Sample records for muslim offenders scored

  1. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.


    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  2. Bem Sex Role Inventory Undifferentiated Score: A Comparison of Sexual Dysfunction Patients with Sexual Offenders. (United States)

    Dwyer, Margretta; And Others


    Examined Bem Sex Role undifferentiated scores on 93 male sex offenders as compared with 50 male sexually dysfunctional patients. Chi-square analyses revealed significant difference: offenders obtained undifferentiated scores more often than did sexual dysfunctional population. Concluded that Bem Sex Role Inventory is useful in identifying sexual…

  3. Reappraising the Impact of Offending on Victimization: A Propensity Score Matching Approach. (United States)

    Posick, Chad


    Existing evidence clearly supports an empirical connection between offending and victimization. Often called the "victim-offender overlap," this relationship holds for both sexes, across the life course, and across a wide range of countries and cultural environments. In addition, the relationship is sustained regardless of the study sample and statistical methods applied in the analyses of the sample data. However, there has yet to be a study that examines this relationship for violent and property crime using quasi-experimental methods accounting for a wide range of potential confounders including individual differences and cultural contexts. This study subjects the victim-offender relationship to testing through propensity score matching for both violent and property crimes using an international dataset. The results show that previous violent and theft offending increases the odds of victimization when matching on individual and contextual factors. This finding supports previous literature and suggests that delinquent behavior may act as a "switch" that exposes one to subsequent violent and theft victimization.

  4. The prevalence of middle eastern extremist ideologies among some canadian offenders. (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy


    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to 89 male Canadian offenders of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, sixsubscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle Eastern extremists on risk areas described in the literature. Results indicated that the Muslim offenders scored much higher than and significantly different from both the Christian and atheist groups on the BDS. Results also suggested the prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies among the Muslim offenders involved in this study.

  5. Predictive Accuracy of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version Risk and Change Scores in Treated Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Sexual Offenders. (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Sowden, Justina N; Kingston, Drew A; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Wong, Stephen C P


    The present study examined the predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexual offenders in a combined sample of 1,063 Canadian federally incarcerated men. All men participated in sexual offender treatment programming through the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) at sites across its five regions. The Static-99R was also examined for comparison purposes. In total, 393 of the men were identified as Aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Métis, Circumpolar) while 670 were non-Aboriginal and primarily White. Aboriginal men scored significantly higher on the Static-99R and VRS-SO and had higher rates of sexual and violent recidivism; however, there were no significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups on treatment change with both groups demonstrating close to a half-standard deviation of change pre and post treatment. VRS-SO risk and change scores significantly predicted sexual and violent recidivism over fixed 5- and 10-year follow-ups for both racial/ancestral groups. Cox regression survival analyses also demonstrated positive treatment changes to be significantly associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men after controlling baseline risk. A series of follow-up Cox regression analyses demonstrated that risk and change score information accounted for much of the observed differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in rates of sexual recidivism; however, marked group differences persisted in rates of general violent recidivism even after controlling for these covariates. The results support the predictive properties of VRS-SO risk and change scores with treated Canadian Aboriginal sexual offenders.

  6. Life satisfaction and perceived stress among young offenders in a residential therapeutic community: Latent change score analysis. (United States)

    Tang, Kristen N S; Chan, Christian S


    Recent rehabilitation frameworks underscore the importance of strength-based interventions for young offenders who may lack internal and external resources to manage their stress and plan for their life. This multi-wave longitudinal study investigated the dynamic relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction among a group of young ex-offenders in a residential therapeutic community. Four waves of data were collected from 117 Hong Kong youths (24.0% female, mean age = 17.7) over one year. Latent change score analysis was employed to examine the univairate and bivariate changes of their perceived stress and life satisfaction. Results suggest a positive growth trajectory in life satisfaction over time. The results of perceived stress were less conclusive. Bivariate models indicated that the previous level of life satisfaction was negatively linked to the subsequent perceived stress level but not vice versa. The findings suggest that improvement in life satisfaction may reduce perceived stress in young ex-offenders. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Online child pornography offenders are different: a meta-analysis of the characteristics of online and offline sex offenders against children. (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather


    The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group.

  8. Muslim education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pietkiewicz-Pareek


    Full Text Available Madrasa education is a very important part of the History of Muslim education and Islamic studies in India. As many as 25 per cent of Muslim children in the 6-14 year age group have either never attended school or have dropped out, so madrasa school is the only choice for them.

  9. Islamic Religiosity, Depression and Anxiety among Muslim Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzirah Ahmad Basri


    Full Text Available Active religious practice is central to Muslim livelihood. Among Muslims, this religious engagement is rarely studied with regards to its association in coping with critical illnesses. This study investigated the association between Islamic religiosity with depression and anxiety in Muslim cancer patients. Fifty-nine cancer patients recruited from a Malaysian public hospital and a cancer support group completed the Muslim Religiosity and Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in July and August 2010. Islamic religiosity score, obtained from the sum of subscale scores of Islamic worldview and religious personality represents a greater understanding and practice of Islam in a comprehensive manner. Results yielded a significant negative correlation between Islamic religiosity score with both depression and anxiety. Depression was also found to be negatively associated with religious personality subscale. Older patients scored significantly higher on both Islamic worldview and religious personality whereas patients with higher education scored higher on Islamic worldview. Married patients scored significantly higher scores on religious personality than the single patients. Results provided an insight into the significant role of religious intervention which has huge potentials to improve the psychological health of cancer patients particularly Muslims in Malaysia. Research implication includes the call for professionals to meet the spiritual needs of Muslim cancer patients and incorporating religious components in their treatment, especially in palliative care.

  10. The Muslim Problematic: Muslims, State Schools and Security (United States)

    Miah, Shamim


    Muslims are folk-devils that mark the ubiquitous moral panic. For some, the idea of the "Muslim problematic" signifies a long and worrying trend of creeping "Islamification" of state schools. For others, the discourse of the "Muslim problematic" reflects the ongoing racial patholigisation of Britain's minoritised…

  11. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.


    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  12. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders (United States)

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.


    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  13. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders. (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas


    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  14. Psychopathic traits in young offenders vs. non-offenders in similar socioeconomic condition

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    Gustavo B. Castellana


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in psychopathic traits between offender and non-offender youths with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. Method: The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R scale was used to identify whether 39 young offenders with no history of mental disorders or criteria for psychopathy exhibited differences in its total score, and specifically for factor 1 or factor 2 of this scale, when compared with 32 other young people, living in similar socioeconomic conditions, who had not committed offenses. Results: We observed statistically significant between-group differences (p < 0.01 in mean PCL-R scores, with a mean score of 13.4 in the offender group vs. 2.1 in the non-offender group. We also detected significant between-group differences when we analyzed mean factor 1 (p < 0.01 and factor 2 (p < 0.01 scores separately. Although the groups exhibited statistically significant difference in educational attainment, between-group comparison of mean PCL-R scores controlling for educational attainment by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA showed that the difference in PCL-R scores remained statistically significant (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We conclude that, in this sample, the presence of both primary (interpersonal/affective characteristics and secondary (lifestyle/antisocial behavior psychopathic traits differed between offender and non-offender youths, even when excluding psychopathy and other mental disorders from the assessments. These results suggest a need for wide-ranging interventions, not restricted to socioeconomic aspects, for the management of juvenile delinquency.

  15. Muslims at the Australian periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Briskman


    Full Text Available The overt expression of anti-Muslim sentiment is a relatively new phenomenon in Australia. It builds upon racism embedded in history, “clash of civilisations” ideologies and constructs of border-terrorism. Denigration of Muslims, commonly termed Islamophobia, is overtly evident in the official sphere, media reporting and increasing popular rejection of Islamic amenities such as schools and mosques. Connected but more insidious is the Islamophobia of the ‘white savior rescue’ movement, in which Muslim men and Islam are positioned as perpetrators of oppression and harm toward Muslim women, requiring non-Muslim intervention. Varied forms of Islamophobia and their impacts are discussed.

  16. Muslimness and prayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram


    and processes of becoming. The act of prayer (salat) is used as a point of departure in understanding how it is possible to position oneself as a Muslim in regard to secular and religious discourses present in school and society. The analysis shows how religiosity is intrinsically linked to subjectivity...

  17. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Propensity Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders. (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Green, Michelle M


    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders' broader criminal careers.

  18. The differences between sex offenders who victimise older women and sex offenders who offend against children. (United States)

    Browne, K D; Hines, Morag; Tully, Ruth J


    Within the literature on sex offending, much attention is paid to the distinction between those sex offenders who offend against adults and those who offend against children. In contrast, there is a paucity of research into sex offenders who offend specifically against elderly or older victims. A detailed interview and psychometric tests were conducted with a sample of 28 sex offenders who had been convicted of a sexually motivated offence against an older female. These data were compared to a sample of 23 child sex offenders. Results indicate that amongst other significant differences between these sub-groups, men who offend against older women are generally younger, are more violent, and are more likely to use a weapon and cause injury and death compared to child sex offenders. The men who offended against children were more likely to think about and plan their offending, spend more time with the victim pre and post offence, admit sexual arousal during the offence, and admit to a sexual motivation for the offence. This study suggests that men who sexually offend against older women and men who sexually offend against children are distinct groups. Treatment and risk management strategies should take this into account. Further exploration of this sub-group of offenders is recommended to help inform treatment and risk management strategies for sex offenders who offend against older people.

  19. Understanding the Muslim Brotherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ramos


    Full Text Available Mohammed Zahid. The Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt's Succession Crisis: The Politics of Liberalisation and Reform in the Middle East. London; New York: I. B. Tauris [2010] 2012. Carrie Rosefsky Wickham. The Muslim Brotherhood: Evolution of an Islamist Movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013. Hazem Kandil. Inside the Brotherhood. Cambridge: Policy Press, 2015. The status of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt presently is, at best, tenuous. Accordingly, some questions that are pertinent for today and tomorrow include: Is this movement in Egypt that at one point attained a pinnacle of success beyond its members' wildest dreams alive and well? If not, can the movement in Egypt still make a comeback? The three books selected for review offer insights on these and other related questions from different points of view. Of particular interest are the following topics that all three books develop directly or indirectly: (1 history of the movement; (2 the spiritual or religious objectives of the movement vis a vis the political objectives of the movement; (3 the conflict between the Brotherhood leadership and its youthful reformist membership in the organization; and, (4 how these topics were interrelated in the days before and after the fall of Morsi. The three texts cover the historical context of the secular revolution of 2011 from three overlapping temporal vantage points. Zahid covers the Muslim Brotherhood up to 2011; Wickham covers the Brotherhood to the period just after its ascension to power, but before its fall; and, Kandil covers the Brotherhood through its fall from power to the immediate aftermath thereof.

  20. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

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    Ashiq Ali Shah


    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  1. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia


    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  2. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshen, J. [Lucent Technologies (United States); Drake, G. [New Mexico Dept. of Corrections, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Spencer, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  3. Technology in Muslim Moral Philosophy. (United States)

    Moosa, Ebrahim


    The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.

  4. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  5. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian


    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  6. Individual cybercrime offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weulen Kranenbarg, Marleen; van der Laan, André; de Poot, C.J.; Verhoeven, Maite; van der Wagen, Wytske; Weijters, Gijs; Leukfeldt, Rutger


    Weulen Kranenbarg, M., Laan, A. van der, Poot, C. de, Verhoeven, M., Wagen, W. van der, Weijters, G. (2017). Individual Cybercrime Offenders. In E.R. Leukfeldt (Ed.), Research Agenda: The Human Factor in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity. Den Haag: Eleven International Publishing.

  7. Body Covering and Body Image: A Comparison of Veiled and Unveiled Muslim Women, Christian Women, and Atheist Women Regarding Body Checking, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Disorder Symptoms. (United States)

    Wilhelm, Leonie; Hartmann, Andrea S; Becker, Julia C; Kişi, Melahat; Waldorf, Manuel; Vocks, Silja


    Although Islam is the fastest growing religion worldwide, only few studies have investigated body image in Muslim women, and no study has investigated body checking. Therefore, the present study examined whether body image, body checking, and disordered eating differ between veiled and unveiled Muslim women, Christian women, and atheist women. While the groups did not differ regarding body dissatisfaction, unveiled Muslim women reported more checking than veiled Muslim and Christian women, and higher bulimia scores than Christian. Thus, prevention against eating disorders should integrate all women, irrespective of religious affiliation or veiling, with a particular focus on unveiled Muslim women.

  8. Relationship between parenting and cognitive schemas in a group of male adult offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica ePellerone


    Full Text Available This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the experimental group, aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group, aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily.The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ. The preliminary analysis showed an high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father’s control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders.

  9. Relationship between Parenting and Cognitive Schemas in a Group of Male Adult Offenders. (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Craparo, Giuseppe; Tornabuoni, Ylenia


    This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the target group), aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group), aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily). The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ). The preliminary analysis showed a high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father's control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders.

  10. A Threat Enfleshed: Muslim College Students Situate Their Identities amidst Portrayals of Muslim Violence and Terror (United States)

    Ali, Arshad Imtiaz


    This article explores the raced representations of the "Muslim Other" and how these representations engaged the lived realities and found footing in how Muslim youth understood their identities. Utilizing qualitative life history interviews with 24 Muslim undergraduates, I examine student talk addressing the construction of the Muslim in…

  11. Health, Jinn, and the Muslim Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttcher, Annabelle


    Collective volume of contributions to workshop "Health, Jinn and the Muslim Body" on 17 May 2018......Collective volume of contributions to workshop "Health, Jinn and the Muslim Body" on 17 May 2018...

  12. Muslim women and interracial intimacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke


    This article focuses on media debates about interracial and interethnic marriage practices. In 2012, Danish immigrants and descendants, especially Muslim women, were accused of harming the integration processes as they were not marrying ethnically Danish men. Through analysis of newspaper articles...... and Internet debates the article shows how Muslim women became excluded from the national community in these debates. Drawing upon previous debates about interracial/ethnic relationships, the article illustrates how the contemporary criticism mirrors historical criticism of sexuality. Moreover, the 2012 debate...

  13. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children. (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J


    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  14. Second-to-fourth digit ratio and impulsivity: a comparison between offenders and nonoffenders. (United States)

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Gummerum, Michaela; Rolison, Jonathan


    Personality characteristics, particularly impulsive tendencies, have long been conceived as the primary culprit in delinquent behavior. One crucial question to emerge from this line of work is whether impulsivity has a biological basis. To test this possibility, 44 male offenders and 46 nonoffenders completed the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, and had their 2D∶4D ratio measured. Offenders exhibited smaller right hand digit ratio measurements compared to non-offenders, but higher impulsivity scores. Both impulsivity and 2D∶4D ratio measurements significantly predicted criminality (offenders vs. nonoffenders). Controlling for education level, the 2D∶4D ratio measurements had remained a significant predictor of criminality, while impulsivity scores no longer predicted criminality significantly. Our data, thus, indicates that impulsivity but not 2D∶4D ratio measurements relate to educational attainment. As offenders varied in their number of previous convictions and the nature of their individual crimes, we also tested for differences in 2D∶4D ratio and impulsivity among offenders. Number of previous convictions did not correlate significantly with the 2D∶4D ratio measurements or impulsivity scores. Our study established a link between a biological marker and impulsivity among offenders (and lack thereof among non-offenders), which emphasise the importance of studying the relationship between biological markers, impulsivity and criminal behavior.

  15. Understanding and Approaching Muslim Visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi


    Within Western nation-states such as Denmark, Islamic identities are often seen as inherently and divergently visible, an aspect that some argue is detrimental to the secular nation-state. From a research perspective, one way to nuance this position is by focusing on groups of 'invisible' Muslims...

  16. Yearbook of Muslims in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The work is the second of an annual series. It consist of three parts covering the year 2009. The first part contains systematically presented data about Muslims in 46 countries of western and central Europe. Part two comprises five research articles which analyse issues that have been significant...

  17. Yearbook of Muslims in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler; Akgönül, Samim; Alibašic, Ahmet

    The work is the first of an annual series. It consist of three parts covering the yeat 2008. The first part contains systematically presented data about Muslims in 37 countries of western and central Europe. Part two comprises five research articles which analyse issues that have been significant...

  18. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.


    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  19. Tennessee Offender Management Information System


    Beck, Tim


    This article describes the integration of a knowledge-based system with a large COBOL-DB2-based offender management system. The knowledge-based application, developed for the purpose of offender sentence calculation, is shown to provide several benefits, including a shortened development cycle, simplified maintenance, and improved accuracy over a previous COBOL-based application.

  20. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, L.M.; Leenarts, L.E.W.; Born, M.P.; Oosterveld, P.


    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the

  1. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul


    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  2. Presiden Non-Muslim dalam Komunitas Masyarakat Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Silvita


    Full Text Available This paper examines the notion of state and leadership according to the contemporary Islamic thought. To be more precise, the paper asks whether it is possible for a non-Muslim to be the president of the majority Muslim country. To answer this, the paper will dwell into the problem of citizenship both in classical and modern Islamic thought by taking into account the political and social situation that shapes this thought. The paper maintains that many Muslims—both in the past and at the present—fail to offer a proper discourse on statehood and leadership in Islamic perspective. The mainstream discourse on this issue—the paper argues—is that which keeps in a good balance the notion of religiosity and citizenship. The rightwing Muslims will provide a textual understanding of the problem, while the left-wing will otherwise offer a secular interpretation of it. This paper will try to keep the two in a balance, and present a fair understanding of what the Qur'an and the Sunnah say about the problem at hand.

  3. Muslim Schools in Secular Societies: Persistence or Resistance! (United States)

    Shah, Saeeda


    Muslim schools are a growing phenomenon across the world. Muslim diaspora resulting from multiple factors including political, religious and economic enhanced the need among Muslims to maintain and develop their faith identity. Marginalisation of Muslims, in whatever forms and for whatever reasons, particularly in Muslim minority and/or secular…

  4. A Reception of Muslim Images in Magazines: British Residents View the Identities of Muslim Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Rahim Ainurliza


    Full Text Available In the context of multi-ethnic Britain, the major concern lies in the diversity and complexity of Muslims living in the West, which somehow is misrepresented in the western media as a frozen, static population, fixed in time and space. This misrepresentation dominates mainstream media through the hegemony of western superiority. The operation and role of Muslim media organisations are still underresearched yet potentially constitute an integral part of accommodating the minority population within the wider society. This paper discusses on the reception of images published in two British Muslim magazines by taking views from Muslims and non-Muslims into account. The results show that both groups recognize the identities of British Muslims via visual representations in the Muslim media and that the representations challenge the mainstream images of Muslims.

  5. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile. (United States)

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne


    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Message from the Worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Masroor


    Abdus Salam was an Ahmadi Muslim from Pakistan, a renowned theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory. Although he was the first Muslim Nobel Laureate, Pakistan's military dictator at that time could not admit that its brilliant scientist was a Muslim citizen. Dr Salam's entire award was devoted to the furtherance of education: he did not spend a penny on himself or his family...

  7. Sexuality and Sexual Rights in Muslim Societies


    Liz Ercevik Amado


    In August 2008, the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) organized the CSBR Sexuality Institute, the first international Institute on sexuality and sexual rights in Muslim societies in Malaysia. Liz Amado presents how the Institute expanded the discourse, knowledge and thinking around sexuality in Muslim societies, as well as providing a unique space for the much needed exchange of information and experience among sexual rights advocates. Development (2009) 52, 59...

  8. Majority versus Minority: ‘Governmentality’ and Muslims in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sofie Roald


    Full Text Available This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority–minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim minority communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influences both the relationship Muslims have with non-Muslims and the understandings that Muslims have of Islam.

  9. [Studying dysfunctional personality trends among sex offenders]. (United States)

    Perrot, M; Bénony, H; Chahraoui, K; Juif, C


    )=6.72; P=0.02) and the depressive personality (Chi(2)=9.63; P=0.004). Moreover, the results show differences related to type of crime. The mean score on the Docile-Dependent scale is higher among subjects who had only downloaded images of child pornography (n=8) compared to subjects who had committed at least one sexual offense against a victim (n=20) (58.75±8.43 versus 49.55±11.66, P=0.04). These results are somewhat in contradiction with previous studies. The often described cluster B personalities are not significantly observed in this study. These results show the prevalence of avoidant personality disorder, which in fact corresponds to a clinically observed sex offender profile characterized by inhibition, relationship difficulties with adults, fear of being judged or rejected, and social isolation. The study also shows the value of considering the personality profile in relation to the modus operandi. It is important to continue this research on larger groups in order to refine the results. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Images of the Muslim Woman and the Construction of Muslim Identity. The Essentialist Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Manea


    Full Text Available This article argues that much of the postmodern discourse on the Muslim woman and her veil is symptomatic of what I call the “essentialist paradigm”. The world is seen through the prism of a group’s religious/cultural identity and eventually constructs a Muslim identity – and with it an image of the Muslim Woman. The image of the oppressed veiled Muslim Woman and the treatment of a piece of cloth as synonymous with her whole identity and being are products of this paradigm of thought. Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines discourse analysis and a case study of the construction of the British Muslim community, this article argues that the essentialist paradigm ignores the context of its subject matter with all its accompanying power structures, political and social factors, and the roles played by both the state and fundamentalist Islam in constructing a Muslim identity and with it the Muslim Woman and her dress code.

  11. German Policy Towards Muslim Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila R. Sadykova


    Full Text Available The past two-three decades can be characterized by the period of global migration and sharp jump of migratory streams is connected with globalization and with the economic factor, generating labor movement behind resources from Third World countries to the countries with deficiency of labor. The desire to receive comfort life becomes the major reason, and the migrant makes the decision being guided by private interest more often instead of external factors. Western Europe became one of the most important center of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war, laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Globalization of migratory streams, penetration of foreign culture groups into structure of accepting society and prevalence of multicultural, multiethnic societies are important characteristics of a modern era. Western Europe became one of the most important centers of gravity of migrants. During the post-war period, the need of Europe in foreign labor for restoration of the economy destroyed by war laid the foundation of mass international migration to this region. Special relevance the problem of reception of immigrants, in particular from the Muslim countries, got for the former colonial powers, in particular Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands. Germany also faced this problem; migrants workers from other countries were required for the post-war restoration. Now Germany still is one of the main centers of an attraction of migrants, and concentration of them in this country annually increases. Despite the steps taken by the German government on elimination of Muslim isolation in the German society, its efforts did not bear fruits so far. The majority of Muslims live their life and are still torn off from high life of the country. A possible threat of destruction of the German community appeared when the various ethnic groups

  12. Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers


    Wilson, Jonathan


    Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers \\ud November 25th, 2013 Parallel Session 1C Hall C \\ud \\ud my talk starts at: 16:15-25:00 \\ud my answers start at 42:20 [to questions starting at 36:30] \\ud \\ud The Global Islamic Economy Summit 2013 was organized by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Thomson Reuters, held on 25th-26th November, 2013 at Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, \\ud Vice President and Prime Minister of the...

  13. Trumpal Fears, Anthropological Possibilities, and Muslim Futures (United States)

    Ali, Arshad Imtiaz


    Reflecting upon a decade of research with Muslim youth across the United States, this article highlights the fears and concerns Muslim communities have expressed in the wake of Donald Trump's 2016 U.S. presidential victory. In explicating the concerns expressed by these youth, the author examines the context of Trump's rise and its relationship to…

  14. Muslim Youth Cry Out for Help!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, W.B.S.; Budak, B.; el Bouayadi- van de Wetering, W.B.S.; Miedema, Siebren


    The problems Muslim youth experience in Dutch secular postmodern society. Muslim children and youth are confronted with conflicting norms, values, and expectations at home, in the mosque and in school. If they do not find adults who are able to clarify the conflicts that may arise from this

  15. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch


    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  16. Reluctant Learners? Muslim Youth Confront the Holocaust (United States)

    Short, Geoffrey


    There is good reason to believe that anti-Semitism is rife in Muslim communities across the world. Consequently, one might expect that teaching the Holocaust in schools with a substantial Muslim presence would prove a difficult and stressful experience. In this article, I draw on a diverse body of literature to argue for a more nuanced approach to…

  17. News exposure predicts anti-Muslim prejudice. (United States)

    Shaver, John H; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph


    News coverage of Islamic extremism is reigniting debates about the media's role in promoting prejudice toward Muslims. Psychological theories of media-induced prejudice date to the 1950's, and find support from controlled experiments. However, national-scale studies of media effects on Muslim prejudice are lacking. Orthogonal research investigating media-induced prejudice toward immigrants has failed to establish any link. Moreover, it has been found that people interpret the news in ways that confirm pre-existing attitudes, suggesting that media induced Muslim prejudice in liberal democracies is unlikely. Here, we test the association between news exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice in a diverse national sample from one of the world's most tolerant societies, where media effects are least likely to hold (N = 16,584, New Zealand). In support of media-induced Islamophobia, results show that greater news exposure is associated with both increased anger and reduced warmth toward Muslims. Additionally, the relationship between media exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice does not reliably vary with political ideology, supporting claims that it is widespread representations of Muslims in the news, rather than partisan media biases, that drives anti-Muslim prejudice.

  18. Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh


    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.

  19. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.


    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  20. Alcohol and Sex Offending: What Do Child Sex Offenders Think about Drinking? (United States)

    Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.


    Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…

  1. Elder-Abuse Offenders: A Typology. (United States)

    Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly


    Addresses some of the perplexing issues involved in understanding and responding to elder-abuse offenders. Offers a typology of offenders to elucidate the dynamics when people mistreat the elderly. (Contains 13 references.) (Author)

  2. Pedagogies of Muslim Feminisms: Reflections on Faith, Space and Citizenship (United States)

    Eidoo, Sameena


    In this article, I offer a qualitative study of three spaces created by and for young Muslim women in Toronto, Canada: an after-school drop-in programme for Muslim girls, a Somali women's group and a Muslim women's collective. I focus on data gathered from interviews of seven Muslim women in their 20s who created the spaces, which offered refuge…

  3. Predictors of Sex Offender Treatment Completion. (United States)

    Moore, Donna L.; Bergman, Barbara A.; Knox, Pamela L.


    Reviews records of 126 incarcerated offenders who participated in a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Discriminate function analysis reveals that offenders who completed treatment were more often diagnosed with a substance disorder, had a history of nonviolence offenses, and were less often diagnosed as having an antisocial personality…

  4. The intergenerational transmission of violent offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.


    The current study examines the intergenerational transmission and concentration of violent offending using conviction data of 3,440 persons from three consecutive generations from the Dutch Transfive study. Violent offending is more concentrated within nuclear families than non-violent offending,


    Fieder, Martin; Huber, Susanne; Pichl, Elmar; Wallner, Bernard; Seidler, Horst


    For modern Western societies with a regime of monogamy, it has recently been demonstrated that the socioeconomic status of men is positively associated with being or having been married. This study aims to compare marriage patterns (if a person has been married at least once) for cultures with a tradition of monogamy and polygyny. As no worldwide data on polygyny exist, religion was used as a proxy for monogamy (Christians) vs polygyny (Muslims). The analyses were based on 2000-2011 census data from 39 countries worldwide for 52,339,594 men and women, controlling for sex, sex ratio, age, education, migration within the last 5 years and employment. Overall, a higher proportion of Muslims were married compared with Christians, but the difference in the fraction of married men compared with married women at a certain age (the 'marriage gap') was much more pronounced in Muslims than in Christians, i.e. compared with Christians, a substantially higher proportion of Muslim women than men were married up to the age of approximately 31 years. As expected for a tradition of polygyny, the results indicate that the socioeconomic threshold for entering marriage is higher for Muslim than Christian men, and Muslim women in particular face a negative effect of socioeconomic status on the probability of ever being married. The large 'marriage gap' at a certain age in Muslim societies leads to high numbers of married women and unmarried young men, and may put such polygenic societies under pressure.

  6. Female Sex Offenders: Is There a Difference Between Solo and Co-Offenders? (United States)

    Ten Bensel, Tusty; Gibbs, Benjamin; Burkey, Chris Rush


    Studies on female sex offending have been limited for a number of reasons, such as societal perceptions that females are incapable of engaging in such behaviors because of their role as caretakers and nurturers in society. However, over the past few decades, studies examining female sex offenders have increased, revealing that females do commit sexual offenses and differ from their male counterparts. We examined offender, victim, and offense characteristics of female sex offenders who were convicted from 1995 to 2013 ( N = 223) in Arkansas and were sentenced to serve time in prison or placed on probation. We focused on the similarities and differences of solo and co-female sex offenders because we know from previous studies that the pathway of offending can differ between solo and co-female offenders, yet few studies have exclusively compared the similarities and differences among female sex offenders. Our data were collected from offender files that included basic personal offender information, offender survey and social history, criminal history, incident reports while incarcerated, court records, police investigation reports, initial offender and victim statements (prior to offender incarceration), and probation/parole reports. We believe the results of this study will provide further insight into the types of female sex offenders as well as the possible differences between co- and solo-offenders in relation to their victim preferences, risk levels, rehabilitation amenability, and recidivism propensities.

  7. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending. (United States)

    Bogaert, A F


    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality.

  8. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism


    Povey, Tara


    The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these...

  9. Mental Health Professionals' Attitudes Toward Offenders With Mental Illness (Insanity Acquittees) in Ghana. (United States)

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Abdul-Nasiru, Inusah; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Bambi, Laryea Efua


    Mental health professionals' attitudes toward offenders with mental illness have significant implications for the quality of care and treatment rendered, making it imperative for these professionals to be aware of their attitudes. Yet, this topical issue has received little research attention. Consequently, the present study investigates attitudes toward offenders with mental illness (insanity acquittees) in a sample of 113 registered mental health nurses in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey and self-report methodology, the participants respond to measures of attitudes toward offenders with mental illness, attitudes toward mental illness, conviction proneness, and criminal blameworthiness. The results show that mental health nurses who reportedly practiced for a longer duration (6 years and above) were more likely to be unsympathetic, while the male nurses who were aged 30 years and above were more likely to hold offenders with mental illness strictly liable for their offenses. Importantly, the nurses' scores in conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness significantly predict negative attitudes toward the offenders even after controlling for their attitudes toward mental illness. Yet, when the nurses' conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness were held constant, their attitudes toward mental illness failed to predict attitudes toward the offenders. This initial finding implies that the nurses' views regarding criminal blameworthiness and conviction may be more influential in understanding their attitudes toward offenders with mental illness relative to their attitudes toward mental illness.

  10. Muhajir Penjana Interaksi dan Toleransi Beragama Saudara Baru-Muslim-Non-Muslim


    Khadijah Mohd Khambali; Azarudin Awang; Suraya Sintang; Nur Farhana Abdul Rahman; Wan Adli Wan Ramli; Khairul Nizam Mat Karim


    New brothers, New Muslim and Mualaf are the terms that are often referred to as individuals who began to cultivate the religion of Islam. In the Malaysian context, in reality they are individuals who had embraced Islam for many years. This situation may affect the relation and integration in the community of Saudara Baru, Muslim origin and non-Muslim family members. Furthermore, it raises the issue of ethnic misunderstanding due to the issues that linger in the life of Saudara Bar...

  11. Not Eating the Muslim Other: Halal Certification, Scaremongering, and the Racialisation of Muslim Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakira Hussein


    Full Text Available Campaigns against the halal certification of food in Muslim-minority societies reveal the shift in the representation of Muslims from a visible, alien presence to a hidden, covert threat. This paper uses one such campaign in Australia as a point of entry for analysing the ramifications for Muslim identity of this ‘stealth jihad’ discourse. Muslims living in the west are increasingly targeted not for ‘standing out’ as misfits, but for blending in as the invisible enemy. The scare campaign against halal certification closely parallels previous campaigns against kosher certification, highlighting the increasing resemblance between contemporary Islamophobia and historical anti-Semitism.

  12. Muhajir Penjana Interaksi dan Toleransi Beragama Saudara Baru-Muslim-Non-Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Mohd Khambali


    Full Text Available New brothers, New Muslim and Mualaf are the terms that are often referred to as individuals who began to cultivate the religion of Islam. In the Malaysian context, in reality they are individuals who had embraced Islam for many years. This situation may affect the relation and integration in the community of Saudara Baru, Muslim origin and non-Muslim family members. Furthermore, it raises the issue of ethnic misunderstanding due to the issues that linger in the life of Saudara Baru since Saudara Baru in the context of Malaysia is more prominent as a generator in religious interaction among various ethnic groups in Malaysia. This study aims to see the experience of religious tolerance among Muhajir-Muslim-non-Muslim. Data was obtained using qualitative method which focussed on interviews with twenty Muhajir in Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. The results highlighted the culture of tolerance among Muslim-non-Muslim-Muhajir in the diversity of living together. This relationship is demonstrated through effective relations, meetings and living together that form friendship, brotherhood and affinity across religious boundaries. This shows Muhajir play a role in fostering tolerance especially in relations between Muslims and non-Muslims in Malaysia.

  13. Sexual Murderers: Sex Offender, Murderer, or Both? (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; DeLisi, Matt; Hewitt, Ashley


    Sexual murderers perpetrate homicide and rape/sexual abuse, but it is unclear whether they should primarily be considered homicide offenders, sexual offenders, or both. Most studies have merged together different types of non-homicidal sex offenders (NHSOs), neglecting to consider the potential differences between the nonviolent and violent sex offenders. Here, we suggest it is important to isolate those violent sex offenders who inflict severe physical injuries that could potentially lead to a lethal outcome. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to compare different measures of the criminal career on three groups of sex offenders: NHSOs, violent NHSOs, and sexual homicide offenders (SHOs) using data from 616 incarcerated male sex offenders in a Federal penitentiary in Canada. Interestingly, the group of sex offenders with the worst criminal career profile was not the SHOs, but the violent NHSOs. Violent NHSOs had the greatest number of prior convictions and the most varied and versatile criminal career. Therefore, we suggest that based on their criminal career, SHOs should be considered more as murderers than sex offenders. However, to fully answer this question, future studies should include a group of non-sexual homicide offenders.

  14. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders. (United States)

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R


    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Offending prior to first psychiatric contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, H; Agerbo, E; Dean, K


    There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non-psychot......-psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between mental disorder and offending is present prior to illness onset in psychotic and non-psychotic disorders.......There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non...

  16. Modulatory effects of psychopathy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder. (United States)

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís


    Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Muslim World after 9/11

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel


    ... world and attitudes toward the United States. However, some of the dynamics that are influencing the environment in Muslim countries are also the product of trends that have been at work for many decades...

  18. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth


    .... Two justifications ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim...

  19. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law]. (United States)

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A


    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  20. Empowering Muslim Women Though Executive Coaching & Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Grine


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and effect of executive coaching and mentoring on the empowerment of Muslim women and enhancing their levels of contribution. It further substantiates the manner in which executive coaching can accommodate both the nature and needs of Muslim women while further unleashing her respective talents, creativity and skills. The study further highlights the role and significance of coaching in spheres relevant to family, as well as social and career development. This study highlights the use of the strategic technique for personal and leadership development set to explore talents, leaders and implicit abilities. Moreover, it exhibits the flexibility of self-coaching and its appropriateness for Muslim women, especially concerning self-development, which in turn influences social and institutional development. This inquiry highlights a number of practical results which emphasizes the viability and efficacy of executive coaching on personal and institutional levels as far as the making of better world for Muslim women is concerned.

  1. Muslim Feminist Agency and Arab American Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina


    Mohja Kahf’s novel the girl in the tangerine scarf highlights a broad spectrum of Muslim feminist agencies. In this essay I look at how her literary representations negotiate religious and feminist discourses in doing so. I further argue that her focus on empowerment through self......-defined spirituality and religion sets her novel apart within the canon of contemporary Arab American literature, as most other Arab American feminist narratives focus rather on reappropriations of orientalist Scheherazade figures to reclaim the transnational histories of Muslim women’s agency. The genre of the Arab...... to the intersectional specificity encountered by Muslim feminist writers who have to work within both Western Orientalisms and the disapproval of Muslim conservatives who denounce feminism as a Western import and refuse any critique of their own patriarchy. Kahf suggests a constant double critique and careful...

  2. Inclusive Security for the Muslim World (United States)


    building national security structures in most Muslim countries while neglecting social development , particu- larly gender equality . Governments from...tries remain hostage to traditional views on gender issues. While some Muslim-majority countries have inducted women into their armed forces, at... Development (OECD): The average median age in the MENA countries is 25 years, well below the aver- age of other emerging regions such as Asia (29 years

  3. The Mobilisation of Muslim Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Under the headline of ‘the mobilisation of Muslim women in Denmark', this paper contains a series of introductory considerations as well as a few preliminary findings on the relatively unexplored question of how and why Muslim women in Denmark form organisations, and via their organisations...... immigrant women´s organisations, this paper aims to explore patterns of networking among these women, and the level and nature of their interaction with other organisations and societal institutions....

  4. Mahdi Elmandjra and the Future of the Muslim World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fariza Alyati Wan Zakaria


    Full Text Available The increasing problems and challenges facing the Muslims and the Muslim world nowadays have raised serious concern about the future of the Muslims and the Muslim World among many Muslim scholars. The post-Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979 had always been seen as the landmark of the rising discourses over the future of Islam, Muslims and the Muslim world. Mahdi Elmandjra, a prominent sociologist and futurist, is one of the Muslim scholars who consistently discuss about the issue and urge the Muslims to take responsibility to create a better future in a systematic way and not to fall into the vicious cycle of misfortunes. This paper aims at discussing Elmandjra’s views on this issue and underscoring the contribution and significance of such discourse within contemporary development.

  5. Muslim and Non-Muslim Adolescents’ Reasoning About Freedom of Speech and Minority Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk


    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents’ reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12 – 18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group

  6. Muslim and Non-Muslim Adolescents' Reasoning about Freedom of Speech and Minority Rights (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk


    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim…

  7. Interventions Highlighting Hypocrisy Reduce Collective Blame of Muslims for Individual Acts of Violence and Assuage Anti-Muslim Hostility. (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour; Falk, Emily


    Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an "interventions tournament" to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed). The "winning" intervention reduced collective blame of Muslims by highlighting hypocrisy in the ways individuals collectively blame Muslims-but not other groups (White Americans, Christians)-for individual group members' actions. After replicating the effect in an independent sample, we demonstrate that a novel interactive activity that isolates the psychological mechanism amplifies the effectiveness of the collective blame hypocrisy intervention and results in downstream reductions in anti-Muslim attitudes and anti-Muslim behavior.

  8. Muslim Identity in the Speeches of Mahathir Mohamad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Shahriar Haque


    Full Text Available Islam is a misunderstood religion and Muslims suffer from a negative image of being violent and terrorist. The Western projection of the Muslim image falls short of the real identity of Muslims. Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, considered outspoken by the West, has not only set the foundation for the materialization of the true Muslim identity but has also been bold enough to point out the weaknesses of the Muslim communities of the world. An analysis of selected speeches and an interview of the former Prime Minister of Malaysia shows how he constructs and consolidates the Muslim identity in his discourse from a critical discourse analysis perspective.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhan AM


    Full Text Available This paper is a study in mapping out more about the process of formation of the Muslim community in Indonesia. History is a reconstruct of the past. It seems as if the past was to be away from the present. Is it true that this view. We borrow the Kuntowijoyo’s words: “Historians are like people take who takes the train to look back, and he can freely turn to the right and to the left, which can not be done is to look ahead”. History is a valuable clue, a picture of the past that can be used as guidelines in stride, present and future. The Indonesian Islam history has significance for this nation generation. Because it has its own characteristics compared to the history of Islam in other countries. It can give the feel of the real Islam in Indonesia. The Indonesian Islam is an Islamic hue promising future in the era of globalization. Thus, Indonesian Islam will be in focus in the eyes of the world. In this description, the writer describes the entry and the development of Islam in Indonesia with discussion; process and the introduction of Islam to Indonesia, acceptance by indigenous and institutionalization of Islam in society. Then, point the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, as well as the transformation of Indonesia society

  10. Towards a neurobiological model of offending. (United States)

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R


    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Moderate Muslims and Islamist Terrorism: Between Denial and Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid


    Full Text Available Since President Trump attempted to ban Muslims from certain countries from entering the United States, the question which Muslims are ‘moderate Muslims’ and which are potential ‘radical Islamist terrorists’ has gained new relevance. While some Muslim leaders deny any connection between their religion and terrorism, it is undeniable that many terrorists claim to act in the name of Islam. This Research Paper first seeks to determine where the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims stand in relation to terrorism, distinguishing between Jihadist Muslims, Islamist Muslims, Conservative Muslims and Pluralist Muslims. It then looks at which criteria would allow us to distinguish between ‘moderates’ and other Muslims. Subsequently, the focus is on the role of moderation in Islam itself, whereby attention is given to the Global Movement of Moderates which originated in Malaysia. While some leading Muslim scholars stress that moderation is a central value in Islam, many Muslims nevertheless do not like to be called ‘moderates’ for fear of being seen as pro-Western. A further section of this Research Paper looks at how Islamist extremists view moderate Muslims. This is followed by a section that focuses on moderate Muslims voicing their opposition to Islamist terrorism – something often overlooked by Western media. The concluding section raises the thorny question whether moderation is rooted in Islam itself or comes from outside and the author pleads for humanism to be the middle ground for moderates of all faiths and political persuasions.

  12. Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Craparo


    Full Text Available Background: The link between early traumatic experiences of abuse/neglect and criminal behaviour has been widely demonstrated. Less is known, however, about the relationship between these experiences and the development of psychopathic personality. Objective: This study investigated childhood relational trauma in a group of violent offenders from Italy. We hypothesised a higher level of early relational trauma associated with higher scores on psychopathy. Method: Twenty-two offenders convicted for violent crimes aged 22–60 (M=38, SD=11 participated in this study. Participants were selected by the Italian justice system for an experimental research programme aiming at the evaluation of psychopathic personality traits among violent offenders. Within the group, 14 participants (64% had committed murder, 4 (18% had committed rape, and 4 (18% were convicted child sex offenders. The Traumatic Experience Checklist was used to assess childhood relational trauma; the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R was used to assess psychopathy. Results: There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  13. “All in the family?” : The Relationship Between Sibling Offending and Offending Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J.E.H.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between criminality of family members and individual offending. The main focus is on investigating the extent to which criminal offending by siblings is associated with individual offending, as well as the extent to which parental

  14. All in the family?” The relationship between sibling offending and offending risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J.; Bijleveld, C.; van de Weijer, S.; Liefbroer, A.C.


    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between criminality of family members and individual offending. The main focus is on investigating the extent to which criminal offending by siblings is associated with individual offending, as well as the extent to which parental

  15. Serious, Violent Young Offenders in South Africa : Are They Life-Course Persistent Offenders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; Ward, C.L.; Visser, I.; Burton, P.


    Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group.

  16. "The Effects of Mixing Offenders with Non-Offenders: Findings from a Danish Quasi Experiment"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda


    This study examines the effects of mixing offenders with nonoffenders at Skejby half-way house in Denmark. Skejby halfway house constitutes an outstanding social experiment, as offenders are deliberately mixed with non-offenders in order to reduce their risk of recidivism. The treatment group...

  17. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders. (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G


    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  18. Muslim institutions of higher education in postcolonial africa

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Mbaye


    Muslim Institutions of Higher Education in Postcolonial Africa examines the colonial discriminatory practices against Muslim education through control and dismissal and discusses the education reform movement of the post-colonial experience.

  19. Parental and perinatal risk factors for sexual offending in men: a nationwide case-control study. (United States)

    Babchishin, K M; Seto, M C; Sariaslan, A; Lichtenstein, P; Fazel, S; Långström, N


    Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1:5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. To examine risk-factor specificity for sexual offending, we also compared male violent, non-sexual offenders (n = 135 953) to controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. Predictors included parental (young maternal or paternal age at son's birth, educational attainment, violent crime, psychiatric disorder, substance misuse, suicide attempt) and perinatal (number of older brothers, low Apgar score, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, congenital malformations, small head size) variables. Conditional logistic regression models found consistent patterns of statistically significant, small to moderate independent associations of parental risk factors with sons' sexual offending and non-sexual violent offending. For perinatal risk factors, patterns varied more; small for gestational age and small head size exhibited similar risk effects for both offence types whereas a higher number of older biological brothers and any congenital malformation were small, independent risk factors only for non-sexual violence. This nationwide study suggests substantial commonalities in parental and perinatal risk factors for the onset of sexual and non-sexual violent offending.

  20. Mental Health of Muslim Nursing Students in Thailand


    Ratanasiripong, Paul


    The purpose of this research was to explore the mental health and well-being of Muslim nursing students in Thailand. Specifically, the study investigated the factors that impact anxiety and depression among Muslim nursing students. This cross-sectional research was conducted with a half sampling method of Muslim undergraduate students who were studying at a public nursing college in Thailand. From the 220 self-identified Muslim nursing students, 110 were sampled for this study, representing 1...

  1. Americans' views of the Muslim world realities and fallacies


    Sulehri, Waqas A.


    The 9/11 terror attacks prompted a large number of public opinion surveys in the Islamic world by Gallup, Pew, Zogby, and others seeking to understand the level and nature of muslim antagonism toward America. Far less attention has been paid to public opinion surveys of Americans concerning their views of Islam, Muslims, and Muslim countries. This thesis sorts through the surveys and presents some surprising findings. First, while American views of Muslim have generally been rather unfavor...

  2. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche


    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  3. Grief Counseling for Muslim Preschool and Elementary School Children (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi


    This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.

  4. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children (United States)

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah


    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  5. Teaching about Islam and Muslims While Countering Cultural Misrepresentations (United States)

    Elbih, Randa


    Contemporary global events of the War on Terror, the War on ISIS, and the United States contentious relationship with Muslim societies make it crucial to teach about Islam and Muslims in school. However, negative representations of Islam and Muslims often impede this process. Overcoming these challenges is critical for the development of…

  6. Religious trends and social integration: Muslim minorities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.I.


    In this dissertation, I set out to describe religiosity and religious trends among the Dutch Muslim population, and to assess the influence of the social integration of Muslims in co-ethnic minority and majority social networks. Muslim immigrants in the Netherlands migrated from countries in which

  7. Myths and Facts on the Future Number of Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian Arly


    The article discusses various estimates of Muslim populations in Europe, showing that the public debate on numbers reflects academia’s difficulties in quantifying the Muslim populations. Projections of growth in the number of Muslims in Europe are exaggerated both in academia and in the public in...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jati Raharjo Wasisto


    Full Text Available The emergence of social piety is an interesting phenomenon among recent middle class Indonesian muslim. The aims and scope of social piety which established is to redefine spirituality. Process of reconstucting social piety can be traced from the intersection from both material and spiritual aspect. Spiritual is a holy effort to pray God and material can be analyzed as a complementer factor in spirtual effort. To become pious man is the main thing however the most intention are both recognition and representation from others. This article will elaborate more deeply about the meaning of social piety in recent middle class Indonesian muslim.

  9. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS). (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Treating the Adolescent Victim-Turned-Offender. (United States)

    Muster, Nori J.


    Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…

  11. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.


    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  12. Antisocial personalities: Measuring prevalence among offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of offenders who meet the criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder could be of significant value to help address the violent crime crisis in South Africa. A sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was selected to determine the prevalence of these ...

  13. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions. (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L


    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  14. Removing the Ex-Offenders' Catch-22 (United States)

    Larkin, Timothy


    Describes problems persons with a criminal record encounter in attempting to locate a job. Describes the National Clearinghouse on Offender Employment Restrictions established in 1971 and the steps it is taking to change laws to make it easier for ex-offenders to obtain jobs. (EJT)

  15. Muslim Identity in the Speeches of Mahathir Mohamad


    Muhammed Shahriar Haque; Mahmud Hasan Khan


    Islam is a misunderstood religion and Muslims suffer from a negative image of being violent and terrorist. The Western projection of the Muslim image falls short of the real identity of Muslims. Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, considered outspoken by the West, has not only set the foundation for the materialization of the true Muslim identity but has also been bold enough to point out the weaknesses of the Muslim communities of the world. An analysis of selected speeches and an interview of the for...

  16. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders? (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L


    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On Individual Differences in Person Perception: Raters' Personality Traits Relate to Their Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Scoring Tendencies (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K.; Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Murrie, Daniel C.


    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the…

  18. A Pilot Examination of a Mosque-Based Physical Activity Intervention for South Asian Muslim Women in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananya Tina; Landry, Mireille; Zawi, Maha; Childerhose, Debbie; Stephens, Neil; Shafique, Ammara; Price, Jennifer


    Low levels of physical activity have been reported in South Asian Muslim women. Mosques could be beneficial in providing physical activity opportunities for Muslim women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a mosque-based physical activity program for South Asian Muslim women in Canada. Sixty-two South Asian Muslim women participated in a 24-week mosque-based exercise intervention. Feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of the program was evaluated by pre-post survey questions from the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire among 28 women who consented to the research data collection. Nineteen women were assessed pre-and post-intervention. The women demonstrated increase in median scores of self-efficacy (90 pre vs. 100 post; p = 0.004) and the importance of engaging in regular physical activity (90 pre vs. 100 post; p = 0.01). Fewer participants were classified as inactive at the end of the intervention (42 % pre vs. 10 % post; p = 0.006). There was a mean increase in DASI scores (39.2 pre vs. 44.6 post; p = 0.06) reflecting an improvement in peak aerobic capacity and functional quality of life. Culturally relevant structured networks such as mosques are important assets when designing healthy lifestyle interventions for South Asian Muslim women.

  19. Muslim Scholars' Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceived Barriers Towards Polio Immunization in Pakistan. (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Salman, Saad; Ayub, Maria; Aqeel, Talieha; Haq, Noman-Ul; Saleem, Fahad; Khan, Muhammad Ubaid


    Pakistan is one of the two countries where polio remains endemic. Among multiple reasons of polio prevalence, false religious beliefs are accounted as major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. Within this context, religious scholars are now engaged in polio immunization campaigns to dismantle the myths and battle the resurgence of polio in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers of Muslim scholars towards polio immunization in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Muslim scholars was conducted in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. From October to December 2015, a convenience sample of 770 Muslim scholars was recruited from the local mosques and religious institutions to participate in this study. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to express the results with p polio with a mean score of 7.16 ± 2.12 (based on 14 questions). Knowledge gaps were identified about the transmission (32.6 %) and consequences of poliovirus (39.9 %). Overall, 527 (68.4 %) participants showed positive attitudes towards polio immunization with a mean attitude score of 27.35 ± 2.68 (based on nine statements). The majority of participants agreed on the need of depoliticizing polio immunization issues (87.1 %), while reservations were noted about their willingness to participate in future polio immunization programs (44.6 %). Security (75.8 %) and vaccine management issues (64 %) were reported by the participants as the major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. The findings showed poor knowledge of Muslim scholars towards polio; however, their attitudes were positive towards polio immunization. More studies are required to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Muslim scholars at the national level to validate the findings of this study.

  20. American Muslim Undergraduates' Views on Evolution (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht


    A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…

  1. Constitutional Struggles in the Muslim World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim


    About this Course: Learn what motivates the restive Muslim youth from Tunis to Tehran, what political positions Islamists from Mali to Chechnya are fighting for, where the seeming obsession with Islamic law comes from, where the secularists have vanished to, and whether it makes sense to speak...

  2. Formats, fabrics, and fashions: Muslim headscarves revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünal, R.A.; Moors, A.


    Changes in the sartorial practices of Dutch-Turkish women who wear Muslim headscarves may be summarized as a shift from sober, religiously inspired forms of dress towards colorful, more fashionable styles. A focus on the materiality of headscarves indicates, however, that the relation between Islam,

  3. Some Lexical Aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-. Afrikaans and the Islamic .... That these words continued to be used in Cape Muslim Afrikaans, in both sec- ular and religiOUS ...... In tenns of the Arabie dictionary. (Hans Wehr 1980: 68), ...

  4.  Muslims on the Political Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian Arly


    Within four decades of immigration, Islam has become the largest minority-religion in Denmark. This has resulted in a need for Muslim institutions in Denmark such as burial places, educational institutions and places for prayer. The need for these religious institutions has been disputed since...

  5. Al-Biruni: A Muslim Critical Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noviani Ardi


    Full Text Available As an academic course, critical thinking has emerged in the last century as the one of the important subjects, especially in the second half. But as a kind of thinking and a process of the human reason, it was exist as old as mankind. What are known, nowadays, as (standards of critical thinking or (characteristic of critical thinker were used by some ancient Greek philosophers, e.g. Socrates, Aristotle, as well as great Muslim scholars, e.g. al-Biruni, al-Ghazali, etc. al-Biruni was known as a great Muslim scholar due to objectively scientific method in his works. Moreover, he also was famed in comparative religion which early in history of discipline of comparative religion. However, this study attempts to talk about al-Biruni, one of greatest Muslim scholar in history from another side of previously discussion. It is tries to analyze al-Biruni as a Muslim critical thinker based on his monumental work of Tahqiq ma li al-Hind min Maqulah Maqbulah fi al-‘Aql aw Mardhulah or it is known by Kitab al-Hind.

  6. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Povey


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these issues in a way that is contextualized in terms of the material circumstances in which women living in Diaspora communities find themselves. In doing so, I hope to reveal the complexity and dynamism of women’s activism and to take on critically, Orientalist, essentialist and racist arguments regarding the nature of Arab and Muslim women’s role in opposing war and neo-liberalism and in the struggle for gender equality. As Edward Said argues, exile forces us to “see things not simply as they are, but as they have come to be that way. Look at situations as contingent, not as inevitable, look at them as a series of historical choices made by men and women, facts of society made by human beings not as natural or God-given, therefore unchangeable, permanent, irreversible.”

  7. Representing Canadian Muslims: Media, Muslim Advocacy Organizations, and Gender in the Ontario Shari’ah Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sharify-Funk


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a highly public conflict between two Muslim non-profit organizations, the Canadian Islamic Congress (CIC and the Muslim Canadian Congress (MCC, as it played out on the pages of Canadian newspapers and Internet websites. Sparked by profoundly divergent convictions about gender norms and fuelled by contradictory blueprints for “being Muslim in Canada”, this incendiary conflict was fanned by Canadian media coverage. Focusing especially, but not exclusively, on the 2003-2005 debate over Shari’ah-based alternative dispute resolution in Ontario, I will argue that the media have played a role in constructing internal Muslim debates and identity negotiations concerning what it means to be genuinely Canadian and authentically Muslim through controversy-driven journalism that has highlighted opposing ends of a liberal/progressive versus conservative/traditional axis in a search for “point/counter-point” views. Through short stories and commentaries on controversial topicsthat juxtapose two increasingly antagonistic organizational voices, the media have not merely reflected Muslim realities, but also helped to shape them and, more often than not, reinforce polarization between a “majority Muslim” culture seeking to secure space for itself within Canadian society and a “dissident Muslim” culture that seeks to consolidate external support for internal change.

  8. Impression Management in the Ethical Self-Presentation of Offenders Undergoing Presentence Evaluation (United States)

    Holland, Terrill R.; Boik, Robert J.


    Ethical choices were assessed for offenders instructed to produce favorable versus unfavorable impressions. Pronounced impression management effects were obtained for prosocial and antisocial responses, and high scores on a dimension of change defined by these variables were related to sociopathic features on the MMPI. (Author)

  9. A comparison of the predictive properties of nine sex offender risk assessment instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, W.J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Wever, E.C.; van Beek, D.J.


    Sex offender treatment is most effective when tailored to risk-need-responsivity principles, which dictate that treatment levels should match risk levels as assessed by structured risk assessment instruments. The predictive properties, missing values, and interrater agreement of the scores of 9

  10. Self-Esteem and Institutionalized Delinquent Offenders: The Role of Background Characteristics. (United States)

    Fischer, B. Jerome; Bersani, Carl A.


    The hypothesis studied was derived from the work of control theorists: that self-esteem would be higher for offenders "removed" from conventional ties, lower for those maintaining conventional attachments. Family background and self-esteem scores of 75 male delinquents strongly supported this hypothesis. Implications for incarceration are drawn.…

  11. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response. (United States)

    Dorall, R F


    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  12. Specialization in and within sexual offending in England and Wales. (United States)

    Howard, Philip D; Barnett, Georgia D; Mann, Ruth E


    Existing evidence suggests that offenders tend not to specialize in sexual offending in general but that there is some specialization in particular types of sexual offending. This study examined the sexual histories and reoffending of a large, national data set of offenders convicted of a sexual offense and managed in England and Wales by the National Offender Management Service (N = 14,804). The study found that specialization in sexual offending compared to nonsexual offending was most evident for offenders with convictions for accessing indecent images. We also found considerable evidence of specialization within sexual offending, most notably for noncontact offenders, especially again indecent images offenders. Crossover between sexual offense types was very rare for those with contact adult offenses and for noncontact offenders although those with child contact offenses sometimes crossed over to indecent images reoffending. If specialization within sexual offending exists, the use of single risk assessment instruments to predict all types of sexual recidivism may be less effective than previously assumed. A comparison of different prediction models indicated that some items presently used in one-size-fits-all risk tools to predict any sexual reoffending only effectively predict certain subtypes of sexual offending. Statistically there appear to be some potential benefits to creating specialist risk predictors for different subtypes of offending, but further work is needed to justify the implementation demands that would be caused by abandoning one-size-fits-all tools.

  13. Contraception and Sexual and Reproductive Awareness Among Ghanaian Muslim Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibrail Bin Yusuf


    Full Text Available Ghana, a lower-middle income country that is still grappling with fertility and birth rates, initiated family planning for the youth decades ago. This mainly targeted deprived communities, and the Muslim youth were also exposed to contraception. However, contraception awareness among the Muslim youth has had difficulties and repercussions. Against the social and economic challenges facing the Ghanaian Muslim youth, this article evaluates their awareness about contraception focusing on the issues and their ramification with the aim of identifying prospects for development. The findings reveal that awareness is high but not in a positive sense as the general patronage among couples is low, while among the unmarried, the awareness has negatively affected their morality. Among the issues, there is a disconnection between service providers and the community while some Muslims think that contraception can reduce the Muslim population and is un-Islamic. It was argued that contraception is permitted for Muslims provided there is ethical justification and that in view of the social and economic challenges, including school dropouts and Muslim child migration due to the poverty of parents, the Muslim youth must plan their childbirth. Hence, it was recommended that government must tackle the problem of education in Muslim communities. The Ulama should also dialogue with the service providers to create trust between the health providers and the Muslims.

  14. Dual process interaction model of HIV-risk behaviors among drug offenders. (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W


    This study evaluated dual process interaction models of HIV-risk behavior among drug offenders. A dual process approach suggests that decisions to engage in appetitive behaviors result from a dynamic interplay between a relatively automatic associative system and an executive control system. One synergistic type of interplay suggests that executive functions may dampen or block effects of spontaneously activated associations. Consistent with this model, latent variable interaction analyses revealed that drug offenders scoring higher in affective decision making were relatively protected from predictive effects of spontaneous sex associations promoting risky sex. Among drug offenders with lower levels of affective decision making ability, spontaneous sexually-related associations more strongly predicted risky sex (lack of condom use and greater number of sex partners). These findings help elucidate associative and control process effects on appetitive behaviors and are important for explaining why some individuals engage in risky sex, while others are relatively protected.

  15. Social phobia as a comorbid condition in sex offenders with paraphilia or impulse control disorder. (United States)

    Hoyer, J; Kunst, H; Schmidt, A


    Studies on the prevalence of social anxiety in sex offenders show mixed results. This may be due to social anxiety being heightened only in diagnostic subgroups of sex offenders, namely in paraphiliacs. In study 1, 72 mentally disordered sexual delinquents and 30 controls were screened for social anxiety with the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale by Mattick and Clarke (German versions). In study 2, 55 mentally disordered sexual delinquents were diagnosed with a structured clinical interview. In both studies, sex offenders were categorized as either paraphilic or impulse control disordered (without paraphilia) according to research criteria. Study 1 showed markedly heightened scores for social anxiety in paraphiliacs, particularly for social interaction anxiety. Study 2 found a high lifetime and point prevalence of social phobia in paraphiliacs for which corroborating evidence was again found in questionnaire results. Implications for further research, diagnostic procedures, and therapy are discussed.

  16. A Rorschach investigation of incarcerated female offenders with antisocial personality disorder. (United States)

    Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B


    Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style.

  17. Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Darran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR. Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland’s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs. Methods Every third new committal to a young offenders prison was interviewed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS to identify the Ultra High Risk (UHR state and a structured interview for assessing drug and alcohol misuse according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Developmental Understanding of Drug Misuse and Dependence - Short Form (DUNDRUM-S. Results Over a twelve month period 171 young male offenders aged 16 to 20 were assessed. Of these 39 (23%, 95% confidence interval 18% to 30% met UHR criteria. UHR states peaked at 18 years, were associated with lower SOFAS scores for social and occupational function and were also associated with multiple substance misuse. The relationship with lower SOFAS scores persisted even when co-varying for multiple substance misuse. Conclusions Although psychotic symptoms are common in community samples of children and adolescents, the prevalence of the UHR state in young offenders was higher than reported for community samples. The association with impaired function also suggests that this may be part of a developing disorder. Much more attention should be paid to the relationship of UHR states to substance misuse and to the health needs of young offenders.

  18. Is There Muslim Exceptionalism in Democracy Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner

    to and between the 16th and 18th centuries are relatively less democratic today. The negative effect of early statehood on current levels of democracy is mediated by European colonization and settlement: Europeans were less likely to colonize and settle in territories with more developed state institutions......, also, to alternative theories of the causes and correlates of democracy. This paper presents evidence against the notion of Muslim exceptionalism in democracy research. Thus, outside the European continent, territories that were governed earlier and more consistently by state organizations up...... and were therefore less likely to bring nascent legalistic and representative institutions to these territories. When we remove the autocratic legacy of early statehood and the influence of European settlement, there is nothing signicantly negative about the degree of democracy in Muslim-majority countries....

  19. The Good Citizen and the Good Muslim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    Based on two fieldworks in Chicago this working paper discusses the role that an Islamic organization – the Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN)– plays for the invigoration of the deprived neighborhood Chicago Lawn. The working paper describes and analyses IMAN’s claim to so-called ghetto cosm...... activities. Via its focus on popular music, graffiti art and talks the festival can be seen as an example of teaching the public – both about a minority religion but also about the potential resources of a deprived inner-city neighborhood....... cosmopolitanism, its building on past race-based struggles in the neighborhood, and also how IMAN challenges ideas of correct religious practice within the American Muslim community. The particular context of the working paper is the festival “Takin’ it to the Streets” which is one of IMANs most prolific...

  20. Relationship between Workplace Incivility, Job Attitudes and Muslim Religiosity Personality among Trade Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizan H. M.


    Full Text Available In reality, workplace incivility has its fair share of attention in organizational research dealing with its causes and effect relationships. In Islam, incivility equates the negative character (akhlak of ridiculing others. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and job attitudes as well as the moderating effect of Muslim religiosity personality, which is measured by Muslim Religiosity-Personality Inventory (MRPI, on the relationships. In other words, this study plans to analyze whether Muslim employees, who possess religiosity personality would be able to endure workplace incivility experiences. Basically, literature by Al-Ghazali, Al-Attas and Al-Raiya on Islamic personality serve as the main foundation of the study. In addition, the works of Baron and Neuman (1998, Andersson & Pearson (1999 and Schilpzand, et. al (2014 were reviewed and a research framework was developed. The quantitative survey consisted of five sections used to measure the experience of workplace incivility, job attitudes, religiosity personality and demographics. A sample of 163 Malaysian Muslim bank workers completed the survey. Four main variables have been analyzed and their descriptive analyses are as the following. Scores for Workplace Incivility variable (M=3.34, SD=.27; Job Satisfaction variable (M=1.79, SD=.65; Organizational Commitment variable (M=2.74, SD=.34 and Muslim Religiosity Personality (M=3.60, SD=.42. As for the Pearson’s Correlation test, the result indicates that Workplace Incivility variable has inverse correlations with both job attitude variables (Job Satisfaction, R=-.611, p=.01; Organizational Commitment, R=.731,p=.01. Meanwhile, the overall model was significant, R2 = .401, F(3, 159 = 24.06, p= .01. Tests to see if the data met the assumption of collinearity indicate that multicollinearity was not a concern (Job Satisfaction, Tolerance = .96, VIF = 1

  1. Socialization Processes and Clergy Offenders. (United States)

    Anderson, Jane


    This article uses feminist theory to investigate how the socialization processes used to maintain the clergy community in the Roman Catholic Church contributes to a vulnerability in some clergy for sexually abusing children. This vulnerability is identified first in an examination of the literature on the impact of socialization processes on clergy offenders between the 1960s and 1980s. A comparison is then made with the implications of the apostolic exhortation, Pastores Dabo Vobis, which provides a theological basis to clergy formation. The article argues that the document works to ensure a continuity of socialization processes that not only have been shown to create a vulnerability for committing child sexual abuse but compound existing vulnerabilities. The article concludes that constraints produced by the preservation of a hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy retain a threat of violence against children and require recommended reforms.

  2. Transfer of Knowledge in Muslim Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Lopez, Adday


    Muslims in Ethiopia represent a considerable part of the total population, but until recently, their literary tradition and their cultural heritage have remained understudied. The present article aims to shed light on the Islamic manuscript tradition in Ethiopia in the late Nineteenth and early...... Twentieth century by focusing on the codices owned by šayḫ Ḥabīb, a renowned scholar and respected walī from Wallo, in northeastern Ethiopia....



    Wasisto, Jati Raharjo


    The emergence of social piety is an interesting phenomenon among recent middle class Indonesian muslim. The aims and scope of social piety which established is to redefine spirituality. Process of reconstucting social piety can be traced from the intersection from both material and spiritual aspect. Spiritual is a holy effort to pray God and material can be analyzed as a complementer factor in spirtual effort. To become pious man is the main thing however the most intention are both recogniti...

  4. Kesalehan Sosial Sebagai Ritual Kelas Menengah Muslim


    Wasisto, Jati Raharjo


    The emergence of social piety is an interesting phenomenon among recent middle class Indonesian muslim. The aims and scope of social piety which established is to redefine spirituality. Process of reconstucting social piety can be traced from the intersection from both material and spiritual aspect. Spiritual is a holy effort to pray God and material can be analyzed as a complementer factor in spirtual effort. To become pious man is the main thing however the most intention are both recogniti...



    Adeel Bari; Rana Zamin Abbas


    Contemporary advertisement practices have created many social and ethical problems due to their materialistic focus. The effect of these problems can also be seen in many Muslim countries including Pakistan in terms of diversion from their cultural and religious values. This paper attempts to integrate the Islamic business ethics in contemporary advertisement practices to find the solution of the ethical dilemma which is created by these materialistic advertisement practices. The focus of Isl...

  6. Muslim consumption and anti-consumption in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan


    in Malaysia became the subject of increasing consumer activism and I explore how Malaysian federal state institutions, Islamic organizations and consumers respond to and are affected by calls to boycott (anti-consumption) and boycott (consumption) a range of products. More specifically, this article examines...... the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia (PPIM), which is an organization that protects the interests of Muslim consumers and entrepreneurs, as well as Malay Muslim middle-class informants....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Ali Jimale


    Full Text Available In Islamic countries, many of them poor and not highly developed, large segments of the Muslim population do not have access to adequate banking services—often because devout Muslims are unwilling to put their savings into a traditional financial system that runs counter to their religious principles. Islamic banks seek to provide financial services in a way that is compatible with Islamic teaching, and if Islamic banks can tap that potential Muslim clientele, that could hasten economic development in these countries.             It is expanding not only in nations with majority Muslim populations, but also in other countries where Muslims are a minority, such as the United Kingdom and Japan. Similarly, countries such as India, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Syria have recently granted, or are considering granting, licenses for Islamic banking activities.             In fact, there are currently more than 300 Islamic financial institutions spread over 51 countries, plus well over 250 mutual funds that comply with Islamic principles. And, over the past decade, the Islamic banking industry has experienced growth rates of 10-15 percent per year—a trend that is expected to continue.            Globally, the assets of Islamic banks have been expanding at double-digit rates for a decade, and Islamic banking is an increasingly visible alternative to conventional banks in Islamic countries and countries with many Muslims. My study identifies the sources of Islamic banking expansion and ways to stimulate its continued growth. Knowing what drives the development of Islamic banking will help developing countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East catch up.

  8. From Islamist to Muslim Democrat: The Present Phenomenon of Muslim Politics in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Muslim political rivalry in democracy has triggered the birth of two groups; Islamist and Muslim Democrat. The two groups are competing by using a different approach in getting the support of the people. The Islamist group is championing its Islamic State agenda and the implementation of Shari`a as a political ambition within the framework of democracy while the Muslim Democrat recognises democracy and freedom as the basis of their struggle. Due to a greater development in democracy and a more open political rivalry, the Islamist group that was initially strongly backed by their rigid ideology and approach, has decided to change for a more moderate approach. This can be seen through their political strategy that emphasises on universal issues such as democracy, justice and good governance without rhetorical expressions of Islam and Shari`a. This change from Islamist to that of Muslim Democrat is an exciting development for it shows the transition path and direction of Muslim politics in Malaysia. This paper examines the latest development of the Islamist group, i.e. PAS in political rivalry in Malaysia, particularly in the recent General Election in 2013. This article reveals that due to the changing political landscape and democratization, the Islamist has pragmatically moderated their stance to gain more supports and it has embarked on a new landscape for Muslim political rivalry in Malaysia. Although PAS’s new approach to transform its approach to be more open and democratic is still questionable, this study believes that the participation of the party in democracy is no longer just for the sake of election, on the other hand it should recognise democracy as a political culture that emphasizes justice, freedom and good governance.

  9. Danish teacher attitudes towards muslim immigration into danish society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lotte Rahbek


    This proposal highlights the AERA 2007 theme of foreign educational research by seeking to pinpoint potential causes of inter-group conflict among the immigrant Muslim and native communities in Denmark by surveying Danish teacher values. The perceptions Muslim and non-Muslim teachers have about...... and public policy developed. Denmark's localized Muslim immigrant community has leaders who lent support to this effort. Based on a summary of interviews, a validated survey instrument available in English and Danish has been designed and administered via the Internet to all teachers in Denmark in 2007...

  10. Elections in the Muslim World, 1990-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul Wahid A. Al-Zandani


    Full Text Available Abstract: Aggregate data analysis of elections held between 1990 and 2002 in the Muslim world show that most of these elections belong to the non-democratic category and these elections were mostly non-competitive. Approximately, 98% of the Muslim world people do not enjoy full political liberty. About 96% of the people in the Muslim world enjoy the right to vote, but their votes hardly result in transfer of power. However, there are four countries in the Muslim world, Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia and Mali, where elections are relatively free and fair.

  11. Elections in the Muslim World, 1990-2002


    Ahmed Abdul Wahid A. Al-Zandani


    Abstract: Aggregate data analysis of elections held between 1990 and 2002 in the Muslim world show that most of these elections belong to the non-democratic category and these elections were mostly non-competitive. Approximately, 98% of the Muslim world people do not enjoy full political liberty. About 96% of the people in the Muslim world enjoy the right to vote, but their votes hardly result in transfer of power. However, there are four countries in the Muslim world, Bangladesh, Iran, Malay...

  12. Rectification And Revival Of Muslim World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M azram


    Full Text Available The present doldrums position and state of decadence, internal differences, external aggression (geographical and ideological, lack of self-confidence and dependence, illiteracy, political instability, economic disaster, lack of knowledge and wisdom, back benchers in science and technology, education, medicine, trade and business, banking system and defensive incapability of Muslim Ummah prompted me to write this article.  Although most of the Muslim nations got their independence because of their dedicated struggle and historic events and incidents but the old masters remained active for a remote control over the Muslim Ummah.  Their intellectuals and scholars, individually as well as collectively, have propagated and advised their leadership, the tactics and approaches by which Muslim Ummah can again be enslaved.  Writings of S.P. Huntington and F. Fukuyama are clear examples.  They are actively gearing the international institutions so cleverly that Muslim Ummah does not even realize their ill motives and objectives.  They brought their leadership in a confronting position with Muslim Ummah and hence threatening the world peace.  This situation prompted us to look at our principal sources of inspiration, which are, the Qur’an, Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW, and examples of the “enlightened Caliphs” and see if we could work out a seminal guidelines for our rectification  and revival.  We have gathered together some of these impressions; these are all tentative, nothing final about them, but these are here nonetheless. ABSTRAK: Kehadiran situasi kebelungguan dan  keruntuhan, perbezaan dalaman, pencerobohan luar (geografi dan ideologi, kurang keyakinan diri dan pergantungan, buta huruf, ketidakstabilan politik, bencana ekonomi, kekurangan ilmu dan hikmah, ketinggalan dalam sains dan teknologi, pendidikan, perubatan, perdagangan dan perniagaan, sistem perbankan dan ketidakupayaan pertahanan umat Islam mendorong saya untuk menulis

  13. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putkonen Hanna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  14. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics - a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents. (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä


    The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to 19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995-2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents or near relatives than the

  15. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä


    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  16. Locus of Control in Offenders and Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Goodman, Wendy; Leggett, Janice; Garrett, Tanya


    Locus of control can be a useful measure of treatment outcome in offenders from the general population. However, there is little information regarding locus of control and offenders with learning disabilities. Existing measures of locus of control use complex language and abstract ideas that may not be accessible to individuals in this group. A…

  17. How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in Selected Police Cells and the Central Prison in Kumasi, Ghana. ... Regarding punishment, some respondents expressed a preference for the handling of rape cases within the community, suggesting that the sanctions for those cases were less severe than ...

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping


    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P behavior in young male violent offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality. (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti


    The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  20. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R. Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  1. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted? (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M.; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.


    Purpose To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders’ histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders. PMID:27134318


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilman Latief


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the roles of Islamic charitable organisations in running dakwah activities on Nias Island. By Showing how Islamic charitable organizations have attempted to create welfare programmes under the dakwah scheme, it investigates whether inclusive attitudes towards beneficiaries with different religious backgrounds have characterised Islamic social activism in ‘non-Islamic’ regions. As a Muslim minority area, post-disaster Nias Island has increasingly become a place where Islamic charitable associations and dakwah movements from outside Nias have attempted to deliver aid as well as to assist the communities, notably the Muslim minority population. As the outer islands and isolated regions have become an arena of contestation for religious missionaries, Muslim preachers to a certain extent should compete with Christian missionaries and indigenous religious groups. By way of a case study, this paper also examines the way in which Islamic charitable associations, negotiate between serving the Muslim community through dakwah, and serving humanity at large through social welfare activities.

  3. Factors Related to Co-Offending and Coerced Offending Among Female Sex Offenders: The Role of Childhood and Adult Trauma Histories. (United States)

    Comartin, Erin B; Burgess-Proctor, Amanda; Kubiak, Sheryl; Kernsmith, Poco


    Research suggests two important domains of women's sexual offending: co-offending, in which additional perpetrators are present with the woman during the crime, and coerced offending, in which the woman feels pressured by someone else to commit the crime. This exploratory analysis examines these 2 domains using self-report data from 60 incarcerated female sex offenders (FSOs) in a Midwestern state. In addition to indicating whether a co-offender was present and whether they felt pressure to commit the sex offense for which they were incarcerated, participants provided demographic information about themselves, the victim, and the offense, as well as about their own trauma, substance abuse, and mental illness histories. Results indicate that childhood and adult trauma histories are related to both co-offending and coerced offending among FSOs. Implications for theory, policy and practice, and future research are discussed.

  4. Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Komunitas Muslim Melalui Bank Sampah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihlah Nur Aulia


    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the empowerment of Muslim community through majlis talim or recitation group of mothers in the field of religion and social empowerment of society and its member economics in solving the environmental problems and protection of nature and natural resources can not be solved only by relying on knowledge and technology. Environmental problems and crises can only be overcome by fundamental and radically changing the way people view and behave towards their natural environment. What is needed is a change of perspective and behavior that is not only an individual, but it must be a culture of society at large. The main purpose of this study is to find out how the model of empowerment of Muslim community conducted by the group of majlis talim alkaromah dikelurahan Pejuang sub district Medan satria Bekasi. This research uses qualitative approach. This research is a kind of qualitative research that is through library research which is kind of research from literature treasury and make text world as the main object of analysis, that is by writing, identifying, clarifying, reducing, and presenting data obtained from written source. This study concludes: First, the model of economic empowerment of Muslim society conducted by majlis talim mothers through Garbage Bank can improve the economics of the members of majlis alkaromah. Second, in Bank garbage majlis talim alkaromah aims to empower and can make society more independent. Such programs save the waste which is then converted to rupiah, then with managing the waste, the sharing of profits with the profit-sharing system, and there is also a group of joint ventures through cooperatives, with this joint effort can improve the skills and independence of the community so that when the community Islam is independent, the empowerment has been successful.

  5. Penitentiary Diagnosis of Crime Offenders

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    Wiola Friedrich


    Full Text Available One of the basic standards of serving the punishment of imprisonment is its individualization, which means varying interactions consisting in adjusting them to the personality of the offender and the purposes of executing the sentence. A properly served psychological diagnosis, especially the penitentiary diagnosis, should describe the studied phenomenon well. The content of the penitentiary diagnosis should include a description of the clinical picture of an imprisoned person and basic social rehabilitation indications. The paper was written on the basis of literature on the subject, legislation and available research results. The aim of this paper is to characterize the diagnosis performed for the needs of justice, which is continuous and should be performed at every stage of imprisonment. The effect of a properly formed psychological and penitentiary decision should be the placement of a prisoner in a suitable type, kind of prison and appropriate system of serving imprisonment, followed by the correct selection of educational measures which may imply the efficiency and effectiveness of the punishment of imprisonment.

  6. Physical (Surgical) Castration as Treatment of Male Sex Offenders?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvain, Petr


    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2014), s. 40-47 ISSN 0026-9301 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : sex offenders * treatment of sex offenders * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences Impact factor: 0.136, year: 2014

  7. Treatment of Male Sexual Offenders in a Correctional Facility. (United States)

    Whitford, Robert W.


    Provides some background and treatment perspectives for counselors and psychologists who treat or contemplate treatment of adult male sexual offenders in prison settings. Discusses identification, assessment, amenability to treatment, assessment instruments, and treatment of sexual offenders. (ABL)

  8. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    this African tradition of religious scholarship in the Middle East. The paper will, with the help of Pierre Bourdieu's notion of forms of capital related to various fields, analyse the challenges which Muslim students encounter during their stay in the Middle East and the forms of capital they bring back......, marked by economic decline and political instability. In Africa a weak or even failed state often means that young people have in reality no access to political, educational or economic positions and resources. In some countries like Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast the marginalisation of the youth...

  9. The Roots of Muslim Rage Revisited (United States)


    freedom of speech , our freedom to vote and assemble and disagree with each other” 24, and therefore “This is not […] just America’s fight, and what is at...widespread belief that Islam and western concepts such as democracy, freedom of speech and women’s rights are incompatible. In the aftermath of 9/11, the...Turkey, Indonesia, and Malaysia, which work fairly well.45 Furthermore, many in the Muslim world agree that political freedom, liberty, and freedom of speech , is

  10. Holistic Development: Muslim Women's Civil Society Groups in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Holistic Development: Muslim Women's Civil Society Groups in Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. ... we conceptualize economic and political participation and measure inequality. ... Tanzania to help develop mechanisms for sustainable economic growth and ... Keywords: African women, muslim women, civil society, economic ...

  11. Secular tolerance? : Anti‐Muslim sentiment in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribberink, E.C.; Achterberg, P.H.J.; Houtman, D.


    he literature about secularization proposes two distinct explanations of anti-Muslim sentiment in secularized societies. The first theory understands it in terms of religious competition between Muslims and the remaining minority of orthodox Protestants; the second understands it as resulting from

  12. Allama Shibli and the early Muslim League: A dissenting voice

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    Arshad Islam


    Full Text Available The All-India Muslim League (AIML was formed in 1906, with the primary aim to improve the educational and socioeconomic status of Muslims. Allama Shibli Nu‘mani (1857-1914 put forward an argument in support of Muslims recovering from the political stupor into which they had fallen after the British suppression of the 1857 uprising. He encouraged Muslims to participate in democratic politics in India, departing from the educational focus of his mentor, Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898. Shibli advanced a strong critique of the Muslim League’s limited ambitions in comparison with the Indian National Congress (INC. His critique, notably in ironic and emotive poetry, significantly contributed to the national discussion pertaining to the Muslim League’s reform and restructure. Based on Shibli’s original writings, this paper analyses his critique of the Muslim League and his efforts to overhaul its structure and policies. It examines the response of the Muslim League to these critiques and studies the extent to which its structure and policies changed.

  13. Lived Islam: Religious identity with Non-organized Muslim minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeldtoft, Nadia


    The purpose of this article is to show how a focus on ‘non-organized’ Muslims in Europe can contribute with insights on the everyday lives and practices of Muslim minorities. The empirical foundation is interviews conducted in Germany and Denmark. I argue that by focusing on institutionalized for...

  14. The Puzzle of Muslim Advantage in Child Survival in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhalotra, S.; Valente, C.; van Soest, A.H.O.


    The socio-economic status of Indian Muslims is, on average, considerably lower than that of upper caste Hindus. Muslims have higher fertility and shorter birth spacing and are a minority group that, it has been argued, have poorer access to public goods. They nevertheless exhibit substantially

  15. Highly-Valued Reasons Muslim Caregivers Choose Evangelical Christian Schools (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Andrew E.


    This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…

  16. Swazi Journalism and the 'Muslim Threat' | Rooney | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Swaziland constitution; (ii) a report that Muslims were enticing university students to convert to Islam in return for scholarships; and (iii) a public symposium run on the subject of Islam. It concludes that Swazi newspapers frame Muslims as warlike people who are plotting against the kingdom and who pose a threat to Swazi ...

  17. Muslims in Pre- and Post-9/11 Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Shahid Abdullah


    Full Text Available Muslims have never ceased to be important for the West and have been depicted in vilifying and stereotypical manners in western literature and films. However, after the tragic event of 9/11, a dramatic change has been observed in the world’s focus towards Muslims. Although stereotypes and discriminatory actions were nothing new to Muslims, the post-9/11 backlash was absolutely terrible and heartbreaking. People have started to consider Muslims either terrorists or sympathetic to terrorists, and they have been suspected and distrusted. Lots of books, articles and films have depicted Muslims in a derogatory and extreme manner. Pre-9/11 Hollywood movies True Lies and The Siege explicitly show the stereotypical attitude of the West to Muslims while post-9/11 novels like The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid and Once in a Promised Land by Laila Halaby depict the plight and predicament of Muslims in America. The article aims to depict the stereotypical, vilifying and antagonistic attitudes of the West to Arabs and Muslims in both pre- and post- 9/11 era. It also aims to prove that the depiction is highly motivated by the media, western authorities and the West’s desire for social, cultural and political dominance over the East. Keywords: Orientalism, Others, Terrorism, Media

  18. Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different? (United States)

    Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo


    This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…

  19. Muslim women's experiences of domestic violence in the Nelson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides a reflection on the experiences of Muslim women with regard to domestic violence. A qualitative approach was utilised following an explorative, descriptive, phenomenological contextual research design, as the researchers sought to understand the lived experiences of Muslim women in abusive ...

  20. “Speaking for Ourselves”: American Muslim Women's Confessional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    representation through the medium of autobiography post-9/11, focusing on Sumbul Ali- Karamali's The Muslim Next Door, Asma Gull Hasan's Red, White, and Muslim and the edited collections I Speak for Myself and Love, InshAllah. Highlighting the ...

  1. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands : Testing integrated threat theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin


    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents’ (N ¼ 1; 187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators

  2. Muslims, Home Education and Risk in British Society (United States)

    Myers, Martin; Bhopal, Kalwant


    The number of families who choose to home educate has significantly increased in the last decade. This article explores the experiences of British Muslims who home educate using data from a larger study exploring the views of a diverse range of families. Drawing on the work of Beck, we discuss how 'risk' is understood in relation to Muslim home…

  3. A Muslim Archipelago: Islam and Politics in Southeast Asia (United States)


    President as well as to Muslim leaders in that only Basilan Island (excluding the municipality of Isabela) and Marawi City voted to be included...N. Mercado . 100 years of Filipino Muslim- Christian Relations. Zamboanga City, Philippines: Silsilah Publications, 1999. Davis, Leonard...Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. Mercado , Eliseo R. Mission and Dialogue

  4. Personal aspirations and concerns inventory for offenders: developments in the measurement of offenders' motivation. (United States)

    Campbell, Jacqui; Sellen, Joselyn L; McMurran, Mary


    It is important to attend to offenders' motivation for treatment and behaviour change, either as a treatment selection criterion or a pre-treatment need. One measure of motivation that has been used with forensic populations is the Personal Concerns Inventory (PCI) and a PCI-Offender Adaptation (PCI-OA). As well as demonstrating promise in measuring offenders' motivation, the administration of the PCI and PCI-OA shows potential as a motivation enhancer. However, a number of potentially useful changes to the PCI-OA that may maximise its potential have been identified. These are described here. The rationale and process of abridgement and further development of the PCI-OA into the Personal Aspirations and Concerns Inventory for Offenders (PACI-O) are described. Results of a pilot study with 22 prisoners are reported. The pilot study aimed to assess the acceptability of the PACI-O with an offender population. Findings demonstrated that the interview took less time, although similar concerns were still identified, consistent with the previous PCI-OA. Consistency with previous evidence, together with positive feedback, suggests that the PACI-O was acceptable with an offender population. Future research is required to assess the psychometric properties of the PACI-O, and to evaluate its potential as an assessment of offender motivation.

  5. Sex Offender Rehabilitation Programs in State Prisons: A Nationwide Survey. (United States)

    Sapp, Allen D.; Vaughn, Michael S.


    Examined programs and strategies for rehabilitation used in adult sex offender treatment programs in state-operated adult correctional institutions. Questionnaires were completed by 73 adult sex offender treatment providers. The results revealed that incarcerated adult sex offenders were receiving comprehensive psychotherapy and behavior…

  6. Personality and Background Characteristics of Adolescent Sexual Offenders. (United States)

    Moody, Edward E., Jr.; And Others


    Examined personality and background characteristics of adolescent sexual offenders (n=21) and oppositional defiant adolescents (n=17) who completed High School Personality Questionnaire. Findings revealed no significant difference between offenders and oppositional defiant adolescents using multiple analysis of variance. Sex offenders tended to be…

  7. Effects of House Arrest with Electronic Monitoring on DUI Offenders. (United States)

    Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.


    Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…

  8. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  9. Self-conscious emotions and criminal offending. (United States)

    Tibbetts, Stephen G


    This study examined the relation of personality traits--shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and pride--on offending behavior. Using survey data from a sample of 224 college students, the construct and criterion-related validity of scales of the Shame Proneness Scale, the Test of Self-conscious Affect, and the Personality Feelings Questionnaire-2 were assessed. Regression analyses showed that self-conscious emotions are important in the etiology of criminal offending. Specifically, rated pride was positively correlated with self-reported criminal activity, whereas ratings of guilt were negatively associated with offending. The relation of shame with criminality varied depending on the type of measure used to indicate proneness to shame.

  10. Seeking Help in Domestic Violence Among Muslim Women in Muslim-Majority and Non-Muslim-Majority Countries: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Afrouz, Rojan; Crisp, Beth R; Taket, Ann


    Women from different backgrounds and cultures are at risk of domestic violence. Disclosing the abusive experience and seeking help is not straightforward and easy and might be a complicated and long-term process. Muslim women, like other groups of women, may face various barriers to disclose abusive relationships and for seeking help. Some of the barriers may be common for the majority of Muslim women in different contexts, while others might be related to women's situations and the wider society they live. To identify these barriers and make recommendations for future studies, this article reviews related papers conducted in both Muslim-majority and non-Muslim-majority countries. A critical systematic review of the literature was conducted for identifying Muslim women's barriers in disclosing abuse and seeking help. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The main identified barriers are discussed into under four themes: social context, family context, individual factors, and expectations of service providers. Although the researchers tried to investigate various barriers in seeking help, many of them have not focused on structural obstacles. Besides, in many Muslim-majority countries, the issue has not been explored. Therefore, the results of the current article will not apply to those countries. Recommendation for future research comprises more qualitative research compatible with the women's cultures and backgrounds in different societies, focusing more on structural and cultural factors to explore and find women's barriers to seek help.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a representative sample of Canadian federal offenders. (United States)

    Storey, Jennifer E; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Michie, Christine


    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a commonly used psychological test for assessing traits of psychopathic personality disorder. Despite the abundance of research using the PCL-R, the vast majority of research used samples of convenience rather than systematic methods to minimize sampling bias and maximize the generalizability of findings. This potentially complicates the interpretation of test scores and research findings, including the "norms" for offenders from the United States and Canada included in the PCL-R manual. In the current study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PCL-R scores for all male offenders admitted to a regional reception center of the Correctional Service of Canada during a 1-year period (n = 375). Because offenders were admitted for assessment prior to institutional classification, they comprise a sample that was heterogeneous with respect to correctional risks and needs yet representative of all offenders in that region of the service. We examined the distribution of PCL-R scores, classical test theory indices of its structural reliability, the factor structure of test items, and the external correlates of test scores. The findings were highly consistent with those typically reported in previous studies. We interpret these results as indicating it is unlikely any sampling limitations of past research using the PCL-R resulted in findings that were, overall, strongly biased or unrepresentative. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Antisocial personality disorder in incarcerated offenders: Psychiatric comorbidity and quality of life. (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Gunter, Tracy; Loveless, Peggy; Allen, Jeff; Sieleni, Bruce


    We determined the frequency of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in offenders. We examined demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life in those with and without ASPD. We also looked at the subset with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A random sample of 320 newly incarcerated offenders was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). ASPD was present in 113 subjects (35.3%). There was no gender-based prevalence difference. Offenders with ASPD were younger, had a higher suicide risk, and had higher rates of mood, anxiety, substance use, psychotic, somatoform disorders, borderline personality disorder, and ADHD. Quality of life was worse, and their LSI-R scores were higher, indicating a greater risk for recidivism. A subanalysis showed that offenders with ASPD who also had ADHD had a higher suicide risk, higher rates of comorbid disorders, and worse mental health functioning. ASPD is relatively common among both male and female inmates and is associated with comorbid disorders, high suicide risk, and impaired quality of life. Those with comorbid ADHD were more impaired than those without ADHD. ASPD occurs frequently in prison populations and is nearly as common in women as in men. These study findings should contribute to discussions of appropriate and innovative treatment of ASPD in correctional settings.

  13. Is Emotional Congruence With Children Associated With Sexual Offending in Pedophiles and Hebephiles From the Community? (United States)

    Konrad, Anna; Kuhle, Laura F; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M


    Although emotional congruence with children (ECWC) is a risk factor for sexual offending against children, its conceptual validity has hardly been researched. This study aims to explore the construct of ECWC by evaluating the factor structure of the Child Identification Scale (CIS-R) and its relation to facets of sexual preference and child sexual abuse behaviors. It was hypothesized that the measure comprises consistent subscales that are differently associated with aspects of sexual preference and sexual offending against children. CIS-R data of a sample of 217 adult male pedophiles from the community were used for an exploratory principal component analysis (PCA). Group comparisons and a multinomial logistic regression analysis were conducted after including a non-pedophilic control group of 22 adult men. PCA revealed a three-factor solution for the CIS-R accounting for 30% of variance. Group comparisons found differences in overall scores and the factor labeled "Attachment to Children" between subgroups of sexual age and gender preference, but not between contact, online, and non-offenders. The regression analysis showed a pedophile sexual preference and the interaction between a hebephile sexual age preference and the factor "Attachment to Children" being associated with past offending behavior. The results indicate a wish to attach to children as core feature of the CIS-R measure assessing ECWC. It is discussed whether this is an inherent feature of pedophilia or rather an independent aspect being differently distinct in pedophiles.

  14. Exploring the Multitude of Muslims in Europe. Essays in Honour of Jørgen S. Nielsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    through conceptualisations, productions and explorations of the multitudes of Muslims in Europe, and the authors draw on Jørgen S. Nielsen’s own work on the history and challenges of the Muslim community in Europe, critical thinking, ethnicities and theologies of Muslims in Europe, Muslim minorities...

  15. "I Feel Different Though": Narratives of Young Indonesian Muslims in Australian Public Schools (United States)

    Zulfikar, T.


    This article examines six Indonesian Muslim youth's narratives and those of their parents in relation to their experiences of being Muslim in Australian public schools. Previous studies on similar issue found a certain degree of exclusion and discrimination for being Muslims in public school, this present article however, perceives Muslims'…

  16. Using an Anti-Racist Education Strategy to Counter Prejudice against Arab and Muslim Americans (United States)

    DeTample, Darrell R.


    Most Americans misunderstand the terms "Arab" and "Muslim," while also casting Arabs and Muslims as threats to national security. These perceived threats have led to the justification of the oppression of Arab and Muslim Americans similar to other minority groups in the United States, as non-Arab and non-Muslim Americans have…

  17. Not Too "College-Like," Not Too Normal: American Muslim Undergraduate Women's Gendered Discourses (United States)

    Mir, Shabana


    Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of…

  18. Minority Political Representation: Muslim Councilors in Newham and Hackney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari


    Full Text Available Scholars have long been intrigued by the role of minority elected officials in representing the interests of their communities. There is an on-going debate on whether distinctive minority agendas exist and whether the existence of minority representatives (descriptive representation is a necessary condition to secure the representation of minority interests (substantive representation. This article analyzes original interview data to examine these issues through a case study of Muslim city councilors and the dynamics of local government in the Newham and Hackney Borough Councils of London. It finds that the exceptionally high ethnic diversity of Newham with no dominant ethnic group, the lack of racial or religious divides among neighborhoods, and low racial tensions shapes the political culture of the Council, as well as the Muslim councilors, and yields high responsiveness for all minorities. It also finds that non-Muslim councilors play a significant role in the substantive representation of minority interests, including Muslim interests. In contrast, the case study of the Hackney Council reveals that beyond high party fragmentation, ethnicity and religiosity of the Muslim councilors vary widely and hinder effective representation. In addition, their political incorporation is low, and the leadership positions they hold seem to have symbolic rather than substantive impact. The political behavior and representative styles of Muslim councilors reveal a balancing perspective, whereby they advocate for group interests with a more moderate tone. These factors account for the low government responsiveness to Muslim interests in Hackney.

  19. Muslim Youth Experiences in Quebec Secondary Schools: Race, Racialization, and the 'Dangerous Muslim Man'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naved Bakali


    Full Text Available This article examines the experiences of Muslim men who had attended the secondary schools in Quebec in the post-9/11 context. Employing a critical ethnographic approach stemming from institutional ethnography, this study presents biases/racism these men had experienced in their secondary schools in the aftermath of the 9/11 terror attacks and throughout the period of the War on Terror, and the possible causes for this treatment.

  20. German "Soft power" Policies in the Muslim World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili R. Rustamova


    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of foreign policy concepts declared the importance of using the instruments of "soft power" to promote the national interests of a country. Soft power is the ability through political values, culture and foreign policy to influence others by forming attractiveness [18]. Germany is generally recognized as the leader in the resources of "soft power." The article discusses what kind of resources are deployed by Germany to increase its "soft power" in the Muslim direction of foreign policy. The Muslim world has its own specifics, which complicate the use of instruments of "soft power." Countries with large Muslim population are difficult to influence, as they differ from Europe in the civilizational respect, have their own customs and traditions which they strictly follow because of the nature of Muslim religion. The author notes that in the Muslim direction of foreign policy the problem for Germany lies in the fact that the formation of its attractiveness resulted in a significant flow of immigration of Muslims in the country. A part of immigrant Muslims tries to live isolated from European society, professes radical currents ofIslam and participates in military conflicts abroad, participation in which in the role of active player is ruled out by Germany. Failure to integrate them into German society and the lack of progress in the formation of its positive image in the Muslim countries resulted, on the one hand, in the split of German society, on the other hand, in the threat of absorption by foreign civilization, as it is observed now in Germany the presence of "soft power" of Muslim countries, which use its former and current citizens to influence German political course. The article was written within the constructivist methodology, which consider the "soft power" as a way of construction of social reality with the use of tangible and intangible resources for the formation of an attractive image of Germany in world

  1. Female Sexual Homicide Offenders: A Descriptive and Comparative Study. (United States)

    Skott, Sara; Beauregard, Eric; Darjee, Rajan


    Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests. The findings show that although female sexual homicide offenders are similar to both female nonsexual homicide offenders and male sexual homicide offenders in certain aspects, there are important differences that distinguish sexual homicides involving female offenders from both groups. Female sexual homicide offenders can arguably be seen as a distinct group of offenders, with specific characteristics and specific needs. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. ETOS KERJA PENGUSAHA MUSLIM (Studi Kasus pada Pengusaha Muslim Alumni UIN Walisongo Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirul Huda


    Full Text Available This study focused on the work ethos of Moeslim entrepreneurs who graduated from UIN Walisongo Semarang. It is very interesting to study because of their profession as a businessmen and their educational background which based on Islamic sciences. Through a qualitative descriptive approach, there are two issues to be answered, namely how the work ethos of Muslim entrepreneurs who graduated from UIN Walisongo Semarang in running a business and how relationships between work ethos of muslim entrepreneurs with their success in business? Results of this study stated that Muslim entrepreneurs who graduated from UIN Walisongo Semarang have a high work ethic as capital in running and developing a business that was involved. Their work ethos is not only driven by economic motives, namely in order to meeth the economic needs alone, but it is also driven by social and religious motives. It correlates with the answer to the second issue, that, a high work ethich as been able to deliver the mon the success of the business that was involved, albeit with varying levels of success. It was determined by the type of business that is occupied and the time period to run the business. It also showed a good ability of the entrepreneur to manage and develop their business

  3. Preliminary Findings on Men's Sexual Self-Schema and Sexual Offending: Differences Between Subtypes of Offenders. (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro


    Available literature suggests that sexual self-schemas (i.e., cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself) influence sexual behavior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research regarding their role in sexual offending. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the men's sexual self-schema dimensions (passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal) and different types of sexual-offending behavior. A total of 50 rapists, 65 child molesters (21 pedophilic, 44 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Men's Sexual Self-Schema Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, school education, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that rapists as well as nonsexual offenders were more likely to hold the powerful-aggressive sexual self-view compared to pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Overall, findings seem to be consistent with both a sociocultural component of aggression and the general cognitive profile of offenders. If further research corroborates these preliminary findings, sexual self-concept may be integrated into a comprehensive multifactorial approach of offending behavior.

  4. Individual, family and offence characteristics of high risk childhood offenders: comparing non-offending, one-time offending and re-offending Dutch-Moroccan migrant children in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Gonneke WJM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood offenders are at an increased risk for developing mental health, social and educational problems later in life. An early onset of offending is a strong predictor for future persistent offending. Childhood offenders from ethnic minority groups are a vulnerable at-risk group. However, up until now, no studies have focused on them. Aims To investigate which risk factors are associated with (re-offending of childhood offenders from an ethnic minority. Method Dutch-Moroccan boys, who were registered by the police in the year 2006-2007, and their parents as well as a control group (n = 40 were interviewed regarding their individual and family characteristics. Two years later a follow-up analysis of police data was conducted to identify one-time offenders (n = 65 and re-offenders (n = 35. Results All groups, including the controls, showed substantial problems. Single parenthood (OR 6.0 and financial problems (OR 3.9 distinguished one-time offenders from controls. Reading problems (OR 3.8, having an older brother (OR 5.5 and a parent having Dutch friends (OR 4.3 distinguished re-offenders from one-time offenders. First offence characteristics were not predictive for re-offending. The control group reported high levels of emotional problems (33.3%. Parents reported not needing help for their children but half of the re-offender's families were known to the Child Welfare Agency, mostly in a juridical framework. Conclusion The Moroccan subgroup of childhood offenders has substantial problems that might hamper healthy development. Interventions should focus on reaching these families tailored to their needs and expectations using a multi-system approach.

  5. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.


    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  6. Strategies of Intervention with Public Offenders. (United States)

    Chaneles, Sol, Ed.


    Reviews intervention strategies with public offenders, including learning therapy, education, group assertive training, and the use of volunteers. The l0 articles deal with inmates' rights in terms of health care and psychotherapy, and evaluation of social programs, and a psychodrama program description/model. (JAC)

  7. Is Coersive Treatment of Offenders Morally Acceptable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper


    Is it morally acceptable to instigate criminal offenders to participate in rehabilitative treatment by offering treatment in return for early release from prison? Some theorists have supported such treatment schemes by pointing to the beneficial consequences that follow from the treatment. Others...

  8. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex


    Background: By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures...

  9. Creating Hope for Life-Sentenced Offenders (United States)

    Ruddell, Rick; Broom, Ian; Young, Matthew


    Offenders sentenced to terms of life imprisonment pose special challenges for correctional systems. The Correctional Service of Canada collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to develop programmatic interventions to better prepare this population to survive their prison sentences and transition to the community. This study describes the…

  10. The Mentally Retarded Offender and Corrections. (United States)

    Santamour, Miles; West, Bernadette

    The booklet provides an overview of the issues involved in correctional rehabilitation for the mentally retarded offender. Reviewed are clinical and legal definitions of criminal behavior and retardation, and discussed are such issues as law enforcement and court proceedings problems, pros and cons of special facilities, labeling, normalization,…

  11. Do pedophiles have a weaker identity structure compared with nonsexual offenders? (United States)

    Tardi, M; Van Gijseghem, H


    The aim of this study was to determine whether pedophiles have a weaker identity structure compared with nonsexual offenders. The recruitment process secured the participation of 87 male adult subjects, divided into three groups: 27 pedophiles who abused male victims (X = 38.6 years), 30 pedophiles who abused female victims (X = 35.5 years), 30 nonsexual offenders (X = 29.8 years). The concept of identity was examined on the basis of two factors: body image limits and ego identity. Two objective tests, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Ego Identity Scale, and one projective test, the Rorschach scored according to the Fisher and Cleveland method, were used. A multivariate analysis of covariance, at a significance threshold of p pedophiles who abused female victims and pedophiles who abused male victims have more fragile body image limits, as measured by the penetration score, and present a higher level of social introversion (Si scale) than do nonsexual offenders. Moreover, pedophiles who abused male victims have a weaker ego (Es scale) than do pedophiles who abused female victims and nonsexual offenders. In other respects, no significant intergroup difference emerged in terms of body image limits as measured by the barrier score and of strength of ego identity (Ego Identity Scale). Conceptual and empirical elements related to body image and ego identity are addressed to shed light on the potential disturbances in the identity of pedophile subjects. These results imply not only that certain impairments exist at the level of the basis structures of the personality, but also that these impairments should be taken into account in formulating a program and devising a therapeutic process for pedophiles.

  12. Lessons on Holistic Development from Muslim Women's Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muslim women's organizations in East and West Africa have cultivated successful ... we conceptualize economic and political participation and measure inequality. ... Tanzania to help develop mechanisms for sustainable economic growth and ...

  13. Halal Tourism in Indonesia: Does it attract only Muslim Tourists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktifani Winarti


    Full Text Available Indonesian Halal Tourism became a raising mode to attract Muslim Tourist by Ministry of Tourism Republic Indonesia. Indonesia, as a non-Muslim country by nation ideology, tries to highlight the spiritual spirit of Islam as a culture to attract more tourists and put it into physical practice by having more tourism hospitalities; such as Halal Hotel that has Halal certification, which provides less or even none of alcohol beverages and serves only food based on Halal dietary. Indonesia in developing tourism brand of “Indonesia The Halal Wonders” would possibly lead into positive and negative possibilities. This article used literature review to reach data about Halal tourism in Indonesia. It has a tendency for tourism halal markets to lose the customers that are not Muslim travellers. Keywords: Halal Tourism, Indonesia, Muslim, Tourist

  14. Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects. ... Basic findings of this study show that Nigeria.s stability, democracy, and national ... must embrace Inter-religious dialogue which demands religions nurture, faith, trust, ...

  15. Americans' Views of the Muslim World: Realities and Fallacies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulehri, Waqas A


    The 9/11 terror attacks prompted a large number of public opinion surveys in the Islamic world by Gallup, Pew, Zogby, and others seeking to understand the level and nature of Muslim antagonism toward America...

  16. Multiculturalism and England's Muslim Minority: Solution or Problem?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleming, Todd D


    .... While the United Kingdom takes great pride in its past multicultural policies, it finds itself increasingly estranged from its Muslim minority community while seeing a notable rise in the growth of radicalism...

  17. Majority members' feelings about political representation of muslim immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Hindriks, Paul; Coenders, Marcel


    In three survey experimental studies among national samples of the native Dutch, we examined feelings towards Muslim immigrants' political party representation. The strategy of disengagement (reject political representation) was evaluated most positively, followed by the descriptive representation

  18. Female Muslim students' dress practices in a South African campus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    turation from a socio-cultural perspective, as the occurrence ..... gies, a two-way contingency table analysis was used. This was ..... Muslim students‟ management of their appea- ..... apparel and contemporary American clothing. Journal of ...



    Dian Sarastuti


    Queenova is one of the Muslim fashion brand who play in the online market that has been able to grow rapidly. The purpose of this study is to find out the online marketing communication strategy conducted by Queenova Muslim fashion in increasing brand awareness. This type of research uses descriptive type qualitative approach with qualitative descriptive research method. Technique of data collecting by interview and observation. Technique examination of data validity using triangulation. Quee...

  20. The Veiled Muslim, the Anorexic and the Transsexual


    Gressgård , Randi


    Abstract The Muslim woman wearing the veil, the female anorexic and the from-male-to-female transsexual constitute three different figures that, despite their striking differences, have a common symbolic ground. By focusing on the similarity between the veiled woman and the other two figures, the article sheds a different light on the debate about the Muslim veil in western societies. It is argued that the ...

  1. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained Muslim men. (United States)

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit


    The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of sleep deprivation and dietary irregularities during Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained male Muslim individuals. 77 untrained Muslim men were recruited in the study. They were divided into the experimental group (EG; n=37, age: 22.62±1.77 years) and the control group (CG; n=40, age: 23.00±1.48 years). EG was undergoing RIF while CG abstained. Aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity or high-intensity efforts (HIEs), agility, flexibility, vertical jump height and handgrip strength were measured on 8 separate occasions-15 days before RIF, 7 days before RIF, 1st day of RIF, 7th day of RIF, 15th day of RIF, 21st day of RIF, last day of RIF and 15 days after RIF. Aerobic fitness and HIE showed a significant difference (p<0.05) during RIF in EG. Agility and flexibility score showed a significant decrease in EG during RIF, whereas changes in the vertical jump score (VJT) and handgrip strength were statistically insignificant. Studied parameters showed an insignificant variation in CG during RIF. Aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility showed a significant intergroup variation during different experimental trials. The present investigation revealed that RIF had adverse effects on aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility of young untrained Muslims of Kolkata, India. VJT, waist-hip ratio and handgrip strength were not affected by RIF in the studied population. Mild but statistically insignificant reduction in body mass was also reflected after the mid-Ramadan week.

  2. Ekspresi dan Representasi Budaya Perempuan Muslim Kelas Menengah di Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofhani Rofhani


    Full Text Available This article discusses Islamic culture that undergoes shift in meaning as a form of expression and self-representation of Middle Class Muslim Women. Basically, the religious movement of women constitutes a form of identity assertion. The Middle Class Muslim Women unconsciously exhibit new culture, although it must be admitted that not all Middle Class Muslims in Indonesia follow popular lifestyle. Instead, they demonstrate culture different from what of fundamentalist groups with their turban, cloak, and veil of a specific color. Middle Class Muslim Women create an alternative lifestyle which conforms Islamic norms, flexible, not rigid to build Islamic identity. In general, Middle Class Muslim Women in Surabaya have a relatively similar lifestyle. They tend to be rationalistic in understanding religion. They prefer, for example, more scientific materials to enrich their religious knowledge. Although they are rationalistic and follow the values of modernity, they still adhere to normative values of religion. The ethical values or religious norms are their main guideline for behavior including the reason for wearing Muslim clothing and veil.

  3. Etika Al-Qur’an Terhadap Non-Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harda Armayanto


    Full Text Available This paper describes the ethics toward non-Muslims based on al-Qur’an. Islam as a religion of peace was accused and insulted by the orientalists frequently. These accusations and insulting stated in several articles, journals either in their books. Their books like Islamic Invasion wrote by Robert Morey and Islam Revealed by Anis A Shorrosh are some sample of how the orientalists discredits Islam. Whereas Islam is not like what they accused. On the contrary, Islam has responding their accusations with an elegant and tolerant doctrine. Islam has teaches its peoples to respects another religion’s people, Islam forbids his people to insult other religions, to excoriate their worships or forcing non-Muslims to convert  or believes  to Islam, even  Islam teaches  its  people to acknowledge non-Muslims  as  brother  and  sister.  This  is  Islam’s  admiration  toward  non- Muslims. Surprisingly, these admirations inversely proportional to what non- Muslims did toward Islam and its people. The abuses as what we mention it before, was being happened even until now. Lately, one of  Christian pastor in United State was told his people to burn the Holly Qur’an or as we known about suppression of Rohingya’s Muslims that was did by Myanmar’s Buddhists.

  4. EEG activity in Muslim prayer: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider H. Alwasiti


    Full Text Available Almost all religions incorporate some form of meditation. Muslim prayer is the meditation of Islam. It is an obligatory prayer for all Muslims that is performed five times a day. Although a large body of literature exists on EEG changes in meditation, to date there has been no research published in a peer-reviewed journal on EEG changes during Muslim prayer. The purpose of this pilot study is to encourage further investigation on this type of meditation. Results of EEG analysis in twenty-five trials of Muslim prayer are reported. Some of the findings are consistent with the majority of the previous meditation studies (alpha rhythm slowing, increased alpha rhythm coherence. However, Muslim prayer does not show an increase in alpha and/or theta power like most of the results of other meditation studies. The possible cause of this discrepancy in meditation-related studies is highlighted and a systematic and standardised roadmap for future Muslim prayer EEG research is proposed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study is part of an extensive analysis of the social impact caused by the characteristics of the Muslim family in the Romanian and European society. Between the religious and the social demands, Muslim family manages all the harder to enroll in the course imposed by tradition. A great importance has the knowledge and the understanding of the intra and interfamilial behaviors, this one needs first to detect and to avoid the myths related to the Muslim family. Addressing and clarifying this issue lies in the center of the present study. He represents a necessity without which Muslim family life, the role of the woman and the man in this family can not be understood fully, given that their religion and their way of life tend to cover an area of increasingly greater psychosocial space both at European level and worldwide.

  6. The effects of happy Muslim family activities on reduction of domestic violence against Thai-Muslim spouses in Satun province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasetchai Laeheem


    The study found that before participation in the activities, significantly more subjects in the experimental group who participated in happy Muslim family activities had violent behaviors against their spouses than those in the control group who participated in normal community activities. However, after participating in the happy Muslim family activities, those in the experimental group used significantly less domestic violence against their spouses when compared with those in the control group.

  7. Offending and Victimization in the Digital Age : Comparing Correlates of Cybercrime and Traditional Offending-Only, Victimization-Only and the Victimization-Offending Overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, Marleen Weulen; Holt, Thomas J.; van Gelder, Jean Louis


    Cybercrime research suggests that, analogous to traditional crime, victims are more likely to be offenders. This overlap could be caused by shared risk factors, but it is unclear if these are comparable to traditional risk factors. Utilizing a high risk sample of computer-dependent cyber-offenders

  8. Dynamic Risk Assessment of Sexual Offenders: Validity and Dimensional Structure of the Stable-2007. (United States)

    Etzler, Sonja; Eher, Reinhard; Rettenberger, Martin


    In this study, the predictive and incremental validity of the Stable-2007 beyond the Static-99 was evaluated in an updated sample of N = 638 adult male sexual offenders followed-up for an average of M = 8.2 years. Data were collected at the Federal Evaluation Center for Violent and Sexual Offenders (FECVSO) in Austria within a prospective-longitudinal research design. Scores and risk categories of the Static-99 (AUC = .721; p risk categories contributed incrementally to the prediction of sexual recidivism beyond the Static-99. Analyzing the dimensional structure of the Stable-2007 yielded three factors, named Antisociality, Sexual Deviance, and Hypersexuality. Antisociality and Sexual Deviance were significant predictors for sexual recidivism. Sexual Deviance was negatively associated with non-sexual violent recidivism. Comparisons with latent dimensions of other risk assessment instruments are made and implications for applied risk assessment are discussed.

  9. The role of theory in the assessment of sex offenders. (United States)

    Quackenbush, Ray E


    No generally accepted theory of sex offender behavior exists at this point. As clinical experience and research findings interact within an evolving theoretical framework, the picture of what is important, as well as what is possible to know about a sex offender, is rapidly changing. It is vital that mental health professionals, the legal system, social service agencies, and other consumers and providers of sex offender assessments be aware of both what is possible to learn about an offender as well as the limitations on that knowledge and its application. Prominent theories that influence the assessment of offenders in North America and Europe are presented and examined. Uses and limitations of each theory are discussed. Several trends emerge which could influence the future of sex offender assessment, treatment, management, and policy.

  10. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights. (United States)

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather


    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indarto Setiawan


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the factors that determines consumers in their purchasing decisions Muslim dress and recommend the proposed marketing mix strategy affects customer satisfaction and loyalty which can have an impact on purchasing decisions / repurchase (repurchase by consumers. The analytical methods used in this study Chi-Square Test, Thurstone Case-V Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, and Structural Equation Model. The results showed the purchasing decisions Muslim clothing there is a relationship between level of education and average revenue / expenditure per month with custom usage Muslim clothing, there are five sequences attribute Muslim clothing that is essential according to the respondents, the underwear model, quality of materials, patterns typical, leisure time used as well as an attractive packaging design. Muslim clothing brand Ke'ke is purchased by consumers because the ads fit the facts, reasonably priced, there are many models of quality koko and containerized, while shortcomings are in the variation of the veil / hijab and less spread of sales outlets. The products are very dominant. They influence purchasing decisions of consumers so that the superiority of the product should be maintained and even improved.Keywords: muslim clothing, the mix marketing, re-purchasing decisions

  12. Defining Probability in Sex Offender Risk Assessment. (United States)

    Elwood, Richard W


    There is ongoing debate and confusion over using actuarial scales to predict individuals' risk of sexual recidivism. Much of the debate comes from not distinguishing Frequentist from Bayesian definitions of probability. Much of the confusion comes from applying Frequentist probability to individuals' risk. By definition, only Bayesian probability can be applied to the single case. The Bayesian concept of probability resolves most of the confusion and much of the debate in sex offender risk assessment. Although Bayesian probability is well accepted in risk assessment generally, it has not been widely used to assess the risk of sex offenders. I review the two concepts of probability and show how the Bayesian view alone provides a coherent scheme to conceptualize individuals' risk of sexual recidivism.

  13. Assessment of moral judgment and empathy in young sex offenders: a comparison of clinical judgment and test results. (United States)

    van Vugt, Eveline; Asscher, Jessica; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; van der Laan, Peter


    Professional decision making in forensic clinical practice may have lifelong consequences for offenders. Although information on moral development is important for prediction of reoffending and referral to adequate treatment, conclusions regarding moral development are still largely based on unstructured clinical judgment instead of assessment instruments. For this study, the authors examined to what extent unstructured clinical judgment of both moral judgment and victim empathy concurred with test results in a group of young sex offenders. Moral judgment was measured with the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF), whereas victim empathy was measured with an extended version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). No significant associations were found between clinical judgment of moral judgment and the mean scores on the SRM-SF. However, clinical judgment of victim empathy was significantly associated with victim empathy on the Victim Empathy Scale but not consistently in the expected direction. Juvenile sex offenders, who were judged by clinicians to show little victim empathy, displayed lower mean scores on the Victim Empathy Scale than juvenile sex offenders who were evaluated to lack victim empathy or to have intact victim empathy. This study showed unstructured clinical judgment of moral development not to concur with test results. To improve decision-making processes regarding moral development, clinicians are advised to rely on instruments that assess moral development to inform clinical judgment. Further research is needed to examine which predictions are more accurate and to establish the predictive validity of moral development evaluations.

  14. Australian Mass Shootings: An Analysis of Incidents and Offenders. (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara


    Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.

  15. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study. (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J


    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sociodemographic Predictors of Sex Offender Stigma: How Politics Impact Attitudes, Social Distance, and Perceptions of Sex Offender Recidivism. (United States)

    DeLuca, Joseph S; Vaccaro, John; Rudnik, Amalia; Graham, Nicole; Giannicchi, Anna; Yanos, Philip T


    Stigma toward general criminal offenders has been found to be particularly salient among community members who identify as politically conservative; however, less is known about how political identification relates to stigma toward sex offenders. This is a particularly important area of inquiry, given that criminal jurisprudence and politics legitimatize stigmatizing labels attributed to sex offenders through laws and policies that apply specifically to this group. A nonrandom sample ( N = 518) of participants living in the United States was recruited for this survey study. Findings indicated that a specific aspect of conservative political ideology-right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)-significantly predicts negative attitudes and intended social distancing behavior toward sex offenders, even when controlling for other important predictors, such as education and prior contact. RWA was found to be the strongest predictor of negative attitudes and estimations of sex offender recidivism, and also significantly predicted intended social distancing behavior. Implications for addressing stigma toward sex offenders are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novichkov Valery Evgenyevich


    Full Text Available The article discusses traditional and non-traditional, but scientifically sound and valid methodological approaches to the study of the individual offender and the offender in their relationship. In particular, substantiate the position criminological approach to the study of criminal behavior of the person and his personality in connection with the set of its biological, physiological, psychological, genetic, "from the outside coming" and other properties and qualities, and in criminal law the offender is to be regarded as persons subject to criminal liability and to include among the currently known characteristics of the individual offender, only those that are covered by the notion "subject of crime". In General, studying the phenomena of the terms "offender" and "offender" should not ignore the data on the "biologization" and "sociological" man, and passing his brain biochemical processes producing motives, feelings, motives, needs etc.

  18. Parent-child relationships of boys in different offending trajectories. A developmental perspective (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim


    Background This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7–19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending trajectories. Developmental changes in child reports of parent-child joint activities and relationship quality were examined using Latent Growth Curves. Results Five offending trajectories were found: non-offenders, moderate childhood offenders, adolescent-limited offenders, serious childhood offenders, and serious persistent offenders. Non-offenders reported high and stable levels of relationship quality between age 10 and 16. Adolescent-limited offenders reported a similarly high relationship quality as non-offenders at ages 7 and 10, but a lower and decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Compared with non-offenders, serious persistent offenders reported poorer parent-child relationship quality at all ages, and a decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Serious persistent offenders and adolescent-limited offenders reported similar levels and changes in parent-child relationship quality in adolescence. Although serious persistent offenders reported fewer joint activities at age 10 and 13 than non-offenders, a similar linear decrease in joint activities in early to middle adolescence was found for boys in each trajectory. Conclusion Developmental changes in parent-child relationship quality differ for different types of offenders. This finding has scientific and practical implications. PMID:22816682

  19. Religion and Relationships in Muslim Families: A Qualitative Examination of Devout Married Muslim Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alghafli


    Full Text Available Since 11 September 2001, Islam has been the center of many debates, discussions, parodies and publications. Many Muslims feel that their religion has been portrayed unfairly in Western media. The topics that seem to generate the most criticism relate to gender roles and the treatment of women, both inside the home and in society. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived role of Islam on marital and familial relationships from an insider’s perspective and to present participants’ reflections on sensitive issues, including gender roles, women’s rights and marital unity. Content analysis of in-depth interviews of twenty diverse Shia and Sunni Muslim couples living in the U.S. (n = 40 yielded three emergent themes: (1 Islam as a way of life; (2 Islam as a unifying force; and (3 gender roles and the treatment of women. These data suggest that, as perceived by our religiously involved “insider” participants, Islam influences marriage relationships, unites families and (when understood and lived properly protects women from abuse and oppression.

  20. Muslim gay men: identity conflict and politics in a Muslim majority nation. (United States)

    Hamdi, Nassim; Lachheb, Monia; Anderson, Eric


    While a number of investigations have examined how gay Muslim men view homosexuality in relation to religious Western homophobia, this research constitutes the first account of the experiences of self-identified gay men living in an African, Muslim nation, where same-sex sex is both illegal and actively persecuted. We interviewed 28 gay men living in Tunisia in order to understand how they assimilate their sexual, religious and ethnic identities within a highly homophobic culture. Utilizing notions of homoerasure and homohysteria (McCormack and Eric Anderson ,b), and examining the intersection of identity conflict and new social movement theory, we highlight four strategies that participants use to negotiate the dissonance of living with conflicting identities in a context of religious homophobia: (1) privileging their Islamic identities and rejecting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (2) rejecting Islam and accepting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (3) interpreting Islam to be supportive of homosexuality; and (4) creating a non-penetrative homosexuality to be compatible with literal Qur'anic interpretations. We discuss the multiple difficulties these men face in relation to religious intolerance and ethnic heteronormativity, and reflect upon the possibilities and obstacles of using Western identity politics towards the promotion of social justice within a framework of growing homohysteria. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo, Linda


    Full Text Available This study, based on the case studies of 25 adolescent sex offenders, was designed to understand those factors that contribute to adolescent sexual offending. Although the focus is primarily on the micro level, we acknowledge the impacts of mezzo- and macro-level factors on family and individual functioning. External structural factors such as poverty, inequality, unemployment, societal values regarding sexuality, lack of support systems and violence penetrate the lives of individuals and families to manifest in a range of problems that human service professionals such as psychiatrists, social workers and psychologists deal with on a daily basis


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal A. Halim


    Full Text Available The present essay examines the common approach in reading the relationship between Muslims and Russian society as if they were bound by perpetual conflict. Following this angle, historians argue that the Russians underwent long term conflict with Muslims and claim that the Russians have suffered more than any other people in facing the hostile world of Islam. Some also argue that Muslims were completely subdued by the Russians due to Islam’s incompatibility with the secular and atheist Soviet regime.  A careful survey of literature on the history of Muslims in Russia, however, does not always lead to the conclusion that the two sides were in continuous conflict. In fact, aside from conflict and subjugation, both Russians and the Muslims enjoyed a considerable level of peace and shared a similar attitude of flexibility in mutual cooperation.  Given the extent of flexibility of Muslims in their encounter with the Russians throughout the Czar and the Soviet regimes, I argue that contemporary scholars have scaled down the dynamic of both Russian and Muslims intellectual articulations in relation to modern politics as well as to the internal relationship between the two sides, and that the relationship between them can be written as other than perpetual conflict.[Artikel ini mengulas hubungan Islam dan Rusia yang kerap dijelaskan dalam konteks relasi saling bertentangan. Dari cara pandang demikian, ahli sejarah kerap berpendapat bahwa konflik antara keduanya sudah terjadi lama dan orang Rusia adalah korban paling parah yang diakibatkan kebrutalan Islam. Semantara itu, ahli sejarah lainnya berpendapat bahwa orang Islam jatuh ke tangan kekuasaan Rusia karena Islam tidak mengakui rejim sekuler dan ateis Soviet. Jika literatur mengenai sejarah Islam di Rusia, maka relasi konfliktual antara keduanya tidak sepenuhnya benar. Faktanya, terlepas dari konflik dan penaklukan, baik orang Rusia dan umat Islam dapat hidup secara damai dan fleksibel dalam

  3. The Traumatogenic Dynamics of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Among Arab American, Muslim, and Refugee Clients. (United States)

    Kira, Ibrahim A; Lewandowski, Linda; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Templin, Thomas; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Mohanesh, Jamal


    Understanding the dynamics of mental health stigma through existing frameworks, especially in minorities with higher stigma, is problematic. There is a need to reconceptualize stigma, particularly in highly traumatized groups. The current study examines the validity of a new development-based trauma framework that conceptualizes stigma as a type III chronic trauma that contributes to negative mental health effects. This framework proposes that public stigma is a unique chronic traumatic stress that mediates the effects of similar trauma types in mental health patients. To test this proposition, this study explores the relationships between internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI), different trauma types, and posttrauma spectrum disorders. ISMI, posttraumatic stress disorder, other posttrauma spectrum disorders, and cumulative trauma measures were administered to a sample of 399 mental health patients that included Arab (82%), Muslim (84%), and refugee (31%), as well as American patients (18%). Age in the sample ranged from 18 to 76 years (M = 39.66, SD = 11.45), with 53.5% males. Hierarchical multiple regression, t tests, and path analyses were conducted. Results indicated that ISMI predicted posttraumatic stress disorder and other posttrauma spectrum disorders after controlling for cumulative trauma. ISMI was associated with other chronic collective identity traumas. While Arab Americans, Muslims, and refugees had higher ISMI scores than other Americans, the elevated chronic trauma levels of these groups were significant predictors of these differences. The results provide evidence to support ISMI traumatology model. Implications of the results for treating victims of ISMI, especially Arab Americans, Muslims and refugees are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Classifying and explaining democracy in the Muslim world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaizan Baharuddin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to classify and explain democracies in the 47 Muslim countries between the years 1998 and 2008 by using liberties and elections as independent variables. Specifically focusing on the context of the Muslim world, this study examines the performance of civil liberties and elections, variation of democracy practised the most, the elections, civil liberties and democratic transitions and patterns that followed. Based on the quantitative data primarily collected from Freedom House, this study demonstrates the following aggregate findings: first, the “not free not fair” elections, the “limited” civil liberties and the “Illiberal Partial Democracy” were the dominant feature of elections, civil liberties and democracy practised in the Muslim world; second, a total of 413 Muslim regimes out of 470 (47 regimes x 10 years remained the same as their democratic origin points, without any transitions to a better or worse level of democracy, throughout these 10 years; and third, a slow, yet steady positive transition of both elections and civil liberties occurred in the Muslim world with changes in the nature of elections becoming much more progressive compared to the civil liberties’ transitions.

  5. Muslim patients' expectations and attitudes about Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. (United States)

    Lou, Alina; Hammoud, Maya


    To investigate Muslim women's attitudes concerning Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and determine how healthcare providers can better serve this population. A cross-sectional study targeted Muslim patients with active obstetric records within the University of Michigan Health System who received care at clinics in metro Detroit (MI, USA) during Ramadan in 2013. Patients aged 18-50 years were approached between July 7 and August 15, and asked to complete a written survey on perceptions of fasting, influences on decision making, and healthcare expectations. Among the 37 women who completed the survey, 26 (70%) did not fast in their current or most recent pregnancy during Ramadan. Overall, 23 (62%) women believed that fasting was harmful to themselves, their fetus, or both. Seven (19%) women reported consulting others about fasting during pregnancy, with the most influential individuals being Muslim scholars, followed by family/relatives and healthcare providers. The most important characteristics desired in a physician included being respectful of Islamic beliefs and possessing knowledge about Ramadan. Most women chose not to fast during pregnancy. Although few consulted healthcare providers, pregnant Muslim women valued their opinions. Healthcare providers need to educate themselves about which topics to discuss with Muslim patients to provide care on an individual basis. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender bias in Islamic textbooks for Muslim children in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwardi Suwardi


    Full Text Available Textbook has a strong influence on the formation of children’s attitudes and value system. Therefore, Islamic textbooks as the main learning source for Muslim children in Indonesia need to consider the gender equality. This is very important to note, because feminists often view that Islam contains teachings of gender inequality. Islam places men in the higher position, while women are placed in the lower position. For example, men can be imam for women in prayer, but women cannot be imam for men. It is easier for children to learn textbook material presented in pictures. Therefore, the pictures presented in Islamic textbooks ideally do not contain gender bias. So, a research is needed to know if there is gender bias in the pictures presented in Islamic textbooks taught to Muslim children in Indonesia. To prove it, a literary research is conducted on the Islamic textbooks taught to the first grade Muslim student of Islamic Elementary School/ Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI in Indonesia which includes pictures in their teaching materials. Islamic textbooks studied in the research include Fikih, Akidah Akhlak, and Arabic textbooks. The results of this study conclude that the pictures presented in Islamic textbooks taught in Muslim children in Indonesia contain gender bias. The man favor pictures are more than those of woman favor. Based on the conclusion, this study recommends an improvement of pictures presented in Islamic textbooks taught to Muslim children in Indonesia.

  7. Features influencing Islamic websites use: A Muslim user perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Aliyu


    Full Text Available Muslim scholars and organisations use the Internet through various websites to spread Islam globally. The presence of many websites providing Islamic contents online makes it necessary to examine their Islamic features and the factors that influence Muslims to use Islamic websites. This paper empirically investigates the Islamic features that influence the use of Islamic websites by Muslim users. The identified Islamic factors were grouped under five factors: beliefs, ethics, services, symbols, and values. A survey of 246 Muslim Islamic website users was conducted between November and December  2012 at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM. The study develops and tests a path measurement model to confirm the psychometric properties of the five identified factors. The study found that Islamic features significantly influence Muslims to use Islamic websites. The measurement model and empirical results provide valuable indicators for the direction of future research and also suggest guidelines for developing Islamic websites that will easily influence many Internet users to visit them in order to learn about Islamic teachings and practices. The findings are also of considerable importance as they contribute to the present body of knowledge on Islamic websites’ evaluation and for practice in designing and developing quality Islamic websites.

  8. Understanding Muslim patients: cross-cultural dental hygiene care. (United States)

    Sirois, M L; Darby, M; Tolle, S


    Healthcare providers who understand the basic pillars of Islamic beliefs and common religious practices can apply these concepts, anticipate the needs of the Muslim patient and family, and attract Muslim patients to the practice. Cross cultural knowledge can motivate dental hygienists to adopt culturally acceptable behaviors, strengthen patient-provider relationships and optimize therapeutic outcomes. Trends in Muslim population growth, Islamic history and beliefs, modesty practices, healthcare beliefs, contraception, childbearing, childrearing, pilgrimage, dietary practices, dental care considerations and communication are explained. This paper reviews traditional Muslim beliefs and practices regarding lifestyle, customs, healthcare and religion as derived from the literature and study abroad experiences. Recommendations are offered on how to blend western healthcare with Islamic practices when making introductions, appointments, eye contact, and selecting a practitioner. The significance of fasting and how dental hygiene care can invalidate the fast are also discussed. The ultimate goal is for practitioners to be culturally competent in providing care to Muslim patients, while keeping in mind that beliefs and practices can vary widely within a culture. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Reflections on world citizens and privilege - comparing indigenous and Muslim minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne


    The article treats the significance of status, citizenship and world-citizenship for two 'minorities' - indigenous people and Muslim.......The article treats the significance of status, citizenship and world-citizenship for two 'minorities' - indigenous people and Muslim....

  10. Evaluating the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Roesch, Ronald; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S


    Individuals with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) experience a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits thought to interfere with their ability to competently navigate the arrest, interrogation, and trial process. This study examined the psycholegal abilities of young offenders with FASD, including their understanding and appreciation of Miranda rights, and adjudication capacities (factual knowledge of criminal procedure, appreciation of the nature and object of the proceedings, ability to participate in a defense and communicate with counsel). Two groups of young offenders (50 with FASD and 50 without prenatal alcohol exposure) completed Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda rights and the Fitness Interview Test-Revised to assess overall rates of impairment in youth with FASD, as well as differences between the groups. Potentially important predictors of psycholegal abilities were also evaluated. Results indicated the majority of young offenders with FASD (90%) showed impairment in at least one psycholegal ability, and rates of impairment were significantly higher than the comparison group. However, considerable within-group variability was observed. IQ and reading comprehension emerged as robust predictors of participants' psycholegal abilities, while the FASD diagnosis differentiated participants' scores on the FIT-R. These findings underscore the importance of individualized and comprehensive forensic assessments of psycholegal abilities in this population when warranted. Additional system level strains for this population are discussed, including problems in approaching competency remediation, and the potentially growing need for accommodation and forensic assessments in the face of limited financial and professional resources in legal settings.

  11. Muslim personal law and the meaning of "law" in the South African and Indian constitutions


    Rautenbach, Christa


    The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 199...

  12. The origins of Muslim nationalism in British India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baltar


    Full Text Available British rule of India stripped Muslim elites of their traditional status of ruling class and reduced them to the status of a religious minority doubly pressured by the new conditions of colonial society and competition of the majority Hindu community. These pressures strengthened in the collective imagination the perception of a minority at a disadvantage and it helped the Muslim elites to become gradually aware of their right to constitute in nationhood and the need to organize politically to defend their interests. This article aims to analyze how Islamic nationalism was taking shape during the second half of the nineteenth century and an early twentieth century from two fundamental assumptions: the backwardness of the Muslim community and the fear of Hindu hegemony.

  13. Health beliefs and practices of Muslim women during Ramadan. (United States)

    Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi


    There are clear exemptions in Islam from fasting in Ramadan during sickness, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Yet, some Muslim women still elect to fast while sick, pregnant, or breastfeeding because of a confluence of social, religious, and cultural factors. Little is known about the physiological effects of fasting during Ramadan on the mother or her unborn baby, and thus nurses and other healthcare providers are faced with the difficult task of providing appropriate medical advice to Muslim women regarding the safety and impact of their fasting. This article describes what is known about this topic and suggests that healthcare professionals learn as much as possible about the multicultural best practices and research-driven information about fasting in order to help Muslim women make informed decisions.

  14. ILMU PENGETAHUAN DAN PERKEMBANGANNYA: Tantangan Kemajuan dan Kemunduran Dunia Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Hasyim


    Full Text Available Many history of science writers thought that nowadays science phenomenon achieved by the West without including contribution of some other Moslem countries science. They truly interested with these believed, since the fact that science revolution happen in West Europe. However, labelling all aspect of science invention on the West precisely uncorrect. The fact that some other nation and civilization, such as Greece, China and India strongly and spreadly constribute, direct and indirectly to these science phenomenon. Among nations and it’s contribution to improvement of science which should be countable; is Muslim civilitation with it’s Islam civilitation. Importance of their contribution so that someone surely believed that if Muslim science would be the only trigger of science revolution on the West. Someone also logically believe that revolution of science could be happen among Muslim if only some events would not be happen since it sparge the science development at that time.

  15. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin. (United States)

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  16. Alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual offending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sanders, T.


    There has been a significant increase in the focus on sex offending in recent years. This has occurred in both the academic and the public spheres. In attempting to understand sexual offending, this collection recognizes two different discourses that currently operate in relation to sex crime. At

  17. Young Offenders' Perspectives on Their Literacy and Communication Skills (United States)

    Hopkins, Thomas; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy


    Background: Research has revealed that the youth offending population has low language ability when assessed on standardized language measures. However, little is known about the perceptions young offenders (YOs) have of their own literacy ability and their communicative interactions with others. Such knowledge might further our understanding of…

  18. Effects of Psychoeducation for Offenders in a Community Correctional Facility (United States)

    Liau, Albert K.; Shively, Randy; Horn, Mary; Landau, Jennifer; Barriga, Alvaro; Gibbs, John C.


    The present study provided a randomized outcome evaluation of the psychoeducational component of the EQUIP program. The psychoeducational curriculum was implemented in a community correctional facility for adult felony offenders. The psychoeducational curriculum is designed to remedy offenders' delays in moral judgment maturity, social cognitive…

  19. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders. (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others


    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  20. A critical review of objective personality inventories with sex offenders. (United States)

    Davis, Karen M; Archer, Robert P


    This review provides a critical analysis of the ability of multiscale inventories to distinguish between sex offender and nonoffender control groups, as well as to discriminate sex offenders from other types of offenders. In addition to expanding upon previous reviews that examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) with this population (e.g., Levin & Stava, 1987), the current review included studies that utilized other multiscale inventories commonly used in forensic practice (i.e., MMPI-2, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III [MCMI-III], Personality Assessment Inventory) and, when possible, provides effect sizes to evaluate group differences. Based on the review, the various forms of the MMPI and MCMI are clearly the most widely used instruments in sex offender populations. The MMPI Pd scale has shown moderate to large effect sizes when distinguishing between sex offender and nonsex offender groups, but this relationship may be reflective of antisocial behavior in general rather than traits specific to sex offenders. Recommendations to standardize future research classification strategies and more effectively utilize these instruments when assessing sex offenders are also provided. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Engaging Scottish Young Offenders in Education through Music and Art (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstin; Overy, Katie


    This study examined music and art classes as a way to engage young offenders in education, and to see if such engagement had an effect on their further participation in education, self-esteem, self-control, behaviour and literacy skills. The arts are often discussed as being an inviting and safe method of entry for young offenders who may have had…

  2. Educating Youthful Offenders in a Youth Development Center (United States)

    Wilder, Stephanie


    Educating incarcerated youthful offenders is described from the perspective of a teacher who incorporates W. Glasser's (1998) counseling philosophy into her relationships with students. She reveals the results of her caring, encouraging, and goal-directed behavior with sex offenders and other young inmates.

  3. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications (United States)

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.


    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  4. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring (United States)

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.


    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  5. Psychosocial impact of perinatal loss among Muslim women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutan Rosnah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Results Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Conclusion Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed.

  6. Islam, mental health and being a Muslim in the West. (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid


    The allegation that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' is often made. In view of this, we conducted a small survey (n=75) utilising purposive sampling on Muslims residing in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited in a King's College London Islamic Society event in November 2014 in Guy's Hospital, London. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. 69/75 (94%) of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean Age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). This paper broadly seeks to answer two related questions. Firstly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and the West?' and secondly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and mental health?' In relation to the former, the rise of radicalization over recent years and the Islamophobia that has ensued have brought Islam and Muslims under intense scrutiny. Hence we feel it is both timely and important to offer a brief background of Islam and its relevance to the Western world. In relation to the latter, for many people religion and mental health are deeply and intimately intertwined. For example, religion can enable a person to develop mental health resilience and Islam has been reported to be a protective factor against suicidal behaviour. We conclude our paper by illustrating how the two questions are interrelated. We do so by offering an autobiographical narrative from a Muslim healthcare professional residing in the UK who developed a mental health problem precipitated by war in the country of his origin. His narrative includes descriptions of the role Islam that played in his recovery as well as his attempts to reconcile seemingly disparate aspects of his identity.

  7. The Political Economy of English Education in Muslim Bengal: 1871-1912. (United States)

    Rahim, Aminur


    Examines explanations for lack of progress by Muslims in English education in East Bengal, colonial British India (now Bangladesh). Argues that urban-based, elitist English education failed to provide opportunities to rural Muslim farmers, and that, after the British formulated educational policies meeting Muslim needs, that community responded…

  8. Context, Focus and New Perspectives in the Study of Muslim Religiosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Gudrun


    This paper examines Muslim religiosities by focusing on the variety of Islam classes offered by Muslim organizations in Denmark. More specifically, the paper highlights conditions for studying religiosity among Muslims in Denmark, and suggests new focus areas. The paper argues against an ‘ethnic’...

  9. Performance and Surveillance in an Era of Austerity: Schooling the Reflexive Generation of Muslim Young Men (United States)

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris


    The last 15 years have seen a remarkable shift in the educational representation of British-born Muslim young men. In the media-led reclassification of them, from South Asian to Muslim, they have moved from ideal student to potential jihadist. This article draws upon a three-year ethnographic study with young Muslim men located within the West…

  10. Critical Race Theory, Policy Rhetoric and Outcomes: The Case of Muslim Schools in Britain (United States)

    Breen, Damian


    The expansion of state-funded Muslim schools in Britain since 1998 has developed against a backdrop of sustained public political rhetoric around the wider position of British Muslims in both political and educational contexts. This article explores the public policy rhetoric around Muslim schools under New Labour and the subsequent Coalition and…

  11. Stroop tasks reveal abnormal selective attention among psychopathic offenders. (United States)

    Hiatt, Kristina D; Schmitt, William A; Newman, Joseph P


    Selective attention among offenders with psychopathy was investigated using 3 Stroop paradigms: a standard color-word (CW) Stroop, a picture-word (PW) Stroop, and a color-word Stroop in which the word and color were spatially separated (separated CW). Consistent with "overselective" attention, offenders with psychopathy displayed reduced Stroop interference on the separated CW and PW tasks relative to offenders who were not psychopathic. However, offenders with psychopathy displayed normal Stroop interference on the standard CW Stroop. Further, the reduced interference of offenders with psychopathy on the separated CW Stroop was accompanied by normal facilitation. These findings suggest a circumscribed attentional deficit in psychopathy that hinders the use of unattended information that is (a) not integrated with deliberately attended information and (b) not compatible with current goal-directed behavior. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  12. Isolation, gratification, justification: offenders' explanations of child molesting. (United States)

    Lawson, Louanne


    Child sexual abusers' descriptions of their thoughts, behaviors, and relationships were identified by reviewing qualitative research studies published between 1982 and 2001. Offenders used cognitive distortions to meet personal needs, protect themselves from aversive self-awareness, and overcome internal inhibitions against engaging children in sexual activity. Offenders carefully groomed their victims by systematically separating them from their families and peers and socializing them into sexual relationships. Specific cognitive and behavioral processes were used to translate sexual arousal into offending behavior. Offenders justified the abuse by making excuses and redefining their actions as love and mutuality. Throughout the process, offenders exploited the power imbalance inherent in all adult-child relationships. The participants in these studies provided a unique perspective on child sexual abuse that can be used to help victims cope, guide treatment development and evaluation, and suggest new questions for future research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sarastuti


    Full Text Available Queenova is one of the Muslim fashion brand who play in the online market that has been able to grow rapidly. The purpose of this study is to find out the online marketing communication strategy conducted by Queenova Muslim fashion in increasing brand awareness. This type of research uses descriptive type qualitative approach with qualitative descriptive research method. Technique of data collecting by interview and observation. Technique examination of data validity using triangulation. Queenova is a Muslim fashion brand that chooses online path in marketing its products. The results show that in marketing communication strategy undertaken by Muslim fashion Queenova using Above The Line and Below The Line, with focus on promotion and advertisement banner ad sales on facebook. In conclusion the marketing strategy focuses on the promotion of banner ad sales and advertising on the facebook site. Visual communication factors and recommendations also have an effect on increasing brand awareness. Suggestions to improve relationships with existing fans made a form of activity to establish relationships with consumers. It is proposed to have a special person in charge of taking care of online media Queenova merupakan salah satu brand busana muslim yang bermain di pasar online yang telah mampu berkembang pesat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui strategi komunikasi pemasaran online yang dilakukan oleh busana muslim Queenova dalam meningkatkan brand awareness. Tipe penelitian menggunakan tipe deskriptif pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan wawancara dan observasi. Teknik pemeriksaan keabsahan data menggunakan triangulasi. Queenova merupakan brand busana muslim yang memilih jalur online dalam memasarkan produk-produknya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam strategi komunikasi pemasaran yang dilakukan oleh busana muslim Queenova mempergunakan jalur Above The Line

  14. Cosmic Anger Abdus Salam - The First Muslim Nobel Scientist

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    Fraser, Gordon Murray


    This book presents a biography of Abdus Salam, the first Muslim to win a Nobel Prize for Science (Physics 1979), who was nevertheless excommunicated and branded as a heretic in his own country. His achievements are often overlooked, even besmirched. Realizing that the whole world had to be his stage, he pioneered the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, a vital focus of Third World science which remains as his monument. A staunch Muslim, he was ashamed of thedecline of science in the heritage of Islam, and struggled doggedly to restore it to its former glory. Undermined by

  15. Feminist dilemmas and the agency of veiled Muslim women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Madeleine


    This article addresses dilemmas of agency for feminism through reflections on social psychological research on the role of representations in the construction of identity by Muslim women. Engaging first with Saba Mahmood’s account of religious subjectivities in Politics of Piety (2005), the author...... argues that feminist research requires a social conception of agency that addresses dialogical dynamics of representation and identity. Drawing on research concerning veiling and identity among Muslim women in the UK and Denmark, the author shows how a social conception of agency may be elaborated...

  16. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.


    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  17. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn


    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  18. Differences between Homicides Committed by Lone and Multiple Offenders in Korea. (United States)

    Park, Jisun; Cho, Joon Tag


    The aim of this study was to differentiate between homicides committed by multiple offenders and homicides committed by lone offenders. Using data on homicide incidents that occurred in South Korea between 1985 and 2008, we compared 134 homicides committed by multiple offenders, with 369 homicides committed by lone offenders. A greater proportion of homicides committed by multiple offenders involved injuries to the victim's head compared to homicides by lone offenders. Homicides committed by multiple offenders were more likely to involve blunt instruments and ligatures, whereas homicides by lone offenders were more likely to involve sharp instruments. In addition, a majority of the homicides committed by multiple offenders were planned. The results of this study have practical implications for homicide investigations, as well as theoretical implications for homicide research on the difference in offense behaviors based on the number of offenders. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices. (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping


    The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban-rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.

  20. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10, contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16 and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13. The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40; higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.

  1. Reading the Other and Reading Ourselves: An Interpretive Study of Reviews on Bestsellers about Muslims (United States)

    Angemeer, Alicia Dorothea


    Since September 11, 2001, Western readers have been turning to bestselling texts written by or about Muslims in their need to learn more about Muslims. These texts promise an insider's view of predominantly Muslim countries and peoples and are informally influencing and educating many Western readers in their perceptions of Muslims because…

  2. The Dilemma of Islam as School Knowledge in Muslim Education (United States)

    Thobani, Shiraz


    In the contemporary period, the persistence of the dual system of state and "madrasa" education in many Muslim countries has raised for policymakers the dilemma of what form Islam ought to assume as a pedagogic category in these contexts. At one extreme, in the syllabi of traditionalist "madrasas", we find Islam being deployed as an overarching…

  3. Student Teaching at Ground Zero: One Muslim Woman's Challenge (United States)

    Atiyat, Zareen Niazi


    In this article, the author, who is a Muslim English teacher shares her teaching experiences after the events of September 11, 2001 and shares her views on Islam. She points out that her appearance and clothing do not represent oppression and restriction but the liberation of her body from the unwanted gazes of those who reduce women from people…

  4. The New Great Game in Muslim Central Asia (United States)


    and maci]ine tools, petrol - chemicals, agro-processing and textiles. ’’~ 14 THE NEW GREAT GAME IN MUSLIM CENTRAL ASIA Kazakhstan is well endowed...Algeria, Tunisia , and Morocco---are keeping a wary eye. But at the popular level, this pan-Islmnism has the potential to attract a considerable amount of

  5. EURISLAM workpackage 6: integrated report on interviews with Muslim leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heelsum, A.; Koomen, M.


    Objectives In addition to our target Muslim populations, we aim also to gather information on their community leaders, as well as the policy makers whose policies confront them. We aim through a series of semi-structured interviews to gain information on the position of a variety of community

  6. Meeting needs of Muslim girls in school sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport...

  7. Gender Jihad: Muslim Women, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Women's Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie P. Mejia


    Full Text Available Muslim women's rights have been a topic of discussion and debate over the past few decades, and with a good reason. Islamic Law (Shariah is considered by many as patriarchal and particularly oppressive to women, and yet there are also others-Muslim women-who have rigorously defended their religion by claiming that Islam is the guarantor par excellence of women's rights. A big question begs to be answered: is Islam particularly oppressive to women?The Qur'an has addressed women's issues fourteen hundred years ago by creating certain reforms to improve the status of women; however, these reforms do not seem to be practiced in Muslim societies today.1 How is this so? I contend that Islam, as revealed to Muhammad, is not oppressive to women; rather, its interpretation, in so far as it is enacted in the family laws and everyday living, is patriarchal and hence needs to be examined.2 The goal of this work is to discuss what the Qur'an says about certain problems which gravely affect Muslim women, specifically: 1. gender equality 2. polygamy 3. divorce and the concept of nushuz

  8. Educating for Sexual Difference? Muslim Teachers' Conversations about Homosexuality (United States)

    Sanjakdar, Fida


    Homosexuality is widely perceived among many Muslims as a "western disease", a natural outcome of the West's secularity and cultural degeneracy. In spite of the emergence of more liberal attitudes towards sexual differences in modern times, moral issues have not lost their relevance in polemical discourse against homosexuality among many…

  9. Islam and Muslim Life in Current Bavarian Geography Textbooks (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie; Popp, Stephan; Yasar, Aysun


    This paper investigates the Islam and Muslim life in German textbooks. The study is based on the analysis of current Geography textbooks in Bavarian secondary schools. As a first step, the authors developed a system for objective analysis of the textbooks that structures the content in categories. In a second step, the authors used the qualitative…

  10. Organ donation in Muslim countries: the case of Malaysia. (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Chin-Sieng, Chong; Soo-Kun, Lim; Abdullah, Nawi; Kok-Peng, Ng


    The aim of this paper is to look into the factors influencing Malaysian Muslims' decision to become deceased organ donors in Malaysia. We approached 900 Malaysian Muslims and 779 participated in our survey, conducted in Kuala Lumpur and its suburb. We examined their willingness to become donors and the willing donors were asked why they did not pledge to become donors. Non-donors were asked why they refuse to become donors. The survey found the main reason for Malaysian Muslims not pledging their organs was due to their lack of information on organ donation and/or their lack of confidence in the government's ability to properly administer organ donation procedures. Another interesting finding is that religion is not a main deterrent to organ donation. The survey suggests that Malaysia can explore many ways to encourage organ donation without having to resort to the highly controversial financial incentive option. A key to Malaysia's success or failure to increase organ donation rate lies in its ability to persuade its Muslim population (its largest population) to donate organs. This can be done by adopting a segmented, focused, and highly localized form of public education and by leveraging on existing networks involving local religious and community leaders as well as government and non-governmental institutions.

  11. Dilemma of muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa | Gabru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...

  12. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    per capita consumption of mutton is five kg and the sheep meat ... A market segment for goat's meat has been identified in the growing Muslim .... basis of studies at two farms; one located in the fjord and the other in .... But in most cases the differences are small as ..... behaviour of Korean American Families in. California.

  13. Muslim women representations in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique


    Rim MEDDEB


    This contribution explains the discursive modalities, which offer a media visibility of Muslim women in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique. The analysis examines the newspaper’s material devices such as the creation of sections, the thematic structures and the reference strategies used in the news articles in order to construct social hierarchies based on religious identity and gender criteria.

  14. Muslim women representations in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim MEDDEB


    Full Text Available This contribution explains the discursive modalities, which offer a media visibility of Muslim women in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique. The analysis examines the newspaper’s material devices such as the creation of sections, the thematic structures and the reference strategies used in the news articles in order to construct social hierarchies based on religious identity and gender criteria.

  15. Religious Observance by Muslim Employees: A Framework for Discussion. (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This paper discusses the relationship between the religious practices of Muslim employees and the requirements of the workplace. It is designed to provide information on the norms of Islam and the difficulties involved in its workplace practice, and to propose suggestions for resolving these difficulties that can form the basis for discussion and…

  16. Making and unmaking Muslim religious authority in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinissen, M.M. van


    In this paper I wish to begin addressing a number of questions concerning Muslim religious authority, to which I do not have ready answers myself and which, I believe, have only incidentally been touched upon by earlier research. Given the fact that Islamic knowledge – by which I mean that which

  17. Status of Muslim Immigrants' Children with Learning Difficulties in Vienna (United States)

    Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem


    The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…

  18. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim


    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  19. Female ethnicity: Understanding Muslim immigrant businesswomen in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, C.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.


    Building on theories of intersectionality, in this article we develop the concept of female ethnicity in order to understand the meanings of femininity for Muslim immigrant businesswomen in the context of entrepreneurship. Through the notion of female ethnicity we analyse four life stories and

  20. Muslim Brothrhood” in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Садери Фахиме


    Full Text Available The article examines the roots and causes of protests in Egypt at the present stage. The author focuses on the ideological influence of Islamic parties and movements, in particular the association “Muslim Brotherhood” in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Methodological basis of this publication principles amounted to politological, sociological, cultural and historical methods of scientific knowledge.

  1. Predictors of Delayed Healthcare Seeking Among American Muslim Women. (United States)

    Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala; Padela, Aasim I


    Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement "I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me." Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p 20 years (OR = 0.22, p American Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims.

  2. Physical activity of female Malay Muslims before, during and after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramadan is the fasting month for Muslims, during which physical activities like sports may be held in abeyance for a more spiritual life. ... on the standard by Tudor-Locke and Bassett (2004) in which a minimum of 10,000 steps a day denotes an 'active' lifestyle, deemed sufficient to confer health benefits to the individual.

  3. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction. (United States)

    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan


    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders in German outpatient treatment centers. (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Gregório Hertz, Priscilla; Sauter, Julia; Briken, Peer; Rettenberger, Martin


    In Germany, depending on a sexual offender's culpability and the severity of the offence, he/she can be placed either in the forensic-psychiatric or the correctional system. Numbers related to the pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders for the correctional system are missing so far. In sexual offenders, the pharmacological treatment of paraphilic disorders is of special importance. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of pharmacological sexual offender treatment in German outpatient treatment centers supervising mainly clients from the correctional sector. An online questionnaire was sent to 112 outpatient treatment centers and 21 provided data relevant for the present study. The included institutions reported about a total of 813 sexual offenders, of whom 200 (24.6%) were treated with pharmacological agents, most frequently antipsychotics (14.8%) and selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (7.1%). Of the total sample, 26.7% of sexual offenders were diagnosed with a paraphilic - mainly with a pedophilic - disorder. Only 2% were treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Compared with forensic-psychiatric institutions, only a minority of sexual offenders are treated with medication specifically addressing paraphilic symptomatology. However, the prevalence of paraphilic disorders found in the present study suggests that pharmacological treatment of paraphilic fantasies and behaviors could be of great importance in the correctional sector as well.

  5. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system. (United States)

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge


    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Australian Muslim civil society organisations: Pathways to social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Shikeen Amath


    Full Text Available There is great interest on issues related to Muslims and Islam; however, a large concentration of the scholarly literature as well as media and political discourses focus predominantly on political issues and actions related to fundamentalism, radicalisation, militancy and terrorism. The dominance of these issues in the discourses does not provide a holistic understanding of Muslims, particularly their role, place and identity as minorities in a Western society. Indeed, we know relatively little about the larger number of Muslim political actors engaged in civil society, especially those involved in creating pathways to social inclusion. Utilising descriptive phenomenology, this paper explores the complex issues of social inclusion and the Australian Muslim communities. Underpinning this discussion is the theory of social capital; as noted by a number of scholars and social policy experts, the theory of social inclusion alone is inadequate and ineffective in creating participation, equality and cohesion. This paper also observes that while many reports and studies provide pragmatic suggestions on how to work towards the social inclusion of Australian Muslims, the concentration on these suggestions tend to focus on how the government can provide these solutions. What is lacking in the literature is the recognition of the Australian Muslim community’s role and agency in initiating and executing the programs needed to address such issues of social exclusion. The 30 unstructured phenomenological interviews demonstrate that Australian MCSOs are proactively engaging with their communities to ensure that they are responding appropriately to these issues. Moreover, they are creating pathways and access for Australian Muslims to better participate, engage in and contribute to mainstream society. In particular, the MCSO actors revealed four themes related to social inclusion: supporting participation in education and training, facilitating participation

  7. Offenders With Antisocial Personality Disorder Display More Impairments in Mentalizing. (United States)

    Newbury-Helps, John; Feigenbaum, Janet; Fonagy, Peter


    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals with antisocial, particularly violent, histories of offending behavior have specific problems in social cognition, notably in relation to accurately envisioning mental states. Eighty-three male offenders on community license, 65% of whom met the threshold for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), completed a battery of computerized mentalizing tests requiring perspective taking (Perspectives Taking Test), mental state recognition from facial expression (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and identification of mental states in the context of social interaction (Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition). The results were compared with a partially matched sample of 42 nonoffending controls. The offender group showed impaired mentalizing on all of the tasks when compared with the control group for this study when controlling for demographic and clinical variables, and the offending group performed poorly in comparisons with participants in published studies, suggesting that limited capacity to mentalize may be part of the picture presented by individuals with histories of offending behavior. Offenders with ASPD demonstrated greater difficulty with mentalizing than non-ASPD offenders. Mentalization subscales were able to predict offender status and those with ASPD, indicating that specific impairments in perspective taking, social cognition, and social sensitivity, as well as tendencies toward hypomentalizing and nonmentalizing, are more marked in individuals who meet criteria for a diagnosis of ASPD. Awareness of these deficits may be helpful to professionals working with offenders, and specifically addressing these deficits may be a productive aspect of therapy for this "hard to reach" clinical group.

  8. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders. (United States)

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K


    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Recidivistic offending and mortality in alcoholic violent offenders: a prospective follow-up study. (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti


    Predictive data supporting prevention of violent criminality are scarce. We examined risk factors for recidivism and mortality among non-psychotic alcoholic violent offenders, the majority having antisocial or borderline personality disorders, or both, which is a group that commits the majority of violent offences in Finland. Criminal records and mortality data on 242 male alcoholic violent offenders were analysed after a 7- to 15-year follow-up, and compared between themselves and with those of 1210 age-, sex- and municipality-matched controls. Recidivism and mortality rates were high. The risk of recidivistic violence was increased by antisocial or borderline personality disorder, or both, childhood maltreatment, and a combination of these. A combination of borderline personality disorder and childhood maltreatment was particularly noxious, suggesting an additive risk increase for a poor outcome. Accurate diagnosis and careful childhood interview may help to predict recidivism and premature death.

  10. Sociodemographic and diagnostic characteristics of homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders. (United States)

    Koch, Judith; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas; Briken, Peer


    The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and "psychopathy" in homicidal and nonhomicidal sexual offenders and to investigate the specificity of previous studies on psychiatric morbidity of a sample of sexual murderers. Information from court reports of 166 homicidal and 56 nonhomicidal sex offenders was evaluated using standardized instruments (SCID-II, PCL-R) and classification systems (DSM-IV). Sexual murderers were diagnosed more often with a personality disorder (80.1% vs. 50%; p murderers have more and a greater variety of psychiatric disorders when compared to nonhomicidal sex offenders. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Association between religiosity and happiness among a group of Muslim undergraduate students. (United States)

    Sahraian, Ali; Gholami, Abdullah; Javadpour, Ali; Omidvar, Benafsheh


    The association between religiosity and happiness has been the focus of much recent research. The majority of them report a positive correlation between a religious attitude and behavior and the level of happiness. However, different findings have been reported. The aim of the current study was to test link between religiosity and happiness among a group of undergraduate Muslim students. Two hundred and seventy-one health-related students agreed to participate and completed Oxford Happiness Index and a religious belief questionnaire. It was found that higher score on religious belief was significantly linked to the level of happiness (r = .256, P = .01). The result confirms that individuals with a more religious attitude experience more happiness. The result of this study should be considered in programs designed to improve overall well-being of university students.

  12. Holy anorexia: Eating disorders symptomatology and religiosity among Muslim women in the United Arab Emirates. (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Grey, Ian; Chowdhury, Nayeefa


    There is a substantial body of literature reporting a negative association between religiosity and psychiatric symptoms. In the context of eating disorders, however, this relationship appears to be reversed. The few studies exploring the relationship between religiosity and eating disorders have mostly focused on the Judeo-Christian religious traditions in Western nations. The present study examines this relationship among Muslim college women from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). All participants (N = 1069) independently completed the religious commitment inventory (RCI-10) and the eating attitudes test (EAT-26). As hypothesised, there was a positive association between religiosity and eating disorders symptoms. Furthermore, those scoring above the EAT-26 cut-off reported significantly greater levels of religiosity. These findings suggest that heightened religiosity among young Emirati women may represent a vulnerability factor for eating disorders. Preventative initiatives in the UAE should consider focusing on religiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prosocial reasoning and emotions in young offenders and non-offenders


    Llorca-Mestre, Anna; Malonda-Vidal, Elisabeth; Samper-García, Paula


    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the cognitive processes (prosocial moral reasoning, perspective taking) and emotional processes (empathic concern, emotional instability, state-trait anger) which interact in predicting aggressive behaviour and prosocial behaviour of adolescents who have committed a crime and those who have not, for the purpose of establishing the predictor variables in both groups. Participants were 440 adolescents, 220 of them young offenders residing in four yo...

  14. Evidence for superior neurobiological and behavioral inhibitory control abilities in non-offending as compared to offending pedophiles. (United States)

    Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris


    Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. From child pornography offending to child sexual abuse : A review of child pornography offender characteristics and risks for cross-over

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, J.A.B.M.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Bogaerts, S.


    In this review, concrete directions are provided for individual risk assessment, treatment planning, and future research on child pornography offending. First, based on reviewing offender characteristics, including demographics, socio-affective difficulties, cognitive distortions and psychosexual

  16. Incarcerated Violent Offenders' Ability to Avoid Revealing Their Potential for Violence on the Rorschach and the MMPI-2. (United States)

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Fodstad, Lars; Kuisma, Irene; Lunde, Ketil Berge; Hartmann, Ellen


    Recently, Hartmann and Hartmann (2014) found that psychiatric outpatients, both with and without access to Internet-based information about the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Weiner, 2003 ) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989 ), were unable to imitate healthy test performance on these tests. We replicated the study by administering the RIM and the MMPI-2 to 63 incarcerated violent offenders using similar testing conditions. As in the previous study, comparisons were made not only among the 3 subgroups of incarcerated offenders, but also between these offender groups and the group of nonpatients examined in the previous study. On the RIM, Internet-coached and uncoached "faking good" offenders produced records with significantly higher F% and X-% and significantly lower M, m, SumC, X+%, P, AG, and COP than nonoffenders under standard instructions (effect sizes between d = 0.24 and d = 2.39). For AgC, AgPot, AgPast, and TCI% there were no significant differences between the faking offenders and the nonoffenders under standard instructions. On the MMPI-2 clinical scales, there were no significant differences between the faking good groups and the nonoffenders under standard instructions, except on Hs, Pd, and Sc. Both faking groups were identifiable by their high L scale scores. Although both faking groups managed to avoid giving responses with aggressive and generally psychopathological content on the RIM, they were unable to produce test profiles demonstrating healthy test performance on any of the tests; nevertheless, Internet-based test information might weaken test validity.

  17. [Phalloplethysmography findings in pedophilia and exhibitionism offenders]. (United States)

    Tichý, P


    Exhibitionist behaviour focused on children (usually girls) is one of the most frequent forms of sexual child abuse. Exposure in the presence of children signalizes possible pedophil inclinations of the offender. The present paper presents the results of PPG examinations of these offenders with special attention to assessment how often these men have an objective phallographic pedophil orientation. The results of PPG examinations in this group of sexual delinquents are also compared with the findings in a control group of men who report a heterosexual orientation and preference of objects of suitable age. Using an electrocapacitance phalloplythysmographic apparatus the authors examined 50 men (mean age 36.3 years, range 17-67 years) who committed exhibitionist activities in the presence of girls under 12 years. The PPG examination was made under standard conditions; all examined subjects were shown sets of coloured slides with adult and child objects of hetero and homosexual character. In the same way a control group was examined formed by 50 male volunteers of similar age and social background. The men in the control group responded more frequently and more merkedly by positive vasomotor reactions to adult heterosexual objects than subjects who committed pedophil exhibitionist offences. The latter reacted significantly more often to child objects of both sexes. In more than half the delinquent group (in 26 men) there was an undefined differentiation of age as regards objects of female sex and 6 (12%) men of this group had preference for heterosexual child objects, i.e. an obvious pedophil orientation. In men of the control group only in one case there was an indication of an ill defined differentiation of age, in all the others an unequivocal or clearly indicated preference of heterosexual objects was found. PPG examinations confirmed that only a minor part of subjects committing pedophil exhibitionist offences have a deviant orientation. It was revealed that the

  18. A longitudinal examination of offending and specialization among a sample of Massachusetts domestic violence offenders. (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Jennings, Wesley G; Tomsich, Elizabeth A; Gover, Angela R


    A paucity of existing research focuses on longitudinal examinations of criminal trajectories among reoffenses committed by domestic violence offenders. Specifically, few studies have longitudinally assessed whether domestic violence offenders specialize, recidivating in domestic violence assault, or generalize, committing a range of personal and property crimes. Acknowledging these research deficiencies, the current study uses longitudinal data from a cohort of 317 batterers who were processed in a domestic violence court to investigate the trajectories of domestic violence arrests and nondomestic violence arrests over a 10-year period. The degree of overlap between domestic and nondomestic violence arrest trajectory groups is examined through a cross-tabulation and chi-square analysis. Logistic and multinomial regression models are applied to identify risk factors that distinguish trajectory groups. A PROC TRAJ procedure identifies two trajectory groups for domestic violence arrests (low and high rate) and three trajectory groups for nondomestic violence arrests (very low, low, and high rate). Results indicate that specialization among domestic violence offenders is rare-prior alcohol and drug crimes predict membership in the high-rate domestic violence arrest trajectory group and prior domestic violence arrests predict membership in both the low-rate and high-rate nondomestic violence arrest trajectories. Implications for future research and policy are discussed in this article.

  19. Sexual Homicide by Older Male Offenders. (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mariano, Timothy Y; Safarik, Mark E; Geberth, Vernon J


    Recent research has expanded our understanding of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). However, little exists beyond case reports for older SHOs. We characterized male SHOs ≥ 55 years, comparing them to typical adult male SHOs who are in their 20s. Analysis of 37 years (1976-2012) of US Supplementary Homicide Reports data provided a large SHO sample (N = 3453). Three case reports provide clinical context for the diverse nature and patterns of older SHOs. Only 32 older male SHOs and no older female SHOs were identified. Murders by older SHOs accounted for only 0.5% of US sexual homicides. Unlike typical SHOs that generally target young adult females, over two-thirds of older SHO victims were ≥40 years, and one-third were ≥55 years. Sexual homicides by older SHOs, like sexual homicide in general, decreased over the study period. These crimes, while exceedingly rare, do occur, warranting special consideration. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders diagnosed with epilepsy referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex Observation Unit in terms of section 77 and/or 78 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977.

  1. Target Selection Models with Preference Variation Between Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsley, Michael; Birks, Daniel; Ruiter, Stijn; Bernasco, Wim; White, Gentry


    Objectives: This study explores preference variation in location choice strategies of residential burglars. Applying a model of offender target selection that is grounded in assertions of the routine activity approach, rational choice perspective, crime pattern and social disorganization theories,

  2. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders. (United States)

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R


    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  3. The Criminogenic and Noncriminogenic Treatment Needs of Intimate Partner Violence Offenders. (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Radatz, Dana L


    The criminogenic needs of general offenders have been empirically studied, but the criminogenic treatment needs of intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders, or how they compare with other violent or nonviolent offenders, have not been as thoroughly explored. Therefore, we examined and compared the criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs of 99 IPV offenders, 233 non-IPV violent offenders, and 103 nonviolent offenders, all of whom were men who had undergone institutional forensic assessment. Results indicated that IPV offenders had more treatment needs than the other two offender groups, including the Central Eight criminogenic needs. These findings support a focus on criminogenic treatment needs in batterer intervention programs for men, consistent with the principles of effective intervention for offenders.

  4. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime.

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    Kelly Hubble

    Full Text Available Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour.Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed.Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed.The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  5. Offer and Acceptance of Apology in Victim-Offender Mediation


    Dhami, MK; Dhami, MK


    Past research on restorative justice (RJ) has highlighted the importance of apology for both victims and offenders and the prevalence of apology during the RJ process. The present study moves this work further by examining the nature of the apologies that are offered during victim-offender mediation, as well as the individual-, case-, and mediation-level factors that can affect the offer and acceptance of apology. In addition, we measure the implications that the offer and acceptance of apolo...

  6. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime. (United States)

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L; Moore, Simon C; van Goozen, Stephanie H M


    Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  7. Klinefelter’s Syndrome and sexual offending: a literature review


    O'Donovan, Rebecca; Völlm, Birgit


    Background: Klinefelter’s Syndrome is a sex chromosome abnormality affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males. There have been suggestions that it is associated with a higher than average prevalence of sexual offending but to what extent does research evidence support this assertion?\\ud Aims: To conduct a systematic review of published research to establish the prevalence of sexual offending in males with Klinefelter’s Syndrome.\\ud Method: The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched...

  8. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program


    Lee A. Underwood; Frances L.L. Dailey; Carrie Merino; Yolanda Crump


    The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP) in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1) to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilize...

  9. Everyday life in UK Probation Approved Premises for sex offenders


    Reeves, Carla


    This international edited volume of cutting-edge critical prison research explores key themes of deprivations, stigma, power, culture and vulnerability in a breadth of penal settings and prisoner populations. Ranging across North America and Canada, Western, Central and Eastern Europe, Australia, this research considers: young offenders and juvenile institutions; sex offenders; therapeutic environments; wrongfully convicted prisoners; female prisons and prisoners; parents in prison; post-rele...

  10. Diminished fronto-limbic functional connectivity in child sexual offenders. (United States)

    Kneer, Jonas; Borchardt, Viola; Kärgel, Christian; Sinke, Christopher; Massau, Claudia; Tenbergen, Gilian; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Kruger, Tillmann H C


    Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach. The focus of this investigation of rs-FC in CSO-P was put on prefrontal and limbic regions highly relevant for emotional and behavioral processing. Results revealed a significant reduction of rs-FC between the right centromedial amygdala and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in child sexual offenders compared to controls. Given that, in the healthy brain, there is a strong top-down inhibitory control of prefrontal over limbic structures, these results suggest that diminished rs-FC between the amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may foster sexual deviance and sexual offending. A profound understanding of these concepts should contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of child sexual offending, as well as further development of more differentiated and effective interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in empathy and its relation to juvenile offending. (United States)

    Broidy, Lisa; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul; Piquero, Alex


    Implicit in most theoretical accounts of sex differences in offending is the assumption that females are less likely than males to engage in crime--especially serious, violent crime--in part because of their comparatively higher levels of concern for others and stronger affiliative ties. Much research suggests that significant sex differences in both empathy and serious offending emerge in adolescence, with females displaying notably higher levels of empathy and males engaging in notably higher levels of serious offending. However, there has been little empirical work assessing the degree to which sex differences in empathy among adolescents can account for sex differences in offending. This research uses data from a sample of adolescents attending public high schools in Philadelphia (n = 425) and a sample of adolescents incarcerated in the California Youth Authority (CYA) (n = 232) to examine the relation between empathy and serious offending. Results suggest that empathy acts as a protective factor for both males and females but that there are subtle differences among males and females in the relation between empathy and offending.

  12. Juvenile Sex Offending Through a Developmental Life Course Criminology Perspective. (United States)

    Lussier, Patrick


    Current American policies and responses to juvenile sex offending have been criticized for being based on myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims. In spite of the criticism, no organizing framework has been proposed to guide policy development with respect to the prevention of juvenile sex offending. This article proposes a developmental life course (DLC) criminology perspective to investigate the origins, development, and termination of sex offending among youth. It also provides a review of the current state of knowledge regarding various parameters characterizing the development of sex offending (e.g., prevalence, age of onset, frequency, persistence, continuity in adulthood, and versatility). The review highlights some heterogeneity across these developmental parameters suggesting the presence of different sex offending patterns among youth. In fact, it is proposed that, based on the current knowledge, such heterogeneity can be accounted for by a dual taxonomy of adolescents involved in sexual offenses: (a) the adolescent-limited and (b) the high-rate/slow-desister. The DLC criminology approach and the dual taxonomy are proposed as organizing frameworks to conduct prospective longitudinal research to better understand the origins and development of sex offending and to guide policy development and responses to at-risk youth and those who have committed sexual offenses.

  13. Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Recidivism in Young Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Machado Dias


    Full Text Available Several studies report that incarcerated young offenders show a high rate of psychiatric disorders whereas associations between specific psychiatric disorders and recidivism remain unknown. The Brazilian legal system has created a unique opportunity for the study of this issue when consider young offenders not that guilty in spite of the severity of the crime, settling in three years the maximum period of incarceration. This study aims to determine the rate of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of incarcerated young offenders and evaluate the possible psychiatric connections of primary offenders and recidivism. A group of 898 incarcerated young offenders at Fundação Casa answered psychiatric interviews and was diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10. Statistic connections were analyzed using the tests of Pearson and Cramer. The cohort was comprised of 619 primaries and 267 recidivists. 'Psychoactive Substance Use' and 'Disorders of Adult Personality and Behavior' categories were related to recidivism, whereas 'Organic Mental Disorders', 'Mood Disorders', and 'Stress-related Disorders' were related to primary offenders. Discriminating disorders were the most likely to represent reactions to primary incarceration. In relation to associations that might represent predictors of crime, it became highly suggestive that substance abuse is the main cause of incarceration for the entire cohort.

  14. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress. (United States)

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L


    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo.

  15. MENENTANG SEKULARISME: Upaya Membentuk Kesalehan Subjek Muslim di Banten

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    Mohamad Hudaeri


    Gerakan Islam kontemporer banyak mengalami perubahan visi dan orientasi sosial dan politik. Gerakan tersebut bukan diarahkan untuk mendirikan negara Islam atau mendukung penggunaan militer dan kekerasan untuk me­wujudkan program menciptakan individu dan masyarakat “Muslim yang baik”. Tetapi proyek tersebut diarahkan untuk transformasi-diri melalui penanaman moral dan etika sebagai landasan untuk bisa tampil di ruang publik. Gerakan tersebut lebih diarahkan kepada proses re-Islamisasi yang berkaitan dengan praktek sosial dan praktek disiplin untuk membentuk subjek Muslim yang baik. Tulisan ini mengeksplorasi tentang Islamisasi ruang publik yang ada di Provinsi Banten. Yakni terkait dengan konstruksi identitas Keislaman terhadap tubuh dan tempat publik. Konstruksi identitas Islam terhadap tubuh ditekankan melalui keharusan untuk berjilbab bagi wanita Muslimah. Sedangkan Islamisasi tempat publik adalah pemasangan nama-nama Allah (Asmā’ al-Ḥusnā dan pesan-pesan Islam lainnya di beberapa jalan raya utama.

  16. Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd as a Modern Muslim Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd is a thinker who has produced works in the fields of theology, philosophy, law, politics and humanities. Abu Zayd’s thought, partly on the Quran and its hermeneutics has stirred controversy in Egypt and the Muslim world. This research focuses on the controversy surrounding Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd which led to the declaration of his apostasy by the Supreme Court of Egypt in 1995, as well as his controversial thoughts on the Quran, its method of exegesis and certain fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence issues such as the hijab (veil and polygamy. This paper serves as a literature review which employs the content analysis as a methodology to elaborate on Abu Zayd’s controversial thoughts based on his books, as well as through the views of Muslim and Western scholars on those thoughts.

  17. Jamaah kraton: the Muslim new agers from Pekalongan

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    Noor Aida


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know Muslim New Age identity, how theNew Age practitioners identify themselves as Muslim and apply religiosity, attitudeand expression in their personal and social life. This research discussesabout the religious experiences perceived by those practitioners of ShamballaMulti Dimension Healing.It was a qualitative research using analytical descriptive method, in which theresearcher tried to describe the Muslim New Agers identity by explaining theirritual and their perception about their religion and tradition. The location of thisresearch was in Pekalongan, because it is a good example to describe how NewAge impact to religion and tradition by describing how some Arabian MoslemPekalongan conducted some New Age activities.The research finding shows that Jamaah Kraton from Pekalongan feel comfortablewith New Age because of two main reasons: the fascinating teaching andthe charismatic leader. Moreover, they able to negotiate their religious identityproblem by passing over and mixed all religion’s teaching which has no contrarywith their main religion and tradition, Islam and Arab tradition. If they find anycontradiction (in common definition of other Muslim, they will not feel that theyconduct heresy, and the comfort ability they had picturing of a ‘merger and crossover’,‘a creation of a mixed cultures and’ and ‘syncretism’. Di Indonesia, terutama sejak awal 1990-an, kita menyaksikan penuhnya tempatkajian tasawuf dan maraknya buku-buku tentang ini. Bahkan fenomena bangkitnyaspiritualitas ini sudah pula memasuki kalangan profesional dan bisnis, berkatkehadiran KH Abdullah Gymnastiar (Aa Gym dengan Manajemen Qolbu, atau M.Arifin Ilham dengan gerakan zikir, atau Ary Ginandjar dengan pelatihan ESQ.Teknik reiki dan meditasi modern seperti Anand Asram dan Brahma Kumarisjuga digemari di kalangan kaum muda dan paruh baya, tidak terkecuali denganReiki Shamballa yang tergolong baru di Indonesia, juga

  18. Trading Activity and Ethnodomestication of Plants by Manipuri Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mustaque AHMED


    Full Text Available Long distance traveling and trading activity of Muslims from great antiquity brought plants into Manipur (Indo-Burma-China region. The indigenous traveling vehicles, horses needed poppy as their essential medicinal food as well as horse diet. Some words such as- Turushka, Pasha (Pasa, Pangal, Pathan, Mangal, Mughal, are found to be synonymous with the word Muslims and these words were associated with the plants. Ethno-domestication of 18 (eighteen plants in their kitchen garden, flower garden, courtyard, fields, orchards etc, was found. Survey of literature couples with field survey was carried out with an aim to understand the sustainable use of bio-resources. Uses of plants among Manipuri community in various purposes were known to this community. To this aspect, an approach of traditional plant stalk conservation is observed from time immemorial.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И В Кудряшова


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the formation of modern Muslim political identity on the macro-po-litical and individual levels. The author explores the relation between its Islamic and state-national levels. It is shown that this relationship is of dynamic nature and that at present both these levels are significantly differentiated: nationalism outgrows the framework of state nationalism and gradually acquires civil dimension, while the Islamic layer, losing its significance as the only source of identification and self-identification for Muslims, acquires new socio-political content. The latter is reflected in the development of “Islamist pluralism”. It is noted that the ascriptive orientations to kin-groups, ethnic groups and clans remain significant and especially vibrant in the times of political turbulence.

  20. Padua's Muslim: on the new Italian Islamic identities

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    Agustina Adela Zaros


    Full Text Available The proposed text reflects on the Muslim community and families in Padua including interviews in order to individuate the practices of the transmission of beliefs within the family and the continuity of the group. Mainly from the development of three main points: religious socialization, community representation as umma, according to the mandate of Give to Islam as well of the dichotomy we Muslims / they Christians discourses. Finally, the meanings of identities governed by ethnicity and / or religion and new generations with current debates and struggles identified as new collective identities. That is, the reinterpretation allows the emergence of a new collective identity that makes use of practices that are in tension with the host society emerging like a political force.

  1. The introduction of breast milk donation in a Muslim country. (United States)

    al-Naqeeb, N A; Azab, A; Eliwa, M S; Mohammed, B Y


    Breast milk donation (wet-nursing) for full-term babies is a well-known practice in Kuwait, but it has never been organized formally in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for preterm babies. Donor milk banking as conducted in Western society is not considered to be ethical in Muslim society, where the milk donor and the recipient are required to know each other. Human milk is known to decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis; improve host defenses, digestion, absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, and neurodevelopment of the child; and contribute to maternal physical and psychological well-being. A culturally accepted approach to donor milk banking is proposed as a means of overcoming the ethical issues surrounding milk donation in Muslim society. This report addresses the first step in raising awareness of the valuable contribution of donor milk to preterm babies and the organization of human milk donation for use in an NICU.

  2. The evaluation of violent thinking in adult offenders and non-offenders using the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire. (United States)

    Walker, Julian; Bowes, Nicola


    The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) was designed to measure explicit rules and beliefs associated with violence. Previous studies with young people and offenders with mental disorder found the MVQ to be a valid and reliable measure of violent thinking. This study explores the use of the MVQ with a 'normal' (non-offender) population and an offender population without mental illness in order to evaluate how the MVQ's subscales related to violence within these groups. The MVQ was given to 78 adult male participants along with a measure of self-reported violence; demographic information and criminal history were also recorded. Thirty-five of the participants were convicted adult male offenders resident of an adult male closed prison in South Wales; 43 were volunteers from the staff group in the same prison. The MVQ factors were compared with self-reported violence and with officially recorded violent convictions. Although both subscales of the MVQ related to self-reported violence, 'Machismo' showed a stronger relationship to both self-reported and officially recorded violence. Violent thinking, specifically beliefs measured by the Machismo subscale of the MVQ, was robustly associated with self-reported and officially recorded violence in this study with offender and non-offender adults. The MVQ is a valid and feasible measure for use with adult populations. Violent thinking (specifically Machismo thinking styles) should be included in the assessments of violent offenders. Work on violent thinking and reducing 'macho' thinking could be a useful adjunct to anger management work with violent offenders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Global Jihad: The Role of Europe’s Radical Muslims (United States)


    social state governed by the rule of law.”41 Correspondingly, Turkish immigrants have not been involved in any jihadi activity that has occurred in...Muslims with no choice other than jihad to rectify their situation. 57 Dr. Vije Franchi ...Education National Focal Point for Germany,” 29. 63 Tikly, “Analytical Report on Education National Focal Point for Great Britain,” 19. 64 Franchi

  4. Are you British or Muslim; Can You be Both? (United States)


    in Great Britain to offer halal foods . However, the requirements for separate preparation and storage for halal and non- halal foods may become such...identity with traditional values. Colin Dye, the senior minister and Leader of Kensington Temple / London City Church, cites the example of halal ... foods as a tool for the Islamization of Great Britain. He describes the incursion this way, ―the expanding Muslim market has encouraged many businesses

  5. Digital dermatoglyphics: A study on Muslim population from India


    Kapoor, Neeti; Badiye, Ashish


    The distribution of fingerprint patterns has been found to be varying amongst the different population groups across the globe. Hence, this knowledge becomes crucially important in forensic investigations. The present study was conducted on 480 healthy and consenting Muslim individuals (240 males and 240 females) from Maharashtra State in India. The aims were to determine the frequency distribution of various fingerprint patterns; establish the most and least predominant patterns; and to find...

  6. Substance Use among Muslim Students in Aceh, Indonesia

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    Inda Mariana Harahap


    Full Text Available Background: Illicit substance use is a serious social problem faced by adolescents worldwide, including adolescents in Aceh and has many negative consequences. In addition, illicit substance use does not fit with the values of Islamic teaching, and is strictly prohibited in Islam. Purpose: The aims of this paper are to determine the prevalence of illicit substance use, the stages of substance use, and types of substance used among Muslim students in senior high schools in Aceh, Indonesia. Method: Four hundred and twenty six students who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from four senior high schools in Banda Aceh by using simple random sampling, and of these, 290 returned a completed questionnaire. A self reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Result: The mean age of the subjects was 15.9 years old and the majority of them were female (68.6%. The study found that the prevalence of substance use was 2.4%with a higher number of females than males who had used illicit substances. The common substances that were used by the students were marijuana and dextromethorphon, as well as intentionally inhaled substances. Lastly, out of the students who had used illegal substances the majority was in the regular use stage (1.4%. Conclusion: This study found that substance use among Muslim students in Aceh exists, although prevalence was low. Thus, several preventive programs may be needed in Aceh not only for Muslims students who have used substances but also for students who have not use illegal substances. Keywords: Adolescents, Substance use, Muslim students, Indonesia.

  7. Globalization and the cultural safety of an immigrant Muslim community. (United States)

    Baker, Cynthia


    This paper reports a study the aim of which was to further understanding of cultural safety by focusing on the social health of a small immigrant community of Muslims in a relatively homogeneous region of Canada following the terror attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11). The aftermath of 9/11 negatively affected Muslims living in many centers of Western Europe and North America. Little is known about the social health of Muslims in smaller areas with little cultural diversity. Developed by Maori nurses, the cultural safety concept captures the negative health effects of inequities experienced by the indigenous people of New Zealand. Nurses in Canada have used the concept to understand the health of Aboriginal peoples. It has also been used to investigate the nursing care of immigrants in a Canadian metropolitan centre. Findings indicated, however, that the dichotomy between culturally safe and unsafe groups was blurred. The methodology was qualitative, based on the constructivist paradigm. A purposive sample of 26 Muslims of Middle Eastern, Indian or Pakistani origin and residing in the province of New Brunswick, Canada were interviewed in 2002-2003. Findings. Participants experienced a sudden transition from cultural safety to cultural risk following 9/11. Their experience of cultural safety included a sense of social integration in the community and invisibility as a minority. Cultural risk stemmed from being in the spotlight of an international media and becoming a visible minority. Cultural risk is not necessarily rooted in historical events and may be generated by outside forces rather than by longstanding inequities in relationships between groups within the community. Nurses need to think about the cultural safety of their practices when caring for members of socially disadvantaged cultural minority groups as this may affect the health services delivered to them.

  8. Religiosity and Volunteering Intention Among Undergraduate Malaysian Muslim Students


    Sallam A.A.A.; Abdullah S.; Ramli A.J .; Hussin N.S.; Ahmad Z.; Bahari A.


    This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that ...

  9. Constructed Virtual Identity of Muslim Women in Social Media


    Syariati, Dian


    The phenomenon and the development of new media introduce a new communication’s form of social media that requires an individual to have a virtual identity. This identity is an outstanding image of self-presentation that is built up deliberately by an individual in cyberspace. Through social networks, e.g., Facebook, a person acts as producer and simultaneously as gatekeeper of a message who can express a thought without any restrain. Basically, this study aimed to investigate how Muslim wome...

  10. Socially Mediated Publicness in Networked Society for Indonesian Muslim Women


    Beta, Annisa R


    Abstract: This paper addresses discursive processes that generated ‘jilboobs’ term. It tries to ground the notion of socially mediated publicness and its affordances by investigating the process of image making of Indonesian Muslim women. Using Foucauldian discourse analysis approach, the result shows three characteristics of Indonesia’s socially mediated publicness: (1) religiosity has a central role in the shift and contestation of private versus public sphere, (2) the visual turn of the so...

  11. Saudi Arabia exporting Salafi education and radicalizing Indonesia's Muslims


    Kovacs, Amanda


    Salafis, who defend a very conservative, literal interpretation of Islam and treat Shia Muslims with hostility, are not just a phenomenon in the Middle East. They are increasingly pressuring Shias and other religious minorities in Indonesia, too. Saudi Arabia is the world’s main provider of Islamic education. In addition to promoting Salafism and maligning other religious communities, Saudi educational materials present the kingdom in a favorable light and can also exacerba...

  12. Denial of risk: The effects of positive impression management on risk assessments for psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. (United States)

    Gillard, Nathan D; Rogers, Richard


    Risk assessments for offenders often combine past records with current clinical findings from observations, interviews, and test data. Conclusions based on these risk assessments are highly consequential, sometimes resulting in increased criminal sentences or prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, many offenders are motivated to intentionally minimize risk factors and their negative consequences. Positive impression management (PIM) is especially likely to occur in offenders with high psychopathic traits because goal-directed deception is reflected in several of psychopathy's core traits of the disorder, such as manipulativeness, glibness, and superficial charm. However, this connection appears to be based on the conceptual understanding of psychopathy, and has rarely been examined empirically for either frequency of or success at deception. The current study examined the ability of a jail sample to intentionally minimize risk factors and related criminal attributes using a repeated measures, simulation design. In general, offenders were able to effectively use PIM to lower scores on the HCR-20 and the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), while the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), as a measure of cognitive styles, was more resistant to such minimization. Psychopathic traits, especially high Factor 1 scores (i.e., affective/interpersonal), were associated with greater PIM. Important differences in the willingness and ability to use deception were found based on the (a) mode of administration (i.e., interview vs. self-report) and (b) level of psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R). The important implications of this research are discussed for risk assessment procedures regarding likely areas of deception and its detection. The current research also informs the growing literature on the connection between psychopathic traits and deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT). (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W


    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA


    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Endy Saputro


    Full Text Available This paper aims to give a preliminary draft to formulate an innovative concept in the Qur’anic studies world in the age of post-consumerism Muslim. Recent studies on tug of war between globalization and religion have been identifying salient social transformation in some parts of Muslim world, such as the rise of new (media religious authority, religious commodification trends, varieties of Islamic consumption, the emergence of public Islam and so forth. Apart from these recent scholarships, which successfully grasp the globalization’s influence toward religion (Islam, this paper offers the concept of everyday Qur’an as an alternative basic approach of understanding the cultures of Qur’an in this changing (Muslim world and at the same time, seeking to briefly explain its emerging issues. Some exemplary issues then have analytically discussed to reflect how the proposed theory applied. Thus, everyday Qur’an can contribute the discourse of cultures based technology in the context of Qur’anic Studies. 

  16. The Muslim football player and Ramadan: current challenges. (United States)

    Zerguini, Yacine; Ahmed, Qanta A; Dvorak, Jiri


    Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic faith characterised by devotional orthopraxy. The actions expected of followers of Islam are closely prescribed in the Qur'an. Muslims understand Ramadan as a mandatory requirement, excused only in the event of illness, infirmity or extremes of age. Due to the increasing popularity of football among Muslims, more and more Muslim football players of all levels make the decision to follow the Ramadan fast while they need to practise and compete. Sports medicine clinicians and scientists have the responsibility to provide them with the knowledge and evidence on how exactly Ramadan fasting impacts on their performance and how to optimise their eating, drinking and sleeping in order to minimise negative effects of their religious practice, should any have been demonstrated. The first International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) study concluded that biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male national level players who followed Ramadan fasting in a controlled environment. Match performance was however not measured and the study did not include elite level players, leading to the Ramadan consensus meeting in order to answer the remaining questions. The conclusions and recommendations published in this supplement suggest that the best coping strategies will remain individual - as is the choice to fast.

  17. Terorisme sebagai Cabaran Ideologi Muslim Masa Kini: Satu Analisis dari Perspektif Falsafah

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    Full Text Available Terrorism is currently becoming an ideological challenge for Muslims in contemporary world. The rise of terrorist groups such as the Islamic State (IS and others who claimed themselves as jihadist and propagates Islamic jihad similar to the idea of the medieval ‘Holy War’ not only target non-Muslims or kuffar, but also their Muslim brothers respectively. This act of terrorism raised dilemma among Muslim societies in general whether to support the extreme groups or to defy them as they portrayed themselves as representing the whole Muslims whereas in fact they only represent a group of disillusioned Muslims. This paper aims at analysing their ideological challenge from the philosophical point of view and Islamic ethics. Generally, this analysis emphasizes on the importance of Islamic ethics and law in order to achieve true understanding of jihad.

  18. Crisis of Identity in a Multi-cultural Society: The Case of Muslims in Canada

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    Syed Serajul Islam


    Full Text Available A great majority of studies on ethnic identity or ethnic separatism indicate that a minority group dealing with severe deprivation becomes more frustrated, more aggressive, and more demanding of autonomy or separation. However, in a multi-cultural society where the people can live with their both separate and co-existing identities, the minority group usually demands for greater rights within societies, not an exit from them. This is the case of the Muslims in Canada who constitute a tiny minority in the Canadian population. Since Canada is a multicultural country, the Muslims have not demanded any kind of autonomy but have demanded rights to preserve Islamic values, and their own distinct identity as Muslims. In this article some basic questions are raised regarding the Canadian Muslims. When and how did the Muslims arrive in Canada? What types of challenges they are facing? How do they meet these challenges? What is the future of Muslims in Canada?

  19. AHP 21: Tibetans and Muslims in Northwest China: Economic and Political Aspects of a Complex Relationship

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    Bianca Horlemann


    Full Text Available In the past and today, Tibetan-Muslim relations in Qinghai and Gansu are often associated with violent conflicts sparked by religious differences or 'interethnic hatred'. A more nuanced study of the history of Tibetan-Muslim relations, however, reveals complexity as well as considerable local difference with regard to how and when contacts were established, maintained, and broken off. Tibetan Muslim encounters were manifold and varied, including interethnic marriages, close business relations, political alliances, and armed conflicts. To illustrate this wide range of encounters, examples chosen for this paper, i.e., the relations between Amdo Tibetans and the Muslim Baoan nationality, the Muslim Ma warlords, and the Chinese xiejia institution, span different eras and localities. This study suggests that Tibetan-Muslim relations were predominantly shaped by socio-economic and political factors rather than by religious differences or 'interethnic hatred' as is often assumed.

  20. On the politics and practice of Muslim fertility: comparative evidence from West Africa. (United States)

    Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer


    Recent popular works have represented Muslim fertility as dangerously high, both a cause and consequence of religious fundamentalism. This article uses comparative, statistical methods to show that this representation is empirically wrong, at least in West Africa. Although religion strongly inflects reproductive practice, its effects are not constant across different communities. In West African countries with Muslim majorities, Muslim fertility is lower than that of their non-Muslim conationals; in countries where Muslims are in the minority, their apparently higher reproductive rates converge to those of the majority when levels of education and urban residence are taken into account. A similar pattern holds for infant mortality. By contrast, in all seven countries, Muslim women are more likely to report that their most recent child was wanted. The article concludes with a discussion of the relationship between autonomy and fertility desires.

  1. Spiritual Experiences of Muslim Critical Care Nurses. (United States)

    Bakir, Ercan; Samancioglu, Sevgin; Kilic, Serap Parlar


    The purpose of this study was to determine the experiences and perceptions of intensive care nurses (ICNs) about spirituality and spiritual care, as well as the effective factors, and increase the sensitivity to the subject. In this study, we examined spiritual experiences, using McSherry et al. (Int J Nurs Stud 39:723-734, 2002) Spirituality and spiritual care rating scale (SSCRS), among 145 ICNs. 44.8% of the nurses stated that they received spiritual care training and 64.1% provided spiritual care to their patients. ICNs had a total score average of 57.62 ± 12.00 in SSCRS. As a consequence, it was determined that intensive care nurses participating in the study had insufficient knowledge about spirituality and spiritual care, but only the nurses with sufficient knowledge provided the spiritual care to their patients.

  2. What Motivate Muslim Consumer to Patronage Islamic Based–Retail Store?


    Fauzi, Waida Irani Mohd; Muhammad, Nazlida; Mokhtar, Sany Sanuri Mohd; Yusoff, Rushamie Zain


    There is a significant trend among Muslim consumers in reverting to Islamic way of life. The phenomenon somehow affected the Malaysian retail industry with specialty Islamic stores mushrooming, and retailers customizing retail elements to win the Muslim consumers segment. As the mainstream studies on retailing acknowledges the adaptation of retail elements to suit consumers’ segment, there are less report on customizing retail elements to religious consumer group such as Muslim consumers’ seg...

  3. The influence of Facebook in the holiday decision making of Muslim women in the UK


    Khan, Imran


    Muslim consumer segment now represents the Fourth ‘Billion’ segment after China, India, and women overall in all around the world. Muslim population is increasing faster than the other segments in the UK. Muslim women play a significant role in family decision-making. Yet, researchers have neglected this segment. On the other hand, internet plays a vital role in decision-making and likewise, social media is influencing the family decision-making. Furthermore, women have an influential role at...

  4. Islamic branding as communication strategy of halal tourism promotion in non-Muslim country


    Nisa, Fitria Khairum; Sujono, Firman Kurniawan


    Muslims have specific products and services preference that affected by their syariah-based needs. In the tourism sector, the growth of Muslim tourists continues to increase and projected to continue to grow. South Korea sees this as an opportunity and try to engage an Islamic branding campaign with Muslim Friendly Korea as a campaign to promote the country's tourism. The purpose of this study is to find out how South Korean government builds a tourism brand with the concept of halal tourism ...

  5. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

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    Fachrizal Halim


    Full Text Available Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has even enlarged the number of Arabs and Muslims who have trained in the best institutions in the U.S. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Far from being ‘organic intellectuals’, to use Gramsci’s favorite term, who would transform Arab societies from imperialism and Western hegemony, and the impact of dependency on the so called ‘globalization,’ most Arab thinkers in the West as well as the elite in the Arab world have been party to Western capitalist interests which aim to control the Arab World. By no means denigrating the works of Isma‘il Raji al-Faruqi, Edward Said, Ghada Hashem Talhami, Halim Barakat, or the feminist Leila Ahmad, to mention some brilliant Arab intellectuals, most Arab thinkers in the West seem to have forgotten the social conditions of the Arab world that have been in acute crisis since the mid nineteenth century or from the time colonialism stepped into the Arab world. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of

  6. Understanding Muslim Consumer Through Ads - Women, Money, and Halal: Semiotic Analysis


    BaHamburah, Buthaina


    There are about 1.8 billion Muslims around the world, in which almost one in four of the world’s population is a Muslim, and this number is expected to grow by a significant 35% to 2.2 billion in 2030 globally (Ogilvydo, 2014). Hence, the purchasing power of Muslims market is increasing constantly. Global brands dealing with multicultural markets such as the Muslim market face difficulty with respect to the extent to which international marketing strategy is standardized across national borde...

  7. Networking for Peace: a Case Study of the Asian Muslim Action Network (AMAN)*


    Pido, Mohamad Fikri


    Since its inception in 1990, Asian Muslim Action Network (AMAN) was an endeavor to bring and link all Muslim and non Muslim as well, both individual and groups, in Asia to respond and meet the challenges faced by the community in the region. As a Muslim organization, AMAN bases itself on fundamental Islamic teachings based on the Quran and intra and inter-faith element has been essential in AMAN's activities for the past 20 years. With this paper, the author examines AMAN's experience on 3 is...

  8. Islam, medicine, and Arab-Muslim refugee health in America after 9/11. (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Serour, Gamal I


    Islam is the world's second largest religion, representing nearly a quarter of the global population. Here, we assess how Islam as a religious system shapes medical practice, and how Muslims view and experience medical care. Islam has generally encouraged the use of science and biomedicine for the alleviation of suffering, with Islamic authorities having a crucial supportive role. Muslim patients are encouraged to seek medical solutions to their health problems. For example, Muslim couples who are infertile throughout the world are permitted to use assisted reproductive technologies. We focus on the USA, assessing how Islamic attitudes toward medicine influence Muslims' engagement with the US health-care system. Nowadays, the Arab-Muslim population is one of the fastest growing ethnic-minority populations in the USA. However, since Sept 11, 2001, Arab-Muslim patients--and particularly the growing Iraqi refugee population--face huge challenges in seeking and receiving medical care, including care that is judged to be religiously appropriate. We assess some of the barriers to care--ie, poverty, language, and discrimination. Arab-Muslim patients' religious concerns also suggest the need for cultural competence and sensitivity on the part of health-care practitioners. Here, we emphasise how Islamic conventions might affect clinical care, and make recommendations to improve health-care access and services for Arab-Muslim refugees and immigrants, and Muslim patients in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reflection on teaching effective social work practice for working with Muslim communities

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    Khadija Khaja


    Full Text Available In many academic departments like social work, psychology, and psychiatry there is a growing consensus that teachers need to instruct students to be culturally competent especially if they are going to be effective helpers with diverse populations. Multicultural instructional counseling methods are imperative if we are to ensure that our students of counseling are well prepared to work with diverse families, particularly those from Muslim backgrounds. In this narrative the author writes about the challenges of teaching non-Muslim students effective counseling techniques with Muslim families. Culturally innovative teaching methods are illustrated to facilitate students’ learning how to be effective counselors with Muslim communities.


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    Teguh Setiawan


    Full Text Available This book written by Teguh Setiawan and published by Republika is very interesting to read because from it the reader will get a lot of information about the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia, among them: the greatness of the Chinese Muslim leaders and bad luck of Chinese Muslim community during the Dutch colonial period and the heyday of the Muslim ethnic Chinese in Indonesia, and portrait of the Chinese Muslims from the past. In addition, readers will be interested in doing research on other ethnic Chinese, perhaps even you would like to know the ethnic Chinese in the rural areas recounted in the book.

  11. Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radke, S.; Brazil, I.A.; Scheper, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de


    Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with

  12. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.


    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  13. IsTeen Court effective for repeat offenders? A test of the restorative justice approach. (United States)

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby; DeMilio, Lisa


    Teen Courts are an effective judicial alternative for many youth offenders. The majority of youth courts deal solely with first-time offenders. However, repeat offenders are at a greater risk for future crime. Is Teen Court effective with more experienced offenders? In this study, the authors examine the outcomes of 26 Whatcom County Teen Court offenders with at least one prior conviction. The sentence completion rate was higher and the recidivism was lower for the Teen Court offenders when compared with a sample of first-time Court Diversion offenders. This objective evidence of program success is augmented by an offender's perspective on his or her court experience. These perspectives as well as the continued voluntary involvement with Teen Court are discussed in relation to empowerment theory.

  14. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care. (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio


    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. (United States)

    Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley


    A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well as a complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offenses: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Criminality is an extremely heterogeneous social phenomenon that includes various kinds of deviant behavior. It also includes sexual criminality (crimes against sexual freedom and moral, which has highly negative impact on society and endangers the most intimate parts of a person’s life. The aim of this survey is to outline a structure of psychological features of sexual offenders, to determine the degree of their development and the way in which they are connected, as well as to describe certain social and sociological phenomena that are typical of sexual offenders. The results that have been achieved during this survey will successfully be implemented into the practical work of penal institutions in the Republic of Macedonia in order to ensure successful resocialisation and reintegration of sexual offenders in the society. Our experience and knowledge are compatible with world-wide trends saying that sexual offenders are mentally healthy people and that they cannot be included in any diagnostic category. The main results of this survey can be summed up into several points: in general, sexual offenders are male, aged between 26 and 33, with minimal education and without profession or employment. Usually, they do not behave in pathological manner and they are mentally healthy people. It is believed that resocialisation as well asa complex treatment will be necessary for people convicted of sexual offences: not only will it represent prevention from committing new crimes, it will also be a breeding ground for their active participation in life out of the penal institutions

  18. Deliberate self-harm behavior among young violent offenders. (United States)

    Laporte, Natalie; Ozolins, Andrejs; Westling, Sofie; Westrin, Åsa; Billstedt, Eva; Hofvander, Björn; Wallinius, Märta


    Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders. Data were collected from a nationally representative cohort of 270 male violent offenders, 18-25 years old, imprisoned in Sweden. Participants were interviewed and investigated neuropsychologically, and their files were reviewed for psychosocial background, criminal history, mental disorders, lifetime aggressive antisocial behaviors, and DSH. A total of 62 offenders (23%) had engaged in DSH at some point during their lifetime, many on repeated occasions, yet without suicidal intent. DSH was significantly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, various substance use disorders, being bullied at school, and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and being bullied at school remained significant predictors of DSH in a total regression model. Violent offenders direct aggressive behaviors not only toward other people, but also toward themselves. Thus, DSH must be assessed and prevented in correctional institutions as early as possible, and more knowledge is needed of the function of DSH among offenders.

  19. Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders. (United States)

    Stetler, Dean A; Davis, Chad; Leavitt, Kathryn; Schriger, Ilana; Benson, Katie; Bhakta, Samir; Wang, Lam Chee; Oben, Cynthia; Watters, Matthew; Haghnegahdar, Tara; Bortolato, Marco


    The main enzyme for serotonin degradation, monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, has recently emerged as a key biological factor in the predisposition to impulsive aggression. Male carriers of low-activity variants of the main functional polymorphism of the MAOA gene (MAOA-uVNTR) have been shown to exhibit a greater proclivity to engage in violent acts. Thus, we hypothesized that low-activity MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be associated with a higher risk for criminal violence among male offenders. To test this possibility, we analyzed the MAOA-uVNTR variants of violent (n = 49) and non-violent (n = 40) male Caucasian and African-American convicts in a correctional facility. All participants were also tested with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to assess their levels of childhood trauma exposure, impulsivity and aggression, respectively. Our results revealed a robust (P crime. This association was replicated in the group of Caucasian violent offenders (P crime charges were not associated with CTQ, BIS-11 and BPAQ scores, carriers of low-activity alleles exhibited a mild, yet significant (P genetic determinant for criminal violence. Further studies are required to confirm these results in larger samples of inmates and evaluate potential interactions between MAOA alleles and environmental vulnerability factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning Handicapped and Nonlearning Handicapped Female Juvenile Offenders: Educational and Criminal Profiles. (United States)

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy E.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.


    Interviews with 30 female juvenile offenders were conducted to (1) describe their educational and criminal backgrounds and (2) describe a subgroup of learning handicapped juvenile female offenders. Nearly one third had received special education services prior to their incarceration with additional offenders diagnosed as handicapped upon entry…

  1. Rehabilitating Ex-Offenders through Non-Formal Education in Lesotho (United States)

    Ngozwana, Nomazulu


    This paper reports on the rehabilitation of ex-offenders through non-formal education. It examines how non-formal education has addressed the ex-offenders' adaptive and transformative needs. Using an interpretive paradigm and qualitative approach, individual interviews were conducted with five ex-offenders who were chosen through purposive and…

  2. Vocational Psychology and Ex-Offenders' Reintegration: A Call for Action (United States)

    Brown, Chris


    Failure to find steady and rewarding employment and stabilizing economic resources are key contributors to recidivism among ex-offenders. Within 3 years of their release, almost two thirds of ex-offenders return to prison. Ex-offenders face formidable barriers to employment including legal limitations and those specific to their skills, education,…

  3. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders (United States)

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk


    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  4. The Differential Treatment Model: Empirical Evidence from a Personality Typology of Adult Offenders. (United States)

    Annis, Helen M.; Chan, David


    Interaction of offender type by treatment program was examined for 100 adult offenders with alcohol and drug problems assigned to a group therapy program and 50 to routine care. Offenders who were classified high in self-image showed greater improvement in the group therapy program. (Author/HLM)

  5. 75 FR 27362 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification (United States)


    ... posting, pursuant to the KIDS Act, 42 U.S.C. 16915a. (3) Require jurisdictions to have sex offenders...] RIN 1105-AB36 Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice; Proposed guidelines. SUMMARY: The Sex Offender Registration and...

  6. 76 FR 1630 - Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification (United States)


    ... posting, pursuant to the KIDS Act, 42 U.S.C. 16915a. (3) Require jurisdictions to have sex offenders... on the sex offender does not have to be disclosed to these entities. B. Internet Identifiers The KIDS...] RIN 1105-AB36 Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification AGENCY...

  7. Group sex offending by juveniles: coercive sex as a group activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Weerman, F.; Looije, D.; Hendriks, J.


    We study sex offences carried out by groups of juveniles, focusing on offender characteristics and the interaction patterns within offender groups and between offenders and victims. Using reconstructions of offences from court files as well as information retrieved from personality screenings, we

  8. Black Female Homicide Offenders and Victims: Are They from the Same Population? (United States)

    McClain, Paula D.


    Explores the social and environmental characteristics of Black female homicide victims and offenders. Assembled data on 661 Black female homicide victims and 119 Black female homicide offenders. Analyses indicated that Black female homicide victims and offenders exhibit low socioeconomic status and essentially similar behavior patterns. (Author)

  9. The Effect of Adolescent Sex Offender Abuse History on Counselor Attitudes. (United States)

    Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth


    Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…

  10. Academic and Vocational Education for Incarcerated Adult and Juvenile Sex Offenders: A National Study. (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael S.


    Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…

  11. Attitudes toward Electronic Monitoring among Monitored Offenders and Criminal Justice Students. (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.


    Examines what 180 students think about electronic monitoring and compares their perceptions to those of 29 electronically-monitored offenders. Results show that students were less supportive of electronic monitoring but when asked about what offenders have to give up, they viewed the sanction more punitively than did offenders. Implications…

  12. Russian Muslims: History and Modern Age (Case of Establishing and Developing of Islamic Community in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Sapronova


    Full Text Available Book review: Renat Bekkin, Almira Tagirdzhanova. Muslim Petersburg. Historical guide-book. The life of Muslims in St. Petersburg and its suburbs. - Moscow, St. Petersburg: Institute for African Studies, 2016. - 640p.

  13. Producing 'internal suspect bodies': divisive effects of UK counter-terrorism measures on Muslim communities in Leeds and Bradford. (United States)

    Abbas, Madeline-Sophie


    Research on UK government counter-terrorism measures has claimed that Muslims are treated as a 'suspect community'. However, there is limited research exploring the divisive effects that membership of a 'suspect community' has on relations within Muslim communities. Drawing from interviews with British Muslims living in Leeds or Bradford, I address this gap by explicating how co-option of Muslim community members to counter extremism fractures relations within Muslim communities. I reveal how community members internalize fears of state targeting which precipitates internal disciplinary measures. I contribute the category of 'internal suspect body' which is materialized through two intersecting conditions within preventative counter-terrorism: the suspected extremist for Muslims to look out for and suspected informer who might report fellow Muslims. I argue that the suspect community operates through a network of relations by which terrors of counter-terrorism are reproduced within Muslim communities with divisive effects. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  14. Should violent offenders be forced to undergo neurotechnological treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk; Kragh, Kristian


    ’s right to freedom of thought. We argue that this objection can be challenged. First, we present some specifications of what a right to freedom of thought might mean. We focus on the recently published views of Jared Craig, and Jan Cristopher Bublitz and Reinhard Merkel. Secondly, we argue that forcing...... violent offenders to undergo certain kinds of NT may not violate the offender’s right to freedom of thought as that right is specified by Craig, and Bublitz and Merkel. Thirdly, even if non-consensual NT is used in a way that does violate freedom of thought, such use can be difficult to abandon without...... inconsistency. For if one is not an abolitionist, and therefore accepts traditional state punishments for violent offenders like imprisonment – which, the evidence shows, often violate the offender’s right to freedom of thought – then, it is argued, one will have reason to accept that violent offenders can...

  15. Stress experiences of family members of registered sex offenders. (United States)

    Tewksbury, Richard; Levenson, Jill


    The collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) have been well established, although little evidence has supported the efficacy of SORN. Based on the belief that family members provide some of the most consistent, important, and intense forms of support for criminal offenders in general and registered sex offenders (RSOs) more specifically, the experiences of sanctions, losses, and stresses of these individuals is examined. Using survey responses from 584 individuals known to visit online support and advocacy groups for RSOs and their loved ones, this study identifies the stress levels and stressors experienced by this population. Findings show that family members of RSOs experience high levels of social isolation, fear, shame, property damage, and forced residential relocation. Perceived stress is significantly higher for those who are of lower economic means, feel isolated, have high levels of fear and shame/embarrassment, or were forced to move. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Underwood


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1 to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilized. The juvenile sex offenders were randomly assigned to the experimental group for 12 weeks receiving treatment services and a control group receiving care “as usual” in a residential group care program. Participants in the experimental group experienced statistically significant decreases in cognitive distortions related specifically to rape and molestation.The results of this study offer preliminary support of the LSOTP as a best practices alternative to other treatment modalities.

  17. Motives for offending among violent and psychotic men. (United States)

    Taylor, P J


    Two hundred and three male remanded prisoners were interviewed with respect to their current offence, mental state, and social and psychiatric histories. All but nine of the sub-group of 121 psychotic men showed active symptoms at the time of committing a criminal offence; 20% of the actively ill psychotics were directly driven to offend by their psychotic symptoms, and a further 26% probably so. If some of the indirect consequences of the psychosis were taken into account, 82% of their offences were probably attributable to the illness. Among the normal and neurotic men, none claimed psychotic motives for offending, but motives suggesting high emotional arousal such as panic or retaliation triggered the greatest violence. Within the psychotic group, those driven to offend by their delusions were most likely to have been seriously violent, and psychotic symptoms probably accounted directly for most of the very violent behaviour.

  18. Psychological characteristics of juvenile offenders with constant integration problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Démuthová Slávka


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the typical psychological, demographic, socio-economical, educational, health, and criminological characteristics of juvenile delinquents who tend to continue in their criminal career to adulthood and therefore obstruct the possibility of successful, non-offending integration to society. Subjects of research were young male prisoners jailed in the Juvenile imprisonment house that completed the test battery. By ex-post analysis after a period of five years, the differences between offenders and non-offenders were identified. Results show significant differences in the age of prisoners, length of imprisonment, presence of violent offence (esp. robbery in the criminal history, number of previous offences recorded, differences in factors i, h, and q1 from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, responses within the Hand test characteristic (affection, dependence, and communication, and in several signs of the drawings in a Draw-A-Person test. The importance and influence of listed factors is discussed.

  19. Profiles in the offending process of nonserial sexual murderers. (United States)

    Beauregard, Eric; Proulx, Jean


    The aim of this study was to investigate specific pathways in the offending processes of nonserial sexual murderers and to examine possible relationships with different precrime, per-crime, and postcrime factors. Included in this study were 36 offenders who have committed at least one sexual murder against a female victim and they were classified using cluster analysis. Participants using the sadistic pathway planned their offenses and used physical restraints during the offenses. Furthermore, they mutilated and humiliated their victims. Finally, they hid the bodies of the victims. Participants using the anger pathway had not premeditated the homicide. Mutilation, humiliation, and physical restraints were less predominant with these participants than with those using the sadistic pathway. Moreover, these offenders were more likely to leave the bodies at the crime scenes after the killings occurred. These two profiles are compared with empirical studies addressing sexual homicide.

  20. Who are the traffic offenders among ethnic groups and why? (United States)

    Elias, Wafa; Blank-Gomel, Aharon; Habib-Matar, Caroline; Shiftan, Yoram


    Marginalized populations, particularly ethnic minorities, are often at a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes and committing traffic violations. Prominent explanations for this "ethnic traffic risk gap" include cultural and socioeconomic factors, usually measured at an aggregate level. In particular, it has been hypothesized that ethnic minorities commit traffic violations as a form of social resistance to what they perceive to be an oppressing regime. The current study examined the mechanisms underlying traffic violations at the individual level within a single ethnic minority, Israeli-Arabs. The study sample (n=231) included a group of known offenders (n=60) and non-offenders (n=171), all of which completed the Traffic Violation Questionnaire. The results show that offenders and non-offenders tended to have different types of occupations, although these did not translate into significant differences in level of income. Offenders reported significantly lower levels of trust in some hegemonic institutions (the police, government ministries) but not others (parliament, the juridical system). However, offenders displayed remarkably different daily activity patterns, including much higher exposure to traffic (3h/day vs. 0.75) and more complex trip patterns. Our results find little support for the social resistance hypothesis, as it fails to explain the differential treatment of hegemonic institutions. Daily activity patterns stand out as a central mechanism influencing the risk of violations. These results suggest policymakers should adopt a holistic approach for traffic safety interventions but avoid monolithic views of ethnic minorities which may lead to an inefficient use of resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of homicide offenders with Schizophrenia from the Russian Federation. (United States)

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla


    It has been suggested that the characteristics of homicides committed by people with schizophrenia from regions with a high total homicide rate differ from the characteristics of homicides by people with schizophrenia from regions with low rates of homicide. Homicide offenders in the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation have been systematically examined for over 30 years. This study reports on a review of the documents from pre-trial psychiatric assessments and legal proceedings of all people charged with homicide offenses between 1981 and 2010 who were found to have schizophrenia. There were 133 people (120 men, 13 women) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia who committed a homicide offense in the 30 years of the study, including 15 repeat homicide offenders and 9 homicides with multiple victims. The odds ratio (OR) for homicide associated with schizophrenia was 13.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) (11.4-16.0). The mean age of the offenders was 34.8 (SD 9.6) and most had the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia (78%). The majority of victims were family members (51%) or acquaintances (43%). Delusions of persecution, auditory hallucinations and other positive symptoms were present in 58% of offenders at the time of the homicide. The remaining 42% exhibited negative symptoms such as emotional deficits, had antisocial attitudes or were regarded as having impaired self-control. Alcohol intoxication was reported at the time of 45% of homicides. Stabbing was the most common method and few of the homicides involved firearms. The characteristics of homicide offenders with schizophrenia from Chuvashia do not appear to differ greatly from those of homicide offenders with schizophrenia from regions with far lower rates of homicide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Muslim Consumers Perception Toward Halal Food Product on Attitude and Purchase Intention at Retail Stores


    Widodo, Teguh


    The existence of halal food product which presented in the POP displays of halal product at retail stores become increasingly important for Muslim consumers, particularly Muslim consumers who living in a country where the majority of the population are not Muslim.Consequently, the purpose of this research is to study and try to investigate and also clarify how Muslim consumers perception toward the variables (safety, religious values, health and exclusivity) of halal food product which presen...

  3. Narrating Muslim women’s identities in Cape Town


    Boswell, R.


    This paper considers the complexity of Muslim women’s identities in the city of Cape Town in 2010. It is argued that emerging super-diversity in the form of African immigration, the commercialisation of Islam and increasing freedoms for women in South Africa impact on women’s engagement with religion and diversifies their identity. The paper also offers glimpses into the diversity of Islam in Cape Town, suggesting that this religion is not monolithic in the city and that it is continuously di...

  4. Forced Migration and Muslim Rituals: An Area of Cultural Psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ahlberg


    Full Text Available The psychological foundation of rites de passage have long been debated within the history of religion and related areas. The significance of such rites in facilitating emotional readjustment to a new life situation have been particularly stressed. Emotional reactions on the individual level largely remain outside the competence of anthropologists, despite their awareness of the general influence of culture on this as on other areas of human endeavour. Focusing on traumatized female refugees from Iran, a critical question is whether the changing living conditions which have provoked traumatic experiences in the lives of these refugees have been in any way related to Muslim ritual requirements or rites de passage.

  5. Muslim women and foreign prostitutes: victim discourse, subjectivity, and governance. (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag


    In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict.

  6. Colostomy irrigation: an important issue for Muslim individuals. (United States)

    Karadag, Ayise; Baykara, Zehra Göçmen


    Colostomy irrigation (CI) is a bowel management method in individuals with permanent colostomy, as an alternative to pouch use, which may provide continence. CI helps the individuals with an artificial stoma to adjust to the stoma and may increase their quality of life (QOL). An uncontrolled intestinal gas discharge invalidates ablution, and noisy gas discharge and smell prevents congregational prayers, which cause problems to Muslims with stomas. Therefore, CI may be an appropriate solution for this patient group. Using the example of one affected individual we discuss how the praying problem can be resolved with teaching to self-perform CI and emphasize the beneficial effects on QOL.

  7. Everyday Justice for Muslims in Mawlamyine: Subjugation and Skilful Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrisson, Annika Pohl


    This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork in Myanmar 2015–2017, explores the everyday interactions between Muslim and Buddhist residents in an urban ward in Mawlamyine, the capital city of Mon State. The focus is on tensions and injustices, analysed through the prism of everyday dispute...... and insecurities in the current transition play into these dynamics. In analysing the tactics used to navigate the socio-political environment that interlocutors face in their everyday, I contribute to a broader understanding of the complexities of local politics and Muslim–Buddhist relations in Myanmar and how...

  8. What can you offer me as a Muslim, Priest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Steen


    do not care about ethics and morality. Christians have ever since a relationship with God? Do you pray? Faster I? Does your faith impact? Are you aware that there is a doomsday? How to ask Muslims, and if we as Christians should even be able to hope to get some of their attention and get them other...... is perfect. " It is God's requirement of its creatures and children: "I must be perfect." And: "If your righteousness is not far surpasses the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven!" Many of Jesus' words and confrontations with the Pharisees can easily be read as a clash...

  9. Methods and Contexts in the Study of Muslim Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research on Islam and Muslim minorities in Europe has generally been focused on the active representatives of these groups, in the form of research on the development of movements and organizations, their legal and political status, activities and relations with the wider political contexts both ...... in the fields of race relations and migration have increasingly mobilized ‘Muslims’ and ‘Islam’ as a common denominator. Initially, among social scientists the motivation seems often to have been the necessity of refining larger unmanageable ethnic groupings....

  10. Muslim Students' Cultural and Religious Experiences in City, Suburban and Regional University Campuses in NSW, Australia (United States)

    Possamai, Adam; Dunn, Kevin; Hopkins, Peter; Worthington, Lisa; Amin, Faroque


    Although there has been much research about the growing ethnic and religious diversity on university campuses across the world, relatively little is known about the religious and cultural experiences of Muslim students on university campuses in Australia. We draw upon an analysis of a questionnaire that was completed by 323 Muslim students who…

  11. Political mobilization of Dutch Muslims : religious identity salience, goal framing and normative constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phalet, Karen; Baysu, Gülseli


    This article addresses the question of when and for what purpose Muslims will act collectively in the political arena. The impact of religious identity salience, goal framing, and normative constraints on political mobilization was examined in two Muslim communities with different group positions in

  12. Public Debates over Islam and the Awareness of Muslim identity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadid, W.


    National and international events in which Muslims have been engaged have triggered heated debates on the integration of these groups in and their loyalty to Dutch society. In this regard, Dutch government has intervened, directly and indirectly, in Muslim religious affairs. The debates and the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrulloh Nasrulloh


    Abstrak: Beberapa hadis tentang perang melawan non-Muslim sering diguna­kan sebagai acuan oleh kelompok-kelompok radikal dalam melakukan tindakan jihad mereka. Mereka tidak membaca hadis secara menyeluruh dan hanya fokus pada teksnya, terlepas dari historisitas dan aspek bahasa. Selain itu, mereka juga tidak membaca hadis tentang toleransi dan sikap Rasulullah saat berinteraksi dengan non-Muslim. Penelitian ini bermaksud untuk menjawab pertanyaan; bagaimana pemahaman kontekstual hadis-hadis tentang per­musuh­an terhadap non-Muslim? Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kepustakaan, yang mengguna­kan hadis tentang  permusuhan terhadap non-Muslim dalam al-kutub al-tis'ah se­bagai sumber utama, dan menggunakan kritik matan hadis sebagai pendekatan penelitian. Dengan menggunakan analisis konten, Penelitian ini menemukan; hadis tentang permusuhan terhadap non-Muslim secara luas memiliki makna bahwa Rasulullah diperintahkan untuk memerangi kaum kafir yang me­musuhi sampai mereka bersedia untuk mengatakan dua kalimat syahadat. Dengan demikian, obyek  hadis tersebut ditujukan hanya untuk non-Muslim yang me­merangi umat Islam, yang mereka telah memilih untuk memulai perkelahian dan tidak menerima jalan damai. Oleh karena itu, tidak semua non-Muslim layak/ tepat untuk dimusuhi, bahkan harus diperlakukan secara baik. Di samping itu, memerangi setiap non-Muslim yang tidak memerangi umat Islam bertentangan dengan teks dan konsensus ilmiah.

  14. Racialization: The Experiences of Muslim Graduate Students in Higher Education after September 11 (United States)

    Naji Amrani, Imane


    The need to understand how Muslim students experience college is a growing concern, given the number of incidents that indicate a hostile environment after the events of September 11, and the subsequent war against terror. Muslim graduate students are more visible on campuses across the United States. This study examines the experiences of Muslim…

  15. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal


    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  16. Christian-Muslim relations in Ghana: A model for world dialogue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part of the world in the name of Muslim-Christian dialogue all in an effort to ensure lasting peace between these faiths. These conferences have hardly yielded their desired results. In Ghana however, Christians and Muslims have lived in absolute peace since the introduction of Christianity and Islam in the fifteenth century.

  17. The enduring mission of Moses : Indonesian Muslim and Christian Representation of a Jewish Prophet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeka, F.Y.A.


    This dissertation concentrates discusses the reception and interpretation of Moses among Muslims and Christians in modern Indonesia. The first five chapter are devoted to Muslim interpretations. Much attention is given to the five main Indonesian commentaries on the Qur’ān, namely Zainal Arifin

  18. On the radicalisation of Muslim youngsters in the Netherlands : Current research and some perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. T. Notten; Dr. G.T. Witte


    The stagnating integration of immigrant groups, the insufficient acceptance of Muslims and the lacking respect for them are assumed to constitute a breeding ground for radicalisation as well as a threat for democracy. Certain groups of Muslim youngsters are susceptible for radical ideas. They

  19. An Exploration of Ethos in Irish Muslim Schools: Ethnographic Insights and Perspectives from Parents and Teachers (United States)

    Sai, Youcef


    Islam is the fastest growing faith in the Republic of Ireland, with the number of adherents reported in 2012 at 50,000. However, despite this number there are only three Muslim primary schools. Empirical research on Muslim schools in Ireland is currently very limited. This article aims to provide insight and understanding into the role of ethos as…

  20. Constructing an Alternative Pedagogy of Islam: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Muslims (United States)

    Shah, Shanon


    There is growing media interest in how lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) Muslims negotiate their seemingly incompatible religious and sexual identities. Thus, there is a need to investigate how some LGBT Muslims utilise Islam as a resource for alternative pedagogical strategies to reconcile their personal beliefs and values. Their…

  1. Beyond the Veil: Learning to Teach Fine Arts in a Muslim Culture (United States)

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne


    In this article, the author shares her experiences and challenges in teaching university-level studio art classes for Muslim women in Kuwait. In Kuwait, popular interpretations of the "Quran" (the Koran), the Muslim holy book, prohibit the use of nude models. The author describes how she had to find alternatives to Western tried and true…

  2. Serving a heterogeneous Muslim identity? Private governance arrangements of halal food in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurth, Laura; Glasbergen, Pieter


    The consumption of halal food may be seen as an expression of the Muslim identity. Within Islam, different interpretations of ‘halal’ exist and the pluralistic Muslim community requests diverse halal standards. Therefore, adaptive governance arrangements are needed in the halal food market.

  3. Education, Income, and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.


    The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…

  4. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School (United States)

    Zine, Jasmin


    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  5. Caring for patients of diverse religious traditions: Islam, a way of life for Muslims. (United States)

    Miklancie, Margaret A


    You have been a nurse for many years, yet you have never cared for a patient who practices Islam until now. You are assigned to a Muslim family for a home visit. What aspects about Muslim beliefs and way of life might be helpful to know before your visit?

  6. When national culture is disrupted : Cultural continuity and resistance to Muslim immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuijten, Maykel

    In three studies we examined the importance of cultural continuity for attitudes towards Muslim immigrants. Study 1 showed that perceiving national culture to be temporally enduring predicted opposition to Muslim expressive rights, and this effect was mediated by perceptions of continuity threat.

  7. South Asian Muslim Americans' Career Development: Factors Influencing Their Career Decision-Making Process (United States)

    Nanji, Michelle Mojgan


    The Muslim population in the United States has faced numerous challenges in the aftermath of September 11th, including increased negative portrayal of Muslims in the media. While there is increased understanding that the social environment in the US has become more Islamophobic, there is little research in applied psychology fields to understand…

  8. Representation of Muslim Characters Living in the West in Ontario's Language Textbooks (United States)

    Ali, Mehrunnisa Ahmad


    This study examined how Muslims living in the West were represented in English language textbooks in Ontario, Canada. The review showed that Muslims were consistently placed in inferior and dependent positions in relation to "white folks" by focusing on their origins in violent and backward societies, their cultural deficits, social…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    people. The pace of the expansion and indeed acceptance of Islam in this .... contact with the Muslims. ... non-Muslim South through several routes and trading networks. For ... condition of social symbiosis in which no attempt was made to convert the ..... Nigeria in the course of their business activities, married local women.

  10. Muslim American University Students' Perceptions of Islam and Democracy: Deconstructing the Dichotomy (United States)

    Lamont, Sarah; Collet, Bruce


    The aftermath of 9/11 and the current surge of revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have caused Muslim Americans to be either demonized or forgotten altogether, despite the significance of their everyday navigation of both Islamic and democratic values and unique efforts toward identity construction. The neglect of the Muslim American…

  11. Understanding the Offender/Environment Dynamic for Computer Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willison, Robert Andrew


    practices by possiblyhighlighting new areas for safeguard implementation. To help facilitate a greaterunderstanding of the offender/environment dynamic, this paper assesses the feasibilityof applying criminological theory to the IS security context. More specifically, threetheories are advanced, which focus...... on the offender's behaviour in a criminal setting. Drawing on an account of the Barings Bank collapse, events highlighted in the casestudy are used to assess whether concepts central to the theories are supported by thedata. It is noted that while one of the theories is to be found wanting in terms ofconceptual...

  12. Halal Cosmetics Adoption Among Young Muslim Consumers in Malaysia: Religiosity Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohezar, S.


    Full Text Available The global increase in Muslim populations and purchasing power has created a new demand for halal cosmetic product development.While the introduction of new product may facilitate companies in gaining competitive advantage, the failure rates of product innovation is also high. Owing to such interests, this paper aims to determine factors that motivate young adult Muslim consumers in the emerging market to adopt halal cosmetics. This study expands prior research by integrating Diffusion of Innovation theory and religiosity dimension to explain the antecedents of halal cosmetics adoption among young Muslim consumers. Data were collected from 238 young Muslim consumers using questionnaires distributed at a number of supermarkets in Kuala Lumpur. The conceptual model and hypotheses developed were tested using partial leased square.Our results demonstrate that perceived product characteristics, social influence and consumer innovativeness influence young Muslim consumers to adopt halal cosmetics products. This study also report religiosity as moderator between these three predictors and halal cosmetic adoption.

  13. Analysis of Danish Media setting and framing of Muslims, Islam and racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sara Jul; Jensen, Tina Gudrun; Vitus, Kathrine

    This paper presents the results of two case studies exploring the role which the Danish newspaper Media play in the reproduction of racial and ethnic inequalities. One case study analyses representations of Muslims and Islam in Danish newspapers, the other the presence and absence of discussions...... framed and restricted to certain topics such as extremism, terror and sharia, whereas positive actions and critical topics like racism and discrimination against Muslims were more or less nonexistent in the Media coverage. Constructed through an antagonistic and hierarchical relationship between ‘Danes......, the lives and opinions of the less visible majority of Muslims more or less vanished in the Media coverage. In this way, the newspapers constructed a distorted and negative picture of Muslims and their religion, and thereby contributed to a general climate of intolerance and discrimination against Muslim...

  14. Predicting Reoffence in Sexual Offender Subtypes: A Prospective Validation Study of the German Version of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)


    Martin Rettenberger; Reinhard Eher


    This study is part of a prospective, longitudinal research project to evaluate the reliability and validity of different recidivism risk assessment methods for sexual offenders under community supervision for scientific and practical use in the German-speaking part of Europe. In this paper we present the German adaptation of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG), a specific risk assessment tool for sexual offenders that was developed and published in 1998 in Canada. We examined int...

  15. Gerakan Sosial Intelektual Muslim Organik dalam Transformasi Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Afandi


    Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci’s idea of organic intellectuals that dedicate their life to improve social life has been actually inherited within Indonesian Muslim intellectuals. The main characteristic of them is not conceptualizing and publishing their own interest in the context of academic field, but expressing and advocating social aims. This article attempts to capture Indonesian organic intellectual movement was fashioned from the era of HOS Cokroaminoto in colonial era until the existence of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO in the present time. The history of Indonesia has witnessed that such movement has actively promoted social purposes and aspirations. Although, in its progress, organic intellectual movement is always challenged by the regime (policy oriented studies, it always comes with its own academic-emancipatory explanation for social problems. After Reformation Era, the goal of this movement focuses on advocating society against global capitalism which is expressed in—for example—World Trade Organization (WTC and Multi-National Corporation (MNC. Another finding of this paper is that there are many NGOs in Indonesia based on Islamic values although their activists do not work on the name of Islam. The reason behind this view is that because all Muslim activists work on religious normative exercise social, economic, political, cultural, environment problems.

  16. Construction Meaning of Mixed Marriages for Indonesian Muslim Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikri Fachrul Nurhadi


    Full Text Available The background of this problem is the increasing number of Indonesian citizens who perform mixed marriages, especially women who are married to foreign nationals. This, resulted in the problem starts from differences of religion or belief, culture and lifestyle are different. The purpose of this study is to find and explain the motives, meaning and experience of Indonesian Muslim women as perpetrators of intermarriage. This research method using the phenomenological method that focuses on the study of meaning in everyday life from the perspective of those who experience it. Data collection techniques used participant observation, interview and documentation study. Subjects were Indonesian Muslim women aged 30-40 years, were married to foreign nationals by purposive sampling technique. The results showed that mixed marriages have a motive "because" that is the motive trauma and interest, while the motive "for" consists of the dream motive, worship and repair descent. Likewise intermarriage experience demonstrated mutual culturally adjust, adapt to a multicultural, open and romantic attitude. While the meaning of marriage is an interesting mix, happy, merging two cultures, respect for differences, mutual understanding, complex, beautiful. Construction of meaning formed that a mixed marriage is a marriage of attractive, beautiful, full of challenges in the face of differences in terms of culture, habits and mindset in running family life.

  17. Muslim Politics in Malaysia and the Democratization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Thaib


    Full Text Available This article will address the Muslim politics in Malaysia in the light of the broader shifts towards democratization and Islamization by focusing on politics among the majority ethnic Malay community, followed an overview of the ideological rivalry between UMNO and PAS, with special reference to the electoral performances of these parties in the past three general elections (November 1999, March 2004 and March 2008 . It then explores the underlying reason for the perceived importance of Islam in understanding the voting trend among the Malay-Muslim electorate which raised the question to what extent was the discourse on Islam instrumental in persuading the Malays to switch their support from PAS to the UMNO during the 2004 elections, and in the process of continued participation as an ‘Islamic Party’ in Malaysian mainstream politics what factors were that encouraged the PAS leaders to compromises and to play by the ‘rule of democracy’. In the concluding part of the article the writer also provide with an overview on reform agenda of Civilizational Islam (Islam Hadhari under premiership of Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and the current Malaysia’s Transformation Programme (GTP under the leadership of Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak.

  18. Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel (United States)

    Dafni, Amots; Lev, Efraim; Beckmann, Sabine; Eichberger, Christian


    This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis), white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp.) and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe. PMID:16961931


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Lampridi-Kemou


    Full Text Available Before the third Egyptian revolution in early 2011, the Muslim Brotherhood was considered the only real opposition capable of challenging the hegemonic government of the Egyptian regime, owing to the popular support the organisation enjoyed; much greater than that of the opposition parties. However, change has not come through the Brotherhood, but through the Egyptian people themselves. In all these years that the Brotherhood has existed on the Egyptian political stage, neither its significant logistic and economic resources nor its dominant role in opposition politics have contributed to any change in the country’s power structure. The aim of this article is to show that the policies adopted by the Muslim Brotherhood in their interaction with the Hosni Mubarak government – both when they were in confrontation and in phases of accommodation – have only helped to maintain the status quo, and that they have, therefore, constituted a centripetal force with respect to the regime. This analysis may also offer a few clues as to the organisation’s future behaviour.

  20. Socially Mediated Publicness in Networked Society for Indonesian Muslim Women

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    Annisa R. Beta


    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper addresses discursive processes that generated ‘jilboobs’ term. It tries to ground the notion of socially mediated publicness and its affordances by investigating the process of image making of Indonesian Muslim women. Using Foucauldian discourse analysis approach, the result shows three characteristics of Indonesia’s socially mediated publicness: (1 religiosity has a central role in the shift and contestation of private versus public sphere, (2 the visual turn of the social media has given specifi c augmentation for networked public affordances, and (3 feminine pious bodies are often marked by their concurrent presence and absence. Abstrak: Makalah ini membahas proses diskursif yang memunculkan istilah ‘jilboobs’. Gagasan socially mediated publicness atau kepublikan termediasi dan berbagai bentuk affordances diaplikasikan dengan meneliti proses pencitraan perempuan muslim berjilbab di Indonesia. Menggunakan analisa diskursus Foucauldian, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa terdapat tiga karakteristik dari kepublikan termediasi di Indonesia, yaitu: (1 religiusitas berperan penting dalam pergeseran dan kontestasi pemisahan ranah publik dengan ranah privat, (2 semakin pentingnya dimensi visual dalam media sosial memberikan penekanan spesifi k pada elemen affordances, dan (3 tubuh feminin saleh dalam kepublikan yang termediasi muncul bersamaan melalui keberadaan dan ketiadaan.

  1. Westliche und muslimische Geschlechter? Western and Muslim Genders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislawa Paulus


    Full Text Available Mihçiyazgan geht der Frage nach wie Differenzen in männlichen und weiblichen Subjektkonstutionen im Westen und im Islam empirisch erfasst werden können. Hierbei verfolgt sie eine antiessentialitische Perspektive, in der sie sich zentral auf Judith Butler und Michel Foucault bezieht. Über beide hinausgehend entwickelt sie ein Modell pluraler Diskurse, mit dessen Hilfe kulturelle bedingte Geschlechterkonstruktionen verstehbar werden. Anhand einer Untersuchung von Interviews, in der sie interaktionsanalytische und diskursanalytische Herangehensweisen verbindet, macht sie unterschiedliche Zonen des Sagbaren und Unsagbaren in westlichen und muslimischen Geschlechterdiskursen sichtbar.Mihçiyazgan approaches the question as to how differences in the constitution of the subject in men and women in the west and in Islam can be empirically measured. She takes an anti-essentialist perspective, referring primarily to Judith Butler and Michel Foucault. Going beyond both, however, she develops a model of plural discourses with which gender constructions that are contingent on culture can be understood. On the basis of interviews, in which she connects her approaches through an interactional and discursive analysis, she makes visible different zones of the speakable and the unspeakable in western and Muslim gender discourses. She points to partially discursive incongruities, referring in particular to Muslim men in marginalized positions. The model presented offers a contribution to understanding discourse analysis as an empirical method. It needs to be made more dynamic, however, in order to avoid cultural codification.

  2. Determinants of divorce in a traditional Muslim community in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of spouses' prior marital status and socio-demographic characteristics on the risk of divorce of 1762 Muslim marriages recorded in 1982-83 in Teknaf, Bangladesh. Grooms' prior marital status was categorized into never married, divorced, widowed or polygynous (already cohabiting with one or more wives and brides' prior marital status was categorized into never married, divorced or widowed. Divorce was recorded by following the marriages prospectively for five years. Due to the fact that a longitudinal study design was used, the quality of the information presented here is considered to be high. A discrete-time hazard logistic model was used to estimate the effects of spouses' prior marital status and a number of socio-demographic variables on risk of divorce. Polygynous marriage, remarriage and divorce were found to be common in this traditional Muslim community. The odds of divorce were 2.5 times higher for grooms' polygynous marriages and 1.6 times higher for brides' remarriages compared to their peers' first marriages. The odds of divorce decreased with marriage duration. The groom's and bride's low socio-economic status, illiteracy, and early age at marriage increased the odds of divorce. The odds of divorce were much higher if there was no birth in the preceding six months.

  3. Metode Dakwah Rasulullah SAW kepada Golongan Non Muslim di Madinah

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    Dalinur M Nur


    Full Text Available Da'wah is a call to believe in Allah SWT, dakwah is not a special task to a particular person but to all Moslems. In delivering da'wah required various methods and strategies in order the message of da'wah is accepted to the mad'unya. At the time of Rasulullah SAW, the method of dakwah used to non-Muslims in Medina was da'wah through writing (Da'wah bil Al-Qalam. He sent messengers, who carried Islamic invitations which addressed to Heraclius (Roman Emperors, King Negus (Ruler of Ethiopia, Khusrau (Persian Ruler, and other great leaders. This is motivated by the Hudaibiyah Peace Agreement, political and theological. The contents of the Prophet's message of propaganda send to the kings was amazing, always preceded by Basmalah, some letters also include verses of the Qur'an. The composition of the sentence in the letter of the Prophet SAW always preceded the phrase "From Muhammad, the servant of Allah, and his messenger", then mention the name of the king who became the object and mention his position and power. The message by Rasulullah SAW gives persuasive value to invite kings to embrace Islam. Besides writing method Rasulullah SAW delivered dakwah to the non-Muslims in Medina was lack of coercion in embracing Islam, equality, fairness, honesty, rahmah and goodness.

  4. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review. (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G


    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of Interpersonal Style on Ruptures and Repairs in the Therapeutic Alliance Between Offenders and Therapists in Sex Offender Treatment. (United States)

    Watson, Rachael; Thomas, Stuart; Daffern, Michael


    The therapeutic relationship is a critical component of psychological treatment. Strain can occur in the relationship, particularly when working with offenders, and more specifically, those offenders with interpersonal difficulties; strain can lead to a rupture, which may affect treatment participation and performance. This study examined ruptures in the therapeutic relationship in sexual offenders participating in offense-focused group treatment. Fifty-four sex offenders rated the therapeutic alliance at the commencement and completion of treatment; at the completion of treatment, they also reported on the occurrence of ruptures and whether they believed these ruptures were repaired. Ruptures were separated by type, according to severity-Each relationship was therefore characterized as experiencing no rupture, a minor rupture, or a major rupture. Offender characteristics including interpersonal style (IPS) and psychopathy were assessed at the commencement of treatment; their relationship with ruptures was examined. Results revealed that more than half of the offenders (approximately 55%) experienced a rupture in the therapeutic alliance, with one in four of these ruptures remaining unresolved. Offenders who did not report a rupture rated the therapeutic alliance significantly higher at the end of treatment compared with those offenders who reported a rupture that was not repaired. Offenders who reported a major rupture in the therapeutic relationship were higher in interpersonal hostility and hostile-dominance. No interpersonal or offense-specific factors affected the likelihood of a rupture repair.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Dwijayanto


    Full Text Available Abstract: The Javanese Muslim community is one of the largest Muslim communities in the Malay Peninsula Land. Its existence has contributed significantly to the religious social life of the Peninsula. This study aims to explore the pattern of migration, adaptation and traditions of Javanese Muslim community in Malaysia especially in carrying out the daily religious life. This research employed qualitative approach and it utilized documentation, observation and interview as data collection technique. The results of this study indicated that the Javanese Muslim community in Malaysia keep the values of local wisdom which is represented through the existing traditions and cultures. The transformation of local wisdom values from generation to generation showed the character of Islamic Nusantara or Islamic moderate. The Javanese Muslim community in Malaysia can be a reference in developing a dignified Islamic society that applied inclusive, moderate, and tolerant Islamic values. The strength of local culture and traditions is not purified but it is integrated to the inclusive, contextual and tolerant values of Islam as it ispracticed by Muslim community of Java in Malaysia. It occurs in the area of Sri Medan and Batu Pahat. They can incorporate local traditions and Islam intimately.     المجتمعات المسلمة الجاوية من أكبر المجتمعات في شبه جزيرة الملايو. ملخص:وقد أسهمت إسهاما كبيرا في الحياة الاجتماعية الدينية لشبه هذه الجزيرة. وتهدف هذه الدراسة إلى الكشف عن أنماط الهجرة والتأقلم والتقاليد من المجتمعات المسلمة الجاوية في ماليزيا وخاصة في الحياة الدينية اليومية. يستخدم هذا البحث الطريقة النوعية من البيانات المكتبية والميدانية والمقابلة. ونتائج هذا

  7. En annan bild av islam : En jämförelse av hur islam och muslimer framställs i svenska nyhetsmedier och i SVT:s dokumentärserie Jag är muslim


    Bonnevier, Emilia


    Since Islam and Muslims are often portrayed in connection with terrorism, female oppression and security in Swedish news media, I decided I wanted to write my study on the subject “Islam and Swedish media”.   The aim with this study was to examine whether SVT’s documentary series Jag är muslim (I am Muslim in English) portrays Muslims differently from Swedish news media, and if so – how? To find out whether there was a difference, I used following questions: How are Islam and Muslims portraye...

  8. Looking Beyond the Screen: A Critical Review of the Literature on the Online Child Pornography Offender. (United States)

    Henshaw, Marie; Ogloff, James R P; Clough, Jonathan A


    This article reviews the current literature pertaining to those who engage in child pornography offending. The basic characteristics of online child pornography offenders (CPOs) and related typologies are briefly presented prior to reviewing the comparative literature pertaining to CPOs and child contact sexual offenders. In general, CPOs have been found to be relatively high functioning and generally pro-social individuals with less extensive and diverse offending histories than contact offenders. CPOs also display high levels of sexual pre-occupation, deviant sexual interests, and deficits in interpersonal and affective domains that surpass those of contact offenders. Although further research is required to replicate and clarify preliminary findings, the available evidence indicates that existing sexual offender risk assessment tools and treatment programs are not suitable for use with CPOs, and thus require revision and empirical evaluation prior to widespread use among this population. The article concludes with implications for clinical practice and directions for future research.

  9. Offending, Adjudication, and Outcome Patterns of Solo Male, Solo Female, and Partnered Mass Murderers. (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A


    Research on mass murder is limited due to differences in definitions (particularly with respect to victim count), as well as categorizations based on motive. These limitations restrict our understanding of the offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns of these offenders and can obscure potential underlying similarities to comparable types of offenders (e.g., lone actors or terrorists). To address some of these limitations, this research study, which includes an international sample of 434 cases (455 total offenders), uses descriptive and empirical analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered mass murderers (teams of two or more) to explore offending, adjudication, and outcome patterns among these different types offenders. While the results from this research study support much previous mass murder research, the findings also emphasize the importance of large international sample sizes, objective categorizations, and the use of empirically based analyses to further advance our understanding of these offenders.

  10. Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders. (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T


    Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The need of discoursing social theology in Muslim Southeast Asia

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    Azhar Ibrahim


    Full Text Available This paper highlights and evaluates the significance of an emerging social theologicaldiscourse in contemporary Muslim Southeast Asia. It emerged partlyas a response to the traditional Islamic theology inasmuch as the revivalistdakwah activism that became prominent since the 1970s. This emerging discourseis part of the continuity and extension of the reformist voices whichhave evolved since the late 19th century. As a theology, it puts discourse aboutGod as its premium but extend its focus on the social dimension of faith inGod, of the social message of the religion, and the social responsibility of theman and community of faith in God, and to their fellow human beings. Todaythere are several books and articles written which can be classified as belongingto this genre of social theology. In Indonesia this discursive theologycan be found in rational, humanistic, transformative cultural, and the oppressedtheologies. It opens a wider realm of participation and engagement,where theology is no longer the exclusive affairs of experts, but inclusive of thelay intellectuals who are not necessarily from a strictly religious background.It also enables the Muslim public to comprehend critically and to cope creativelywith rapid social change, and its attendant problems. Theology is, afterall, a human enterprise, albeit it’s strong religious commitment. To harnessthe potentiality of the social theology, calls for its recognition. Herein lies the need to start studying and engaging them discerningly, or to advance its criticaldimensions for the benefits of the larger Muslim public.Paper ini menyoroti dan mengevaluasi pentingnya wacana teologi sosial yangmuncul dalam periode kontemporer Muslim Asia Tenggara. Teologi sosialmuncul sebagian sebagai tanggapan terhadap teologi Islam tradisional karenaaktivisme dakwah revivalis yang semakin menonjol sejak tahun 1970-an. Wacanayang muncul di sini merupakan bagian dari kontinuitas dan perluasan suarareformis yang

  12. YouTube and Muslim Women’s Legal Subjectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Bouclin


    Full Text Available This paper is located within the discursive and spatio-temporal landscape of post 9/11 Canada in which national identity and beliefs about belonging are embedded in pervasive Islamophobia. Its starting point is that social media are key sites for expression of discrimination and intolerance vis-à-vis people of the Muslim faith, and especially the constitution of Muslim face and head scarves as a metonym for Islamic terrorism and a quintessential symbol of uniquely fundamentalist manifestation of patriarchy. I ask, however, whether new modes of visibility might be captured when we examine representational sites of Muslim femininity through the lens of ‘new’ or ‘critical’ legal pluralism. I highlight how women have used Social Networking Sites (SNSs to respond and reconfigure more entrenched discourses around Muslim femininity circulated elsewhere, such as in formal institutionalized state-based law, mainstream/Western feminist discourses, and in popular cultural productions. I have found that Muslim women deploy social media to constitute or express alternative subjectivities and to represent and evaluate their own understandings of feminism, normative femininity, religious practices, including the multiple meanings that attach to the donning of Islamic headscarves. Este documento se sitúa en el paisaje discursivo y espacio-temporal de la Canadá post 11-S, cuya identidad nacional y creencias sobre la pertenencia están incrustadas en la islamofobia dominante. Su punto de partida es que las redes sociales son sitios clave para la expresión de la discriminación y la intolerancia vis-à-vis de la fe musulmana, y en especial la constitución del rostro musulmán y del pañuelo en la cabeza como una metonimia de terrorismo islámico y el símbolo por excelencia de la única manifestación fundamentalista del patriarcado. La autora se pregunta, sin embargo, si las nuevas formas de visibilidad pueden ser capturadas cuando examinamos sitios

  13. Some comments on the current (and future status of Muslim personal law in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach


    Full Text Available The state law of South Africa consists of the common law and the customary law. However, in reality there exist various cultural and religious communities who lead their private lives outside of state law. For example, the Muslim community in South Africa is a close-knit community which lives according to their own customs and usages. Muslims are subject to informal religious tribunals whose decisions and orders are neither recognised nor reviewable by the South African courts.The non-recognition of certain aspects of Muslim personal law causes unnecessary hardships, especially for women. A Muslim woman is often in a "catch two" situation. For example, on the one hand her attempts to divorce her husband in terms of Muslim law may be foiled by the relevant religious tribunal and, on the other hand, the South African courts may not provide the necessary relief, because they might not recognise the validity of her Muslim marriage. Increasingly, South African courts are faced with complex issues regarding the Muslim community. The last few years there has been a definite change in the courts' attitude with regard to the recognition of certain aspects of Muslim personal law. Contrary to pre-1994 court cases, the recent court cases attempt to develop the common law to give recognition to certain aspects of Muslim personal law. This article attempts to give an overview of the recent case law that dealt with issues regarding the recognition of aspects of Muslim personal law. Another issue, which eventuates from the current situation, is whether the South African legal order should continue to have a dualistic legal order or whether we should opt for a unified legal order or even a pluralistic legal order. In order to address this issue, some comments on the current status of Muslim personal law will be made and, finally, in order to contribute to the debate regarding the recognition of Muslim personal law, optional models for the recognition of Muslim

  14. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders (United States)

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.


    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  15. A comparison of latent profiles in antisocial male offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.M.A.; Fanti, k.A.; Glennon, J.C.; Neumann, C.S.; Baskin-Sommers, A.R.; Brazil, I.A.


    Purpose: Within forensic settings, the tools used to evaluate subtypes of antisocial offenders (e.g. interview-based measures such as the Psychopathy Checklist) are expensive and time consuming. The purpose of the present study was to identify and validate distinct antisocial profiles in male

  16. Sex Offenders in Prison: Are They Socially Isolated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, C.J.W.; Beijersbergen, K.A.; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.


    Empirical literature has revealed that social isolation can affect the rehabilitation of sex offenders after serving their sentence. This process of social isolation can already start during incarceration due to strained relationships with fellow prisoners and correctional staff. The current study

  17. A Model Program for Churches and Ex-Offender Reintegration. (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas; Ryan, Patricia; Parikh, Crystal


    Prison Fellowship Ministries' church and community based Transition of Prisoners (TOP) program in Detroit is examined. TOP mobilizes, trains, and equips primarily African-American churches and volunteers to assist ex-offenders to successfully reintegrate into their community. Preliminary outcome data suggest that participation in TOP reduces need…

  18. Treatment of Sexual Offenders: Research, Best Practices, and Emerging Models (United States)

    Yates, Pamela M.


    Treatment of sexual offenders has evolved substantially over the years; various theoretical and practice models of treatment been developed, modified, refined, and proposed over time. The predominant current recommended approach, supported by research, adheres to specific principles of effective correctional intervention, follows a…

  19. An Integrated Groupwork Methodology for Working with Sex Offenders (United States)

    Frost, Andrew; Ware, Jayson; Boer, Douglas P.


    There is now a considerable literature on the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. There exists another substantial literature on therapeutic groupwork and its relevance to a range of clinical populations. These bodies of work have made reference to the other in terms of their mutual relevance. However, there has been no comprehensive…

  20. Young Offending: Towards a Radical/Critical Social Policy (United States)

    Rogowski, Steve


    Young offending is perceived as a serious social problem and always remains near the top of the political agenda. Over the post-war years, policy and practice moved from welfare/treatment towards punishment as the key for addressing the problem, culminating in New Labour's Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Thereafter there was increasing concern about…

  1. Social Factor and Victim-Offender Differences in Courtship Violence. (United States)

    Makepeace, James M.


    Explored social factor differences between respondents with and without courtship violence experience and between male offenders and female victims. Data from the Seven College Survey revealed that those with courtship violence experience exhibited relatively "problematic" social profiles. Especially significant were race; religion;…

  2. Accounts, excuses and apologies of juvenile sexual offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excuses of the offenders for their abusive behaviour hinged on unfulfilled sexual needs, drug influence, ignorance of the law, impulse disorder, alcohol, senility, the urge to feel in control and powerful or the identification with young children as a result of arrested emotional development. The study concludes that the ...

  3. Neighborhood Characteristics and the Social Control of Registered Sex Offenders (United States)

    Socia, Kelly M.; Stamatel, Janet P.


    This study uses geospatial and regression analyses to examine the relationships among social disorganization, collective efficacy, social control, residence restrictions, spatial autocorrelation, and the neighborhood distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in Chicago. RSOs were concentrated in neighborhoods that had higher levels of social…

  4. Restorative Justice: New Horizons in Juvenile Offender Counseling (United States)

    Ryals, John S. Jr.


    Treatment strategies of the juvenile justice system focus singularly on rehabilitation of offenders, and victims and communities are excluded from the rehabilitative process. Restorative justice views victims and communities as essential components in rehabilitative efforts. In this article, the principles and practices of restorative justice,…

  5. With "Restorative Justice," Colleges Strive to Educate Student Offenders (United States)

    Lipka, Sara


    Student-conduct administrators around the country are hailing restorative justice as the next big thing. A blend of mediation and restitution, it seeks to resolve a conflict by identifying the harms caused and devising, with suggestions from both victims and offenders, an agreement to repair them. Restorative justice not only offers an alternative…

  6. Filling Service Gaps: Providing Intensive Treatment Services for Offenders (United States)

    Young, Douglas W.; Farrell, Jill L.; Henderson, Craig E.; Taxman, Faye S.


    Consistent with the few studies that have previously examined treatment prevalence and access in the adult and juvenile justice systems, the recent National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey indicated that there is a particular need to expand intensive treatment modalities for offenders in both institutional and community corrections settings. Applying multilevel modeling techniques to NCJTP survey data, this study explores conditions and factors that may underlie the wide variation among states in the provision of intensive treatment for offenders. Results indicate that states' overall rates of substance abuse and dependence, funding resources, and the state governor's political party affiliation were significantly associated with intensive treatment provision. Numerous factors that have been implicated in recent studies of evidence-based practice adoption, including state agency executives' views regarding rehabilitation, agency culture and climate, and other state-level measures (e.g., household income, crime rates, expenditures on treatment for the general population) were not associated with treatment provision. Future research should examine further variations in offenders' service needs, the role of legislators' political affiliations, and how other factors may interact with administrator characteristics in the adoption and expansion of intensive treatment services for offenders. PMID:19261394

  7. The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Van Der Laan, Peter H.


    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether

  8. The effectiveness of aftercare for juvenile and young adult offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M; van der Laan, Peter H.


    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether

  9. Referring Sex Offenders for Psychosexual Evaluation: A Review. (United States)

    McGrath, Robert J.; Purdy, Linda A.


    Provides guidance to counselors who are referred identified and alleged sex offenders for psychosexual evaluations. Reviews the critical legal, ethical, and clinical issues that counselors should consider when responding to these referral requests. This article can be used to educate referral sources about the indications of evaluations of this…

  10. Motivational Counseling: Implications for Counseling Male Juvenile Sex Offenders (United States)

    Patel, Samir H.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Glover, Michelle Muenzenmeyer


    Juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) often appear unmotivated to change, which thus necessitates a therapeutic approach that matches "resistant" client characteristics. In this article, the authors review common traits of JSOs, introduce motivational counseling as an effective treatment modality, and offer a case illustration. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  11. Myth Information and Bizarre Beliefs of Male Juvenile Sex Offenders. (United States)

    Lakey, Joyce F.


    Describes mythical beliefs, thinking errors, and faulty attitudes collected from a group of 67 male juvenile sex offenders. Addresses four major thinking errors: pretentiousness, uniqueness, failure to assume responsibility, and distorted values. Notes that therapists need this information to develop effective treatment strategies for replacing…

  12. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders. (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  13. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan


    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  14. The Neuropsychology of Adolescent Sexual Offending: Testing an Executive Dysfunction Hypothesis. (United States)

    Morais, Hugo B; Joyal, Christian C; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R


    Although executive dysfunctions are commonly hypothesized to contribute to sexual deviance or aggression, evidence of this relationship is scarce and its specificity is unproven, especially among adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare the executive functioning (EF) of adolescents with sexual offense convictions (ASOC) to that of non-sex-delinquents (NSD). A secondary goal was to assess the relationship among specific sexual offense characteristics (i.e., victim age), history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and EF. It was hypothesized that as a group, ASOC would present similar EF profiles as NSD. It was further hypothesized that ASOC with child victims would present significantly higher rates of CSA and more severe impairment of EF than ASOC with peer-aged or older victims and NSD. A total of 183 male adolescents (127 ASOC and 56 NSD) were interviewed to collect demographic information, sexual development history, history of CSA, an assessment of living conditions, and history of delinquency and sexual offending. Participants were administered the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. In accord with the first hypothesis, ASOC and NSD presented similar EF scores, well below normative values. Thus, EF deficits may not characterize the profiles of adolescents with sexual behavior problems. Contrarily to our second hypothesis, however, offending against children and or experiencing CSA were not associated with poorer EF performance. On the contrary, ASOC with child victims obtained significantly higher scores on measures of higher order EF than both ASOC with peer-aged or older victims and NSD. Implications of these results and future directions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Sexual offending runs in families: A 37-year nationwide study. (United States)

    Långström, Niklas; Babchishin, Kelly M; Fazel, Seena; Lichtenstein, Paul; Frisell, Thomas


    Sexual crime is an important public health concern. The possible causes of sexual aggression, however, remain uncertain. We examined familial aggregation and the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to sexual crime by linking longitudinal, nationwide Swedish crime and multigenerational family registers. We included all men convicted of any sexual offence (N = 21,566), specifically rape of an adult (N = 6131) and child molestation (N = 4465), from 1973 to 2009. Sexual crime rates among fathers and brothers of sexual offenders were compared with corresponding rates in fathers and brothers of age-matched population control men without sexual crime convictions. We also modelled the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors to the liability of sexual offending. We found strong familial aggregation of sexual crime [odds ratio (OR) = 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.5-5.9] among full brothers of convicted sexual offenders. Familial aggregation was lower in father-son dyads (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 3.2-4.4) among paternal half-brothers (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.5-2.9) and maternal half-brothers (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Statistical modelling of the strength and patterns of familial aggregation suggested that genetic factors (40%) and non-shared environmental factors (58%) explained the liability to offend sexually more than shared environmental influences (2%). Further, genetic effects tended to be weaker for rape of an adult (19%) than for child molestation (46%). We report strong evidence of familial clustering of sexual offending, primarily accounted for by genes rather than shared environmental influences. Future research should possibly test the effectiveness of selective prevention efforts for male first-degree relatives of sexually aggressive individuals, and consider familial risk in sexual violence risk assessment.

  16. Pharmacological interventions for those who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending. (United States)

    Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Powney, Melanie J; Dennis, Jane A; Duggan, Conor


    Sexual offending is a serious social problem, a public health issue, and a major challenge for social policy. Victim surveys indicate high incidence and prevalence levels and it is accepted that there is a high proportion of hidden sexual victimisation. Surveys report high levels of psychiatric morbidity in survivors of sexual offences.Biological treatments of sex offenders include antilibidinal medication, comprising hormonal drugs that have a testosterone-suppressing effect, and non-hormonal drugs that affect libido through other mechanisms. The three main classes of testosterone-suppressing drugs in current use are progestogens, antiandrogens, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues. Medications that affect libido through other means include antipsychotics and serotonergic antidepressants (SSRIs). To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions on target sexual behaviour for people who have been convicted or are at risk of sexual offending. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 15 other databases in July 2014. We also searched two trials registers and requested details of unidentified, unpublished, or ongoing studies from investigators and other experts. Prospective controlled trials of antilibidinal medications taken by individuals for the purpose of preventing sexual offences, where the comparator group received a placebo, no treatment, or 'standard care', including psychological treatment. Pairs of authors, working independently, selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information, including details of methods and outcome data. We included seven studies with a total of 138 participants, with data available for 123. Sample sizes ranged from 9 to 37. Judgements for categories of risk of bias varied: concerns were greatest regarding allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessors, and incomplete outcome data (dropout rates in

  17. The Mosque and Social Networks: The Case of Muslim Youth in Brisbane

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    Ameera Karimshah


    Full Text Available Much of the existing public discourse surrounding Muslim youth in Western societies is framed through a simplistic and static understanding of the role of the Mosque in their everyday life. Mosques are often seen as places for the development of Muslim conservatism where membership is gender and ethno-specific and activities are socially restrictive (Spalek & Imtoual, 2007, p. 195; Spalek & Lambert, 2008; Poynting & Mason, 2008, p. 237. This contributes to an ongoing public preoccupation with the idea that it is necessary to integrate Muslim youth into “mainstream society” as a counter measure to anti-social behaviour and attributed outcomes (i.e. terrorism. This paper, building on the work of Dialmy (2007, p. 70 and Jamal (2005, p. 523, offers an account of how young Muslims network and socialise around the Mosque in Brisbane, Australia. We show that contrary to popular public conception, the role of the Mosque in the lives of Muslim youth is multifaceted and serves as the centrepiece from which the majority of socialisation, across variety formal and informal networks, occurs. This paper also explores the reasons underpinning Muslim youth’s social participation, emphasizing the socio-cultural factors (both within and beyond the place of worship that facilitate and hinder participation across a range of social settings. We argue that discussions on Muslim youth and social engagement must be positioned within an informed understanding of the nuanced role of the Mosque in the generation of social networks within Western contexts.

  18. ORGANIZATION ETHICS REPUTATION AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY: Perception of Muslim Customer Sharia Banking

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    Sunaryo SUNARYO


    Full Text Available The majority of the Indonesian population is Muslim, in which the share of Sharia Banking is only three (3 percent of the total banking market share in the country. This indicates a low participation, possibly leading to a negative perception on ethic reputation and low awareness among the Muslim communities in using sharia banking products and services. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the influence of sharia banking organization ethics reputation on Muslims customer loyalty and to analyze the role of satisfaction as a mediating effect on sharia banking organization ethics reputation on Muslims customer loyalty for the sharia banking products and services. Survey with 315 respondents in the city of Malang, Indonesia was conducted to gather information to further understand the situation, to answer the questions raised and to meet the study objectives. Purposive sampling was used to select the relevant respondents. The Structural Equation Model (SEM is used to analyze the direct and indirect relationship between sharia banking organization ethic reputation, satisfaction and Muslims customer loyalty. The findings of this study showed that all independent variables significantly influenced the dependent variable, both directly and indirectly. Satisfaction as mediating factor has a high positive support to the relationship between organization ethic reputation Muslims customer loyalty. Hence, satisfaction plays an important role to support the perception of ethic reputation of the sharia banking organization in influencing Muslim customer loyalty. In addition, the study also suggests that ethic reputation of an organization also helps in maintaining customer loyalty.

  19. How to Accumulate National Capital: The Case of the “Good” Muslim

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    Krista Melanie Riley


    Full Text Available This paper explores the practices of certain high-profile Canadian Muslims who call themselves “progressive” or “moderate” as an example of attempts to increase one’s claims to national belonging through a reification of tropes that designate many Muslims as fanatical, scary and a threat to the Canadian nation. Through tracing the different understandings of “Muslim” and “Canadian” identities and an examination of articles printed in The National Post, this paper argues that this accumulation occurs in three main ways, with portrayals of the “good” Muslim as a patriotic Canadian, as an object of threat from other Muslims and as a protector of oppressed Muslim women. However, in a context marked by rampant Islamophobia throughout Canadian society, these nationalist practices may do more to produce further racialisation of and violence towards those that they positioned as “bad” Muslims than to ensure any lasting claims to national belonging for those who assert themselves to be representative of the “good” Muslims.


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    Budiman Budiman


    Full Text Available Purpose of the research to know the influence of Muslim Personality on Bullying Behaviours in Islamic Hospital of Palembang City Region. Some research that has been done in the West states that 56% of nurses become victims of bullying in their of workplacecausing harm to both individuals and organizations. The hypothesis of this research is that there is influence of Muslim personality on bullying behaviours in the workplace. The higher the comprehensionand practice of Muslim personality, the lower the occurrence of bullying behaviours in the workplace. This research using correlation research methods, research sample 214 nurses from 2 Islamic Hospital in Palembang, data collected using scalemethod, namely: Bullying Behaviour scale and Muslim Personality Scale and data analysis methods using simple regression analysis with SPSS programming. 22.5 for windows. Based on the results obtained r = 0.412in other word,there is influence of Muslim personality on bullying behaviours in the workplace. The higher the understanding and practice of Muslim personality, the lower the occurrence of bullying behaviours in the workplace and r2  of 0.170 means that 17% of Muslim personality contributed to bullying behaviours  in the workplace.

  1. An exploratory study of Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality: Implications for sex education and prevention

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    Smerecnik Chris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1 discussions were polarized, 2 opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3 the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality.

  2. From voice to voices: identifying a plurality of Muslim sources in the news media. (United States)

    Munnik, Michael B


    This article identifies a qualitative change in the diversity of actors who represent Muslims in British news media. Hitherto, the literature discussing Muslims and the media has tended to characterize media organizations as institutions which portray Muslims in an essentialized, monolithic way. In contrast, I propose in this article that the process of representation is more complex, including greater agency and engaging a wider diversity of Muslims than the prevailing literature suggests. Sociological studies distinguish between official and unofficial sources who help determine the representations that journalists employ in their texts, and I apply this to Muslim communities in Glasgow. Using qualitative methods drawn from media production analysis, including participant-observation and ethnographic interviews, I identify a shift from a 'gatekeeper' model of representing the community to that of a plurality of sources, which reveals and insists on the diversity of Muslim communities and voices. I will show why a wider range of actors emerged to speak publicly, what differentiates them and how they position themselves as representatives of Muslims. This focus on producers and on source strategies brings fresh insights into a field dominated by content analysis and a 'media-centric' approach.

  3. Helping sex offenders to desist offending: The gains and drains for CoSA volunteers. A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoïng, M.; Bogaerts, S.; Vogelvang, B.


    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), a group of trained volunteers support sex offenders in their desistance process by engaging in a long-lasting empathic relationship. Is it safe to employ volunteers in this way? This literature review provides an overview of both theoretical

  4. Oppositional banality: Watching ordinary Muslims in ‘Little Mosque on the Prairie’

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    Jenifer Chao


    Full Text Available This essay interrogates how the globally-syndicated series Little Mosque on the Prairie (2007-2012 mobilises one of the most beloved television formats – the situation comedy – to insert a banal and normalised gaze toward Muslims and contest hostile representations of Islam in Western media. Through what I have termed ‘oppositional banality’ the show relocates Muslim identities to the realm of everyday life and out of the confines of global terrorism. Rather than being under the scrutiny of news cameras and viewed through cataclysmic international events the Muslims in Little Mosque are made comical and timeless, subjected to the emotional entanglements of ordinary life.

  5. An essay on the Muslim Gap. Religiosity and the political system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The paper analyzes 3 main trends: (t1) The economic development in the Muslim world is slower than in the rest of the world. (t2) The world grows increasingly democratic due to rising incomes, but this trend does not affect the Muslim world. (t3) The world grows increasingly secular due to rising......-Western countries, though at a lower level. Further, it is demonstrated that Muslims deviate as to religiosity, family life values and as to the preference for religion in politics....

  6. Challenging Stereotypes: Muslim Women's Photographic Self-Representations on the Internet


    Piela, Anna


    This paper focuses on embodiment as enacted and expressed on websites and blogs produced or populated by Muslim women. While there is no agreement amongst scholars and believers in different schools of Islam whether Muslim women are required to wear the headscarf, it is acknowledged that Muslim dresscode should be guided by the principle of modesty. Modest dress in Islam is understood in different ways, from all-concealing garments such as the burqa, to long-sleeved tops and long skirts or tu...

  7. Islamophobia in Canada: Measuring the Realities of Negative Attitudes Toward Muslims and Religious Discrimination. (United States)

    Wilkins-Laflamme, Sarah


    There has been growing discussion surrounding the phenomenon of Islamophobia in Western societies over the last few years. However, in-depth empirical research of the prevalence and patterns of prejudice toward Muslims remains scarce, especially in the Canadian context. With data from the 2011 Canadian Election Study and the 2014 General Social Survey, this study measures the extent to which negative feelings toward Muslims are present among the general adult population, and the extent to which Muslim Canadians themselves say they have experienced discrimination in recent years due to their religion, ethnicity, and culture. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  8. Substance use disorders in forensic psychiatry: differences among different types of offenders. (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Scholing, Agnes; Emmelkamp, Paul M G


    This is the first study that compared different types of offenders in forensic outpatient treatment (i.e., offenders of general violence [GV], intimate partner violence [IPV], sex crimes, and "other offenses" such as drug smuggling and property crimes) regarding the prevalence of substance use disorders at the time of the offense. In total, 35.8% of participants (n = 187) were diagnosed with any substance use disorder. Specifically, 61.5% of GV perpetrators, 30.9% of IPV perpetrators, 9.1% of sex offenders, and 26.7% of "other offenders" were diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence. More GV offenders and less sex offenders fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder. Furthermore, 29.9% of the offenders were intoxicated by substances at the moment they committed the offense (48.5% of GV perpetrators, 25.0% of IPV perpetrators, 17.4% of sex offenders, and 21.0% of other offenders). More GV perpetrators were intoxicated during the offense. As there is a clear association between substance abuse and criminal behavior, substance abuse in offenders should be assessed and, if present, be treated.

  9. Anti-social personality characteristics and psychotic symptoms: Two pathways associated with offending in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; Barendregt, Marko; Van Beveren, Nico M; De Beurs, Edwin; Van Marle, Hjalmar J C


    Several research groups have shown that people with schizophrenia who offend do not form a homogenous group. A three-group model claimed by Hodgins proposes distinguishing between people who start offending before the onset of psychosis (early starters), after psychosis onset but at age 34 years or under (late starters) and after psychosis onset but at age 35 years or older (late first offenders). This study aimed to test the hypotheses (1) that the personality of early starters and non-psychotic offenders would be similar, but different from either late-starter group; (2) that the late-starter groups would be more likely to have positive psychotic symptoms than non-criminal patients with schizophrenia; and (3) that symptom types would differentiate the psychotic groups. A retrospective file study was conducted on cases of 97 early starters, 100 late starters and 26 late first offenders all drawn from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (NIFP) archives 1993-2008, 115 non-psychotic offenders from 2005-2008 NIFP archives and 129 patients with schizophrenia and no criminal history from one general service in Rotterdam. Early starters closely resembled the non-psychotic offenders in their premorbid anti-social personality characteristics. The two late-onset offending psychosis groups were more likely to have persecutory and/or grandiose delusions than non-offenders with psychosis, but so were the early starters. In a first study to compare subgroups of offenders with psychosis directly with non-psychotic offenders and non-offenders with psychosis, we found such additional support for a distinction between early and late starters with psychosis that different treatment strategies would seem indicated, focusing on personality and substance misuse for the former but psychotic symptoms for all. It remains to be seen whether the higher rate of alcohol misuse amongst late first offenders is a fundamental distinction or a function of age


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    Moh Yasir Alimi


    Full Text Available Body provides the contexts as well as the outcomes of social changes in the public sphere of Muslim societies. However, bodies are not conceptually developed enough in the context of Indonesian social sciences. This article aims at outlining theoretical explorations of body in social theory, useful to understand the contemporary development in Islamic public sphere as well as the shift in political Islam. Drawing from a micro-study on the Islamic public sphere in Turkey and my own ethnographic work in South Sulawesi, I argue that Islamic public sphere can be approached conceptually and materially by analyzing bodies as its object of analysis. Analysing the body in the public sphere allows us to understand the current trend for Islamic visibilities and also strategy, particularly that of woman, to challenge the public sphere through their bodies. Key words: body, social theory, Islam, public space

  11. Pembentukan Kepribadian Muslim dalam Perspektif Filsafat Pendidikan Islam

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    Radinal Mukhtar Harahap


    Full Text Available Management of forming muslim behavior  according to Islamic education studies is accrued;  first, concept , that educations should looked forward to the second  Human Values, physically or non, body, soul, desire, hearth and mind. Second, from side of environment education should being conducted by all part around students, either, societies, state or its institution. Third, implementing, that implementing education of faith, education of science, educations of practice, education of moral and social education. forth, education should being strongly conducted to make the peoples felt closely to the Quran and remembering syahadah that the peoples promised to their God before, through knowledge and culture, learning, education, and  ta’dib (morality


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    Alimatul Qibtiyah


    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Indonesia, the concepts of gender and power-relations between men and women have been linked to a shifting and fluctuating idea of what constitutes good women, good men, and good gender relationships within the context of Indonesia and Islam. To analyse these changing attitudes to women’s issues in Indonesia, we need to pay attention to several points: the character of the women’s organizations, whether fully independent, semi autonomous, or subsidiaries of existing male organizations; the important issues rising within the movements, as well as the strategies to deal with them; and lastly the influential factor of government intervention in the women’s movement. This paper tries to explore the Muslim women’s movement and its strategy to accommodate or resist from the domination of Islam in terms of the nation state, the constitution and the dominant cultural norms in Indonesia.

  13. Countering Radicalisation of Muslim Community Opinions on the EU Level

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    Zięba Aleksandra


    Full Text Available The paper explores selected factors influencing the process of radicalisation leading to the use of political violence and terror by the Muslim minorities living in the European Union member states. Internal and external catalysts conditioning this process and methods of their analysis have been presented. The second section examines various counter-radicalisation and de-radicalisation efforts of the EU. The authors analysed the multidimensional European Union policy in the area of counteracting radicalisation for empowering the population and member states in preventing the radicalisation and recruitment to terrorism and emphasising the role of social partners and local authorities. Also, the promotion of good practices for combating radicalisation, developed under the auspices of the multidisciplinary Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN is presented.

  14. Autopsy in Islam and current practice in Arab Muslim countries. (United States)

    Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A


    Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.


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    Susminingsih *


    Full Text Available This research explains that among the Muslim entrepreneur of Pekalongan City, the role of trust as an output of neuro-economic process has taken a part in forming their entrepreneur mentality. The dimension of their entrepreneur mentality includes their commitment to business (commitment to chance, sources, and appearing risk, creative behavior (thinking new thing and doing new thing or create the new and different thing, confidence, responsibility, and positive thinking. This research used qualitative approach based on post-positivistic paradigm, and symbolic interactionism theory to explain. Content analysis-philosophy was used to analyze the answers of interviewee, so that the result of this research is philosophical-analytical-holistic.

  16. Platformed antagonism: Racist discourses on fake Muslim Facebook pages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, Johan; Schou, Jannick; Neumayer, Christina


    This research examines how fake identities on social media create and sustain antagonistic and racist discourses. It does so by analysing 11 Danish Facebook pages, disguised as Muslim extremists living in Denmark, conspiring to kill and rape Danish citizens. It explores how anonymous content...... producers utilize Facebook's socio-technical characteristics to construct, what we propose to term as, platformed antagonism. This term refers to socio-technical and discursive practices that produce new modes of antagonistic relations on social media platforms. Through a discourse-theoretical analysis...... of posts, images, 'about' sections and user comments on the studied Facebook pages, the article highlights how antagonism between ethno-cultural identities is produced on social media through fictitious social media accounts, prompting thousands of user reactions. These findings enhance our current...

  17. Modernity, Rationality and Constitutional Law in Muslim-Majority Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    Are Islamic law, human rights and constitutionalism compatible? In answering this question, this paper first discusses the concept of modernity (understood in terms of rationality and standardization), analysing its abrupt implementation in the MENA countries and the role that the first modern...... constitutions played in institutionalising a new sort of dominion in the newly established states. Against this background, the paper discusses the relationship between constitutionalism and Shari’a law, presenting this as a clash between two competing normative visions that are conceptually difficult...... to reconcile and which each claim exclusivity and hierarchical superiority. The paper advocates for a deconstruction of the ideas of human rights and constitutionalism in order to allow for the incorporation of elements of Muslim traditions, thus challenging the understanding of human rights...

  18. Turkey and the Muslim Brotherhood: Crossing Roads in Syria

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    Bulut Gurpinar


    Full Text Available Relations between Turkey and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB have gained momentum in the light of post-Arab revolt developments. This study aims to present the historical background of the relationship between SMB and AKP and effects of this relationship on foreign policy. For the analytical discussion on the relationship between AKP and SMB integration to ‘particular’ recent foreign policies of Turkey, first of all, it will be examined how the SMB is perceived in Turkey in social and political arenas. Thus, the socio-political dimensions of the process in which the SMB came to the fore and began to be known in Turkey will be explored along with its position in foreign policy during the Justice and Development Party (JDP government and the Syrian crisis.

  19. Religiosity and Volunteering Intention Among Undergraduate Malaysian Muslim Students

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    Sallam A.A.A.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that religious attendance is related positively to volunteering. These results confirm the idea that support of the religious attributes community plays quite a large role in volunteering process. However, it a bear that volunteering is not only dependent on religious community, but also on individual motivation.

  20. Religiosity and Volunteering Intention among Undergraduate Malaysian Muslim Students

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    Ali Sallam Abdullah AbdulElah


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the question: To what extent do religiosity characteristics, contribute to the influence of volunteering intention among Malaysian Muslim students during disasters? To answer this research question, we focused the students in public universities. The finding concerns found that religiosity increases the likelihood of volunteering intention, implying that religious affiliation of youth increases the likelihood of volunteering. This is in line with previous research, that religious attendance is related positively to volunteering. These results confirm the idea that support of the religious attributes community plays quite a large role in volunteering process.. However, it a bear that volunteering is not only dependent on religious community, but also on individual motivation.