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Sample records for mustard plants brassica

  1. evaluation of best planting time of mustard (brassica juncea) strains in southern punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Hussain, G.; Hussain, M.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the proper planting time of newly evolved mustard (Brassica juncea) strains at Regional Agriculture Research Institute, Bahawalpur during the year 2000-2002. The study included 4 planting dates from 1st October to November 15th and three strains i.e. BRS-2 and BRS-10 and KH- 74 along with check RL-18. The 1st fortnight of October proved to be the best sowing time. KH-74 and BRS-2 gave significantly higher yield in wide range of sown period i.e. 1st October to 15th November. The highest grain yield of 2435 and 2341 Kgs, ha were obtained when crop was planted on 1st October and 15th October respectively. (author)

  2. Transport of Cd and Zn to seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) during specific stages of plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of excess Cd in the seeds of cereal and other crops compromises their commercial value and presents a potential risk to human health. Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] is a moderate accumulator of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn, and the seeds are consumed throughout the world, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. The study here examined the transport of Cd into Indian mustard plants and to seeds as a function of external Cd and the stage of the life cycle (vegetative growth, flowering and seed set) to identify critical developmental windows where transport from roots to seeds was the greatest. Plants were also treated simultaneously with Zn to determine if Zn fertilization mitigated the transport of Cd to seeds. Plants treated with Cd during the seed set accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, exceeding 8 mg kg(-1) dry weight in some instances. Cadmium accumulated during vegetative growth was not highly redistributed to seeds. No effects of Zn were observed with regard to Cd redistribution to seeds. This may be because of the relatively small Zn : Cd ratios tested. However, the results suggest that if Zn fertilization is to be used to reduce the Cd accumulation in seeds of this species, that plants should be treated during the seed set stage. As the seeds of Indian mustard consistently accumulated Cd to concentrations that exceed acceptable limits for food crops, additional study of Cd redistribution in this species is warranted.

  3. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunagan, Sarah C.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Varekamp, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content

  4. Phytoextraction based on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea arawali planted on spiked soil by aliquot amount of Lead and Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Kaur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction is one of the mechanisms of phytoremediation for removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of metal chelants, ethelyne diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and salicylic acid (SA, on the accumulation of lead and nickel by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea arawali plants in contaminated soil. Plants were treated with Pb and Ni, each at concentrations of 800 mg/l. EDTA and SA were amended at 0.1 M and 1.0 mM respectively. Plants were harvested and oven-dried. Pb and Ni content were estimated using ICP-OES (Varian Vista-MPX CCD Simultaneous ICP-OES. The samples thus prepared were investigated for metals distribution and morphology in different tissues (root, stem and leaf using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX spectrometer attached to the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Metal distribution study in different tissues (root, stem, leaf was done by SEM/EDS. The results showed that EDTA increased Pb and Ni uptake as compared to SA.

  5. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  6. Declines in a ground-dwelling arthropod community during an invasion by Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in aeolian sand habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Hulton VanTassel; Anne M. Hansen; Cameron W. Barrows; Quresh Latif; Margaret W. Simon; Kurt E. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii; hereafter mustard), an exotic plant species, has invaded habitats throughout the arid southwestern United States. Mustard has reached high densities across aeolian sand habitats of southwestern deserts, including five distinct sand habitats in the eastern Coachella Valley, California. We examined trends in ground-dwelling...

  7. Potassium and calcium application ameliorates growth and oxidative homeostasis in salt-stressed indian mustard (brassica juncea) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, P. Y.; Ahmad, A.; Hemant, M.; Ganie, A. H.; Iqbal, M.; Aref, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on growth and antioxidant defence system of salt-stressed Indian mustard plants was studied. Twenty-day-old Indian mustard plants grown hydroponically in Hoagland growth medium were randomly divided into five groups. To served as control and did not receive any additional K or Ca (except that present in Hoagland solution), T1 received 150 mM NaCl, T2 was given an additional doze of 6 mM K, T3 was given 5.6 mM Ca as additional doze, while as T4 received a combination of 150 mM NaCl + 6 mM K + 5.6 mM Ca. The response of the plants was studied ten days after treatment. Salt stress inhibited growth parameters including biomass, chlorophyll content, protein content and NR activity. Membrane damage was induced by the salt treatment with a concurrent increase in antioxidant defence system and proline content. Individual application of K and Ca mitigated the negative influence of the stress with the maximum alleviating potential exhibited by the combined application of these nutrients. Results obtained on real time expression of genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT and GR), NR and proline supported our findings with biochemical assays. We conclude from the study that maintaining high K and Ca levels may serve as an effective means for regulating the growth and productivity of Indian mustard plants under saline conditions. (author)

  8. Mercury-induced oxidative stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Han, Fengxiang X; Monts, David L; Matta, Fank B; Gu, Mengmeng; Su, Yi; Masad, Motasim A

    2009-10-01

    Mercury, a potent neurotoxin, is released to the environment in significant amounts by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. No natural hyperaccumulator plant has been reported for mercury phytoremediation. Few studies have been conducted on the physiological responses of Indian mustard, a higher biomass plant with faster growth rates, to mercury pollution. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of mercury to Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and mercury-induced oxidative stress in order to examine the potential application of Indian mustard to mercury phytoremediation. Two common cultivars (Florida Broadleaf and Longstanding) of Indian mustard were grown hydroponically in a mercury-spiked solution. Plant uptake, antioxidative enzymes, peroxides, and lipid peroxidation under mercury stress were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; and superoxide dismutase, SOD) were the most sensitive indices of mercury-induced oxidative response of Indian mustard plants. Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H(2)O(2), resulting in lower H(2)O(2) in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. A majority of Hg was accumulated in the roots and low translocations of Hg from roots to shoots were found in two cultivars of Indian mustard. Thus Indian mustard might be a potential candidate plant for phytofiltration/phytostabilization of mercury contaminated waters and wastewater.

  9. Phytoextraction and accumulation of mercury in three plant species: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang X; Chen, Jian; Sridhar, B B Maruthi; Monts, David L

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to screen and search for suitable plant species to phytoextract mercury-contaminated soil. Our effort focused on using some of the known metal-accumulating wild-type plants since no natural plant species with mercury-hyperaccumulat ing properties has yet been identified. Three plant species were evaluated for their uptake efficiency for mercury: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata). Four sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of these three plant species: a pot study with potting mix where mercury was provided daily as HgCl2 solution; experiments with freshly mercury-spiked soil; and a study with aged soils contaminated with different mercury sources (HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgS). Homemade sunlit chambers were also used to study foliar uptake of Hg from ambient air. Among the three plant species, Chinese brake fern showed the least stress symptoms resulting from mercury exposure and had the highest mercury accumulation. Our results indicate that Chinese brake fern may be a potential candidate for mercury phytoextraction. We found that mercury contamination is biologically available for plant uptake and accumulation, even if the original and predominating mercury form is HgS, and also after multiple phytoremediation cycles.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  11. Diversity of Pollinator Insects in Relation to Seed Set of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.: Cruciferae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ATMOWIDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollinators provide key services to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural productivity depends, in part, on pollinator populations from adjacent seminatural habitats. Here we analysed the diversity of pollinator insects and its effect to seed set of mustard (Brassica rapa planted in agricultural ecosystem near the Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. At least 19 species of insects pollinated the mustard, and three species, i.e. Apis cerana, Ceratina sp., and Apis dorsata showed a high abundance. The higher abundance and species richness of pollinators occurred at 08.30-10.30 am and the diversity was related to the number of flowering plants. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods, seeds per pod, seed weights per plant, and seed germination.

  12. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко; Л. М. Михальська; В. В. Швартау

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate...

  13. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Breeding strategy for the improvement of mustard (Brassica Juncea Coss.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Mutants having desirable agronomic characters were obtained in the high yielding, recommended mustard (B. juncea) varieties Rai 5, RL 9 and Varuna (T 59). Following hybridizations between induced mutants or mutants with other promising varieties, recombinants having superior agronomic traits have been developed. The parent varieties are characterised by open pod arrangement and blackish brown seeds. The mutants and the recombinants have desirable agronomic characters like compact plant type, appressed pods with less shattering nature, yellow seeds, higher oil content and lighter coloured oil. Among the 12 new strains developed at this centre, five have been tested at various locations in the country. At many places, TM-(Trombay Mustard-) cultures outyielded or were at par with the local check varieties. TM-2-11 (Appressed pod mutant) and TM-4 (Yellow bold seeded Mutant) have also been included in the Initial Evaluation Trial of the All India Co-ordinated Research Project in Oilseeds (AICORPO) improvement. Reports so far received from various locations in the country indicate that TM-strains, being relatively early cultures, are suited more for states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P. and Bihar. (author)

  15. In vitro propagation of Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brassica carinata (A. Braun) is an amphi-diploid species that originated from interspecific hybridization between Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea in the highlands of Ethiopia. The crop has many desirable agronomic traits but with oil quality constraints like high erucic acid and glucosinolate contents. In this study, two ...

  16. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate such elements as aluminum, barium, strontium, zinc in seeds in concentrations that exceed their content in black mustard seeds, while compounds of calcium, cesium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium in a greater degree were accumulated in black mustard seeds. Conclusions. As legal and regulatory documents for important chemical elements don’t contain the maximum permissible limits of their content in medicinal plants, it would make sense to launch a comprehensive research with the involvement of specia­lists of relevant profiles in order to establish such a gradation. Plants of white and black mustard in Kiev Oblast have accumulated high levels of such metals as Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn that exceed the known limits of accumulation, indicating a partial contamination of soils in the region. Consequently, these plants can be used for phytoremediation of soils. Considering the fact that in the pharmaceutical practice refined mustard seed oil is used, revealed alterations of metal accumulation in seeds will not affect the quality of the final drugs. According to the research results, white and black mustard is promising for cultivation in Kiev Oblast with a view to obtain raw material that can be processed into drugs.

  17. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.A.; Bukhari, S.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population. average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005-06 which were 2005-06 which were 31 and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004,05) and 817.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained non significant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  18. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.A.; Bukhari, S.A.H.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population, average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005 and 2005-06 which were 3.l and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004-05) and 8 17.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained nonsignificant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  19. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  20. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard (Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    successfully cultivated between Aman and Boro rice rotation without affecting this popular cropping pattern. So, it is urgent to analyze the genetic diversity and its response for the selection of short duration mustard genotypes for increasing our cropping intensity. Diversity at marker loci is currently the most feasible strategy ...

  1. Influence of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) on rhizosphere soil solution chemistry in long-term contaminated soils: a rhizobox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary; Kwon, Soon-lk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) root exudation on soil solution properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), metal solubility) in the rhizosphere using a rhizobox. Measurement was conducted following the cultivation of Indian mustard in the rhizobox filled four different types of heavy metal contaminated soils (two alkaline soils and two acidic soils). The growth of Indian mustard resulted in a significant increase (by 0.6 pH units) in rhizosphere soil solution pH of acidic soils and only a slight increase (soil solution varied considerably amongst different soils, resulting in significant changes to soil solution metals in the rhizosphere. For example, the soil solution Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased in the rhizosphere of alkaline soils compared to bulk soil following plant cultivation. In contrast, the soluble concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in acidic soils decreased in rhizosphere soil when compared to bulk soils. Besides the influence of pH and DOC on metal solubility, the increase of heavy metal concentration having high stability constant such as Cu and Pb resulted in a release of Cd and Zn from solid phase to liquid phase.

  2. Impact of mixed low-molecular-weight organic acids on uranium accumulation and distribution in a variant of mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangfang Qi; Dingna Wang; Lijian Ma; Yongdong Jin; Liang Du; Dong Zhang; Chuanqin Xia; Sichuan University, Chengdu

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a mixture of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) composed of CA/MA/OA/LA with a molar ratio of 2.5:2.31:1.15:0.044 on uranium (U) accumulation and distribution in mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida) was studied in this paper in order to understand the mechanism of rhizosphere-exudation assisted phytoremediation by hydroponic and pot culture experiments. The impact of the mixture of LWMOAs (Mix) on U accumulation showed that in hydroponic conditions Mix could enhance U translocation from root-to-shoot in mustard, but inhibit U uptake in root. In pot experiments, Mix enhanced both root and shoot U accumulation in mustard. The time-dependent kinetics of U uptake in mustard on Mix treatment showed that U content in plant shoots and roots increased with time increasing, and the steady state conditions were obtained at the 8th and 5th day with the U content of 1,528 and 2,300 mg/kg, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis for mustard roots showed that U was mainly observed on cell membrane of mustard roots on Mix treatment. This study would provide new insights for the mixture of LWMOAs-assisted phytoremediation of U-contaminated soil. (author)

  3. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  4. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. Cosson: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Shekhawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation of rapeseed-mustard becomes less remunerative to the farmers. This results in a big gap between requirement and production of mustard in India. Therefore site-specific nutrient management through soil-test recommendation based should be adopted to improve upon the existing yield levels obtained at farmers field. Effective management of natural resources, integrated approach to plant-water, nutrient and pest management and extension of rapeseed-mustard cultivation to newer areas under different cropping systems will play a key role in further increasing and stabilizing the productivity and production of rapeseed-mustard. The paper reviews the advances in proper land and seedbed preparation, optimum seed and sowing, planting technique, crop geometry, plant canopy, appropriate cropping system, integrated nutrient management and so forth to meet the ever growing demand of oil in the country and to realize the goal of production of 24 million tonnes of oilseed by 2020 AD through these advanced management techniques.

  5. Isolation and characterization of useful mutants induced by gamma irradiation in 'Kranti' indian mustard (Brassica juncea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, B.; Kumar, H.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic variability was induced, in the 'Kranti' Indian mustard [Brassica/juncea (L.) Czemj. & Cosson]. utilizing 30,40 and 50 kr doses of gamma-ray Irradiation. 'In M 3 generation, compared with the econtrol, substantial decrease was observed in the mean value of various quantitative characters in the mutagen-treated populations. More variation was induced at 30 kr compared with that at 40 or 50 kr dose. Four mutants were identified ar 30 kr dose, which besides being early in maturity, gave better yield also-compared with the control. The better seed yield of the transmutated plants was due either to increase in seed weight or to increase in number of siliquae/plant

  6. Synergistic action of tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyavan; Bhatia, Arti; Tomer, Ritu; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, B; Singh, S D

    2013-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in open top chamber during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at the research farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) interaction on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.). Mustard plants were grown from emergence to maturity under different treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CF, 80-85 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2), nonfiltered air (NF, 5-10 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2 ), nonfiltered air with elevated carbon dioxide (NF + CO2, NF air and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), elevated ozone (EO, NF air and 25-35 ppb elevated O3), elevated ozone along with elevated carbon dioxide (EO + CO2, NF air, 25-35 ppb O3 and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), and ambient chamber less control (AC, ambient O3 and CO2). Elevated O3 exposure led to reduced photosynthesis and leaf area index resulting in decreased seed yield of mustard. Elevated ozone significantly decreased the oil and micronutrient content in mustard. Thirteen to 17 ppm hour O3 exposure (accumulated over threshold of 40 ppm, AOT 40) reduced the oil content by 18-20 %. Elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) along with EO was able to counter the decline in oil content in the seed, and it increased by 11 to 13 % over EO alone. Elevated CO2, however, decreased protein, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, and sulfur content in seed as compared to the nonfiltered control, whereas removal of O3 from air in the charcoal-filtered treatment resulted in a significant increase in the same.

  7. Investigation of growth indices and yield of canola (Brassica napus L. in competition with wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. as influenced by different amount of nitrogen application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soleymani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on growth indices and competitive ability of canola (Brassica napus L. against wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L., a split plot trial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, during 2008-2009. Experimental factors were amounts of nitrogen fertilizer of urea at four levels (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN.ha-1 and five wild mustard plant densities (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants.m-2. The results showed that wild mustard interference led to reduction of leaf area index (LAI, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index duration (LAID, dry matter duration (BMD and seed yield of canola, while these characteristics were increased with more nitrogen fertilizer application. The maximum indices were obtained at 250 kg N.ha-1 and weed-free condition, but generally, the least reduction in maximum LAI, CGR, LAID and BMD of canola affected by wild mustard competition occurred at 200 kg N.ha-1. In conclusion, the results showed that optimum level of fertilizer 200 kg N.ha-1, increased competitive ability of canola against wild mustard and improved yield and growth indices.

  8. New high yielding mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. yellow sarson)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Das, M.L.; Pathan, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mutation breeding work at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture has been successful with the development of a number of promising mutants and with the release of two mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Yellow Sarson), Agrani and Safal, for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh. The mutant varieties have higher seed and oil yield with higher biomass production, tolerance to Alternaria blight and aphid under field conditions. The average seed yield of the varieties is 1726 and 1754 kg/ha as compared to 1447 kg/ha of the best check Sonali. These varieties have 42-43 per cent oil in the seed. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  10. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-gang

    2016-01-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. - Highlights: • Analyze the chemical toxicity of cesium in seedlings of Indian mustard. • Distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium. • 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to Cs toxicity were identified. • Excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway.

  11. Analysis of Genetic Parameters on Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica Carinata A. Braun Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Tesfaye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective to estimate the genotypic variability and other yield related traits of Ethiopian mustard in North West Ethiopia. A total of 36 genotypes of Ethiopian mustard were considered for this study. Analysis of variance was computed to contrast the variability within the collected genotypes based on yield and other yield related traits. The results revealed highly significant values(p<0.01 for days to maturity, grain filling period, number of pod per plot, secondary branches per plant, harvest index, seed yield per plot, seed yield per hectare and oil content. Significant differences (p<0.05 were noted for days to flowering, plant height, primary branch per plant, biomass per plot, oil yield per plot differences among the genotypes. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV % was lower than phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV % for all the traits studied. High genetic advance with heritability was observed in the following characters; plant height, biomass of the plant, number of secondary branch per plant and grain filling period. There are variations in the extent of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of traits which can facilitate selection for further improvement of important traits of Ethiopian mustard. Therefore, it can be concluded that the variability within Ethiopian mustard genotypes collected from different areas of northern Ethiopia is high and vital for better crop improvement.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  13. Genetic Diversity Studies Based on Morphological Variability, Pathogenicity and Molecular Phylogeny of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Population From Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Sharma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available White mold or stem rot disease are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world and the causal organism of this disease Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is known to infect over 400 plant species. Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and poses a serious threat to the worldwide cultivation of oilseed Brassica including India. S. sclerotiorum pathogen usually infects the stem but in severe cases leaves and pods also affected at different developmental stages that deteriorate not only the oil quality but also causing the seed and oil yield losses up to 90% depending on the severity of the disease infestation. This study investigated the morphological and molecular characterization of pathogenic S. sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary geographical isolates from oilseed Brassica including Brassica juncea (Indian mustard. The aim of this study was to compare isolates of S. sclerotiorum originated from different agro-climatic conditions and to analyse similarity or differences between them as well as to examine the virulence of this pathogen specifically in Brassica for the first time. The collection of S. sclerotiorum isolates from symptomatic Brassica plants was done and analyzed for morphological features, and molecular characterization. The virulence evaluation test of 65 isolates on four Brassica cultivars has shown 5 of them were highly virulent, 46 were virulent and 14 were moderately virulent. Phylogenetic analysis encompassing all the morphological features, SSR polymorphism, and ITS sequencing has shown the existence of high genetic diversity among the isolates that categorized all the isolates in three evolutionary lineages in the derived dendrogram. Further, genetic variability analysis based on sequences variation in ITS region of all the isolates has shown the existence of either insertions or deletions of the nucleotides in the ITS region has led to the interspecies variability and observed the variation were

  14. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudur Rahman; Amina Khatun; Lei Liu; Bronwyn J. Barkla

    2018-01-01

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), white mustard (Brassica alba), Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata), Asian mustard (B. juncea), oilseed rape (B. napus), black mustard (B. nigra), rapeseed (B. rapa), white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis), ball mustard (Neslia paniculata), treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum), hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale), Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale), smooth mustard (S. erysimoides) and canola are the major ec...

  15. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  16. Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anindita; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2011-10-01

    Nowadays an increasing application of nanotechnology in different fields has arisen an extensive debate about the effect of the engineered nanoparticles on environment . Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles has come into limelight in the last few years. However, very few studies have been done so far on the beneficial aspects of nanoparticles on plants. In this article, we report the beneficial effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter of 30 nm on Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds. Measurements of germination rate, T 50 (time taken for 50% germination), shoot and root growth have shown encouraging results using low concentration of oxidized MWCNT (OMWCNT) treated seeds as compared to non-oxidized as well as high concentration OMWCNT treated seeds. For toxicity study we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while conductivity test and infra-red spectra were also performed to study the overall effect of oxidized and non-oxidized nanotubes on mustard seeds and seedlings.

  17. Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Anindita; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays an increasing application of nanotechnology in different fields has arisen an extensive debate about the effect of the engineered nanoparticles on environment. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles has come into limelight in the last few years. However, very few studies have been done so far on the beneficial aspects of nanoparticles on plants. In this article, we report the beneficial effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter of ∼30 nm on Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds. Measurements of germination rate, T 50 (time taken for 50% germination), shoot and root growth have shown encouraging results using low concentration of oxidized MWCNT (OMWCNT) treated seeds as compared to non-oxidized as well as high concentration OMWCNT treated seeds. For toxicity study we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while conductivity test and infra-red spectra were also performed to study the overall effect of oxidized and non-oxidized nanotubes on mustard seeds and seedlings.

  18. 14CO2 fixation and allocation of 14C into major biochemical fractions in different parts of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, D.; Rathore, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    14CO2 fixation and transport of 14C-photosynthates amongst different parts of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and the incorporation of 14C into major chemical fractions in different plant parts was studied at ripening stage. Stem and pod together contributed 70 % of the total 14C fixed by the plant. In all plant parts neutral saccharide fraction contained maximum radioactivity immediately after exposing plants to 14CO2. After 24 h, the radioactivity in this fraction declined considerably due to translocation or conversion into other fractions. Concomitantly radioactivity in lipids and pigments, residue and starch fractions increased after 24 h. The 14C allocation patterns in stem and leaves were similar. However, in pods very high radioactivity was recovered from amino and organic acid fractions indicating the presence of active phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in pod walls

  19. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  20. Morphological and genetic characterization of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system (oxa CMS) in stem mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Shuangping; Liu, Sansan; Xia, Chunxiu; Tang, HongYu; Xie, Fei; Fu, Tingdong; Wan, Zhengjie

    2018-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE: oxa CMS is a new cytoplasmic male sterility type in Brassica juncea. oxa CMS is a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line that has been widely used in the production and cultivation of stem mustard in the southwestern China. In this study, different CMS-type specific mitochondrial markers were used to confirm that oxa CMS is distinct from the pol CMS, ogu CMS, nap CMS, hau CMS, tour CMS, Moricandia arvensis CMS, orf220-type CMS, etc., that have been previously reported in Brassica crops. Pollen grains of the oxa CMS line are sterile with a self-fertility rate of almost 0% and the sterility strain rate and sterility degree of oxa CMS is 100% due to a specific flower structure and flowering habit. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that most pollen grains in mature anthers of the oxa CMS line are empty, flat and deflated. Semi-thin section further showed that the abortive stage of anther development in oxa CMS is initiated at the late uninucleate stage. Abnormally vacuolated microspores caused male sterility in the oxa CMS line. This cytological study combined with marker-assisted selection showed that oxa CMS is a novel CMS type in stem mustard (Brassica juncea). Interestingly, the abortive stage of oxa CMS is later than those in other CMS types reported in Brassica crops, and there is no negative effect on the oxa CMS line growth period. This study demonstrated that this novel oxa CMS has a unique flower structure with sterile pollen grains at the late uninucleate stage. Our results may help to uncover the mechanism of oxa CMS in Brassica juncea.

  1. Study on remediation for uranium contaminated soils enhanced by chelator using brassica mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Qinfang; Pan Ning; Jin Yongdong; Xia Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    Screening of perfect hyperaccumulators is the key to the application of this technology. Through the previous stage study, mustard was found to be good at absorption and accumulation of uranium among 51 species, the plant grows fast with wide adaptability and large biomass. Researches will focus on the following two aspects: 1. Simulating U- contaminated soils was prepared by two different ways to add uranium. (1). UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 . 6H 2 O solution was sprayed into soil when the plant was grown in the soil; (2). Above U-contaminated soils after planting and placed for a year. Study on whether the way of adding uranium can effect mustard accumulate uranium. Results found: in the first Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reaches 1103.42 mg/kg, roots reach 1909.49 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 7.81%; in the second Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reach 295.83 mg/kg, roots reach 268.42 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 2.52%. Led to the difference between the twice remediation is the speciation of uranium m soils has changed, respectively, Tessier-five step continuous extraction method for determination of uranium speciation in soils and found available uranium (exchangeable uranium, uranium carbonate) in the soil of the first phytoremediation was 52% higher than the second phytoremediation. 2. Study on chelators (Citric acids, Malic acids) and soil amendments (Organic fertilizer, microbe fertilizer. Humic acid organic fertilizer, Urea) whether effect mustard accumulate uranium, found organic fertilizer can reduce shoots accumulate uranium, Citric acid and microbe fertilizer increase shoots enrichment of uranium. (authors)

  2. Management of textile wastewater for improving growth and yield of field mustard (Brassica campestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Komal, Aqleema; Naveed, Muhammad

    2017-09-02

    Disposal of industrial wastewater is a current issue of urbanization. However, this problem can be sorted out by using wastewater as an alternate source of irrigation after the addition of some amendment. In this way, the problem of disposal of wastewater not only will be resolved but also scarcity of irrigation water can be kept off in the future. The current research study was performed to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of wastewater along with canal water for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard. Plants were irrigated with different mixtures of canal water and wastewater (75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 00:100) in addition to canal water as control. The results revealed that application of 50:50% waste and canal water improved plant height, the number of pods plant -1 , pod length, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, 100 grain weight, grain and biomass yield plant -1 , and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration in grain and straw up to 16%, 15%, 17%, 29%, 15%, 56%, 25%, 41%, 35%, 20%, 52%, 45%, 20%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, over positive control treatment. While, nutrient uptakes and agronomic efficiency of fertilizers also improved by the application of 50:50% canal and wastewater compared to positive control treatment. Furthermore, the concentration of heavy metals, predominantly Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb, was reduced in grains by application of 50% canal water and 50% wastewater. The outcomes suggest that wastewater utilization along with canal water mixing might be an effective approach for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard.

  3. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a

  4. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. Subsp Maire) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Okunade, O. A.; Ghawi, S. K.; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70 °C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less i...

  5. Platinum bioaccumulation by mustard plants (Sinapis alba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawienczyk, M.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.; Kowalska, J.; Asztemborska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of hydroponically cultivated Indian mustard plants (Sinapis alba L.) to accumulate platinum was investigated. The Pt-bioaccumulation in leaves, stem and shoots of plants growing for 2 and 4 weeks at Pt-concentration of 50 and 500 μg/L was compared. The relation between dry and fresh weight was also estimated. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) were applied for determination of Pt. Increasing Pt-concentration from 50 to 500 μg/L in the medium causes: (1) reduction of the root tissue hydration level at unchanged modification in aboveground parts of the plants and (2) decrease of the Pt transfer factor (TF) for roots and increase for leaves and stem. Duration of the culture influenced on Pt-accumulation in roots and in aboveground organs of mustard plants. Transfer factor for Pt between 560 and 1600 makes Indian mustard plants one at Pt-hyperaccumulators. Distribution of Pt-bioaccumulation in the plant organs may be useful for biomonitoring of platinum in the environment. (author)

  6. Effect of Soil Salinity, Type and Amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Biochemical Properties of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Tandisseh; A. R Astaraei; H Emami

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Soil salinity is a major limiting factor in agricultural development within Iran. Nitrogen is the most important nutrient that its uptake is limited over other elements under saline conditions due to decrease in the permeability of plant roots, soil microbial activity and mineralization of organic compounds and nitrate uptake by high concentrations of chloride anions in the root zone of the plant. Mustard plant has a good compatibility to weather conditions and since there is...

  7. Effect of Seed Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Two Mustard Cultivars (Brassica compestris var. parkland and Goldrash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goldani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: B. campestris is an old plant that commonly grows in arid and semi-arid areas. It has mucilage in the epidermal cells of canola seeds, a considerable variation in growth form and characteristics across the many cultivars. These species have in general, a flat root without an elongated crown, with stems that typically grow 30 to 120 cm tall. The leaves are large, soft, smooth or soft-hairy. The yellow flowers are small, usually less than 2 cm long (24. Seed priming is a procedure in which seed is soaked and then dried back to its original water content. Hydropriming uses only water in the process of controlled imbibitions, but osmopriming simply means soaking seeds in an osmotic solution. Seed priming is a technique of controlled hydration and drying that results in more rapid germination when the seed is reimbibed. Priming can be a valuable process for improving germination and uniformity of heterogeneously matured seed lots. Seed priming has been successfully demonstrated to improve germination and emergence in seeds of many crops, particularly vegetables and small seeded grasses. Seed priming is a presowing strategy for influencing seedling development by modulating pregermination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Fast germination and uniform emergence assist the farmer to “catch up” on the time lost to drought (17, 18. This research aimed to study the effect of the best treatments of osmopriming and hydropriming on varieties of mustard seed germination traits was conducted. Materials and Methods: The present research was conducted under laboratory conditions of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012 to determine the seed priming effects on germination traits of two cultivars of mustard. The experiment was in completely randomized design with six treatments. Seeds of two mustard cultivars including Goldrash and Parkland (Brassica

  8. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Blande, James D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  9. Study of selective metals accumulation in green mustard (Brassica rapa var. parachinesis L.) from Cameron Highlands farmlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Marlinda Musa; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat

    2011-01-01

    There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. However, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green mustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor (EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selected vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The green mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior to analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the concentration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentration in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows. (Author)

  10. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  11. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, white mustard (Brassica alba, Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata, Asian mustard (B. juncea, oilseed rape (B. napus, black mustard (B. nigra, rapeseed (B. rapa, white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis, ball mustard (Neslia paniculata, treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum, hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale, Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale, smooth mustard (S. erysimoides and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  12. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Liu, Lei; Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-21

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ), white mustard ( Brassica alba ), Ethiopian mustard ( B. carinata ), Asian mustard ( B. juncea ), oilseed rape ( B. napus ), black mustard ( B. nigra ), rapeseed ( B. rapa ), white ball mustard ( Calepina irregularis ), ball mustard ( Neslia paniculata ), treacle mustard ( Erysimum repandum ), hedge mustard ( Sisymbrium officinale ), Asian hedge mustard ( S. orientale ), smooth mustard ( S. erysimoides ) and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  13. Oilseed brassica improvement: through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1990-06-01

    The oilseed brassica improvement programme is discussed in this report. Some observations on different plant mutants were made throughout the growth period and results revealed that most of the selected mutants of both the varieties expressed better performance than the parent by showing superior plant traits. A new species named brassica carinata has tremendous untapped potential as an oilseed crop. Efforts for creating maximum variability in rapeseed mustard varieties by means other than gamma radiation continued. (A.B.)

  14. Metal accumulation in a potential winter vegetable mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with different types of waters in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z. I.; Ahmad, K.; Yasmeen, S.; Ashfaq, A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful effects of metal-enriched vegetables a comprehensive study was conducted to appraise the extent of accumulation of different metals in mustard (Brassica campestris L.). The vegetable was treated with ground water, sewage water and canal water irrigation in areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Metals and metalloids observed in all three sites treated with sewage, canal and ground water were As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn were observed in the sites treated with ground, sewage and canal waters as well as the vegetable grown therein. The metal concentration observed in water samples was: Fe>Zn >Pb> Ni> Mo> Cu> As> Se, the order in the soil was: As >Pb> Fe > Ni > Mo > Cu > Zn > Se, while the order in the vegetable was: Zn > Fe> Cu> Ni> Mo>Pb> As> Se. The values of bio-concentration factor varied from 0.09-15.47 mg kg-1. Correlation was positively significant for Brassica campestris and soil except Ni and Se which showed positive non significant correlation. Pollution load index was observed to be in the following order: As >Pb> Ni > Mo >Fe > Cu > Se > Zn in the sites GWI, CWI and CWI. Fe and Zn (0.169) showed highest value of daily intake of metal (DIM), while Se (0.003) showed lowest value in crop of all three sites GWI, CWI and CWI. The health risk index and EF ranged from 0.24-69.86 mg day/sup -1/and 0.134-14.12 mg day/sup -1/, respectively. Overall, the vegetable treated with sewage water may have considerable impact on food quality and in turn on the health of people consuming it. (author)

  15. Isolation of phytase-producing bacteria from Himalayan soils and their effect on growth and phosphorus uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Prashant; Jorquera, Milko A; Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Piyush; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Phytase-producing bacteria (PPB) is being investigated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to improve the phosphorus (P) nutrition and growth of plants grown in soil with high phytate content. Phytate is dominant organic P forms in many soils and must be hydrolyzed to be available for plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a plant with economic importance in agriculture and phytoremediation, therefore biotechnological tools to improve growth and environmental stress tolerance are needed. In this study, we isolated and characterized PPB from Himalayan soils and evaluated their effect on growth and P uptake by B. juncea under greenhouse conditions. Sixty five PPB were isolated and based on phytate hydrolysis, three efficient PPB were chosen and identified as Acromobacter sp. PB-01, Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13. Selected PPB showed ability to grow at wide range of pH, temperature and salt concentrations as well as to harbour diverse PGPR activities, such as: solubilization of insoluble Ca-phosphate (193-642 μg ml(-1)), production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (5-39 μg ml(-1)) and siderophore. Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 showed 50 and 70 % inhibition of phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Greenhouse potting assay also showed that the bacterization of B. juncea seeds with Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 significantly increased the biomass and P content in 30 days old seedlings. This study reveals the potential of PPB as PGPR to improve the growth of B. juncea.

  16. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Motior M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54%) and Cu (34-38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  17. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pingxia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42. It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE, B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org.

  18. Effect of method and time of application on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Kamath, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiophosphorus( 32 p) employed in a two years field study to evaluate some techniques of phosphate application in relation to P utilization by mustard as a test crop on I.A.R.I. Farm alluvial soil revealed that split application of phosphate proved superior to other methods of P fertilization as judged by significantly higher values for per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization. Band placement of plain single suprphosphate(SSP) as well as slurry blended SSP 3 to 4 cm below the seed were at par but both were superior to broadcast application of slurry blended SSP in terms of different P uptake parmeters. Fertilizer applied as a traditional practice, i.e, to broadcast it at seeding was least efficiently utilized. Moreover, alternate tagging technique conclusively indicated that mustard crop derived relatively more P from the basal dose than that of side dressed 25 days after seeding. The grain yield response per unit quantity of added P was much higher in favour of split application followed by comparable response of band placement of blended SSP and unblended fertilizer. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Genetic Variability in Glucosinolates in Seed of Brassica juncea: Interest in Mustard Condiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othmane Merah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea is mostly used for oil production which implies selection of genotypes with low glucosinolates level and high oil content. In contrast, condiment production needs varieties with high level in some glucosinolates including sinigrin. The genetic variability was studied mostly by molecular tools. The objectives were almost the decrease of glucosinolates level in order to use the oilcake for animal feed. The aim of this work is to study the genetic variability for different glucosinolates and their relationships with agronomical traits within a large collection of Brassica juncea genotypes for condiment uses. A collection of 190 genotypes from different origins was studied in Dijon (France. Oil content and total glucosinolates, and sinigrin and gluconapin levels were measured. Flowering and maturation durations, seed yield, and yield components were also measured. Large variability was observed between genotypes for the measured traits within the studied collection. Total glucosinolates varied twofold between extreme genotypes. Values of sinigrin content varied from 0 to more than 134 µmol·g−1. Correlations between glucosinolates traits and both phenological and agronomical characters are presented and discussed for their potential for industrial condiment uses.

  20. An evaluation of the effects of exogenous ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, on photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars that differ in photosynthetic capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan NA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stimulatory effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution in plants is known, but the extent to which ethylene controls photosynthesis is not clear. Studies on the effects of ethylene on CO2 metabolism have shown conflicting results. Increase or inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene has been reported. To understand the physiological processes responsible for ethylene-mediated changes in photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll effects on photosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis in response to ethephon treatment in mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity were studied. Results The effects of ethephon on photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, carbonic anhydrase (CA activity, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS activity and ethylene evolution were similar in both the cultivars. Increasing ethephon concentration up to 1.5 mM increased PN, gS and CA maximally, whereas 3.0 mM ethephon proved inhibitory. ACS activity and ethylene evolution increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon. The corresponding changes in gs and CA activity suggest that the changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were triggered by altered stomatal and mesophyll processes. Stomatal conductance changed in parallel with changes in mesophyll photosynthetic properties. In both the cultivars ACS activity and ethylene increased up to 3.0 mM ethephon, but 1.5 mM ethephon caused maximum effects on photosynthetic parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that ethephon affects foliar gas exchange responses. The changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were due to stomatal and mesophyll effects. The changes in gS were a response maintaining stable intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci under the given treatment in both the cultivars. Also, the high photosynthetic capacity cultivar, Varuna responded less to ethephon than the low photosynthetic capacity cultivar, RH30. The photosynthetic

  1. Studies on the cost-effective management of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Three systemic fungicides: Topsin-M (Thiophanate methyl, 70%WP, Ridomil MZ (Mancozeb, 64% + Metalaxyl, 8%WP, and Bavistin (Carbendazim, 50%WP alone and in combination with four non-systemic fungicides Captaf (Captan, 50%WP, Indofil M-45 (Mancozeb, 75%WP, Indofil Z-78 (Zineb, 75%WP, and Thiram (Thiram, 75%WP were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for their effectiveness to manage Alternaria blight of rapeseedmustard caused by Alternaria brassicae. A pure culture of the pathogenic fungus was applied in the field at 2 g colonized sorghum seeds kg-1 soil. All the fungicides were evaluated for their efficacy at various concentrations, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 ppm, and were sprayed in the field at 0.2% a.i. l-1. All fungicides significantly reduced the severity of the disease but Ridomil MZ was most effective. Topsin-M at a concentration of 500 ppm was the most effective in reducing radial growth of the pathogenic fungi (74.2%. Ridomil MZ reduced disease severity by 32% and was followed in effectiveness by the combination Bavistin+Captaf (26.5%. Maximum yield was obtained in plots sprayed with Bavistin+Captaf (1198 kg ha-1 followed by Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1172 kg ha-1. It was worth noting that the highest net profit as well as the highest cost-benefit ratio was obtained with Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1:3.2, followed by Bavistin+Captaf (1:1.3.

  2. Broadening the genetic base of Abyssinian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun through introgression of genes from related allotetraploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq A. Sheikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brassica carinata (BBCC, 2n=34 has still to emerge as a major oilseed crop owing to poor agronomic attributes like long stature, long maturity duration and low seed yield. The restricted amount of genetic variability available in natural B. carinata necessitates utilization of new sources of variability for broadening its genetic base. Interspecific hybridization followed by selection in selfed and back cross progenies was employed to generate useful variability into B. carinata cv ˈPC5ˈ from elite lines of Brassica napus (AACC, 2n=38 and Brassica juncea (AABB, 2n=36. The morphological evaluation of 24 stable introgressed progenies revealed wide range of variability for key economic traits. The progenies with mean maturity duration of 161 ± 2.1 days, short stature of 139.5 ± 6.5 cm and seed yield per plant of 18.6 ± 2.0 g in comparison to the corresponding figures of 168 ± 4.6 days, 230.6 ± 12.7 cm and 12.0 ± 2.4 g in ˈPC5ˈ (recurrent parent were recovered. Diversity analysis at morphological level revealed that 22 out of 24 stable introgressed progenies were grouped with B. carinata ˈPC5ˈ at average taxonomic distance of 1.19. The diversity at molecular level using 25 polymorphic and reproducible RAPD primers revealed that 19 out of 21 introgressed progenies grouped with B. carinata ˈPC5ˈ at a similarity coefficient of 0.68. The clusters in general represent a wide range of genetic diversity in the back cross lines of B. carinata as a result of introgression of genes from elite lines of B. napus and B. juncea parents.

  3. The effects of seed size on hybrids formed between oilseed rape (Brassica napus and wild brown mustard (B. juncea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Seed size has significant implications in ecology, because of its effects on plant fitness. The hybrid seeds that result from crosses between crops and their wild relatives are often small, and the consequences of this have been poorly investigated. Here we report on plant performance of hybrid and its parental transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus and wild B. juncea, all grown from seeds sorted into three seed-size categories.Three seed-size categories were sorted by seed diameter for transgenic B. napus, wild B. juncea and their transgenic and non-transgenic hybrids. The seeds were sown in a field at various plant densities. Globally, small-seeded plants had delayed flowering, lower biomass, fewer flowers and seeds, and a lower thousand-seed weight. The seed-size effect varied among plant types but was not affected by plant density. There was no negative effect of seed size in hybrids, but it was correlated with reduced growth for both parents.Our results imply that the risk of further gene flow would probably not be mitigated by the small size of transgenic hybrid seeds. No fitness cost was detected to be associated with the Bt-transgene in this study.

  4. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Babu Imandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus, the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  5. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  6. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  7. Evaluation of indigenous rhizobacterial strains with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer towards growth and yield of mustard (Brassica campestris under old alluvial soil zone of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment had been carried out in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm of The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India during the two consecutive winter seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to study the effect of indigenous rhizospheric bacterial strains on growth, physiology and yield of mustard variety. Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia sp. and their mixture were used as seed inoculants for mustard cultivation. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Results revealed that indigenous inoculation (with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer significantly increased (p < 0.05 the yield of mustard as compared to uninoculated control (full recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. A combination treatment of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer also increased plant height, plant biomass and other yield components compared to control. The comprehensive approach of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agriculturally important crops should be carried out to explore the hidden potential of PGPR and to promote the quality and yield of crop under field conditions. Keywords: Indigenous rhizobacteria, Mustard, PGPR, Yield

  8. Isolation of low erucic acid-containing genotype of Indian mustard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reciprocal crosses were done between two cultivars; cv. RJ15 and cv. RLM198 of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Anther derived lines designated as A1 plants, were raised through anther culture from these F1 hybrid plants. 45% germination was obtained from distinctly shriveled and small A1 seeds and grown along ...

  9. Mitochondrial nad2 gene is co-transcripted with CMS-associated orfB gene in cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Fang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-02-01

    The transcriptional patterns of mitochondrial respiratory related genes were investigated in cytoplasmic male-sterile and fertile maintainer lines of stem mustard, Brassica juncea. There were numerous differences in nad2 (subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase) between stem mustard CMS and its maintainer line. One novel open reading frame, hereafter named orfB gene, was located at the downstream of mitochondrial nad2 gene in the CMS. The novel orfB gene had high similarity with YMF19 family protein, orfB in Raphanus sativus, Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum and Beta vulgaris, orfB-CMS in Daucus carota, atp8 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, 5' flanking of orf224 in B. napus (nap CMS) and 5' flanking of orf220 gene in CMS Brassica juncea. Three copies probed by specific fragment (amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R from CMS) were found in the CMS line following Southern blotting digested with HindIII, but only a single copy in its maintainer line. Meanwhile, two transcripts were shown in the CMS line following Northern blotting while only one transcript was detected in the maintainer line, which were probed by specific fragment (amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R from CMS). Meanwhile, the expression of nad2 gene was reduced in CMS bud compared to that in its maintainer line. We thus suggested that nad2 gene may be co-transcripted with CMS-associated orfB gene in the CMS. In addition, the specific fragment that was amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R just spanned partial sequences of nad2 gene and orfB gene. Such alterations in the nad2 gene would impact the activity of NADH dehydrogenase, and subsequently signaling, inducing the expression of nuclear genes involved in male sterility in this type of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  10. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  11. Effect of Soil Salinity, Type and Amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Biochemical Properties of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tandisseh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is a major limiting factor in agricultural development within Iran. Nitrogen is the most important nutrient that its uptake is limited over other elements under saline conditions due to decrease in the permeability of plant roots, soil microbial activity and mineralization of organic compounds and nitrate uptake by high concentrations of chloride anions in the root zone of the plant. Mustard plant has a good compatibility to weather conditions and since there is an extreme need of vegetable oilseed in our country and also wide extent of saline soils in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the best type and amount of nitrogen fertilizers between calcium nitrate and ammonium sulfate under saline conditions. Materials and Methods A greenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (factorial with three replications in February 2012 in the Research greenhouse of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The treatments were consisted of two types of nitrogen fertilizer (calcium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, each with three levels of N (40, 80 and 120 mg per kg of soil in three levels of soil salinity (C0= control, C1= 5 and C2= 10dS m-1. Experimental soil (control collected from agricultural experimental station was leached by salt solutions containing salts of calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and sodium sulfate with specified concentrations and ratios during 50 days to reach the similar salt concentrations of leached water consisting the desired levels of salinity. The seeds of mustard were planted at a depth of one centimeter in soil of each pot and were irrigated with tap water to field capacity (by weight. Plants were harvested after 5 months and plant fresh and dry weights and nitrogen concentration and uptake of plant were measured by the Kjeldahl method. Irrigation water and physical and chemical properties of soil before and after harvest were determined. Data obtained were analyzed using

  12. The compact genome of the plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae is adapted to intracellular interactions with host Brassica spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Stephen A; Strelkov, Stephen E; Links, Matthew G; Clarke, Wayne E; Robinson, Stephen J; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Malinowski, Robert; Haddadi, Parham; Kagale, Sateesh; Parkin, Isobel A P; Taheri, Ali; Borhan, M Hossein

    2016-03-31

    The protist Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne pathogen of cruciferous species and the causal agent of clubroot disease of Brassicas including agriculturally important crops such as canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus). P. brassicae has remained an enigmatic plant pathogen and is a rare example of an obligate biotroph that resides entirely inside the host plant cell. The pathogen is the cause of severe yield losses and can render infested fields unsuitable for Brassica crop growth due to the persistence of resting spores in the soil for up to 20 years. To provide insight into the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with its primary host B. napus, we produced a draft genome of P. brassicae pathotypes 3 and 6 (Pb3 and Pb6) that differ in their host range. Pb3 is highly virulent on B. napus (but also infects other Brassica species) while Pb6 infects only vegetable Brassica crops. Both the Pb3 and Pb6 genomes are highly compact, each with a total size of 24.2 Mb, and contain less than 2 % repetitive DNA. Clustering of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Pb3, Pb6 and three additional re-sequenced pathotypes (Pb2, Pb5 and Pb8) shows a high degree of correlation of cluster grouping with host range. The Pb3 genome features significant reduction of intergenic space with multiple examples of overlapping untranslated regions (UTRs). Dependency on the host for essential nutrients is evident from the loss of genes for the biosynthesis of thiamine and some amino acids and the presence of a wide range of transport proteins, including some unique to P. brassicae. The annotated genes of Pb3 include those with a potential role in the regulation of the plant growth hormones cytokinin and auxin. The expression profile of Pb3 genes, including putative effectors, during infection and their potential role in manipulation of host defence is discussed. The P. brassicae genome sequence reveals a compact genome, a dependency of the pathogen on its host for some

  13. Tracer studies on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Kamath, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Mustard and chickpea derived a large fraction of their P requirement from applied phosphate compared to safflower crop at flowering. Consequently mean per cent P utilization was maximum in mustard (17.7) followed by chickpea (13.0) and safflower (9.5). However, P uptake at maturity was higher for oilseeds than for the pulse. Grain yield response per kg of applied P was higher at lower rate of P application regardless of the crop. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  14. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM GERANIACEAE PLANTS ON PIERIS BRASSICAE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conducted studies comprised the analyses of activity of extracts derived from selected plants of the Geranium family on some processes of large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae development (oviposition, survival of eggs and caterpillar feeding. The results proved that all tested extracts showed activity against large white butterfly. Geranium pratense L. and Geranium senquineum L. showed better activity than other Geranium plants. Water extracts from these species protected cabbage plants against laying eggs, while applied on eggs caused their mortality. Alcohol and water extracts from G. pratense L. and water extracts from G. senquineum L. increased an amount of food put on mass gain of caterpillars.

  15. NEW INCOMING ACCESSIONS OF BRASSICA RAPA L. INTO THE VIR PLANT COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Artemieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crops of Brassica rapa L. species are varieties such as pak-choi, tatsoi, wutacai, tsoisum, mizuna, mibuna, brokkoletto and Japanese leafy turnips Komatsuna, Kurona, Hiroshimana, Shirona, Mana, which are all characterized by  early-ripening,  high  productivity,  presence of valuable biochemical compounds and relatively simple growing requirements. The nappa cabbage is widespread and cultivated everywhere in the world as open field and greenhouse crop. Other varieties are grown locally, namely brokkoletto is grown in Italy, whereas other mentioned varieties are mostly cultivated in the Southeast Asian countries, where population uses them for different processing technologies. There is the nappa cabbage that is mostly cultivated, particularly for industrial production  in Russia. The Chinese cabbage (pak choi, Japanese cabbage, Japanese mustard  spinach  or  Komatsuna  are  not  very widespread and practically unknown crop. However, vegetable growers are interested in using new cole crops, and gardeners know about values of related varieties of nappa cabbage in the group of Asian cole crops. The analysis of incoming genetic accessions of Brassica rapa L. crops that have been included into the VIR plant collection is given. All  botanical  subspecies  and  varieties of  leafy varieties have been taken for the study. The detailed description of new for Russia varieties, such as purple, brokkoletto, rosette pakchoi as well as well as types of cultivars that haven’t still included into State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russian Federation are given. According to  research results obtained at Pushkin VIR laboratories (Saint-Petersburg the  initial  breeding  accessions  have been selected to  be  sources of  such characteristics as productivity,  early-ripening, disease resistance and valuable biochemical compounds.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen responses to Plasmodiophora brassicae primed by the biocontrol strain Zhihengliuella aestuarii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanli; Dong, Daiwen; Su, Yu; Wang, Xuyi; Peng, Yumei; Peng, Jiang; Zhou, Changyong

    2018-05-01

    Mustard clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious disease that affects Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen, a mustard plant that is the raw material for a traditional fermented food manufactured in Chongqing, China. In our laboratory, we screened the antagonistic bacteria Zhihengliuella aestuarii against P. brassicae. To better understand the biocontrol mechanism, three transcriptome analyses of B. juncea var. tumida Tsen were conducted using Illumina HiSeq 4000, one from B. juncea only inoculated with P. brassicae (P), one inoculated with P. brassica and the biocontrol agent Z. aestuarii at the same time (P + B), and the other was the control (H), in which P. brassicae was replaced by sterile water. A total of 19.94 Gb was generated by Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The sequence data were de novo assembled, and 107,617 unigenes were obtained. In total, 5629 differentially expressed genes between biocontrol-treated (P + B) and infected (P) samples were assigned to 126 KEGG pathways. Using multiple testing corrections, 20 pathways were significantly enriched with Qvalue ≤ 0.05. The resistance-related genes, involved in the production of pathogenesis-related proteins, pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, and effector-triggered immunity signaling pathways, calcium influx, salicylic acid pathway, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and cell wall modification, were obtained. The various defense responses induced by the biocontrol strain combatted the P. brassicae infection. The genes and pathways involved in plant resistance were induced by a biocontrol strain. The transcriptome data explained the molecular mechanism of the potential biocontrol strain against P. brassicae. The data will also serve as an important public information platform to study B. juncea var. tumida Tsen and will be useful for breeding mustard plants resistant to P. brassicae.

  17. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya eSinha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h or long (12 h durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina’s NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering of these differentially expressed transcripts along with Spearman correlation analysis identified two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP and late stages (20-30 DAP of silique development. Detailed analysis led to the discovery of two gene expression clusters whose transcripts were inducible at both durations of the cold stress irrespective of the developmental stages. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs, transcription regulators (TRs and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases specifically during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression profiles of selected transcripts by qPCR and found a high degree of concordance between the two analyses. To our knowledge this is the first report of transcriptome sequencing of cold-stressed B. juncea siliques. The data generated in this study would be a valuable resource for not only understanding the cold stress signaling pathway but also for introducing cold

  18. Data from: Endure and call for help: strategies of black mustard plants to deal with a specialised caterpillar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas Gomes Marques Barbosa, D.; Dicke, M.; Kranenburg, Twan; Aartsma, Y.S.Y.; Beek, van T.A.; Huigens, Martinus E.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    raw data on: 1) pollinator visitation rates to Brassica nigra plants during day and night; 2) Plant Chemistry including volatile emission and carbon and nitrogen contents; 3) Plant fitness including biomass and seed production

  19. NEW ACCESSIONS OF BRASSICA OLERACEA L. IN VIR PLANT COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Artemieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of Brassica oleracea L. are widespread and favorite crops, where among them the head cabbage and cauliflower are the most economically important. Russia takes third place after India and Chine among countries with largest production areas and gross yield for the crop. In Russia, the area sown to cabbage is about 27 thousand hectares. 728 cultivars and hybrids of eight cabbage crops including 528 hybrids have been added in State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russian Federation in 2017. The collection of Brassica oleracea L. totally contains of 2421 accessions and takes first place at number of collected items among the world’s plant genbanks. The phenotyping, genotyping, passportization, development of core collection and trait collection as well as initial breeding accessions, covering all genetic diversity have been carried out at department of genetic resources of vegetables and melons at VIR. Selection of most promising accessions is performed to find genes and sources for economically valuable traits to develop proper lines and hybrids. There are the enrichment of the collection by means of ordering and gathering in expeditions, the improvement of methods of phenotyping and development of database for all biological accessions studied at the department. In 2007-2016, 255 accessions of Brassica oleracea L. have been included into collection to be used in different national breeding programs.

  20. Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard Breeding Lines Using RAPD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is an oilseed crop less known to the ... have also been used for cultivar identification in B. napus (Ren et al. ..... of Brassica oleracea L. group (2n=18) using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

  1. Tolerance of Brassica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  2. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  3. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytotoxic effects of calotropis procera, tamarix aphylla and peganum harmala on plant growth of wheat and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.M.; Khatoon, A.; Rehman, A.; Khan, P.; Shakir, S.U.K.; Irfan, S.; Rehman, S.U.; Jamil, M.; Mlaook, I.; Bashar, K.U.; Afridi, M.; Rahim, A.; Ullah, F.

    2016-01-01

    Phytotoxic effects of many plants are known on growth of different useful crops. This research study was designed to find out phytotoxic effects of Calotropis procera, Tamarix aphylla and Peganum harmala on seed germination and seedling length of wheat and mustard. Results showed that seed germination of wheat was significantly decreased by 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent while mustard seeds were resistant and were affected by higher dilutions (15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent) of all plant extracts. Roots of both wheat and mustard were highly affected by plant aqueous extracts at all concentrations (5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent) but shoots were inhibited by higher concentrations (20 percent and 25 percent). This study revealed that wheat is more sensitive to different plant extracts as compared to mustard. It is thus concluded that inhibitory effect increases with the increase of extracts concentration. (author)

  5. Investigation on the Fate of Some Pesticides and Their Effects on the Microbial Environment in Cultivation of Green gram (Vigna radiata), Mustard green (Brassica rapa) and Kale (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theingi Nwe; Khin Maung Saing

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of the present work was to find out the persistence of some pesticide residues in some vegetable crops and to investigate the effect of pesticide on soil count. Edible parts of green gram, Mustard green and Kale were extracted and analyzed for the presence and degradation of applied pesticide residuse in relation to time. The pesticide residue concentration in plant samples were analyzed by UV spectrometry. According to UV result data, Acephate pesticide in stored green gram seeds was rapidly declined from 2.91mg/kg (two weeks after application) to 0.96mg/kg (three weeks after application). But, four weeks after application, Acephate residues were not detected in the seeds of green gram. In the seeds of green gram, Dimethoate pesticide residues were detected from 1.26mg/kg (one week after application) to 0.89mg/kg (four weeks after treatment). In Mustard green and Kale, Malathion pesticide residues were detected at day seven after application. But Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were detected in both mustard green and kale at day three after application. Beyond day three, chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were not detected. The respective chemical residues have been partially identified by IR Spectrometry. These can be confirmed with IR absorption peaks that the residues are the utilized chemicals. According to IR data, it can be predicted whether pesticide residues remained or not in the samples.

  6. Importance of fruit wall in seed yield of pea (Pisum Sativum L.) and mustard (Brassica campestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna-Chopra, R.; Sinha, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Dry weight changes in fruit wall and seed during fruit development in the pea and mustard were suggestive of the importance of fruit wall during seed development. So the relative photosynthetic potential of leaves and reproductive parts in the above crops were studied. In addition, the translocation of current photosynthates to the developing seeds was also assessed when fruits and leaves were fed 14 CO 2 independently. Considerable amount of photosynthetic carboxylase activity was observed in the fruit wall of both pea and mustard on unit fresh weight, chlorophyll and organ basis. On unit chlorophyll basis fruit wall had several times more activity than leaves. Both fruit wall as well as leaves translocated current photosynthates to the developing fruits. In the early stages, translocation from the leaves was more efficient but in the later stages, more translocation occurred from the fruit wall as compared with the leaves. Above results are discussed in relation to the importance of reproductive organs in the developing seeds. (author)

  7. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kotoran Sapi Dan Jerami Kacang Tanah Sebagai Bokashi Cair Bagi Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sawi (Brassica Juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Artiana Artiana; Lilis Hartati; Abrani Sulaiman; Jamzuri Hadie

    2016-01-01

    Has conducted a study entitled " Cow Manure Waste Utilization and Straw Peanut For Liquid Bokashi For Plant Growth mustard (Brassica juncea L.)". This study aimed to analyze the nutrient content in the liquid Bokashi is derived from cow dung and straw peanuts, and study the effect of dosing Bokashi different liquid to the growth of the mustard plant (Brassica juncea L.). Methods using a completely randomized design with one factor at a dose of 125 ml, 250 ml, 375 ml and 500 ml, and as control...

  8. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH KOTORAN SAPI DAN JERAMI KACANG TANAH SEBAGAI BOKASHI CAIR BAGI PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Artiana Artiana; Lilis Hartati; Abrani Sulaiman; Jamzuri Hadie

    2016-01-01

    Has conducted a study entitled " Cow Manure Waste Utilization and Straw Peanut For Liquid Bokashi For Plant Growth mustard (Brassica juncea L.)". This study aimed to analyze the nutrient content in the liquid Bokashi is derived from cow dung and straw peanuts, and study the effect of dosing Bokashi different liquid to the growth of the mustard plant (Brassica juncea L.). Methods using a completely randomized design with one factor at a dose of 125 ml, 250 ml, 375 ml and 500 ml, and as control...

  9. Changes in soil bacterial community structure as a result of incorporation of Brassica plants compared with continuous planting eggplant and chemical disinfection in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianzhu; Liu, Tongtong; Zheng, Chengyu; Kang, Chunsheng; Yang, Zichao; Yao, Xiaotong; Song, Fengbin; Zhang, Runzhi; Wang, Xuerong; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Chunyi; Li, Wei; Li, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse eggplant monocropping in China has contributed to the aggravation of soil-borne diseases, reductions in crop quality and yield, and the degradation of physical and chemical soil properties. Crop rotation is one effective way of alleviating the problems of continuous cropping worldwide; however, few studies have reported changes in soil bacterial community structures and physical and chemical soil properties after Brassica vegetables had been rotated with eggplant in greenhouses. In this experiment, mustard-eggplant (BFN) and oilseed rape-eggplant (BFC) rotations were studied to identify changes in the physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure in soil that was previously subject to monocropping. Samples were taken after two types of Brassica plants incorporated into soil for 15 days to compare with continually planted eggplant (control, CN) and chemical disinfection of soil (CF) in greenhouses. MiSeq pyrosequencing was used to analyze soil bacterial diversity and structure in the four different treatments. A total of 55,129 reads were identified, and rarefaction analysis showed that the soil treatments were equally sampled. The bacterial richness of the BFC treatment and the diversity of the BFN treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. Further comparison showed that the bacterial community structures of BFC and BFN treatments were also different from CN and CF treatments. The relative abundance of several dominant bacterial genera in the BFC and BFN treatments (such as Flavobacteria, Stenotrophomonas, Massilia and Cellvibrio, which played different roles in improving soil fertility and advancing plant growth) was distinctly higher than the CN or CF treatments. Additionally, the total organic matter and Olsen-P content of the BFC and BFN treatments were significantly greater than the CN treatment. We conclude that Brassica vegetables-eggplant crop rotations could provide a more effective means of solving

  10. EFFECTS OF PLANT NUTRITION ON CANOLA (Brassica napus L. GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Süzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is an important edible oilseed crop in the World and in Turkey. It has a healthy vegetable oil because of its balance with omega 3-6-9 essential fatty acids, making canola oil a healthy vegetable oil throughout the World for cooking and processed food industry. Canola production of high yield and good quality usually depends on well-balanced plant nutrition and growing conditions. A well-balanced soil condition also affects canola plants responses to stress factors such as disease and bad weather conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK are some of the major nutrients required to significantly increase canola yield. Fertilizer application dosages in canola production vary because of the variable occurrence of NPK in the soil. A high yielding canola production needs a well-balanced fertilization program.

  11. THE ELUCIDATION OF STRESS MEMORY INHERITANCE IN BRASSICA RAPA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy eBilichak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants.

  12. Cell division and endoreduplication play important roles in stem swelling of tuber mustard (Brassica juncea Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Wang, L L; Sun, L T; Dong, L L; Liu, B; Chen, L P

    2012-11-01

    We investigated spatio-temporal variations in cell division and the occurrence of endoreduplication in cells of tuber mustard stems during development. Cells in the stem had 8C nuclei (C represents DNA content of a two haploid genome), since it is an allotetraploid species derived from diploid Brassica rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), thus indicating the occurrence of endoreduplication. Additionally, we observed a dynamic change of cell ploidy in different regions of the swollen stems, with a decrease in 4C proportion in P4-1 and a sharp increase in 8C cells that became the dominant cell type (86.33% at most) in the inner pith cells. Furthermore, cDNAs of 14 cell cycle genes and four cell expansion genes were cloned and their spatial transcripts analysed in order to understand their roles in stem development. The expression of most cell cycle genes peaked in regions of the outer pith (P2 or P3), some genes regulating S/G2 and G2/M (BjCDKB1;2, BjCYCB1;1 and BjCYCB1;2) significantly decrease in P5 and P6, while G1/S regulators (BjE2Fa, BjE2Fb and BjE2Fc) showed a relative high expression level in the inner pith (P5) where cells were undergoing endoreduplication. Coincidentally, BjXTH1and BjXTH2 were exclusively expressed in the endoreduplicated cells. Our results suggest that cells of outer pith regions (P2 and P3) mainly divide for cell proliferation, while cells of the inner pith expand through endoreduplication. Endoreduplication could trigger expression of BjXTH1 and BjXTH2 and thus function in cell expansion of the pith tissue. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH KOTORAN SAPI DAN JERAMI KACANG TANAH SEBAGAI BOKASHI CAIR BAGI PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiana Artiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Has conducted a study entitled " Cow Manure Waste Utilization and Straw Peanut For Liquid Bokashi For Plant Growth mustard (Brassica juncea L.". This study aimed to analyze the nutrient content in the liquid Bokashi is derived from cow dung and straw peanuts, and study the effect of dosing Bokashi different liquid to the growth of the mustard plant (Brassica juncea L.. Methods using a completely randomized design with one factor at a dose of 125 ml, 250 ml, 375 ml and 500 ml, and as control using Bokashi solid. This research was conducted with four replications. Bokashi liquid nutrient content of C of 0,1045%, 0,0461% of N, P and K amounted to 0.0172% at 0.2500%. The content of nutrient dense Bokashi C of 6,0874%, 2,0169% of N, P and K amounted to 0,0218% at 5,7802%. Bokashi dosing different liquid to the growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L. significant effect on the growth of mustard, but still lower than the solid Bokashi. Dose liquid Bokashi most optimal for growing mustard (Brassica juncea L. is at 375 ml.

  14. Brassica oleracea: the dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  15. Brassica oleracea; The dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  16. Evaluation of Growth Indices and Estimation Seed Yield Loss Threshold of Canola in Response to Various Densities of Crop and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Anafjeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study the effect of various densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. on growth indices of Canola (Brassica napus L. in climate of Molathani, Ahvaz, an experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in 2006-2007. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included of wild mustard at five levels (0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants m2 and Canola at three densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. The results showed that the increase in mustard density rates lead to decreasing total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and mean pod dry matter in three canola densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. Somewhat the lowest growth indices was obtained in 35 plants mustard (that is the highest mustard density. In addition damage rate of mustard decreased canola seed yield for 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants mustard up to 61, 71, 76 and 91%, respectively. Keywords: Plant density, Competition, Yield loss threshold, Growth indices, Canola, Mustard

  17. Differential Phytotoxic Impact of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) on Brassica sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Shweta; Upadhyay, Neha; Singh, Jaspreet; Liu, Shiliang; Singh, Vijay P; Prasad, Sheo M; Chauhan, Devendra K; Tripathi, Durgesh K; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Continuous formation and utilization of nanoparticles (NPs) have resulted into significant discharge of nanosized particles into the environment. NPs find applications in numerous products and agriculture sector, and gaining importance in recent years. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) by green synthesis approach using Aloe vera extract. Mustard ( Brassica sp.) seedlings were grown hydroponically and toxicity of both AgNP and AgNO 3 (as ionic Ag + ) was assessed at various concentrations (1 and 3 mM) by analyzing shoot and root length, fresh mass, protein content, photosynthetic pigments and performance, cell viability, oxidative damage, DNA degradation and enzyme activities. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNO 3 declined growth of Brassica seedlings due to enhanced accumulation of AgNPs and AgNO 3 that subsequently caused severe inhibition in photosynthesis. Further, the results showed that both AgNPs and AgNO 3 induced oxidative stress as indicated by histochemical staining of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide that was manifested in terms of DNA degradation and cell death. Activities of antioxidants, i.e., ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) were inhibited by AgNPs and AgNO 3. Interestingly, damaging impact of AgNPs was lesser than AgNO 3 on Brassica seedlings which was due to lesser accumulation of AgNPs and better activities of APX and CAT, which resulted in lesser oxidative stress, DNA degradation and cell death. The results of the present study showed differential impact of AgNPs and AgNO 3 on Brassica seedlings, their mode of action, and reasons for their differential impact. The results of the present study could be implied in toxicological research for designing strategies to reduce adverse impact of AgNPs and AgNO 3 on crop plants.

  18. Differential Phytotoxic Impact of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3 on Brassica sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Vishwakarma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous formation and utilization of nanoparticles (NPs have resulted into significant discharge of nanosized particles into the environment. NPs find applications in numerous products and agriculture sector, and gaining importance in recent years. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were biosynthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3 by green synthesis approach using Aloe vera extract. Mustard (Brassica sp. seedlings were grown hydroponically and toxicity of both AgNP and AgNO3 (as ionic Ag+ was assessed at various concentrations (1 and 3 mM by analyzing shoot and root length, fresh mass, protein content, photosynthetic pigments and performance, cell viability, oxidative damage, DNA degradation and enzyme activities. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNO3 declined growth of Brassica seedlings due to enhanced accumulation of AgNPs and AgNO3 that subsequently caused severe inhibition in photosynthesis. Further, the results showed that both AgNPs and AgNO3 induced oxidative stress as indicated by histochemical staining of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide that was manifested in terms of DNA degradation and cell death. Activities of antioxidants, i.e., ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT were inhibited by AgNPs and AgNO3. Interestingly, damaging impact of AgNPs was lesser than AgNO3 on Brassica seedlings which was due to lesser accumulation of AgNPs and better activities of APX and CAT, which resulted in lesser oxidative stress, DNA degradation and cell death. The results of the present study showed differential impact of AgNPs and AgNO3 on Brassica seedlings, their mode of action, and reasons for their differential impact. The results of the present study could be implied in toxicological research for designing strategies to reduce adverse impact of AgNPs and AgNO3 on crop plants.

  19. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects 1) plant volatiles emitted in r...

  20. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Satoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Fukui, Masami

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  1. Plant science meets food science: genetic effects of glucosinolate degradation during food processing in Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Phytochemicals in plant-based foods have been linked to a reduced incidence and progression of diseases. Glucosinolates (GLs) are phytochemicals that are typical for Brassicaand other Cruciferousplants, such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts,

  2. Growth and {sup 137}Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aung, Han Phyo [United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Aye, Yi Swe [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hitoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, 321-8505 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea, E-mail: skimura@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different {sup 137}Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of {sup 137}Cs concentration and higher {sup 137}Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different {sup 137}Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna > turnip > mustard > radish. TF values of {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher {sup 137}Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. - Highlights: • PGPR inoculation did not enhance plant biomass of tested plants. • PGPR inoculation resulted in higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plants. • Komatsuna that had larger root volume showed higher {sup 137}Cs TF from soil to plants. • Soil with high SOM and Al-vermiculite caused larger {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants.

  3. PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI PADA PENGENDALIAN HAMA PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L. MENUJU PERTANIAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    suhartini suhartini

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT The use of chemical pesticides has many negative impacts on the environment, it is necessary for the use of biological pesticide towards sustainable agriculture or environmentally friendly agriculture. In the village were encountered many types of leaves that can be used as a biological pesticide, and therefore this study aims to determine the effectiveness of pesticide plant extracts of the leaves of some plants covering the leaves of tobacco, elephantopus, yellow wood and green betel on mortality of Plutella xylostella pests in plants mustard greens (Brassica juncea L, heavy wet mustard and mustard leaf damage    This study uses a completely randomized design with the treatment of various crops as a pesticide vegetable. The treatments used 6 kinds (degree ie negative control (P0, the leaves of tobacco (P1, the leaves of elephantopus (P2, the leaves of yellow wood (P3, the leaves of greens betel (P4 and chemical pesticides as a positive control (P5 with each grade of 10 %. Parameters measured were mortality pests, heavy wet mustard greens and mustard greens leaf damage rate. The analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA.    The results showed that the extract from the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, the leaves of elephantopus, the leaves of yellow wood (Arcangelisia flava L. and the leaves of green betel (Piper betle Linn. With a 10 percent concentration of the extract on a variety of  leaves are not yet significant effect on mortality pests Plutella xylostella, heavy wet of mustard greens (brassica juncea l. and severity of leaf mustard greens (brassica juncea l.. The leaf extract the most influence on mortality Plutella xylostella sequential is an extract of the leaves tobacco, the leaves of greens betel, the leaves of yellow wood and the leaves of elephantopus. While the effect on weight of wet mustard greens (Brassica juncea l. in order are as follows: the leaves of yellow wood, the leaves of green betel, the leaves of elephantopus, and the

  4. Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae ) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Yin, Yi; Gols, Rieta

    2017-06-01

    The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.

  5. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  6. The effect of Ni on concentration of the most abundant essential cations in several Brassica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik-Delić Marina I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some plants from the genus Brassica have the ability to tolerate excessive concentrations of heavy metals, including Ni. Considering the fact that Ni is a very toxic element for living beings we wanted to examine its influence on some species from genus Brassicaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ni on distribution and accumulation of essential macronutrients from the standpoint of food quality and phytoremediation potential. Experiments were performed using winter (W and spring (S varieties of rapeseed (Brassica napus, L., white mustard (Brassica alba, L., black mustard (Brassica nigra, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The seeds were exposed to 10 μM Ni from the beginning of germination. Plants were grown in water cultures, in semi-controlled conditions of a greenhouse, on ½ strength Hoagland solution to which was added Ni in the same concentration as during germination. Concentrations and distribution of Ca, Mg, K in leaf and stem were altered in the presence of increased concentration of Ni. Significant differences were found between the control and Ni-treated plants as well as among the genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31036 i br. TR 31016

  7. Tolerence of Braccica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, D.; van Loon, J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  8. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of substitution of groundnut with high glucosinolate mustard (Brassica juncea) meal on nutrient utilization, growth, vital organ weight and blood composition of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, M K.; Mishra, A S.; Misra, A K.; Mondal, D; Karim, S A.

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-four 14-day-old weaner Avivastra (Russian MerinoxNali) male lambs were maintained for 180 days on ad libidum Cenchrus (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay and concentrate mixture (CM) contained groundnut meal (control) and mustard meal (MM group) as major protein source. The two CMs were isonitrogenous (21% CP) and isocaloric (2.78McalMEkg(-1) DM), while, CM fed to MM group contained 24.6mg glucosinolatesg(-1) DM. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P>0.05) in the two groups except for CP and hemicellulose, which was higher (P0.05) in the two groups. Average daily gain (ADG) was, however, 22% higher (Pgrowth rate and induced iodine deficiency. Carcass of lambs fed mustard meal had more fat and less protein.

  10. Impact of Metals on Secondary Metabolites Production and Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    accumulation of toxic metals in plant tissues induces major changes in plants at ... vulgaris1 with increasing concentrations of Pb in the growth medium was also ... low pH and high salinity.17 It has been widely used for pollution control .... the growth of rice,20 and Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).18 Furthermore, elevated.

  11. Comparison of the adaptability to heavy metals among crop plants. I. Adaptability to manganese-studies on comparative plant nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A; Tadano, T; Fujita, H

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to compare the tolerance of a variety of crop plants to the uptake of manganese. Three different concentrations of manganese were used for growing test plants, which included the following: rice, sugar beets, azuki beans, radishes, broad beans, peas, rutabaga, turnips, Arctinum tappa, Brassica japonica, green pepper, maize, spinach, cucumbers, tomatoes, mustard, and millet.

  12. Identification, duplication, evolution and expression analyses of caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Mingzhe; Wang, Lili; Li, Zhuowei; Taylor, David C; Li, Zhixi; Zhang, Meng

    2016-04-01

    Caleosins are a class of Ca(2+) binding proteins that appear to be ubiquitous in plants. Some of the main proteins embedded in the lipid monolayer of lipid droplets, caleosins, play critical roles in the degradation of storage lipids during germination and in lipid trafficking. Some of them have been shown to have histidine-dependent peroxygenase activity, which is believed to participate in stress responses in Arabidopsis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, caleosins have been examined extensively. However, little is known on a genome-wide scale about these proteins in other members of the Brassicaceae. In this study, 51 caleosins in Brassica plants and Arabidopsis lyrata were investigated and analyzed in silico. Among them, 31 caleosins, including 7 in A. lyrata, 11 in Brassica oleracea and 13 in Brassica napus, are herein identified for the first time. Segmental duplication was the main form of gene expansion. Alignment, motif and phylogenetic analyses showed that Brassica caleosins belong to either the H-family or the L-family with different motif structures and physicochemical properties. Our findings strongly suggest that L-caleosins are evolved from H-caleosins. Predicted phosphorylation sites were differentially conserved in H-caleosin and L-caleosins, respectively. 'RY-repeat' elements and phytohormone-related cis-elements were identified in different caleosins, which suggest diverse physiological functions. Gene structure analysis indicated that most caleosins (38 out of 44) contained six exons and five introns and their intron phases were highly conserved. Structurally integrated caleosins, such as BrCLO3-3 and BrCLO4-2, showed high expression levels and may have important roles. Some caleosins, such as BrCLO2 and BoCLO8-2, lost motifs of the calcium binding domain, proline knot, potential phosphorylation sites and haem-binding sites. Combined with their low expression, it is suggested that these caleosins may have lost function.

  13. Kajian Hubungan Populasi Tanaman dengan Neraca Unsur Hara Nitrogen dan Fosfor pada Sistem Vertikultur Sawi Hijau (Brassica juncea L dan Kangkung (Ipomea reptana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE PURNA WIDANA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Relationship Between Crop Density and The Balancing of Both Soil Nitrogenand Phosporus in Verticulture System of Mustard Green (Brassica juncea L and Kale(Ipomea reptana. The relationship between crops density and the balancing of both soilnitrogen and phosphorus in verticulture system remained to be important issue. A glasshouseexperiment had carried out from October 2014 to March 2015 in order to determine (1 theoptimum population density of both mustard greens (Brassica juncea L and kale (Ipomeareptana, (2 soil total-N or available-P balance, and (3 the relatiohships between plantspopulations and soil nutrients balance. A split plot experiment under complete block designwas applied to examine the effect of the main plot (crops type i.e. mustard green and kale andsub plot (crops population i.e 10, 15, 20,25, and 30 crops per planting container 0,12 m2 insize. The results showed that no optimal crops population density had achieved. Themaximum crops population was 30 for both mustard greens and kale. The soil total-N balancewas negative while these was positive for soil available-P balance of P and N negative. Alogarithmic relationships was calculated between soil total-N balance with mustard green,while linier patterns were significant for soil-N balance with kale and available-P balancewith both mustard greens and kale.

  14. Atmospheric NH3 as plant nutrient: A case study with Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Ana; Stulen, Ineke; De Kok, Luit J.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient-sufficient and nitrate- or sulfate-deprived plants of Brassica oleracea L. were exposed to 4 μl l -1 NH 3 (2.8 mg m -3 ), and effects on biomass production and allocation, N-compounds and root morphology investigated. Nitrate-deprived plants were able to transfer to atmospheric NH 3 as nitrogen source, but biomass allocation in favor of the root was not changed by exposure to NH 3 . NH 3 reduced the difference in total root length between nitrate-sufficient and nitrate-deprived plants, and increased the specific root length in the latter. The internal N status, therefore, might be involved in controlling root length in B. oleracea. Root surface area, volume and diameter were unaffected by both nitrate deprivation and NH 3 exposure. In sulfate-deprived plants an inhibitory effect of NH 3 on root morphological parameters was observed. These plants, therefore, might be more susceptible to atmospheric NH 3 than nitrate-deprived plants. The relevance of the present data under field conditions is discussed. - Atmospheric NH 3 can serve as sole N source for Brassica oleracea, but does not change root biomass allocation in nitrate-deprived plants

  15. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  16. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  17. The Gastropod Menace: Slugs on Brassica Plants Affect Caterpillar Survival through Consumption and Interference with Parasitoid Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desurmont, Gaylord A; Zemanova, Miriam A; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial molluscs and insect herbivores play a major role as plant consumers in a number of ecosystems, but their direct and indirect interactions have hardly been explored. The omnivorous nature of slugs makes them potential disrupters of predator-prey relationships, as a direct threat to small insects and through indirect, plant-mediated effects. Here, we examined the effects of the presence of two species of slugs, Arion rufus (native) and A. vulgaris (invasive) on the survivorship of young Pieris brassicae caterpillars when feeding on Brassica rapa plants, and on plant attractiveness to the main natural enemy of P. brassicae, the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. In two separate predation experiments, caterpillar mortality was significantly higher on plants co-infested with A. rufus or A. vulgaris. Moreover, caterpillar mortality correlated positively with slug mass and leaf consumption by A. vulgaris. At the third trophic level, plants infested with slugs and plants co-infested with slugs and caterpillars were far less attractive to parasitoids than plants damaged by caterpillars only, independently of slug species. Chemical analyses confirmed that volatile emissions, which provide foraging cues for parasitoids, were strongly reduced in co-infested plants. Our study shows that the presence of slugs has the potential to affect insect populations, directly via consumptive effects, and indirectly via changes in plant volatiles that result in a reduced attraction of natural enemies. The fitness cost for P. brassicae imposed by increased mortality in presence of slugs may be counterbalanced by the benefit of escaping its parasitoids.

  18. Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.C.; Cheung, K.C.; Luo, Y.M.; Wong, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb-Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated plant growth and protected the plant from metal toxicity. Inoculation with rhizobacteria had little influence on the metal concentrations in plant tissues, but produced a much larger above-ground biomass and altered metal bioavailability in the soil. As a consequence, higher efficiency of phytoextraction was obtained compared with control treatments. - Rhizobacteria promoted growth above normal biomass, but did not influence plant metal concentrations

  19. Effects of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on metal uptake by Brassica juncea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.C. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Cheung, K.C. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Luo, Y.M. [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China); Wong, M.H. [Department of Biology and Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China) and Joint Open Laboratory on Soil and Environment between HKBU and ISSCAS (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2006-03-15

    A greenhouse study was carried out with Brassica juncea to critically evaluate effects of bacterial inoculation on the uptake of heavy metals from Pb-Zn mine tailings by plants. Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria and phosphate and potassium solubilizers, might play an important role in the further development of phytoremediation techniques. The presence of these beneficial bacteria stimulated plant growth and protected the plant from metal toxicity. Inoculation with rhizobacteria had little influence on the metal concentrations in plant tissues, but produced a much larger above-ground biomass and altered metal bioavailability in the soil. As a consequence, higher efficiency of phytoextraction was obtained compared with control treatments. - Rhizobacteria promoted growth above normal biomass, but did not influence plant metal concentrations.

  20. Impact assessment of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mustard (Brassica spp.) production and its adaptation strategies in different districts of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V.; Patel, H. R.; Yadav, S. B.; Patil, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gujarat is the western-most state of India with a long (1600 km) sea coast on the Arabian Sea. Average annual rainfall ranges from as high as 1900 mm in the sub-humid southeast to as low as 250 mm in the arid north. There are three distinct crop seasons- rainy (June to September), winter (Oct.-Nov. through Feb.-March) and summer (Feb-March through May-June). Wheat and mustard are grown during winter seasons. The past climatic records suggested increasing trends in rainfall( 2 to 5 mm per year), maximum (0.03 to 0.05 0C per year) and minimum temperatures (0.02 to 0.05 0C per year) at most of places in Gujarat. But the minimum temperature is fould to be increasing significantly at all the locations. This affects the winter season crops viz. wheat and mustard adversely. Simulation results with DSSAT CERES-wheat model revealed that with increase in temperature by 2 0C in different months (November to February) the decrease in wheat yield is observed between 7 to 29 per cent. The impact of increase in maximum temperature during early (November) and late (February) is less (24.8 %). The climate change projections during 2071-2100 using PRECIS output suggested that there would be increase in maximum temperature by 3.2 to 5.2 0C in different districts of Gujarat over baseline period of 1961-1990 while minimum temperature is project to increase by 2.8 to 5.8 0C. Rainfall is also projected to increase by 28 to 70 per cent in different districts. The impact of climate change on wheat would be reduction in its duration by 14-20 days and the grain yield would be reduced by 20-55 per cent in different districts. In case of mustard crops the duration of crop would be reduced by 11 to 16 days and seed yield would be reduced by 32-50 per cent. In order to mitigate the ill effect of climate change, various adaptation strategies vis change in dates of sowing, change in variety, additional irrigation and fertilizer applications were simulated. Shifting of sowing dates of wheat by 15

  1. Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in of the vapors can cause chronic respiratory disease, repeated respiratory infections, or death. Extensive eye exposure can cause permanent blindness. Exposure to sulfur mustard may increase a person’s risk for lung and respiratory cancer. ...

  2. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  3. Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchiol

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern cv. WNFP, Varuna and Barton, were investigated in/under hydroponic conditions during a 4-week experiment. Cadmium and chromium were provided since germination as cadmium nitrate Cd(NO32 and chromium bichromate K2Cr2O7 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M. Plant biomass growth measured at the end of the experiments varied with the different metal concentrations in the nutrient solution and the accumulation of the elements in the plant fractions differed significantly among/between cultivars. Ability in the uptake of metals and their mobilization and storage in the aerial plant biomass, expressed by the bioconcentration factor (BCF and translocation factor (TF, respectively, are the most important traits of plants with phytoextraction potential. Brassica juncea was confirmed as being a highly tolerant species, but poor metal translocation values were registered, therefore the high amount of Cd and Cr concentrated in the root systems did not migrate to the aerial, harvestable, part of the plant.

  4. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Abdulahad, Waseem S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  5. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

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    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  6. Induced mutagenesis for the development of high yielding varieties in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.; Rahman, A.

    1988-01-01

    Variation for resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. was induced in the oleiferous Brassica campestris cultivar yellow sarson, 'YS 52' using gamma rays. Variations were identified and isolated from the M 2 population. Screening in the subsequent generations (M 3 -M 4 ) confirmed the varying degrees of field resistance of the mutants. A total of 8 mutants of mustard developed by gamma irradiation was compared with the parental line and a released variety 'Sampad' as a check. Maximum plant height, highest number of pods and primary branches/plant were recorded in mutant '17-5-83'. The mutants '17-5-83' and '70-7-82' gave 45 and 21 per cent more grain yield respectively than the parent cultivar 'YS 52'. The mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant while the mutants '70-7-82' and '53-11-82' were found to be moderately resistant against the disease. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  7. Combining ability for maturity and plant height in brassica rapa (l.) ssp. dichotoma (roxb.) hanelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.; Farhatullah, A.; Khan, N.U.; Azam, S.M.; Nasim, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A 5 * 5 F1 diallel cross hybrids of Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt along with parents were evaluated through combining ability for days to flowering (initiation and completion), days to maturity and plant height. Highly significant differences were recorded for all the traits. Mean squares due to general, specific and reciprocal combining ability were significant for all the traits except plant height for which the latter two components were non-significant. Prevalence of additive (plant height), non-additive (days to flowering completion; days to maturity) and reciprocal effects (days to flowering initiation) were detected. Parental line G-403 was best general combiner for all the traits. The F1 hybrids G-902 * G-265 (days to flowering initiation), G-902 * G-403 (days to flowering completion), G-265 * G-1500 (days to maturity) and G-909 * G-265 (plant height) were superior and may be exploited for future breeding programs. (author)

  8. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulhonate in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Basudeo

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit dose of a mutagen while mutagenic efficiency gives the proportion of mutations in relation to other associated undesirable biological effects such as gross chromosomal aberrations, lethality and sterility induced by the mutagen in question (Konzak, et al., 1965). The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its mutagenic effectiveness but also on its mutagenic efficiency. The efficiency and effectiveness of ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) in relation to gamma rays in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] was studied. (author)

  9. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L. (Czern. & Coss. by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca plays important role in plant development and response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of Ca (50 mM in controlling cadmium (Cd uptake in mustard (Brassica juncea L. plants exposed to toxic levels of Cd (200 mg L(-1 and 300 mg L(-1. The Cd treatment showed substantial decrease in plant height, root length, dry weight, pigments and protein content. Application of Ca improved the growth and biomass yield of the Cd-stressed mustard seedlings. More importantly, the oil content of mustard seeds of Cd-stressed plants was also enhanced with Ca treatment. Proline was significantly increased in mustard plants under Cd stress, and exogenously sprayed Ca was found to have a positive impact on proline content in Cd-stressed plants. Different concentrations of Cd increased lipid peroxidation but the application of Ca minimized it to appreciable level in Cd-treated plants. Excessive Cd treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, which were further enhanced by the addition of Ca. Additionally, Cd stress caused reduced uptake of essential elements and increased Cd accumulation in roots and shoots. However, application of Ca enhanced the concentration of essential elements and decreased Cd accumulation in Cd-stressed plants. Our results indicated that application of Ca enables mustard plant to withstand the deleterious effect of Cd, resulting in improved growth and seed quality of mustard plants.

  10. Analysis of esterase isozyme and SSR for mutagenic progenies induced by space mutation in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jinjuan; Liu Yihua; Zhang Zhaorong; Ran Guangkui; Zhao Shouzhong; Xiao Li

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of five mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) varieties were carried into outer space by 'Shijian No.8' satellite. After five years' consecutive planting and selection, ten relatively stable mutant lines were obtained, which had significant variation in agronomic and economic characters. The mutant lines and their original varieties without space mutation treatment as control were studied by esterase isozyme and SSR analyses. Electrophoresis analysis of esterase isozymes indicated that there were differences between mutant lines and their controls in enzyme types and enzyme activity. Different mustard varieties had different enzymographs, and so did the mutants induced by space mutation, which shows different sensitivity among different mustard varieties. The SSR analysis showed that large differences were found in the SSR loci between mutant lines and their original variety, the variation frequency was between 9.52% and 57.14% with an average frequency of 26.19% for all the mutant lines. Among the mutant SSR loci, about 56.36% showed changes in band number and 43.64% in molecular weight. These results indicated that the ten mutant lines had large genetic difference in phenotype, genomic sequence and gene expression, and the outer space mutation would be an effective method to develop new mustard germplasm and variety. (authors)

  11. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  12. Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced herbivore attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dam, van N.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    2. Here we studied the effect of early-season herbivory by caterpillars of Pieris rapae on the composition of the insect herbivore community on domesticated Brassica oleracea plants. We compared the effect of herbivory on two cultivars that differ in the degree of susceptibility to herbivores to

  13. Integrating Phytoextraction and Biofortification: Fungal Accumulation of Selenium in Plant Materials from Phytoremediation of Agricultural Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytomanagement of Se-polluted soil and water is one strategy that may be environmentally sustainable and cost-effective for soils and waters enriched with natural-occurring Se. Several plant species, including Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii), and other salt/S...

  14. Use of Brassica Plants in the Phytoremediation and Biofumigation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Piekarska, Anna; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, serious contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported. It is therefore a matter of urgency to develop a new and efficient technology for removing contaminants from soil. Another aspect to this problem is that environmental pollution decreases the biological quality of soil, which is why pesticides and fertilizers are being used in ever-larger quantities. The environmentally friendly solutions to these problems are phytoremediation, which is a technology that cleanses the soil of heavy metals, and biofumigation, a process that helps to protect crops using natural plant compounds. So far, these methods have only been used separately; however, research on a technology that combines them both using white cabbage has been carried out. PMID:22174630

  15. BjuB.CYP79F1 Regulates Synthesis of Propyl Fraction of Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Oilseed Mustard Brassica juncea: Functional Validation through Genetic and Transgenic Approaches.

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    Manisha Sharma

    Full Text Available Among the different types of methionine-derived aliphatic glucosinolates (GS, sinigrin (2-propenyl, the final product in 3C GS biosynthetic pathway is considered very important as it has many pharmacological and therapeutic properties. In Brassica species, the candidate gene regulating synthesis of 3C GS remains ambiguous. Earlier reports of GSL-PRO, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g18500 as a probable candidate gene responsible for 3C GS biosynthesis in B. napus and B. oleracea could not be validated in B. juncea through genetic analysis. In this communication, we report the isolation and characterization of the gene CYP79F1, an ortholog of A. thaliana gene At1g16410 that is involved in the first step of core GS biosynthesis. The gene CYP79F1 in B. juncea showed presence-absence polymorphism between lines Varuna that synthesizes sinigrin and Heera virtually free from sinigrin. Using this presence-absence polymorphism, CYP79F1 was mapped to the previously mapped 3C GS QTL region (J16Gsl4 in the LG B4 of B. juncea. In Heera, the gene was observed to be truncated due to an insertion of a ~4.7 kb TE like element leading to the loss of function of the gene. Functional validation of the gene was carried out through both genetic and transgenic approaches. An F2 population segregating only for the gene CYP79F1 and the sinigrin phenotype showed perfect co-segregation. Finally, genetic transformation of a B. juncea line (QTL-NIL J16Gsl4 having high seed GS but lacking sinigrin with the wild type CYP79F1 showed the synthesis of sinigrin validating the role of CYP79F1 in regulating the synthesis of 3C GS in B. juncea.

  16. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. as a protein plant species

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    Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of plant origin have a profound impact on human and animal lives. It is impossible to solve worldwide nutrition problem without taking into concern needs for proteins. Inadequate nutrition can only be improved by providing adequate proteins. Humans need c. 120g proteins daily, a third of which should come from meat and milk. Certain population categories, such as the sick, children, pregnant women and sportspeople are more sensitive to lack of protein. Oil crops synthesise oil, which is the basic reserve material in seed, but they also synthesise high levels of protein and can serve as protein source for human and animal nutrition. Generally speaking, protein content in seed of rapeseed at site R. Šančevi was from 19.60% (NS-L-74 to 25.93% JR-NS-36, and at site Sombor from 19.26% (NS-L-74 to 24.06% and 24.09% (NS-L-46 and cultivar Mira. Genotype NS-L-74 had the lowest protein content at both testing sites. Higher protein content was evident with spring genotypes than with winter gentypes. .

  17. Soil plant transfer coefficient of 14C-carbofuran in brassica sp. vegetable agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Kubiak, R.

    2006-01-01

    The soil plant transfer coefficient or f factor of 14 C-carbofuran pesticide was studied in outdoor lysimeter experiment consisting of Brassica sp. vegetable crop, riverine alluvial clayey soil and Bungor series sandy loam soil. Soil transfer coefficients at 0-10 cm soil depth were 4.38 ± 0.30, 5.76 ± 1.04, 0.99 ± 0.25 and 2.66 ± 0.71; from IX recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, IX recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 0-25 cm soil depth, soil plant transfer coefficients were 8.96 ± 0.91, 10.40 ± 2.63, 2.34 ± 0.68 and 619 ±1.40, from IX recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, IX recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 77 days after treatment (DAT), the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in riverine alluvial soil than Bungor soil whereas shoot and root growth was significantly higher in Bungor soil than in riverine alluvial soil. At both 0-10 cm Brassica sp. rooting depth and 0-25 cm soil depth, the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in 2X recommended application rate of 14 C-carbofuran as compared to IX recommended application rate, in both Bungor and riverine alluvial soils. (Author)

  18. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris Mesorhizobium loti MP6 rizosférico competente induz encurvamento do pelo daraiz, inibe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e estimula o crescimento de mostarda indiana (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Chandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Mesorhizobium loti MP6, isolated from root nodules of Mimosa pudica induced growth and yield of Brassica campestris. The isolate MP6 secreted hydroxamate type siderophore in Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS agar medium. Production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN, indole acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilizing ability was also recorded under normal growth conditions. Root hair curling was observed through simple glass-slide technique. In vitro study showed a significant increase in population of M. loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 75% after prolonged incubation. Efficient root colonization of mustard seedlings was confirmed by using a streptomycin-resistant marker M. loti MP6strep+. The M. loti MP6 coated seeds proved enhanced seed germination, early vegetative growth and grain yield as compared to control. Also, a drastic decline (99% in the incidence of white rot was observed due to application of M. loti MP6.A cepa bacteriana Mesorhizobium loti MP6 isolada de nódulos de raiz de Mimosa pudica induziu o crescimento e o rendimento de Brassica campestris. A cepa MP6 secretou sideróforo do tipo hidroxamato em meio sólido Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS. Em condições normais de crescimento, a cepa foi também capaz de produzir de ácido cianídrico (HCN e acido indolacético (AIA e solubilizar fosfato. O encurvamento do pelo da raiz foi observado usando a simples técnica de lâmina e lamínula. Estudos in vitro mostraram um aumento significativo na população de M. loti MP6 na rizosfera devido aos exsudatos de B. campestris. Empregando-se técnica de co-cultura, a cepa mostrou um grande efeito antagônico contra o fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, o patógeno da podridão branca de Brassica campestris. Ap

  19. Antiviral activity of tenofovir against Cauliflower mosaic virus and its metabolism in Brassica pekinensis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Josef; Votruba, Ivan; Pavingerová, Daniela; Holý, Antonín; Spaková, Vlastimila; Petrzik, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The antiviral effect of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate tenofovir (R)-PMPA on double-stranded DNA Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in Brassica pekinensis plants grown in vitro on liquid medium was evaluated. Double antibody sandwich ELISA and PCR were used for relative quantification of viral protein and detecting nucleic acid in plants. (R)-PMPA at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/l significantly reduced CaMV titers in plants within 6-9 weeks to levels detectable neither by ELISA nor by PCR. Virus-free plants were obtained after 3-month cultivation of meristem tips on semisolid medium containing 50 mg/l (R)-PMPA and their regeneration to whole plants in the greenhouse. Studying the metabolism of (R)-PMPA in B. pekinensis revealed that mono- and diphosphate, structural analogs of NDP and/or NTP, are the only metabolites formed. The data indicate very low substrate activity of the enzymes toward (R)-PMPA as substrate. The extent of phosphorylation in the plant's leaves represents only 4.5% of applied labeled (R)-PMPA. In roots, we detected no radioactive peaks of phosphorylated metabolites of (R)-PMPAp or (R)-PMPApp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Brassica juncea Plants under Cd-Induced Stress

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    Dhriti Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Brassica juncea L. var. RLC-1 were exposed for 30 days to different concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mM of cadmium (Cd to analyze the Cd uptake, H2O2 content, hormonal profiling, level of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid, gaseous exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, vapour pressure deficit, intercellular CO2 concentration, and intrinsic mesophyll rate, antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione-S transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, and total phenolic content, and polyphenols. Results of the present study revealed the increased H2O2 content and Cd uptake with increasing metal doses. UPLC analysis of plants showed the presence of various polyphenols. Gaseous exchange measurements were done by infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, which was negatively affected by metal treatment. In addition, LC/MS study showed the variation in the expression of plant hormones. Level of photosynthetic pigments and activities of antioxidative enzymes were altered significantly in response to metal treatment. In conclusion, the antioxidative defence system of plants got activated due to heavy metal stress, which protects the plants by scavenging free radicals.

  1. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MATERIALS ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN INDIAN MUSTARD GROWN IN CR(VI-CONTAMINATED SOILS

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    Maja Radziemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive materials represent a promising agent for environmental co-remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of hexavalent chromium in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil as well as zero valent-iron, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.. The average accumulation of the analysed elements in Indian mustard grown in Cr(VI contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg>Na>P>Ca>K. Soil contamination at 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increase in magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium content in Indian mustard. The application of zero-valent iron had a positive influence on the average Na and K content of the tested plant. The application of lignite had a positive influence on the average magnesium, sodium and calcium content in the above-ground parts of the studied plant. In the non-amended treatments (without reactive materials, the increasing rates of chromium (VI had an explicitly positive effect on the content of phosphorous and sodium in Indian mustard.

  2. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  3. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants. PMID:29190278

  4. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Rechner

    Full Text Available Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm, violet (420 nm, blue (470 nm, or green (515 nm. We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates, and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants over control plants.

  5. Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2014-05-15

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The intensity of tyrosine nitration is associated with selenite and selenate toxicity in Brassica juncea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Árpád; Feigl, Gábor; Trifán, Vanda; Ördög, Attila; Szőllősi, Réka; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2018-01-01

    Selenium phytotoxicity involves processes like reactive nitrogen species overproduction and nitrosative protein modifications. This study evaluates the toxicity of two selenium forms (selenite and selenate at 0µM, 20µM, 50µM and 100µM concentrations) and its correlation with protein tyrosine nitration in the organs of hydroponically grown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Selenate treatment resulted in large selenium accumulation in both Brassica organs, while selenite showed slight root-to-shoot translocation resulting in a much lower selenium accumulation in the shoot. Shoot and root growth inhibition and cell viability loss revealed that Brassica tolerates selenate better than selenite. Results also show that relative high amounts of selenium are able to accumulate in Brassica leaves without obvious visible symptoms such as chlorosis or necrosis. The more severe phytotoxicity of selenite was accompanied by more intense protein tyrosine nitration as well as alterations in nitration pattern suggesting a correlation between the degree of Se forms-induced toxicities and nitroproteome size, composition in Brassica organs. These results imply the possibility of considering protein tyrosine nitration as novel biomarker of selenium phytotoxicity, which could help the evaluation of asymptomatic selenium stress of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc and application to optimize seed yield of mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Cheema, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted on a sandy clay loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan, during 2005 and 2006. The mustard (Brassica juncea) variety BARD-1 was treated with various levels of Zn and Fe, (0-0, 0-1.5, 0-3, 2.5-0, 2.5-1.5, 2.5-3, 5-0, 5-1.5 kgha/sup -1/ and 5-3 kgha/sup -1/, respectively. A basal dose of 90N and 60P kgha/sup -1/ was applied, in the form of Urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) with Zn and Fe. The increase in Zn and Fe fertility from 0-1.5 to 5-1.5 kg ha/sup -1/ increased yield of BARD-I. The maximum yield response was recorded when 5 kg ha/sup -1/ Zn and 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/ Fe were applied. Beyond this level, no further increase in yield was recorded in any mustard traits. A positive correlation was recorded between seed yield and 1000-seed weight with the application of 5 kg Zn ha-1 and 1.5 kg Fe ha/sup -1/ in combination at the time of sowing. It can therefore be concluded that 100 % seed yield of mustard variety BARD-l increased at 5 Zn: 1.5 Fc kg ha-1 as a result of increased pods plant/sup -l/, number of seeds pod-1 and 1000-seed weight. (author)

  8. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Han, F.X.; Chen, J.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.; Monts, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H 2 O 2 , resulting in lower H 2 O 2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian

  10. Relative efficiency of mustard (Brassica juncea l.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus l.) in utilizing soil phosphorous in presence of P, 2n and FYM under normal and saline soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dravid, M.S.; Goswami, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies with 32 P labelled fertilizer on mustard and sunflower showed a marked reduction in drymatter accumulation, total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization at 10.6 dSm -1 level of salinity over normal one. Except drymatter accumulation, the extent of reduction in total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization was of higher magnitude in sunflower as compared to mustard. Application of P either alone or in conjunction with Zn/FYM gave significantly higher values of drymatter yield, total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization in both the crops. Data further, revealed that application of P in conjunction with FYM was found more beneficial as compared to zinc. It was also observed that the per cent P utilization of applied fertilizer in these crops decreased at higher (80 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) level of P. Amongst the varieties of mustard and sunflower, tested, PR-45 of mustard and EC-69874 of sunflower showed higher yield potential and utilization of native soil phosphorus more efficiently, while Pusa Bold of mustard and Surya of sunflower utilized fertilizer phosphorus more efficiently. (author). 24 refs., 2 tables

  11. Effects of an invasive plant on a desert sand dune landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, C.W.; Allen, E.B.; Brooks, M.L.; Allen, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Given the abundance of non-native species invading wildland habitats, managers need to employ informed triage to focus control efforts on weeds with the greatest potential for negative impacts. Our objective here was to determine the level of threat Sahara mustard, Brassica tournefortii, represents to meeting regional goals for protecting biodiversity. Sahara mustard has spread throughout much of the Mojave and lower Sonoran Deserts. It has occurred in southern California's Coachella Valley for nearly 80 years, punctuated by years of extremely high abundance following high rainfall. In those years the mustard has clear negative impacts on the native flora. Using mustard removal experiments we identified reductions in native plant reproduction, shifting composition increasingly toward Sahara mustard while decreasing the fraction of native species. High between-year variance in precipitation may be a key to maintaining biodiversity as the mustard is less abundant in drier years. Sahara mustard impacts to the native fauna were much less evident. Of the animal species evaluated, only the Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard, Uma inornata, demonstrated a negative response to mustard abundance; however the impacts were short-lived, lasting no more than a year after the mustard's dominance waned. Without control measures the long-term impacts to desert biodiversity may rest on the changing climate. Wetter conditions or increased periodicity of high rainfall years will favor Sahara mustard and result in reduced biodiversity, especially of native annual plants. Drier conditions will keep the mustard from becoming dominant but may have other negative consequences on the native flora and fauna. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. The role of plant processing for the cancer preventive potential of Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, Grace Akinyi; Schlotz, Nina; Herz, Corinna; Hanschen, Franziska S; Baldermann, Susanne; Neugart, Susanne; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Frommherz, Lara; Franz, Charles M A P; Ngwene, Benard; Luvonga, Abraham Wahid; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Lamy, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Background : Ethiopian kale ( Brassica carinata ) is a horticulturally important crop used as leafy vegetable in large parts of East and Southern Africa. The leaves are reported to contain high concentrations of health-promoting secondary plant metabolites. However, scientific knowledge on their health benefits is scarce. Objective : This study aimed to determine the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata using a human liver in vitro model focusing on processing effects on the pattern of secondary plant metabolites and bioactivity. Design : B. carinata was cultivated under controlled conditions and differentially processed (raw, fermented, or cooked) after harvesting. Human liver cancer cells (HepG2) were treated with ethanolic extracts of raw or processed B. carinata leaves and analyzed for their anti-genotoxic, anti-oxidant, and cytostatic potential. Chemical analyses were carried out on glucosinolates including breakdown products, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll content. Results : Pre-treatment with B. carinata extracts concentration dependently reduced aflatoxin-induced DNA damage in the Comet assay, reduced the production of reactive oxygen species as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and induced Nrf2-mediated gene expression. Increasing extract concentrations also promoted cytostasis. Processing had a significant effect on the content of secondary plant metabolites. However, different processing methodologies did not dramatically decrease bioactivity, but enhanced the protective effect in some of the endpoints studied. Conclusion : Our findings highlight the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata as indicated by the protection of human liver cells against aflatoxin in vitro . In general, consumption of B. carinata should be encouraged as part of chemopreventive measures to combat prevalence of aflatoxin-induced diseases.

  13. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  14. Plant hormones in defense response of Brassica napus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - Reassessing the role of salicylic acid in the interaction with a necrotroph

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Dobrev, Petre; Valentová, O.; Burketová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 80, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 308-317 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26798S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brassica napus * Chorismate mutase * Defense signaling pathways Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 2.756, year: 2014

  15. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Department of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  16. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquene, L.; Vandenhove, H.; Tack, F.; Meers, E.; Baeten, J.; Wannijn, J.

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH 4 -citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg -1 dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years

  17. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  19. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2016-01-01

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd, E-mail: m.hafez@usim.edu.my; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  1. Oilseed brassica improvement through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Rehman, K.

    1992-07-01

    The improvement in processing and refining technologies of oil seed brassica have now made possible the use of rape seed mustard oil as cooking medium shortening, salad ingredients and in margarine in many countries. Different promising rape seed mutants were tested for yield and other agronomic traits in eight preliminary yields trails and results of these trails are presented in this report. Three varieties of rape seeds were subjected to 80, 100, 120 krads and two varieties of mustard were treated 60, 80, 100 krads dose of gamma rays. (A.B.)

  2. Efek Paparan Musik dan Noise pada Karakteristik Morfologi dan Produktivitas Tanaman Sawi Hijau (Brassica Juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of various sounds on the green mustard’s (Brassica Juncea morphology characteristic and productivity. The plant has been subjected to three various sound, namely classical music (rhythmic violin music, machine and traffic noise, and mixed sound (classical music and traffic noise with 70-75 dB sound pressure level, from germination to harvest for three hours (7-10 am. each day. Six parameters, i.e. germination, plant height, leaf width, leaf lenght, total plant lenght, and fresh weight, related with growth and productivity of plant were been monitored on regular basis.The results showed classical music improves germination up to 15% for 36 hours, plant height 13,5%, leaf width 14,8%, leaf length 14,2%, and wet weight 57,1%. In general, exposure to classical music gives the best results on the morphological characteristics and productivity of green mustard.

  3. Antiviral activity of tenofovir against Cauliflower mosaic virus and its metabolism in Brassica pekinensis plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Votruba, Ivan; Pavingerová, Daniela; Holý, Antonín; Špaková, Vlastimila; Petrzik, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2011), s. 378-381 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/0707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Caulimovirus * dsDNA * Brassica Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.301, year: 2011

  4. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through ...

  5. The effects of Brassica green manures on plant parasitic and free living nematodes used in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Ekaterini

    2011-06-01

    Brassica plants once incorporated into soil as green manures have recently been shown to have biofumigant properties and have the potential of controlling plant-parasitic nematodes. In Washington State, plant-parasitic nematodes are successfully managed with synthetic nematicides. However, some of the synthetic nematicides became unavailable recently or their supply is limited leaving growers with few choices to control plant-parasitic nematodes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of Brassica green manures on their own and in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and free living nematodes. In a greenhouse experiment and field trials in three seasons, Brassica green manures in combination with half the recommended rate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, Telone) reduced root knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi to below detection levels, and reduced lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans and stubby root nematodes, Paratrichodorus allius, to below economic thresholds. The combination treatments did not affect the beneficial free-living nematode populations and the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas. The total cost of growing and soil-incorporating Brassica crops as green manures in combination with reduced rates of 1,3-D was approximately 35% lower than the present commercial costs for application for the full rate of this fumigant. Integrating conventional management practices with novel techniques fosters sustainability of production systems and can increase economic benefit to producers while reducing chemical input.

  6. Genotypic variation in phytoremediation potential of Indian mustard exposed to nickel stress: a hydroponic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Kafeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Altaf; Umar, Shahid; Zia, Munir Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad; Owens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Ten Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) genotypes were screened for their nickel (Ni) phytoremediation potential under controlled environmental conditions. All ten genotypes were grown hydroponically in aqueous solution containing Ni concentrations (as nickel chloride) ranging from 0 to 50 μM and changes in plant growth, biomass and total Ni uptake were evaluated. Of the ten genotypes (viz. Agrini, BTO, Kranti, Pusa Basant, Pusa Jai Kisan, Pusa Bahar, Pusa Bold, Vardhan, Varuna, and Vaibhav), Pusa Jai Kisan was the most Ni tolerant genotype accumulating up to 1.7 μg Ni g(-1) dry weight (DW) in its aerial parts. Thus Pusa Jai Kisan had the greatest potential to become a viable candidate in the development of practical phytoremediation technologies for Ni contaminated sites.

  7. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus,

  8. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  9. Reduction and Coordination of Arsenic in Indian Mustard1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Ingrid J.; Prince, Roger C.; George, Martin J.; Smith, Robert D.; George, Graham N.; Salt, David E.

    2000-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from AsIII-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element. PMID:10759512

  10. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  11. The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid Brassica population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes.

  12. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40 on the tribological characteristics were investigated and compared with mineral oil using the four-ball tribotester. Mustard seeds oil was blended with mineral oil at a volumetric ratio ranging from 22.5 to 90%. All experimental works were confirmed to ASTM D4172-B standard. The results exhibit that some blends of mustard seeds oil with mineral oil have lower wear scar diameter, friction torque, Friction coefficient and a higher parameter of flash temperature value compared to mineral oil and neat mustard seed oil. In conclusion, the mustard seed oil blend (MU22.5 shows a better anti-wear and anti-friction performance compared to oil samples. Therefore, mustard seeds oil has the potential to be used as a lubricant of mating surfaces.

  13. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in Brassica juncea plants grown in soil and in hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Grifoni, Martina; Rosellini, Irene; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is recognised as a toxic metalloid and a strong pollutant in soils of many countries. Thus, the reclamation of contaminated areas is fundamental in order to protect both human health and agricultural production. This study is focused on the assisted phytoextraction, a technology for reclaiming polluted soils that takes advantage of the capability of some plants to extract inorganic elements from soils with the aid of additive agents. The nutrients phosphorus, as phosphate, and sulphur, as thiosulphate, can compete with the form more oxidised of arsenic, both in soil and plant. This study examined the capability of thiosulphate (Th) and phosphate (Ph) to promote the release of As from soil surfaces in order to improve the phytoavailability and thus the absorption of As by Brassica juncea plants. In the first experiment B. juncea plants were grown on a soil that had been sampled from an industrial area strongly contaminated by As (790 mg As kg-1 soil). The second experiment was carried out in hydroponics where As has been added at a concentration (100 microM) similar to the As available concentration measured in soil. In both trials ammonium thiosulphate (at the concentration of 0.27 M in soil, and 400 microM in hydroponics) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (at the concentration of 0.05 M in soil, and 112 microM in hydroponics) were added. The biomass of B. juncea was determined and the accumulation of P, S and As in root and in the above-ground tissues have been analyzed. Our results showed that thiosulphate and phosphate acted either as nutrients and detoxifying agents, due to the stimulation of plant defensive systems, and influenced either the biomass production and the As accumulation in plant tissues. In the plants grown in soil, As accumulated at higher levels in the above-ground part than in the roots and the addition of Th induced a higher biomass production and a higher total As accumulation (concentration x biomass) in the above-ground tissues

  15. Plant Fitness Assessment for Wild Relatives of Insect Resistant Bt-Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Letourneau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When field tests of transgenic plants are precluded by practical containment concerns, manipulative experiments can detect potential consequences of crop-wild gene flow. Using topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvicide (Bt and larval additions, we measured fitness effects of reduced herbivory on Brassica rapa (wild mustard and Raphanus sativus (wild radish. These species represent different life histories among the potential recipients of Bt transgenes from Bt cole crops in the US and Asia, for which rare spontaneous crosses are expected under high exposure. Protected wild radish and wild mustard seedlings had approximately half the herbivore damage of exposed plants and 55% lower seedling mortality, resulting in 27% greater reproductive success, 14-day longer life-spans, and 118% more seeds, on average. Seed addition experiments in microcosms and in situ indicated that wild radish was more likely to spread than wild mustard in coastal grasslands.

  16. Mineral, vitamin C and crude protein contents in kale (Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-27

    Oct 27, 2011 ... Key words: Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), harvesting stage, vitamin C, crude protein, mineral content. .... L-ascorbic acid (or vitamin C) in plant tissues. .... Cooking methods of Brassica rapa affect the preservation of.

  17. TRANSGENIC PLANTS OF RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L. WITH GENE OSMYB4 HAVE INCREASED RESISTANCE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raldugina G.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the response of the transgenic spring rape plants (Brassica napus L. var. ‘Westar’ with the rice transfactor-encoding gene Osmyb4 to treatment with salts of heavy metals (HM CuSO4 or ZnSO4 and accumulation in the leaves of biomass, metals, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant compounds: total phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were determined. Vegetatively propagated transgenic plants and wild-type plants were grown on Hoagland-Snyder medium at 24°C, then at the 5-6th leaves-stage, CuSO4 (in concentration 25-150 mM or ZnSO4 (500 - 5000 mM were added to the growth medium, and plants were exposed to the salts for 15 days. Under the action of small concentrations of salts, the results obtained for the transgenic and untransformed plants did not differ, but at high concentrations strong differences between transgenic and untransformed plants were observed. In transgenic plants, accumulation of biomass was greater. Carotene and xanthophyll were destroyed in transgenic plants less than in the untransformed plants. They have accumulated in their leaves more metal, especially Zn, reaching almost to the accumulation of 7 mg per g of dry biomass, bringing these plants to the hyperaccumulation of Zn. In the tissues of transgenic plants exposed to high concentrations of salts, the content of total phenols, anthocyanins, and low molecular weight compounds, that are responsible for protection against ROS, increased significantly. All these results indicate a greater stability of the transgenic plants to the action of heavy metals, as evidenced also by less activity of lipid peroxidases in their tissue: at high salt concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA accumulated significantly less in transgenic plants than in non-transformed plant tissues. The greater stability of transgenic plants to stressful effect of HM is also evidenced by the

  18. Inoculation of Brassica oxyrrhina with plant growth promoting bacteria for the improvement of heavy metal phytoremediation under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drought resistant serpentine rhizobacteria on plant growth and metal uptake by Brassica oxyrrhina under drought stress (DS) condition. Two drought resistant serpentine rhizobacterial strains namely Pseudomonas libanensis TR1 and Pseudomonas reactans Ph3R3 were selected based on their ability to stimulate seedling growth in roll towel assay. Further assessment on plant growth promoting (PGP) parameters revealed their ability to produce indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Moreover, both strains exhibited high resistance to various heavy metals, antibiotics, salinity and extreme temperature. Inoculation of TR1 and Ph3R3 significantly increased plant growth, leaf relative water and pigment content of B. oxyrrhina, whereas decreased concentrations of proline and malondialdehyde in leaves under metal stress in the absence and presence of DS. Regardless of soil water conditions, TR1 and Ph3R3 greatly improved organ metal concentrations, translocation and bioconcentration factors of Cu and Zn. The successful colonization and metabolic activities of P. libanensis TR1 and P. reactans Ph3R3 represented positive effects on plant development and metal phytoremediation under DS. These results indicate that these strains could be used as bio-inoculants for the improvement of phytoremediation of metal polluted soils under semiarid conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E.; Conner, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth's surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Conner, J.K. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth`s surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Expression of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin in Indian mustard provides resistance against Lipaphis erysimi and the expressed protein is non-allergenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ayan; Ghosh, Prithwi; Das, Sampa

    2018-06-01

    Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays. In the present study, efficacy of CEA in controlling L. erysimi has been established through the development of transgenic B. juncea expressing this novel lectin. Southern hybridization of the transgenic plants confirmed stable integration of cea gene. Expression of CEA in T 0 , T 1 and T 2 transgenic plants was confirmed through western blot analysis. Level of expression of CEA in the T 2 transgenic B. juncea ranged from 0.2 to 0.47% of the total soluble protein. In the in planta insect bioassays, the CEA expressing B. juncea lines exhibited enhanced insect mortality of 70-81.67%, whereas fecundity of L. erysimi was reduced by 49.35-62.11% compared to the control plants. Biosafety assessment of the transgenic B. juncea protein containing CEA was carried out by weight of evidence approach following the recommendations by FAO/WHO (Evaluation of the allergenicity of genetically modified foods: report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, 22-25 Jan, Rome, http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y0820e/y0820e00.HTM , 2001), Codex (Codex principles and guidelines on foods derived from biotechnology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; Codex, Codex principles and guidelines on foods derived from biotechnology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2003) and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research, guidelines for safety assessment of

  2. Plants know where it hurts: root and shoot jasmonic acid induction elicit differential responses in Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom O G Tytgat

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA. Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged.

  3. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  4. Contact Hwersensitaity to Mustard Khal and Mustard Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes 2 females patients having contact dermatitis due to mustard khal the residue of,mustard seeds after the oil hasbeen extracted out. The dermatitis was caused by mbdng mustard khal with the cattle feed and was occurring on the hands and forearms, though the face, ear lobules and neck were also mvolved because of the practice of applying mustard oil on the hair. Patch tests were positive with the mustard khal and its fractionation products in both the patients and with mustard oil in one patient.

  5. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, Andrea J.; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  6. Plant extracts in the control of aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L. and Myzus persicae (SulzerExtratos vegetais no controle dos afídeos Brevicoryne brassicae (L. e Myzus persicae (Sulzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Reginato Ávila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Were accomplished the effect of plant extracts of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., horsetail (Equisetum hyemale L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 aphids in cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.. The treatments consisted of plant extracts prepared fresh and dry (concentrations of 2.5; 5.0; and 10% and the controls insecticide acephate and water. These solutions were sprayed on cabbage discs placed on agar in Petri dishes, containing twenty adult aphids. In sequence, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic film and this procedure was repeated for the two aphid species studied. The assessment of the number of live nymphs and adults occurred at 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours after installation. The extracts of coriander and tobacco prepared in a concentration of 10% showed toxic effects similar to the organophosphate insecticide acephate, on adults and nymphs of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae. Coriander revealed a promising alternative that deserves detailed studies regarding the performance of its active ingredients and dosage determination in order to provide a safe herbal product to control insects.Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos vegetais de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., cavalinha (Equisetum hyemale L., coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. e fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. sobre os pulgões Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 e Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 em couve Brassica oleracea (L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos vegetais preparados a fresco e seco (nas concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 e 10%, do padrão inseticida acefato e de água. As soluções assim obtidas foram pulverizadas em discos de couve colocados sobre agar em placas de Petri, contendo vinte pulgões adultos. Na sequência, as placas de Petri foram vedadas com filme plástico transparente, sendo este procedimento repetido para as duas espécies de afídeos. A avalia

  7. Development of Biological Control for Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blossey, Bernd; Nuzzo, Victoria; Hinz, Harriet; Gerber, Esther

    2003-01-01

    Alliaria petiolata, garlic mustard, a biennial plant of European origin accidentally introduced to North America, has spread throughout much of eastern and midwestern North America and is now recorded...

  8. A comparison of screening methods to identify waterlogging tolerance in the field in Brassica napus L. during plant ontogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiling Zou

    Full Text Available Waterlogging tolerance is typically evaluated at a specific development stage, with an implicit assumption that differences in waterlogging tolerance expressed in these systems will result in improved yield performance in fields. It is necessary to examine these criteria in fields. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to screen waterlogging tolerance in 25 rapeseed (Brassica napus L. varieties at different developmental stages, such as seedling establishment stage and seedling stage at controlled environment, and maturity stage in the fields. The assessments for physiological parameters at three growth stages suggest that there were difference of waterlogging tolerance at all the development stages, providing an important basis for further development of breeding more tolerant materials. The results indicated that flash waterlogging restricts plant growth and growth is still restored after removal of the stress. Correlation analysis between waterlogging tolerance coefficient (WTC of yield and other traits revealed that there was consistency in waterlogging tolerance of the genotypes until maturity, and good tolerance at seedling establishment stage and seedling stage can guarantee tolerance in later stages. The waterlogging-tolerant plants could be selected using some specific traits at any stage, and selections would be more effective at the seedling establishment stage. Thus, our study provides a method for screening waterlogging tolerance, which would enable the suitable basis for initial selection of a large number of germplasm or breeding populations for waterlogging tolerance and help for verifying their potential utility in crop-improvement.

  9. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  10. 28-homobrassinolide Protects Photosynthetic Machinery in Indian mustard Under High Temperature Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Fariduddin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated with double distilled water or 0.01 µM of 28-homobrassinolide. Treated plants, after 24 h, were exposed to 30°C or 40°C for 48 h. One set of plants were kept at ambient temperature, 25°C, as the control. Plants were harvested at 30 days stage of growth to assess the various parameters. Plants exposed to 40°C had a decline in growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, and activities of carbonic anhydrase (E.C.4.2.1.1 and nitrate reductase (E.C.1.6.1.1. The 28-homobrassinolide alone improved growth and photosynthesis responses along with various enzymes activities. Treatment of plants with HBL prior to exposure to 40°C, partially reduced damage and completely controlled damage when exposure was to 30°C. Levels of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (E.C.1.11.1.6, peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7, and superoxide dismutase (E.C.1.15.1.1, and the level of proline increased in response to 30 or 40°C and were further enhanced in the presence of 28-homobrassinolide. Plants grown under high temperature had increased levels of H2O2; application of HBL before temperature treatment decreased H2O2 content compared to the control. Elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes and proline might be responsible for conferring tolerance to high temperature stress in Indian mustard and overcome the loss of productivity of the crop.

  11. Evolutionary Dynamics of Microsatellite Distribution in Plants: Insight from the Comparison of Sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and Other Angiosperm Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution in plants: insight from the comparison of sequenced brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqin Shi

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences. The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type the angiosperm species (aside from a few species all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite

  13. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-xin, Niu; Sun, Li-na; Sun, Tie-heng; Li, Yu-shuang; Wang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  14. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  15. Kale BoRACK1 is involved in the plant response to salt stress and Peronospora brassicae Gaumann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Hong; Shen, Fu-Jia; Li, Hong-Yan; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) belongs to a protein subfamily containing a tryptophan-aspartic acid-domain (WD) repeat structure. Compelling evidence indicates that RACK1 can interact with many signal molecules and affect different signal transduction pathways. In this study, a kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f.tricolor) RACK1 gene (BoRACK1) was cloned by RT-PCR. The amino acid sequence of BoRACK1 had seven WD repeats in which there were typical GH (glycine-histidine) and WD dipeptides. Comparison with AtRACK1 from Arabidopsis revealed 87.1% identity at the amino acid level. Expression pattern analysis by RT-PCR showed that BoRACK1 was expressed in all analyzed tissues of kale and that its transcription in leaves was down-regulated by salt, abscisic acid, and H 2 O 2 at a high concentration. Overexpression of BoRACK1 in kale led to a reduction in symptoms caused by Peronospora brassicae Gaumann on kale leaves. The expression levels of the pathogenesis-related protein genes, PR-1 and PRB-1, increased 2.5-4-fold in transgenic kale, and reactive oxygen species production was more active than in the wild-type. They also exhibited increased tolerance to salt stress in seed germination. H 2 O 2 may also be involved in the regulation of BoRACK1 during seed germination under salt stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the transcript levels of BoRbohs genes were significantly higher in overexpression of BoRACK1 transgenic lines. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that BoRACK1 could interact with WNK8, eIF6, RAR1, and SGT1. This study and previous work lead us to believe that BoRACK1 may form a complex with regulators of plant salt and disease resistance to coordinate kale reactions to pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B.; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1) were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides. PMID:28769959

  17. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group through Embryo Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij B. Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome, therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1 were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  18. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ( Xcc ) is a very important disease of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10-50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B 1 ) were generated between cauliflower "Pusa Sharad" and Ethiopian mustard "NPC-9" employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F 1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2 n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2 n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2 n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F 1 hybrid and BC 1 plants. The F 1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC 1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC 1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  19. Contact Hwersensitaity to Mustard Khal and Mustard Oil

    OpenAIRE

    J S Pasricha; Ramji Gupta; S K Gupta

    1985-01-01

    This report describes 2 females patients having contact dermatitis due to mustard khal the residue of,mustard seeds after the oil hasbeen extracted out. The dermatitis was caused by mbdng mustard khal with the cattle feed and was occurring on the hands and forearms, though the face, ear lobules and neck were also mvolved because of the practice of applying mustard oil on the hair. Patch tests were positive with the mustard khal and its fractionation products in both the patients and with must...

  20. Efeito do pré-plantio com plantas medicinais e aromáticas no controle de Plasmodiophora brassicae The effect of pre-plantation with medicinal plants in the Plasmodiophora brassicae control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionete Hasse

    2007-03-01

    have collaborated to inoculum dissemination. Aiming to control this disease with the lowest environmental impact, the present study verified the effect of pre-plantation medicinal and aromatic plants in the reduction of Plasmodiophora brassicae inoculum. Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions at 'Ciências Agrárias' sector at ´Universidade Federal do Paraná', from June to November 2003 as well as from July to December 2004. The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design with nine treatments and six replications. Medicinal and aromatic plants used in the treatments were mint (Mentha piperita L.; basil (Ocimum basilicum L.; bardana (Arctium minus Hill; calêndula (Calendula officianalis L.; chive (Allium fistulosum L.; parsley (Petroselinum hortense Hoffm and salvia (Salvia officinalis L.. As control samples, inoculation and infested soil, both inactive, were used. Pots with 3 kg of steam-sterilized soil were used, and as an inoculum of P. brassicae 2,5 g of galls were used per pot. Rudbeckia (Eruca sativa Mill was the susceptible host. Forty days after rudbeckia plantation, fresh foliar mass, the incidence and disease severity index were determined. The greater fresh foliar mass and lower severity index were obtained in the 2003 experiment with the treatment pre-plantation of "bardana", parsley, mint, basil and chive.

  1. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  2. Plant growth regulator-mediated anti-herbivore responses of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) against cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian M; Samara, R; Renaud, J B; Sumarah, M W

    2017-09-01

    Plant elicitors can be biological or chemical-derived stimulators of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) pathways shown to prime the defenses in many crops. Examples of chemical elicitors of the JA and SA pathways include methyl-jasmonate and 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH or the commercial plant activator Actigard 50WG, respectively). The use of specific elicitors has been observed to affect the normal interaction between JA and SA pathways causing one to be upregulated and the other to be suppressed, often, but not always, at the expense of the plant's herbivore or pathogen defenses. The objective of this study was to determine whether insects feeding on Brassica crops might be negatively affected by SA inducible defenses combined with an inhibitor of detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes that regulate the insect response to the plant's defenses. The relative growth rate of cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed induced cabbage Brassica oleraceae leaves with the inhibitor, quercetin, was significantly less than those fed control cabbage with and without the inhibitor. The reduced growth was related to the reduction of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) by the combination of quercetin and increased levels of indole glucosinolates in the cabbage treated with BTH at 2.6× the recommended application rate. These findings may offer a novel combination of elicitor and synergist that can provide protection from plant disease and herbivores in cabbage and other Brassica crops. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic variability and inter-character associations in the mutants of Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labana, K.S.; Chaurasia, B.D.; Singh, Balwant

    1980-01-01

    To study the genetic variability and the inter-character associations in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (Linn.)Czern. and Coss. subsp. juncea Linn.], 104 radiation-induced mutants (including 'RLM 198') and 'RL 18' were grown during winter season of 1976-77 at the experimental farm of the Punjab Agricultural University. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the mutant genotypes for all the characters under study except for the primary branch number and siliqua number of main shoot, which were non-significant. High estimates of phenotypic coefficients of variation (pcv) and genetic coefficients of variation (gcv) were observed for secondary branch number, seed yield/plant, main shoot length and seed number/siliqua. In general, pcv estimates were higher than gcv estimates. The high estimates of both heritability and genetic advance were recorded in similar order for the plant height, seed number/siliqua, main shoot length and seed yield, in which the genetic progress could be achieved through mass selection. Seed yield was positively correlated with the primary branch number, the secondary branch number and the siliqua number of main shoot and negatively with the plant height. Shorter plant height w;.th more number of primary and secondary branches and more siliquae on main shoot were found to be good selection criteria for isolating high-yielding strains. (auth.)

  4. PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF MUSTARD FARMING IN JAYAPURA PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tangkelayuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aim was to see variability, feasibility, and mustard farm income cultivated in Jayapura . The experiment was conducted in Kampung Yobeh, District of Sentani, Jayapura regency, on November to December 2013, using data growing season in October 2013, in form of a survey involving 30 mustard farmers as respondents . Determination of respondent using simple random method by getting farmers planting mustard continuously. Results: average mustard farmers area of 0,099 ha, seed expenses of IDR 37,400, the use of 9.20 kg Urea, NPK 2.80 kg, 526 kg manure , and cost of medicines IDR 26.366, male workers 2.66 HOK and women 2.03 HOK , and other expenses (shrinkage values and land tax .The level of productivity of mustard is 538.6 kg/0.99 ha/cropping season. Total revenue mustard farming with land size 0,099 ha/growing season is IDR 1.615.800, total spending is IDR 562 18. Benefit of farmers is IDR 1,053,618 with value of R/C ratio of 2.87. Analysis shows that mustard farming in Yobeh village, Sentani, Jayapura profitable, it is advisable for further development. Need guidance from Field Extension so that increased production increased.

  5. Genetic diversity in Ethiopian mustard ( Bbrassica carinata a. braun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, genetic diversity in 60 Ethiopian mustard genotypes, collected from 16 regions of Ethiopia, were assessed using the techniques of cluster and ... for the majority of traits of interest: seed yield/plot, seed yield/plant, biomass/plot, biomass/plant, plant height, number of pods/plant, 1000 seeds' weight and oil content ...

  6. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  7. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  8. GENE FLOW STUDIES BETWEEN BRASSICA NAPUS AND B. RAPA IN CONSTRUCTED PLANT COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial production of genetically modified crops has led to a growing awareness of the difficulties of transgene confinement and of the potential environmental risks associated with the escape of transgenes into naturalized or native plant populations. A potential conseque...

  9. PCIB an antiauxin enhances microspore embryogenisis in microspore culture of Brassica juncea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Agarwal, P.; Custers, J.B.M.; Liu, C.M.; Bhojwani, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    An efficient protocol to improve microspore embryogenesis is established in an important oleiferous crop, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard). Colchicine was used for enhancing microspore embryogenesis and also to obtain doubled haploid embryos. Colchicine at high concentrations (>10 mg l¿1), for 24

  10. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liao

    Full Text Available Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS, the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant

  11. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal; Muhannad Zaidan Khalefa

    2018-01-01

    A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment) properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40) on the ...

  12. Involvement of phospholipases C and D in early response to SAR and ISR inducers in Brassica napus plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profotová, Bronislava; Burketová, Lenka; Novotná, Z.; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, O.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, 2-3 (2006), s. 143-151 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Brassica napus * Induced resistance * Phospholipase C and D Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.847, year: 2006

  13. Expression of BrD1, a plant defensin from Brassica rapa, confers resistance against brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Man-Soo; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Hyang-Mi; Seo, Bo-Yoon; Jung, Jin-Kyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Kim, Min-Chul; Shin, Dong-Bum; Yun, Hong-Tai; Choi, Im-Soo; Kim, Chung-Kon; Lee, Jang-Yong

    2009-08-31

    Plant defensins are small (5-10 kDa) basic peptides thought to be an important component of the defense pathway against fungal and/or bacterial pathogens. To understand the role of plant defensins in protecting plants against the brown planthopper, a type of insect herbivore, we isolated the Brassica rapa Defensin 1 (BrD1) gene and introduced it into rice (Oryza sativa L.) to produce stable transgenic plants. The BrD1 protein is homologous to other plant defensins and contains both an N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum signal sequence and a defensin domain, which are highly conserved in all plant defensins. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the defensin domain of various plant defensins, we established that BrD1 belongs to a distinct subgroup of plant defensins. Relative to the wild type, transgenic rices expressing BrD1 exhibit strong resistance to brown planthopper nymphs and female adults. These results suggest that BrD1 exhibits insecticidal activity, and might be useful for developing cereal crop plants resistant to sap-sucking insects, such as the brown planthopper.

  14. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  16. Effect of sink size on growth response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} within the genus Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekie, E G; Wong, I; MacDougall, G [Acadia Univ., Wolfsville, NS (Canada); Hicklenton, P R [Agriculture Canada, Research Station, Kentville, NS (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    This study examines the response to elevated CO{sub 2} of seven broccoli, cauliflower, mustard, and turnip species (sp. Brassica). These species are the end result of selection by plant breeders for different allocation patterns and differ markedly in both the size and location of their carbon sinks. Based on the assumption that the presence of carbon storage organs is indicative of a low source to sink ratio, the hypothesis that innate differences in source to sink ratio among plants influences their response to elevated CO{sub 2} was examined. The study also investigated the question of whether location of the sink in root, stem or reproductive structures has any influence on response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Neither biomass allocation to photosynthetic versus non-photosynthetic tissues, nor leaf area ratio could adequately reflect the differences in source to sink ratio within the genus Brassica. Although the evidence is not straightforward, it is clear that there are other factors than the presence of carbon sinks that influence the response to elevated CO{sub 2}. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  20. Larval performance of the mustard leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) on white mustard (Sinapis alba) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves in dependence of plant exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, Kerstin; Mueller, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient or attenuated ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in shifts in plant metabolite concentrations of the Brassicaceae Sinapis alba and Nasturtium officinale. Leaf quality also varied between plant species and within species due to age. Larvae of the oligophagous leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae were raised on these different host leaves, in order to investigate the effects of variable plant chemistry on this herbivore. The performance of P. cochleariae was influenced by chemical differences between and within plant species but it responded with high plasticity to plants stressed by ultraviolet radiation. Body mass increase and developmental times of larvae were exclusively affected by plant species and leaf-age. However, developmental differences were fully compensated in the pupal stage. We suggest that the plasticity of herbivores may depend on the degree of specialisation, and insect performance may not necessarily be altered by stress-induced host plants. - The larval performance of an oligophagous leaf beetle is influenced by chemical differences between and within plant species but responds with high plasticity to plants stressed by ultraviolet radiation.

  1. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  2. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  3. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  4. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O 3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O 3 . - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  5. Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations of Brassica nigra Introgression Lines from Somatic Hybridization: A Resource for Cauliflower Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Xiang; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Han, Shuo; Zong, Mei; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Xing-Ying; Zhang, Yue-Yun; Wang, You-Ping; Liu, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower "Korso" (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome) and black mustard "G1/1" (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome). However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs) were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits) and physiological (black rot/club root resistance) characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from "Korso." Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms) analysis identified the presence of "G1/1" DNA segments (average 7.5%). Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1%) was higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%), and the presence of fragments specific to Brassica carinata (BBCC 2n = 34) were common (average 15.5%). Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4%) was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%). Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  6. The Vascular Pathogen Verticillium longisporum Does Not Affect Water Relations and Plant Responses to Drought Stress of Its Host, Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a host-specific vascular pathogen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) that causes economic crop losses by impairing plant growth and inducing premature senescence. This study investigates whether plant damage through Verticillium stem striping is due to impaired plant water relations, whether V. longisporum affects responses of a susceptible B. napus variety to drought stress, and whether drought stress, in turn, affects plant responses to V. longisporum. Two-factorial experiments on a susceptible cultivar of B. napus infected or noninfected with V. longisporum and exposed to three watering levels (30, 60, and 100% field capacity) revealed that drought stress and V. longisporum impaired plant growth by entirely different mechanisms. Although both stresses similarly affected plant growth parameters (plant height, hypocotyl diameter, and shoot and root dry matter), infection of B. napus with V. longisporum did not affect any drought-related physiological or molecular genetic plant parameters, including transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency, relative leaf water content, leaf proline content, or the expression of drought-responsive genes. Thus, this study provides comprehensive physiological and molecular genetic evidence explaining the lack of wilt symptoms in B. napus infected with V. longisporum. Likewise, drought tolerance of B. napus was unaffected by V. longisporum, as was the level of disease by drought conditions, thus excluding a concerted action of both stresses in the field. Although it is evident that drought and vascular infection with V. longisporum impair plant growth by different mechanisms, it remains to be determined by which other factors V. longisporum causes crop loss.

  7. Effect of earthworms on growth, photosynthetic efficiency and metal uptake in Brassica juncea L. plants grown in cadmium-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Parminder; Bali, Shagun; Sharma, Anket; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2017-05-01

    The present study has been carried out to examine the role of earthworms in phytoremediation of Cd and its effect on growth, pigment content, expression of genes coding key enzymes of pigments, photosynthetic efficiency and osmoprotectants in Brassica juncea L. plants grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. The effect of different Cd concentrations (0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 mM) was studied in 30 and 60-day-old plants grown in soils containing earthworms. It was observed that earthworm inoculation showed stimulatory effect on phytoremediation capacity and Cd uptake has increased by 49% (in 30-day-old plants) and 35% (in 60-day-old plants) in shoots and 13.3% (in 30-day-old plants) and 10% (in 60-day-old plants) in roots in 30 and 60-day-old plants in Cd (1.25 mM) treatments. Plant growth parameters such as root and shoot length, relative water content and tolerance index were found to increase in the presence of earthworms. Recovery in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) and gas exchange parameters, i.e. net photosynthetic rate (P n ), stomatal conductance (G s ), intercellular CO 2 concentration (C i ) and transpiration rate (E t ), was observed after earthworm's supplementation. Modulation in expression of key enzymes for pigment synthesis, i.e. chlorophyllase, phytoene synthase, chalcone synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase, was also observed. The results of our study revealed that earthworms help to mitigate the toxic effects produced by Cd on plant growth and photosynthetic efficiency along with enhanced phytoremediation capacity when co-inoculated with Cd in soil.

  8. Glutamine nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen supplied as a nitrogen source is not converted into nitrate nitrogen of plant tissues of hydroponically grown pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-J; Wu, L-H; Tao, Q-N; Miller, D D; Welch, R M

    2009-03-01

    Many vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, accumulate NO(-) (3)-N in their edible portions. High nitrate levels in vegetables constitute a health hazard, such as cancers and blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine if (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH(+) (4)-N) and glutamine-nitrogen (Gln-N) absorbed by plant roots is converted into nitrate-nitrogen of pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues, and (2) if nitrate-nitrogen (NO(-) (3)-N) accumulation and concentration of pak-choi tissues linearly increase with increasing NO(-) (3)-N supply when grown in nutrient solution. In experiment 1, 4 different nitrogen treatments (no nitrogen, NH(+) (4)-N, Gln-N, and NO(-) (3)-N) with equal total N concentrations in treatments with added N were applied under sterile nutrient medium culture conditions. In experiment 2, 5 concentrations of N (from 0 to 48 mM), supplied as NO(-) (3)-N in the nutrient solution, were tested. The results showed that Gln-N and NH(+) (4)-N added to the nutrient media were not converted into nitrate-nitrogen of plant tissues. Also, NO(-) (3)-N accumulation in the pak-choi tissues was the highest when plants were supplied 24 mM NO(-) (3)-N in the media. The NO(-) (3)-N concentration in plant tissues was quadratically correlated to the NO(-) (3)-N concentration supplied in the nutrient solution.

  9. Overexpression of NPR1 in Brassica juncea Confers Broad Spectrum Resistance to Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (Indian mustard is a commercially important oil seed crop, which is highly affected by many biotic stresses. Among them, Alternaria leaf blight and powdery mildew are the most devastating diseases leading to huge yield losses in B. juncea around the world. In this regard, genetic engineering is a promising tool that may possibly allow us to enhance the B. juncea disease resistance against these pathogens. NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogen-related gene 1 is a bonafide receptor of salicylic acid (SA which modulates multiple immune responses in plants especially activation of induced and systemic acquired resistance (SAR. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of new NPR1 homolog (BjNPR1 from B. juncea. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the deduced sequence of BjNPR1 with homologs from other species revealed that BjNPR1 grouped together with other known NPR1 proteins of Cruciferae family, and was nearest to B. napus. Furthermore, expression analysis showed that BjNPR1 was upregulated after SA treatment and fungal infection but not by jasmonic acid or abscisic acid. To understand the defensive role of this gene, we generated B. juncea transgenic lines overexpressing BjNPR1, and further confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The transgenic lines showed no phenotypic abnormalities, and constitutive expression of BjNPR1 activates defense signaling pathways by priming the expression of antifungal PR genes. Moreover, BjNPR1 transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Erysiphe cruciferarum as there was delay in symptoms and reduced disease severity than non-transgenic plants. In addition, the rate of disease spreading to uninfected or distal parts was also delayed in transgenic plants thus suggesting the activation of SAR. Altogether, the present study suggests that BjNPR1 is involved in broad spectrum of disease resistance against fungal pathogens.

  10. Use of micro-PIXE to determine spatial distributions of copper in Brassica carinata plants exposed to CuSO4 or CuEDDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestone, Benedetta; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Rascio, Nicoletta; Pongrac, Paula; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka; Kump, Peter; Nečemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern copper (Cu) uptake, distribution and tolerance in Brassica carinata plants in the presence of chelators is needed before significant progress in chelate-assisted Cu phytoextraction can be made. The aims of this study were therefore to characterise (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS)-assisted Cu uptake, and to compare the spatial distribution patterns of Cu in the roots and leaves of B. carinata plants. The plants were treated with 30 μM or 150 μM CuSO 4 or CuEDDS in hydroponic solution. Quantitative Cu distribution maps and concentration profiles across root and leaf cross-sections of the desorbed plants were obtained by micro-proton induced X-ray emission. In roots, the 30 μM treatments with both CuSO 4 and CuEDDS resulted in higher Cu concentrations in epidermal/cortical regions. At 150 μM CuSO 4 , Cu was mainly accumulated in root vascular bundles, whereas with 150 μM CuEDDS, Cu was detected in endodermis and the adjacent inner cortical cell layer. Under all treatments, except with a H + -ATP-ase inhibitor, the Cu in leaves was localised mainly in vascular tissues. The incubation of plants with 150 μM CuEDDS enhanced metal translocation to shoots, in comparison to the corresponding CuSO 4 treatment. Inhibition of H + -ATPase activity resulted in reduced Cu accumulation in 30 μM CuEDDS-treated roots and 150 μM CuEDDS-treated leaves, and induced changes in Cu distribution in the leaves. This indicates that active mechanisms are involved in retaining Cu in the leaf vascular tissues, which prevent its transport to photosynthetically active tissues. The physiological significance of EDDS-assisted Cu uptake is discussed. - Highlights: ► We localised Cu in Brassica carinata treated with CuSO 4 or CuEDDS by micro-PIXE. ► EDDS-assisted Cu uptake and transport resulted in preserved root endodermis. ► EDDS enhanced Cu transport from roots to shoots. ► Cu sequestration within leaf veins

  11. Use of micro-PIXE to determine spatial distributions of copper in Brassica carinata plants exposed to CuSO{sub 4} or CuEDDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cestone, Benedetta, E-mail: benedettacestone@yahoo.it [Department of Biology of Crop Plants, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56121 Pisa (Italy); Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, S1-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Quartacci, Mike Frank [Department of Biology of Crop Plants, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56121 Pisa (Italy); Rascio, Nicoletta [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35121 Padova (Italy); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, S1-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz; Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa; Jeromel, Luka; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, S1-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Department of Biology of Crop Plants, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56121 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern copper (Cu) uptake, distribution and tolerance in Brassica carinata plants in the presence of chelators is needed before significant progress in chelate-assisted Cu phytoextraction can be made. The aims of this study were therefore to characterise (S,S)-N,N Prime -ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS)-assisted Cu uptake, and to compare the spatial distribution patterns of Cu in the roots and leaves of B. carinata plants. The plants were treated with 30 {mu}M or 150 {mu}M CuSO{sub 4} or CuEDDS in hydroponic solution. Quantitative Cu distribution maps and concentration profiles across root and leaf cross-sections of the desorbed plants were obtained by micro-proton induced X-ray emission. In roots, the 30 {mu}M treatments with both CuSO{sub 4} and CuEDDS resulted in higher Cu concentrations in epidermal/cortical regions. At 150 {mu}M CuSO{sub 4}, Cu was mainly accumulated in root vascular bundles, whereas with 150 {mu}M CuEDDS, Cu was detected in endodermis and the adjacent inner cortical cell layer. Under all treatments, except with a H{sup +}-ATP-ase inhibitor, the Cu in leaves was localised mainly in vascular tissues. The incubation of plants with 150 {mu}M CuEDDS enhanced metal translocation to shoots, in comparison to the corresponding CuSO{sub 4} treatment. Inhibition of H{sup +}-ATPase activity resulted in reduced Cu accumulation in 30 {mu}M CuEDDS-treated roots and 150 {mu}M CuEDDS-treated leaves, and induced changes in Cu distribution in the leaves. This indicates that active mechanisms are involved in retaining Cu in the leaf vascular tissues, which prevent its transport to photosynthetically active tissues. The physiological significance of EDDS-assisted Cu uptake is discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We localised Cu in Brassica carinata treated with CuSO{sub 4} or CuEDDS by micro-PIXE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDDS-assisted Cu uptake and transport resulted in preserved root

  12. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-06-20

    MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, characterization of mTEs and building a curated database are prerequisite to extending their utilization for genomics and applied fields in Brassica crops. We have developed BrassicaTED as a unique web portal containing detailed characterization information for mTEs of Brassica species. At present, BrassicaTED has datasets for 41 mTE families, including 5894 and 6026 members from 20 MITE families, 1393 and 1639 members from 5 TRIM families, 1270 and 2364 members from 16 SINE families in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. BrassicaTED offers different sections to browse structural and positional characteristics for every mTE family. In addition, we have added data on 289 MITE insertion polymorphisms from a survey of seven Brassica relatives. Genes with internal mTE insertions are shown with detailed gene annotation and microarray-based comparative gene expression data in comparison with their paralogs in the triplicated B. rapa genome. This database also includes a novel tool, K BLAST (Karyotype BLAST), for clear visualization of the locations for each member in the B. rapa and B. oleracea pseudo-genome sequences. BrassicaTED is a newly developed database of information regarding the characteristics and potential utility of mTEs including MITE, TRIM and SINEs in B. rapa and B. oleracea. The database will promote the development of desirable mTE-based markers, which can be utilized for genomics and breeding in Brassica species. BrassicaTED will be a valuable repository for scientists

  13. Determination of Flowering Phenology, Number of Flowers, Nectar and Pollen Potential of Oil Rape (Brassica napus L., Plant in Black Sea Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necda Çankaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in order to determine the flowering phenology, number of flowers, nectar and pollen potential in the Samsun province of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., which is widely used in agriculture in our country. In the first year of the study (2011, it was determined that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 44 days, there were 2.694 flowers per plant, 1.89 kg/da nectar per day and 1330 kg/da pollen production. In the second year of the research (2012, it was revealed that the rapeseed plant was in flower for 39 days, there were 701 plants/flower in the plant, 0.38 kg/da nectar secreted daily and 331.57 kg/da pollen. According to the results of two years, the yield of rapeseed was found to be 41.5 days, the daily nectar production was 0.23 mg/flower/day, the nectar dry matter level was 20.25% and the pollen production was 0.48 mg/flower/day. In Samsun province, it was determined that rapeseed plants flowered before the flowering of many plants in the vicinity in the early spring, and provided honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and many other honey bees, nectar and pollen. It has been demonstrated that the cultivation of rapeseed is cultivated in the early spring, and it can be a convenient source of food for honey bees and other dusty insects.

  14. Water balance and N-metabolism in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants depending on nitrogen source under salt stress and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-11-15

    Elevated [CO2] and salinity in the soils are considered part of the effects of future environmental conditions in arid and semi-arid areas. While it is known that soil salinization decreases plant growth, an increased atmospheric [CO2] may ameliorate the negative effects of salt stress. However, there is a lack of information about the form in which inorganic nitrogen source may influence plant performance under both conditions. Single factor responses and the interactive effects of two [CO2] (380 and 800ppm), three different NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios in the nutrient solution (100/0, 50/50 and 0/100, with a total N concentration of 3.5mM) and two NaCl concentrations (0 and 80mM) on growth, leaf gas exchange parameters in relation to root hydraulic conductance and N-assimilating enzymes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) plants were determined. The results showed that a reduced NO3(-) or co-provision of NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be an optimal source of inorganic N for broccoli plants. In addition, elevated [CO2] ameliorated the effect of salt exposure on the plant growth through an enhanced rate of photosynthesis, even at low N-concentration. However, NO3(-) or NO3(-)/NH4(+) co-provision display differential plant response to salt stress regarding water balance, which was associated to N metabolism. The results may contribute to our understanding of N-fertilization modes under increasing atmospheric [CO2] to cope with salt stress, where variations in N nutrition significantly influenced plant response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of biologically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles on metabolism and antioxidant activity to the crop plants Solanum lycopersicum and Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajey; Singh, N B; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, Himani

    2017-11-20

    Study on the ecological effect of metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs) has quickly amplified over the precedent years because it is assumed that these NMs will sooner or later be released into the environment. The present study deals with biologically oriented process for the green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) by using Morus alba leaf extract as reducing agent. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed the monoclinic phase and 20-40nm size respectively. The presence of reducing and capping agents revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to 10, 50, 100, and 500mgL -1 concentrations of CuO NPs in the sand medium. Bioaccumulation of Cu was also investigated by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Plant exposure to 100 and 500mgL -1 of CuO NPs has resulted in significant reduction of total chlorophyll and sugar content in the two test plants while 10mgL -1 of NPs slightly increased the pigment and sugar content in tomato plants only. Augmentation of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and antioxidant enzyme activity was observed in a dose dependent manner upon plants exposure to CuO NPs. Deposition of lignin in roots of both plants treated with the highest concentration of CuO NPs was observed. Histochemical analysis of leaves of treated plant with nitroblue tetrazolium and 3 ' 3 ' diaminobenzidine showed a concentration dependent increase in superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in leaves. The green synthesis of CuO NPs was carried out by using Morus alba leaf extract. Accumulation of NPs more actively by tomato plants as compared to cauliflower was possibly due to the difference in root morphology. The histochemical visualization highlights the spatial organization of oxidant biochemistry occurring in response to metal stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the root system of Brassica juncea (L.) czern. and Bidens pilosa L. exposed to lead polluted soils using rhizobox systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Natalia Soledad; Salazar, María Julieta; Pignata, María Luisa; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the behavior of the root system of one of the most frequently cited species in phytoremediation Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] and a representative perennial herb (Bidens pilosa L.) native of Argentina, for different concentrations of lead in soils through chemical and visualization techniques of the rhizosphere. Lead polluted soils from the vicinity of a lead recycling plant in the locality of Bouwer, were used in juxtaposed rhizobox systems planted with seedlings of B. juncea and B. pilosa with homogeneous and heterogeneous soil treatments. Root development, pH changes in the rhizosphere, dry weight biomass, lead content of root and aerial parts and potential extraction of lead by rhizosphere exudates were determined. In both species lead was mainly accumulated in roots. However, although B. juncea accumulated more lead than B. pilosa at elevated concentrations in soils, the latter achieved greater root and aerial development. No changes in the pH of the rhizosphere associated to lead were observed, despite different extractive potentials of lead in the exudates of the species analyzed. Our results indicated that Indian mustard did not behave as a hyperaccumulator in the conditions of the present study.

  17. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  18. Comparative uptake of plutonium from soils by Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hossner, L.R.; Attrep, M.; Kung, K.S.

    2002-01-01

    Extractability of Pu from soils was most affected by pH and amounts of clay, salts, and carbonates. - Plutonium uptake by Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) from soils with varying chemical composition and contaminated with Pu complexes (Pu-nitrate [ 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ], Pu-citrate [ 239 Pu(C 6 H 5 O 7 ) + ], and Pu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Pu-DTPA [ 239 Pu-C 14 H 23 O 10 N 3 ]) was investigated. Sequential extraction of soils incubated with applied Pu was used to determine the distribution of Pu in the various soil fractions. The initial Pu activity levels in soils were 44.40-231.25 Bq g -1 as Pu-nitrate , Pu-citrate, or Pu-DTPA. A difference in Pu uptake between treatments of Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate without chelating agent was observed only with Indian mustard in acidic Crowley soil. The uptake of Pu by plants was increased with increasing DTPA rates, however, the Pu concentration of plants was not proportionally increased with increasing application rate of Pu to soil. Plutonium uptake from Pu-DTPA was significantly higher from the acid Crowley soil than from the calcareous Weswood soil. The uptake of Pu from the soils was higher in Indian mustard than in sunflower. Sequential extraction of Pu showed that the ion-exchangeable Pu fraction in soils was dramatically increased with DTPA treatment and decreased with time of incubation. Extractability of Pu in all fractions was not different when Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate were applied to the same soil. More Pu was associated with the residual Pu fraction without DTPA application. Consistent trends with time of incubation for other fractions were not apparent. The ion-exchangeable fraction, assumed as plant-available Pu, was significantly higher in acid soil compared with calcareous soil with or without DTPA treatment. When the calcareous soil was treated with DTPA, the ion-exchangeable Pu was comparatively less influenced. This fraction in the soil was more affected with time

  19. Identification and evolutionary dynamics of cacta DNA transposons in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.; Noreen, S.; Harrison, J.S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements are the major drivers of genome evolution and plasticity. Due to their transposition mode, they are classified into two major classes as Retrotransposons and DNA transposons. The En/Spm or CACTA elements are diverse group of DNA transposons proliferating in plant genomes. Various bioinformatics and molecular approaches were used for identification and distribution of CACTA transposons in Brassica genome. A combination of dot plot analysis and BLASTN searches yielded 35 autonomous and 7 non-autonomous CACTA elements in Brassica. The elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 kb non-autonomous elements to 11kb autonomous elements, terminated by 3 bp Target Site Duplication (TSD) and ~15 bp conserved Terminal Inverted Repeat (TIR) motifs (5'-CACTACAAGAAAACA-3'), with heterogeneous internal regions. The transposase (TNP) was identified from autonomous CACTA elements, while other protein domains from Brassica and other plants CACTA revealed similar organizations with minor differences. Both transposases (TNPD, TNPA) are present in most CACTA, while a few CACTA harboured an additional ATHILA ORF1-like domain. The PCR analysis amplified the CACTA transposases from 40 Brassica accessions (A, B, and C-genome) suggesting their distribution among various Brassica crops. A detailed characterization and evolutionary analysis of the identified CACTA elements allowed some to be placed in genome-specific groups, while most of them (Brassica-Arabidopsis elements) have followed the same evolutionary line. The distribution of CACTA in Brassica concluded that 3 bp TSDs generating CACTA transposons contributed significantly to genome size and evolution of Brassica genome. (author)

  20. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss......-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited...... over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed...

  1. Health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants as affected by nitrogen fertilisation in projected future climatic change environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-01-30

    The complex interactions between CO2 increase and salinity were investigated in relation to decreased N supply, in order to determine the nutritional quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants under these conditions. Three different decreased N fertilisation regimes (NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 respectively) were combined with ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) [CO2 ] under non-saline (0 mmol L(-1) NaCl) and saline (80 mmol L(-1) NaCl) conditions. Nutrients (minerals, soluble protein and total amino acids) and natural antioxidants (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined. In NH4(+) -fed broccoli plants, a marked growth reduction was shown and a redistribution of amino acids to cope with NH4(+) toxicity resulted in higher levels of indolic glucosinolate and total phenolic compounds. However, the positive effect of the higher [CO2] - ameliorating adverse effects of salinity--was only observed when N was supplied as NO3(-). Under reduced N fertilisation, the total glucosinolates were increased by a decreased NO3(-)/NH4 (+) ratio and elevated [CO2] but were unaffected by salinity. Under future climatic challenges, such as increased salinity and elevated [CO2], a clear genotypic dependence of S metabolism was observed in broccoli plants. In addition, an influence of the form in which N was supplied on plant nutritional quality was observed; a combined NO3(-)/NH4(+) (50:50) supply allowed broccoli plants not only to deal with NH4(+) toxicity but also to modify their glucosinolate content and profile. Thus, for different modes of N fertilisation, the interaction with climatic factors must be considered in the search for an optimal balance between yield and nutritional quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Plant hormones in defense response of Brassica napus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - reassessing the role of salicylic acid in the interaction with a necrotroph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Miroslava; Sašek, Vladimír; Dobrev, Petre I; Valentová, Olga; Burketová, Lenka

    2014-07-01

    According to general model, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are induced in Arabidopsis after an attack of necrotroph, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) also seem to play a role. While signaling events in Arabidopsis have been intensively studied recently, information for the natural host Brassica napus is limited. In this study, multiple plant hormone quantification and expression analysis of marker genes of the signaling pathways was used to gain a complete view of the interaction of B. napus with S. sclerotiorum. Strong response of ET biosynthetic gene ACS2 was observed, accompanied by increases of SA and JA levels that correspond to the elevated expression of marker genes PR1 and LOX3. Interestingly, the level of ABA and the expression of its marker gene RD26 were also elevated. Furthermore, induction of the SA-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms. In addition, SA signaling is suggested as a possible target for manipulation by S. sclerotiorum. A gene for putative chorismate mutase SS1G_14320 was identified that is highly expressed during infection but not in vitro. Our results bring the evidence of SA involvement in the interaction of plant with the necrotroph that conflict with the current model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardinal Temperatures of Brassica sp. and How to Determine It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. SUANDA SUANDA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardinal temperatures consist of minimum, optimum and maximum of plant growth, and might beable to be determined by assessing effect of temperature on seed germination. An experiment ofseed germination was conducted in laboratory, using thermal gradient plate for ten days. To test hypothesisthat rapeseed genotypes vary in their response to temperatures. The design of this experiment was asplit plot with four replications. The main-treatments were 14 different temperatures: 0.4°C, 3.3°C,7.8°C, 11.6°C, 13.3°C, 15.0°C, 16.8°C, 18.3°C, 20.9°C, 21.1°C, 25.6°C, 29.0°C, 33.0°C and36.3°C. Sub-treatments were 6 brassica genotypes: Brassica napus genotypes (Tatyoon and Marnoo;B. campestris (Jumbuck and Chinoli B; B. juncea (No. 81797 and Zero Erusic Mustard (ZEM 2.Each treatment was using 50 seeds. Germinations were observed daily for ten days and data wereanalyzed with regression and correlation. Genotypes responded differently to temperatures with Jumbuckthe most sensitive to low temperature with minimum temperature (7.90°C, then respectively followedby Chinoli B (6.36°C, ZEM 2 (4.77°C, Tatyoon (4.63°C, No. 81797 (2.59°C, and Marnoo(1.00°C. For high temperature the most sensitive was No. 81797 with maximum temperature 38.61°C.and then respectively followed by Marnoo (39.76°C, Chinoli B (42.93°C, Tatyoon (43.79°C,Jumbuck (44.58°C and ZEM 2 (45.88°C. Optimum temperatures were for Jumbuck was 24.56°C,ZEM 2 (26.95°C, Tatyoon (27.12°C, No. 81797 (28.12°C, Chinoli B (29.74°C and Marnoo(30.48°C.

  4. Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in Brassica rapa Fast Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question “What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev),” we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students’ cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students’ final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on “variation” as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students’ explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from “plug and play,” this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. PMID:25185225

  5. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  6. Application of Endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens and a Bacterial Consortium to Brassica napus Can Increase Plant Height and Biomass under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Lally

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant associated bacteria with plant growth promotion (PGP properties have been proposed for use as environmentally friendly biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture; however, analysis of their efficacy in the field is often limited. In this study, greenhouse and field trials were carried out using individual endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, the well characterized rhizospheric P. fluorescens F113 and an endophytic microbial consortium of 10 different strains. These bacteria had been previously characterized with respect to their PGP properties in vitro and had been shown to harbor a range of traits associated with PGP including siderophore production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase activity, and inorganic phosphate solubilization. In greenhouse experiments individual strains tagged with gfp and Kmr were applied to Brassica napus as a seed coat and were shown to effectively colonize the rhizosphere and root of B. napus and in addition they demonstrated a significant increase in plant biomass compared with the non-inoculated control. In the field experiment, the bacteria (individual and consortium were spray inoculated to winter oilseed rape B. napus var. Compass which was grown under standard North Western European agronomic conditions. Analysis of the data provides evidence that the application of the live bacterial biofertilizers can enhance aspects of crop development in B. napus at field scale. The field data demonstrated statistically significant increases in crop height, stem/leaf, and pod biomass, particularly, in the case of the consortium inoculated treatment. However, although seed and oil yield were increased in the field in response to inoculation, these data were not statistically significant under the experimental conditions tested. Future field trials will investigate the effectiveness of the inoculants under different agronomic conditions.

  7. Major Co-localized QTL for Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height, Stem Diameter, and Flowering Time in an Alien Introgression Derived Brassica napus DH Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusen Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant height (PH, branch initiation height (BIH, and stem diameter (SD are three stem-related traits that play crucial roles in plant architecture and lodging resistance. Herein, we show one doubled haploid (DH population obtained from a cross between Y689 (one Capsella bursa-pastoris derived Brassica napus intertribal introgression and Westar (B. napus cultivar that these traits were significantly positively correlated with one another and with flowering time (FT. Based on a high-density SNP map, a total of 102 additive quantitative trait loci (QTL were identified across six environments. Seventy-two consensus QTL and 49 unique QTL were identified using a two-round strategy of QTL meta-analysis. Notably, a total of 19 major QTL, including 11 novel ones, were detected for these traits, which comprised two QTL clusters on chromosomes A02 and A07. Conditional QTL mapping was performed to preliminarily evaluate the genetic basis (pleiotropy or tight linkage of the co-localized QTL. In addition, QTL by environment interactions (QEI mapping was performed to verify the additive QTL and estimate the QEI effect. In the genomic regions of all major QTL, orthologs of the genes involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling, flower development, and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis were proposed as candidate genes. Of these, BnaA02g02560, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GASA4, was suggested as a candidate gene for PH, SD, and FT; and BnaA02g08490, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GNL, was associated with PH, BIH and FT. These results provide useful information for further genetic studies on stem-related traits and plant growth adaptation.

  8. Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced herbivore attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Van Dam, N.M.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    1. Plant responses to herbivore attack may have community-wide effects on the composition of the plant-associated insect community. Thereby, plant responses to an early-season herbivore may have profound consequences for the amount and type of future attack. 2. Here we studied the effect of

  9. Comparative study of phloem loading radiotracer techniques for in vivo sucrose translocation in non woody and woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Pranav; Pandey, Manish; Suprasanna Penna; Ramteke, Sahadeo

    2017-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes for analysing the in vivo physiological responses in plants is a well known practical approach for the plant physiologists. Physiological difference in woody and non woody plants necessitates the need for universal way of application of radioisotopes to study in vivo sucrose translocation. In this study, grape vine (Vitis vinifera cv. Thomson seedless) and mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Bold) plants having active source and sink were used as representative system for woody and non woody plants. In present work we applied different strategies for radio activity loading in both boody and non woody plant viz. phloem loading via cut end, direct injection into phloem and activity incorporation through minor vein of leaves (gaseous CO 2 incorporation)

  10. beta-aminobutyric acid protects Brassica napus plants from infection by Leptosphaeria maculans. Resistance induction or a direct antifungal effect?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šašek, Vladimír; Nováková, Miroslava; Dobrev, Petre; Valentová, O.; Burketová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 1 (2012), s. 279-289 ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1581; GA MZe QH72117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial * BTH * Gene expression Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2012

  11. Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Yin, Yi; Gols, Rieta

    2017-01-01

    The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the

  12. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of Brassica nigra introgression lines from somatic hybridization: a resource for cauliflower improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixiang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  13. Beyond Punnett squares: Student word association and explanations of phenotypic variation through an integrative quantitative genetics unit investigating anthocyanin inheritance and expression in Brassica rapa Fast plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzli, Janet M; Smith, Amber R; Williams, Paul H; McGee, Seth A; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question "What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev)," we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students' cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students' final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on "variation" as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students' explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from "plug and play," this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. © 2014 J. M. Batzli et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Leaf Senescence, Root Morphology, and Seed Yield of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. at Varying Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the yield and yield components were studied using a conventional variety Zhongshuang 11 (ZS 11 and a hybrid variety Zhongyouza 12 (ZYZ 12 at varying plant densities. The increase in plant density led to an initial increase in seed yield and pod numbers per unit area, followed by a decrease. The optimal plant density was 58.5 × 104 plants ha−1 in both ZS 11 and ZYZ 12. The further researches on physiological traits showed a rapid decrease in the green leaf area index (GLAI and chlorophyll content and a remarkable increase in malondialdehyde content in high plant density (HPD population than did the low plant density (LPD population, which indicated the rapid leaf senescence. However, HPD had higher values in terms of pod area index (PAI, pod photosynthesis, and radiation use efficiency (RUE after peak anthesis. A significantly higher level of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed, which resulted in higher yield. HPD resulted in a rapid decrease in root morphological parameters (root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume. These results suggested that increasing the plant density within a certain range was a promising option for high seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.

  15. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  16. Creation of glyphosate-resistant Brassica napus L. plants expressing DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenkova-Pavlova I. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Creation of glyphosate-resistant canola plants expressing bifunctional hybrid desC::licBM3 gene. In the hybrid gene the sequence of DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium S. vulcanus without plastid targeting was fused with the sequence of thermostable lichenase reporter LicBM3 gene. Methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, PCR, quantitative and qualitative determination of lichenase activity, genetic analysis. Results. Transgenic canola plants, carring the enolpyruvat shikimat phosphate syntase gene (epsps, conferring on plants resistance to phosphonomethyl glycine herbicides (Roundup, as well as the desC::licBM3 gene, were selected. The presence of transgenes was confimed by multiplex PCR. The epsps gene expression in canola was shown at the transcription level, during in vitro growth and after greenhouse herbicide treatment. Activity of the licBM3 gene product as a part of hybrid protein allowed quantitative and qualitative estimation of the desaturase gene expression. Inheritance of heterologous genes and their expression in the first generation were investigated. Conclusions. Transgenic canola plants were obtained, the presence of trangenes in plant genome was proved and expression of the target genes was detected.

  17. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... females) to B. campestris resulted in a much lower seed set, average 0.7 seed per pollination. In the single backcross progeny where a large enough population (92 plants) was obtained for analysis, 33 B. napus specific RAPD markers were investigated to determine the extent of transfer of oilseed rape...

  18. The gastropod menace: slugs on Brassica plants affect caterpillar survival through consumption and interference with parasitoid attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrestrial molluscs and insect herbivores play a major role as plant consumers in a number of ecosystems, but their direct and indirect interactions have hardly been explored. The omnivorous nature of slugs makes them potential disrupters of predator-prey relationships, as a direct threat to small ...

  19. Growth of Verticillium longisporum in Xylem Sap of Brassica napus is Independent from Cultivar Resistance but Promoted by Plant Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    As Verticillium stem striping of oilseed rape (OSR), a vascular disease caused by Verticillium longisporum, is extending into new geographic regions and no control with fungicides exists, the demand for understanding mechanisms of quantitative resistance increases. Because V. longisporum is strictly limited to the xylem and resistance is expressed in the systemic stage post root invasion, we investigated a potential antifungal role of soluble constituents and nutritional conditions in xylem sap as determinants of cultivar resistance of OSR to V. longisporum. Assessment of biometric and molecular genetic parameters applied to describe V. longisporum resistance (net area under disease progress curve, stunting, stem thickness, plant biomass, and V. longisporum DNA content) showed consistent susceptibility of cultivar 'Falcon' in contrast to two resistant genotypes, 'SEM' and 'Aviso'. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed a consistently stronger in vitro growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap extracted from OSR compared with the water control. Further comparisons of fungal growth in xylem sap of different cultivars revealed the absence of constitutive or V. longisporum induced antifungal activity in the xylem sap of resistant versus susceptible genotypes. The similar growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap, irrespective of cultivar, infection with V. longisporum and xylem sap filtration, was correlated with about equal amounts of total soluble proteins in xylem sap from these treatments. Interestingly, compared with younger plants, xylem sap from older plants induced significantly stronger fungal growth. Growth enhancement of V. longisporum in xylem sap of aging plants was reflected by increased contents of carbohydrates, which was consistent in mock or V. longisporum-infected plants and independent from cultivar resistance. The improved nutritional conditions in the xylem of more mature plants may explain the late appearance of disease symptoms, which are observed only in

  20. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  1. Plant uptake of MBOCA (4,4'-methylene-bis (2-chloroaniline)). [Brassica oleracea L. ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Sorghum vulgare Pers. ; Dactylis glomerata L. ; Daucus carrota L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorman, R; Penner, D

    1986-09-01

    (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA was absorbed by cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, but did not move beyond the absorption point. Radio autographs of bean, sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and carrot (Daucus carrota L.) plants exposed to (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA via hydroponic culture showed considerable radioactivity associated with the roots with only limited translocation of (/sup 14/C) into upper plant parts. Bean and cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) plants grown in (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA amended soil translocated virtually no (/sup 14/C) into aerial parts, but again considerable radioactivity was found on roots. Radioactivity could not be rinsed off roots with water or acetone, and a small amount of radioactivity was observed in the xylem-phloem layer of the carrot root.

  2. Yield performance of brassica varieties under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.Z.U.; Wahla, A.J.; Waqar, M.Q.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate crop growth and seed yield performance of Brassica varieties under Rainfed conditions. The varieties, included in the study, were BSA, Zafar-2000, Pakola, Con.1, Con.2, Abaseen, Rainbow, SPS-5, Bard-1, and KJ-119. KJ-119 (2500.0 KG/HA) among Brassica juncea L. varieties and Abaseen (2425.9 kg/ha) among Brassica napusL. Varieties produced with maximum seed yield as compared to rest of varieties. Significantly, minimum seed yield was observed in check variety BSA. The significant difference in seed yield of Brassica varieties, Abaseen and KJ 119, was attributed to improve yield components over other varieties. Maximum pods per plant and seeds per pod led these varieties to attain maximum yield. Inspite of weather variations existence during years 2007-09,the same varieties produced with maximum seed yield. (author)

  3. Study of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and Drought on Physiological Traits and Ultimate Yield of Cultivars of Oilseed Rape (Brassica spp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pooya arvin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oilseed rape (Brassica spp L. is one of the valuable oilseed crops which has been attracting attention in recent years. Iran is located in a semi-arid region, and water shortage has caused problems, namely providing drinking water as much as water supply for crop production. Not only does Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR make plant growth stimulating hormones like Auxin and Gibberellin but also can ease stress conditions by producing ABA. Consequently, considering the current water shortage crisis in Iran, we took three main criteria into account: the roles of PGPRs in increasing resistance to abiotic stress, relief of drought effects, and the importance of cultivation of oilseed rape. The present research has been compiled to study drought and some Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Physiological Traits and Ultimate Yield of Cultivars of Oilseed Rape. Materials and Methods The current study was done on the basis of two simultaneous experiments (under stress and non-stress experiments during 2010- 2011 growing season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Torogh, Mashhad is situated in East-North of Iran (36° N, 59° E, 1003 ASL . Two research sites (under stress and no-stress fields were selected beside each other. This region has a semi-arid climate (annual rainfall 286 mm. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in each experiment. The first treatment was Plant Growth Promoting Rizobactria, including B0: no inoculation (control, B1: co-inoculation (Pseudomonas flourescens 169+P. putida 108, B2: inoculation with P. flourescens 169 and B3: inoculation with P. putida 108. Second treatment was cultivar, including Hayola401 and Hayola330 cultivars belong to Brassica napus, Parkland and Goldrush cultivars belong to B. rapa and BP18 and landrace cultivars belong to B.juncea .Greenness index, plant height, relative water content

  4. Effect of garlic mustard invasion on ectomycorrhizae in mature pine trees and pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren A. Carlson; Kelly D. McConnaughay; Sherri J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are mutualistic fungi that colonize the roots of many terrestrial plants. These fungi increase plant vigor by acquiring nutrients from the soil for their hosts in exchange for photosynthates. We studied the effect of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion on the density of ectomycorrhizal symbionts using two approaches. We...

  5. The Large Subunit rDNA Sequence of Plasmodiophora brassicae Does not Contain Intra-species Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelm, Arne; Berney, Cédric; Dixelius, Christina; Bass, David; Neuhauser, Sigrid

    2016-12-01

    Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most important diseases of cultivated brassicas. P. brassicae occurs in pathotypes which differ in the aggressiveness towards their Brassica host plants. To date no DNA based method to distinguish these pathotypes has been described. In 2011 polymorphism within the 28S rDNA of P. brassicae was reported which potentially could allow to distinguish pathotypes without the need of time-consuming bioassays. However, isolates of P. brassicae from around the world analysed in this study do not show polymorphism in their LSU rDNA sequences. The previously described polymorphism most likely derived from soil inhabiting Cercozoa more specifically Neoheteromita-like glissomonads. Here we correct the LSU rDNA sequence of P. brassicae. By using FISH we demonstrate that our newly generated sequence belongs to the causal agent of clubroot disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Availability and uptake of sulphur by mustard in three soils in Udaipur valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Shriniwas

    1976-01-01

    The differential behaviour of three soils (Bargaon, Bhatewar red and Bhatewar black) for availability of sulphur to mustard was studied in a greenhouse pot culture experiment using five doses of sulphur (0,20,40,80,120 ppm) applied as 35 S tagged ammonium sulphate. Application of sulphur significantly increased the dry matter of mustard over control, however, maximum dry matter was obtained when sulphur was applied at 40 ppm level, thereafter, any higher doses did not prove beneficial. Sulphur content in the plant tissue and percent of sulphur in the plant derived from fertilizer increased with successive doses of applied sulphur. (author)

  7. Transgenic Brassica rapa plants over-expressing eIF(iso)4E variants show broad-spectrum Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, Jeena; Yang, Hee-Bum; Dosun, Kim; Oh, Chang-Sik; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-08-01

    The protein-protein interaction between VPg (viral protein genome-linked) of potyviruses and eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) or eIF(iso)4E of their host plants is a critical step in determining viral virulence. In this study, we evaluated the approach of engineering broad-spectrum resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), which is one of the most important potyviruses, by a systematic knowledge-based approach to interrupt the interaction between TuMV VPg and B. rapa eIF(iso)4E. The seven amino acids in the cap-binding pocket of eIF(iso)4E were selected on the basis of other previous results and comparison of protein models of cap-binding pockets, and mutated. Yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that W95L, K150L and W95L/K150E amino acid mutations of B. rapa eIF(iso)4E interrupted its interaction with TuMV VPg. All eIF(iso)4E mutants were able to complement an eIF4E-knockout yeast strain, indicating that the mutated eIF(iso)4E proteins retained their function as a translational initiation factor. To determine whether these mutations could confer resistance, eIF(iso)4E W95L, W95L/K150E and eIF(iso)4E wild-type were over-expressed in a susceptible Chinese cabbage cultivar. Evaluation of the TuMV resistance of T1 and T2 transformants demonstrated that the over-expression of the eIF(iso)4E mutant forms can confer resistance to multiple TuMV strains. These data demonstrate the utility of knowledge-based approaches for the engineering of broad-spectrum resistance in Chinese cabbage. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  9. The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on the phytoextraction of Cd and Zn by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, G; Hrynkiewicz, K; Trejgell, A; Baum, C

    2017-07-03

    The test strains Bacteroidetes bacterium (Ba), Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) and Variovorax sp. (Va) were selected in advance for their in vitro capability for growth promotion of rapeseed in the presence of increased concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the medium. In the pot experiment, the strains were used for single Ba, Pf, Va or combined Ba + Pf, Ba + Va, Pf + Va, and Ba + Pf + Va inoculation of B. napus growing in contaminated soil from alluvial deposits. The positive effect of bacterial strains on plant growth was observed in vitro, but was not confirmed in situ in the contaminated soil, where the tested strains inhibited biomass production, rather than stimulating it. However, single inoculation with Ba significantly increased the chlorophyll content and K + concentration in the leaves. The inoculation of rapeseed with Ba and Va strains was indicated to be the most promising combination for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from contaminated soil. Combined inoculation with Pf+Va and Pf + Ba+Va significantly decreased the concentration of heavy metals in the roots of rapeseed. We conclude that suitable combinations of PGPR can control the metal uptake of B. napus, selectively increasing either metal extraction or metal stabilization in the rhizosphere and offering promising applications in soil remediation.

  10. Accumulation of uranium in plant roots absorbed from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Terumi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Satoru; Tagai, Tokuhei

    2007-01-01

    In order to study accumulation mechanisms of uranium (U) in terrestrial plants, uptake experiments for U have been carried out by using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). This plant is edible and known as a heavy metal accumulator, especially for cadmium (Cd). About 30 rootsstocks of Indian mustard grown hydroponically in laboratory dishes were kept in uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) nitrate solutions (initially 0.5 mmol/l) at 25degC for 24, 48 and 72 hours (h). The average U concentrations in leaves increased until 48 h up to about 0.6 mg/g and then decreased slightly. Those in roots showed similar trends, but with much higher maximum U concentrations of about 30 mg/g. Backscattered electron images under SEM of the roots showed that U was accumulated on the cell edges. EPMA elemental mapping indicated that phosphorus (P) distribution had a very strong correlation with that of U. The distribution of sulfur (S) appeared to be somewhat different form these U and P distributions. These results suggest that U can be absorbed into plant roots as uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) and might be fixed at the phospholipid rich cell membranes. This U accumulation mechanism appeared to be different from that for Cd which has a close association with S. (author)

  11. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  12. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohong; Dong, Caihua; Yu, Jingyin; Liu, Wanghui; Jiang, Chenghong; Liu, Jia; Hu, Qiong; Fang, Xiaoping; Wei, Wenhui

    2013-01-16

    The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste) and 253,507 (Fer) distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE) data. A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in Nsa line, fertility restoration and improved agronomic

  13. Gene expression profiling via LongSAGE in a non-model plant species: a case study in seeds of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serial analysis of gene expression (LongSAGE was applied for gene expression profiling in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus. The usefulness of this technique for detailed expression profiling in a non-model organism was demonstrated for the highly complex, neither fully sequenced nor annotated genome of B. napus by applying a tag-to-gene matching strategy based on Brassica ESTs and the annotated proteome of the closely related model crucifer A. thaliana. Results Transcripts from 3,094 genes were detected at two time-points of seed development, 23 days and 35 days after pollination (DAP. Differential expression showed a shift from gene expression involved in diverse developmental processes including cell proliferation and seed coat formation at 23 DAP to more focussed metabolic processes including storage protein accumulation and lipid deposition at 35 DAP. The most abundant transcripts at 23 DAP were coding for diverse protease inhibitor proteins and proteases, including cysteine proteases involved in seed coat formation and a number of lipid transfer proteins involved in embryo pattern formation. At 35 DAP, transcripts encoding napin, cruciferin and oleosin storage proteins were most abundant. Over both time-points, 18.6% of the detected genes were matched by Brassica ESTs identified by LongSAGE tags in antisense orientation. This suggests a strong involvement of antisense transcript expression in regulatory processes during B. napus seed development. Conclusion This study underlines the potential of transcript tagging approaches for gene expression profiling in Brassica crop species via EST matching to annotated A. thaliana genes. Limits of tag detection for low-abundance transcripts can today be overcome by ultra-high throughput sequencing approaches, so that tag-based gene expression profiling may soon become the method of choice for global expression profiling in non-model species.

  14. Characterization and expression patterns of small RNAs in synthesized Brassica hexaploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanyue; Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Wang, Wenliang; Gao, Yi; Meng, Jinling; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-06-01

    Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log(2)Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids.

  15. Effect of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis Competition and Nitrogen Levels on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Soleymani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of wild mustard plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological characters, yield and yield components of canola a split-plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications was carried out in Bu-Ali Sina university of Hamedan, in 2009. 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN h-1 were assigned to main-plots and plant density of wild mustard at 5 levels (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants m-2 to the sub-plots. Results showed that the effects of wild mustard competition on yield and components of canola was significant. 32 plants m-2 of wild mustard reduced grain and biologic yield, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod and 1000seed weight about 28.7, 30, 40.9, 22.2 and 16 percent respectively. With more nitrogen application, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000seed weight and grain yield was increased. By increasing nitrogen from 100 to 250 kg ha-1, grain yield was increased more than 53 percent. Increasing density of wild mustard significantly reduced all above mentioned morphological and qualitative characters, except protein percentage. By increasing nitrogen fertilizer, plant height, number of branches per plant, pod length, oil yield and protein percentage of canola were increased significantly. Overall nevertheless negative effect of weed on canola yield, seems that the application 200 kgN/ha in addition to increasing grain yield and canola oil, had less decline in weed interference.

  16. Tracing the Transcriptomic Changes in Synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica Using an RNA-Seq Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Mei, Shiyong; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassica rapa , Brassica carinata , and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B . rapa , were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant–pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B . carinata , several played roles in plant–pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the

  17. Sulfur Mustard Damage to Cornea: Preventive Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varma, Shambhu

    2004-01-01

    Studies are in progress to determine the efficacy and mechanism of a formulation containing anti-alkylating, antioxidants and metabolic accelerators present in VM against mustard induced skin toxicity...

  18. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  19. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G K; Singh, Beer

    2004-12-31

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m2/gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(VI) as CrO3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 degrees C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO3/C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO3/EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO3)2/C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl3/C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard.

  20. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Singh, Beer

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m 2 /gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(Vi) as CrO 3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 deg. C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO 3 /C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO 3 /EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO 3 ) 2 /C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl 3 /C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard

  1. Effects of Biofertilizer Containing Microbial of N-fixer, P Solubilizer and Plant Growth Factor Producer on Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Growth And Soil Enzymatic Activities: A Greenhouse Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiya Antonius

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the effects of four different concentrations of biofertilizers containing Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. on soil properties and to evaluate the growth of Brassica oleraceae var. capitata. The application treatments included control (no fertilizer and four concentration of diluted biofertilizer per pot (20 ml, 40 ml, 60 mland 80 ml. The application of biofertilizer containing benefi cial bacteria signifi cantly increased the growth of B. oleraceae. The useof biofertilizer resulted higher biomass weight and length as well as root length. This greenhouse study also indicated that differentamount of biofertilizer application had almost similar effects. Microbial inoculum not only increased plant harvest, but also improvedsoil properties, such as number of microorganisms, respiration and urease activities.

  2. Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

  3. Space mutation in Sulao mustard, Futian-flowering chinese cabbage and Pachi-radish breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanrong; Cao Jian; Li Guihua; Zhao Xiujuan

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable seeds of Sulao mustard, Futian flowering Chinese cabbage and Pachi-Radish were mutated by boarding on Shenzhou No.4 Spaceship. The results showed that there were no significant differences between SP 1 and control, however, some variability of plants were found in SP 2

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpa Guss.) in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Different Infection Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae . However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca 2+ signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes.

  5. Effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi rastgoo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat, an experiment was conducted in 2001 at Research station of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. A Split plot design with three replications were used with factorial combination of weed density (0, 8, 16, and 32 plant/m2 and nitrogen (low=100, optimum= 150, and high= 225 Kg/ha as main plots.The sub plot factor included nitrogen splitting pattern (P1=1/3 at planting time+2/3 at tillering, P2= 1/3 at planting time + 1/3 at tillering + 1/3 at shooting. According to the results, wild mustard seed production increased with increasing wild mustard density and nitrogen rates, due to high wild mustard biomass production. Seed production of wild mustard was 161, 311, and 488 million/ha in low, optimum and high nitrogen rates, respectively. In the other hand, density and nitrogen rates had a significant effect on wild mustard fecundity. However, nitrogen splitting pattern showed no significant effect on wild mustard seed production.

  6. Mustard gas or sulfur mustard: an old chemical agent as a new terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattana, Monica; Bey, Tareg

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is a member of the vesicant class of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering to the skin and mucous membranes. There is no specific antidote, and treatment consists of systematically alleviating symptoms. Historically, sulfur mustard was used extensively in inter-governmental conflicts within the trenches of Belgium and France during World War I and during the Iran-Iraq conflict. Longitudinal studies of exposed victims show that sulfur mustard causes long-term effects leading to high morbidity. Given that only a small amount of sulfur mustard is necessary to potentially cause an enormous number of casualties, disaster-planning protocol necessitates the education and training of first-line healthcare responders in the recognition, decontamination, triage, and treatment of sulfur mustard-exposed victims in a large-scale scenario.

  7. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  8. Using a plant hormone and a thioligand to improve phytoremediation of Hg-contaminated soil from a petrochemical plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassina, L; Tassi, E; Pedron, F; Petruzzelli, G; Ambrosini, P; Barbafieri, M

    2012-09-15

    Mercury-contaminated soils from a petrochemical plant in southern Italy were investigated to assess the phytoextraction efficiency of crop plants treated with the phytohormone, cytokinine (CK foliar treatment), and with the thioligand, ammonium thiosulfate (TS, soil application). Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution in plant tissues following treatment were compared. Results indicate the effectiveness of CK in increasing plant biomass and the evapotranspiration rate while TS treatment promoted soil Hg solubility and availability. The simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments increased Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants with up to 248 and 232% in Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) respectively. B. juncea was more effective in Hg uptake, whereas H. annuus gave better response regarding plant biomass production. The effectiveness of the treatments was confirmed by the calculation of Hg phytoextraction and evaluation of labile-Hg residue in the soil after plant growth. In one growing cycle the plants subject to simultaneous CK and TS treatment significantly reduced labile-Hg pools that were characterized by the soil sequential extraction, but did not significantly affect the pseudototal metal content in the soil. Results support the use of plant growth regulators in the assisted phytoextraction process for Hg-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karim moosavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate wild mustard competitive effect on winter wheat, an additive series experiment was conducted in 2000-2001 at Agricultural Research Station of Mashhad University.The experiment had 3 factor: wheat seed rate (175 , 215 and 255 kg/ha, nitrogen rate (150 and 225 kg/ha, and a range of wild mustard densities. Hyperbolic functions was used to describe yield-weed density relationship. Increasing wild mustard density had a negative , asymptotic – type effect on wheat biomass and grain yield. By increasing wheat seed rate , in optimum nitrogen rate , maximum wheat biomas loss has reduced about 51 %. Maximum yield loss has increased from 42.1 % to 50.4 %, as nitrogen rate incrased from optimum to upper optimum rate of wheat. By increasing of wheat seed rate from 175 to 255 kg/ha, maximum tiller number reduction due to high densities of wild mustard, has decreased by 54 %. Reduction of fertile tiller number was mostly occurred at presence of high nitrogen level, thus, reduction of fertile tiller number compared to control in N1 was 18% , while in N2 has increased to 30%. Wild mustard competition has reduced wheat seed number per ear 30% in compare to weed free control. Results show that wheat 1000 seed weight was more affected by nitrogen rate than plant densities. Apparently, in competition with wheat, wild mustard was better able to utilize the added nitrogen and thus gained a competitive adventage over the wheat.

  10. Tracing the transcriptomic changes in synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica using an RNA-Seq approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    Full Text Available Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the

  11. Molecular characterization of some local and exotic Brassica juncea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... 1Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE) NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. 2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Accepted 14 June, 2007. The production of Brassica germplasm with a wider genetic base is ...

  12. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  13. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  14. Capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard: Possibilities for exposure biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Pesonen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapacitating and irritating agents produce temporary disability persisting for hours to days after the exposure. One can be exposed to these agents occupationally in industrial or other working environments. Also general public can be exposed in special circumstances, like industrial accidents or riots. Incapacitating and irritating agents discussed in this review are chloropicrin and capsaicinoids. In addition, we include sulfur mustard, which is an old chemical warfare agent and known to cause severe long-lasting injuries or even death. Chloropicrin that was used as a warfare agent in the World War I is currently used mainly as a pesticide. Capsaicinoids, components of hot pepper plants, are used by police and other law enforcement personnel as riot control agents. Toxicity of these chemicals is associated particularly with the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Their acute effects are relatively well known but the knowledge of putative long-term effects is almost non-existent. Also, mechanisms of effects at cellular level are not fully understood. There is a need for further research to get better idea of health risks, particularly of long-term and low-level exposures to these chemicals. For this, exposure biomarkers are essential. Validated exposure biomarkers for capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard do not exist so far. Metabolites and macromolecular adducts have been suggested biomarkers for sulfur mustard and these can already be measured qualitatively, but quantitative biomarkers await further development and validation. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing mechanistic and toxicokinetic information, to shed light on the possibilities for developing biomarkers for exposure biomonitoring of these compounds. It is also of interest to find ideas for early effect biomarkers considering the need for studies on subchronic and chronic toxicity.

  15. Uptake and translocation of plutonium in two plant species using hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Hossner, L R; Attrep, M; Kung, K S

    2002-01-01

    This study presents determinations of the uptake and translocation of Pu in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from Pu contaminated solution media. The initial activity levels of Pu were 18.50 and 37.00 Bq ml(-1), for Pu-nitrate [239Pu(NO3)4] and for Pu-citrate [239Pu(C6H5O7)+] in nutrient solution. Plutonium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA: [239Pu-C14H23O10N3] solution was prepared by adding 0, 5, 10, and 50 microg of DTPA ml(-1) with 239Pu(NO3)4 in nutrient solution. Concentration ratios (CR, Pu concentration in dry plant material/Pu concentration in nutrient solution) and transport indices (Tl, Pu content in the shoot/Pu content in the whole plant) were calculated to evaluate Pu uptake and translocation. All experiments were conducted in hydroponic solution in an environmental growth chamber. Plutonium concentration in the plant tissue was increased with increased Pu contamination. Plant tissue Pu concentration for Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate application was not correlated and may be dependent on plant species. For plants receiving Pu-DTPA, the Pu concentration was increased in the shoots but decreased in the roots resulting in a negative correlation between the Pu concentrations in the plant shoots and roots. The Pu concentration in shoots of Indian mustard was increased for application rates up to 10 microg DTPA ml(-1) and up to 5 microg DTPA ml(-1) for sunflower. Similar trends were observed for the CR of plants compared to the Pu concentration in the shoots and roots, whereas the Tl was increased with increasing DTPA concentration. Plutonium in shoots of Indian mustard was up to 10 times higher than that in shoots of sunflower. The Pu concentration in the apparent free space (AFS) of plant root tissue of sunflower was more affected by concentration of DTPA than that of Indian mustard.

  16. Genome-wide Investigation of microRNAs and Their Targets in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Root with Plasmodiophora brassicae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has revealed that microRNAs play a pivotal role in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to pathogens in plants. However, there is little information available about the expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis under Plasmodiophora brassicae stress. In the present study, using deep sequencing and degradome analysis, a genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their targets during P. brassicae stress was performed. A total of 221 known and 93 potentially novel miRNAs were successfully identified from two root libraries of one control (635-10CK and P. brassicae-treated Chinese cabbage samples (635-10T. Of these, 14 known and 10 potentially novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after P. brassicae treatment. Degradome analysis revealed that the 223 target genes of the 75 miRNAs could be potentially cleaved. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the putative target genes of the miRNAs were predominately involved in selenocompound metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Then the expression of 12 miRNAs was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These results provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulatory networks underlying the stress response to the plant pathogen P. brassicae.

  17. Phytoextract of Indian mustard seeds acts by suppressing the generation of ROS against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Harita; Pandita, Nancy; Khanna, Aparna

    2015-07-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. (Brassicaceae)] is reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties. However, limited information is available concerning its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action. To study the protective mechanism of mustard seed extract against acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Hepatotoxicity models were established using APAP (2.5-22.5 mM) based on the cytotoxicity profile. An antioxidant-rich fraction from mustard seeds was extracted and evaluated for its hepatoprotective potential. The mechanism of action was elucidated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, the detection of intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle analysis. The phytoconstituents isolated via HPLC-DAD were also evaluated for hepatoprotective activity. Hydromethanolic seed extract exhibited hepatoprotective activity in post- and pre-treatment models of 20 mM APAP toxicity and restored the elevated levels of liver indices to normal values (p DAD analysis revealed the presence quercetin, vitamin E, and catechin, which exhibited hepatoprotective activity. A phytoextract of mustard seeds acts by suppressing the generation of ROS in response to APAP toxicity.

  18. Brassica ASTRA: an integrated database for Brassica genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher G; Robinson, Andrew J; Lim, Geraldine A C; Hopkins, Clare J; Batley, Jacqueline; Barker, Gary; Spangenberg, German C; Edwards, David

    2005-01-01

    Brassica ASTRA is a public database for genomic information on Brassica species. The database incorporates expressed sequences with Swiss-Prot and GenBank comparative sequence annotation as well as secondary Gene Ontology (GO) annotation derived from the comparison with Arabidopsis TAIR GO annotations. Simple sequence repeat molecular markers are identified within resident sequences and mapped onto the closely related Arabidopsis genome sequence. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences derived from the Multinational Brassica Genome Project are also mapped onto the Arabidopsis genome sequence enabling users to identify candidate Brassica BACs corresponding to syntenic regions of Arabidopsis. This information is maintained in a MySQL database with a web interface providing the primary means of interrogation. The database is accessible at http://hornbill.cspp.latrobe.edu.au.

  19. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ), a new class of plant virus resistance gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopan, Jannat; Mou, Haipeng; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Changtong; Ma, Weiwei; Walsh, John A; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2017-06-01

    Recessive resistances to plant viruses in the Potyvirus genus have been found to be based on mutations in the plant eukaryotic translation initiation factors, eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms. Here we report that natural, monogenic recessive resistance to the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) has been found in a number of mustard (Brassica juncea) accessions. Bulked segregant analysis and sequencing of resistant and susceptible plant lines indicated the resistance is controlled by a single recessive gene, recessive TuMV resistance 03 (retr03), an allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ). Silencing of eIF2Bβ in a TuMV-susceptible mustard plant line and expression of eIF2Bβ from a TuMV-susceptible line in a TuMV-resistant mustard plant line confirmed the new resistance mechanism. A functional copy of a specific allele of eIF2Bβ is required for efficient TuMV infection. eIF2Bβ represents a new class of virus resistance gene conferring resistance to any pathogen. eIF2B acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for its GTP-binding protein partner eIF2 via interaction with eIF2·GTP at an early step in translation initiation. Further genotyping indicated that a single non-synonymous substitution (A120G) in the N-terminal region of eIF2Bβ was responsible for the TuMV resistance. A reproducible marker has been developed, facilitating marker-assisted selection for TuMV resistance in B. juncea. Our findings provide a new target for seeking natural resistance to potyviruses and new opportunities for the control of potyviruses using genome editing techniques targeted on eIF2Bβ. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oram, R N [Division of Plant industry, CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% {beta}-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  1. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  2. Overexpressing both ATP sulfurylase and selenocysteine methyltransferase enhances selenium phytoremediation traits in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeDuc, Danika L.; AbdelSamie, Manal; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Wu, Carol P.; Reisinger, Sarah J.; Terry, Norman

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of our selenium (Se) phytoremediation research is to use genetic engineering to develop fast-growing plants with an increased ability to tolerate, accumulate, and volatilize Se. To this end we incorporated a gene (encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase, SMT) from the Se hyperaccumulator, Astragalus bisulcatus, into Indian mustard (LeDuc, D.L., Tarun, A.S., Montes-Bayon, M., Meija, J., Malit, M.F., Wu, C.P., AbdelSamie, M., Chiang, C.-Y., Tagmount, A., deSouza, M., Neuhierl, B., Boeck, A., Caruso, J., Terry, N., 2004. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation Plant Physiol. 135, 377-383.). The resulting transgenic plants successfully enhanced Se phytoremediation in that the plants tolerated and accumulated Se from selenite significantly better than wild type. However, the advantage conferred by the SMT enzyme was much less when Se was supplied as selenate. In order to enhance the phytoremediation of selenate, we developed double transgenic plants that overexpressed the gene encoding ATP sulfurylase (APS) in addition to SMT, i.e., APS x SMT. The results showed that there was a substantial improvement in Se accumulation from selenate (4 to 9 times increase) in transgenic plants overexpressing both APS and SMT. - Simultaneous overexpression of APS and SMT genes in Indian mustard greatly increases ability to accumulate selenate

  3. Soil pH and nutrient uptake in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) in Northern Sweden. Multielement studies by means of plant and soil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Margareta [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-07-01

    To reveal nutrient element deficiencies or imbalances limiting vegetable production in northern Sweden, multielement soil and plant analyses were performed in cauliflower and broccoli during the period 1989 to 1996. The pH range of the soils was 4.4-8. 1. The results were evaluated with the multivariate statistical methods PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and PLS (Partial Least Squares Projection to Latent Structures). The major yield-limiting elements were Mg, B, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu. This was a result of high soil pH and large content of Ca in the soil. The reason for B deficiency was also low B content in the soil. Applications of green mulch increased yield on soils with a pH below 6.0. It also increased the uptake and concentration in the plants of B, Ba, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, Se and Zn, and decreased the uptake and concentration of Al, Cs and Tl. The mineral fertilizer applied, NPK 11-5-18 micro, decreased soil pH. This has resulted in larger uptake and higher concentrations in the plants of Co and Mn, in comparison to where cattle manure was applied. This fertilizer strongly decreased uptake of Mo, as a result of both the acidifying effect and the large S content. Repeated applications of nitrate of lime in combination with the NPK 11-5-18 strongly increased the uptake of Cs by the plants. The results in this investigation, together with the literature reviews, strongly indicate that a relatively low soil pH (5.0-5.5) is favourable when organic fertilizers are used and that harmful effects of very low soil pH (<5.0), are ameliorated by organic materials but aggravated by mineral fertilizers. The main purpose of lime is to counteract the acidity and increased leaching created by mineral fertilizers. Because of the historical context in which the lime requirements were established, the dangers of acid soils appear to have been strongly overestimated.

  4. Preliminary study of Tl and Cd uptake in the heavy metal accumulating Brassica napus using the Debrecen proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Haag-Kerwer, A.; Povh, B.

    2003-01-01

    The high biomass producing crop plants, Brassica juncea L. and Brassica napus are very promising plant species for phytoremediation. The aim of further research is to help a better understanding of the transport mechanism within roots and roots to shoots of heavy metals, and to find out their distribution and translocation among different cell types in the root of these species. The distribution and concentration of major and trace elements was determined along the roots of Cd and Tl treated as well as control plants of Brassica napus on the ATOMKI proton microprobe. (R.P.)

  5. Time course of physiological, biochemical, and gene expression changes under short-term salt stress in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity-imposed limitations on plant growth are manifested through osmotic and ionic imbalances. However, because salinity-induced responses vary considerably among crop plants, monitoring of such responses at an early stage has relevance. In this study, physiological (seed germination, seed vigor index, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and biochemical attributes (osmoprotectants, K+/Na+ ratio were analyzed for a time-course assessment of salt responses in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. with an emphasis on early monitoring. The results showed strong correlations for total soluble sugars at germination phase (24 h, proline content in the seedling establishment phase (48 h and various physiological parameters including seed vigor index (R2 = 0.901, shoot length (R2 = 0.982, and fresh weight (R2 = 0.980 at 72 h (adaptation under stress. In addition, transcriptional changes were observed under NaCl treatment for key genes belonging to the family of selective ion transporters (NHX, HKT and abscisic acid synthesis (AAO-3. The status of mitochondrial respiration was also examined as a probe for salinity tolerance at an early stage. The results suggested that although all the analyzed parameters showed correlations (negative or positive with salt stress magnitude, their critical response times differed, with most of the studied biochemical, physiological, or molecular markers providing valuable information only after radicle emergence, whereas mitochondrial respiration via alternative oxidase was useful for the early detection of salt responses.

  6. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  7. Effects of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu-resistant endophytic Enterobacter sr CBSB1 and Rhodotorula sp. CBSB79 on the growth and phytoextraction of Brassica plants in multimetal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Deng, Zujun; Tan, Hongming; Cao, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    To survey the effects of endophytic Enterobacter sp. CBSB1 and Rhodotorula sp. CBSB79 resistant to Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ on the growth and phytoextraction of Brassica, the endophytes were isolated by surface- sterilized methods and characterized. The CBSB1 significantly increased 44.2% of the dry weight of Brassica napus in the multimetal contaminated soil (P Rhodotorula sp CBSB79 showed higher potentials to improve extraction efficacy of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu by Brassica seedlings in the field.

  8. Molecular Diversity Analysis and Genetic Mapping of Pod Shatter Resistance Loci in Brassica carinata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Raman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed lost due to easy pod dehiscence at maturity (pod shatter is a major problem in several members of Brassicaceae family. We investigated the level of pod shatter resistance in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for targeted introgression of this trait in Ethiopian mustard and its close relatives of the genus Brassica. A set of 83 accessions of B. carinata, collected from the Australian Grains Genebank, was evaluated for pod shatter resistance based on pod rupture energy (RE. In comparison to B. napus (RE = 2.16 mJ, B. carinata accessions had higher RE values (2.53 to 20.82 mJ. A genetic linkage map of an F2 population from two contrasting B. carinata selections, BC73526 (shatter resistant with high RE and BC73524 (shatter prone with low RE comprising 300 individuals, was constructed using a set of 6,464 high quality DArTseq markers and subsequently used for QTL analysis. Genetic analysis of the F2 and F2:3 derived lines revealed five statistically significant QTL (LOD ≥ 3 that are linked with pod shatter resistance on chromosomes B1, B3, B8, and C5. Herein, we report for the first time, identification of genetic loci associated with pod shatter resistance in B. carinata. These characterized accessions would be useful in Brassica breeding programs for introgression of pod shatter resistance alleles in to elite breeding lines. Molecular markers would assist marker-assisted selection for tracing the introgression of resistant alleles. Our results suggest that the value of the germplasm collections can be harnessed through genetic and genomics tools.

  9. Novel Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Ilker Kunak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the available chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM, also known as mustard gas, has been widely used chemical weapon. In our laboratory, we have shown that, acute toxicity of SM is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase activation and energy depletion within the affected cell. In spite of the knowledge about acute SM-induced cellular toxicity, unfortunately, it is not clear how mustard gas causes severe multi-organ damage years after even a single exposure. A variety of treatment modalities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and others have resulted no promising results. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of mustard poisoning. The term epigenetic describes the study of inheritable alterations in gene expression that occur in the absence of changes in genome sequence. Therefore, epigenetic gene regulation requires molecular mechanisms that encode information in addition to the DNA base sequence and can be propagated through mitosis and meiosis. Our current understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression involves basically two classes of molecular mechanisms: histone modifications and DNA methylation. Preliminary evidence obtained from our laboratory reveals that exposure to mustards may not only cause nitro-oxidative stress and DNA (genetic damage, but epigenetic perturbations as well. Epigenetic therapy is a new and rapidly developing field in pharmacology. Epigenetic drugs alone or in combination with conventional drugs may prove to be a significant advance over the conventional drugs used to treat both acute and delayed SM toxicity. Future studies are urgently needed to clarify the mechanism of delayed SM-induced toxicity and novel treatment modalities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 231-236

  10. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  11. Genetic diversity assessment in brassica germplasm based on morphological attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, N.; Ali, S.; Hussain, I.; Khan, S. A.; Tahira, R.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 28 Brassica genotypes was studied using different morphological attributes. Data were recorded on days to maturity (DM), plant height (PH), primary branches plant (PBPP), pod length (PL), seed pod (SP), 1000 - seed weight (1000 - SW), yield plant (YPP) and oil (percentage). Three checks (Pakola, CM and TA), were used to check the performance of collected materials with already available brassica varieties. significant statistical differences were observed among the tested genotypes based on the studied morphological traits. Among the tested genotypes, genotype keelboat proved to be superior as compared to other studied genotypes due to maximum level of studied traits like pod length (7.03 cm), seed pod (32.33), 1000 - seed weight (5.38 g), seed yield plant (110.8 g) and oil content (52.9 percentage. The highest level of performance recorded by kalabat in terms of branches plant, pod length (cm), number of seed pod, seed yield plant (g), 1000 - seed weight (g) and oil content (percentage), indicates that this genotype is genetically different and superior than the other studied genotype. Therefore, genotype kalabat can be either used as variety after adaptability trials over a larger area or included in Brassica breeding programmes as a good source of genetic variation. (author)

  12. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  13. Laminin-5 Degradation Due to Mustard in Cultured Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Prabhati; Jin, Xiannu; Leng, Yan; Li, Zhuangwu; Ray, Radharaman

    2003-01-01

    .... We observed that in NHEK, mustards degrade laminin-5. Calmodulin antagonist, W7 or the serine protease inhibitor, TLCK prior to mustard exposure prevented mustard-induced degradation of laminin-5...

  14. Mutation induction, evaluation and utilization for development of high yielding varieties in Indian mustard and sunflower: an overview of BARC work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.; Shitre, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme in Indian mustard and sunflower at BARC has resulted into the development of wide spectrum of mutations for seed coat colour, chlorophyll, plant height, maturity, flower morphology, seed weight and oil content. In Indian mustard, TM1 and TM50 are high yielding yellow seed coat mutants, which were exploited in hybridisation to develop bold, yellow seed coat and high yielding genotypes. Light green leaf and variegated leaf are novel mutation in mustard. Putative mutants for drought tolerance have been isolated. Variability for zero erucic acid and zero glucosinolates genotypes have been developed in B. napus and B. juncea. In sunflower, high yielding black seed coat mutant were isolated. Extreme dwarf measuring only 11 cm is novel. Three high yielding varieties namely TM2, TM4, and TPM1 in mustard and one i.e.TAS82 in sunflower have been released for cultivation in collaboration with state agricultural universities. (author)

  15. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  16. Study of Canopy Structure and Growth Characters Role of Two Wheat Cultivars in Competition, on Economic Threshold and Yield of Rye and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saadatian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of effective factors on competition of two wheat cultivars against two species of narrow leaf and broad leaf weeds this study was conducted as two separated experiments based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2008-2009. In both Experiments, Alvand and Sayson cultivars were planted with densities of 450 plants m-2. In the 1st experiment, rye with densities of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2 were planted in inter-rows of wheat. In the 2nd experiment, wild mustard densities were 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 plants m-2. The results showed that characters such as vertical distribution of leaf area index and dry matter, height and its increase rate in interference, emergence rate, rate of canopy development and precocity led to increasing competitive ability of Alvand than Sayson in competition with two weed species. These factors were effective in reduction seed production of weeds and economic threshold in Alvand. Despite of lower height of wild mustard than rye, distribution of leaf area and canopy structure of wild mustard increased light competition ability and shadow on crop, so that harmful effects of individual plant of wild mustard in different densities was more than rye. Increasing rate of wild mustard seed bank was more than ray.

  17. SELECTED YIELD COMPONENTS IN WHITE MUSTARD (SINAPIS ALBA VERSUS SULFUR FERTILIZATION

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    Bożena BARCZAK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As shown by the research made based on the four-year field experiment, sulfur fertilization, in general, significantly differentiated the white mustard yield components. Of all the factors (sulfur application method, its form and dose, the greatest effect on the yield structure components was demonstrated for the sulfur dose. The use of 40 kg S·ha-1, regardless of the form applied and the sulfur application method, resulted in significant increases in most of the characters, as compared with the control. The application of sulfur into soil showed a significantly more favorable effect on the seed weigh and number per silique and on the weight of seeds of the entire plant than the foliar application of this nutrient. The white mustard seed yield size was most correlated with the number of siliques per plant, and successively less with the thousand seed weight.

  18. Genotypes of Brassica rapa respond differently to plant-induced variation in air CO2 concentration in growth chambers with standard and enhanced venting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine E; Haselhorst, Monia S H; McKnite, Autumn M; Ewers, Brent E; Williams, David G; Weinig, Cynthia

    2009-10-01

    Growth chambers allow measurement of phenotypic differences among genotypes under controlled environment conditions. However, unintended variation in growth chamber air CO2 concentration ([CO2]) may affect the expression of diverse phenotypic traits, and genotypes may differ in their response to variation in [CO2]. We monitored [CO2] and quantified phenotypic responses of 22 Brassica rapa genotypes in growth chambers with either standard or enhanced venting. [CO2] in chambers with standard venting dropped to 280 micromol mol(-1) during the period of maximum canopy development, approximately 80 micromol mol(-1) lower than in chambers with enhanced venting. The stable carbon isotope ratio of CO2 in chamber air (delta13C(air)) was negatively correlated with [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis caused observed [CO2] decreases. Significant genotype x chamber-venting interactions were detected for 12 of 20 traits, likely due to differences in the extent to which [CO2] changed in relation to genotypes' phenology or differential sensitivity of genotypes to low [CO2]. One trait, 13C discrimination (delta13C), was particularly influenced by unaccounted-for fluctuations in delta13C(air) and [CO2]. Observed responses to [CO2] suggest that genetic variance components estimated in poorly vented growth chambers may be influenced by the expression of genes involved in CO2 stress responses; genotypic values estimated in these chambers may likewise be misleading such that some mapped quantitative trait loci may regulate responses to CO2 stress rather than a response to the environmental factor of interest. These results underscore the importance of monitoring, and where possible, controlling [CO2].

  19. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A.; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  20. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  1. Heterosis as investigated in terms of polyploidy and genetic diversity using designed Brassica juncea amphiploid and its progenitor diploid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Bansal

    Full Text Available Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB. Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11 and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10 and B. nigra (9×9 were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47 of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis.

  2. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip. (a) General description. (1...

  3. Impact of selenium supply on Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolate accumulation in selenium-biofortified Brassica sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Fabricio William; Yang, Yong; Faquin, Valdemar; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2014-12-15

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, and Brussels sprouts) were used. We found that Se-biofortified Brassica sprouts all were able to synthesize significant amounts of SeMSCys. Analysis of glucosinolate profiles revealed that each Brassica crop accumulated different types and amounts of glucosinolates. Cauliflower sprouts had high total glucosinolate content. Broccoli sprouts contained high levels of glucoraphanin, a precursor for potent anticancer compound. Although studies have reported an inverse relationship between accumulation of Se and glucosinolates in mature Brassica plants, Se supply generally did not affect glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica sprouts. Thus, Brassica vegetable sprouts can be biofortified with Se for the accumulation of SeMSCys without negative effects on chemopreventive glucosinolate contents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  5. Identification and characterization of mobile genetic elements LINEs from Brassica genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Fiaz; Ahmed, Shehzad; Heslop-Harrison, J S Pat

    2017-09-05

    Among transposable elements (TEs), the LTR retrotransposons are abundant followed by non-LTR retrotransposons in plant genomes, the lateral being represented by LINEs and SINEs. Computational and molecular approaches were used for the characterization of Brassica LINEs, their diversity and phylogenetic relationships. Four autonomous and four non-autonomous LINE families were identified and characterized from Brassica. Most of the autonomous LINEs displayed two open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2, where ORF1 is a gag protein domain, while ORF2 encodes endonuclease (EN) and a reverse transcriptase (RT). Three of four families encoded an additional RNase H (RH) domain in pol gene common to 'R' and 'I' type of LINEs. The PCR analyses based on LINEs RT fragments indicate their high diversity and widespread occurrence in tested 40 Brassica cultivars. Database searches revealed the homology in LINE sequences in closely related genera Arabidopsis indicating their origin from common ancestors predating their separation. The alignment of 58 LINEs RT sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and other plants depicted 4 conserved domains (domain II-V) showing similarity to previously detected domains. Based on RT alignment of Brassica and 3 known LINEs from monocots, Brassicaceae LINEs clustered in separate clade, further resolving 4 Brassica-Arabidopsis specific families in 2 sub-clades. High similarities were observed in RT sequences in the members of same family, while low homology was detected in members across the families. The investigation led to the characterization of Brassica specific LINE families and their diversity across Brassica species and their cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inter and intra row spring effects on growth, seeds yield and oil contents of white mustard (snapis alba L.) under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Mushtaq, S.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm/sup -1/ spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  7. Inter and intra row spacing effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard (sinapis alba l.) under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Shehzad, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha/sup -1/) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  8. Effect of different plant spacing on the production of cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae var. Botrytis) under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I. Khan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb-ur-Rahman; Iqbal, Muhammad; Jilani, Muhammad Saleem; Waseem, Kashif

    2007-12-15

    A research project to evaluate the effect of different plant spacing on the production of cauliflower was conducted at Horticulture Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan. Six different plant spacing viz., 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 cm were used. The results revealed significant variations in all the parameters and amongst various plant spacing, 45 cm spacing showed the best response for all the parameters. Maximum plant height (49.33 cm), curd diameter (19.13 cm), maximum curd weight (1.23 kg plant(-1)) and yield (30.77 t ha(-1)) were recorded in the plots where the plants were spaced 45 cm apart.

  9. Remediation Of Cadmium And Lead Contamination In Mustard-Maize Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kumar Jha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers field trial was conducted at Patratu Ramgarh to study the effect of lime compost plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for remediation of high trace metal levels in mustard-maize cropping system. Results reveal that microbial inoculants with or without vermicompost increased the trace metal removal however vermicompost alone decreased the removal. Vermicompost lime and lime vermicompost significantly reduced the total Cd uptake by mustard and maize. Inoculation with Glomus mossae resulted in elevated level of Cd in mustard and maize plants. Total trace metal content in soil was significantly reduced by microbial inoculation alone or that in combination with vermicompost. However DTPA-extractable trace metals decreased with addition of amendments as well as inoculation of microbes. Glomus mossae was most effective in remediating the trace metals. under this study the total metal content reduced effectively by their inoculation alone while inoculation along with vermicompost resulted in reducing the DTPA-extractable fraction more effectively. The extent of reduction in total Cd and Pb after harvest of both crops was 6 to 26 and 5 to 12 per cent respectively over control. However the corresponding values observed for DTPA extractable Cd and Pb was 53 to 65 and 20 to 32 per cent over control in microbial inoculation and 46 to 47 and 14 to 17 per cent in case of amendments.

  10. Survival of Alternaria brassicae in seeds and crop debris of rapeseed and mustard in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, S.K.; Munk, Lisa; Mathur, S.

    2003-01-01

    Contributions from The Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries - Copenhagen, Denmark, No. 166......Contributions from The Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries - Copenhagen, Denmark, No. 166...

  11. Comparative study on the effect of chemicals on Alternaria blight in Indian mustard--a multi-location study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, P D; Chattopadhyay, C; Kumar, A; Awasthi, R P; Singh, R; Kaur, S; Thomas, L; Goyal, P; Chand, P

    2011-05-01

    High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf = 34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf = 34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Alternaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf = 36.3-37.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha-1; garlic = 2006 kg ha-1; control = 1561 kg ha-1).

  12. A comparative map viewer integrating genetic maps for Brassica and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Timothy A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular genetic maps provide a means to link heritable traits with underlying genome sequence variation. Several genetic maps have been constructed for Brassica species, yet to date, there has been no simple means to compare this information or to associate mapped traits with the genome sequence of the related model plant, Arabidopsis. Description We have developed a comparative genetic map database for the viewing, comparison and analysis of Brassica and Arabidopsis genetic, physical and trait map information. This web-based tool allows users to view and compare genetic and physical maps, search for traits and markers, and compare genetic linkage groups within and between the amphidiploid and diploid Brassica genomes. The inclusion of Arabidopsis data enables comparison between Brassica maps that share no common markers. Analysis of conserved syntenic blocks between Arabidopsis and collated Brassica genetic maps validates the application of this system. This tool is freely available over the internet on http://bioinformatics.pbcbasc.latrobe.edu.au/cmap. Conclusion This database enables users to interrogate the relationship between Brassica genetic maps and the sequenced genome of A. thaliana, permitting the comparison of genetic linkage groups and mapped traits and the rapid identification of candidate genes.

  13. Phosphate-assisted phytoremediation of arsenic by Brassica napus and Brassica juncea: Morphological and physiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Fatimah, Ayesha; Shahid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Wang, Hailong; Ok, Yong Sik; Bashir, Safdar; Murtaza, Behzad; Saqib, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we examined the potential role of phosphate (P; 0, 50, 100 mg kg -1 ) on growth, gas exchange attributes, and photosynthetic pigments of Brassica napus and Brassica juncea under arsenic (As) stress (0, 25, 50, 75 mg kg -1 ) in a pot experiment. Results revealed that phosphate supplementation (P100) to As-stressed plants significantly increased shoot As concentration, dry biomass yield, and As uptake, in addition to the improved morphological and gas exchange attributes and photosynthetic pigments over P0. However, phosphate-assisted increase in As uptake was substantially (up to two times) greater for B. napus, notably due to higher shoot As concentration and dry biomass yield, compared to B. juncea at the P100 level. While phosphate addition in soil (P100) led to enhanced shoot As concentration in B. juncea, it reduced shoot dry biomass, primarily after 50 and 75 mg kg -1 As treatments. The translocation factor and bioconcentration factor values of B. napus were higher than B. juncea for all As levels in the presence of phosphate. This study demonstrates that phosphate supplementation has a potential to improve As phytoextraction efficiency, predominantly for B. napus, by minimizing As-induced damage to plant growth, as well as by improving the physiological and photosynthetic attributes.

  14. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  15. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L

    2016-04-15

    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil microbiology and system resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of a Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) Root Endophyte, Pseudomonas sp. Strain C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugraud, Aurelie; Young, Sandra; Gerard, Emily; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven

    2017-04-13

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C9 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from the root tissue of Brassica oleracea L. grown in soil from Marlborough, New Zealand. Its draft genome of 6,350,161 bp contains genes associated with plant growth promotion and biological control. Copyright © 2017 Laugraud et al.

  18. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to detect mustard protein in mustard seed oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Vlooswijk, R.; Bottger, G.; Duijn, G. van; Schaft, P. van der; Dekker, J.; Bemgen, H. van

    2007-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mustard protein was developed. The assay is based on a polyclonal antiserum directed against a mixture of mustard proteins raised in rabbits. The assay has a detection limit of 1.5 ppm (milligrams per kilogram) and is suitable for the

  19. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops.

  20. Thiourea, a ROS scavenger, regulates source-to-sink relationship to enhance crop yield and oil content in Brassica juncea (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pandey

    Full Text Available In the present agricultural scenario, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity so as to ensure sustainability. In an earlier study, foliar application of thiourea (TU; a non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger has been demonstrated to enhance the stress tolerance and yield of different crops under field condition. Towards this endeavor, present work deals with the effect of TU on photosynthetic efficiency and source-to-sink relationship of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea for understanding its mode of action. The application of TU increased the efficiency of both PSI and PSII photosystems and vegetative growth of plant. The comparative analysis of sucrose to starch ratio and expression level of sugar transporters confirmed the higher source and sink strength in response to TU treatment. The biochemical evidence in support of this was derived from higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatase at source; and sucrose synthase and different classes of invertases at both source and sink. This indicated an overall increase in photoassimilate level at sink. An additional contribution through pod photosynthesis was confirmed through the analysis of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase enzyme activity and level of organic acids. The increased photoassimilate level was also co-ordinated with acetyl coA carboxylase mediated oil biosynthesis. All these changes were ultimately reflected in the form of 10 and 20% increase in total yield and oil content, respectively under TU treatment as compared to control. Additionally, no change was observed in oil composition of seeds derived from TU treated plants. The study thus signifies the co-ordinated regulation of key steps of photosynthesis and source-to-sink relationship through the external application of TU resulting in increased crop yield and oil content.

  1. Distributions of imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues and roots of rapeseed (Brassica napus) from artificially contaminated potting soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifrtova, Marcela; Halesova, Tatana; Sulcova, Klara; Riddellova, Katerina; Erban, Tomas

    2017-05-01

    Imidacloprid-urea is the primary imidacloprid soil metabolite, whereas imidacloprid-olefin is the main plant-relevant metabolite and is more toxic to insects than imidacloprid. We artificially contaminated potting soil and used quantitative UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS to determine the imidacloprid, imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea distributions in rapeseed green plant tissues and roots after 4 weeks of exposure. In soil, the imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios decreased similarly after the 250 and 2500 µg kg -1 imidacloprid treatments. The imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea molar ratios in the root and soil were similar, whereas in the green plant tissue, imidacloprid-urea increased more than twofold compared with the root. Although imidacloprid-olefin was prevalent in the green plant tissues, with imidacloprid/imidacloprid-olefin molar ratios of 2.24 and 1.47 for the 250 and 2500 µg kg -1 treatments respectively, it was not detected in the root. However, imidacloprid-olefin was detected in the soil after the 2500 µg kg -1 imidacloprid treatment. Significant proportions of imidacloprid-olefin and imidacloprid-urea in green plant tissues were demonstrated. The greater imidacloprid supply increased the imidacloprid-olefin/imidacloprid molar ratio in the green plant tissues. The absence of imidacloprid-olefin in the root excluded its retransport from leaves. The similar imidacloprid/imidacloprid-urea ratios in the soil and root indicated that the root serves primarily for transporting these substances. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  3. Microwave irradiation effects on vermicasts potency, and plant growth and antioxidant activity in seedlings of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lord Abbey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vermicasts is rich in beneficial microorganisms and plant growth factors. Unlike soils, the effect of microwave irradiation (MWI on vermicasts potency has not been reported. This study investigated MWI effects on vermicasts potency, plant growth and biochemical activity in Chinese cabbage ‘Bilko’ seedlings. Fresh, moist vermicasts were microwaved at power output levels: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 800 Watts (W. Water loss, nutrients and total aerobic plate content were assessed. A complete randomized design greenhouse experiment was used to evaluate seedlings growth performance and tissue bioactivity. Water loss increased from 5 mg/g (0 W to 215 mg/g (800 W. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of the vermicasts gradually increased with an increase in MWI power output level from 0 to 200 W. This was followed by a steep rise through treatment 300 W and a peak at 400 W. Total nitrogen and nitrate decreased, while ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen increased at higher power levels. Similarly, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, barium and molybdenum contents increased while sodium and barium remained fairly constant. However, MWI irradiation reduced total aerobic plate count by ≥50%. Plant growth and biomass were increased by the 400 W and 800 W MWI treatments. Antioxidant activity was highest in 200, 400 and 800 W treated plants. Collectively the finding indicated that the 400 W treatment increased the bioavailability of nutrients, and represents the best option for plant growth enhancement and improved antioxidant activity.

  4. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  5. brassica oleracea l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2012-09-11

    Sep 11, 2012 ... investigated in this study, the data obtained promotes the utilization of AgNO3 in a concentration of 50. µM for the ... Due to the fact that all the processes of plant cells and tissue culture in ... The mother plants were grown in.

  6. The morphological signs of plants of white cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. convar. capitata (L. Alef. var. alba DC and their variability depending on type of sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of the morphological signs of type of sort on white cabbage plants Dutch flat, Belarus, Amager, Langendijker winter and their variability are the presented. It is established low and average factor of a variation at the majority of the morphological signs. Strong high-quality and ecological variability of signs “height external rake” and “its size leafy parts” at type of sort Dutch flat is defined.

  7. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, causes vascular disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We proposed that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the plant-V. longisporum interaction. To identify oilseed rape miRNAs, we deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for miRNA prediction and characterization. We identified 893 B. napus miRNAs representing 360 conserved and 533 novel miRNAs, and mapped 429 and 464 miRNAs to the AA and CC genomes, respectively. Microsynteny analysis with the conserved miRNAs and their flanking protein coding sequences revealed 137 AA-CC genome syntenic miRNA pairs and 61 AA and 42 CC genome-unique miRNAs. Sixty-two miRNAs were responsive to the V. longisporum infection. We present data for specific interactions and simultaneously reciprocal changes in the expression levels of the miRNAs and their targets in the infected roots. We demonstrate that miRNAs are involved in the plant-fungus interaction and that miRNA168-Argonaute 1 (AGO1) expression modulation might act as a key regulatory module in a compatible plant-V. longisporum interaction. Our results suggest that V. longisporum may have evolved a virulence mechanism by interference with plant miRNAs to reprogram plant gene expression and achieve infection. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Can Mustard Gas Induce Late Onset Polyneuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ. Mousavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Mustard gas, lethal in high doses, affects multiple organs such as skin, eye and respiratory system. We studied the development of late onset mustardinduced polyneuropathy among chemically wounded Iranian veterans.Methods:In this descriptive study,100 chemically wounded Iranian veterans with severe eye involvement were examined for any signs and symptoms of polyneuropathy by an internist.20 patients were suspected to have neurological symptoms or signs.These patients were examined by a neurologist again. 13 showed abnormal neurological symptoms. Electrodiagnostic exams were performed for this group by another physician.Results:13 veterans had abnormal neurological exam results with prominent sensory signs and symptoms in almost all of them. Brisk deep tendon reflexes were found in 3 cases. Electrodiagnostic studies were compatible with axonal type distal sensory polyneuropathy in 6 subjects. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of late onset polyneuropathy among chemically-wounded victims who were exposed to mustard gas. The pathophysiology of this form of neuropathy is still unknown. Unlike most toxic neuropathies,obvious clinical signs and symptoms appeared several years after exposure. No specific treatment for.polyneuropathy due to chemical weapons exposure has been described to date.

  9. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Vasilev, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  10. Cytological and morphological analysis of hybrids between Brassicoraphanus, and Brassica napus for introgression of clubroot resistant trait into Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zongxiang; Nwafor, Chinedu Charles; Hou, Zhaoke; Gong, Jianfang; Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Yingfen; Zhou, Yongming; Wu, Jiangsheng; Piao, Zhongyun; Tong, Yue; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Chunyu

    2017-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a close relative of the Brassica and most radish accessions are immune to the clubroot disease. A synthesized allotetraploid Brassicoraphanus (RRCC, 2n = 36) between R. sativus cv. HQ-04 (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (L.H Bailey) (2n = 18, CC) proved resistant of multiple clubroot disease pathogen P. brassicae. To predict the possibility to transfer the clubroot resistance trait from the RR subgenome of allotetraploid Brassicoraphanus (RRCC, 2n = 36) into Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38), we analyzed the frequency of chromosome pairings in the F1 hybrids produced from a cross between B. napus cv. HS5 and the allotetraploid, characterize the genomic composition of some backcrossed progeny (BC1) using GISH, BAC-FISH and AFLP techniques. The level of intergenomic pairing between A and R genomes in the F1 hybrid was high, allosyndetic bivalents formed in 73.53% PMCs indicative of significant level of homeologous recombination between two genomes and high probability of incorporating chromosomal segments/genes from R-genome into A/C-genomes. The BC1 plants inherited variant extra R chromosomes or fragments from allotetraploid as revealed by GISH and AFLP analysis. 13.51% BC2 individuals were resistant to clubroot disease, and several resistance lines had high pollen fertility, Overall, the genetic material presented in this work represents a potential new genetic resource for practical use in breeding B. napus

  11. Genotypic variation of nitrogen use efficiency in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Altaf; Khan, Ishrat; Abrol, Yash P.; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of nitrogen efficiency (NE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (UE), physiological nitrogen use efficiency (PUE) among Indian mustard genotypes, grown under N-insufficient and N-sufficient conditions. Nitrogen efficiency varied from 52.7 to 92.8. Seed yield varied from 1.14 t ha -1 to 3.21 t ha -1 under N-insufficient condition, while 2.14 t ha -1 -3.33 t ha -1 under N-sufficient condition. Physiological basis of this difference was explained in terms of nitrogen uptake efficiency and physiological nitrogen use efficiency, and their relationship with the growth and yield characteristics. While nitrogen uptake efficiency was positively correlated with plant biomass (0.793**), leaf area index (0.664*), and leaf nitrogen content (0.783**), physiological nitrogen use efficiency is positively correlated with photosynthetic rate (0.689**) and yield (0.814**). This study suggests that genotype having high nitrogen uptake efficiency and high physiological nitrogen use efficiency might help in reducing the nitrogen load on soil without any penalty on the yield. - Nitrogen efficient crop plants may help in reducing environmental contamination of nitrate without any penalty on seed yield

  12. Comparison of Glucosinolate Profiles in Different Tissues of Nine Brassica Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolate (GSL profiles and concentrations in various tissues (seeds, sprouts, mature root, and shoot were determined and compared across nine Brassica species, including cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, radish, baemuchae, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, leaf mustard, and kale. The compositions and concentrations of individual GSLs varied among crops, tissues, and growth stages. Seeds had highest total GSL concentrations in most of crops, whereas shoots had the lowest GSL concentrations. Aliphatic GSL concentrations were the highest in seeds, followed by that in sprouts, shoots, and roots. Indole GSL concentration was the highest in the root or shoot tissues in most of the crops. In contrast, aromatic GSL concentrations were highest in roots. Of the nine crops examined, broccoli exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in seeds (110.76 µmol·g−1 and sprouts (162.19 µmol·g−1, whereas leaf mustard exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in shoots (61.76 µmol·g−1 and roots (73.61 µmol·g−1. The lowest GSL concentrations were observed in radish across all tissues examined.

  13. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  14. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-04-22

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  15. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  16. The Mustard Consortium’s Elucidation of the Pathophysiology of Sulfur Mustard and Antidote Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    fibrosis is well documented (4). Not unexpectedly, HD is radiomimetic, teratogenic and mutagenic (5,6). Currently, there is no effective therapy ...available. The long term goals are to further define the mode of action of mustard gas and to develop a therapy using liposomes containing both lipid...unilamellar antioxidant liposomes containing 6.6 mole percent RRR-alpha- tocopherol (as well as 66.6, 26.5 and 0.66 mole percent of soy lecithin

  17. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea

  18. Isolate dependency of Brassica rapa resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the B. rapa R500 x IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive glucosinolates are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen.

  19. Carcinogenicity of Mustard Gas: Report of the Cancer Registry Project Among Mustard Gas Exposed Iranian Veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroush, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003 The Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center in collaboration with Tehran University has conducted a nationwide cancer registry project among all Iranian Veterans with history of exposure to mustard gas during 1980-1988 Iran Iraq war. The mixed cohort study has a retrospective phase from the exposure time to 2003 and a prospective phase from 2003 to 2013. The main goal is to find any possible relationship between exposure to mustard gas and developing cancer as a long term health effect. A total number of 7500 individual (both military and civilians) with confirmed medical records of exposure to mustard gas have been included in the study to be compared with the same number of control population as well as the statistics of the national cancer registry system. The follow up of all cases is being done as a part of the national health monitoring program of the Janbazan (veterans) organization. In this report the latest findings of this project will be presented.(author)

  20. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  1. Effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai over Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin in broccoli, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Mérida State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Labrador Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum in suppressing clubroot of brassicas, which is caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was tested on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck, in field conditions, in Escagüey, municipality of Rangel, Merida State, Venezuela. The experiment showed that the applications of a biopesticide based on this antagonist had a significant effect on the percentage of health plants and the crop yields, in dependence of the dose used. In addition, the relation benefits/cost was also favorable. These results showed that, for these particular conditions, P. brassicae is an adequate biological alternative to control the clubroot of brassicas, no aggressive to environment and human beings, useful for the transition phase toward a sustainable agriculture, without chemical pesticides.

  2. Dehalogenase: The Follow-Up Enzyme After Mustard Oxidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elashvili, Ilya; DeFrank, Joseph J

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since 1917. Currently fielded M258A1 and M280 decontamination kits and prospective oxidative decontaminants convert HD to HD sulfoxide (HDSO...

  3. Determination of the Titanium Contents in the Winter Oilseed Rape Plants (Brassica napus L. by the Application of Fertilizer Containing Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the information about changes of titanium contents in the phytomass during the growing season of winter oilseed rape and about the titanium contents drawn by the rape yield during two farming years the small plot field trial was established. In the trial the fertilizer Mg-Titanit (MgTi containing 8.5 g of titanium in 1 liter was used. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments. 0 – control treatment without MgTi fertilizer; 2xTi0.2 – two applications of MgTi in the dose of 0.2 l/ha; 3xTi0.2 – three applications of MgTi in the dose of 0.2 l/ha; 2xTi0.4 – two applications of MgTi in the dose of 0.4 l/ha; 3xTi0.4 – three applications of MgTi in the dose of 0.4 l/ha. The fertilizer was applied in spring during two, or three different growth stages: BBCH 50, BBCH 59, BBCH 66. The first plant sampling was carried out shortly before the first application of fertilizer (BBCH 50. The second, third and fourth sampling was taken 2–3 weeks after the application of Mg-Titanitu (BBCH 59, BBCH 66, BBCH 71. The obtained results showed that the titanium content in the phytomass of rape was falling during the monitored period. The titanium content in the rape aboveground phytomass varied in the interval from 16.81 to 67.6 mg/kg and in the root in the interval from 56.6 to 258.81 mg/kg. The titanium application on plant leaves in the quantities from 3.4 to 10.2 g per hectare of soil did not have the unambiguous impact on the titanium content in the rape phytomass. In the yield of one tonne of seed and appropriate quantity of rape straw on average 20 grams of titanium was taken in.

  4. The Brassica epithionitrile 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane triggers cell death in human liver cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Herz, Corinna; Schlotz, Nina; Kupke, Franziska; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María M; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Lamy, Evelyn

    2015-11-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites present in Brassica vegetables. Alkenyl glucosinolates are enzymatically degraded forming nitriles or isothiocyanates, but in the presence of epithiospecifier protein, epithionitriles are released. However, studies on the occurrence of epithionitriles in Brassica food and knowledge about their biological effects are scarce. Epithionitrile formation from glucosinolates of seven Brassica vegetables was analyzed using GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Bioactivity of synthetic and plant-derived 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane (CETP) - the predominant epithionitrile in Brassica vegetables - in three human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and primary murine hepatocytes was also evaluated. The majority of the Brassica vegetables were producers of nitriles or epithionitriles as hydrolysis products and not of isothiocyanates. For example, Brussels sprouts and savoy cabbage contained up to 0.8 μmol CETP/g vegetable. Using formazan dye assays, concentrations of 380-1500 nM CETP were observed to inhibit the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity of human HCC cells without impairment of cell growth. At 100-fold higher CETP concentrations, cell death was observed. Presence of plant matrix increased CETP-based toxicity. These in vitro data provide no indication that epithionitriles will severely affect human health by Brassica consumption. In contrast to isothiocyanates, no evidence of selective toxicity against HCC cells was found. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  6. (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(10), pp. 1827-1832, 7 ... and even death (Zhu, 2001). ... as a nitrogen fertilizer equivalent to 150 kg N ha-1 and triple- super- ... negatively the plant fresh weight, but the effect ratio.

  7. Biogas and mineral fertiliser production from plant residues of phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2011-07-01

    The former uranium mining site in Ronneburg, Thuringia, Germany was known as a big source of uranium with more than 113,000 tons of uranium mined from 1946 to 1990. This area has been remediated since the nineties of the last century. However, nowadays the site in Ronneburg is still specially considered because of the heterogeneous contamination by many heavy metals and the vegetation can be affected. Three plant species including Indian mustard - Brassica juncea L., triticale - x. Triticosecale Wittmaek and sunflower - Helianthus annuus L. were seeded as accumulators of heavy metals and radionuclides in the phytoremediation process in 2009 and 2010 in Ronneburg. The subsequent utilization of the plant residues after phytoremediation is of special consideration. Batch fermentation of harvested plant materials under the mesophilic condition showed that all of the investigated plant materials had much higher biogas production than liquid cow manure except triticale root, of which biogas yield per volatile solid was not significantly higher than the one of sludge. The highest biogas yields (311 L{sub N}/kg FM and 807 L{sub N}/kg VS) were achieved from the spica of triticale after 42 days of retention of anaerobic digestion. Triticale shoot residues generated higher biogas and methane yields than the previously reported triticale materials that were harvested from the uncontaminated soil Triticale was considered as the highest potential species in biogas production, beside the best growth ability on the acidic soil at the test field site with highest biomass production. Biogas yield of Indian mustard shoot was also high but dramatically varied from 2009 to 2010. Digestates after anaerobic digestion of plant residues contained various macronutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur, and various micronutrients such as iron, manganes, zinc, etc. The accumulation levels of heavy metals in the investigated plant materials were not the hindrance factors

  8. Phytocontact Dermatitis due to Mustard Seed Mimicking Burn Injury: Report of a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Akbulut, Sami; Karakayali, Feza

    2012-01-01

    Mustard seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, and purgative and to treat a variety of ailments including peritonitis and neuralgia. Mustards are still used today in mustard plasters to treat rheumatism, arthritis, chest congestion, aching back, and sore muscles. To make a mustard plaster, mix equal parts of flour and powdered mustard and spread it as a paste on a doubled piece of soft cloth. Apply mustard plaster to the affected area for a maximum of 15 m...

  9. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Nelson, Peggy; Bjarnason, Stephen; Vair, Cory; Shei Yimin; Tenn, Catherine; Lecavalier, Pierre; Burczyk, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC 50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  10. Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Poulsen, Gert; Andersen, Bente Anni

    2009-01-01

    When planning optimal conservation strategies for wild and cultivated types of a plant species, a number of influencing biological and environmental factors should be considered from the outset. In the present study Brassica rapa was used to illustrate this: to develop Scandinavian conservation...

  11. Quantitative trait loci analysis of phytate and phosphate concentrations in seeds and leaves of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Jamar, D.C.L.; Lou, P.; Wang, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, X.; Bonnema, A.B.; Koornneef, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2008-01-01

    Phytate, being the major storage form of phosphorus in plants, is considered to be an anti-nutritional substance for human, because of its ability to complex essential micronutrients. In the present study, we describe the genetic analysis of phytate and phosphate concentrations in Brassica rapa

  12. Amplification of the active site of BnLIP3 gene of Brassica napus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipases are useful enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides and play an important role in plant growth. In this study, we report a rapid molecular method to amplify a partial sequence of the lipase class 3 family designated BnLIP3 gene of Brassica napus L. in order to follow its expression and ...

  13. A seed treatment to prevent shoot apical meristem arrest in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Goffman, Fernando D.; Kodde, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Brassica oleracea plants can suffer from shoot apical meristem arrest, when sown at cold temperatures, giving rise to so-called blind seedlings that stop development and the formation of new leaves. We developed a seed treatment that strongly reduces the occurrence of this meristem arrest in

  14. Development of Convenient Screening Method for Resistant Radish to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Jo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To establish simple and reliable screening method for resistant radish to Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron. using soil-drenching inoculation, the development of clubroot on radish seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae GN-1 isolate according to several conditions such as inoculum concentration, plant growth stage and incubation period after inoculation was studied. To select resistant radish against clubroot, 10-day-old seedlings were inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the roots with the spore suspension of the pathogen to give 1×10(9 spores/pot. The inoculated seedlings were incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 3 days then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for 6 weeks. Under the optimum conditions, 46 commercial cultivars of radish were tested for resistance to YC-1 (infecting 15 clubroot-resistant cultivars of Chinese cabbage and GN-1 (wild type isolates of P. brassicae. Among them, thirty-five cultivars showed resistance to both isolates and one cultivar represented susceptible response to the pathogens. On the other hand, the other cultivars showed different responses against the tested P. brassicae pathogens. The results suggest that this method is an efficient system for screening radish with resistance to clubroot.

  15. Genetic variability among advanced lines of brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.; Farhatullah, A.; Rahman, H.U.; Fayyaz, L.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variability for morphological and biochemical traits among six advanced lines (F10:11) of brassica was studied at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during crop season of 2012-13. These lines were developed through interspecific hybridization. Significant differences at (p=0.01) for plant height, main, pods main raceme-1, pod length, seed yield plant-1 and protein content at (p=0.05) for 100-seed weight, oil content were recorded. The advanced line, AUP-05 produced the maximum seed yield plant-1 (19.73 g), protein content (24.56%), 100-seed weight (0.64 g). Advanced line AUP-04 had the highest erucic acid (50.31%), linolenic acid (10.60%) and was late maturing (179.33). Advanced line AUP-06 produced the high oil content (48.82%). Advanced line AUP-03 produced comparatively longer main raceme (69.32 cm). Environmental variance was smaller than genotypic variance for majority of the traits. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation ranged from 2.45 to 25.67% and 2.50 to 27.68%, respectively. Heritability was high for majority of the traits. The maximum heritability was recorded for plant height (0.61), main raceme length (0.81), pods main raceme-1 (0.74), seed yield plant-1 (0.86) and protein content (0.77). Moderate heritability was observed for oil (0.58) contents. Heritability for 100-seed weight (0.30) was the lowest. These lines may be released as new improved varieties for specific parameters. (author)

  16. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well.

  17. Improvement of tissue culture, genetic transformation, and applications of biotechnology to Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Seyed Ali; Orbovic, Vladimir; Moradpour, Mahdi; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Karan, Ratna; Wallace, Simon; Parajuli, Saroj

    2017-04-01

    Development of in vitro plant regeneration method from Brassica explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is influenced by many factors such as culture environment, culture medium composition, explant sources, and genotypes which are reviewed in this study. An efficient in vitro regeneration system to allow genetic transformation of Brassica is a crucial tool for improving its economical value. Methods to optimize transformation protocols for the efficient introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these methods are also reviewed. Hence, binary vectors, selectable marker genes, minimum inhibitory concentration of selection agents, reporter marker genes, preculture media, Agrobacterium concentration and regeneration ability of putative transformants for improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica are discussed.

  18. The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Yumei; Yang, Xinhua; Tong, Chaobo; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Zhao, Meixia; Ma, Jianxin; Yu, Jingyin; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xiyin; Wang, Junyi; Lu, Kun; Fang, Zhiyuan; Bancroft, Ian; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hu, Qiong; Wang, Xinfa; Yue, Zhen; Li, Haojie; Yang, Linfeng; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Wanxin; King, Graham J; Pires, J. Chris; Lu, Changxin; Wu, Zhangyan; Sampath, Perumal; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Hui; Pan, Shengkai; Yang, Limei; Min, Jiumeng; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Dianchuan; Li, Wanshun; Belcram, Harry; Tu, Jinxing; Guan, Mei; Qi, Cunkou; Du, Dezhi; Li, Jiana; Jiang, Liangcai; Batley, Jacqueline; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Ruperao, Pradeep; Cheng, Feng; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Huang, Yin; Dong, Caihua; Wang, Li; Li, Jingping; Hu, Zhiyong; Zhuang, Mu; Huang, Yi; Huang, Junyan; Shi, Jiaqin; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Jing; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Jinpeng; Jin, Huizhe; Li, Zaiyun; Li, Xun; Zhang, Jiefu; Xiao, Lu; Zhou, Yongming; Liu, Zhongsong; Liu, Xuequn; Qin, Rui; Tang, Xu; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Yupeng; Zhang, Yangyong; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Denoeud, France; Xu, Xun; Liang, Xinming; Hua, Wei; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Jun; Chalhoub, Boulos; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus. PMID:24852848

  19. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  20. Efficacy of plant derived oils and extracts against white-fly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) on sesame crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iram, A.; Irfan, M.; Aslam, S.

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is a polyphagous pest and is reported on more than 600 host plants worldwide. Different methods are being used for its control. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and gera-nium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The results indicated that plant derived oils and extracts have the potential to be used in plant protection strategies but still more research has to be incorporated in the pest management programmes. (author)

  1. Growth and "1"3"7Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and "1"3"7Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in "1"3"7Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of "1"3"7Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased "1"3"7Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased "1"3"7Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. - Highlights: • Out of 56 Brassica cultivars, inoculation significantly increased shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars. • Inoculation triggered a significant increase and decrease in "1"3"7Cs uptake, respectively in 22 and 7 cultivars. • Five cultivars had an enhanced shoot dry weight and decreased "1"3"7Cs

  2. Alternaria resistance of Brassicae campestris L. improved by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.; Rahman, A.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'YS 52', a cultivar susceptible to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., were exposed to gamma rays (30-90 kR). Eight more resistant mutants were selected in M3 and subjected to further field evaluation. The best mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant and gave 44% higher yield than the parent, mutant '70-7-82' was found to be moderately resistant and gave a yield 21% higher than the parent. The yield increases seem to be connected with plant architecture changes. (author)

  3. Herbivore-Induced DNA Demethylation Changes Floral Signalling and Attractiveness to Pollinators in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman T Kellenberger

    Full Text Available Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP analysis showed that leaf damage by the caterpillar Pieris brassicae was associated with genome-wide methylation changes in both leaves and flowers of B. rapa as well as a downturn in flower number, morphology and scent. A comparison to plants with jasmonic acid-induced defence showed similar demethylation patterns in leaves, but both the floral methylome and phenotype differed significantly from P. brassicae infested plants. Standardised genome-wide demethylation with 5-azacytidine in five different B. rapa full-sib groups further resulted in a genotype-specific downturn of floral morphology and scent, which significantly reduced the attractiveness of the plants to the pollinator bee Bombus terrestris. These results suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in adjusting plant signalling in response to changing insect communities.

  4. Molecular characterization and diversity of a novel non-autonomous mutator-like transposon family in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are capable of mobilizing from one genomic location to other, with changes in their copy numbers. Mutator-like elements (MULEs) are DNA transposons characterized by 9 bp target site duplications (TSDs), with high variability in sequence and length, and include non-conserved terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). We identified and characterized a family of Mutator-like elements designated as Shahroz. The structural and molecular analyses revealed that family had a small number of mostly defective non-autonomous MULEs and has shown limited activity in the evolutionary history of the Brassica A-genome. The Shahroz elements range in size from 2734 to 3160 bp including 76 bp imperfect TIRs and 9 bp variable TSDs. The individual copies have shown high homology (52-99%) in their entire lengths. The study revealed that the elements are less in numbers but active in Brassica rapa genomes and PCR amplification revealed their specificity and amplification in A-genome containing diploid and polyploids Brassica. The phylogenetic analysis of Brassica MULEs with other plant Mutator elements revealed that no correlation exists between Brassica MULEs and other elements suggesting a separate line of evolution. Analyzing the regions flanking the insertions revealed that the insertions have showed a preference for AT rich regions. The detailed study of these insertions revealed that although less in number and small sizes, they have played a role in Brassica genome evolution by their mobilization. (author)

  5. Agroecological Importance of the Protective Forest Plantings in Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantsova Elena Anatolyevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive role of protective forest plantings in maintaining the stability of biotic communities and ensuring stabilization of a phytosanitary situation in the agricultural and woodland landscape of steppe and semiarid zones of Lower Volga region is established. The analysis of long-term data testifies that in general, the number of a harmful complex on fields of winter wheat (Triticum and brown mustard (Brassica juncea in the system of forest strips is lower than in opened agrocoenosis in average by 20,6 % and 16,2 %, respectively. The regularities of distribution of harmful and useful insects in corn and mustard agrocoenosis are noted. The obtained data on distribution of harmful insects and their concentration in a forested field gives the grounds to include regional processings of agrocoenosis of agricultural and woodland landscape in the system of protective measures. It is established that the existence of fields afforestation in Volgograd region creates the favorable conditions for development and accumulation of entomophages in fields. It leads to restriction of mass reproduction of harmful insects and to the decrease in their injuriousness. The essential distinctions in distribution and development of diseases in the agrocoenosis protected by forest plantings and the treeless fields are revealed. The maximal values of development of a complex of diseases on winter wheat are observed in zones, adjacent to forest strips (I and III, minimum – in the middle of a field. The estimated values of development of diseases in forested field is less, and in certain cases it slightly differs from the data obtained in a treeless field.

  6. Separation and identification of candidate protein elicitors from the cultivation medium of Leptosphaeria maculans inducing resistance in Brassica napus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Miroslava; Kim, P.D.; Šašek, Vladimír; Burketová, Lenka; Jindřichová, Barbora; Šantrůček, J.; Valentová, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2016), s. 918-928 ISSN 8756-7938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1581; GA MZe QH81201; GA MŠk LD14093 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : elicitor * Brassica napus * Leptosphaeria maculans Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016

  7. Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of our data with historical documents confirmed that traditional cabbage landraces cultivated in North of China were first introduced from Russia. Key words: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genetic diversity, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), landraces, population structure.

  8. Augmentation of potential phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB stimulate growth of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed. in marginal soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIASIH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB (Bacillus megaterium, B. pantothenticus, Chromobacterium lividum and Klebsiella aerogenes were used as biofertilizer to increase the fresh leaf production of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.. An experiment was conducted at green house condition. The experiment were used 18 treatments such as single isolate of potential PSB (A,B,C,D, inoculants contain two isolates of potential PSB (E,F,G,H,I,J, inoculants contain three isolates of potential PSB (K, L, M, N, inoculants contain four isolate of potential PSB (O, chemistry fertilizer (P = control 1, organic fertilizer (Q = control 2, and without fertilizer (R = control 3. The treatments were arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 replications. The result showed that the inoculants of potential PSB increased the fresh plant production of green mustard. The mix of four isolates of potential PSB (inoculants O was the best to increase the fresh plant production of green mustard until 32.87% than other PSB inoculants, 207.84% than control 1,217.23% than control 2, and 930.60% than control 3.

  9. The Effects of Mixed Source Fertilizer Application on Vertisol Fertility and Growth of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Syamsiyah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is a crucial factor determining the growth and yield of plants. The increase of nutrient content and availability in soil can be achieved by fertilization. A field experiment was conducted using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with two factors and three replications in order to study the effects of Mixed Source of Fertilizer (MSF application on the nutrient contents in Vertisol and its relationship to the growth and yield of mustard. The first factor was the three MSF formulas (F1, F2, F3 and second factor was the doses of MSF (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10 Mg ha-1 applied to the soil. At the end of the experiment, the soil pH, CEC, organic-C, total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K contents were measured. The results show that there are no significant differences on the soil chemical characteristics, such as pH, organic-C content, available-P, exchangeable-K, -Ca and -Mg measured after application of different MSF formulas to the soil. Meanwhile, the increase of MSF doses applied to the soil significantly increases organic-C content, total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K in the soil. The significant increase of available-P (by 29.13% and total-N (by 24.1% occured after application of MSF at 5.0 Mg ha-1 and the increase of exchangeable-K (by 50% is achieved after application of 7.5 Mg ha-1, in comparison to that without MSF application. The height and fresh weight of mustard increase in accordance with the increase of MSF doses applied. The application of 10.0 Mg ha-1 MSF results in the highest height and fresh weight of the mustard up to 63.9% and 620%, respectively. The height and fresh weight of mustard are positively correlated to the total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K in the soil. The MSF is an alternative fertilizer that can be used to improve Vertisol fertility and plant growth.

  10. The systemic nature of mustard lung: Comparison with COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriary Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard (SM is a powerful blister-causing alkylating chemical warfare agent used by Iraqi forces against Iran. One of the known complications of mustard gas inhalation is mustard lung which is discussed as a phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In this complication, there are clinical symptoms close to COPD with common etiologies, such as in smokers. Based on information gradually obtained by conducting the studies on mustard lung patients, systemic symptoms along with pulmonary disorders have attracted the attention of researchers. Changes in serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, interleukin (IL, chemokines, selectins, immunoglobulins, and signs of imbalance in oxidant-antioxidant system at serum level, present the systemic changes in these patients. In addition to these, reports of extra-pulmonary complications, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are also presented. In this study, the chance of developing the systemic nature of this lung disease have been followed on using the comparative study of changes in the mentioned markers in mustard lung and COPD patients at stable phases and the mechanisms of pathogenesis and phenomena, such as airway remodeling in these patients.

  11. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

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    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  12. Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with Brassica parachinensis and Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with B. parachinensis or Zea mays plants in split pot (allow the solutes to pass but prevent the interaction of roots between compartments) experiments was evaluated. Plants were grown in split pots filled with soil spiked at 0, 3, 6, 12, 25 and 50 mg Cd/kg soil. Biomass and Cd uptake were detemined after 6 weeks, and rhizospheric soil solutions, extracted using soil probes, were analyzed for pH and water soluble Cd at weekly intervals. Cadmium treatments affected the biomass. Cadmium concentration in the shoots of B. napus was higher when cocropped with B. parachinensis and significantly higher with Z. mays; however, the biomass was negatively affected implying the higher nutrient apportionment to the crop plants than B. napus. Concentration of Cd in B. napus was higher in shoots than in roots as revealed by shoot/root Cd quotient and was always >1; the quotient for B. parachinensis was ∼1 and that of Z. mays was <1, indicating the potential of Brassicaceae members to translocate the Cd to aboveground tissue. Results indicate the feasibility of cocropping method to clean the Cd contaminated soils.

  13. Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with Brassica parachinensis and Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan [Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, (Hong Kong); Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung, E-mail: jwcwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2009-08-15

    Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with B. parachinensis or Zea mays plants in split pot (allow the solutes to pass but prevent the interaction of roots between compartments) experiments was evaluated. Plants were grown in split pots filled with soil spiked at 0, 3, 6, 12, 25 and 50 mg Cd/kg soil. Biomass and Cd uptake were detemined after 6 weeks, and rhizospheric soil solutions, extracted using soil probes, were analyzed for pH and water soluble Cd at weekly intervals. Cadmium treatments affected the biomass. Cadmium concentration in the shoots of B. napus was higher when cocropped with B. parachinensis and significantly higher with Z. mays; however, the biomass was negatively affected implying the higher nutrient apportionment to the crop plants than B. napus. Concentration of Cd in B. napus was higher in shoots than in roots as revealed by shoot/root Cd quotient and was always >1; the quotient for B. parachinensis was {approx}1 and that of Z. mays was <1, indicating the potential of Brassicaceae members to translocate the Cd to aboveground tissue. Results indicate the feasibility of cocropping method to clean the Cd contaminated soils.

  14. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on determination of planting time for some cauliflower cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) under Samsun ecological conditions by using plant growth and developmental models based on thermal time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, S.; Peksen, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of different planting times (01 July, 15 July and 01 August) on the growth and developmental components of some cauliflower cultivars (Snow King, White Cliff, White Rock, White Latin, Me & Carillon, SG 4004 F1 and Serrano) by using plant growth and developmental models. From the results of the present study, it was revealed that thermal time elapsing from planting to curd initiation should be high (about 1200 degree centigrade days) to stimulate vegetative growth while thermal time elapsing from curd initiation to the harvest should be low (around 200 degree centigrade days) in terms of curd weight. The highest curd weight and yield were obtained from the plants of the first planting time, namely 01 July, compared to the other planting times (15 July and 01 August). Although there were no significant differences between the cultivars, the highest yield was obtained form Cv. Me & Carillon (13.25 t ha-1), SG 4004 F1 (13.14 t ha-1) and White Rock (11.51 t ha-1) respectively

  16. SSR marker variations in Brassica species provide insight into the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Singh, Lal; Nanjundan, Joghee; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Singh, Dhiraj

    2018-01-01

    Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B. juncea and three subspecies of B. rapa , while lowest cross-transferability (91.93%) was obtained for Eruca sativa . The average % age of cross-transferability across all the seven species was 98.15%. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to six with an average of 3.41 alleles per primer pair. Neighbor-Joining-based dendrogram divided all the 40 accessions into two main groups composed of B. juncea / B. nigra/B. rapa and B. carinata/B. napus/B. oleracea . C-genome of oilseed Brassica species remained relatively more conserved than A- and B-genome. A- genome present in B. juncea and B. napus seems distinct from each other and hence provides great opportunity for generating diversity through synthesizing amphidiploids from different sources of A- genome. B. juncea had least intra-specific distance indicating narrow genetic base. B. rapa appears to be more primitive species from which other two diploid species might have evolved. The SSR marker set developed in this study will assist in DNA fingerprinting of various Brassica species cultivars, evaluating the genetic diversity in Brassica germplasm, genome mapping and construction of linkage maps, gene tagging and various other genomics-related studies in Brassica species. Further, the evolutionary relationship established among various Brassica species would assist in formulating suitable breeding strategies for widening the genetic base of Brassica amphidiploids by exploiting the genetic diversity present in diploid progenitor gene pools.

  17. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  18. Applications of deuterium labeling in studies of drug metabolism: metabolism of trideuteroaniline mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.J.; Farmer, P.B.; Foster, A.B.; Jarman, M.

    1977-01-01

    In a continuation of a study of aniline mustard, the metabolism of 2,4,6-trideuteroaniline mustard [N-N-di-(2-chloroethyl)-2,4,6-trideuteroaniline] was investigated. Measurements of the ratios of deuterated to nondeuterated species in p-hydroxyaniline mustard and N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-hydroxyaniline isolated following in vitro metabolism of a mixture of aniline mustard and aniline mustard-d 3 enabled a determination both of the kinetic isotope effect and of the extents of NIH shifts and indicated the probable metabolite sequence

  19. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sugita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption.

  20. Wybrane zagadnienia z biologii grzyba Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. [Some problems in the life-cycle of fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae, Wor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nowicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quickest loss of infectivity of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. resting spores was observed in acid soil. Jnlectivity was ratained longer in neutral and alkaline soils. The infection of cabbage seedlings took place in a broad pH range from 3.3 to 8.1, the optimum soil pH for infection being at 5.3 - 5.7. When the number of spores in the soil increased the infection took place in the infection took place in the broader pH range. The plants which were planted as seedlings in infested soil were infected in a broader pH range than plants which were grown from seeds in infested soil.

  1. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes between Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Zhang, Fengqi; Tong, Chaobo; Huang, Junyan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Dong, Caihua; Zhou, Yanqiu; Qin, Rui; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi

    2014-01-03

    Plant disease resistance (R) genes with the nucleotide binding site (NBS) play an important role in offering resistance to pathogens. The availability of complete genome sequences of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa provides an important opportunity for researchers to identify and characterize NBS-encoding R genes in Brassica species and to compare with analogues in Arabidopsis thaliana based on a comparative genomics approach. However, little is known about the evolutionary fate of NBS-encoding genes in the Brassica lineage after split from A. thaliana. Here we present genome-wide analysis of NBS-encoding genes in B. oleracea, B. rapa and A. thaliana. Through the employment of HMM search and manual curation, we identified 157, 206 and 167 NBS-encoding genes in B. oleracea, B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis among 3 species classified NBS-encoding genes into 6 subgroups. Tandem duplication and whole genome triplication (WGT) analyses revealed that after WGT of the Brassica ancestor, NBS-encoding homologous gene pairs on triplicated regions in Brassica ancestor were deleted or lost quickly, but NBS-encoding genes in Brassica species experienced species-specific gene amplification by tandem duplication after divergence of B. rapa and B. oleracea. Expression profiling of NBS-encoding orthologous gene pairs indicated the differential expression pattern of retained orthologous gene copies in B. oleracea and B. rapa. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of CNL type NBS-encoding orthologous gene pairs among 3 species suggested that orthologous genes in B. rapa species have undergone stronger negative selection than those in B .oleracea species. But for TNL type, there are no significant differences in the orthologous gene pairs between the two species. This study is first identification and characterization of NBS-encoding genes in B. rapa and B. oleracea based on whole genome sequences. Through tandem duplication and whole genome

  2. Characterization of a new high copy Stowaway family MITE, BRAMI-1 in Brassica genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are expected to play important roles in evolution of genes and genome in plants, especially in the highly duplicated plant genomes. Various MITE families and their roles in plants have been characterized. However, there have been fewer studies of MITE families and their potential roles in evolution of the recently triplicated Brassica genome. Results We identified a new MITE family, BRAMI-1, belonging to the Stowaway super-family in the Brassica genome. In silico mapping revealed that 697 members are dispersed throughout the euchromatic regions of the B. rapa pseudo-chromosomes. Among them, 548 members (78.6%) are located in gene-rich regions, less than 3 kb from genes. In addition, we identified 516 and 15 members in the 470 Mb and 15 Mb genomic shotgun sequences currently available for B. oleracea and B. napus, respectively. The resulting estimated copy numbers for the entire genomes were 1440, 1464 and 2490 in B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus, respectively. Concurrently, only 70 members of the related Arabidopsis ATTIRTA-1 MITE family were identified in the Arabidopsis genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BRAMI-1 elements proliferated in the Brassica genus after divergence from the Arabidopsis lineage. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP) was inspected for 50 BRAMI-1 members, revealing high levels of insertion polymorphism between and within species of Brassica that clarify BRAMI-1 activation periods up to the present. Comparative analysis of the 71 genes harbouring the BRAMI-1 elements with their non-insertion paralogs (NIPs) showed that the BRAMI-1 insertions mainly reside in non-coding sequences and that the expression levels of genes with the elements differ from those of their NIPs. Conclusion A Stowaway family MITE, named as BRAMI-1, was gradually amplified and remained present in over than 1400 copies in each of three Brassica species. Overall, 78% of the members were identified in

  3. Climate change and genetically modified insecticidal plants. Plant-herbivore interactions and secondary chemistry of Bt Cry1Ac-toxin producing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, S.

    2008-07-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline endotoxins are the first commercial applications of genetically modified crops and their use has steadily expanded over the last ten years. Together with the expanding agricultural use of transgenic crops, climate change is predicted to be among the major factors affecting agriculture in the coming years. Plants, herbivores and insects of higher trophic levels are all predicted to be affected by the current atmospheric climate change. However, only very few studies to date have addressed the sustained use and herbivore interactions of Bt-producing plants under the influence of these abiotic factors. The main objective of this study was to comparatively assess the performance of a Bt Cry1Ac toxin-producing oilseed rape line and its non-transgenic parent line in terms of vegetative growth and allocation to secondary defence compounds (glucosinolates and volatile terpenoids), and the performance of Bt-target and nontarget insect herbivores as well as tritrophic interaction functioning on these lines. For this, several growth chamber experiments with vegetative stage non-Bt and Bt plants facing exposures to doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} level alone or together with increased temperature and different regimes of elevated O{sub 3} were conducted. The main hypothesis of this work was that Bt-transgenic plants have reduced performance or allocation to secondary compounds due to the cost of producing Bt toxin under changed abiotic environments. The Bt-transgenic oilseed rape line exhibited slightly delayed vegetative growth and had increased nitrogen and reduced carbon content compared to the non-transgenic parent line, but the physiological responses (i.e. biomass gain and photosynthesis) of the plant lines to CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} enhancements were equal. Two aphid species, non-susceptible to Bt Cry1Ac, showed equal performance and reproduction on both plant lines under elevated CO{sub 2

  4. Impact of Sowing Date Induced Temperature and Management Practices on Development Events and Yield of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSA Khan, MA Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the research field of the Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur, during rabi season of 2014-2015 to find out the relationship between different development events of mustard crop and sowing dates induced temperature as well as to minimize the yield reduction of the crop by adopting appropriate management practices. The mustard var. BARI Sarisha-15 was sown on 06, 25 November and 14 December 2014. Crop accumulated lower growing degree days (GDD i.e., 72.15, 521.10 and 1070 to 1154 °C were observed for the events of emergence, 50 % flowering and maturity on 14 December sowing. Late sown plants took minimum time from flowering to maturity (36 days due to increased temperature and high variability in both maximum and minimum temperature. The highest seed yield (1569 kg ha-1 was recorded from 06 November sowing with high management practices while the lowest seed yield (435 kg ha-1 from 14 December sowing with low management practices. At high management practices the crop yielded 1183 kg ha-1 at 14 December sowing. Yield reduction at late sowing condition was reduced to some extent with high management practices. The seed yield reductions at 14 December sowing as compared to high management practices at 06 November sowing were 72, 43 and 25% under low, medium and high management, respectively.

  5. Phytoextraction of potentially toxic elements by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the phytoextraction of the potentially toxic elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse pot experiment was established using a highly contaminated grassland soil collected at the Wupper River (Germany). The impact of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), humate (HK), and phosphate potassium (PK) on the mobility and uptake of the elements by rapeseed also was investigated. Indian mustard showed the highest efficiency for phytoextraction of Al, Cr, Mo, Se, and V; sunflower for Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and rapeseed for Cu. The bioconcentration ratios were higher than 1 for the elements (except As and Cu), indicating the suitability of the studied plants for phytoextraction. Application of EDTA to the soil increased significantly the solubility of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb and decreased the solubility of Al, As, Se, V, and Mo. Humate potassium decreased significantly the concentrations of Al and As in rapeseed but increased the concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn. We may conclude that HK can be used for immobilization of Al and As, while it can be used for enhancing the phytoextraction of Cu, Se, and Zn by rapeseed. Phosphate potassium immobilized Al, Cd, Pb, and Zn, but enhanced phytoextraction of As, Cr, Mo, and Se by rapeseed.

  6. Brassica cover crops for nitrogen retention in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jill E; Weil, Ray R

    2009-01-01

    Brassica cover crops are new to the mid-Atlantic region, and limited information is available on their N uptake capabilities for effective N conservation. Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Daikon), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Adagio), and rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Dwarf Essex) were compared with rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Wheeler), a popular cover crop in the region, with regard to N uptake ability and potential to decrease N leaching at two sites in Maryland. Plants were harvested in fall and spring for dry matter and N analysis. Soil samples from 0 cm to 105 to 180 cm depth were obtained in fall and spring for NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N analyses. Ceramic cup tension lysimeters were installed at depths of 75 to 120 cm to monitor NO(3)-N in soil pore water. Averaged across 3 site-years, forage radish and rape shoots had greater dry matter production and captured more N in fall than rye shoots. Compared with a weedy fallow control, rape and rye caused similar decreases in soil NO(3)-N in fall and spring throughout the sampled profile. Cover crops had no effect on soil NH(4)-N. During the spring on coarse textured soil, pore water NO(3)-N concentrations in freeze-killed Brassica (radish) plots were greater than in control and overwintering Brassica (rape) and rye plots. On fine textured soil, all cover crops provided a similar decrease in pore water NO(3)-N concentration compared with control. On coarse textured soils, freeze-killed Brassica cover crops should be followed by an early-planted spring main crop.

  7. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  8. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  9. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  10. Production of transgenic brassica juncea with the synthetic chitinase gene (nic) conferring resistance to alternaria brassicicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, I.; Hussan, W.; Kazi, M.; Mian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea is an important oil seed crop throughout the world. The demand and cultivation of oil seed crops has gained importance due to rapid increase in world population and industrialization. Fungal diseases pose a great threat to Brassica productivity worldwide. Absence of resistance genes against fungal infection within crossable germplasms of this crop necessitates deployment of genetic engineering approaches to produce transgenic plants with resistance against fungal infections. In the current study, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Brassica juncea, used as explants, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefacien strain EHA101 harboring binary vector pEKB/NIC containing synthetic chitinase gene (NIC), an antifungal gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S). Bar genes and nptII gene were used as selectable markers. Presence of chitinase gene in trangenic lines was confirmed by PCR and southern blotting analysis. Effect of the extracted proteins from non-transgenic and transgenic lines was observed on the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing pathogen in brassica crop. In comparison to non-transgenic control lines, the leaf tissue extracts of the transgenic lines showed considerable resistance and antifungal activity against A. brassicicola. The antifungal activity in transgenic lines was observed as corresponding to the transgene copy number. (author)

  11. Selective modes determine evolutionary rates, gene compactness and expression patterns in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jiefu; Liu, Shengyi; Du, Jianchang

    2017-07-01

    It has been well documented that most nuclear protein-coding genes in organisms can be classified into two categories: positively selected genes (PSGs) and negatively selected genes (NSGs). The characteristics and evolutionary fates of different types of genes, however, have been poorly understood. In this study, the rates of nonsynonymous substitution (K a ) and the rates of synonymous substitution (K s ) were investigated by comparing the orthologs between the two sequenced Brassica species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, and the evolutionary rates, gene structures, expression patterns, and codon bias were compared between PSGs and NSGs. The resulting data show that PSGs have higher protein evolutionary rates, lower synonymous substitution rates, shorter gene length, fewer exons, higher functional specificity, lower expression level, higher tissue-specific expression and stronger codon bias than NSGs. Although the quantities and values are different, the relative features of PSGs and NSGs have been largely verified in the model species Arabidopsis. These data suggest that PSGs and NSGs differ not only under selective pressure (K a /K s ), but also in their evolutionary, structural and functional properties, indicating that selective modes may serve as a determinant factor for measuring evolutionary rates, gene compactness and expression patterns in Brassica. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Pino Del Carpio

    Full Text Available Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs and transcript QTLs (eQTLs. Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  13. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-06-18

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes.

  14. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  15. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  16. Response of bread wheat to increasing mustard meal nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greenhouse experiment on the nitrogen uptake from the mustard meal using 15N showed significant difference on both soil types. On the Vertisol the per cent nitrogen derived from the meal and per cent nitrogen use efficiency varied from 18 to 40 and from 18 to 62%, respectively. On the Nitosol, these values varied from 25 ...

  17. 7 CFR 457.168 - Mustard crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amount of production delivered, and the processor contract provides for delivery of the mustard under... that are identified by the Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of the... FCIC including, but not limited to, protein and oil will not be considered. (e) Any production...

  18. Pulmonary Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Behnoush

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%, pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%, malignant cellular infiltration (4%, and aspergilloma (1%. According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  19. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895) Dowson 1939, on brassicas in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Radunović Dragana; Balaž Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is most commonly grown, although other brassicas, particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly produced since recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing of collard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleracea species ...

  20. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  1. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures.

  2. Evaluating relative contribution of osmotolerance and tissue tolerance mechanisms toward salinity stress tolerance in three Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Eyles, Alieta; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. Brassica napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. Brassica juncea plants possessed high osmotolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na(+) . In addition to high osmotolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance and had a superior K(+) retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable 'donor' of tissue tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Effect of flaming on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. soil seed bank, soil micro organisms and physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of flaming on seed viability of Sinapis arvensis L., changes in microorganisms population and physicochemical characteristics of soil after canola (Brassica napus L. harvesting, an experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with four replications and eight treatments at Karaj Research Center, Iran, during 2005- 2006. After harvesting canola at the end of spring, wild mustard seeds were distributed evenly on the surface of the soil. In some plots, canola stubbles were left on the ground and in some plots canola stubbles were taken off. Under this condition, the following treatments were applied: Flaming under wet and dry soil condition, burning stubbles under wet and dry soil condition. In other plots canola stubbles were taken off the plots and then flaming was applied under wet and dry soil conditions. Check plots did not receive any treatment. Results indicated that all treatments reduced seed viability, and the highest loss in seedling density occurred in the flaming treatment on dry-soil. Flaming did not have any serious affect on soil microorganisms or on its other physiochemical aspects, however dry-soil treatments proved the safest.

  4. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  5. Chromosomal aberration induced by gamma rays in winter rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luczkiewicz, T.; Rogalska, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Winter rape seeds (Brassica napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were irradiated twice with gamma rays. In γ 1-2 generation (dose 50.0 kR) plants with reduced fertility were selected. Offspring of these plants, in the following generations, were segregated into fertile plants, partly fertile and sterile plants. Analysis of meiosis in PCM revealed presence of a great number of cells (in prophase 1. and metaphase 1.) with crosses, rings and chains of multivalents. It is a proof of vast heterozygous translocation. (author)

  6. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Li

    Full Text Available To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination, respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants.

  7. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  8. Therapeutic journery of nitrogen mustard as alkylating anticancer agents: Historic to future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh K; Kumar, Sahil; Prasad, D N; Bhardwaj, T R

    2018-05-10

    Cancer is considered as one of the most serious health problems today. The discovery of nitrogen mustard as an alkylating agent in 1942, opened a new era in the cancer chemotherapy. This valuable class of alkylating agent exerts its biological activity by binding to DNA, cross linking two strands, preventing DNA replication and ultimate cell death. At the molecular level, nitrogen lone pairs of nitrogen mustard generate a strained intermediate "aziridinium ion" which is very reactive towards DNA of tumor cell as well as normal cell resulting in various adverse side effects alogwith therapeutic implications. Over the last 75 years, due to its high reactivity and peripheral cytotoxicity, numerous modifications have been made in the area of nitrogen mustard to improve its efficacy as well as enhancing drug delivery specifically to tumor cells. This review mainly discusses the medicinal chemistry aspects in the development of various classes of nitrogen mustards (mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, melphalan, cyclophosphamide and steroidal based nitrogen mustards). The literature collection includes the historical and the latest developments in these areas. This comprehensive review also attempted to showcase the recent progress in the targeted delivery of nitrogen mustards that includes DNA directed nitrogen mustards, antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT), nitrogen mustard activated by glutathione transferase, peptide based nitrogen mustards and CNS targeted nitrogen mustards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Progressive introgression between ¤Brassica napus¤ (oilseed rape) and ¤B-rapa¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, H.R.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    We have earlier shown extensive introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and B. rapa in a weedy population using AFLP markers specific for the nuclear genomes. In order to describe the progress of this introgression, we examined 117 offspring from 12 maternal plants from the introgress...

  10. Evaluation of glucosinolate levels throughout the production chain of Brassica vegetables towards a novel predictive modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.

    2002-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a group of plant secondary metabolites, that can have important implications for human health. Vegetables of the Brassica genus, including cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and kohlrabi contribute almost exclusively to our intake of

  11. Flower infection of Brassica oleracea with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris results in high levels of seed infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Heijden, van der L.

    2013-01-01

    During seed production, Brassica seed may become infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris after systemic colonization of plants upon leaf infection, or alternatively, after flower infection. Polytunnel experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to study the relative importance of these

  12. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  13. Short-term salt stress in Brassica rapa seedlings causes alterations in auxin metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlović, I.; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Vujčić, V.; Radić Brkanac, S.; Lepeduš, H.; Strnad, Miroslav; Salopek-Sondi, B.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 125, APR (2018), s. 74-84 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06613S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin metabolism * Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis * Growth inhibition * Principal component analysis * Reactive oxygen species * Short-term salinity stress * Stress hormones Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  14. The first generation of a BAC-based physical map of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Brassica includes the most extensively cultivated vegetable crops worldwide. Investigation of the Brassica genome presents excellent challenges to study plant genome evolution and divergence of gene function associated with polyploidy and genome hybridization. A physical map of the B. rapa genome is a fundamental tool for analysis of Brassica "A" genome structure. Integration of a physical map with an existing genetic map by linking genetic markers and BAC clones in the sequencing pipeline provides a crucial resource for the ongoing genome sequencing effort and assembly of whole genome sequences. Results A genome-wide physical map of the B. rapa genome was constructed by the capillary electrophoresis-based fingerprinting of 67,468 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones using the five restriction enzyme SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs by means of FPC v8.5.3. After contig validation and manual editing, the resulting contig assembly consists of 1,428 contigs and is estimated to span 717 Mb in physical length. This map provides 242 anchored contigs on 10 linkage groups to be served as seed points from which to continue bidirectional chromosome extension for genome sequencing. Conclusion The map reported here is the first physical map for Brassica "A" genome based on the High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF technique. This physical map will serve as a fundamental genomic resource for accelerating genome sequencing, assembly of BAC sequences, and comparative genomics between Brassica genomes. The current build of the B. rapa physical map is available at the B. rapa Genome Project website for the user community.

  15. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  16. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  17. Variation in G lucosinolate C ontents of C ruciferous P lants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites of almost all plants of the order Brassicales, and have been known to control nematode populations. In this study, 14 glucosinolates were identified, quantified, and compared in several varieties and cultivars of cruciferous plants including Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage, Brassica juncea var. crispifolia L. H. Bailey (mustard, Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea (leaf mustard, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale, Raphanus sativus L. (radish, and Brassica campestris L. ssp. oleifera (winter turnip rape. The most abundant glucosinolate in mustard, leaf mustard, kale, and radish was sinigrin. In leaf mustard, the sinigrin content ranged from 193.05 μmol/g to 215.52 μmol/g, and in mustard, the sinigrin contents of blue mustard and red mustard were 219.08 μmol/g and 215.73 μmol/g, respectively. Kale and radish contained 137.79 μmol/g and 120.25 μmol/g, respectively, of sinigrin. Gluconapin was the most abundant glucosinolate in winter turnip rape, at 121.17 μmol/g. Chinese cabbage contained mostly glucocochlearin (79.88 μmol/g. These results will be useful in the development of environmentally friendly plant-based pesticides by allowing for proper control of glucosinolates based on those present in the chosen plant species.

  18. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  19. Brassica rapa L. seed development in hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.; Allen, J.; Blasiak, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments had shown that microgravity adversely affected seed development in Brassica rapa L. We tested the hypothesis that gravity controls seed development via modulation of gases around the developing seeds, by studying how hypergravity affects the silique microenvironment and seed

  20. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  1. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Thorsten; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schuessler, Arthur

    1999-01-01

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants

  2. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thorsten; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur

    1999-10-01

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants.

  3. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Thorsten E-mail: thorsten.schneider@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schuessler, Arthur

    1999-09-02

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants.

  4. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neofunctionalization of duplicated Tic40 genes caused a gain-of-function variation related to male fertility in Brassica oleracea lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaoling; Shen, Wenhao; Hu, Kaining; Zhou, Zhengfu; Xia, Shengqian; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-11-01

    Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  7. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Biodiesel from Mustard oil: a Sustainable Engine Fuel Substitute for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Various attractive features of mustard oil based biodiesel as a potential substitute for engine fuel are investigated in this paper for use in Bangladesh. Although the use of mustard oil as edible oil has been reduced, Bangladesh still produces 0.22 million metric tons of mustard oil per year. This surplus mustard oil would satisfactorily be used as an alternative to diesel fuel, and thus could contribute in reducing the expenses for importing fuel from foreign countries. Moreover, the rural people of Bangladesh are capable of producing mustard oil themselves using indigenous machines. Fuel properties of biodiesel obtained from mustard oil were determined in the laboratory using standard procedure and an experimental setup was constructed to study the performance of a small diesel engine. It is observed that with biodiesel, the engine is capable of running without difficulty. Initially different lower blends of biodiesel (e.g., B20, B30 etc. have been used to avoid complicated modification of the engine and the fuel supply system. It is also found in some condition that mustard oil based biodiesel have better properties than those made from other vegetable oils. These properties of mustard oil based biodiesel were evaluated to validate its sustainability in Bangladesh. Keywords: biodiesel, indigenous machines, mustard oil, renewable energy policy, sustainability

  9. Humic Fertilizer and Vermicompost Applied to the Soil Can Positively Affect Population Growth Parameters of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, P; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-12-01

    The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a devastating pest of tomato worldwide. One of the control measures of T. absoluta is the use of biological control agents, such as Trichogramma wasps. Interactions between natural enemies and insect pests may be affected by application of fertilizers, because changes in plant quality through the fertilizer application may therefore affect herbivore characteristics and suitability of them to parasitism. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the life table parameters of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko on T. absoluta eggs reared on tomato plants treated either with vermicompost (40%), humic fertilizer (2 g/kg soil), or control (suitable mixture of field soil and sand). Population growth parameters of T. brassicae were affected by fertilizer treatments. Significant differences were found for immature life period and total fecundity of T. brassicae on the treatments. Differences of intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R 0 ), mean generation time (T), and doubling time (DT) of T. brassicae among treatments were also significant. The lowest values of r m , λ, and R 0 were recorded for T. brassicae developed on T. absoluta eggs on control treatment, whereas the highest values of these parameters were observed on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer. Furthermore, T. brassicae had the shortest T and DT values on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost treatments. Our results showed that application of humic fertilizer and vermicompost could positively affect population growth parameters of T. brassicae on eggs of T. absoluta fed on tomato plants.

  10. Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) signalling and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in Brassica napus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Trdá, Lucie; Krutinová, Hana; Mongin, T.; Valentová, O.; Balesdent, M.H.; Rouxel, T.; Burketová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2016), s. 818-831 ISSN 1464-6722 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26798S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : AvrLm4-7 * Brassica napus * effector Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 4.697, year: 2016

  11. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  12. Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of some Brassica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica SOARE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper set out to comparatively study five species: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata alba Alef., red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra Alef., Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. cymosa in order to identify those with high enzymatic and antioxidant activities. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and soluble peroxidase (POX as well as the antioxidant activity against 2.2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation were determined. Total superoxide dismutase activity was measured spectrophotometrically based on inhibition in the photochemical reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Total soluble peroxidase was assayed by measuring the increase in A436 due to the guaiacol oxidation and the catalase activity was assayed through the colorimetric method. The capacity of extracts to scavenge the ABTS radical cation was assessed colorimetric using Trolox as a standard. The obtained results show that studied enzymatic activities and the antioxidant activity against ABTS vary depending on the analyzed species. So, among the studied Brassicaceae species, it emphasize red cabbage with the highest enzymatic activity (CAT 22.54 mM H2O2/min/g and POX 187.2 mM ΔA/1min/1g f.w. and kale with highest antioxidant activity, of 767 μmol TE/100g f.w. The results of this study recommendintroducing the studied varieties in diet due to the rich antioxidant properties.

  13. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2016-09-02

    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  14. Mustard vesicant-induced lung injury: Advances in therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, Barry; Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Venosa, Alessandro; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Most mortality and morbidity following exposure to vesicants such as sulfur mustard is due to pulmonary toxicity. Acute injury is characterized by epithelial detachment and necrosis in the pharynx, trachea and bronchioles, while long-term consequences include fibrosis and, in some instances, cancer. Current therapies to treat mustard poisoning are primarily palliative and do not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. New knowledge about vesicant-induced pulmonary disease pathogenesis has led to the identification of potentially efficacious strategies to reduce injury by targeting inflammatory cells and mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proteases and proinflammatory/cytotoxic cytokines. Therapeutics under investigation include corticosteroids, N-acetyl cysteine, which has both mucolytic and antioxidant properties, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, liposomes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and/or tocopherols, protease inhibitors, and cytokine antagonists such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody and pentoxifylline. Antifibrotic and fibrinolytic treatments may also prove beneficial in ameliorating airway obstruction and lung remodeling. More speculative approaches include inhibitors of transient receptor potential channels, which regulate pulmonary epithelial cell membrane permeability, non-coding RNAs and mesenchymal stem cells. As mustards represent high priority chemical threat agents, identification of effective therapeutics for mitigating toxicity is highly significant.

  15. Mustard vesicant-induced lung injury: Advances in therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Barry, E-mail: bweinberger@northwell.edu [Division of Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY 11040 (United States); Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, School of Public Health, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Most mortality and morbidity following exposure to vesicants such as sulfur mustard is due to pulmonary toxicity. Acute injury is characterized by epithelial detachment and necrosis in the pharynx, trachea and bronchioles, while long-term consequences include fibrosis and, in some instances, cancer. Current therapies to treat mustard poisoning are primarily palliative and do not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. New knowledge about vesicant-induced pulmonary disease pathogenesis has led to the identification of potentially efficacious strategies to reduce injury by targeting inflammatory cells and mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proteases and proinflammatory/cytotoxic cytokines. Therapeutics under investigation include corticosteroids, N-acetyl cysteine, which has both mucolytic and antioxidant properties, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, liposomes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and/or tocopherols, protease inhibitors, and cytokine antagonists such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody and pentoxifylline. Antifibrotic and fibrinolytic treatments may also prove beneficial in ameliorating airway obstruction and lung remodeling. More speculative approaches include inhibitors of transient receptor potential channels, which regulate pulmonary epithelial cell membrane permeability, non-coding RNAs and mesenchymal stem cells. As mustards represent high priority chemical threat agents, identification of effective therapeutics for mitigating toxicity is highly significant.

  16. Panceratic Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshid Fayyaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare gases that has been known as a vesicant or blistering agents. It is a chemical alkylating compound agent that can be frequently absorbed through skin, respiratory system, genital tract, and ocular system. This study was done to pathologically analyze the microscopic pancreatic lesions in cadavers. Methods: This case series study was performed during 2007 to 2012 in Legal Medicine Organization. Exposure was confirmed by the written reports of the field hospitals, based on acute presentation of eye, skin and pulmonary symptoms of the exposure. Results: Pancreatic autopsy findings were chronic inflammation, fibrosis and duct ectasia; acinar atrophy was also seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases had chronic pancreatic disease with abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss that was confirmed by sonography. CT scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP have also demonstrated the chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the mustard gas exposed people in chemical factories is necessary.

  17. Combined effects of water, nutrient, and UV-B stress on female fitness in Brassica (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.K.; Zangori, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Our knowledge of the effects of increased levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on plant fitness is limited mainly to yield studies in a few crop species. Previous greenhouse and garden studies of Brassica have found greater detrimental effects of UV-B on fitness in gardens than in the greenhouse, suggesting the possibility that additional stresses in the field decrease the ability of Brassica to cope with UV-B. Possible interactions between UV-B and water/nutrient stress in determining plant fitness have rarely, if ever, been studied experimentally. Here we report measurements of female fitness in two species of Brassica in an experiment in which both UV-B and levels of water and nutrients were varied in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Water and nutrient stress reduced female fitness in both species, while UV-B caused fitness reductions in only one of the species. There was evidence for interactions between UV-B and water/nutrient stress for only a few of the traits measured; most traits, including those closely related to fitness, showed no evidence of an interaction

  18. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Green

    Full Text Available Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  19. Bioinformatics analysis of the phytoene synthase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zheng, Aihong; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    Phytoene Synthase (PSY) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata PSY (BocPSY) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocPSY1, BocPSY2 and BocPSY3 genes mapped to chromosomes 2,3 and 9, and contains an open reading frame of 1,248 bp, 1,266 bp and 1,275 bp that encodes a 415, 421, 424 amino acid protein, respectively. Subcellular localization predicted all BocPSY genes were in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocPSY protein is PLN02632. Homology analysis indicates that the levels of identity among BocPSYs were all more than 85%, and the PSY protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of PSY gene function in cabbage.

  20. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baziar, M.R.; Farahvash, F.; Mirshekari, B.; Rashidi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  1. Studies on the use of gamma irradiation and tissue culture in improving brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedr, E.K.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to:1- Studying the effect of different doses of gamma rays on some growth and yield component traits of three Brassica napus cultivars (Serow6, Serow4 and Pactol) during four consecutive generations aiming to create new genotypes characterized with high yielding traits. 2- Studying the effect of different doses of gamma rays on in vitro biotechnology technique (tissue culture) used in improving Brassica napus. Seeds of three Brassica napus cultivars were irradiated with different gamma ray doses then sown for four consecutive seasons. Data were collected and recorded to clarify the effect gamma irradiation on some yield component traits which were days to flowering , plant height, number of main branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 1000-seed, weight of grain yield/plant and oil content of seeds). Results showed that high doses of gamma radiation had enhanced all of the studied traits for each of the three tested cultivars (except the plant height trait for Serow6 and Pactol cultivars). Seven new mutant lines were selected for their superiority in one or more of the studied yield component traits. Regarding the effect of gamma rays on tissue culture techniques, the applied gamma radiation doses did not affect the percentage of seed germination of the three studied cultivars, whereas the percentage of callus induction decreased by increasing the dose of gamma rays for each of the three cultivars and in both types of explants (hypocotyl and cotyledons) used in this experiment.

  2. A highly selective and sensitive "turn-on" fluorescence chemodosimeter for the detection of mustard gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavender Goud, D; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar; Kumar, Pravin; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-10-21

    A new chemodosimetric protocol based on a tandem S-alkylation followed by desulfurisation reaction of rhodamine-thioamide with mustard gas is reported. The chemodosimeter is highly selective for potential DNA alkylating agents like sulfur mustard, over other simple alkyl halides with the limit of detection of 4.75 μM.

  3. Phytocontact Dermatitis due to Mustard Seed Mimicking Burn Injury: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yabanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustard seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, and purgative and to treat a variety of ailments including peritonitis and neuralgia. Mustards are still used today in mustard plasters to treat rheumatism, arthritis, chest congestion, aching back, and sore muscles. To make a mustard plaster, mix equal parts of flour and powdered mustard and spread it as a paste on a doubled piece of soft cloth. Apply mustard plaster to the affected area for a maximum of 15 minutes. Prolonged application can result in burns to the skin and nerve damage. Skin lesions occur within hours after exposure, and there is no significant therapy procedure. This case report is about a patient with second-degree burn, occurred when a mixture including mustard seed was exposed to her skin in the pain therapy of the osteoarthritis in her left knee. There are no studies analyzing treatment of skin burns induced by mustard seed in the literature. While in this type of burns our experience is limited, we think that conservative approach should be first choice of treatment.

  4. Estabelecimento de plantas herbáceas em solo com contaminação de metais pesados e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Establishment of herbaceous plants in heavy metal contaminated soils inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o estabelecimento de plantas herbáceas em solo com contaminação de metais pesados (MP e inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs. O experimento foi realizado em bandejas, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, sendo cinco proporções de solo contaminado com MP na ausência e presença de FMAs. Sementes de oito espécies de gramíneas e uma crucífera (mostarda -- Brassica sp. foram plantadas e cultivadas por 120 dias e avaliadas em dois cortes. No primeiro corte, as gramíneas foram severamente afetadas pela contaminação, e a mostarda foi pouco afetada, mostrando alta tolerância. No segundo corte, o efeito da contaminação foi negligível para as gramíneas, e a inoculação dos FMAs aumentou em 24% a matéria seca destas em relação ao controle sem inoculação. A inoculação teve também efeito positivo na matéria seca das raízes e na colonização micorrízica. Os teores de Cd, Zn e Pb na parte aérea foram maiores na mostarda do que nas gramíneas em ambos os cortes. Apesar de a inoculação não ter efeito no crescimento das gramíneas do primeiro corte, as plantas com inoculação apresentaram maior acúmulo de Zn, Cd e Pb no segundo corte. A maior tolerância da mostarda aos metais pesados permitiu seu crescimento e conseqüente acúmulo de Zn, Cd e Pb do solo contaminado. A extração destes elementos do solo pode ter contribuído para o melhor desenvolvimento subseqüente das gramíneas, favorecendo o estabelecimento das plantas.The establishment of herbaceous plants in soil contaminated by heavy metals (HM and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was evaluated in the present study. The experiment was conducted in trays, in a 5 x 2 factorial, being five proportions of contaminated soil with or without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. Seeds of eight grass species and a mustard (Brassica sp. were planted and allowed to grow for 120 days under greenhouse conditions

  5. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  7. Identification and insertion polymorphisms of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in Brassica genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.; Naveed, M.

    2018-01-01

    The non-LTR retrotransposons (retroposons) are abundant in plant genomes including members of Brassicaceae. Of the retroposons, long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are more copious followed by short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in sequenced eukaryotic genomes. The SINEs are short elements and ranged from 100-500 bps flanked by variable sized target site duplications, 5' tRNA region with polymerase III promoter, internal tRNA unrelated region, 3' LINEs derived region and a poly adenosine tail. Different computational approaches were used for the identification and characterization of SINEs, while PCR was used to detect the SINEs insertion polymorphisms in various Brassica genotypes. Ten previously unidentified families of SINEs were identified and characterized from Brassica genomes. The structural features of these SINEs were studied in detail, which showed typical SINE features displaying small sizes, target site duplications, head regions, internal regions (body) of variable sizes and a poly (A) tail at the 3' terminus. The elements from various families ranged from 206-558 bp, where BoSINE2 family displayed smallest SINE element (206 bp), while larger members belonged to BoSINE9 family (524-558 bp). The distribution and abundance of SINEs in various Brassica species and genotypes (40) at a particular site/locus were investigated by SINEs based PCR markers. Various SINE insertion polymorphisms were detected from different genotypes, where higher PCR bands amplified the SINE insertions, while lower bands amplified the pre-insertion sites (flanking regions). The analysis of Brassica SINEs copy numbers from 10 identified families revealed that around 860 and 1712 copies of SINEs were calculated from B. rapa and B. oleracea Whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) respectively. Analysis of insertion sites of Brassica SINEs revealed that the members from all 10 SINE families had shown an insertion preference in AT rich regions. The present

  8. Salt tolerance potential of brassica juncea Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrar, M; Jabeen, M; Tabassum, J [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany; Hussain, F; Ilahi, I [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Pharmacy

    2003-07-01

    The present study showed that percent germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Brassica juncea were adversely affected by increasing the level of salinity. As compared to 95 per cent germination of the control, there were 92.50. 90.00. 90.00, 85.00, 87.50 and 80.00 per cent germinations respectively at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5. 10.0. 12.5 and 15.0 dSm/sup -1/ NaCI salinity levels. Similarly. all the parameters tested in the pot experiments showed gradual decline with the corresponding increasing levels of NaCl salinity. At lower levels of salinity (2.5 and 5.0 dSm/sup -l/), Brassica juncea had reasonably good growth and productivity. It showed greatly reduced growth and at 7.5 and 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ while at 12.5 and 15.0 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ salinity levels it was severely production affected. It is concluded from the present work that Brassica juncea can be grown fairly on mild saline soils for a food, fodder and seed production. (author)

  9. Salt tolerance potential of brassica juncea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrar, M.; Jabeen, M.; Tabassum, J.; Hussain, F.; Ilahi, I.

    2003-01-01

    The present study showed that percent germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Brassica juncea were adversely affected by increasing the level of salinity. As compared to 95 per cent germination of the control, there were 92.50. 90.00. 90.00, 85.00, 87.50 and 80.00 per cent germinations respectively at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5. 10.0. 12.5 and 15.0 dSm/sup -1/ NaCI salinity levels. Similarly. all the parameters tested in the pot experiments showed gradual decline with the corresponding increasing levels of NaCl salinity. At lower levels of salinity (2.5 and 5.0 dSm/sup -l/), Brassica juncea had reasonably good growth and productivity. It showed greatly reduced growth and at 7.5 and 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ while at 12.5 and 15.0 10.0 dSm/sup -1/ salinity levels it was severely production affected. It is concluded from the present work that Brassica juncea can be grown fairly on mild saline soils for a food, fodder and seed production. (author)

  10. Persistence and Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in Brassica Chinensis, Lettuce, Celery, Asparagus Lettuce, Eggplant, and Pepper in a Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Xiao; Jiang, Wayne W.; Wang, Jia-Lei; Jian, Qiu; Shen, Yan; Liu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The residue behavior of chlorpyrifos, which is one of the extensively used insecticides all around the world, in six vegetable crops was assessed under greenhouse conditions. Each of the vegetables was subjected to a foliar treatment with chlorpyrifos. Two analytical methods were developed using gas chromatography equipped with a micro-ECD detector (LOQ = 0.05 mg kg−1) and liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (LOQ = 0.01 mg kg−1). The initial foliar deposited concentration of chlorpyrifos (mg kg−1) on the six vegetables followed the increasing order of brassica chinensischlorpyrifos showed differences among the six selected vegetable plants, ranging from 16.5±0.9 mg kg−1 (brassica chinensis) to 74.0±5.9 mg kg−1 (pepper plant). At pre-harvest interval 21 days, the chlorpyrifos residues in edible parts of the crops were chlorpyrifos were found to be 7.79 (soil), 2.64 (pepper plants), 3.90 (asparagus lettuce), 3.92 (lettuce), 5.81 (brassica chinensis), 3.00 (eggplant plant), and 5.45 days (celery), respectively. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soil and the six selected plants was different, indicating that the persistence of chlorpyrifos residues strongly depends upon leaf characteristics of the selected vegetables. PMID:24967589

  11. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are

  12. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of

  13. Isolation of an ascorbate peroxidase in Brassica napus and analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... domain; APX, ascorbate peroxidase; Bn-APX, Brassica napus ascorbate ... Brassica napus, which is widely grown as the oilseed crop of rape or canola, .... grew on the SD-Leu-Trp-His-Ade medium and were verified by PCR.

  14. Novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-García, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pérez-Gordo, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5 ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19 ± 3 ...

  15. Cleome viscosa (wild mustard): a review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Ravindra G

    2010-01-01

    Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae), commonly known as "wild or dog mustard," is an annual, sticky herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and throughout the tropics of the world. The whole plant and its parts (leaves, seeds, and roots) are widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine the plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, antiscorbutic, sudorific, febrifuge, and cardiac stimulant. Following the various traditional claims for the use of C. viscosa (CV) as a cure of numerous diseases, considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify its utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The pharmacological studies have shown that CV possesses various notable biological activities such as anthelmintic, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, psychopharmacological, antidiarrheal, and hepatoprotective activities. A wide variety of phytoprinciples have been isolated from the plant. The present review is an effort to consolidate traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information available on C. viscosa.

  16. Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis reveals the evolutionary rearrangement mechanism in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Liu, G; Zhao, N; Chen, S; Liu, D; Ma, W; Hu, Z; Zhang, M

    2016-05-01

    The genus Brassica has many species that are important for oil, vegetable and other food products. Three mitochondrial genome types (mitotype) originated from its common ancestor. In this paper, a B. nigra mitochondrial main circle genome with 232,407 bp was generated through de novo assembly. Synteny analysis showed that the mitochondrial genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea had a better syntenic relationship than B. nigra. Principal components analysis and development of a phylogenetic tree indicated maternal ancestors of three allotetraploid species in Us triangle of Brassica. Diversified mitotypes were found in allotetraploid B. napus, in which napus-type B. napus was derived from B. oleracea, while polima-type B. napus was inherited from B. rapa. In addition, the mitochondrial genome of napus-type B. napus was closer to botrytis-type than capitata-type B. oleracea. The sub-stoichiometric shifting of several mitochondrial genes suggested that mitochondrial genome rearrangement underwent evolutionary selection during domestication and/or plant breeding. Our findings clarify the role of diploid species in the maternal origin of allotetraploid species in Brassica and suggest the possibility of breeding selection of the mitochondrial genome. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin