-02-01

    The clinical consequences of PMS2 germline mutations are poorly understood compared with other Lynch-associated mismatch repair gene (MMR) mutations. The aim of this European cohort study was to define the cancer risk faced by PMS2 mutation carriers. Data were collected from 98 PMS2 families ascertained from family cancer clinics that included a total of 2,548 family members and 377 proven mutation carriers. To adjust for potential ascertainment bias, a modified segregation analysis model was used to calculate colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) risks. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to estimate risks for other Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. The cumulative risk (CR) of CRC for male mutation carriers by age 70 years was 19%. The CR among female carriers was 11% for CRC and 12% for EC. The mean age of CRC development was 52 years, and there was a significant difference in mean age of CRC between the probands (mean, 47 years; range, 26 to 68 years) and other family members with a PMS2 mutation (mean, 58 years; range, 31 to 86 years; P PMS2 mutation, and it should be noted that we observed a substantial variation in cancer phenotype within and between families, suggesting the influence of genetic modifiers and lifestyle factors on cancer risks. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Mutational spectrum in a worldwide study of 29,700 families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Friebel, Tara M; Friedman, Eitan; Hamann, Ute; Huo, Dezheng; Kwong, Ava; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Solano, Angela R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Thomassen, Mads; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Chan, T L; Couch, Fergus J; Goldgar, David E; Kruse, Torben A; Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Park, Sue Kyung; Torres, Diana; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; McGuffog, Lesley; Parsons, Michael T; Leslie, Goska; Aalfs, Cora M; Abugattas, Julio; Adlard, Julian; Agata, Simona; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrews, Lesley; Andrulis, Irene L; Arason, Adalgeir; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K; Asseryanis, Ella; Auerbach, Leo; Azzollini, Jacopo; Balmaña, Judith; Barile, Monica; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Barrowdale, Daniel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Berger, Raanan; Blanco, Amie M; Blazer, Kathleen R; Blok, Marinus J; Bonadona, Valérie; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bradbury, Angela R; Brewer, Carole; Buecher, Bruno; Buys, Saundra S; Caldes, Trinidad; Caliebe, Almuth; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Caputo, Sandrine M; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Collée, J Margriet; Cook, Jackie; Davidson, Rosemarie; de la Hoya, Miguel; De Leeneer, Kim; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Ditsch, Nina; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Velazquez, Carolina; Dworniczak, Bernd; Eason, Jacqueline; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Ros; Ehrencrona, Hans; Ejlertsen, Bent; Engel, Christoph; Engert, Stefanie; Evans, D Gareth; Faivre, Laurence; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Foretova, Lenka; Fowler, Jeffrey; Frost, Debra; Galvão, Henrique C R; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Gesta, Paul; Giannini, Giuseppe; Giraud, Sophie; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica; Hahnen, Eric; Hauke, Jan; Henderson, Alex; Hentschel, Julia; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Honisch, Ellen; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Kim, Sung-Won; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Korach, Jacob; Laitman, Yael; Lasa, Adriana; Lasset, Christine; Lázaro, Conxi; Lee, Annette; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindor, Noralane M; Longy, Michel; Loud, Jennifer T; Lu, Karen H; Lubinski, Jan; Machackova, Eva; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mari, Véronique; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Matrai, Zoltan; Mebirouk, Noura; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Mickys, Ugnius; Miller, Austin; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Musinsky, Jacob; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ngeow, Joanne; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Niederacher, Dieter; Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Nussbaum, Robert L; Offit, Kenneth; Öfverholm, Anna; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Papi, Laura; Papp, Janos; Pasini, Barbara; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peixoto, Ana; Peruga, Nina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pohl, Esther; Pradhan, Nisha; Prajzendanc, Karolina; Prieur, Fabienne; Pujol, Pascal; Radice, Paolo; Ramus, Susan J; Rantala, Johanna; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rhiem, Kerstin; Robson, Mark; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rogers, Mark T; Rudaitis, Vilius; Schmidt, Ane Y; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Senter, Leigha; Shah, Payal D; Sharma, Priyanka; Side, Lucy E; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Slavin, Thomas P; Snape, Katie; Sobol, Hagay; Southey, Melissa; Steele, Linda; Steinemann, Doris; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tan, Yen Y; Teixeira, Manuel R; Terry, Mary Beth; Teulé, Alex; Thomas, Abigail; Thull, Darcy L; Tischkowitz, Marc; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Topka, Sabine; Trainer, Alison H; Tung, Nadine; van Asperen, Christi J; van der Hout, Annemieke H; van der Kolk, Lizet E; van der Luijt, Rob B; Van Heetvelde, Mattias; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vega, Ana; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Walker, Lisa; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H F; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Zanzottera, Cristina; Zidan, Jamal; Zorn, Kristin K; Hutten Selkirk, Christina G; Hulick, Peter J; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Antoniou, Antonis C; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by MYBPC3 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lynch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathies can result from mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins including MYBPC3, which encodes cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C. However, whether oxidative stress is augmented due to contractile dysfunction and cardiomyocyte damage in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies has not been elucidated. To determine whether oxidative stress markers were elevated in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies, a previously characterized 3-month-old mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM expressing a homozygous MYBPC3 mutation (cMyBP-C(t/t was used, compared to wild-type (WT mice. Echocardiography confirmed decreased percentage of fractional shortening in DCM versus WT hearts. Histopathological analysis indicated a significant increase in myocardial disarray and fibrosis while the second harmonic generation imaging revealed disorganized sarcomeric structure and myocyte damage in DCM hearts when compared to WT hearts. Intriguingly, DCM mouse heart homogenates had decreased glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio and increased protein carbonyl and lipid malondialdehyde content compared to WT heart homogenates, consistent with elevated oxidative stress. Importantly, a similar result was observed in human cardiomyopathy heart homogenate samples. These results were further supported by reduced signals for mitochondrial semiquinone radicals and Fe-S clusters in DCM mouse hearts measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In conclusion, we demonstrate elevated oxidative stress in MYPBC3-mutated DCM mice, which may exacerbate the development of heart failure.

  14. Ocular Phenotype Analysis of a Family With Biallelic Mutations in the BEST1 Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, Dror; Al-Hamdani, Sermed; Engelsberg, Karl

    2014-01-01

    in the inner nuclear layer, no light rise in the electro-oculography, and a reduced central but preserved peripheral retinal function by multifocal electroretinography. Full-field electroretinography demonstrated a reduced rod response and inner retina dysfunction. Retinal structure was normal in all 3 family......PURPOSE: To investigate the genetic cause and perform a comprehensive clinical analysis of a Danish family with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy; to investigate whether Bestrophin may be expressed in normal human retina. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical and molecular genetic analysis...... and immunohistochemical observational study. METHODS: setting: National referral center. participants: A family with 5 individuals and biallelic BEST1 mutations, and enucleated eyes from 2 individuals with nonaffected retinas. observation procedures: Molecular genetic analysis included sequencing of BEST1 and co...

  15. TP53 germline mutation testing in 180 families suspected of Li-Fraumeni syndrome: mutation detection rate and relative frequency of cancers in different familial phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, M.W.G.; Verhoef, S.; Rookus, M.A.; Pruntel, R.; van der Hout, A.H.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R.H.; Aalfs, C.M.; Wagner, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; van Asperen, C.J.; Gómez García, E.B.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; ten Kate, L.P.; Menko, F.H.; van 't Veer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome. Most families fulfilling the classical diagnostic criteria harbour TP53 germline mutations. However, TP53 germline mutations may also occur in less obvious phenotypes. As a result, different criteria

  16. Dominant ELOVL1 mutation causes neurological disorder with ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, hypomyelination and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Anna; Rydzanicz, Małgorzata; Chlebowski, Aleksander; Kłosowska-Kosicka, Kamila; Mika, Adriana; Gruchota, Jakub; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta; Kowalewski, Cezary; Pollak, Agnieszka; Stradomska, Teresa Joanna; Kmieć, Tomasz; Jakubowski, Rafał; Gasperowicz, Piotr; Walczak, Anna; Śladowski, Dariusz; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Korniszewski, Lech; Kosińska, Joanna; Obersztyn, Ewa; Nowak, Wieslaw; Śledziński, Tomasz; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Płoski, Rafał

    2018-06-01

    Ichthyosis and neurological involvement occur in relatively few known Mendelian disorders caused by mutations in genes relevant both for epidermis and neural function. To identify the cause of a similar phenotype of ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, mild hypomyelination (on MRI) and dysmorphic features (IKSHD) observed in two unrelated paediatric probands without family history of disease. Whole exome sequencing was performed in both patients. The functional effect of prioritised variant in ELOVL1 (very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) elongase) was analysed by VLCFA profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in stably transfected HEK2932 cells and in cultured patient's fibroblasts. Probands shared novel heterozygous ELOVL1 p.Ser165Phe mutation (de novo in one family, while in the other family, father could not be tested). In transfected cells p.Ser165Phe: (1) reduced levels of FAs C24:0-C28:0 and C26:1 with the most pronounced effect for C26:0 (P=7.8×10 -6  vs HEK293 cells with wild type (wt) construct, no difference vs naïve HEK293) and (2) increased levels of C20:0 and C22:0 (P=6.3×10 -7 , P=1.2×10 -5 , for C20:0 and C22:0, respectively, comparison vs HEK293 cells with wt construct; P=2.2×10 -7 , P=1.9×10 -4 , respectively, comparison vs naïve HEK293). In skin fibroblasts, there was decrease of C26:1 (P=0.014), C28:0 (P=0.001) and increase of C20:0 (P=0.033) in the patient versus controls. There was a strong correlation (r=0.92, P=0.008) between the FAs profile of patient's fibroblasts and that of p.Ser165Phe transfected HEK293 cells. Serum levels of C20:0-C26:0 FAs were normal, but the C24:0/C22:0 ratio was decreased. The ELOVL1 p.Ser165Phe mutation is a likely cause of IKSHD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of the F11 gene in 14 Turkish patients with factor XI deficiency: identification of novel and recurrent mutations and their inheritance within families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Seyma; Bayhan, Turan; Tavil, Betül; Keskin, Ebru Yılmaz; Cakir, Volkan; Gümrük, Fatma; Çetin, Mualla; Aytaç, Selin; Berber, Ergul

    2018-01-01

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is an autosomal bleeding disease associated with genetic defects in the F11 gene which cause decreased FXI levels or impaired FXI function. An increasing number of mutations has been reported in the FXI mutation database, most of which affect the serine protease domain of the protein. FXI is a heterogeneous disorder associated with a variable bleeding tendency and a variety of causative F11 gene mutations. The molecular basis of FXI deficiency in 14 patients from ten unrelated families in Turkey was analysed to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and inheritance of the mutations in the patients' families. Fourteen index cases with a diagnosis of FXI deficiency and family members of these patients were enrolled into the study. The patients' F11 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to direct DNA sequencing analysis. The findings were analysed statistically using bivariate correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Direct DNA sequencing analysis of the F11 genes revealed that all of the 14 patients had a F11 gene mutation. Eight different mutations were identified in the apple 1, apple 2 or serine protease domains, except one which was a splice site mutation. Six of the mutations were recurrent. Two of the mutations were novel missense mutations, p.Val522Gly and p.Cys581Arg, within the catalytic domain. The p.Trp519Stop mutation was observed in two families whereas all the other mutations were specific to a single family. Identification of mutations confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of FXI deficiency. Most of the patients with mutations did not have any bleeding complications, whereas some had severe bleeding symptoms. Genetic screening for F11 gene mutations is important to decrease the mortality and morbidity rate associated with FXI deficiency, which can be life-threatening if bleeding occurs in tissues with high fibrinolytic activity.

  18. A novel germ-line point mutation in RET exon 8 (Gly(533)Cys) in a large kindred with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Adriana Madeira Alvares da [UNIFESP; Maciel, Rui Monteiro de Barros [UNIFESP; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus Régios [UNIFESP; Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada de [UNIFESP; De Carvalho, Marcos B.; Cerutti, Janete Maria [UNIFESP

    2003-01-01

    Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma is related to germ-line mutations in the RET oncogene, mainly in cysteine codon 10 or 11, whereas noncysteine mutations in codons 13 - 15 are rare. We now report a new missense point mutation in exon 8 of the RET gene (1597G-->T) corresponding to a Gly(533)Cys substitution in the cystein-rich domain of RET protein in 76 patients from a 6-generation Brazilian family with 229 subjects, with ascendants from Spain. It is likely that the mutation causes familia...

  19. A de novo deletion mutation in SOX10 in a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Yaowu; Shen, Na; Peng, Jing; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Haiyi; Lu, Yanjun

    2017-01-27

    Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) or Waardenburg-Shah syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with a prevalence of <1/1,000,000 and characterized by the association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities, and intestinal aganglionosis. There are three types of WS4 (WS4A-C) caused by mutations in endothelin receptor type B, endothelin 3, and SRY-box 10 (SOX10), respectively. This study investigated a genetic mutation in a Chinese family with one WS4 patient in order to improve genetic counselling. Genomic DNA was extracted, and mutation analysis of the three WS4 related genes was performed using Sanger sequencing. We detected a de novo heterozygous deletion mutation [c.1333delT (p.Ser445Glnfs*57)] in SOX10 in the patient; however, this mutation was absent in the unaffected parents and 40 ethnicity matched healthy controls. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional modelling of the SOX10 protein confirmed that the c.1333delT heterozygous mutation was pathogenic, indicating that this mutation might constitute a candidate disease-causing mutation.

  20. Mutations in KEOPS-complex genes cause nephrotic syndrome with primary microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Daniela A; Rao, Jia; Mollet, Geraldine; Schapiro, David; Daugeron, Marie-Claire; Tan, Weizhen; Gribouval, Olivier; Boyer, Olivia; Revy, Patrick; Jobst-Schwan, Tilman; Schmidt, Johanna Magdalena; Lawson, Jennifer A; Schanze, Denny; Ashraf, Shazia; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Hoogstraten, Charlotte A; Boddaert, Nathalie; Collinet, Bruno; Martin, Gaëlle; Liger, Dominique; Lovric, Svjetlana; Furlano, Monica; Guerrera, I Chiara; Sanchez-Ferras, Oraly; Hu, Jennifer F; Boschat, Anne-Claire; Sanquer, Sylvia; Menten, Björn; Vergult, Sarah; De Rocker, Nina; Airik, Merlin; Hermle, Tobias; Shril, Shirlee; Widmeier, Eugen; Gee, Heon Yung; Choi, Won-Il; Sadowski, Carolin E; Pabst, Werner L; Warejko, Jillian K; Daga, Ankana; Basta, Tamara; Matejas, Verena; Scharmann, Karin; Kienast, Sandra D; Behnam, Babak; Beeson, Brendan; Begtrup, Amber; Bruce, Malcolm; Ch'ng, Gaik-Siew; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Chao-Huei; Cho, Megan T; Gaffney, Patrick M; Gipson, Patrick E; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Kari, Jameela A; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Lai, Wai-Ming; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Masri, Amira; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Ozaltin, Fatih; Praet, Marleen; Prasad, Chitra; Prytula, Agnieszka; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Rump, Patrick; Schnur, Rhonda E; Shiihara, Takashi; Sinha, Manish D; Soliman, Neveen A; Soulami, Kenza; Sweetser, David A; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Topaloglu, Rezan; Vester, Udo; Viskochil, David H; Vatanavicharn, Nithiwat; Waxler, Jessica L; Wierenga, Klaas J; Wolf, Matthias T F; Wong, Sik-Nin; Leidel, Sebastian A; Truglio, Gessica; Dedon, Peter C; Poduri, Annapurna; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P; Bouchard, Maxime; Kannu, Peter; Chitayat, David; Magen, Daniella; Callewaert, Bert; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Zenker, Martin; Antignac, Corinne; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2017-10-01

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS complex, in 37 individuals from 32 families with GAMOS. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulated the human phenotype of primary microcephaly and resulted in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibited cell proliferation, which human mutations did not rescue. Furthermore, knockdown of these genes impaired protein translation, caused endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated DNA-damage-response signaling, and ultimately induced apoptosis. Knockdown of OSGEP or TP53RK induced defects in the actin cytoskeleton and decreased the migration rate of human podocytes, an established intermediate phenotype of SRNS. We thus identified four new monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe a link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms.

  1. A novel Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene mutation, c.-1_2delAAT, responsible for Norrie disease in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yu; Jiang, Wei-Ying; Chen, Lu-Ming; Chen, Su-Qin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic findings and phenotypic characteristics of a Chinese family with Norrie disease (ND). Molecular genetic analysis and clinical examinations were performed on a Chinese family with ND. Mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene were detected by direct sequencing. Haplotypes were constructed and compared with the phenotypes in the family. Evolutionary comparisons and mutant open reading frame (ORF) prediction were also undertaken. Two family members with ocular manifestations were diagnosed with ND. No signs of sensorineural hearing loss were observed in either patient, while one of them showed signs of mild mental retardation. A novel heterozygous mutation in the NDP gene, c.-1_2delAAT, was detected in both patients. The mutation and the mutation bearing haplotype co-segregated with the ND phenotype in males and was transmitted from their mothers and/or grandmothers (II:2). The male without ND did not harbor the mutation. The mutation occurred at the highly conserved nucleotides. ORF finder predicted that the mutation would lead to the production of a truncated protein that lacks the first 11 N-terminal amino acids. A novel mutation, c.-1_2delAAT in the NDP gene, was identified in a Chinese family with ND. This mutation caused ND without obvious sensorineural hearing loss. Mental disorder was found in one but not the other patients. The clinical heterogeneity in the family indicated that other genetic variants and epigenetic factors may also play a role in the disease presentation.

  2. Primary microcephaly caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in ASPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei

    2018-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (microcephaly primary hereditary, MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous rare developmental disorder that is characterized by prenatal onset of abnormal brain growth, which leads to intellectual disability of variable severity. We report a 5-year-old male who presented with a severe form of primary microcephaly. Targeted panel sequencing revealed compound heterozygous truncating mutations of the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated ( ASPM ) gene, which confirmed the MCPH5 diagnosis. A novel NM_018136.4: c.9742_9745del (p.Lys3248Serfs*13) deletion mutation was identified.

  3. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzen, Erin L; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Hitomi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    and their unaffected parents to identify de novo nonsynonymous mutations in ATP1A3 in all seven individuals. In a subsequent sequence analysis of ATP1A3 in 98 other patients with AHC, we found that ATP1A3 mutations were likely to be responsible for at least 74% of the cases; we also identified one inherited mutation...... affecting the level of protein expression. This work identifies de novo ATP1A3 mutations as the primary cause of AHC and offers insight into disease pathophysiology by expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with mutations in ATP1A3....

  4. Identification of a Novel Androgen Receptor Mutation in a Family With Multiple Components Compatible With the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Grete; Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E.

    2013-01-01

    showed features consistent with insufficient testis development and TDS.Conclusion: The presence of all hallmarks of TDS, including germ cell cancer, in a family with a novel AR mutation causing a partial decrease in AR function is in line with the concept that reduced androgen signaling may contribute......, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer, caused by a novel AR mutation.Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the phenotype of the affected males, characterize functionally the novel AR mutation, and discuss the significance of partial androgen insufficiency in the pathogenesis of TDS...... analysis of the mutation in a gene-reporter assay showed a 50% reduction in AR-induced transcriptional activity. The affected males had elevated LH and T in accordance with decreased AR signaling. The histology and immunohistochemical profile of the testis tissue from the 2 patients with testicular cancer...

  5. Novel GALNT3 mutations causing hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome result in low intact fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Guigonis, Vincent; Imel, Erik A; Courouble, Mélanie; Heissat, Sophie; Henley, John D; Sorenson, Andrea H; Petit, Barbara; Lienhardt, Anne; Econs, Michael J

    2007-05-01

    Hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by hyperphosphatemia and localized hyperostosis. HHS is caused by mutations in GALNT3, which encodes UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N- acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3. Familial tumoral calcinosis (TC), characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia, is caused by mutations in the GALNT3 or fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) genes. Our objective was to identify mutations in FGF23 or GALNT3 and determine serum FGF23 levels in an HHS patient. Mutation detection in FGF23 and GALNT3 was performed by DNA sequencing, and serum FGF23 concentrations were measured by ELISA. A 5-year-old French boy with HHS and his family members participated. The patient presented with painful cortical lesions in his leg. Radiographs of the affected bone showed diaphyseal hyperostosis. The lesional tissue comprised trabeculae of immature, woven bone surrounded by fibrous tissue. Biochemistry revealed elevated phosphate, tubular maximum rate for phosphate reabsorption per deciliter of glomerular filtrate, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The patient was a compound heterozygote for two novel GALNT3 mutations. His parents and brother were heterozygous for one of the mutations and had no biochemical abnormalities. Intact FGF23 level in the patient was low normal, whereas C-terminal FGF23 was elevated, a pattern similar to TC. The presence of GALNT3 mutations and elevated C-terminal, but low intact serum FGF23, levels in HHS resemble those seen in TC, suggesting that HHS and TC are different manifestations of the same disorder. The absence of biochemical abnormalities in the heterozygous individuals suggests that one normal allele is sufficient for secretion of intact FGF23.

  6. Mutations that Cause Human Disease: A Computational/Experimental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beernink, P; Barsky, D; Pesavento, B

    2006-01-11

    International genome sequencing projects have produced billions of nucleotides (letters) of DNA sequence data, including the complete genome sequences of 74 organisms. These genome sequences have created many new scientific opportunities, including the ability to identify sequence variations among individuals within a species. These genetic differences, which are known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are particularly important in understanding the genetic basis for disease susceptibility. Since the report of the complete human genome sequence, over two million human SNPs have been identified, including a large-scale comparison of an entire chromosome from twenty individuals. Of the protein coding SNPs (cSNPs), approximately half leads to a single amino acid change in the encoded protein (non-synonymous coding SNPs). Most of these changes are functionally silent, while the remainder negatively impact the protein and sometimes cause human disease. To date, over 550 SNPs have been found to cause single locus (monogenic) diseases and many others have been associated with polygenic diseases. SNPs have been linked to specific human diseases, including late-onset Parkinson disease, autism, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The ability to predict accurately the effects of these SNPs on protein function would represent a major advance toward understanding these diseases. To date several attempts have been made toward predicting the effects of such mutations. The most successful of these is a computational approach called ''Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant'' (SIFT). This method uses sequence conservation among many similar proteins to predict which residues in a protein are functionally important. However, this method suffers from several limitations. First, a query sequence must have a sufficient number of relatives to infer sequence conservation. Second, this method does not make use of or provide any information on protein structure, which

  7. Unusual AIP mutation and phenocopy in the family of a young patient with acromegalic gigantism

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ali Imran; Khaled A Aldahmani; Lynette Penney; Sidney E Croul; David B Clarke; Donato Iacovazzo; Márta Korbonits

    2018-01-01

    Summary Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein (AIP) mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. He had typical facial features of acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, secondary hypogonadism and a large macroadenoma. His paternal aunt had a history of acromegaly presenting at the age of 35 years. Following transspheno...

  8. FGFR3 mutation causes abnormal membranous ossification in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Federico; Biosse Duplan, Martin; Heuzé, Yann; Kaci, Nabil; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Munnich, Arnold; Mugniery, Emilie; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to both chondrodysplasias and craniosynostoses. Achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent dwarfism, is due to an FGFR3-activating mutation which results in impaired endochondral ossification. The effects of the mutation on membranous ossification are unknown. Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice mimicking ACH and craniofacial analysis of patients with ACH and FGFR3-related craniosynostoses provide an opportunity to address this issue. Studying the calvaria and skull base, we observed abnormal cartilage and premature fusion of the synchondroses leading to modifications of foramen magnum shape and size in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice, ACH and FGFR3-related craniosynostoses patients. Partial premature fusion of the coronal sutures and non-ossified gaps in frontal bones were also present in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice and ACH patients. Our data provide strong support that not only endochondral ossification but also membranous ossification is severely affected in ACH. Demonstration of the impact of FGFR3 mutations on craniofacial development should initiate novel pharmacological and surgical therapeutic approaches.

  9. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre; Heron, Sarah E.; Larsen, Line H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associated w...

  10. Identification of a SIRT1 mutation in a family with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biason-Lauber, Anna; Böni-Schnetzler, Marianne; Hubbard, Basil P

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune-mediated β cell destruction leading to insulin deficiency. The histone deacetylase SIRT1 plays an essential role in modulating several age-related diseases. Here we describe a family carrying a mutation in the SIRT1 gene, in which all five affected members...... developed an autoimmune disorder: four developed type 1 diabetes, and one developed ulcerative colitis. Initially, a 26-year-old man was diagnosed with the typical features of type 1 diabetes, including lean body mass, autoantibodies, T cell reactivity to β cell antigens, and a rapid dependence on insulin....... Direct and exome sequencing identified the presence of a T-to-C exchange in exon 1 of SIRT1, corresponding to a leucine-to-proline mutation at residue 107. Expression of SIRT1-L107P in insulin-producing cells resulted in overproduction of nitric oxide, cytokines, and chemokines. These observations...

  11. Portuguese family with the co-occurrence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis phenotypes due to progranulin gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria R; Macário, Maria C; Ramos, Lina; Baldeiras, Inês; Ribeiro, Maria H; Santana, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    We and others have reported heterozygous progranulin mutations as an important cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It has been identified a complete progranulin deficiency because of a homozygous mutation in a sibling pair with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). Here, we describe the first case of NCL caused by a homozygous progranulin mutation segregating in a family with neuropathological confirmed FTLD. In this FTLD-NCL family, we detail the clinical phenotype, neuropsychological evaluation and imaging data of our proband harboring a homozygous mutation, c.900_901dupGT, with serum progranulin level (progranulin levels in suspected recessive adult-onset NCL cases. Overall, a more holistic neurologic intervention is needed to guarantee a proper genetic counseling in cases like the present family where two distinct phenotypes are generated according to the individuals' mutation state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NHS Gene Mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish Families with Nance-Horan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshany, Nadav; Avni, Isaac; Morad, Yair; Weiner, Chen; Einan-Lifshitz, Adi; Pras, Eran

    2017-09-01

    To describe ocular and extraocular abnormalities in two Ashkenazi Jewish families with infantile cataract and X-linked inheritance, and to identify their underlying mutations. Seven affected members were recruited. Medical history, clinical findings, and biometric measurements were recorded. Mutation analysis of the Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) gene was performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified exons. An unusual anterior Y-sutural cataract was documented in the affected male proband. Other clinical features among examined patients included microcorneas, long and narrow faces, and current or previous dental anomalies. A nonsense mutation was identified in each family, including a previously described 742 C>T, p.(Arg248*) mutation in Family A, and a novel mutation 2915 C>A, p.(Ser972*) in Family B. Our study expands the repertoire of NHS mutations and the related phenotype, including newly described anterior Y-sutural cataract and dental findings.

  13. Two families with normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and biallelic mutations in KISS1R (KISS1 receptor: clinical evaluation and molecular characterization of a novel mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Brioude

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: KISS1R mutations have been reported in few patients with normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH (OMIM #146110. OBJECTIVE: To describe in detail nCHH patients with biallelic KISS1R mutations belonging to 2 unrelated families, and to functionally characterize a novel KISS1R mutation. RESULTS: An original mutant, p.Tyr313His, was found in the homozygous state in 3 affected kindred (2 females and 1 male from a consanguineous Portuguese family. This mutation, located in the seventh transmembrane domain, affects a highly conserved amino acid, perturbs the conformation of the transmembrane segment, and impairs MAP kinase signaling and intracellular calcium release. In the second family, a French Caucasian male patient with nCHH was found to carry two recurrent mutations in the compound heterozygous state (p.Leu102Pro/Stop399Arg. In this man, pulsatile GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone administration restored pulsatile LH (Luteinizing Hormone secretion and testicular hormone secretion. Later, long-term combined gonadotropin therapy induced spermatogenesis, enabling 3 successive pregnancies that resulted in 2 miscarriages and the birth of a healthy boy. CONCLUSION: We show that a novel loss-of-function mutation (p.Tyr313His in the KISS1R gene can cause familial nCHH, revealing the crucial role of this amino acid in KISS1R function. The observed restoration of gonadotropin secretion by exogenous GnRH administration further supports, in humans, the hypothalamic origin of the gonadotropin deficiency in this genetic form of nCHH.

  14. Clinical study of DMD gene point mutation causing Becker muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-qing CAO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  DMD gene point mutation, mainly nonsense mutation, always cause the most severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. However, we also observed some cases of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD carrying DMD point mutation. This paper aims to explore the mechanism of DMD point mutation causing BMD, in order to enhance the understanding of mutation types of BMD.  Methods  Sequence analysis was performed in 11 cases of BMD confirmed by typical clinical manifestations and muscle biopsy. The exon of DMD gene was detected non-deletion or duplication by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA.  Results  Eleven patients carried 10 mutation types without mutational hotspot. Six patients carried nonsense mutations [c.5002G>T, p.(Glu1668X; c.1615C > T, p.(Arg539X; c.7105G > T, p.(Glu2369X; c.5287C > T, p.(Arg1763X; c.9284T > G, p.(Leu3095X]. One patient carried missense mutation [c.5234G > A, p.(Arg1745His]. Two patients carried frameshift mutations (c.10231dupT, c.10491delC. Two patients carried splicing site mutations (c.4518 + 3A > T, c.649 + 2T > C.  Conclusions  DMD gene point mutation may result in BMD with mild clinical symptoms. When clinical manifestations suggest the possibility of BMD and MLPA reveals non?deletion or duplication mutation of DMD gene, BMD should be considered. Study on the mechanism of DMD point mutation causing BMD is very important for gene therapy of DMD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.005

  15. A Founder Mutation in VPS11 Causes an Autosomal Recessive Leukoencephalopathy Linked to Autophagic Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic leukoencephalopathies (gLEs are a group of heterogeneous disorders with white matter abnormalities affecting the central nervous system (CNS. The causative mutation in ~50% of gLEs is unknown. Using whole exome sequencing (WES, we identified homozygosity for a missense variant, VPS11: c.2536T>G (p.C846G, as the genetic cause of a leukoencephalopathy syndrome in five individuals from three unrelated Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ families. All five patients exhibited highly concordant disease progression characterized by infantile onset leukoencephalopathy with brain white matter abnormalities, severe motor impairment, cortical blindness, intellectual disability, and seizures. The carrier frequency of the VPS11: c.2536T>G variant is 1:250 in the AJ population (n = 2,026. VPS11 protein is a core component of HOPS (homotypic fusion and protein sorting and CORVET (class C core vacuole/endosome tethering protein complexes involved in membrane trafficking and fusion of the lysosomes and endosomes. The cysteine 846 resides in an evolutionarily conserved cysteine-rich RING-H2 domain in carboxyl terminal regions of VPS11 proteins. Our data shows that the C846G mutation causes aberrant ubiquitination and accelerated turnover of VPS11 protein as well as compromised VPS11-VPS18 complex assembly, suggesting a loss of function in the mutant protein. Reduced VPS11 expression leads to an impaired autophagic activity in human cells. Importantly, zebrafish harboring a vps11 mutation with truncated RING-H2 domain demonstrated a significant reduction in CNS myelination following extensive neuronal death in the hindbrain and midbrain. Thus, our study reveals a defect in VPS11 as the underlying etiology for an autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy disorder associated with a dysfunctional autophagy-lysosome trafficking pathway.

  16. Characterization of novel StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mutations causing non-classic lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa E Flück

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR is crucial for transport of cholesterol to mitochondria where biosynthesis of steroids is initiated. Loss of StAR function causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH. OBJECTIVE: StAR gene mutations causing partial loss of function manifest atypical and may be mistaken as familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Only a few mutations have been reported. DESIGN: To report clinical, biochemical, genetic, protein structure and functional data on two novel StAR mutations, and to compare them with published literature. SETTING: Collaboration between the University Children's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, and the CIBERER, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University, Barcelona, Spain. PATIENTS: Two subjects of a non-consanguineous Caucasian family were studied. The 46,XX phenotypic normal female was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at the age of 10 months, had normal pubertal development and still has no signs of hypergonodatropic hypogonadism at 32 years of age. Her 46,XY brother was born with normal male external genitalia and was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at 14 months. Puberty was normal and no signs of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are present at 29 years of age. RESULTS: StAR gene analysis revealed two novel compound heterozygote mutations T44HfsX3 and G221S. T44HfsX3 is a loss-of-function StAR mutation. G221S retains partial activity (∼30% and is therefore responsible for a milder, non-classic phenotype. G221S is located in the cholesterol binding pocket and seems to alter binding/release of cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: StAR mutations located in the cholesterol binding pocket (V187M, R188C, R192C, G221D/S seem to cause non-classic lipoid CAH. Accuracy of genotype-phenotype prediction by in vitro testing may vary with the assays employed.

  17. A novel A792D mutation in the CSF1R gene causes hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids characterized by slow progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiho Ueda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS is an autosomal dominant white matter disease that causes adult-onset cognitive impairment. The clinical manifestations are a variable combination of personality and behavioral changes, cognitive decline, parkinsonism, spasticity, and epilepsy. In 2012, mutations in the gene encoding colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R were identified as the cause of HDLS. As the numbers of reported mutations are limited, the understanding of whole pathogenesis needs accumulation of disease-causing mutations with detailed clinical descriptions. We describe a Japanese family with autosomal dominant adult-onset cognitive impairment and characteristic white matter lesions. Genetic testing revealed a novel p.A792D mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of CSF1R in two affected family members. The symptom profile of the present cases mostly matched the previously reported cases, with the notable exceptions of late-onset and long disease duration.

  18. Novel ELN mutation in a family with supravalvular aortic stenosis and intracranial aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Urban, Zsolt; Hucthagowder, Vishwanathan

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic germline mutations in ELN can be detected in patients with supravalvular aortic stenosis. The mutation might occur de novo or be inherited following an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In this report we describe a three-generation family suffering from supravalvular aortic st...... in the phenotype within a single SVAS family....

  19. Next-generation sequencing reveals a novel NDP gene mutation in a Chinese family with Norrie disease

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Mao; Li, Jiankang; Cui, Ling; Li, Min; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked genetic disorder, the main symptoms of which are congenital blindness and white pupils. It has been reported that ND is caused by mutations in the NDP gene. Although many mutations in NDP have been reported, the genetic cause for many patients remains unknown. In this study, the aim is to investigate the genetic defect in a five-generation family with typical symptoms of ND. Methods: To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing bas...

  20. A novel missense mutation of the paired box 3 gene in a Turkish family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan, Filiz; Ozturk, A Taylan; Adibelli, Hamit; Unal, Nurettin; Tukun, Ajlan

    2013-01-01

    Screening of mutations in the paired box 3 (PAX3) gene in three generations of a Turkish family with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1). WS1 was diagnosed in a 13-month-old girl according to the WS Consortium criteria. Detailed family history of the proband revealed eight affected members in three generations. Routine clinical and audiological examination and ophthalmologic evaluation were performed on eight affected and five healthy members of the study family. Dystopia canthorum was detected in all affected patients; however, a brilliant blue iris was present in five patients who also had mild retinal hypopigmentation. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of affected and unaffected individuals in the family as well as 50 unrelated healthy volunteers. All coding exons and adjacent intronic regions of PAX3 were sequenced directly. A novel missense heterozygous c.788T>G mutation was identified in eight patients. This nucleotide alteration was not found in unaffected members of the study family or in the 50 unrelated control subjects. The mutation causes V263G amino-acid substitution in the homeodomain of the PAX3 protein, which represents the 45(th) residue of helix 3. We identified a novel missense c.788T>G mutation in PAX3 in a family with Waardenburg syndrome with intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity.

  1. A de novo missense mutation of FGFR2 causes facial dysplasia syndrome in Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; McEvoy, Fintan; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    was suspected as all recorded cases were progeny of the same sire. Detailed investigations were performed to characterize the syndrome and to reveal its cause. Results Seven malformed calves were submitted examination. All cases shared a common morphology with the most striking lesions being severe facial...... chromosome 26 where whole genome sequencing of a case-parent trio revealed two de novo variants perfectly associated with the disease: an intronic SNP in the DMBT1 gene and a single non-synonymous variant in the FGFR2 gene. This FGFR2 missense variant (c.927G>T) affects a gene encoding a member...... of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and across species. It is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved tryptophan into a cysteine residue (p.Trp309Cys). Both variant alleles were proven to result from de novo mutation events...

  2. Mild and severe muscular dystrophy caused by a single {gamma}-sarcoglycan mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, E.M.; Boennemann, C.G.; Lidov, H.G.W. [Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    Autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy is genetically heterogeneous. One form of this disorder, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD 2C), is prevalent in northern Africa and has been shown to be associated with a single mutation in the gene encoding the dystrophin-associated protein {gamma}-sarcoglycan. The previous mutation analysis of {gamma}-sarcoglycan required the availability of muscle biopsies. To establish a mutation assay for genomic DNA, the intron-exon structure of the {gamma}-sarcoglycan gene was determined, and primers were designed to amplify each of the exons encoding {gamma}-sarcoglycan. We studied a group of Brazilian muscular dystrophy patients for mutations in the {gamma}-sarcoglycan gene. These patients were selected on the basis of autosomal inheritance and/or the presence of normal dystrophin and/or deficiency of {alpha}-sarcoglycan immunostaining. Four of 19 patients surveyed had a single, homozygous mutation in the {gamma}-sarcoglycan gene. The mutation identified in these patients, all of African-Brazilian descent, is identical to that seen in the North African population, suggesting that even patients of remote African descent may carry this mutation. The phenotype in these patients varied considerably. Of four families with an identical mutation, three have a severe Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy. However, one family has much milder symptoms, suggesting that other loci may be present that modify the severity of the clinical course resulting from {gamma}-sarcoglycan gene mutations. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Targeted exome sequencing identified novel USH2A mutations in Usher syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Feng Huang

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome (USH is a leading cause of deaf-blindness in autosomal recessive trait. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneities in USH make molecular diagnosis much difficult. This is a pilot study aiming to develop an approach based on next-generation sequencing to determine the genetic defects in patients with USH or allied diseases precisely and effectively. Eight affected patients and twelve unaffected relatives from five unrelated Chinese USH families, including 2 pseudo-dominant ones, were recruited. A total of 144 known genes of inherited retinal diseases were selected for deep exome resequencing. Through systematic data analysis using established bioinformatics pipeline and segregation analysis, a number of genetic variants were released. Eleven mutations, eight of them were novel, in the USH2A gene were identified. Biparental mutations in USH2A were revealed in 2 families with pseudo-dominant inheritance. A proband was found to have triple mutations, two of them were supposed to locate in the same chromosome. In conclusion, this study revealed the genetic defects in the USH2A gene and demonstrated the robustness of targeted exome sequencing to precisely and rapidly determine genetic defects. The methodology provides a reliable strategy for routine gene diagnosis of USH.

  4. Familial Mediterranean fever, Inflammation and Nephrotic Syndrome: Fibrillary Glomerulopathy and the M680I Missense Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semerdjian Ronald J

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by inflammatory serositis (fever, peritonitis, synovitis and pleuritis. The gene locus responsible for FMF was identified in 1992 and localized to the short arm of chromosome 16. In 1997, a specific FMF gene locus, MEFV, was discovered to encode for a protein, pyrin that mediates inflammation. To date, more than forty missense mutations are known to exist. The diversity of mutations identified has provided insight into the variability of clinical presentation and disease progression. Case Report We report an individual heterozygous for the M680I gene mutation with a clinical diagnosis of FMF using the Tel-Hashomer criteria. Subsequently, the patient developed nephrotic syndrome with biopsy-confirmed fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN. Further diagnostic studies were unremarkable with clinical workup negative for amyloidosis or other secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome. Discussion Individuals with FMF are at greater risk for developing nephrotic syndrome. The most serious etiology is amyloidosis (AA variant with renal involvement, ultimately progressing to end-stage renal disease. Other known renal diseases in the FMF population include IgA nephropathy, IgM nephropathy, Henoch-Schönlein purpura as well as polyarteritis nodosa. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first association between FMF and the M680I mutation later complicated by nephrotic syndrome and fibrillary glomerulonephritis.

  5. Molecular genetic analysis of the calcium sensing receptor gene in patients clinically suspected to have familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: phenotypic variation and mutation spectrum in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Peter H; Christensen, Signe E; Heickendorff, Lene

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: The autosomal dominantly inherited condition familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is characterized by elevated plasma calcium levels, relative or absolute hypocalciuria, and normal to moderately elevated plasma PTH. The condition is difficult to distinguish clinically from primary...... hyperparathyroidism and is caused by inactivating mutations in the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the mutation spectrum of the CASR gene in a Danish FHH population and to establish genotype-phenotype relationships regarding the different mutations. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS...

  6. Three novel and the common Arg677Ter RP1 protein truncating mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in a Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antiñolo Guillermo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP, a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal degeneration disorders affecting the photoreceptor cells, is one of the leading causes of genetic blindness. Mutations in the photoreceptor-specific gene RP1 account for 3–10% of cases of autosomal dominant RP (adRP. Most of these mutations are clustered in a 500 bp region of exon 4 of RP1. Methods Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and direct genomic sequencing were used to evaluate the 5' coding region of exon 4 of the RP1 gene for mutations in 150 unrelated index adRP patients. Ophthalmic and electrophysiological examination of RP patients and relatives according to pre-existing protocols were carried out. Results Three novel disease-causing mutations in RP1 were detected: Q686X, K705fsX712 and K722fsX737, predicting truncated proteins. One novel missense mutation, Thr752Met, was detected in one family but the mutation does not co-segregate in the family, thereby excluding this amino acid variation in the protein as a cause of the disease. We found the Arg677Ter mutation, previously reported in other populations, in two independent families, confirming that this mutation is also present in a Spanish population. Conclusion Most of the mutations reported in the RP1 gene associated with adRP are expected to encode mutant truncated proteins that are approximately one third or half of the size of wild type protein. Patients with mutations in RP1 showed mild RP with variability in phenotype severity. We also observed several cases of non-penetrant mutations.

  7. MSH6 and PMS2 mutation positive Australian Lynch syndrome families: novel mutations, cancer risk and age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; McPhillips, Mary; Groombridge, Claire; Spigelman, Allan; Scott, Rodney J

    2010-05-21

    Approximately 10% of Lynch syndrome families have a mutation in MSH6 and fewer families have a mutation in PMS2. It is assumed that the cancer incidence is the same in families with mutations in MSH6 as in families with mutations in MLH1/MSH2 but that the disease tends to occur later in life, little is known about families with PMS2 mutations. This study reports on our findings on mutation type, cancer risk and age of diagnosis in MSH6 and PMS2 families. A total of 78 participants (from 29 families) with a mutation in MSH6 and 7 participants (from 6 families) with a mutation in PMS2 were included in the current study. A database of de-identified patient information was analysed to extract all relevant information such as mutation type, cancer incidence, age of diagnosis and cancer type in this Lynch syndrome cohort. Cumulative lifetime risk was calculated utilising Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. MSH6 and PMS2 mutations represent 10.3% and 1.9%, respectively, of the pathogenic mutations in our Australian Lynch syndrome families. We identified 26 different MSH6 and 4 different PMS2 mutations in the 35 families studied. We report 15 novel MSH6 and 1 novel PMS2 mutations. The estimated cumulative risk of CRC at age 70 years was 61% (similar in males and females) and 65% for endometrial cancer in MSH6 mutation carriers. The risk of developing CRC is different between males and females at age 50 years, which is 34% for males and 21% for females. Novel MSH6 and PMS2 mutations are being reported and submitted to the current databases for identified Lynch syndrome mutations. Our data provides additional information to add to the genotype-phenotype spectrum for both MSH6 and PMS2 mutations.

  8. MSH6 and PMS2 mutation positive Australian Lynch syndrome families: novel mutations, cancer risk and age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talseth-Palmer Bente A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 10% of Lynch syndrome families have a mutation in MSH6 and fewer families have a mutation in PMS2. It is assumed that the cancer incidence is the same in families with mutations in MSH6 as in families with mutations in MLH1/MSH2 but that the disease tends to occur later in life, little is known about families with PMS2 mutations. This study reports on our findings on mutation type, cancer risk and age of diagnosis in MSH6 and PMS2 families. Methods A total of 78 participants (from 29 families with a mutation in MSH6 and 7 participants (from 6 families with a mutation in PMS2 were included in the current study. A database of de-identified patient information was analysed to extract all relevant information such as mutation type, cancer incidence, age of diagnosis and cancer type in this Lynch syndrome cohort. Cumulative lifetime risk was calculated utilising Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results MSH6 and PMS2 mutations represent 10.3% and 1.9%, respectively, of the pathogenic mutations in our Australian Lynch syndrome families. We identified 26 different MSH6 and 4 different PMS2 mutations in the 35 families studied. We report 15 novel MSH6 and 1 novel PMS2 mutations. The estimated cumulative risk of CRC at age 70 years was 61% (similar in males and females and 65% for endometrial cancer in MSH6 mutation carriers. The risk of developing CRC is different between males and females at age 50 years, which is 34% for males and 21% for females. Conclusion Novel MSH6 and PMS2 mutations are being reported and submitted to the current databases for identified Lynch syndrome mutations. Our data provides additional information to add to the genotype-phenotype spectrum for both MSH6 and PMS2 mutations.

  9. Muscle imaging in patients with tubular aggregate myopathy caused by mutations in STIM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tasca, Giorgio; D'Amico, Adele; Monforte, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Tubular aggregate myopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by tubular aggregates as the hallmark on muscle biopsy. Mutations in STIM1 have recently been identified as one genetic cause in a number of tubular aggregate myopathy cases. To characterize the pattern of muscle...... involvement in this disease, upper and lower girdles and lower limbs were imaged in five patients with mutations in STIM1, and the scans were compared with two patients with tubular aggregate myopathy not caused by mutations in STIM1. A common pattern of involvement was found in STIM1-mutated patients...... of thigh and posterior leg with sparing of gracilis, tibialis anterior and, to a lesser extent, short head of biceps femoris. Mutations in STIM1 are associated with a homogeneous involvement on imaging despite variable clinical features. Muscle imaging can be useful in identifying STIM1-mutated patients...

  10. CNGA3 mutations in two United Arab Emirates families with achromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Yachna; Kohl, Susanne; Traboulsi, Elias I

    2008-07-10

    ACHROMATOPSIA RESULTS FROM MUTATIONS IN ONE OF THREE GENES: cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, alpha-3 (CNGA3); cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, beta-3 (CNGB3); and guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha-transducing activity polypeptide 2 (GNAT2). We report the responsible mutations in two United Arab Emirates families who have this autosomal recessive disease. Clinical examinations were performed in seven patients from three nuclear families. Molecular genetic testing for common CNGA3 and CNGB3 mutations was undertaken using standard protocols. All patients were extremely light sensitive and had reduced visual acuity and no color perception. Fundus examinations did not show any visible abnormalities. After further pedigree analysis, two of the families were found to be linked through the paternal line. Two mutations in CNGA3 were identified: Arg283Trp and Gly397Val. Family A, the larger pedigree, had one branch in which two sisters and one brother were homozygous for the Gly397Val mutation and another branch in which a brother and sister were compound heterozygous for both aforenamed mutations. Family B, however, only had two brothers who were homozygous for the Arg283Trp mutation. Achromatopsia in these two United Arab Emirates families results from two different mutations in CNGA3. Two branches of the same pedigree had individuals with both homozygous and compound heterozygous disease, demonstrating a complex molecular pathology in this large family.

  11. Presence of c.3956delC mutation in familial adenomatous polyposis patients from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Nunes, Caroline Aquino; Alcântara, Diego di Felipe Ávila; Lima-Júnior, Sérgio Figueiredo; Cavalléro, Sandro Roberto de Araújo; Rey, Juan Antonio; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; de Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2015-08-21

    To characterize APC gene mutations and correlate them with patient phenotypes in individuals diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in northern Brazil. A total of 15 individuals diagnosed with FAP from 5 different families from the north of Brazil were analyzed in this study. In addition to patients with histopathological diagnosis of FAP, family members who had not developed the disease were also tested in order to identify mutations and for possible genetic counseling. All analyzed patients or their guardians signed a consent form approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the João de Barros Barreto University Hospital (Belem, Brazil). DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of a member of each of the affected families was subjected to direct sequencing. The proband of each family was sequenced to identify germline mutations using the Ion Torrent platform. To validate the detected mutations, Sanger sequencing was also performed. The samples from all patients were also tested for the identification of mutations by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using the amplification refractory mutation system. Through interviews with relatives and a search of medical records, it was possible to construct genograms for three of the five families included in the study. All 15 patients from the five families with FAP exhibited mutations in the APC gene, and all mutations were detected in exon 15 of the APC gene. In addition to the patients with a histological diagnosis of FAP, family members without disease symptoms showed the mutation in the APC gene. In the present study, we detected two of the three most frequent germline mutations in the literature: the mutation at codon 1309 and the mutation at codon 1061. The presence of c.3956delC mutation was found in all families from this study, and suggests that this mutation was introduced in the population of the State of Pará through ancestor immigration (i.e., a de novo mutation that arose in one

  12. Integrated sequence analysis pipeline provides one-stop solution for identifying disease-causing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Wienker, Thomas F; Musante, Luciana; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, H Hilger

    2014-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing has greatly accelerated the search for disease-causing defects, but even for experts the data analysis can be a major challenge. To facilitate the data processing in a clinical setting, we have developed a novel medical resequencing analysis pipeline (MERAP). MERAP assesses the quality of sequencing, and has optimized capacity for calling variants, including single-nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions, copy-number variation, and other structural variants. MERAP identifies polymorphic and known causal variants by filtering against public domain databases, and flags nonsynonymous and splice-site changes. MERAP uses a logistic model to estimate the causal likelihood of a given missense variant. MERAP considers the relevant information such as phenotype and interaction with known disease-causing genes. MERAP compares favorably with GATK, one of the widely used tools, because of its higher sensitivity for detecting indels, its easy installation, and its economical use of computational resources. Upon testing more than 1,200 individuals with mutations in known and novel disease genes, MERAP proved highly reliable, as illustrated here for five families with disease-causing variants. We believe that the clinical implementation of MERAP will expedite the diagnostic process of many disease-causing defects. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  13. Comprehensive analysis of the mutation spectrum in 301 German ALS families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin; Brenner, David; Weydt, Patrick; Meyer, Thomas; Grehl, Torsten; Petri, Susanne; Grosskreutz, Julian; Schuster, Joachim; Volk, Alexander E; Borck, Guntram; Kubisch, Christian; Klopstock, Thomas; Zeller, Daniel; Jablonka, Sibylle; Sendtner, Michael; Klebe, Stephan; Knehr, Antje; Günther, Kornelia; Weis, Joachim; Claeys, Kristl G; Schrank, Berthold; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Hübers, Annemarie; Otto, Markus; Dorst, Johannes; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Andersen, Peter M; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-04-12

    Recent advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genetics have revealed that mutations in any of more than 25 genes can cause ALS, mostly as an autosomal-dominant Mendelian trait. Detailed knowledge about the genetic architecture of ALS in a specific population will be important for genetic counselling but also for genotype-specific therapeutic interventions. Here we combined fragment length analysis, repeat-primed PCR, Southern blotting, Sanger sequencing and whole exome sequencing to obtain a comprehensive profile of genetic variants in ALS disease genes in 301 German pedigrees with familial ALS. We report C9orf72 mutations as well as variants in consensus splice sites and non-synonymous variants in protein-coding regions of ALS genes. We furthermore estimate their pathogenicity by taking into account type and frequency of the respective variant as well as segregation within the families. 49% of our German ALS families carried a likely pathogenic variant in at least one of the earlier identified ALS genes. In 45% of the ALS families, likely pathogenic variants were detected in C9orf72, SOD1, FUS, TARDBP or TBK1 , whereas the relative contribution of the other ALS genes in this familial ALS cohort was 4%. We identified several previously unreported rare variants and demonstrated the absence of likely pathogenic variants in some of the recently described ALS disease genes. We here present a comprehensive genetic characterisation of German familial ALS. The present findings are of importance for genetic counselling in clinical practice, for molecular research and for the design of diagnostic gene panels or genotype-specific therapeutic interventions in Europe. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. SDHAF2 mutations in familial and sporadic paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayley, J.P.M.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Cascon, A.; Sampietro, M.L.; Gaal, J.; Korpershoek, E.; Hinojar-Gutierrez, A.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Hermsen, M.A.; Suarez, C.; Hussain, A.K.; Vriends, A.H.; Hes, F.J.; Jansen, J.C.; Tops, C.M.; Corssmit, E.P.; Knijff, P. de; Lenders, J.W.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Devilee, P.; Dinjens, W.N.; Krijger, R.R. de; Robledo, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumours associated frequently with germline mutations of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB. Previous studies have shown the imprinted SDHAF2 gene to be mutated in a large Dutch kindred with paragangliomas. We aimed to identify SDHAF2 mutation

  15. A novel heterozygous mutation in the Indian hedgehog gene (IHH) is associated with brachydactyly type A1 in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mugen; Wang, Xu; Cai, Zhou; Tang, Zhaohui; Cao, Kangsheng; Liang, Bo; Ren, Xiang; Liu, Jing Yu; Wang, Qing K

    2006-01-01

    Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) is caused by mutations in the Indian hedgehog gene, IHH, on chromosome 2q35-36. In this study, a large five-generation Chinese family with BDA1 was identified and characterized. All affected family members demonstrated significant homogeneous phenotype and some unique clinical features different from those associated with the reported BDA1 mutations in IHH. Linkage analysis showed that the BDA1 gene in the family was linked to marker D2S126 close to IHH with a LOD score of 4.74 at a recombination fraction of 0. DNA sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous C to T transition at nucleotide 461 of IHH, resulting in a novel T154I substitution. The T154I mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, and was not present in normal family members or 200 normal controls. These results expand the spectrum of clinical phenotype associated with IHH mutations.

  16. Identification of a novel NHS mutation in a Chinese family with Nance-Horan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aijun; Li, Bingzhen; Wu, Lemeng; Yang, Liping; Chen, Ningning; Ma, Zhizhong

    2015-04-01

    To identiy the disease causing mutation in a Chinese family presenting with early-onset cataract and dental anomalies. A specific Hereditary Eye Disease Enrichment Panel (HEDEP) (personalized customization by MyGenostics, Baltimore, MD) based on targeted exome capture technology was used to collect the protein coding regions of 30 early-onset cataract associated genes, and high throughput sequencing was done with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The identified variant was confirmed with Sanger sequencing. A novel deletion in exon 4 (c.852delG) of NHS gene was identified; the identified 1 bp deletion altered the reading frame and was predicted to result in a premature stop codon after the addition of twelve novel amino acid (p.S285PfsX13). This mutation co-segregated in affected males and obligate female carriers, but was absent in 100 matched controls. Our findings broaden the spectrum of NHS mutations causing Nance-Horan syndrome and phenotypic spectrum of the disease in Chinese patients.

  17. A FBN1 mutation association with different phenotypes of Marfan syndrome in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yapeng; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Mingjie; Du, Binbin; Li, Qiaoli; Xing, Qinghe; Zhang, Yanzhou

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that patients with different FBN1 mutations often present more considerable phenotypic variation compared to different members of the related family carrying a same mutation. The purpose of our study was to identify pathogenic mutation and provide more information about genotype-phenotypic correlations in a large Chinese family with Marfan syndrome. 15 related family members from a Chinese 4-generation pedigree with Marfan syndrome underwent physical, ophthalmologic, radiological and cardiovascular examinations. The propositus has De Bakey III aortic dissection and didn't fulfill the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome. Nine family members have ectopia lentis and their echocardiogram was normal. Five other family members have no evidence of Marfan syndrome. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The exome sequencing was employed on the propositus, then the Sanger sequencing was conducted for mutation verification in other 14 participants of this family. The causative mutation in FBN1 discovered in the propositus was a known heterozygous missense mutation, c.1633T>G (p.R545C), in exon 14 (NM 000138). This same mutation was also identified in all 9 ectopia lentis patients and one unaffected 8-year-old girl. However, the same mutation was not discovered in other 4 unaffected family members. Our data enhance the information of genotype-phenotype correlation owing to FBN1 mutations. To our current knowledge, we firstly reported that the same FBN1 mutation, c. 1633C>T (Arg545Cys), was detected simultaneously in three different cardinal phenotypes (ectopia lentis, aortic dissection and unaffected) within one family. The unaffected girl with FBN1 mutation may presumably represent a rare case of nonpenetrance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tietz syndrome (hypopigmentation/deafness) caused by mutation of MITF

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S.; Kelley, P.; Kenyon, J.; Hoover, D.

    2000-01-01

    Patients with Tietz syndrome have congenital profound deafness and generalised hypopigmentation, inherited in a fully penetrant autosomal dominant fashion. The pigmentary features and complete penetrance make this syndrome distinct among syndromes with pigmentary anomalies and deafness, which characteristically have patchy depigmentation and variable penetrance. Only one family has been reported with the exact features described in the original report of this syndrome. This family was reascer...

  19. Identification of a novel missense mutation of MAF in a Japanese family with congenital cataract by whole exome sequencing: a clinical report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Yoko; Nishina, Sachiko; Tokimitsu, Motoharu; Aoki, Yoko; Kosaki, Rika; Wakui, Keiko; Azuma, Noriyuki; Murata, Toshinori; Takada, Fumio; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2014-05-01

    Congenital cataracts are the most important cause of severe visual impairment in infants. Genetic factors contribute to the disease development and 29 genes are known to cause congenital cataracts. Identifying the genetic cause of congenital cataracts can be difficult because of genetic heterogeneity. V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (MAF) encodes a basic region/leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role as a regulator of embryonic lens fiber cell development. MAF mutations have been reported to cause juvenile-onset pulverulent cataract, microcornea, iris coloboma, and other anterior segment dysgenesis. We report on six patients in a family who have congenital cataracts were identified MAF mutation by whole exome sequencing (WES). The heterozygous MAF mutation Q303L detected in the present family occurs in a well conserved glutamine residue at the basic region of the DNA-binding domain. All affected members showed congenital cataracts. Three of the six members showed microcornea and one showed iris coloboma. Congenital cataracts with MAF mutation exhibited phenotypically variable cataracts within the family. Review of the patients with MAF mutations supports the notion that congenital cataracts caused by MAF mutations could be accompanied by microcornea and/or iris coloboma. WES is a useful tool for detecting disease-causing mutations in patients with genetically heterogeneous conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cortical atrophy and hypofibrinogenemia due to FGG and TBCD mutations in a single family: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Joshi; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Vinayan, K P; Yesodharan, Dhanya; Remesh, Preetha; Gahl, William A; Malicdan, May Christine V

    2018-05-16

    Blended phenotypes or co-occurrence of independent phenotypically distinct conditions are extremely rare and are due to coincidence of multiple pathogenic mutations, especially due to consanguinity. Hereditary fibrinogen deficiencies result from mutations in the genes FGA, FGB, and FGG, encoding the three different polypeptide chains that comprise fibrinogen. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities have not been associated with fibrinogen deficiencies. In this study, we report an unusual patient with a combination of two independently inherited genetic conditions; fibrinogen deficiency and early onset cortical atrophy. The study describes a male child from consanguineous family presented with hypofibrinogenemia, diffuse cortical atrophy, microcephaly, hypertonia and axonal motor neuropathy. Through a combination of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we identified bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in two genes: a homozygous novel truncating mutation in FGG (c.554del; p.Lys185Argfs*14) and a homozygous missense mutation in TBCD (c.1423G > A;p.Ala475Thr). Loss of function mutations in FGG have been associated with fibrinogen deficiency, while the c.1423G > A mutation in TBCD causes a novel syndrome of neurodegeneration and early onset encephalopathy. Our study highlights the importance of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing in molecular prenatal diagnosis, especially when multiple gene mutations are responsible for the phenotype.

  1. Bulldog dwarfism in Dexter cattle is caused by mutations in ACAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Julie A L; Tammen, Imke; Windsor, Peter A; Bateman, John F; Savarirayan, Ravi; Nicholas, Frank W; Raadsma, Herman W

    2007-11-01

    Bulldog dwarfism in Dexter cattle is one of the earliest single-locus disorders described in animals. Affected fetuses display extreme disproportionate dwarfism, reflecting abnormal cartilage development (chondrodysplasia). Typically, they die around the seventh month of gestation, precipitating a natural abortion. Heterozygotes show a milder form of dwarfism, most noticeably having shorter legs. Homozygosity mapping in candidate regions in a small Dexter pedigree suggested aggrecan (ACAN) as the most likely candidate gene. Mutation screening revealed a 4-bp insertion in exon 11 (2266_2267insGGCA) (called BD1 for diagnostic testing) and a second, rarer transition in exon 1 (-198C>T) (called BD2) that cosegregate with the disorder. In chondrocytes from cattle heterozygous for the insertion, mutant mRNA is subject to nonsense-mediated decay, showing only 8% of normal expression. Genotyping in Dexter families throughout the world shows a one-to-one correspondence between genotype and phenotype at this locus. The heterozygous and homozygous-affected Dexter cattle could prove invaluable as a model for human disorders caused by mutations in ACAN.

  2. A novel albumin gene mutation (R222I) in familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Nadia; Moran, Carla; Campi, Irene; Agostini, Maura; Bacon, Olivia; Rajanayagam, Odelia; Schwabe, John; Bradbury, Sonia; Barrett, Timothy; Geoghegan, Frank; Druce, Maralyn; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; O'Toole, Angela; Clark, Penelope; Bignell, Michelle; Lyons, Greta; Halsall, David; Gurnell, Mark; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2014-07-01

    Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia, characterized by abnormal circulating albumin with increased T4 affinity, causes artefactual elevation of free T4 concentrations in euthyroid individuals. Four unrelated index cases with discordant thyroid function tests in different assay platforms were investigated. Laboratory biochemical assessment, radiolabeled T4 binding studies, and ALB sequencing were undertaken. (125)I-T4 binding to both serum and albumin in affected individuals was markedly increased, comparable with known familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia cases. Sequencing showed heterozygosity for a novel ALB mutation (arginine to isoleucine at codon 222, R222I) in all four cases and segregation of the genetic defect with abnormal biochemical phenotype in one family. Molecular modeling indicates that arginine 222 is located within a high-affinity T4 binding site in albumin, with substitution by isoleucine, which has a smaller side chain predicted to reduce steric hindrance, thereby facilitating T4 and rT3 binding. When tested in current immunoassays, serum free T4 values from R222I heterozygotes were more measurably abnormal in one-step vs two-step assay architectures. Total rT3 measurements were also abnormally elevated. A novel mutation (R222I) in the ALB gene mediates dominantly inherited dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. Susceptibility of current free T4 immunoassays to interference by this mutant albumin suggests likely future identification of individuals with this variant binding protein.

  3. Common FLG mutation K4671X not associated with atopic dermatitis in Han Chinese in a family association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhong Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filaggrin gene (FLG mutations have been identified as the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris (IV and major predisposing factors for atopic dermatitis (AD. The relationship among AD, IV and FLG mutations has not been clarified yet. Mutations 3321delA and K4671X, two of the most common mutations in Chinese patients, were both statistically associated with AD in case-control studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 100 family trios (a total of 300 members with one affected AD proband and both parents were recruited and screened for three filaggrin null mutations (3222del4, 3321delA and K4671X. The subjects' manifestations of AD and IV were assessed by two experienced dermatologists and recorded in detail. The relationship of common mutations to AD were assessed using both case-control and family-based tests of association. Filaggrin expression was measured in skin of 3 subjects with K4671X heterozygote and the normal control using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Of 100 probands for AD, 22 were carriers for common FLG mutations and only 2 of them were from 40 none-IV family trios (5.00%, consistent with that of the healthy control group (3.99%, P>0.05. Significant statistical associations were revealed between AD and 3321delA (P<0.001, odds ratio 12.28, 95% confidence interval 3.35-44.98 as well as K4671X (P = 0.002, odds ratio 4.53, 95% confidence interval 1.77-11.60. The family-based approach revealed that 3321delA was over-transmitted to AD offspring from parents (T:U = 12∶1, P = 0.003 but failed to demonstrate transmission disequilibrium between K4671X and AD (T:U = 10∶8, P = 0.815. Moreover, compared to the normal control, filaggrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels in epidermis of subjects with K4671X(heter was not reduced. CONCLUSIONS: AD patients from none-IV family trios have low probability of carrying FLG mutations. The present family samples confirmed the

  4. FLNC Gene Splice Mutations Cause Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L. Begay, BS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A genetic etiology has been identified in 30% to 40% of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM patients, yet only 50% of these cases are associated with a known causative gene variant. Thus, in order to understand the pathophysiology of DCM, it is necessary to identify and characterize additional genes. In this study, whole exome sequencing in combination with segregation analysis was used to identify mutations in a novel gene, filamin C (FLNC, resulting in a cardiac-restricted DCM pathology. Here we provide functional data via zebrafish studies and protein analysis to support a model implicating FLNC haploinsufficiency as a mechanism of DCM.

  5. A study on mutations in plants caused by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ting; Xie Liqing

    1991-01-01

    Seeds of maize, rice, barley, rye, wheat, soybean, pansy and petunia are irradiated by ion beam. Variations in germination percentage, growth speed and plant type are found. The degree and type of variation are different between species and varieties. In the observation of chromosomes, behaviours of chromosomes are normal in mitoses, but abnormal in some mitoses. Univalent, trivalent and tetravalent in PMCs of maize, backward chromosomes in PMNs of soybean and micro nucleoli in PMNCs of rice are found. The currents, Characters and prospects of radiation mutation induced by ion beam are discussed

  6. Genetic linkage analyses and Cx50 mutation detection in a large multiplex Chinese family with hereditary nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Li, Xin; Chen, Jiajing; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Feng; Dai, Qiushi; Cui, Hao; Wang, Duen-Mei; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Lu, Shan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the underlying mutation in a large multiplex Chinese family with hereditary nuclear cataract. A 6-generation Chinese family having hereditary nuclear cataract was recruited and clinically verified. Blood DNA samples were obtained from 53 available family members. Linkage analyses were performed on the known candidate regions for hereditary cataract with 36 polymorphic microsatellite markers. To identify mutations related to cataract, a direct sequencing approach was applied to a candidate gene residing in our linkage locus. A linkage locus was identified with a maximum 2-point LOD score of 4.31 (recombination fraction = 0) at marker D1S498 and a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.7 between markers D1S2344 and D1S498 on chromosome 1q21.1, where the candidate gene Cx50 is located. Direct sequencing of Cx50 showed a 139 G to A transition occurred in all affected family members. This transitional mutation resulted in a replacement of aspartic acid by asparagine at residue 47 (D47N) and led to a loss-of-function of the protein. The D47N mutation of Cx50 causes the hereditary nuclear cataract in this family in an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance.

  7. A novel recessive mutation in the gene ELOVL4 causes a neuro-ichthyotic disorder with variable expressivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A rare neuro-ichthyotic disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spastic quadriplegia and intellectual disability and caused by recessive mutations in ELOVL4, encoding elongase-4 protein has recently been described. The objective of the study was to search for sequence variants in the gene ELOVL4 in three affected individuals of a consanguineous Pakistani family exhibiting features of neuro-ichthyotic disorder. Methods Linkage in the family was searched by genotyping microsatellite markers linked to the gene ELOVL4, mapped at chromosome 6p14.1. Exons and splice junction sites of the gene ELOVL4 were polymerase chain reaction amplified and sequenced in an automated DNA sequencer. Results DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation (c.78C > G; p.Tyr26*). Conclusions Our report further confirms the recently described ELOVL4-related neuro-ichthyosis and shows that the neurological phenotype can be absent in some individuals. PMID:24571530

  8. Novel mutation in TSPAN12 leads to autosomal recessive inheritance of congenital vitreoretinal disease with intra-familial phenotypic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Moran; Levanon, Erez Y; Hujeirat, Yasir; Khayat, Morad; Pe'er, Jacob; Shalev, Stavit

    2014-12-01

    Developmental malformations of the vitreoretinal vasculature are a heterogeneous group of conditions with various modes of inheritance, and include familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), and Norrie disease. We investigated a large consanguineous kindred with multiple affected individuals exhibiting variable phenotypes of abnormal vitreoretinal vasculature, consistent with the three above-mentioned conditions and compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance. Exome sequencing identified a novel c.542G > T (p.C181F) apparently mutation in the TSPAN12 gene that segregated with the ocular disease in the family. The TSPAN12 gene was previously reported to cause dominant and recessive FEVR, but has not yet been associated with other vitreoretinal manifestations. The intra-familial clinical variability caused by a single mutation in the TSPAN12 gene underscores the complicated phenotype-genotype correlation of mutations in this gene, and suggests that there are additional genetic and environmental factors involved in the complex process of ocular vascularization during embryonic development. Our study supports considering PFV, FEVR, and Norrie disease a spectrum of disorders, with clinical and genetic overlap, caused by mutations in distinct genes acting in the Norrin/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Novel PAX3 mutations causing Waardenburg syndrome type 1 in Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Mediha; Nouira, Malek; Maazoul, Faouzi; Kraoua, Lilia; Meddeb, Rim; Ouertani, Ines; Chelly, Imen; Benoit, Valérie; Besbes, Ghazi; Mrad, Ridha

    2017-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disease characterized by a clinical and genetic variability. WS is classified into four types depending on the presence or absence of additional symptoms: WS1, WS2, WS3 and WS4. Type 1 and 3 are mostly caused by PAX3 mutations, while type 2 and type 4 are genetically heterogeneous. The aims of this study are to confirm the diagnostic of WS1 by the sequencing of PAX3 gene and to evaluate the genotype phenotype correlation. A clinical classification was established for 14 patients WS, as proposed by the Waardenburg Consortium, and noted a predominance of type 1 and type 2 with 6 patients WS1, 7 patients WS2 and 1 patient WS3. A significant inter and intra-familial clinical heterogeneity was also observed. A sequencing of PAX3 gene in the 6 patients WS1 confirmed the diagnosis in 4 of them by revealing three novel mutations that modify two functional domains of the protein: the c.942delC; the c.933_936dupTTAC and the c.164delTCCGCCACA. These three variations are most likely responsible for the phenotype, however their pathogenic effects need to be confirmed by functional studies. The MLPA analysis of the 2 patients who were sequence negative for PAX3 gene revealed, in one of them, a heterozygous deletion of exons 5 to 9 confirming the WS1 diagnosis. Both clinical and molecular approaches led to the conclusion that there is a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in WS1, an element that must be taken into account in genetic counseling. The absence of PAX3 mutation in one patient WS1 highlights the fact that the clinical classification is sometimes insufficient to distinguish WS1 from other types WS hence the interest of sequencing the other WS genes in this patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutations in c10orf11, a melanocyte-differentiation gene, cause autosomal-recessive albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet; Kelsh, Robert N; Hansen, Lars; Levesque, Mitchell P; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Møllgård, Kjeld; Stemple, Derek L; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2013-03-07

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2-q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that segregated with the disease and showed a recessive inheritance pattern. Investigation of additional albinism-affected individuals from the Faroe Islands revealed that five out of eight unrelated affected persons had the nonsense mutation in C10orf11. Screening of a cohort of autosomal-recessive-albinism-affected individuals residing in Denmark showed a homozygous 1 bp duplication in C10orf11 in an individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted in substantially decreased pigmentation and a reduction of the apparent number of pigmented melanocytes. The morphant phenotype was rescued by wild-type C10orf11, but not by mutant C10orf11. In conclusion, we have identified a melanocyte-differentiation gene, C10orf11, which when mutated causes autosomal-recessive albinism in humans. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenotype and genotype in 52 patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome caused by EP300 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergelot, Patricia; Van Belzen, Martine; Van Gils, Julien; Afenjar, Alexandra; Armour, Christine M; Arveiler, Benoit; Beets, Lex; Burglen, Lydie; Busa, Tiffany; Collet, Marie; Deforges, Julie; de Vries, Bert B A; Dominguez Garrido, Elena; Dorison, Nathalie; Dupont, Juliette; Francannet, Christine; Garciá-Minaúr, Sixto; Gabau Vila, Elisabeth; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Gener Querol, Blanca; Geneviève, David; Gérard, Marion; Gervasini, Cristina Giovanna; Goldenberg, Alice; Josifova, Dragana; Lachlan, Katherine; Maas, Saskia; Maranda, Bruno; Moilanen, Jukka S; Nordgren, Ann; Parent, Philippe; Rankin, Julia; Reardon, Willie; Rio, Marlène; Roume, Joëlle; Shaw, Adam; Smigiel, Robert; Sojo, Amaia; Solomon, Benjamin; Stembalska, Agnieszka; Stumpel, Constance; Suarez, Francisco; Terhal, Paulien; Thomas, Simon; Touraine, Renaud; Verloes, Alain; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Wincent, Josephine; Peters, Dorien J M; Bartsch, Oliver; Larizza, Lidia; Lacombe, Didier; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2016-12-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a developmental disorder characterized by a typical face and distal limbs abnormalities, intellectual disability, and a vast number of other features. Two genes are known to cause RSTS, CREBBP in 60% and EP300 in 8-10% of clinically diagnosed cases. Both paralogs act in chromatin remodeling and encode for transcriptional co-activators interacting with >400 proteins. Up to now 26 individuals with an EP300 mutation have been published. Here, we describe the phenotype and genotype of 42 unpublished RSTS patients carrying EP300 mutations and intragenic deletions and offer an update on another 10 patients. We compare the data to 308 individuals with CREBBP mutations. We demonstrate that EP300 mutations cause a phenotype that typically resembles the classical RSTS phenotype due to CREBBP mutations to a great extent, although most facial signs are less marked with the exception of a low-hanging columella. The limb anomalies are more similar to those in CREBBP mutated individuals except for angulation of thumbs and halluces which is very uncommon in EP300 mutated individuals. The intellectual disability is variable but typically less marked whereas the microcephaly is more common. All types of mutations occur but truncating mutations and small rearrangements are most common (86%). Missense mutations in the HAT domain are associated with a classical RSTS phenotype but otherwise no genotype-phenotype correlation is detected. Pre-eclampsia occurs in 12/52 mothers of EP300 mutated individuals versus in 2/59 mothers of CREBBP mutated individuals, making pregnancy with an EP300 mutated fetus the strongest known predictor for pre-eclampsia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Indian hedgehog mutations causing brachydactyly type A1 impair Hedgehog signal transduction at multiple levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Yu, Jiang; Xiao, Yue; Chan, Danny; Gao, Bo; Hu, Jianxin; He, Yongxing; Guo, Shengzhen; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Lingling; Gao, Linghan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Kang, Yan; Cheah, Kathryn SE; Feng, Guoyin; Guo, Xizhi; Wang, Yujiong; Zhou, Cong-zhao; He, Lin

    2011-01-01

    Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1), the first recorded Mendelian autosomal dominant disorder in humans, is characterized by a shortening or absence of the middle phalanges. Heterozygous missense mutations in the Indian Hedgehog (IHH) gene have been identified as a cause of BDA1; however, the biochemical consequences of these mutations are unclear. In this paper, we analyzed three BDA1 mutations (E95K, D100E, and E131K) in the N-terminal fragment of Indian Hedgehog (IhhN). Structural analysis showed that the E95K mutation changes a negatively charged area to a positively charged area in a calcium-binding groove, and that the D100E mutation changes the local tertiary structure. Furthermore, we showed that the E95K and D100E mutations led to a temperature-sensitive and calcium-dependent instability of IhhN, which might contribute to an enhanced intracellular degradation of the mutant proteins via the lysosome. Notably, all three mutations affected Hh binding to the receptor Patched1 (PTC1), reducing its capacity to induce cellular differentiation. We propose that these are common features of the mutations that cause BDA1, affecting the Hh tertiary structure, intracellular fate, binding to the receptor/partners, and binding to extracellular components. The combination of these features alters signaling capacity and range, but the impact is likely to be variable and mutation-dependent. The potential variation in the signaling range is characterized by an enhanced interaction with heparan sulfate for IHH with the E95K mutation, but not the E131K mutation. Taken together, our results suggest that these IHH mutations affect Hh signaling at multiple levels, causing abnormal bone development and abnormal digit formation. PMID:21537345

  13. Evolutionary Analysis Predicts Sensitive Positions of MMP20 and Validates Newly- and Previously-Identified MMP20 Mutations Causing Amelogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, Barbara; Prasad, Megana; Delgado, Sidney; Huckert, Mathilde; Kawczynski, Marzena; Garret-Bernardin, Annelyse; Lopez-Cazaux, Serena; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Manière, Marie-Cécile; Stoetzel, Corinne; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) designates a group of genetic diseases characterized by a large range of enamel disorders causing important social and health problems. These defects can result from mutations in enamel matrix proteins or protease encoding genes. A range of mutations in the enamel cleavage enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-20 gene ( MMP20 ) produce enamel defects of varying severity. To address how various alterations produce a range of AI phenotypes, we performed a targeted analysis to find MMP20 mutations in French patients diagnosed with non-syndromic AI. Genomic DNA was isolated from saliva and MMP20 exons and exon-intron boundaries sequenced. We identified several homozygous or heterozygous mutations, putatively involved in the AI phenotypes. To validate missense mutations and predict sensitive positions in the MMP20 sequence, we evolutionarily compared 75 sequences extracted from the public databases using the Datamonkey webserver. These sequences were representative of mammalian lineages, covering more than 150 million years of evolution. This analysis allowed us to find 324 sensitive positions (out of the 483 MMP20 residues), pinpoint functionally important domains, and build an evolutionary chart of important conserved MMP20 regions. This is an efficient tool to identify new- and previously-identified mutations. We thus identified six functional MMP20 mutations in unrelated families, finding two novel mutated sites. The genotypes and phenotypes of these six mutations are described and compared. To date, 13 MMP20 mutations causing AI have been reported, making these genotypes and associated hypomature enamel phenotypes the most frequent in AI.

  14. A de novo missense mutation of FGFR2 causes facial dysplasia syndrome in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; McEvoy, Fintan J; Heegaard, Steffen; Charlier, Carole; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord

    2017-08-02

    Surveillance for bovine genetic diseases in Denmark identified a hitherto unreported congenital syndrome occurring among progeny of a Holstein sire used for artificial breeding. A genetic aetiology due to a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic germline mutation was suspected as all recorded cases were progeny of the same sire. Detailed investigations were performed to characterize the syndrome and to reveal its cause. Seven malformed calves were submitted examination. All cases shared a common morphology with the most striking lesions being severe facial dysplasia and complete prolapse of the eyes. Consequently the syndrome was named facial dysplasia syndrome (FDS). Furthermore, extensive brain malformations, including microencephaly, hydrocephalus, lobation of the cerebral hemispheres and compression of the brain were present. Subsequent data analysis of progeny of the sire revealed that around 0.5% of his offspring suffered from FDS. High density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data of the seven cases and their parents were used to map the defect in the bovine genome. Significant genetic linkage was obtained for three regions, including chromosome 26 where whole genome sequencing of a case-parent trio revealed two de novo variants perfectly associated with the disease: an intronic SNP in the DMBT1 gene and a single non-synonymous variant in the FGFR2 gene. This FGFR2 missense variant (c.927G>T) affects a gene encoding a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and across species. It is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved tryptophan into a cysteine residue (p.Trp309Cys). Both variant alleles were proven to result from de novo mutation events in the germline of the sire. FDS is a novel genetic disorder of Holstein cattle. Mutations in the human FGFR2 gene are associated with various dominant inherited craniofacial dysostosis syndromes. Given

  15. Variable myopathic presentation in a single family with novel skeletal RYR1 mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Attali

    Full Text Available We describe an autosomal recessive heterogeneous congenital myopathy in a large consanguineous family. The disease is characterized by variable severity, progressive course in 3 of 4 patients, myopathic face without ophthalmoplegia and proximal muscle weakness. Absence of cores was noted in all patients. Genome wide linkage analysis revealed a single locus on chromosome 19q13 with Zmax = 3.86 at θ = 0.0 and homozygosity of the polymorphic markers at this locus in patients. Direct sequencing of the main candidate gene within the candidate region, RYR1, was performed. A novel homozygous A to G nucleotide substitution (p.Y3016C within exon 60 of the RYR1 gene was found in patients. ARMS PCR was used to screen for the mutation in all available family members and in an additional 150 healthy individuals. This procedure confirmed sequence analysis and did not reveal the A to G mutation (p.Y3016C in 300 chromosomes from healthy individuals. Functional analysis on EBV immortalized cell lines showed no effect of the mutation on RyR1 pharmacological activation or the content of intracellular Ca(2+ stores. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of the RyR1 protein in the patient's muscle concomitant with a reduction of the DHPRα1.1 protein. This novel mutation resulting in RyR1 protein decrease causes heterogeneous clinical presentation, including slow progression course and absence of centrally localized cores on muscle biopsy. We suggest that RYR1 related myopathy should be considered in a wide variety of clinical and pathological presentation in childhood myopathies.

  16. A novel mutation in the NOD2 gene associated with Blau syndrome: a Norwegian family with four affected members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Ursin, K; Rødevand, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blau syndrome is a chronic granulomatous disease with an autosomal dominant trait characterized by the triad granulomatous dermatitis, arthritis, and uveitis. It is caused by mutations in the NOD2 gene, also termed the CARD15 gene. OBJECTIVE: To report a novel mutation in the NOD2 gen...... with an autosomal dominant heritage. Most likely the mutation has arisen de novo in the proband. Genetic counselling and antenatal diagnostics should be available to the involved families....... associated with Blau syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The proband was a 68-year-old ethnic Norwegian male who had uveitis and arthritis since 10 years of age followed by lifelong recurrent arthritis and chronic eye involvement. Genetic analysis showed a heterozygous c.1814 C>A, T605N mutation in NOD2 that has...

  17. Mutation analysis of inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci in young and familial pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hande; Donner, Iikki; Kivipelto, Leena; Kuismin, Outi; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; De Menis, Ernesto; Karhu, Auli

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are neoplasms of the anterior pituitary lobe and account for 15-20% of all intracranial tumors. Although most pituitary tumors are benign they can cause severe symptoms related to tumor size as well as hypopituitarism and/or hypersecretion of one or more pituitary hormones. Most pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but it has been estimated that 5% of patients have a familial background. Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) predispose to hereditary pituitary neoplasia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AIP mutations predispose to pituitary tumorigenesis through defective inhibitory GTP binding protein (Gαi) signaling. This finding prompted us to examine whether germline loss-of-function mutations in inhibitory guanine nucleotide (GTP) binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci are involved in genetic predisposition of pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first time GNAI genes are sequenced in order to examine the occurrence of inactivating germline mutations. Thus far, only somatic gain-of-function hot-spot mutations have been studied in these loci. Here, we have analyzed the coding regions of GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 in a set of young sporadic somatotropinoma patients (n = 32; mean age of diagnosis 32 years) and familial index cases (n = 14), thus in patients with a disease phenotype similar to that observed in AIP mutation carriers. In addition, expression of Gαi proteins was studied in human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and non-functional pituitary tumors. No pathogenic germline mutations affecting the Gαi proteins were detected. The result suggests that loss-of-function mutations of GNAI loci are rare or nonexistent in familial pituitary adenomas.

  18. CLPB mutations cause 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, progressive brain atrophy, intellectual disability, congenital neutropenia, cataracts, movement disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Saskia B; Ziętkiewicz, Szymon; Kousi, Maria; Szklarczyk, Radek; Haack, Tobias B; Gersting, Søren W; Muntau, Ania C; Rakovic, Aleksandar; Renkema, G Herma; Rodenburg, Richard J; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Chrusciel, Elzbieta; Distelmaier, Felix; Golzio, Christelle; Jansen, Joop H; van Karnebeek, Clara; Lillquist, Yolanda; Lücke, Thomas; Õunap, Katrin; Zordania, Riina; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; van Bokhoven, Hans; Spelbrink, Johannes N; Vaz, Frédéric M; Pras-Raves, Mia; Ploski, Rafal; Pronicka, Ewa; Klein, Christine; Willemsen, Michel A A P; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Prokisch, Holger; Katsanis, Nicholas; Wevers, Ron A

    2015-02-05

    We studied a group of individuals with elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid, neutropenia that can develop into leukemia, a neurological phenotype ranging from nonprogressive intellectual disability to a prenatal encephalopathy with progressive brain atrophy, movement disorder, cataracts, and early death. Exome sequencing of two unrelated individuals and subsequent Sanger sequencing of 16 individuals with an overlapping phenotype identified a total of 14 rare, predicted deleterious alleles in CLPB in 14 individuals from 9 unrelated families. CLPB encodes caseinolytic peptidase B homolog ClpB, a member of the AAA+ protein family. To evaluate the relevance of CLPB in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, we developed a zebrafish model and an in vitro assay to measure ATPase activity. Suppression of clpb in zebrafish embryos induced a central nervous system phenotype that was consistent with cerebellar and cerebral atrophy that could be rescued by wild-type, but not mutant, human CLPB mRNA. Consistent with these data, the loss-of-function effect of one of the identified variants (c.1222A>G [p.Arg408Gly]) was supported further by in vitro evidence with the mutant peptides abolishing ATPase function. Additionally, we show that CLPB interacts biochemically with ATP2A2, known to be involved in apoptotic processes in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) 3 (Kostmann disease [caused by HAX1 mutations]). Taken together, mutations in CLPB define a syndrome with intellectual disability, congenital neutropenia, progressive brain atrophy, movement disorder, cataracts, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutation analysis of 272 Spanish families affected by autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa using a genotyping microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Fernández, Almudena; Cantalapiedra, Diego; Aller, Elena; Vallespín, Elena; Aguirre-Lambán, Jana; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Corton, M; Riveiro-Álvarez, Rosa; Allikmets, Rando; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José; Millán, José M; Cremers, Frans P M; Ayuso, Carmen

    2010-12-03

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive loss of vision. The aim of this study was to identify the causative mutations in 272 Spanish families using a genotyping microarray. 272 unrelated Spanish families, 107 with autosomal recessive RP (arRP) and 165 with sporadic RP (sRP), were studied using the APEX genotyping microarray. The families were also classified by clinical criteria: 86 juveniles and 186 typical RP families. Haplotype and sequence analysis were performed to identify the second mutated allele. At least one-gene variant was found in 14% and 16% of the juvenile and typical RP groups respectively. Further study identified four new mutations, providing both causative changes in 11% of the families. Retinol Dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) was the most frequently mutated gene in the juvenile RP group, and Usher Syndrome 2A (USH2A) and Ceramide Kinase-Like (CERKL) were the most frequently mutated genes in the typical RP group. The only variant found in CERKL was p.Arg257Stop, the most frequent mutation. The genotyping microarray combined with segregation and sequence analysis allowed us to identify the causative mutations in 11% of the families. Due to the low number of characterized families, this approach should be used in tandem with other techniques.

  20. A mutation in the glutamate-rich region of RNA-binding motif protein 20 causes dilated cardiomyopathy through missplicing of titin and impaired Frank-Starling mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Bollen, I. A. E.; Rasmussen, T. B.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the RS-domain of RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20) have recently been identified to segregate with aggressive forms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Loss of RBM20 in rats results in missplicing of the sarcomeric gene titin (TTN). The functional and physiological consequen......Mutations in the RS-domain of RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20) have recently been identified to segregate with aggressive forms of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Loss of RBM20 in rats results in missplicing of the sarcomeric gene titin (TTN). The functional and physiological...... consequences of RBM20 mutations outside the mutational hotspot of RBM20 have not been explored to date. In this study, we investigated the pathomechanism of DCM caused by a novel RBM20 mutation in human cardiomyocytes. We identified a family with DCM carrying a mutation (RBM20(E913K/+)) in a glutamate...... to the early onset, and malignant course of DCM caused by RBM20 mutations. Altogether, our results demonstrate that heterozygous loss of RBM20 suffices to profoundly impair myocyte biomechanics by its disturbance of TTN splicing....

  1. De novo mutations in synaptic transmission genes including DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p...... = 8.2 × 10(-4)), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have...... analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the "classical" epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1...

  2. Clinical and Prognostic Profiles of Cardiomyopathies Caused by Mutations in the Troponin T Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Vera, Tomás; Gámez, José María; Govea, Nancy; Gómez, Yolanda; Núñez, Juana; Socías, Lorenzo; Escandell, Ángela; Rosell, Jorge

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in the troponin T gene (TTNT2) have been associated in small studies with the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy characterized by a high risk of sudden death and mild hypertrophy. We describe the clinical course of patients carrying mutations in this gene. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with mutations in the TNNT2 gene who were seen in an inherited cardiac disease unit. Of 180 families with genetically studied cardiomyopathies, 21 families (11.7%) were identified as having mutations in TNNT2: 10 families had Arg92Gln, 5 had Arg286His, 3 had Arg278Cys, 1 had Arg92Trp, 1 had Arg94His, and 1 had Ile221Thr. Thirty-three additional genetic carriers were identified through family assessment. The study included 54 genetic carriers: 56% were male, and the mean average age was 41 ± 17 years. There were 33 cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 9 of dilated cardiomyopathy, and 1 of noncompaction cardiomyopathy, and maximal myocardial thickness was 18.5 ± 6mm. Ventricular dysfunction was present in 30% of individuals and a history of sudden death in 62%. During follow-up, 4 patients died and 14 (33%) received a defibrillator (8 probands, 6 relatives). Mean survival was 54 years. Carriers of Arg92Gln had early disease development, high penetrance, a high risk of sudden death, a high rate of defibrillator implantation, and a high frequency of mixed phenotype. Mutations in the TNNT2 gene were more common in this series than in previous studies. The clinical and prognostic profiles depended on the mutation present. Carriers of the Arg92Gln mutation developed hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy and had a significantly worse prognosis than those with other mutations in TNNT2 or other sarcomeric genes. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Disease evolution and outcomes in familial AML with germline CEBPA mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawana, Kiran; Wang, Jun; Renneville, Aline

    2015-01-01

    collected from 10 CEBPA-mutated families, representing 24 members with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whole-exome (WES) and deep sequencing were performed to genetically profile tumors and define patterns of clonal evolution. Germline CEBPA mutations clustered within the N-terminal and were highly penetrant......, with AML presenting at a median age of 24.5 years (range, 1.75-46 years). In all diagnostic tumors tested (n = 18), double CEBPA mutations (CEBPAdm) were detected, with acquired (somatic) mutations preferentially targeting the C-terminal. Somatic CEBPA mutations were unstable throughout the disease course...

  4. Review and update of mutations causing Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Véronique; Ente, Dorothée; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence; Goossens, Michel; Marlin, Sandrine; Bondurand, Nadège

    2010-04-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by the association of pigmentation abnormalities, including depigmented patches of the skin and hair, vivid blue eyes or heterochromia irides, and sensorineural hearing loss. However, other features such as dystopia canthorum, musculoskeletal abnormalities of the limbs, Hirschsprung disease, or neurological defects are found in subsets of patients and used for the clinical classification of WS. Six genes are involved in this syndrome: PAX3 (encoding the paired box 3 transcription factor), MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), EDN3 (endothelin 3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), SOX10 (encoding the Sry bOX10 transcription factor), and SNAI2 (snail homolog 2), with different frequencies. In this review we provide an update on all WS genes and set up mutation databases, summarize molecular and functional data available for each of them, and discuss the applications in diagnostics and genetic counseling. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Mutation analysis of SDHB and SDHC: novel germline mutations in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and familial paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Nora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations of the SDHD, SDHB and SDHC genes, encoding three of the four subunits of succinate dehydrogenase, are a major cause of hereditary paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma, and demonstrate that these genes are classic tumor suppressors. Succinate dehydrogenase is a heterotetrameric protein complex and a component of both the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II. Methods Using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE and direct DNA sequencing to analyse genomic DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes, here we describe the mutation analysis of the SDHB and SDHC genes in 37 patients with sporadic (i.e. no known family history head and neck paraganglioma and five pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma families. Results Two sporadic patients were found to have a SDHB splice site mutation in intron 4, c.423+1G>A, which produces a mis-spliced transcript with a 54 nucleotide deletion, resulting in an 18 amino acid in-frame deletion. A third patient was found to carry the c.214C>T (p.Arg72Cys missense mutation in exon 4 of SDHC, which is situated in a highly conserved protein motif that constitutes the quinone-binding site of the succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR complex in E. coli. Together with our previous results, we found 27 germline mutations of SDH genes in 95 cases (28% of sporadic head and neck paraganglioma. In addition all index patients of five families showing hereditary pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma were found to carry germline mutations of SDHB: four of which were novel, c.343C>T (p.Arg115X, c.141G>A (p.Trp47X, c.281G>A (p.Arg94Lys, and c.653G>C (p.Trp218Ser, and one reported previously, c.136C>T, p.Arg46X. Conclusion In conclusion, these data indicate that germline mutations of SDHB and SDHC play a minor role in sporadic head and neck paraganglioma and further underline the importance of germline SDHB mutations in cases of

  6. Novel nonsense mutation of the endothelin-B receptor gene in a family with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrris, P; Carter, N D; Patton, M A

    1999-11-05

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) comprises sensorineural hearing loss, hypopigmentation of skin and hair, and pigmentary disturbances of the irides. Four types of WS have been classified to date; in WS type IV (WS4), patients additionally have colonic aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease, HSCR). Mutations in the endothelin-3 (EDN3), endothelin-B receptor (EDNRB), and Sox10 genes have been identified as causative for WS type IV. We screened a family with a combined WS-HSCR phenotype for mutations in the EDNRB locus using standard DNA mutation analysis and sequencing techniques. We have identified a novel nonsense mutation at codon 253 (CGA-->TGA, Arg-->STOP). This mutation leads to a premature end of the translation of EDNRB at exon 3, and it is predicted to produce a truncated and nonfunctional endothelin-B receptor. All affected relatives were heterozygous for the Arg(253)-->STOP mutation, whereas it was not observed in over 50 unrelated individuals used as controls. These data confirm the role of EDNRB in the cause of the Waardenburg-Hirschsprung syndrome and demonstrate that in WS-HSCR there is a lack of correlation between phenotype and genotype and a variable expression of disease even within the same family. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caporale DA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the discovery of these two genes in the mid-1990s, several other breast cancer predisposition genes have been identified, such as the CHEK2 gene encoding a regulator of BRCA1. Recently, studies have begun investigating the roles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression in lung cancer. We conducted a family-based case study that included a bloodline of Italian heritage with several cases of breast cancer and associated cancers (prostate and stomach through multiple generations and on a nonblood relative of Scottish/Irish descent who was consecutively diagnosed with breast and lung cancer. Cancer history and environmental risk factors were recorded for each family member. To investigate possible genetic risks, we screened for mutations in specific hypervariable regions of the BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2 genes. DNA was extracted and isolated from the individuals' hair follicles and cheek cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, allele-specific PCR, and DNA sequencing were performed to identify and verify the presence or absence of mutations in these regions. Genotypes of several family members were determined and carriers of mutations were identified. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of two different BRCA2 frameshift mutations within the same family. Specifically, three Italian family members were found to be carriers of the BRCA2-c.2808_2811delACAA (3036delACAA mutation, a 4-nucleotide deletion in exon 11, which is a truncated mutation that causes deleterious function of

  8. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A Associated with Usher syndrome 1 in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue; Wang, Guo-Jian; Yuan, Yong-Yi; Xin, Feng; Han, Ming-Yu; Lu, Jing-Qiao; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Fei; Xu, Jin-Cao; Zhang, Mei-Guang; Dong, Jiang; Lin, Xi; Dai, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, age-dependent retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and occasionally vestibular dysfunction. The most severe form is Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). Mutations in the MYO7A gene are responsible for USH1 and account for 29-55% of USH1 cases. Here, we characterized a Chinese family (no. 7162) with USH1. Combining the targeted capture of 131 known deafness genes, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis, we identified two deleterious compound heterozygous mutations in the MYO7A gene: a reported missense mutation c.73G>A (p.G25R) and a novel nonsense mutation c.462C>A (p.C154X). The two compound variants are absent in 219 ethnicity-matched controls, co-segregates with the USH clinical phenotypes, including hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and age-dependent penetrance of progressive RP, in family 7162. Therefore, we concluded that the USH1 in this family was caused by compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A.

  9. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A Associated with Usher syndrome 1 in a Chinese family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Gao

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, age-dependent retinitis pigmentosa (RP, and occasionally vestibular dysfunction. The most severe form is Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1. Mutations in the MYO7A gene are responsible for USH1 and account for 29-55% of USH1 cases. Here, we characterized a Chinese family (no. 7162 with USH1. Combining the targeted capture of 131 known deafness genes, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis, we identified two deleterious compound heterozygous mutations in the MYO7A gene: a reported missense mutation c.73G>A (p.G25R and a novel nonsense mutation c.462C>A (p.C154X. The two compound variants are absent in 219 ethnicity-matched controls, co-segregates with the USH clinical phenotypes, including hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and age-dependent penetrance of progressive RP, in family 7162. Therefore, we concluded that the USH1 in this family was caused by compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A.

  10. Characterization of mutations causing rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madania, Ammar; Habous, Maya; Zarzour, Hana; Ghoury, Ifad; Hebbo, Barea

    2012-01-01

    In order to characterize mutations causing rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of M. tuberculosis in Syria, 69 rifampicin resistant (Rif(r)) and 72 isoniazid resistant (Inh(r)) isolates were screened for point mutations in hot spots of the rpoB, katG and inhA genes by DNA sequencing and real time PCR. Of 69 Rif(r) isolates, 62 (90%) had mutations in the rifampin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene, with codons 531 (61%), 526 (13%), and 516 (8.7%) being the most commonly mutated. We found two new mutations (Asp516Thr and Ser531Gly) described for the first time in the rpoB-RRDR in association with rifampicin resistance. Only one mutation (Ile572Phe) was found outside the rpoB-RRDR. Of 72 Inh(r) strains, 30 (41.6%) had a mutation in katGcodon315 (with Ser315Thr being the predominant alteration), and 23 (32%) harbored the inhA(-15C-->T) mutation. While the general pattern of rpoB-RRDR and katG mutations reflected those found worldwide, the prevalence of the inhA(-15C-->T mutation was above the value found in most other countries, emphasizing the great importa