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Sample records for musk shrew suncus

  1. Conditioned flavor preference and the US postexposure effect in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus

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    Kosuke eSawa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus is the only species of insectivore that can be used as a laboratory animal and is an interesting subject in terms of evolutional and comparative aspects. The present study on the learning faculties of shrews examines the possibility of acquiring a conditioned flavor preference and the effects of US postexposure. Subjects were allowed to a drink sucrose solution with flavor A and tap water with flavor B during training. Two extinction tests were administered after every four conditioning trials, and a significant preference for flavor A was observed. After each test, the animals were divided into two groups. Subjects in Group US were presented with a sucrose solution without flavor, while those in Group Water were given tap water. After these trials, all subjects received choice tests where they were presented with water containing the two flavors. The preference ratio was lower in Group US than in Group Water, suggesting a postexposure effect. The findings were discussed in terms of habituation to the US.

  2. Conditioned Flavor Preference and the US Postexposure Effect in the House Musk Shrew (Suncus Murinus).

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    Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is the only species of mammalian insectivore that can be domesticated and used as a laboratory animal, and is an interesting subject in terms of evolutionary and comparative aspects. The present study on the learning faculties of shrews examines the possibility of acquiring a conditioned flavor preference and the effects of US postexposure. Subjects were allowed to a drink sucrose solution with flavor A and tap water with flavor B during training. Two extinction tests were administered after every four conditioning trials, and a significant preference for flavor A was observed. After each test, the animals were divided into two groups. Subjects in Group US were presented with a sucrose solution without flavor, while those in Group Water were given tap water. After these trials, all subjects received choice tests where they were presented with water containing the two flavors. The preference ratio was lower in Group US than in Group Water, suggesting a postexposure effect. The findings were discussed in terms of habituation to the US.

  3. Action of Bacopa monnieri to antagonize cisplatin-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew

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    Ihsan Ullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (BM, family Scrophulariaceae is used in several traditional systems of medicine for the management of epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, sleep disorders and memory deficits. The present study investigated the potential of BM methanol (BM-MetFr and BM n-butanol fractions (BM-ButFr to reduce chemotherapy-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew. Cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p. reliably induced retching and/or vomiting over a 2 day period. BM-MetFr (10–40 mg/kg, s.c. and BM-ButFr (5–20 mg/kg, s.c. antagonized the retching and/or vomiting response by ∼59.4% (p  0.05. In conclusion, the n-butanol fractions of BM have anti-emetic activity comparable with palonosetron and MPG. BM may be useful alone or in combination with other anti-emetic drugs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis in man.

  4. Mechanism of ghrelin-induced gastric contractions in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew): involvement of intrinsic primary afferent neurons.

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    Mondal, Anupom; Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakata, Ichiro; Goswami, Chayon; Oda, Sen-ichi; Sakai, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Here, we have reported that motilin can induce contractions in a dose-dependent manner in isolated Suncus murinus (house musk shrew) stomach. We have also shown that after pretreatment with a low dose of motilin (10(-10) M), ghrelin also induces gastric contractions at levels of 10(-10) M to 10(-7) M. However, the neural mechanism of ghrelin action in the stomach has not been fully revealed. In the present study, we studied the mechanism of ghrelin-induced contraction in vitro using a pharmacological method. The responses to ghrelin in the stomach were almost completely abolished by hexamethonium and were significantly suppressed by the administration of phentolamine, prazosin, ondansetron, and naloxone. Additionally, N-nitro-l-arginine methylester significantly potentiated the contractions. Importantly, the mucosa is essential for ghrelin-induced, but not motilin-induced, gastric contractions. To evaluate the involvement of intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs), which are multiaxonal neurons that pass signals from the mucosa to the myenteric plexus, we examined the effect of the IPAN-related pathway on ghrelin-induced contractions and found that pretreatment with adenosine and tachykinergic receptor 3 antagonists (SR142801) significantly eliminated the contractions and GR113808 (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 antagonist) almost completely eliminated it. The results indicate that ghrelin stimulates and modulates suncus gastric contractions through cholinergic, adrenergic, serotonergic, opioidergic neurons and nitric oxide synthases in the myenteric plexus. The mucosa is also important for ghrelin-induced gastric contractions, and IPANs may be the important interneurons that pass the signal from the mucosa to the myenteric plexus.

  5. Mechanism of ghrelin-induced gastric contractions in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew: involvement of intrinsic primary afferent neurons.

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    Anupom Mondal

    Full Text Available Here, we have reported that motilin can induce contractions in a dose-dependent manner in isolated Suncus murinus (house musk shrew stomach. We have also shown that after pretreatment with a low dose of motilin (10(-10 M, ghrelin also induces gastric contractions at levels of 10(-10 M to 10(-7 M. However, the neural mechanism of ghrelin action in the stomach has not been fully revealed. In the present study, we studied the mechanism of ghrelin-induced contraction in vitro using a pharmacological method. The responses to ghrelin in the stomach were almost completely abolished by hexamethonium and were significantly suppressed by the administration of phentolamine, prazosin, ondansetron, and naloxone. Additionally, N-nitro-l-arginine methylester significantly potentiated the contractions. Importantly, the mucosa is essential for ghrelin-induced, but not motilin-induced, gastric contractions. To evaluate the involvement of intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs, which are multiaxonal neurons that pass signals from the mucosa to the myenteric plexus, we examined the effect of the IPAN-related pathway on ghrelin-induced contractions and found that pretreatment with adenosine and tachykinergic receptor 3 antagonists (SR142801 significantly eliminated the contractions and GR113808 (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 antagonist almost completely eliminated it. The results indicate that ghrelin stimulates and modulates suncus gastric contractions through cholinergic, adrenergic, serotonergic, opioidergic neurons and nitric oxide synthases in the myenteric plexus. The mucosa is also important for ghrelin-induced gastric contractions, and IPANs may be the important interneurons that pass the signal from the mucosa to the myenteric plexus.

  6. Chromosomal mapping of 18S-28S rRNA genes and 10 cDNA clones of human chromosome 1 in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

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    Kuroiwa, A; Matsubara, K; Nagase, T; Nomura, N; Seong, J K; Ishikawa, A; Anunciado, R V; Tanaka, K; Yamagata, T; Masangkay, J S; Dang, V B; Namikawa, T; Matsuda, Y

    2001-01-01

    The direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to map 18S-28S ribosomal RNA genes and 10 human cDNA clones on the chromosomes of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). The chromosomal locations of 18S-28S ribosomal RNA genes were examined in the five laboratory lines and wild animals captured in the Philippines and Vietnam, and the genes were found on chromosomes 5, 6, 9, and 13 with geographic variation. The comparative mapping of 10 cDNA clones of human chromosome 1 demonstrated that human chromosome 1 consisted of at least three segments homologous to Suncus chromosomes (chromosomes 7, 10, and 14). This approach with the direct R-banding FISH method is useful for constructing comparative maps between human and insectivore species and for explicating the process of chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of mammals.

  7. The effects of cyclophosphamide on neurotransmission in the urinary bladder of Suncus murinus, the house musk shrew.

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    Mok, M H; Knight, G E; Andrews, P L; Hoyle, C H; Burnstock, G

    2000-05-12

    This study has shown that cyclophosphamide treatment of the insectivore Suncus murinus, causes a down regulation in both muscarinic and P2X receptors, together with a reduced responsiveness to exogenous histamine (0.3 mM) in the urinary bladder. Electrical field stimulation (70 V, 0.3 ms, 0.5-16 Hz, 10 s every 5 min) of bladders from both control and cyclophosphamide-treated animals showed identical responses. Since post-junctional alterations have been revealed by the reduced responsiveness to exogenous carbachol (0.1 microM-3 mM) and beta,gamma-methylene ATP (0.3-300 microM), it would appear that in the bladders of cyclophosphamide-treated animals there is also a pre-junctional effect, increased transmitter release compensating for the down regulation of the receptors. As the pattern of neurotransmission of the bladder of suncus more closely resembles that of human detrusor than other commonly studied laboratory animals, this insectivore appears to be a useful animal model for the study of bladder neurotransmission in pathophysiological conditions.

  8. TESS line: a laboratory line of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus, Insectivora), triple-homozygous for the curly hair (ch), cream coat-color (cr) and red-eyed dilution (rd) genes and segregating the sucrase deficients (suc/suc).

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    Ohno, T; Oda, S; Namikawa, T

    1994-01-01

    The TESS line, the first tester line of the Suncus has been developed. The TESS shrews are homozygous for three morphological mutant genes, ch, cr and rd. The gene (suc) for sucrase activity deficiency in intestinal brush-border membranes also exists in the line, and its frequency was 34.3%. The deficients could easily be identified by the drastic body-weight losing up to more than 15% of the initial weight, that aroused two days after replacement of the drinking water for its 10%-sucrose solution. The TESS shrews have been maintained as a closed-colony consisting of more than 30 individuals, and will be utilized in linkage analysis with the four loci (ch, cr, rd and suc).

  9. Brain Activation by H1 Antihistamines Challenges Conventional View of Their Mechanism of Action in Motion Sickness: A Behavioral, c-Fos and Physiological Study in Suncus murinus (House Musk Shrew

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    Longlong Tu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Motion sickness occurs under a variety of circumstances and is common in the general population. It is usually associated with changes in gastric motility, and hypothermia, which are argued to be surrogate markers for nausea; there are also reports that respiratory function is affected. As laboratory rodents are incapable of vomiting, Suncus murinus was used to model motion sickness and to investigate changes in gastric myoelectric activity (GMA and temperature homeostasis using radiotelemetry, whilst also simultaneously investigating changes in respiratory function using whole body plethysmography. The anti-emetic potential of the highly selective histamine H1 receptor antagonists, mepyramine (brain penetrant, and cetirizine (non-brain penetrant, along with the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, were investigated in the present study. On isolated ileal segments from Suncus murinus, both mepyramine and cetirizine non-competitively antagonized the contractile action of histamine with pKb values of 7.5 and 8.4, respectively; scopolamine competitively antagonized the contractile action of acetylcholine with pA2 of 9.5. In responding animals, motion (1 Hz, 4 cm horizontal displacement, 10 min increased the percentage of the power of bradygastria, and decreased the percentage power of normogastria whilst also causing hypothermia. Animals also exhibited an increase in respiratory rate and a reduction in tidal volume. Mepyramine (50 mg/kg, i.p. and scopolamine (10 mg/kg, i.p., but not cetirizine (10 mg/kg, i.p., significantly antagonized motion-induced emesis but did not reverse the motion-induced disruptions of GMA, or hypothermia, or effects on respiration. Burst analysis of plethysmographic-derived waveforms showed mepyramine also had increased the inter-retch+vomit frequency, and emetic episode duration. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that motion alone did not induce c-fos expression in the brain. Paradoxically, mepyramine increased c

  10. Organization of the main olfactory bulbs of some mammals: musk shrews, moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, mice, and rats.

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    Kosaka, Katsuko; Kosaka, Toshio

    2004-04-19

    We immunohistochemically examined the organization of the main olfactory bulbs (MOBs) in seven mammalian species, including moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, and mice as well as laboratory musk shrews and rats. We focused our investigation on two points: 1) whether nidi, particular spheroidal synaptic regions subjacent to glomeruli, which we previously reported for the laboratory musk shrew MOBs, are also present in other animals and 2) whether the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells we proposed for the rat MOBs are general in other animals. The general laminar pattern was similar among these seven species, but discrete nidi and the nidal layer were recognized only in two insectivores, namely, the mole and laboratory musk shrew. Olfactory marker protein-immunoreactive (OMP-IR) axons extended beyond the limits of the glomerular layer (GL) into the superficial region of the external plexiform layer (EPL) or the nidal layer in the laboratory musk shrew, mole, hedgehog, and tree shrew but not in bat, mouse, and rat. We observed, in nidi and the nidal layer in the mole and laboratory musk shrew MOBs, only a few OMP-IR axons. In the hedgehog, another insectivore, OMP-IR processes extending from the glomeruli were scattered and intermingled with calbindin D28k-IR cells at the border between the GL and the EPL. In the superficial region of the EPL of the tree shrew MOBs, there were a small number of tiny glomerulus-like spheroidal structures where OMP-IR axons protruding from glomeruli were intermingled with dendritic branches of surrounding calbindin D28k-IR cells. Furthermore, we recognized the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells in the MOBs of all of the mammals we examined. These structural features are therefore considered to be common and important organizational principles of the MOBs.

  11. [Description of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) and first general considerations on the fauna of cestode parasites of the pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae)].

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    Mas-Coma, S; Fons, R; Galan-Puchades, M T; Valero, M A

    1986-01-01

    Description and differentiation of the adult stage of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), an intestinal parasite of the Pygmy white-toothed shrew, Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in the region of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Cerbère (Oriental Pyrenees, France). The new species is characterized by the size of the gravid specimens and by the presence of 18-21 rostellar hooks of 18.5-20 micron and of filaments around the embryophore. The general composition of the fauna of Cyclophyllidea parasitizing S. etruscus is analysed. There are three less specialised Hymenolepis species with a scolex of the same type and one Pseudhymenolepis species, with the absence of unarmed species lacking a rostrum. The oioxenous character of the Cestodes parasitizing Suncus species sustains the validity of the genus Suncus. The resemblance of the Cestodefaunas suggests a narrow phyletic relationship between the genera Suncus and Crocidura.

  12. Comparison of expression patterns of fibroblast growth factor 8, bone morphogenetic protein 4 and sonic hedgehog in jaw development of the house shrew, Suncus murinus.

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    Ogi, Hidenao; Tabata, Makoto J; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yasui, Kinya; Uemura, Masanori

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying jaw development in mammals, we used a new laboratory animal, Suncus murinus (house shrew, an insectivore) as the subject for the investigation, because Suncus has all types of teeth (incisor, canine, premolar and molar) in its upper and lower jaws and is thought to be a good model animal having a general mammalian tooth pattern. At the start, by use of degenerate primers we cloned Suncus homologues of fibroblast growth factor 8 (sFgf8), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (sBmp4) and sonic hedgehog (sShh) genes from cDNA library derived from whole Suncus embryos at day 12 (E12). Thereafter, we examined the expression patterns of these genes in the jaw development of Suncus E11-16 embryos (for mouse E9.5-12 embryos). sFgf8 and sBmp4 were expressed in E11 but not in E15 and onward during orofacial development. sShh was expressed from E11 onward, and its expression was increased in the orofacial area. The expression pattern of sFgf8 in the maxillary and mandibular arches of E14 coincided with the area of the presumptive tooth arch. However, sShh and sBmp4 were expressed only in the outer area (= buccal/labial side) of presumptive tooth arch. Thus, these 3 genes showed specific expression pattern in jaw development of Suncus, and their distributions did not overlap each other except in a few regions. These findings suggest that sFgf8, sBmp4 and sShh have a specific function respectively during jaw development in Suncus murinus.

  13. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

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    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  14. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea.

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    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1-53.4%, 17.0-59.9% and 14.6-39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses.

  15. Neonatal DHT but not E2 speeds induction of sexual receptivity in the musk shrew.

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    Ewton, Tiffany A; Siboni, Ruth B; Jackson, Andrea; Freeman, Louise M

    2010-06-01

    Neural aromatization of testosterone (T) to estrogen during development is thought to be important for sexual differentiation of many altricial mammals. We evaluated the effects of neonatal injections of the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) and estradiol (E2) on the copulatory behavior of the female musk shrew, an altricial insectivore. Following adult ovariectomy and replacement T, animals were paired with a stimulus female for two 60-minute copulatory behavior tests. The latency to induce sexual receptivity (in the form of tail-wagging by the female), mount latency and total number of mounts were recorded in experimental females and in a group of untreated control males. While neither hormone treatment significantly affected mounting behavior, DHTP-treated animals induced receptivity faster and with latencies not significantly different from intact males, suggesting that early non-aromatizable androgens can have masculinizing actions by either increasing sexual motivation or making the treated animal more attractive to the stimulus female. Reliance on androgenic rather than estrogenic metabolites for the differentiation of courtship behaviors conforms to the pattern seen more typically in primates than rodents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavioral patterns associated with chemotherapy-induced emesis: A potential signature for nausea in musk shrews

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    Charles Christopher Horn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in preclinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, t-pattern (temporal pattern analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research to induce acute (< 24 h and delayed (> 24 h emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating and drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and

  17. Motilin Stimulates Gastric Acid Secretion in Coordination with Ghrelin in Suncus murinus.

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    Goswami, Chayon; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Makoto; Mondal, Anupom; Oda, Sen-ichi; Tanaka, Toru; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Motilin and ghrelin constitute a peptide family, and these hormones are important for the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. In this study, we examined the effect of motilin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion in anesthetized suncus (house musk shrew, Suncus murinus), a ghrelin- and motilin-producing mammal. We first established a gastric lumen-perfusion system in the suncus and confirmed that intravenous (i.v.) administration of histamine (1 mg/kg body weight) stimulated acid secretion. Motilin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW) stimulated the acid output in a dose-dependent manner in suncus, whereas ghrelin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW) alone did not induce acid output. Furthermore, in comparison with the vehicle administration, the co-administration of low-dose (1 μg/kg BW) motilin and ghrelin significantly stimulated gastric acid secretion, whereas either motilin (1 μg/kg BW) or ghrelin (1 μg/kg BW) alone did not significantly induce gastric acid secretion. This indicates an additive role of ghrelin in motilin-induced gastric acid secretion. We then investigated the pathways of motilin/motilin and ghrelin-stimulated acid secretion using receptor antagonists. Treatment with YM 022 (a CCK-B receptor antagonist) and atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) had no effect on motilin or motilin-ghrelin co-administration-induced acid output. In contrast, famotidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist) completely inhibited motilin-stimulated acid secretion and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin induced gastric acid output. This is the first report demonstrating that motilin stimulates gastric secretion in mammals. Our results also suggest that motilin and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin stimulate gastric acid secretion via the histamine-mediated pathway in suncus.

  18. Motilin Stimulates Gastric Acid Secretion in Coordination with Ghrelin in Suncus murinus.

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    Chayon Goswami

    Full Text Available Motilin and ghrelin constitute a peptide family, and these hormones are important for the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. In this study, we examined the effect of motilin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion in anesthetized suncus (house musk shrew, Suncus murinus, a ghrelin- and motilin-producing mammal. We first established a gastric lumen-perfusion system in the suncus and confirmed that intravenous (i.v. administration of histamine (1 mg/kg body weight stimulated acid secretion. Motilin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW stimulated the acid output in a dose-dependent manner in suncus, whereas ghrelin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW alone did not induce acid output. Furthermore, in comparison with the vehicle administration, the co-administration of low-dose (1 μg/kg BW motilin and ghrelin significantly stimulated gastric acid secretion, whereas either motilin (1 μg/kg BW or ghrelin (1 μg/kg BW alone did not significantly induce gastric acid secretion. This indicates an additive role of ghrelin in motilin-induced gastric acid secretion. We then investigated the pathways of motilin/motilin and ghrelin-stimulated acid secretion using receptor antagonists. Treatment with YM 022 (a CCK-B receptor antagonist and atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist had no effect on motilin or motilin-ghrelin co-administration-induced acid output. In contrast, famotidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist completely inhibited motilin-stimulated acid secretion and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin induced gastric acid output. This is the first report demonstrating that motilin stimulates gastric secretion in mammals. Our results also suggest that motilin and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin stimulate gastric acid secretion via the histamine-mediated pathway in suncus.

  19. Distribution and coexistence of shrews in patchy landscapes: A field test of multiple hypotheses

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    Mortelliti, Alessio; Boitani, Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Despite the important role of shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) in the functioning of ecosystems, as predators and prey, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on this guild of mammals are still unclear. We studied the distribution of 5 species (the greater white toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon; the lesser white toothed shrew Crocidura suaveolens; the pigmy shrew Sorex minutus; the Appennine shrew Sorex samniticus and the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus) in a fragmented landscape in central Italy. Shrews were trapped with pitfall traps made from plastic water bottles, the number of traps increased with patch size. A total of 170 individuals, of 5 species of shrews were captured. Shrews were widely distributed in our study area, however patch occupancy was determined mainly by vegetation and geometrical characteristics of the patches. Our data supports the hypotheses that patterns of habitat selection and the dynamics of seasonal abundance (habitat and temporal partitioning between similarly sized species) reduce competitive pressure, thus allowing coexistence of shrews in relatively species-rich assemblages, for such small amounts of habitat. The most important outcome of our results is the crucial role played by vegetation structure in determining distribution patterns. These results strongly suggest that measurements of the vegetation structure of habitat patches should always be included as explanatory variables when studying the distribution of shrews in fragmented landscapes.

  20. Tactile Experience Shapes Prey-Capture Behavior in Etruscan Shrews

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    Michael eBrecht

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals is most but not all aspects similar to that of adults. Second we performed whisker trimming for three to four weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew’s normal (cricket prey and the thorax – the preferred point of attack in crickets – is protected a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China.

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    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang; He, Jin-Rong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ming-Hui; Cao, Jian-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Liu; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses.

  2. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior in Côte d'Ivoire

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    Kang Hae Ji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanganya virus (TGNV, the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae, and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus and Imjin virus (MJNV in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura. The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi, 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae, 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV, was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution

  3. Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.

  4. Characterization of Imjin Virus, a Newly Isolated Hantavirus from the Ussuri White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura lasiura)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N.; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L.; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans. PMID:19357167

  5. Prevalence of zoonotic Bartonella species among rodents and shrews in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangjai, Decha; Maruyama, Soichi; Boonmar, Sumalee; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Nimsuphan, Burin; Petkanchanapong, Wimol; Wootta, Wattanapong; Wangroongsarb, Piyada; Boonyareth, Maskiet; Preedakoon, Poom; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella species in 10 rodent and one shrew species in Thailand. From February 2008 to May 2010, a total of 375 small animals were captured in 9 provinces in Thailand. Bartonella strains were isolated from 57 rodents (54 from Rattus species and 3 from Bandicota indica) and one shrew (Suncus murinus) in 7 of the 9 provinces, and identified to the species level. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase and RNA polymerase β subunit genes identified the 58 isolates from each Bartonella-positive animal as B. tribocorum in 27 (46.6%) animals, B. rattimassiliensis in 17 (29.3%) animals, B. elizabethae in 10 (17.2%) animals and B. queenslandensis in 4 (6.9%) animals. R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and Suncus murinus carried B. elizabethae, which causes endocarditis in humans. The prevalence of Bartonella bacteremic animals by province was 42.9% of the animals collected in Phang Nga, 26.8% in Chiang Rai, 20.4% in Sa Kaeo, 16.7% in Nakhon Si Thammarat, 12.0% in Surat Thani, 9.1% in Mae Hong Son and Loei Provinces. These results indicate that Bartonella organisms are widely distributed in small mammals in Thailand and some animal species may serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella species in the country.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  7. Facts about Canadian musk-oxen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the historical and current status of the Canadian musk-oxen. The musk-oxen's distribution, social structure, food and range, and breeding...

  8. Sonic hedgehog expression during early tooth development in Suncus murinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyado, Mami; Ogi, Hidenao; Yamada, Gen; Kitoh, Junzo; Jogahara, Takamichi; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Sato, Iwao; Miyado, Kenji; Sunohara, Masataka

    2007-11-16

    Tooth development is a highly organized process characterized by reciprocal interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. However, the expression patterns and functions of molecules involved in mouse tooth development are unclear from the viewpoint of explaining human dental malformations and anomalies. Here, we show the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), a potent initiator of morphogenesis, during the early stages of tooth development in Suncus murinus. Initially, symmetrical, elongated expression of suncus Shh (sShh) was observed in the thin layer of dental epithelial cells along the mesial-distal axis of both jaws. As the dental epithelium continued to develop, sShh was strictly restricted to the predicted leading parts of the growing, invaginating epithelium corresponding to tooth primordia and enamel knots. We propose that some aspects of Shh function in tooth development are widely conserved in mammalian phylogeny.

  9. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap-ni...

  10. Persistent photosensitivity caused by musk ambrette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugerman, C

    1981-07-01

    Persistent photosensitivity developed in a man after use of an after-shave lotion containing musk ambrette. His eruption, present over ligh-exposed areas of the face, the "V" area of the neck, and the dorsa of the hands, has persisted for more than three years despite therapy. The patient demonstrated a minimal erythema after an ultraviolet B dose of 5 s, and was strongly ultraviolet A photosensitive to a 2% musk ambrette solution in petrolatum and to the after-shave lotion that contained musk ambrette. A persistent light reactivity induced by musk ambrette has most likely developed in this patient.

  11. Synthetic musks in fish and other aquatic organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Musk compounds are widely spread environmental pollutants. Musk compounds were found in aquatic organisms from the North Sea, in rivers, lakes and estuaries in Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Two nitro musks, musk xylene (M

  12. Classification of Suncus murinus species complex (Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in Peninsular Malaysia using image analysis and machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Arpah; Leow, Lee Kien; Ramli, Rosli; Omar, Hasmahzaiti

    2016-12-22

    Taxonomists frequently identify specimen from various populations based on the morphological characteristics and molecular data. This study looks into another invasive process in identification of house shrew (Suncus murinus) using image analysis and machine learning approaches. Thus, an automated identification system is developed to assist and simplify this task. In this study, seven descriptors namely area, convex area, major axis length, minor axis length, perimeter, equivalent diameter and extent which are based on the shape are used as features to represent digital image of skull that consists of dorsal, lateral and jaw views for each specimen. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used as classifier to classify the skulls of S. murinus based on region (northern and southern populations of Peninsular Malaysia) and sex (adult male and female). Thus, specimen classification using Training data set and identification using Testing data set were performed through two stages of ANNs. At present, the classifier used has achieved an accuracy of 100% based on skulls' views. Classification and identification to regions and sexes have also attained 72.5%, 87.5% and 80.0% of accuracy for dorsal, lateral, and jaw views, respectively. This results show that the shape characteristic features used are substantial because they can differentiate the specimens based on regions and sexes up to the accuracy of 80% and above. Finally, an application was developed and can be used for the scientific community. This automated system demonstrates the practicability of using computer-assisted systems in providing interesting alternative approach for quick and easy identification of unknown species.

  13. MUSK MELON IS EAT-MUST MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Franklin, America’s greatest citizen, a printer by trade, scientist and philosopher by fame said, “Women & Melons are difficult to understand”. Musk melon (Cucumis melo is a beautiful, juicy, tasty fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family, which includes 825 species in 118-119 genera. This family contains all the edible gourds, such as cucumbers, watermelons, Musk melons, squash, and pumpkins. Musk melon is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world for its nutritional and medicinal value. The fruit is commonly known as Kharbooja in Hindi and Musk melon or Cantaloupe in English. The phytoconstituents from various parts of the plant include β-carotenes, apocaretenoids, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, terpenoids, chromone derivatives, carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, phospholipids, glycolipids, volatile components and various minerals. Cucumis melo has been shown to possess useful medicinal properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-platelet, anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, hepato-protective, diuretic, anti-diabetic, anthelmintic and anti-fertility activity. Thus, it is evident that Musk melon fruit possess a wide range of useful medicinal properties, which can be exploited clinically. The present review article covers comprehensively up-to-date information on the chemical constituents and medicinal profile of Musk melon.

  14. Tree shrews at the German Primate Center

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, E

    2015-01-01

    For many years, Tupaia (family Tupaiidae), most commonly known as tree shrews, have been studied almost exclusively by zoologists resulting in a controversial debate on their taxonomic status among mammals. Today, tree shrews are placed in the order Scandentia; they are valuable, widely accepted and increasingly used model animals as an alternative to rodents and non-human primates in biomedical research. After a brief description on how tree shrews entered science and their...

  15. The Taming of the Shrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.

    1996-11-01

    Considering the extreme complexity of the turbulence problem in general and the unattainability of first-principles analytical solutions in particular, it is not surprising that controlling a turbulent flow remains a challenging task, mired in empiricism and unfulfilled promises and aspirations. Brute force suppression, or taming, of turbulence via active control strategies is always possible, but the penalty for doing so often exceeds any potential savings. The artifice is to achieve a desired effect with minimum energy expenditure. Spurred by the recent developments in chaos control, microfabrication and neural networks, efficient reactive control of turbulent flows, where the control input is optimally adjusted based on feedforward or feedback measurements, is now in the realm of the possible for future practical devices. But regardless of how the problem is approached, combating turbulence is always as arduous as the taming of the shrew. The former task will be emphasized during the oral presentation, but for this abstract we reflect on a short verse from the latter. From William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Curtis (Petruchio's servant, in charge of his country house): Is she so hot a shrew as she's reported? Grumio (Petruchio's personal lackey): She was, good Curtis, before this frost. But thou know'st winter tames man, woman, and beast; for it hath tamed my old master, and my new mistress, and myself, fellow Curtis.

  16. Decay of Ca2+ and force transients in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from the rat, mouse and Etruscan shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, P; Gros, G

    1998-02-01

    Isometric single-twitch force and intracellular Ca2+ transients were recorded simultaneously, using fura-2, from slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres of the rat, mouse and Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus. In the slow-twitch rat soleus, force half-relaxation time was three times longer than the 50% decay time of the fura-2 signal. In contrast, in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles of all three animals, muscle relaxation preceded Ca2+ decay. It is proposed that this surprising property of fast-twitch muscles is due to their pCa-tension curve, which is shifted to the right compared with that of slow-twitch muscle.

  17. Description of a Shrew from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1910-01-01

    In my “Catalogue systématique des Mammifères, T. XII, 1888, p. 131” I recorded a small shrew from Surinam under the specific title pyrrhonota; till now the animal waits for a description. It seems that Shrews are very rare animals in Surinam, as I nowhere could hunt out another mentioned specimen; a

  18. Musk ambrette and chronic actinic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirne de Castro, J L; Pereira, M A; Prates Nunes, F; Pereira dos Santos, A

    1985-11-01

    A patient with persistent photosensitivity and positive photopatch tests to musk ambrette and an after-shave lotion is reported. Phototests showed extreme sensitivity to UV radiation, especially UVB. Patch tests with the European Standard Series and some plant allergens were negative. Histology showed a granulomatous reaction with epithelioid and giant cells in the dermis.

  19. Study on Solution Crystallization of Musk Ketone and Musk Xylene%酮麝香,二甲苯麝香溶液结晶研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲红梅; 周立山; 白鹏; 杨志才; 余国琮

    2005-01-01

    The ternary phase diagrams of musk ketone, musk xylene and various solvent were obtained by calculations. Moreover, the double saturated lines were found to be curve for the first time. The methods to separate eutectic mixtures of musks by solution crystallization were suggested on the basis of these phase diagrams. A new process was proposed to get musk ketone and musk xylene from the eutectics by adding acetonitrile and heptane in turn, which was verified by experiments. Musk xylene with purity of 97.50% and musk ketone with purity of 98.10% were obtained.

  20. 酮麝香-二甲苯麝香双液相萃取结晶%TWO LIQUID PHASE EXTRACTIVE CRYSTALLIZATION OF MUSK KETONE AND MUSK XYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲红梅; 白鹏; 周立山; 杨志才

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of two liquid phase on the separation of musks mixture, the phase equilibria of musk ketone+musk xylene + dimethyl sulfoxide + heptane system were studied for the first time. The whole and every part of the phase equilibrium for the quaternary system were shown by three-dimensional phase diagrams, the liquid-liquid equilibria, solid-liquid equilibria and solid-liquid-liquid equilibria of the quaternary system were also shown. As a result, the compositions of musks in the equilibrium liquid phases were different from those in the feed, that is, musk ketone was enriched in dimethyl sulfoxide phase while musk xylene was enriched in heptane phase. So these equilibrium liquid phases were useful in separating musk ketone and musk xylene. On the basis of these results, a new process “two liquid phase extractive crystallization” was proposed to separate the eutectics of musk ketone and musk xylene.

  1. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-01-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

  2. Elon Musk – riskanter Milliardenpoker um Tesla & Co.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipp, Reto

    2017-01-01

    Interview von Reto Lipp mit Peter Leibfried (SRF ECO): Von seinen Fans wird er wie ein Rockstar gefeiert. Ob Tesla, Solar City oder SpaceX, Elon Musk will die Welt revolutionieren. Doch seine Visionen verschlingen Unsummen. Bisher ist es ihm stets gelungen, neue Gelder zu mobilisieren und bei Bedarf Millionenbeträge zwischen seinen Unternehmen hin und her zu schieben. Doch das Firmenimperium lebt von riesigen Erwartungen der Investoren. Kann Elon Musk sie nicht einlösen, droht der Kollaps.

  3. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  4. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  5. Tree shrew database (TreeshrewDB): a genomic knowledge base for the Chinese tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Yu, Dandan; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2014-11-21

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is a small mammal with a close relationship to primates and it has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. The recent release of a high-quality Chinese tree shrew genome enables more researchers to use this species as the model animal in their studies. With the aim to making the access to an extensively annotated genome database straightforward and easy, we have created the Tree shrew Database (TreeshrewDB). This is a web-based platform that integrates the currently available data from the tree shrew genome, including an updated gene set, with a systematic functional annotation and a mRNA expression pattern. In addition, to assist with automatic gene sequence analysis, we have integrated the common programs Blast, Muscle, GBrowse, GeneWise and codeml, into TreeshrewDB. We have also developed a pipeline for the analysis of positive selection. The user-friendly interface of TreeshrewDB, which is available at http://www.treeshrewdb.org, will undoubtedly help in many areas of biological research into the tree shrew.

  6. Retrospective analysis of mortalities in elephant shrews (Macroscelididae) and tree shrews (Tupaiidae) at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; Woc-Colburn, Margarita; Viner, Tabitha; Sanchez, Carlos; Murray, Suzan

    2013-06-01

    Investigations into the cause of mortality and other important findings at necropsy were made into two families of small mammals at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (SNZP; USA). Necropsy reports from 1976 through 2008 were reviewed for all elephant shrews in family Macroscelididae (n = 118) and all tree shrews in family Tupaiidae (n = 90) that lived for greater than 30 days at the SNZP. Causes of mortality were classified by body system and etiology to identify prevalent diseases and trends across demographics for each family. In elephant shrews, gastrointestinal disease (n = 18) and respiratory disease (n = 22) were important causes of mortality with an increased prevalence of pneumonia in adult males. Trauma was a common cause of mortality in tree shrews (n = 22). Cryptococcosis was an important cause of mortality in both families (n = 8 elephant shrews; n = 13 tree shrews). Bacterial infections, often systemic at time of mortality, were also common (n = 16 elephant shrews; n = 17 tree shrews). Arteriosclerosis was a common comorbid pathology noted at necropsy in certain populations, seen only in Elephantulus rufescens in the family Macroscelididae (n = 22) and in only males in the family Tupaiidae (n = 11). Gongylonemiasis was seen commonly in tree shrews (n = 15), as a comorbid finding, or in 5 cases directly leading to mortality. Awareness of the prevalence of these diseases can help guide prevention and intervention strategies.

  7. Solid-Liquid Equilibria of Musk Ketone, Musk Xylene and 1,3-Dimethyl-2,4-Dinitro-5-Tert-Butyl Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲红梅; 白鹏; 杨志才; 余国琮

    2004-01-01

    The solid-liquid equilibria of musk ketone + musk xylene, musk xylene+1,3-dimethyl-2,4-dinitro-5-tert-butyl benzene are measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), these systems are proved to be simple eutectics. Moreover the melting points and the fusion enthalpies of musk ketone, musk xylene and 1,3-dimethyl-2,4-dinitro-5-tert-butyl benzene are also measured by the DSC. These solid-liquid equilibrium data and the heats of fusion are reported for the first time. Then UNIFAC model is used to correlate the solid-liquid equilibrium data.It is shown that the solid-liquid equilibria of musk systems can be predicted bv the UNIFAC model.

  8. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife.

  9. The proximal gastric corpus is the most responsive site of motilin-induced contractions in the stomach of the Asian house shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudani, Amrita; Aizawa, Sayaka; Zhi, Gong; Tanaka, Toru; Jogahara, Takamichi; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi

    2016-07-01

    The migrating motor complex (MMC) is responsible for emptying the stomach during the interdigestive period, in preparation for the next meal. It is known that gastric phase III of MMC starts from the proximal stomach and propagates the contraction downwards. We hypothesized that a certain region of the stomach must be more responsive to motilin than others, and that motilin-induced strong gastric contractions propagate from that site. Stomachs of the Suncus or Asian house shrew, a small insectivorous mammal, were dissected and the fundus, proximal corpus, distal corpus, and antrum were examined to study the effect of motilin using an organ bath experiment. Motilin-induced contractions differed in different parts of the stomach. Only the proximal corpus induced gastric contraction even at motilin 10(-10) M, and strong contraction was induced by motilin 10(-9) M in all parts of the stomach. The GPR38 mRNA expression was also higher in the proximal corpus than in the other sections, and the lowest expression was observed in the antrum. GPR38 mRNA expression varied with low expression in the mucosal layer and high expression in the muscle layer. Additionally, motilin-induced contractions in each dissected part of the stomach were inhibited by tetrodotoxin and atropine pretreatment. These results suggest that motilin reactivity is not consistent throughout the stomach, and an area of the proximal corpus including the cardia is the most sensitive to motilin.

  10. Longitudinal epitope mapping in MuSK myasthenia gravis: implications for disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, Maartje G; Vink, Anna-Fleur D; Niks, Erik H; Westhuis, Ruben H; van Zwet, Erik W; de Meel, Robert H; Rojas-García, Ricardo; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Kuks, Jan B; Klooster, Rinse; Straasheijm, Kirsten; Evoli, Amelia; Illa, Isabel; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Verschuuren, Jan J

    2016-02-15

    Muscle weakness in MuSK myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused predominantly by IgG4 antibodies which block MuSK signalling and destabilize neuromuscular junctions. We determined whether the binding pattern of MuSK IgG4 antibodies change throughout the disease course ("epitope spreading"), and affect disease severity or treatment responsiveness. We mapped the MuSK epitopes of 255 longitudinal serum samples of 53 unique MuSK MG patients from three independent cohorts with ELISA. Antibodies against the MuSK Iglike-1 domain determine disease severity. Epitope spreading outside this domain did not contribute to disease severity nor to pyridostigmine responsiveness. This provides a rationale for epitope specific treatment strategies.

  11. Characterization of CD4 and CD8 T Cell Responses in MuSK Myasthenia Gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, JS; Guidon, A; Sparks, S.; Osborne, R.; Juel, VC; Massey, JM; Sanders, DB; Weinhold, KJ; Guptill, JT

    2013-01-01

    Muscle specific tyrosine kinase myasthenia gravis (MuSK MG) is a form of autoimmune MG that predominantly affects women and has unique clinical features, including prominent bulbar weakness, muscle atrophy, and excellent response to therapeutic plasma exchange. Patients with MuSK MG have predominantly IgG4 autoantibodies directed against MuSK on the postsynaptic muscle membrane. Lymphocyte functionality has not been reported in this condition. The goal of this study was to characterize T-cell...

  12. Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer: sex-specific behavior comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Peishi YAN; Xiuxiang MENG; Jinchao FENG; Hongfa XU; Qisen YANG; Zuojian FENG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the behavior of captive alpine musk deer and to determine if daily behavior patterns varied between females and males. From August 2002 to January 2003, focal sampling was used to observe 32 adult captive alpine musk deer (13 female and 19 male) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province. Results indicated similar behavior patterns for males and females, with only two out of 12 recorded behaviors showing significant sex differences. In comparison to females, males rested for a longer duration and exhibited tail pasting more frequently. This study also provided the first recording of tail pasting by female musk deer.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-02-01

    Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses.

  15. Cryopreservation of epididymal sperm in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, S; Wang, F; Zhang, Y; Wu, C; Tang, W; Luo, Y; Yang, S

    2011-07-01

    Cryopreservation of sperm from tree shrews, which are considered primitive primates, would enhance genetic management and breeding programs. Epididymal sperm were surgically harvested from male tree shrews, cryopreserved in two Tes-Tris-based cryodiluents, and used in four experiments. In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences in motility and acrosome integrity among five concentrations of egg yolk in TTE after cooling to 4 °C. However, sperm frozen in TTE containing 20% egg yolk at -172 °C/min had better (P 0.05) among treatments. In Experiment 3, sperm frozen in TTE diluent had higher (P 0.05) in the fertilization rate of oocytes and the proportion of tree shrews yielding fertilized oocytes, following AI with fresh versus frozen sperm. In conclusion, tree shrew epididymal sperm were successfully cryopreserved, as assessed by post-thaw motility, acrosome integrity, and fertilizing ability.

  16. Identification of Bound Nitro Musk-Protein Adduct in Fish Liver By Gas Chromatography-Mass Sectrometry: Biotransformation, Dose-Response and Toxicokinetics of Nitro Musk Metabolites Protein Adducts in Trout Liver as Biomarker of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubiquitous occurrences of synthetic nitro musks are evident in the literature. The In vivo analysis of musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) - protein adducts in trout liver have been performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS). Bio...

  17. Barrelettes without barrels in the American water shrew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Catania

    Full Text Available Water shrews (Sorex palustris depend heavily on their elaborate whiskers to navigate their environment and locate prey. They have small eyes and ears with correspondingly small optic and auditory nerves. Previous investigations have shown that water shrew neocortex is dominated by large representations of the whiskers in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2. Flattened sections of juvenile cortex processed for cytochrome oxidase revealed clear borders of the whisker pad representation in S1, but no cortical barrels. We were therefore surprised to discover prominent barrelettes in brainstem of juvenile water shrews in the present investigation. These distinctive modules were found in the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV, and in two of the three spinal trigeminal subnuclei (interpolaris--SpVi and caudalis--SpVc. Analysis of the shrew's whisker pad revealed the likely relationship between whiskers and barrelettes. Barrelettes persisted in adult water shrew PrV, but barrels were also absent from adult cortex. Thus in contrast to mice and rats, which have obvious barrels in primary somatosensory cortex and less clear barrelettes in the principal nucleus, water shrews have clear barrelettes in the brainstem and no barrels in the neocortex. These results highlight the diverse ways that similar mechanoreceptors can be represented in the central nervous systems of different species.

  18. [Molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of tree shrews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Jiang, Xue-Long; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2013-04-01

    The tree shrew is currently located in the Order Scandentia and is widely distributed in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and South China. Due to its unique characteristics, such as small body size, high brain-to-body mass ratio, short reproductive cycle and life span, and low-cost of maintenance, the tree shrew has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, there is unresolved debate regarding the phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to primates and their phylogenetic position in Euarchontoglires. To help settle this debate, we summarized the available molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of the tree shrew. Most nuclear DNA data, including recent genome data, suggested that the tree shrew belongs to the Euarchonta clade harboring primates and flying lemurs (colugos). However, analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data suggested a close relationship to lagomorphs and rodents. These different clustering patterns could be explained by nuclear gene data and mtDNA data discrepancies, as well as the different phylogenetic approaches used in previous studies. Taking all available conclusions together, the robust data from whole genome of this species supports tree shrews being genetically closely related to primates.

  19. [Three dimensional structure of the connective tissue papillae of the tongue in Suncus murinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miyata, K; Iwasaki, S; Takahashi, K

    1989-08-01

    The surface structure of the connective tissue papillae (CP) of Suncus murinus tongue was observed by SEM after fixing with Karnovsky's fixative and removal of the epithelial cell layer with 3N or 8N HCl. On the surface of the slender conical tongue, there are densely distributed filiform papillae among which fungiform papillae are seen sporadically. A pair of vallate papillae are situated in the posterior region of the tongue. Filiform papillae appear somewhat different externally depending on the dorsal surface of the anterior tongue. At the tip of the tongue, filiform papillae are of a slender conical shape and have a slight depression in the anterior basal portion. The CP of these is seen as a spherical protrusion on which a shallow groove runs in the anteroposterior direction. In the middle region, somewhat large filiform papillae contain CP having one or two small round head-like structures on each spherical protrusion. These head-like structures are increased in number in the posterior region. In the most posterior region of the anterior tongue, there are distributed large filiform papillae having several slender protrusions that surround a basal anterior depression. These large branched filiform papillae have a glove finger like CP. Small conical filiform papillae are distributed in the posterior marginal region of the anterior tongue which have CP of a horse-shoe like protrusion that opens in the anterior direction. Spherical fungiform papillae have CP which are thick columnar in shape with many lateral thin folds running vertically and having a round depression on the top of each. CP of the vallate papillae appear as a beehive like structure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN: DETERMINATION BY GC WITH TWO MS DETECTION MODES: EIMS VERSUS ELECTRON CAPTURE NEGEATIVE ION MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensi...

  1. FORMATION OF NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT HEMOGLOBIN FOR POTENTIAL USE AS BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high use of nitro musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) as fragrances, and their persistence and bioaccumulation potential make them ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The 4-amino-MX (AMX) and 2-amino-MK (AMK) metabolites have been detected in trout fish hemoglobin (Hb) s...

  2. Synthetic Musk fragrances in Trout from Danish fish farms and human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Pedersen, K. H.

    2005-01-01

    /HRMS in Danish farmed trout and human milk from primiparous mothers are reported. The polycyclic musk, HHCB, dominated the synthetic musk compounds found in trout samples from 1999 with a median concentration of 5.0 mu g/kg fresh weight (n.d.-52.6 mu g/kg fresh weight) and in trout samples collected in 2003...

  3. The musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) as intermediate host of cestodes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Tibben, J.H.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2003-01-01

    An investigation on the presence of larval cestodes in musk rats (Ondatra zibethicus) was carried out in two regions of the Netherlands (east Groningen and south Limburg) where in a earlier study foxes with Echinococcus multilocularis were found. A total of 1726 musk rats were dissected (1200 in Gro

  4. The role of the vagus nerve in the migrating motor complex and ghrelin- and motilin-induced gastric contraction in suncus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Yuki; Sakata, Ichiro; Kuroda, Kayuri; Aizawa, Sayaka; Tanaka, Toru; Jogahara, Takamichi; Kurotani, Reiko; Sakai, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract undergoes a temporally coordinated cyclic motor pattern known as the migrating motor complex (MMC) in both dogs and humans during the fasted state. Feeding results in replacement of the MMC by a pattern of noncyclic, intermittent contractile activity termed as postprandial contractions. Although the MMC is known to be stimulated by motilin, recent studies have shown that ghrelin, which is from the same peptide family as motilin, is also involved in the regulation of the MMC. In the present study, we investigated the role of the vagus nerve on gastric motility using conscious suncus-a motilin- and ghrelin-producing small animal. During the fasted state, cyclic MMC comprising phases I, II, and III was observed in both sham-operated and vagotomized suncus; however, the duration and motility index (MI) of phase II was significantly decreased in vagotomized animals. Motilin infusion (50 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) for 10 min) during phase I had induced phase III-like contractions in both sham-operated and vagotomized animals. Ghrelin infusion (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, or 10 µg·kg(-1)·min(-1) for 10 min) enhanced the amplitude of phase II MMC in sham-operated animals, but not in vagotomized animals. After feeding, phase I was replaced by postprandial contractions, and motilin infusion (50 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) for 10 min) did not induce phase III-like contractions in sham-operated suncus. However, in vagotomized suncus, feeding did not evoke postprandial contractions, but exogenous motilin injection strongly induced phase III-like contractions, as noted during the phase I period. Thus, the results indicate that ghrelin stimulates phase II of the MMC via the vagus nerve in suncus. Furthermore, the vagus nerve is essential for initiating postprandial contractions, and inhibition of the phase III-like contractions induced by motilin is highly dependent on the vagus nerve.

  5. The Formation and Extinction of Fear Memory in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujiang eShang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear is an emotion that is well studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 minutes per day effectively reversed the light–dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews.

  6. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shujiang; Wang, Cong; Guo, Chengbing; Huang, Xu; Wang, Liecheng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well-studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 min per day) effectively reversed the light-dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction) in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews.

  7. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  8. Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by four synthetic musk substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Breitholtz, Magnus; Ole Kusk, Kresten; Bengtsson, Bengt Erik

    2003-04-15

    A nitro musk (musk ketone) and three polycyclic musks (Tonalide, Galaxolide and Celestolide) were tested for acute and subchronic effects on a marine crustacean, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Sublethal effects on A. tonsa larvae were investigated with a rapid and cost effective bioassay, which is based on the easily detectable morphological change from the last nauplius to the first copepodite stage during copepod larval development. The inhibition of larval development after 5 days exposure was a very sensitive endpoint, with 5-d-EC(50)-values as low as 0.026 mg/l (Tonalide), 0.059 mg/l (Galaxolide), 0.066 mg/l (musk ketone) and 0.160 mg/l (Celestolide), respectively. These values were generally more than one order of magnitude below the 48-h-LC(50)-values found for adults, which were 0.47 mg/l (Galaxolide), 0.71 mg/l (Celestolide), 1.32 mg/l (musk ketone) and 2.5 mg/l (Tonalide). Since the synthetic musks strongly inhibited larval development in A. tonsa at low nominal concentrations, they should be considered as very toxic. The larval development test with A. tonsa is able to provide important aquatic toxicity data for the evaluation of synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental pollutants.

  9. Characterization of CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in MuSK myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, J S; Guidon, A; Sparks, S; Osborne, R; Juel, V C; Massey, J M; Sanders, D B; Weinhold, K J; Guptill, J T

    2014-08-01

    Muscle specific tyrosine kinase myasthenia gravis (MuSK MG) is a form of autoimmune MG that predominantly affects women and has unique clinical features, including prominent bulbar weakness, muscle atrophy, and excellent response to therapeutic plasma exchange. Patients with MuSK MG have predominantly IgG4 autoantibodies directed against MuSK on the postsynaptic muscle membrane. Lymphocyte functionality has not been reported in this condition. The goal of this study was to characterize T cell responses in patients with MuSK MG. Intracellular production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-21 by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was measured by polychromatic flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples from 11 Musk MG patients and 10 healthy controls. Only one MuSK MG patient was not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Regulatory T cells (Treg) were also included in our analysis to determine if changes in T cell function were due to altered Treg frequencies. CD8+ T cells from MuSK MG patients had higher frequencies of polyfunctional responses than controls, and CD4+ T cells had higher IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IL-17. MuSK MG patients had a higher percentage of CD4+ T cells producing combinations of IFN-gamma/IL-2/TNF-gamma, TNF-alpha/IL-2, and IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha. Interestingly, Treg numbers and CD39 expression were not different from control values. MuSK MG patients had increased frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cytokines and were primed for polyfunctional proinflammatory responses that cannot be explained by a defect in CD39 expression or Treg number.

  10. Discovery of Novel Alphacoronaviruses in European Rodents and Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Tsoleridis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses.

  11. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing WANG; Xin-Li XU; Ze-Yang DING; Rong-Rong MAO; Qi-Xin ZHOU; Long-Bao LV; Li-Ping WANG; Shuang WANG; Chen ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine.Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding,low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy.Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases.However,basal physiological indexes of tree shrew,especially those related to human disease,have not been systematically reported.Accordingly,we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors:(1) body weight,(2) core body temperature and rhythm,(3) diet metabolism,(4) locomotor rhythm,(5) electroencephalogram,(6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm.We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques.Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃,which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews,with two activity peaks,domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats,tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews,which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews.These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  12. Olfactory receptor and neural pathway responsible for highly selective sensing of musk odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasu, Mika; Yoshikawa, Keiichi; Takai, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Ai; Takeuchi, Haruki; Sakano, Hitoshi; Touhara, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    Musk odorants are used widely in cosmetic industries because of their fascinating animalic scent. However, how this aroma is perceived in the mammalian olfactory system remains a great mystery. Here, we show that muscone, one musk odor secreted by various animals from stink glands, activates a few glomeruli clustered in a neuroanatomically unique anteromedial olfactory bulb. The muscone-responsive glomeruli are highly specific to macrocyclic ketones; interestingly, other synthetic musk odorants with nitro or polycyclic moieties or ester bonds activate distinct but nearby glomeruli. Anterodorsal bulbar lesions cause muscone anosmia, suggesting that this region is involved in muscone perception. Finally, we identified the mouse olfactory receptor, MOR215-1, that was a specific muscone receptor expressed by neurons innervating the muscone-responsive anteromedial glomeruli and also the human muscone receptor, OR5AN1. The current study documents the olfactory neural pathway in mice that senses and transmits musk signals from receptor to brain.

  13. Changes in distribution area of Korean musk deer (Moschus moschiferus parvipes) from 1950s to 1999 in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the literature reviews and questionnaire, field survey on the species, feces, and tracks in non-snow season and snow season of Korean musk deer from February to December of 1999 in South Korea (Cultural Properties Administration 1999), the authors summarized the change of distribution area and number of Korean musk deer from 1950s to 1999. The results showed that the distribution area of Korean musk deer (Moschus moschiferus parvipes) was sharply decreased from 1950s to 1999 in South Korea. Due to the road and forest road construction in the habitat of Korean musk deer, the musk deer habitats were fragmented and lost. And the illegal capture for economic benefits was the main reason of decreases in number of individuals and habitats of this species. Forest roads in high elevation area were also used as the passages for illegal captures. For the conservation and protection of Korean musk deer, strict regulation of illegal capture is urgently needed.

  14. Bioaccumulation, temporal trend, and geographical distribution of synthetic musks in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Takemura, Akira; Yoshioka, Motoi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2007-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in a marine food chain was investigated by analyzing marine organisms at various trophic levels, including lugworm, clam, crustacean, fish, marine mammal, and bird samples collected from tidal flat and shallow water areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan. Two of the polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN, were the dominant compounds found in most of the samples analyzed, whereas nitro musks were not detected in any of the organisms, suggesting greater usage of polycyclic musks relative to the nitro musks in Japan. The highest concentrations of HHCB were detected in clams (258-2730 ng/g lipid wt.), whereas HHCB concentrations in mallard and black-headed gull were low, and comparable with concentrations in fish and crab. These results are in contrast to the bioaccumulation pattern of polychlorinated biphenyls; for which a positive correlation between the concentration and the trophic status of organisms was found. Such a difference in the bioaccumulation is probably due to the metabolism and elimination of HHCB in higher trophic organisms. Temporal trends in concentrations of synthetic musks were examined by analyzing tissues of marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters collected during 1977-2005. HHCB concentrations in marine mammals have shown significant increase since the early 1990s, suggesting a continuous input of this compound into the marine environment. Comparison of the time trend for HHCB with those for PCBs and PBDEs suggested that the rates of increase in HHCB concentrations were higher than the other classes of pollutants. To examine the geographical distribution of HHCB, we have analyzed tissues of fish, marine mammals, and birds collected from several locations. Synthetic musks were not detected in a sperm whale (pelagic species) from Japanese coastal water and in eggs of south polar skua from Antarctica. While the number of samples analyzed is limited, these results imply a lack of long-range transportation potential of

  15. Landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Ingo; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-02-01

    In order to investigate landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two landfills (one active and one closed) and two reference sites using high volume air samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters (particle phase) and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges (gas phase), extracted by methyl-tert butyl ether/acetone (neutral PFCs), methanol (ionic PFCs) or hexane/acetone (PBDEs, musk fragrances), and detected by GC-MS (neutral PFCs, PBDEs, musk fragrances) or HPLC-MS/MS (ionic PFCs). Total concentrations ranged from 84 to 706 pg m -3 (volatile PFCs, gas phase), from musk fragrances, gas + particle phase) and from 1 to 11 pg m -3 (PBDEs, gas + particle phase). Observed sum concentrations of PFCs and synthetic musk fragrances and partly PBDE concentrations were elevated at landfill sites compared to corresponding reference sites. Concentrations determined at the active landfill were higher than those of the inactive landfill. Overall, landfills can be regarded as a source of synthetic musk fragrances, several PFCs and potentially of PBDEs to ambient air.

  16. Phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to Glires is attributed to fast evolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiannan; Chen, Guangfeng; Gu, Liang; Shen, Yuefeng; Zheng, Meizhu; Zheng, Weisheng; Hu, Xinjie; Zhang, Xiaobai; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Cizhong

    2014-02-01

    Previous phylogenetic analyses have led to incongruent evolutionary relationships between tree shrews and other suborders of Euarchontoglires. What caused the incongruence remains elusive. In this study, we identified 6845 orthologous genes between seventeen placental mammals. Tree shrews and Primates were monophyletic in the phylogenetic trees derived from the first or/and second codon positions whereas tree shrews and Glires formed a monophyly in the trees derived from the third or all codon positions. The same topology was obtained in the phylogeny inference using the slowly and fast evolving genes, respectively. This incongruence was likely attributed to the fast substitution rate in tree shrews and Glires. Notably, sequence GC content only was not informative to resolve the controversial phylogenetic relationships between tree shrews, Glires, and Primates. Finally, estimation in the confidence of the tree selection strongly supported the phylogenetic affiliation of tree shrews to Primates as a monophyly.

  17. Characterization of spontaneous breast tumor in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinenesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hou-Jun; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; He, Bao-Li; Jiao, Jian-Lin; Chen, Ce-Shi

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignant tumor. It is essential to develop suitable animal models for discovering novel preventive and therapeutic approaches. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have a closer evolutionary relationship with humans than do rodents, which have been widely used in laboratory research. Spontaneous breast tumors were identified in tree shrews in 1960s; however, no detailed studies about tree shrew breast tumors have been conducted to date. Here, we characterized a spontaneous breast tumor from tree shrews by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E) staining. This tumor was identified as a papillary tumor. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3 showed that tumor cells were positive for PR, highly proliferative, and less apoptotic compared to normal breast epithelial cells. Thus, the spontaneous tumor of tree shrew is very close to human papillary tumors in terms of morphology and pathology and we concluded that tree shrew may be a suitable animal model for breast cancer research.

  18. Macrocyclic-, polycyclic-, and nitro musks in cosmetics, household commodities and indoor dusts collected from Japan: implications for their human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Hinosaka, Mari; Yanagimoto, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported the occurrence and concentrations of macrocyclic-, polycyclic- and nitro musks in cosmetics and household commodities collected from Japan. The high concentrations and detection frequencies of Musk T, habanolide, and exaltolides were found in commercial products, suggesting their large amounts of production and usage in Japan. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, also showed high concentrations in cosmetics and products. The estimated dairy intakes of Musk T and HHCB by the dermal exposure to commercial products were 7.8 and 7.9 μg/kg/day in human, respectively, and perfume and body lotion are dominant exposure sources. We also analyzed synthetic musks in house dusts. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, showed high concentrations in samples, but macrocyclic musks were detected only in a few samples, although these types of musks were highly detected in commercial products. This is probably due to easy-degradation of macrocyclic musks in indoor environment. The dairy intakes of HHCB by dust ingestions were 0.22 ng/kg/day in human, which were approximately five orders of magnitudes lower than those of dermal absorption from commercial household commodities.

  19. The role of the vagus nerve in the migrating motor complex and ghrelin- and motilin-induced gastric contraction in suncus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Miyano

    Full Text Available The upper gastrointestinal (GI tract undergoes a temporally coordinated cyclic motor pattern known as the migrating motor complex (MMC in both dogs and humans during the fasted state. Feeding results in replacement of the MMC by a pattern of noncyclic, intermittent contractile activity termed as postprandial contractions. Although the MMC is known to be stimulated by motilin, recent studies have shown that ghrelin, which is from the same peptide family as motilin, is also involved in the regulation of the MMC. In the present study, we investigated the role of the vagus nerve on gastric motility using conscious suncus-a motilin- and ghrelin-producing small animal. During the fasted state, cyclic MMC comprising phases I, II, and III was observed in both sham-operated and vagotomized suncus; however, the duration and motility index (MI of phase II was significantly decreased in vagotomized animals. Motilin infusion (50 ng·kg(-1·min(-1 for 10 min during phase I had induced phase III-like contractions in both sham-operated and vagotomized animals. Ghrelin infusion (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, or 10 µg·kg(-1·min(-1 for 10 min enhanced the amplitude of phase II MMC in sham-operated animals, but not in vagotomized animals. After feeding, phase I was replaced by postprandial contractions, and motilin infusion (50 ng·kg(-1·min(-1 for 10 min did not induce phase III-like contractions in sham-operated suncus. However, in vagotomized suncus, feeding did not evoke postprandial contractions, but exogenous motilin injection strongly induced phase III-like contractions, as noted during the phase I period. Thus, the results indicate that ghrelin stimulates phase II of the MMC via the vagus nerve in suncus. Furthermore, the vagus nerve is essential for initiating postprandial contractions, and inhibition of the phase III-like contractions induced by motilin is highly dependent on the vagus nerve.

  20. Genetic diversity and matrilineal structure in Chinese tree shrews inhabiting Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Xu, Ling; Lü, Long-Bao; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2011-02-01

    Due to their special phylogenetic position in the Euarchontoglires and close affinity to primates, tree shrews have been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, the population genetic structure of tree shrews has largely remained unknown and this has hindered the development of tree shrew breeding and selection. Here we sampled 80 Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) in Kunming, China, and analyzed partial mtDNA control region sequence variation. Based on our samples and two published sequences from northern tree shrews (T. belangeri), we identified 29 substitutions in the mtDNA control region fragment (~604 bp) across 82 individuals and defined 13 haplotypes. Seventeen samples were selected for sequencing of the cytochrome b (Cyt b; 1134 bp) gene based on control region sequence variation and were analyzed in combination with 34 published sequences to solidify the phylogenetic pattern obtained from control region data. Overall, tree shrews from Kunming have high genetic diversity and present a remarkable long genetic distance to the two reported northern tree shrews outside China. Our results provide some caution when using tree shrews to establish animal models because of this apparent genetic difference. In addition, the high genetic diversity of Chinese tree shrews inhabiting Kunming suggests that systematic genetic investigations should be conducted before establishing an inbred strain for medical and biological research.

  1. [Tree shrews under the spot light: emerging model of human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Bin; Lü, Long-Bao; Chen, Ce-Shi; Chen, Yong-Bin; Zhou, Ju-Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2013-04-01

    Animal models are indispensible in biomedical research and have made tremendous contributions to answer fundamental questions on human biology, disease mechanisms, and to the development of new drugs and diagnostic tools. Due to the limitations of rodent models in translational medicine, tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), the closest relative of primates, have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses. Here we discuss the recent progress in tree shrew biology and the development of tree shrews as human disease models including infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, and cancers. Meanwhile, the current problems and future perspectives of the tree shrew model are explored.

  2. Reactivation of HSV-1 following explant of tree shrew brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihong; Li, Zhuoran; Li, Xin; Wang, Erlin; Lang, Fengchao; Xia, Yujie; Fraser, Nigel W; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Jumin

    2016-06-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1) latently infects peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory neurons, and its reactivation leads to recurring cold sores. The reactivated HSV-1 can travel retrograde from the PNS into the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to be causative of Herpes Simplex viral encephalitis. HSV-1 infection in the PNS is well documented, but little is known on the fate of HSV-1 once it enters the CNS. In the murine model, HSV-1 genome persists in the CNS once infected through an ocular route. To gain more details of HSV-1 infection in the CNS, we characterized HSV-1 infection of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain following ocular inoculation. Here, we report that HSV-1 enters the tree shrew brain following ocular inoculation and HSV-1 transcripts, ICP0, ICP4, and LAT can be detected at 5 days post-infection (p.i.), peaking at 10 days p.i. After 2 weeks, ICP4 and ICP0 transcripts are reduced to a basal level, but the LAT intron region continues to be expressed. Live virus could be recovered from the olfactory bulb and brain stem tissue. Viral proteins could be detected using anti-HSV-1 antibodies and anti-ICP4 antibody, during the acute stage but not beyond. In situ hybridization could detect LAT during acute infection in most brain regions and in olfactory bulb and brain stem tissue well beyond the acute stage. Using a homogenate from these tissues' post-acute infection, we did not recover live HSV-1 virus, supporting a latent infection, but using a modified explant cocultivation technique, we were able to recover reactivated virus from these tissues, suggesting that the HSV-1 virus latently infects the tree shrew CNS. Compared to mouse, the CNS acute infection of the tree shrew is delayed and the olfactory bulb contains most latent virus. During the acute stage, a portion of the infected tree shrews exhibit symptoms similar to human viral encephalitis. These findings, together with the fact that tree shrews are closely

  3. Transmission of hepatitis C virus infection to tree shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Z.C. (Zhi-Chun); Riezu-Boj, J.I. (José Ignacio); Lasarte, J.J. (Juan José); GUILLEN, J; Su, J. H.; Civeira, M P; Prieto, J.

    1998-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be reproduced in chimpanzees, these animals are rare and expensive. Tree shrews (tupaias) are small animals, closely related to primates, which adapt easily to a laboratory environment. In this work we have investigated the susceptibility of Tupaia belangeri chinensis to HCV infection. Tupaias caught in the wild in Yunnan (China) were inoculated in China with HCV genotype 1b (study A) and in Spain with a mixture of genotypes 1b, 1a, and 3 (study ...

  4. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    OpenAIRE

    YAN, Lan-Zhen; Sun, Bin; LYU, Long-Bao; MA, Yu-Hua; Chen, Jia-Qi; Lin, Qing; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Xu-dong

    2016-01-01

    As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 femal...

  5. Determinations of airborne synthetic musks by polyurethane foam coupled with triple quadrupole gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ting Ivy; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Tsai, Shih-Wei

    2014-02-21

    Synthetic musk is widely used in various scented consumer products. However, the exposure via inhalation is often ignored due to pleasant smells. In addition, the information regarding the distribution of synthetic musk in air is limited. Hence, this research is aimed to develop a highly sensitive and widely applicable method for the determination of airborne synthetic musk. In this study, polyurethane foam (PUF) and filter were employed for active air sampling. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and nitrogen evaporator were performed for sample preparation. A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (GC/MS-MS) with specific multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition pairs was applied for sample analysis. Compared with using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode traditionally, the sensitivities were improved in this study about an order at least. In terms of air concentration, as low as 0.48ngm(-3) can be determined when sampling at 3.5Lmin(-1) for 8h. The method established was further applied to the analysis of synthetic musk compounds in air samples collected in a cosmetics plant. The results showed that the airborne concentrations of gaseous polycyclic musk, gaseous nitro-musk, and particle-phase polycyclic musk were 6.4×10(2), 4.0×10(1) and 3.1×10(2)ngm(-3), respectively. Meanwhile, Cashmeran, Celstolide, Galaxolide, and Tonalide were found as the dominant musk compounds in the factory investigated.

  6. Affect intensity in voice recognized by tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-06-01

    Shared acoustic cues in speech, music, and nonverbal emotional expressions were postulated to code for emotion quality and intensity favoring the hypothesis of a prehuman origin of affective prosody in human emotional communication. To explore this hypothesis, we examined in playback experiments using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm whether a solitary foraging, highly vocal mammal, the tree shrew, is able to discriminate two behaviorally defined states of affect intensity (low vs. high) from the voice of conspecifics. Playback experiments with communication calls of two different types (chatter call and scream call) given in the state of low affect intensity revealed that habituated tree shrews dishabituated to one call type (the chatter call) and showed a tendency to do so for the other one (the scream call), both given in the state of high affect intensity. Findings suggest that listeners perceive the acoustic variation linked to defined states of affect intensity as different within the same call type. Our findings in tree shrews provide first evidence that acoustically conveyed affect intensity is biologically relevant without any other sensory cue, even for solitary foragers. Thus, the perception of affect intensity in voice conveyed in stressful contexts represents a shared trait of mammals, independent of the complexity of social systems. Findings support the hypothesis that affective prosody in human emotional communication has deep-reaching phylogenetic roots, deriving from precursors already present and relevant in the vocal communication system of early mammals.

  7. Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Duncan B; Sarko, Diana K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations - such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size.

  8. [A depression model of social defeat etiology using tree shrews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lv, Long-Bao; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2012-02-01

    Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, marked by depressed mood for at least two weeks. The World Health Organization predicts that depression will be the number one leading cause of disease and injury burden by 2030. Clinical treatment faces at least three serious obstacles. First, the disease mechanism is not fully understood and thus there are no effective ways to predict and prevent depression and no biological method of diagnosis. Second, available antidepressants are based on monoamine mechanisms that commonly have a long delay of action and possibly cause a higher risk of suicide. Third, no other antidepressant mechanisms are available, with fast action and few side effects. Unfortunately, several decades of research based on rodent models of depression have not been successful in resolving these problems, at least partially due to the huge differences in brain function between rodents and people. Tree shrews are the closest sister to primates, and brain functions in these species are closer to those of humans. In this review, we discuss a tree shrew model of depression with social defeat etiology and aspects of construct, face and predicted validity of an animal model. Although a tree shrew model of depression has long been ignored and not fully established, its similarities to those aspects of depression in humans may open a new avenue to address this human condition.

  9. Inputs and distributions of synthetic musk fragrances in an estuarine and coastal environment; a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Nicola R. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Science, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Guitart, Carlos, E-mail: guitart.carlos@gmail.co [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Fuentes, Gustavo [Instituto Universitario de Tecnologia del Mar (IUTEMAR), Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Margarita Island (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Readman, James W. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Synthetic musks are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Compartmental distributions (dissolved, suspended particle associated and sedimentary) of the compounds throughout an axial estuarine transect and in coastal waters are reported. High concentrations of Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) (987-2098 ng/L and 55-159 ng/L, respectively) were encountered in final effluent samples from sewage treatment plants (STPs) discharging into the Tamar and Plym Estuaries (UK), with lower concentrations of Celestolide (ADBI) (4-13 ng/L), Phantolide (AHMI) (6-9 ng/L), musk xylene (MX) (4-7 ng/L) and musk ketone (MK) (18-30 ng/L). Rapid dilution from the outfalls is demonstrated with resulting concentrations of HHCB spanning from 5 to 30 ng/L and those for AHTN from 3 to 15 ng/L. The other musks were generally not detected in the estuarine and coastal waters. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sedimentary profiles and compositions (HHCB:AHTN ratios) generally reflect the distribution in the water column with highest concentrations adjacent to sewage outfalls. - Synthetic musks were determined in coastal environmental compartments along an estuarine transect indicating their ubiquitous occurrence in transitional waters.

  10. Is MuSK myasthenia gravis linked to IgG4-related disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibagkar, Pooja; Ferry, Judith A; Stone, John H

    2017-04-15

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition that affects a wide variety of sites, including the nervous system, where it can involve the meninges or the pituitary gland, and cause perineural mass lesions. A large subset of acetylcholine receptor antibody (Ab)-negative myasthenia gravis (MG) patients has muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) Abs, generally of the IgG4 subclass. There has not been any association found between IgG4-RD and MuSK MG yet. We report the first case of MuSK MG associated with lymphadenopathy with histopathology consistent with IgG4-RD. A 54-year-old woman with MuSK MG developed eight compression fractures related to steroid therapy. Eighteen months after initial presentation she was found to have retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy with biopsy findings consistent with IgG4-RD. She was started on rituximab with clinical improvement and ability to taper immunomodulatory agents for the first time. Our case raises number of questions regarding a potential link between MuSK MG and IgG4-RD which may shed further light on the pathophysiology and management of these diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Disease specific enrichment of circulating let-7 family microRNA in MuSK+ myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punga, Tanel; Bartoccioni, Emanuela; Lewandowska, Marta; Damato, Valentina; Evoli, Amelia; Punga, Anna Rostedt

    2016-03-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with antibodies against the muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK+) have predominantly involvement of cranio-bulbar muscles and do not display thymus pathology, as do acetylcholine receptor antibody seropositive (AChR+) MG patients. In search of novel biomarkers for MuSK+ MG, we evaluated circulating serum microRNAs. Four analyzed microRNAs were specifically elevated in MuSK+ MG patient serum samples: let-7a-5p, let-7f-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-423-5p. The circulating microRNA profile in MuSK+ MG differs from the profile previously observed in the serum of AChR+ MG, thus indicating the etiological difference between these two entities. We propose that the identified microRNAs could serve as potential serum biomarkers for MuSK+ MG.

  12. The Fetal Membranes of the Otter Shrews and a Synapomorphy for Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M.; Blankenship, T.N.; Enders, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The otter shrews of mainland Africa are the closest relatives of the Madagascar tenrecs. We sought for similarities in placentation between the two groups and, in a wider context, with other mammals of the Afrotheria clade. Specimens of the Nimba otter shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei) were obtain...

  13. Captures of Crawford's gray shrews (Notiosorex crawfordi) along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Heather L. Bateman; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    We captured >2000 Crawford's gray shrews (Notiosorex crawfordi) in a riparian forest mainly consisting of cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico. Little has been published about abundance and habitat of Crawford's gray shrew throughout its distributional range. During 7 summers, we...

  14. Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation to treat diabetic nephropathy in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xing-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Lu; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Pang, Rong-Qing; Cai, Xue-Min; Dai, Jie-Jie; Ruan, Guang-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes. We used a new DN model in tree shrews to validate the use of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation to treat DN. The DN tree shrew model was established by a high-sugar and high-fat diet and four injections of streptozotocin. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole labelled BM-MSCs were injected into tree shrews. The DN tree shrew model was successfully established. Blood glucose was significantly increased ( p < 0.01) during the entire experiment. DN tree shrews showed dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and increased 24-h proteinuria. At 21 days after BM-MSC transplantation, glucose and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and 24-h urine volume were lower than in tree shrews with DN alone ( p < 0.01) but were still higher than control values ( p < 0.01). Levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen as well as 24-h proteinuria were lower for DN tree shrews with BM-MSCs transplantation than DN alone ( p < 0.05). High-sugar and high-fat diet combined with STZ injection can induce a tree shrew model of DN. BM-MSCs injection can home to damaged kidneys and pancreas, for reduced 24-h proteinuria and improved insulin resistance.

  15. 濒危马麝的有效取香率分析%Studies on the operational musk-extraction ratio of endangered Alpine musk deer in captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆辉; 刘春兰; 潘世成; 施泽梅; 张学炎; 孟秀祥

    2011-01-01

    【目的】研究圈养雄性马麝(Moschus sifanicus)有效取香率(有成熟麝香生成的雄麝占参与采香雄麝的比例)的变动规律及影响因素。【方法】在1997-2009年,于甘肃兴隆山马麝繁育场进行人工取香,通过识别参与取香的马麝个体,收集产香数据,计算年度及特定亚群的有效取香率,研究圈养马麝来源(野捕、驯养繁殖)、父母来源、取香时间(繁殖季节前和繁殖季节后)及年龄对有效取香率的影响。【结果】甘肃兴隆山圈养马麝的总体有效取香率为90.30%(n=732);因年度间驯养管理方式的差异,圈养马麝的有效取香率存在显著的年度间差异(P〈0.05)。马麝个体来源影响其有效取香率,野捕圈养雄麝的有效取香率(93.75%,n=272)极显著高于驯养繁殖雄麝(88.26%,n=460),但雄麝的父母来源对其有效取香率影响不显著(P〉0.05)。繁殖季节前取香的有效取香率(90.43%,n=208)与繁殖后取香的有效取香率(94.83%,n=312)无显著差异(P〉0.05)。圈养马麝的年龄显著影响其有效取香率(P〈0.05),1.5岁龄雄麝开始分泌麝香,有效取香率为87.5%(n=96);4.5岁龄雄麝几乎都能产香,有效取香率约为100%(n=100);高峰取香年龄段为1.5~8.5岁龄;9.5岁龄雄麝有效取香率为71.43%(n=28)。【结论】驯养雄性马麝的有效取香率与个体来源、年龄和饲养管理有关,父母来源和取香时间对有效取香率无显著影响。%【Objective】 The research was done to explore and determine the operational musk-extraction ratio and the potemtial influences of variables such as age,origin,managing system and musk-extraction season in captive male Alpine musk deer(Moschus sifanicus).【Method】 During musk-extraction season(October or March) from 1997 to 2009,data of musk production and individual identification were collected from 732 captive male alpine musk deer

  16. Levels of synthetic musk fragrances in human milk from three cities in the Yangtze River Delta in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Liang, Gaofeng; Zeng, Xiangying; Zhou, Jing; Sheng, Guoying; Ful, Jiamo

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic musks are used as additives in many household products. After absorption into the human body, they accumulate and their concentrations in human milk reflect both the mother and her infant's exposure level. Concentrations of four synthetic musks, musk xylene (1-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, MX), musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone, MK), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN), were determined in human milk samples collected from Shanghai, Wuxi, and Shaoxing in Eastern China. The four synthetic musks were found in most samples analyzed, with HHCB the dominant component followed by MX. The median (mean) values for HHCB, AHTN, MX and MK concentrations were 63 (82), 5 (12), 17 (24) and 4 (9) ng/g lipid weight, respectively. These data suggested the total synthetic musk contamination was low, and the distribution percentage was HHCB > MX > AHTN approximately MK. The relative high ratio of nitro to polycylic musk indicated that nitro musks were still widely used. The musk concentrations in these cities were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Principal components score plots were obtained, which showed similar exposure sources. The amount of total synthetic musks in human milk were not associated with mother's age, although HHCB was significantly correlated with AHTN (p < 0.05). Daily ingestion of HHCB, AHTN, MX and MK for infants from human milk were estimated as (2526 +/- 2926), (370 +/- 524), (7391 +/- 832), and (277 +/- 462) ng/day, respectively. Those doses were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the provisional tolerable daily intakes.

  17. [Measurement and analysis of anatomical parameter values in tree shrews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Li, Jin-Tao; He, Bao-Li; Zhen, Hong; Wang, Li-Mei; Jiao, Jian-Lin

    2013-04-01

    Anatomical parameter values in tree shrews are major biological characteristic indicators in laboratory animals. Body size, bones and mammilla, organ weights, coefficient intestinal canal and other anatomical data were measured and analyzed in laboratory domesticated tree shrews (7 to 9 months of age). Measurement of 31 anatomical parameters showed that body height, width of the right ear, ileum and colon had significant differences between males and females (P<0.05). Highly significant differences were also found in body slanting length, chest depth, torso length, left and right forelimb length, right hind limb length, left and right ear length, left ear width, keel bone length, left and right tibia length, duodenum and jejunum (P<0.01). With body length as the dependent variable, and tail length, torso length, right and left forelimb length, and left and right hind limb length as independent variables for stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation for body length = 13.90 + tail length × 0.16. The results of 37 organs weights between female and male tree shrews showed very significant differences (P<0.01) for weight of heart, lungs, spleen, left and right kidney, bladder, left and right hippocampus, left submandibular gland, and left and right thyroid gland, as well as significant (P<0.05) differences in the small intestine, right submandibular gland, and left adrenal gland. The coefficient of heart, lung, stomach, bladder, small and large intestine, brain, right hippocampus, and left adrenal gland showed highly significant differences (P<0.01), while differences in the right kidney, left hippocampus, left submandibular gland, right adrenal gland, and left and right thyroid gland were significant (P<0.05). With animal weight as the dependent variable and indicators of heart, lung, liver, spleen, left and right kidney and brain as independent variables for stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation showed that weight = 62.73 + left kidney

  18. Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilbe Monika

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus, Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens and common mole (Talpa europea, suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV, were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian common shrew, captured in October 2006 in Graubünden, Switzerland. Pair-wise analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments of SWSV indicated approximately 55%–72% similarity with hantaviruses harbored by Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae rodents. Phylogenetically, SWSV grouped with other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses. Intensified efforts are underway to clarify the genetic diversity of SWSV throughout the geographic range of the Eurasian common shrew, as well as to determine its relevance to human health.

  19. CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri): structure, expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guiyuan; Wang, Wei; Meng, Shengke; Zhang, Lichao; Wang, Wenxue; Jiang, Zongmin; Yu, Min; Cui, Qinghua; Li, Meizhang

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are small secreted proteins functionally involved in the immune system's regulation of lymphocyte migration across numerous mammalian species. Given its growing popularity in immunological models, we investigated the structure and function of chemokine CXCL12 protein in tree shrews. We found that CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrew had structural similarities to their homologous human proteins. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that tree shrew is evolutionarily-close to the primates. Our results also showed that the human recombinant CXCL12 protein directly enhanced the migration of tree shrew's lymphocytes in vitro, while AMD3100 enhanced the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from bone marrow into peripheral blood in tree shrew in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggested that chemokines in tree shrews may play the same or similar roles as those in humans, and that the tree shrew is a viable animal model for studying human immunological diseases.

  20. CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri: structure, expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyuan Chen

    Full Text Available Chemokines are small secreted proteins functionally involved in the immune system's regulation of lymphocyte migration across numerous mammalian species. Given its growing popularity in immunological models, we investigated the structure and function of chemokine CXCL12 protein in tree shrews. We found that CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in tree shrew had structural similarities to their homologous human proteins. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that tree shrew is evolutionarily-close to the primates. Our results also showed that the human recombinant CXCL12 protein directly enhanced the migration of tree shrew's lymphocytes in vitro, while AMD3100 enhanced the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs from bone marrow into peripheral blood in tree shrew in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggested that chemokines in tree shrews may play the same or similar roles as those in humans, and that the tree shrew is a viable animal model for studying human immunological diseases.

  1. Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by four synthetic musk substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Breitholtz, M.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2003-01-01

    ketone) and 2.5 mg/l (Tonalide(TM)). Since, the synthetic musks strongly inhibited larval development in A. tonsa at low nominal concentrations, they should be considered as very toxic. The larval development test with A. tonsa is able to provide important aquatic toxicity data for the evaluation...... of synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental pollutants. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights...

  2. Experimental Study on Effect of Electro-acupuncture plus Musk Injection on Recovery of Sciatic Nerve Function in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rong-hua; JIANG Feng; CHEN Dan; PAN Hai-yan; ZHU Zhong-chun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of electro-acupuncture and musk injection on recovery of injured sciatic nerve function in rats, so as to provide the experimental evidences for the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration by electro-acupuncture and musk injection.Methods: Following establishing rat model of sciatic nerve injury by operation, the rats were randomly divided into electro-acupuncture group, musk injection group, electro-acupuncture plus musk injection group and model group, then sciatic functional index (SFI) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were measured after 4 weeks of treatment, 8 weeks of treatment and 12 weeks of treatment respectively to evaluate recovery of nerve function. Results: SFI and MNCV in electro-acupuncture group, musk injection group and electro-acupuncture plus musk injection group were improved more obviously than that in model group, with significant differences(P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusions: Both electro-acupuncture and musk injection could promote recovery of injured nerve function, and they had a certain synergetic effect and might be the effective methods in promoting recovery of injured peripheral nerve function.

  3. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C.; Hare, James F.; Campbell, Kevin L.

    2008-01-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important cue used to detect active or escaping prey. They also bit, retrieved, and attempted to eat model fish made of silicone in preference to other silicone objects showing that tactile cues are important in the absence of movement. In addition, water shrews preferentially sniffed model prey fish and crickets underwater by exhaling and reinhaling air through the nostrils, suggesting olfaction plays an important role in aquatic foraging. The possibility of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was investigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above and below water and by presenting electric fields to foraging shrews. We found no evidence for these abilities. We conclude that water shrews detect motion, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. The short latency of attacks to water movements suggests shrews may use a flush-pursuit strategy to capture some prey. PMID:18184804

  4. Ticks of four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on ticks infesting small mammals, including elephant shrews, have been conducted in South Africa; however, these studies have included only a single four-toed elephant shrew and no hedgehogs. This study thus aimed to identify and quantify the ixodid ticks infesting four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs. Four-toed elephant shrews (Petrodromus tetradactylus were trapped in dense shrub undergrowth in a nature reserve in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. They were separately housed, first in cages and later in glass terraria fitted with wire-mesh bases to allow detached ticks to fall through for collection. Southern African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis were hand caught on a farm in the eastern region of the Northern Cape Province and all visible ticks were collected by means of tweezers while the animals were anaesthetised. The ticks from each animal were preserved separately in 70% ethanol for later identification and counting. The immature stages of five ixodid tick species were collected from the elephant shrews, of which Rhipicephalus muehlensi was the most common. It has not been recorded previously on any species of elephant shrew. Three ixodid tick species were collected from the hedgehogs. Large numbers of adult Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, which has not been encountered previously on hedgehogs, were collected from these animals. Four-toed elephant shrews are good hosts of the larvae and nymphs of R. muehlensi, and Southern African hedgehogs are good hosts of adult H. colesbergensis.

  5. Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C; Hare, James F; Campbell, Kevin L

    2008-01-15

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important cue used to detect active or escaping prey. They also bit, retrieved, and attempted to eat model fish made of silicone in preference to other silicone objects showing that tactile cues are important in the absence of movement. In addition, water shrews preferentially sniffed model prey fish and crickets underwater by exhaling and reinhaling air through the nostrils, suggesting olfaction plays an important role in aquatic foraging. The possibility of echolocation, sonar, or electroreception was investigated by testing for ultrasonic and audible calls above and below water and by presenting electric fields to foraging shrews. We found no evidence for these abilities. We conclude that water shrews detect motion, shape, and smell to find prey underwater. The short latency of attacks to water movements suggests shrews may use a flush-pursuit strategy to capture some prey.

  6. Yersinia spp. in Wild Rodents and Shrews in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Korkeala, Hannu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.

  7. Motor Function in MPTP-Treated Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai-Li; Gao, Jia-Hong; Huang, Zhang-Qiong; Zhang, Ying; Kuang, De-Xuan; Jiang, Qin-Fang; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Cong; Wang, Wen-Guang; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Juan; Tong, Pin-Fen; Yin, Xing-Xiao; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2013-06-25

    The tree shrew, a new experimental animal model, has been used to study a variety of diseases, especially diseases of the nervous system. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is the gold standard for toxin-based animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) because MPTP treatment replicates almost all of the pathological hallmarks of PD. Therefore, in this study, the effects of MPTP on the motor function of the tree shrew were examined. After five daily injections of a 3 mg/kg dose of MPTP, the motor function of MPTP-injected tree shrews decreased significantly, and the classic Parkinsonian symptoms of action and resting tremor, bradykinesia, posture abnormalities, and gait instability were observed in most MPTP-injected tree shrews. HPLC results also showed significantly reduced striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in tree shrews after MPTP injection. Increased oxidative stress levels are usually considered to be the cause of dopaminergic neuron depletion in the presence of MPTP and were observed in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated tree shrews, as indicated by a significant reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity and increased levels of malondialdehyde. In addition, elevated α-synuclein mRNA levels in the midbrain of MPTP-treated tree shrews were observed. Furthermore, MPTP-treated tree shrews showed the classic Parkinsonian symptoms at a lower MPTP dosage compared with other animal models. Thus, the MPTP-treated tree shrew may be a potential animal model for studying the pathogenesis of PD.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_javan...ica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javan...ica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  9. The formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Shujiang eShang; Cong eWang; Chengbin eGuo; Xu eHuang; Liecheng eWang; Chen eZhang

    2015-01-01

    Fear is an emotion that is well studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental p...

  10. Malignant catarrhal fever virus identified in free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    To study the epizootiology of malignant catarrhal fever viruses (MCFV), sera and spleen samples collected in 2004-2011 from a free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population in Dovrefjell, Norway, were examined. Sera were tested for antibodies against MCFV by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbe...

  11. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  12. Removal of two polycyclic musks in sewage treatment plants: Freely dissolved and total concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the removal of slowly degradable hydrophobic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been evaluated with emphasis on the combination of free and total concentration data. Free and total concentrations of two polycyclic musks were determined in each compartment of four S

  13. Structure and function of the feeding apparatus in the common musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus (Chelonia, Kinosternidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natchev, N.; Heiss, E.; Singer, K.; Kummer, S.; Salaberger, D.; Weisgram, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the kinematic patterns of initial food uptake, food transport, pharyngeal packing and swallowing in the common musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus. These data are supplemented by morphological descriptions of the skull and the hyolingual complex. Although the hyoid is mainly

  14. Removal of two polycyclic musks in sewage treatment plants: Freely dissolved and total concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the removal of slowly degradable hydrophobic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been evaluated with emphasis on the combination of free and total concentration data. Free and total concentrations of two polycyclic musks were determined in each compartment of four

  15. Occurrence and transport of synthetic musks in paired maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Jing, Ye; Ma, Li; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

    2015-01-01

    Although early exposure to environmental pollutants may have important toxicological consequences, the mechanisms of transplacental transfer of synthetic musks are still not well understood. The objective of the present study was to learn the musk contaminations in three matrices, including maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk; and investigate their placental transfer mechanisms. The concentrations of eight commonly used synthetic musks were measured in 42 paired samples (126 individual samples in total) of maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and breast milk from Chinese women living in Shanghai. Musks were ubiquitously detected, especially galaxolide (HHCB) and musk xylene (MX). The total lipid-based concentrations were higher in umbilical cord sera (87.3ng/g), but lower in breast milk (35.2ng/g), compared with maternal serum concentrations (71.2ng/g). There were significant correlations between maternal serum concentrations of HHCBs (HHCB and HHCB-lactone) and umbilical cord serum concentrations, and between maternal serum concentrations and breast milk concentrations (Spearman's rho=0.338-0.597, pumbilical cord sera were >1. And the HHCB-lactone/HHCB ratio in maternal sera was higher compared with umbilical cord sera. Contamination levels were low compared with other regions and HHCBs were found to be the predominant constituents. No regional differences or age-related accumulations were observed. Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to HHCBs occurs and that transplacental transfer is the main route of exposure. Preferential accumulation in umbilical cord blood was observed. The results showed that transplacental transfer of HHCB did not correspond to passive diffusion since the transfer ratios were significantly different from 1. The transfer ratio for HHCB was also larger than that of HHCB-lactone, although HHCB has higher lipid solubility. Low fetal metabolism of HHCB was suggested by the HHCB-lactone/HHCB ratio in maternal and

  16. EXPRESSION OF ras GENE IN EXPERIMENTAL HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS IN TREE SHREWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAN Ke-chen; SU Jian-jia; YANG Chun; QIN Liu-liang; LI Yuan; HUANG Guo-hua; LUO Xiao-ling; DUAN Xiao-xian; YAN Rui-qi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the relationship between the expression of ras gene and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: The experimental tree shrews were divided into four groups: group A, infected human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); group B, infected human HBV alone; group C, only exposed to AFB1; group D, use as controls. The serial bioptic liver tissues were detected for ras p21 protein using immunohistochemical method. Results: The total p21protein positive rates in group A, B, C and D were 35.3%, 5.3%, 13.3%, 0, respectively, thus the significant difference were showed between group A and group B (P<0.05); The HCC incidences in group A, B, C and D were 47.1%, 0, 13.3%, 0, respectively, and there was a significant difference between group A and C (P<0.05).The incidences of HCC in the animals with and without p21 protein positive in group A were 100% and 18.2%,respectively, and there was a significant difference among them (P<0.01). Conclusion: HBV and AFB1 play a remarkable synergistic role in the development of HCC; they can enhance the expression of ras gene. The over-expression of ras gene is closely related to pathogenesis of HCC in tree shrews.

  17. Plasmid DNA Analysis of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Musk Deer%麝致病性大肠杆菌的质粒DNA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗燕; 程建国; 郑士华; 赵翠; 李蓓; 李敏

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer was classified at molecular level to provide basic materials for molecular epidemiology of pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer. [Method] Plasmids from 24 pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer were extracted by the Lysis Triton method, and then identified by single enzyme digestion with three endonucleases of Hind Ⅲ, EcoR Ⅰ and BamH Ⅰ. [Result] The yield rate of plasmids was 91.6%, and 24 pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer had the identical or similar plasmid profiles. [Conclusion] Plasmid DNA analysis offers scientific basis for molecular epidemiology of pathogenic Escherichia coli in musk deer in Sichuan Institute of Musk Deer Breeding.

  18. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liu-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews.

  19. Role of photoperiod on hormone concentrations and adaptive capacity in tree shrews, Tupaia belangeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Wanlong; Wang, Zhengkun

    2012-11-01

    Environmental factors, such as photoperiod and temperature, play an important role in the regulation of an animal's physiology and behavior. In the present study, we examined the effects of short photoperiod (SD, 8L:16D) on body mass as well as on several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical measures indicative of thermogenic capacity, to test our hypothesis that short photoperiod stimulates increases thermogenic capacity and energy intake in tree shrews. At the end, these tree shrews (SD) had a significant higher body mass, energy intake, cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content, serum tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) compared to LD (16L:8D) tree shrews. However, there were no significant differences in serum leptin and melatonin between the two groups. Together, these data suggest tree shrews employ a strategy of maximizing body growth and increasing energy intake in response to cues associated with short photoperiod.

  20. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-lin Xiong; Zhi-wei Chen; Ting-hua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promotein vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, lfuorescence mi-croscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These ifndings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews.

  1. The M1 muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine reduces myopia and eye enlargement in the tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottriall, C L; McBrien, N A

    1996-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, in preventing experimentally induced myopia in a mammalian model, the tree shrew. Tree shrews were monocularly deprived (MD) using translucent goggles or negative lenses for a period of 12 days. In two of the MD groups, tree shrews received daily subconjunctival administration of either pirenzepine (17.7 mumol; n = 9) or vehicle control (n = 6). Control groups (n = 6) were used to assess the effects of MD, injection regimen, and drug effects. In sham-injected and saline-injected MD tree shrews, 12 days of MD produced-13.2 D +/- 0.8 D and -14.1 D +/- 0.5 D of axial myopia, respectively. In pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews, 12 days of MD induced an axial myopia of only -2.1 D +/- 1.4 D. The significant reduction in myopia in pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation of the deprived eye (0.05 mm +/- 0.04 mm) relative to the contralateral control eye when compared to sham-injected and saline-injected MD tree shrews (0.24 mm +/- 0.02 mm and 0.29 mm +/- 0.01 mm). Mean equatorial enlargement and increased eye weight were prevented in pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews (P Pirenzepine also was found to reduce myopia and ocular enlargement in lens defocus-induced myopia. Control experiments demonstrated that pirenzepine did not cause a significant reduction in amplitude of carbachol-induced accommodation. Findings demonstrate that chronic administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, prevents experimentally induced myopia in this mammalian model by a nonaccommodative mechanism.

  2. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers and hippocampal subfield volumes in behaviorally characterized aged tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuker, Jeanine I H; de Biurrun, Gabriel; Luiten, Paul G M; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2004-01-19

    Aging is associated with a decreased ability to store and retrieve information. The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in such memory processes, and its integrity is affected during normal aging. We used tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) as an animal model of aging, because in many characteristics, tree shrews are closer to primates than they are to rodents. Young and aged male tree shrews performed a holeboard spatial memory task, which permits assessment of reference and working memory. Upon completion of the behavioral measurements, we carried out modified stereological analyses of neuronal numbers in various subdivisions of the hippocampus and used the Cavalieri method to calculate the volumes of these subfields. Results showed that the working memory of aged tree shrews was significantly impaired compared with that of young animals, whereas the hippocampus-dependent reference memory remained unchanged by aging. Estimation of the number of neurons revealed preserved neuron numbers in the subiculum, in the subregions CA1, CA2, CA3, and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. Volume measurements showed no aging-related changes in the volume of any of these hippocampal subregions, or in the molecular and granule cell layers of the dentate gyrus of tree shrews. We conclude that the observed changes in memory performance in aging tree shrews are not accompanied by observable reductions of hippocampal neuron numbers or hippocampal volume, rather, the changes in memory performance are more likely the result of modified subcellular mechanisms that are affected by the aging process.

  3. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants: perspectives and avenues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Charles; Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified "toilet pitchers" that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with faeces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Faeces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews, and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species.

  4. The tree shrews: adjuncts and alternatives to primates as models for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J; Yang, E-B; Su, J-J; Li, Y; Chow, P

    2003-06-01

    The tree shrews are non-rodent, primate-like, small animals. There is increasing interest in using them to establish animal models for medical and biological research. This review focuses on the use of the tree shrews in in vivo studies on viral hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), myopia, and psychosocial stress. Because of the susceptibility of the tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) and their hepatocytes to infection with human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vivo and in vitro, these animals have been used to establish human hepatitis virus-induced hepatitis and human HBV- and aflatoxin B1-associated HCC models. As these animals are phylogenetically close to primates in evolution and have a well-developed visual system and color vision in some species, they have been utilized to establish myopia models. Because dramatic behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine changes in subordinate male tree shrews are similar to those observed in depressed human patients, the tree shrews have been successfully employed to experimentally study psychosocial stress. However, the tree shrews holds significant promise as research models and great use could be made of these animals in biomedical research.

  5. Alternative exon usage creates novel transcript variants of tumor suppressor SHREW-1 gene with differential tissue expression profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemmt, Petra A. B.; Resch, Eduard; Smyrek, Isabell; Engels, Knut; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shrew-1, also called AJAP1, is a transmembrane protein associated with E-cadherin-mediated adherence junctions and a putative tumor suppressor. Apart from its interaction with β-catenin and involvement in E-cadherin internalization, little structure or function information exists. Here we explored shrew-1 expression during postnatal differentiation of mammary gland as a model system. Immunohistological analyses with antibodies against either the extracellular or the cytoplasmic domains of shrew-1 consistently revealed the expression of full-length shrew-1 in myoepithelial cells, but only part of it in luminal cells. While shrew-1 localization remained unaltered in myoepithelial cells, nuclear localization occurred in luminal cells during lactation. Based on these observations, we identified two unknown shrew-1 transcript variants encoding N-terminally truncated proteins. The smallest shrew-1 protein lacks the extracellular domain and is most likely the only variant present in luminal cells. RNA analyses of human tissues confirmed that the novel transcript variants of shrew-1 exist in vivo and exhibit a differential tissue expression profile. We conclude that our findings are essential for the understanding and interpretation of future functional and interactome analyses of shrew-1 variants. PMID:27870635

  6. HABITAT SUITABILITY MODELING FOR EXPLORATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF KASHMIR MUSK DEER IN DACHIGAM NATIONAL PARK, KASHMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musk deer are highly important as a medicinal species that are severely exploited throughout their range of occurrence due to the medicinal value of the musk produced only by the male individuals. Methods used for studying the populations and distributions of other ungulates do not work well with musk deer and the presence of a unified methodology for studying musk deer appear to be lacking worldwide. Therefore, the development of a simple predictive model for studying the distribution of the musk deer habitats stands as an important task to be accomplished. Two kinds of research questions were pursued during the present study-examining through field research what kind of habitat musk deer used and mapping the habitat in the park using a GIS and remote sensing environment. The parameters which were found to have a profound influence in predicting the species’s spatial distribution have been used in the modeling of the current habitat suitability for the Kashmir musk deer (Moschus cupreus. The study was conducted at the upper reaches (elevations 2200 m and above of the Dachigam National Park, Kashmir (34°05΄18.40΄΄N-34°06΄04.69΄΄N and 75°03΄32.05΄΄E-75°04΄27.26΄΄E during January 2005-January 2008 to evaluate the characteristics of the musk deer habitats. The environmental attributes which were found to have a profound influence in predicting the species’s spatial distribution included the slope exposures in the range of 293°Northwest -68° Northeast, slope gradients of 25-40° and elevations of 2100 m and above, with the preference ratings of aspect > slope > elevation and, therefore, were considered for the development of the habitat suitability model for prediction of the spatial distribution of the Kashmir musk deer. The current suitable musk deer habitat in Dachigam National Park is estimated in the extent of about 40 sq. km. (~28% area of the national

  7. Surgical anatomy of the innervation of pylorus in human and Suncus murinus, in relation to surgical technique for pylorus- preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-Qin Yi; Shigenori Tanaka; Masahiro Itoh; Fei Ru; Tetsuo Ohta; Hayato Terayama; Munekazu Naito; Shogo Hayashi; Sichen Buhe; Nozomi Yi; Takayoshi Miyaki

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the innervation of the antro-pyloric region in humans from a dinico-anatomical perspective.METHODS: The stomach, duodenum and surrounding structures were dissected in 10 cadavers, and immersed in a 10mg/L solution of alizarin red S in ethanol to stain the peripheral nerves. The distribution details were studied to confirm innervations in the above areas using a binocular microscope. Similarly, innervations in 10Suncus murinus were examined using the method of whole-mount im munohistochemistry.RESULTS: The innervation of the pyloric region in humans involved three routes: One arose from the anterior hepatic plexus via the route of the suprapyloric/supraduodenal branch of the right gastric artery; the second arose from the anterior and posterior gastric divisions, and the third originated from the posteriorlower region of the pyloric region, which passed via the infrapyloric artery or retroduodenal branches and was related to the gastroduodenal artery and right gastroepiploic artery. For Suncus murinus, results similar to those in humans were observed.CONCLUSION: There are three routes of innervation of the pyloric region in humans, wherein the route of the right gastric artery is most important for preserving pyloric region innervation. Function will be preserved by more than 80% by preserving the artery in pyloruspreserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). However,the route of the infrapyloric artery should not be disregarded. This route is related to several arteries (the right gastroepiploic and gastroduodenal arteries),and the preserving of these arteries is advantageous for preserving pyloric innervation in PPPD. Concurrently,the nerves of Latarjet also play an important role in maintaining innervation of the antro-pyloric region in PPPD. This is why pyloric function is not damaged in some patients when the right gastric artery is dissected or damaged in PPPD.

  8. Surgical anatomy of the innervation of pylorus in human and Suncus murinus, in relation to surgical technique for pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuang-Qin; Ru, Fei; Ohta, Tetsuo; Terayama, Hayato; Naito, Munekazu; Hayashi, Shogo; Buhe, Sichen; Yi, Nozomi; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Shigenori; Itoh, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the innervation of the antro-pyloric region in humans from a clinico-anatomical perspective. METHODS: The stomach, duodenum and surrounding structures were dissected in 10 cadavers, and immersed in a 10mg/L solution of alizarin red S in ethanol to stain the peripheral nerves. The distribution details were studied to confirm innervations in the above areas using a binocular microscope. Similarly, innervations in 10 Suncus murinus were examined using the method of whole-mount immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The innervation of the pyloric region in humans involved three routes: One arose from the anterior hepatic plexus via the route of the suprapyloric/supraduodenal branch of the right gastric artery; the second arose from the anterior and posterior gastric divisions, and the third originated from the posterior-lower region of the pyloric region, which passed via the infrapyloric artery or retroduodenal branches and was related to the gastroduodenal artery and right gastroepiploic artery. For Suncus murinus, results similar to those in humans were observed. CONCLUSION: There are three routes of innervation of the pyloric region in humans, wherein the route of the right gastric artery is most important for preserving pyloric region innervation. Function will be preserved by more than 80% by preserving the artery in pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). However, the route of the infrapyloric artery should not be disregarded. This route is related to several arteries (the right gastroepiploic and gastroduodenal arteries), and the preserving of these arteries is advantageous for preserving pyloric innervation in PPPD. Concurrently, the nerves of Latarjat also play an important role in maintaining innervation of the antro-pyloric region in PPPD. This is why pyloric function is not damaged in some patients when the right gastric artery is dissected or damaged in PPPD. PMID:16610023

  9. Wild rodents and shrews are natural hosts of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Daniel M; Schulz, Daniel; Fischer, Stefan; Jeske, Kathrin; El Gohary, Heba; Reil, Daniela; Imholt, Christian; Trübe, Patricia; Suchomel, Josef; Tricaud, Emilie; Jacob, Jens; Heroldová, Marta; Bröker, Barbara M; Strommenger, Birgit; Walther, Birgit; Ulrich, Rainer G; Holtfreter, Silva

    2017-09-22

    Laboratory mice are the most commonly used animal model for Staphylococcus aureus infection studies. We have previously shown that laboratory mice from global vendors are frequently colonized with S. aureus. Laboratory mice originate from wild house mice. Hence, we investigated whether wild rodents, including house mice, as well as shrews are naturally colonized with S. aureus and whether S. aureus adapts to the wild animal host. 295 animals of ten different species were caught in different locations over four years (2012-2015) in Germany, France and the Czech Republic. 45 animals were positive for S. aureus (15.3%). Three animals were co-colonized with two different isolates, resulting in 48 S. aureus isolates in total. Positive animals were found in Germany and the Czech Republic in each studied year. The S. aureus isolates belonged to ten different spa types, which grouped into six lineages (clonal complex (CC) 49, CC88, CC130, CC1956, sequence type (ST) 890, ST3033). CC49 isolates were most abundant (17/48, 35.4%), followed by CC1956 (14/48, 29.2%) and ST890 (9/48, 18.8%). The wild animal isolates lacked certain properties that are common among human isolates, e.g., a phage-encoded immune evasion cluster, superantigen genes on mobile genetic elements and antibiotic resistance genes, which suggests long-term adaptation to the wild animal host. One CC130 isolate contained the mecC gene, implying wild rodents might be both reservoir and vector for methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In conclusion, we demonstrated that wild rodents and shrews are naturally colonized with S. aureus, and that those S. aureus isolates show signs of host adaptation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benth

  11. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two

  12. Composition and function of haemolymphatic tissues in the European common shrew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Bray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of wild animals responding to their native parasites are essential if we are to understand how the immune system functions in the natural environment. While immune defence may bring increased survival, this may come at a resource cost to other physiological traits, including reproduction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that wild common shrews (Sorex araneus, which produce large numbers of offspring during the one breeding season of their short life span, forgo investment in immunity and immune system maintenance, as increased longevity is unlikely to bring further opportunities for mating. In particular, we predicted that adult shrews, with shorter expected lifespans, would not respond as effectively as young animals to infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined haemolymphatic tissues from wild-caught common shrews using light and transmission electron microscopy, applied in conjunction with immunohistology. We compared composition and function of these tissues in shrews of different ages, and the extent and type of inflammatory reactions observed in response to natural parasitic infections. All ages seemed able to mount systemic, specific immune responses, but adult shrews showed some signs of lymphatic tissue exhaustion: lymphatic follicles in adults (n = 21 were both smaller than those in sub-adults (n = 18; Wald = 11.1, p<0.05 and exhibited greater levels of depletion (Wald = 13.3, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to our expectations, shrews respond effectively to their natural parasites, and show little indication of immunosenescence as adults. The pancreas of Aselli, a unique lymphoid organ, may aid in providing efficient immune responses through the storage of large numbers of plasma cells. This may allow older animals to react effectively to previously encountered parasites, but infection by novel agents, and eventual depletion of plasma cell reserves, could both still be factors in the near

  13. Cloning and characterization of cholesteryl ester transfer protein isolated from the tree shrew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾武威; 张坚; 陈保生; 吴钢; 薛红

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveTo obtain the nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) cDNA from the tree shrew (Tupaia glis). MethodsThe cDNA sequence of the tree shrew CETP was obtained by utilizing the techniqueof switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript (SMART) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) from the first strand of the cDNA. The amino acidsequence of CETP was deduced from the cDNA sequence and its primary and secondary structures were predicted. ResultsThe sequence of CETP cDNA from tree shrew (GenBank accession number AF334033) covers 1636 bp, including 178 bp at the 3' end of the untranslated region anda 1458 bp fragment in a coding region, which provides the complete sequence of mature tree shrew CETP, although not the initiator methionine. The first 24 bp encodes a partial signal peptide. The mature protein consists of 477 amino acids and is longer than the human version by one amino acid (Gly318). Comparing this amino acid sequence with those of other animals' CETPs, the identity between tree shrew and human and rabbit CETP is 88% and 82%, respectively. The protein is extremely hydrophobic as it contains many hydrophobic residues, especially at the C-terminal, consistent with its function in the transfer of neutral lipids. The amino acid residues concerning with binding and transferringneutral lipids are highly conserved. There is a deletion of an N-linked glycosylation site at Asn342 in the tree shrew CETP protein that may participate in the removal of peripheral cholesterol and cholesteryl ester by increasing its activity of transferring cholesteryl ester. ConclusionThe possible glycosylation in the tree shrew CETP may be involved in the molecular mechanism of its insusceptibility to atherosclerosis.

  14. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Czajka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g and another group (5 F, 3 M on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g. Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01. Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01. Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087. Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards.

  15. Superb winter fur insulation in the small Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the morphology and thermal characteristics of winter pelage from two Siberian musk deer Moschus moschiferus (aged 5 and 41 mo.; 5.7 and 9.5 kg and two Eurasian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus (aged >48 mo.; 73 and 79 kg.  The depth of the fur over the back of musk deer was less (approximately 30 mm than in reindeer (approximately 40 mm.  Guard hairs of musk deer were longer (mean = 50.0 mm and had greater diameter at half-length (mean = 314.4 μm than those of reindeer (mean = 38.6mm and = 243.9 μm, respectively.  The thermal characteristics (thermal conductivity and resistance of the winter pelage of the two species were nevertheless similar (0.057 W·m-1·K-1 and 0.79 K·m2·W-1; and 0.037 W·m-1 ·K-1 and 1.00 K·m2·W-1, respectively despite a tenfold difference in their body mass.

  16. Relationship Between Behavioral Frequency and Reproductive Potential of Female Alpine Musk Deer in Captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Between June 2005 and February 2006, focal sampling and all occurrence behavior recording were used to quantify the behavioral patterns of captive female alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu Province, China. Copulation success was used to differentiate individuals into two groups (successful and unsuccessful) and to provide a basis for behavioral comparisons, throughout both mating (rut) and non mating seasons. The results indicated significant differences between the behavior patterns of successful and unsuccessful females; however, the reproductive season played an important environmental factor. Pooling results across reproductive seasons, successfully copulating females showed significantly higher frequencies of vigilance and lower frequency of feeding behavior as compared with unsuccessfully copulating females. In the non-mating season, unsuccessfully copulating females had higher frequency of self-directed behavior, environment sniffing, and were less aggressive than successful copulating females. Furthermore, females who were successful at copulating also demonstrated tail-pasting behavior; however, this only occurred during the rut season. The results of this study can improve management practices for musk deer farms through increasing mating success and reducing maintenance costs. Furthermore, variation in behavior may also be used as a predictor of copulation success and reproductive potential, whereby females can be grouped and separated according to their reproductive history and past reproduction success.

  17. Long lasting perfume--a review of synthetic musks in WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Silva, José Avelino; Ratola, Nuno; Santos, Lúcia; Alves, Arminda

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic musks have been used for a long time in personal care and household products. In recent years, this continuous input has increased considerably, to the point that they were recognized as emerging pollutants by the scientific community, due to their persistence in the environment, and hazardous potential to ecosystems even at low concentrations. The number of studies in literature describing their worldwide presence in several environmental matrices is growing, and many of them indicate that the techniques employed for their safe removal tend to be ineffective. This is the case of conventional activated sludge treatment plants (WWTPs), where considerable loads of synthetic musks enter mainly through domestic sewage. This review paper compiles and discusses the occurrence of these compounds in the sewage, effluents and sludge, main concentration levels and phase distributions, as well as the efficiency of the different methodologies of removal applied in these treatment facilities. To the present day, it has been demonstrated that WWTPs lack the ability to remove musks completely. This shows a clear need to develop new effective and cost-efficient remediation approaches and foresees potential for further improvements in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polycyclic musks in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, W M; Murphy, M B; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    Six polycyclic musk compounds [Cashmeran (DPMI), Celestolide (ADBI), Phantolide (AHMI), Traseolide (ATII), Tonalide (AHTN), and Galaxolide (HHCB)] were analysed in marine green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) from Hong Kong. ADBI, HHCB and AHTN were detected in almost all samples, while AHMI, ATII and DPMI were not detected. Concentrations of ADBI, HHCB and AHTN in mussels ranged from below detection limit-0.0743 (mean: 0.0246), 0.247-6.08 (mean: 1.15) and 0.0591-0.738 (mean: 0.190)mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. Mussels from two sampling sites in central Victoria Harbour contained the highest total polycyclic musk levels, suggesting that these waters are heavily influenced by domestic sewage. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN detected in the mussel samples were the second highest and the highest levels, respectively, compared to global concentrations. A preliminary risk assessment indicated that HHCB and AHTN in mussels pose little or no threat to the health of shellfish consumers. Nevertheless, more comprehensive studies are required to further assess the ecological and human health risks associated with polycyclic musks.

  19. The occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Naiyuan; Gao, Fudie; Wu, Yongning; Xiang, Jie; Shao, Bing

    2012-05-01

    Human breast milk samples collected from mothers (n=110) who lived in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, southwestern China in 2009 were analyzed to determine the concentrations of 13 musk compounds. Possible relationships between musk concentrations and some personal characteristics were also studied. Only five target analytes were detected in the milk samples analyzed, with median concentration values of 16.5, 11.5, 7.85, hair conditioners, hair dyes and hair gels had significantly elevated milk concentrations of HHCB whereas elevated milk concentrations of AHTN were observed among mothers reporting high use of body-cleaning agents, body lotions, shampoos, hair dyes and hair gels. Younger age showed a significantly positive effect on milk concentrations of both HHCB and AHTN whereas BMI after delivery, the number of children nursed and place of residence (urban or rural) had no significant effect. The estimated median daily intakes of synthetic musks for breast-fed infants were considerably lower than the current provisional tolerable daily intake amounts suggested for adults.

  20. Structural basis of agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Yinong; Zhang, Bin; Gu, Shenyan; Lee, Kwangkook; Zhou, Jie; Yao, Guorui; Figueiredo, Dwight; Perry, Kay; Mei, Lin; Jin, Rongsheng [Cornell; (GSHU); (Sanford-Burnham)

    2012-06-27

    Synapses are the fundamental units of neural circuits that enable complex behaviors. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a synapse formed between a motoneuron and a muscle fiber, has contributed greatly to understanding of the general principles of synaptogenesis as well as of neuromuscular disorders. NMJ formation requires neural agrin, a motoneuron-derived protein, which interacts with LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) to activate the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle-specific kinase). However, little is known of how signals are transduced from agrin to MuSK. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an agrin-LRP4 complex, consisting of two agrin-LRP4 heterodimers. Formation of the initial binary complex requires the z8 loop that is specifically present in neuronal, but not muscle, agrin and that promotes the synergistic formation of the tetramer through two additional interfaces. We show that the tetrameric complex is essential for neuronal agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering. Collectively, these results provide new insight into the agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling cascade and NMJ formation and represent a novel mechanism for activation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

  1. Telemetric Study of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Homeostasis in the Day-Active Tree Shrew Tupaia belangeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Alex; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Barf, R. Paulien; Fuchs, Eberhard; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study the authors characterized sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, a small, omnivorous, day-active mammal that is closely related to primates. Design: Adult tree shrews were individually housed under a 12-hr light/12-hr dark cycle

  2. Telemetric Study of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Homeostasis in the Day-Active Tree Shrew Tupaia belangeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Alex; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Barf, R. Paulien; Fuchs, Eberhard; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study the authors characterized sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, a small, omnivorous, day-active mammal that is closely related to primates. Design: Adult tree shrews were individually housed under a 12-hr light/12-hr dark cycle

  3. Microgeographical distribution of shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) in the Congo River basin (Kisangani, D.R. Congo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    Research on the biodiversity of shrews was conducted in eight forest blocks at eight sampling localities: Djabir, Maiko, Masako, Yoko, Yelenge, Baliko, Bomane-1 and Bomane-2. We used pitfall traps combined with Sherman LFA traps placed on transects. We collected 724 shrews from primary forests, s...

  4. [Analysis of the molecular characteristics and cloning of full-length coding sequence of interleukin-2 in tree shrews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ming-Li; Xu, Juan; Gao, Yue-Dong; Wang, Wen-Guang; Yin, An-Guo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xia, Xue-Shan; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2013-04-01

    While the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an excellent animal model for studying the mechanisms of human diseases, but few studies examine interleukin-2 (IL-2), an important immune factor in disease model evaluation. In this study, a 465 bp of the full-length IL-2 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from the RNA of tree shrew spleen lymphocytes, which were then cultivated and stimulated with ConA (concanavalin). Clustal W 2.0 was used to compare and analyze the sequence and molecular characteristics, and establish the similarity of the overall structure of IL-2 between tree shrews and other mammals. The homology of the IL-2 nucleotide sequence between tree shrews and humans was 93%, and the amino acid homology was 80%. The phylogenetic tree results, derived through the Neighbour-Joining method using MEGA5.0, indicated a close genetic relationship between tree shrews, Homo sapiens, and Macaca mulatta. The three-dimensional structure analysis showed that the surface charges in most regions of tree shrew IL-2 were similar to between tree shrews and humans; however, the N-glycosylation sites and local structures were different, which may affect antibody binding. These results provide a fundamental basis for the future study of IL-2 monoclonal antibody in tree shrews, thereby improving their utility as a model.

  5. The identity of the enigmatic "Black Shrew" (Sorex niger Ord, 1815)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The scientific name Sorex niger Ord, 1815 (Mammalia, Soricidae) was originally applied to a North American species that George Ord called the “Black Shrew.” The origin of the name “Black Shrew,” however, was obscure, and Samuel Rhoads subsequently wrote that the species represented by this name could not be determined. The names Sorex niger Ord and Black Shrew have since been mostly forgotten. Two of Ord's contemporaries, however, noted that Ord's use of these names probably alluded to Benjamin Smith Barton's Black Shrew, whose discovery near Philadelphia was announced by Barton in 1806. Examination of two unpublished illustrations of the Black Shrew made by Barton indicates that the animal depicted is Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1822). Had the connection between Ord's and Barton's names been made more clearly, one of the most common mammals in eastern North America would bear a different scientific name today. This connection also would have affected the validity of Sorex niger Horsfield, 1851. While Sorex niger Ord remains a nomen nudum, the animal it referenced can now be identified.

  6. Drug target mining and analysis of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    Full Text Available The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research.

  7. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong LIU; Yong-Gang YAO

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small experimental animal with a close affinity to primates.This species has long been proposed to be an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research.Despite decades of study,there is no pure breed for this animal,and the overall genetic diversity of wild tree shrews remains largely unknown.In order to obtain a set of genetic markers for evaluating the genetic diversity of tree shrew wild populations and tracing the lineages in inbreeding populations,we developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the genomic DNA of the tree shrew.An analysis of a wild population of 117 individuals collected from the suburb of Kunming,China,showed that these loci exhibited a highly expected heterozygosity (0.616).These 12 microsatellites were sufficient for individual identification and parentage analysis.The microsatellite markers developed in this study will be of use in evaluating genetic diversity and lineage tracing for the tree shrew.

  8. Protection of tree shrews by pVAX-PS DNA vaccine against HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng-Juan; Hu, Zhen-Lin; Dai, Jian-Xin; Chen, Rui-Wen; Shi, Ke; Lin, Yi; Sun, Shu-Han

    2003-07-01

    The immunological protection of pVAX-PS, a DNA vaccine, was assessed in the tree shrews model. pVAX-PS was constructed by inserting the gene encoding the middle (pre-S2 plus S) envelope protein of HBV into a plasmid vector pVAX1. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinenesis) were experimentally infected with human HBV by inoculation with human serum positive for HBV markers. DNA vaccination-induced seroconversion and antibody to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) were analyzed by ELISA, and protective effects elicited by pVAX-PS vaccination against subsequent HBV challenge were evaluated by detection of HBV seromarkers and observation of hepatic lesions in HBV-infected tree shrews. The results shown that anti-HBs were detectable in serum at week 2 after pVAX-PS vaccination and peaked at week 4, and immunization with pVAX-PS decreased the positive conversion rate of HBV seromarkers and relieved hepatic lesions in tree shrews challenged with HBV. These results indicated that pVAX-PS immunization could induce remarkable humoral immune response and prevent the experimental tree shrews from infection of HBV.

  9. Influence of anthropogenic transformation of the forest ecosystems in Easten Fennoscandia on the populations of pygmy and masked shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanter Ernest

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the long-term (1965-2013 stationary and expedition studies in the Easten Fennoscandia, different species of shrews react differently to clear-cutting and the formation of transformed anthropogenic landscape. The dominant species (common shrew increases in the number in these conditions, however, the population becomes unstable, and the number fluctuates severely from year to year and from season to season (Kurhinen et al., 2006, but the other species - pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus L. and masked shrew (Sorex caecutiens Laxm. – respond to these changes otherwise. The first one reduces in the number, especially in highly transformed habitats, but in general, its populations acquire the necessary stability and sustainability, while the masked shrew is affected by the massive lumbering negatively. Nevertheless, the latter is regularly found in the newly formed coniferous plantations emerging after the radical forest devastation.

  10. Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

    2012-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of "tuning," notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima.

  11. Relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Chang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zou, X; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Lv, L; Liang, B

    2013-12-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. Despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. Based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have significantly higher body weight and fasting blood glucose concentration than female tree shrews (p < 0.001). The concentration of fasting blood glucose slightly increased with body weight in males (r = 0.152, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in females, the body weight, concentration of fasting blood glucose and waist circumference positively increased with age (p < 0.001). Additionally, 17 tree shrews with Lee index [body weight (g)*0.33*1000/body length (cm)] above 290 had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than non-obese tree shrews with a Lee index score below 290 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, 6 of 992 tree shrews (three males and three females, 2-4 years old) displayed impaired plasma triglycerides, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein and oral glucose tolerance test, suggestive of the early symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study provides the first clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews, further improving our understanding of this relationship in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the similarity of tree shrews to humans and non-human primates, this finding supports their potential use as an animal model in the research of MetS.

  12. How tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) perform in a searching task: evidence for strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomucci, A; de Biurrun, G; Fuchs, E

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated how male tree shrews (Tupaia belangen) performed in a searching task while in their home cages and assessed whether different food distributions affected their performance. The animals were faced with a holeboard containing 9 food sources arranged in a 3 x 3 matrix or in 3 clusters, each containing 3 sources. Animals tended to start and end the trials from preferred locations, thereafter solving the task by strategically organizing the reward collection according to a minimum-distance principle. In the cluster configuration, they visited the sources hierarchically. Food distribution did not affect the performance. Comparison with data from mice and capuchin monkeys revealed that tree shrews and capuchins solved the task in a similar strategic way, whereas mice did not. These findings attract particular attention because of the phylogenetic position of tree shrews, which are regarded as closely related to primates.

  13. Experimental infection of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) with Coxsackie virus A16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Ping; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Li-Chun; Feng, Kai; Li, Qi-Han; Liu, Long-Ding

    2014-11-18

    Coxsackie virus A16 (CA16) is commonly recognized as one of the main human pathogens of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). The clinical manifestations of HFMD include vesicles of hand, foot and mouth in young children and severe inflammatory CNS lesions. In this study, experimentally CA16 infected tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were used to investigate CA16 pathogenesis. The results showed that both the body temperature and the percentages of blood neutrophilic granulocytes / monocytes of CA16 infected tree shrews increased at 4-7 days post infection. Dynamic distributions of CA16 in different tissues and stools were found at different infection stages. Moreover, the pathological changes in CNS and other organs were also observed. These findings indicate that tree shrews can be used as a viable animal model to study CA16 infection.

  14. New records of Merriam’s Shrew (Sorex merriami) from western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. J.Shaughnessy Jr.,; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Despite having a broad geographic distribution, Merriam's Shrew (Sorex merriami Dobson 1890) is known from a relatively few, widely-scattered localities. In North Dakota, the species was known from only a single poorly-preserved specimen collected in 1913 near Medora. We recently collected two new specimens of Merriam's Shrew from Billings and McKenzie counties in the western quarter of the state. These specimens confirm the presence of S. merriami in North Dakota and better define the northeastern edge of the species' distribution.

  15. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lan-Zhen; Sun, Bin; Lyu, Long-Bao; Ma, Yu-Hua; Chen, Jia-Qi; Lin, Qing; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Xu-Dong

    2016-07-18

    As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%). Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation.

  16. Dynamic Circulation and Genetic Exchange of a Shrew-borne Hantavirus, Imjin virus, in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Won-Keun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jin Il; Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Jin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped negative-sense tripartite RNA viruses. The natural hosts of hantaviruses include rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Imjin virus (MJNV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus identified from the Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. We have isolated MJNV and determined its prevalence and molecular diversity in Gyeonggi province, ROK. However, the distribution and phylogeography of MJNV in other regions of ROK remain unknown. A total of 96 C. lasiura were captured from Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces, ROK, during 2011–2014. Among them, four (4.2%) shrews were positive for anti-MJNV IgG and MJNV RNA was detected from nine (9.4%), respectively. Based on the prevalence of MJNV RNA, the preponderance of infected shrews was male and adult, consistent with the gender- and weight-specific prevalence of hantaviruses in other species. We monitored the viral load of MJNV RNA in various tissues of shrews, which would reflect the dynamic infectious status and circulation of MJNV in nature. Our phylogeographic and genomic characterization of MJNV suggested natural occurrences of recombination and reassortment in the virus population. Thus, these findings provide significant insights into the epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and dynamic circulation and evolution of shrew-borne hantaviruses. PMID:28295052

  17. Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media and musk fragrances from wastewater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Thomas A; Stüber, Jeannette; Herrmann, Nadine; McDowell, Derek; Ried, Achim; Kampmann, Martin; Teiser, Bernhard

    2003-04-01

    A pilot plant for ozonation and UV-disinfection received effluent from a German municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) to test the removal of pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and musk fragrances from municipal wastewater. In the original STP effluent, 5 antibiotics (0.34-0.63 microgl(-1)), 5 betablockers (0.18-1.7 microgl(-1)), 4 antiphlogistics (0.10-1.3 microgl(-1)), 2 lipid regulator metabolites (0.12-0.13 microgl(-1)), the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (2.1 microgl(-1)), 4 ICM (1.1-5.2 microgl(-1)), the natural estrogen estrone (0.015 microgl(-1)) and 2 musk fragrances (0.1-0.73 microgl(-1)) were detected by LC-electrospray tandem MS and/or GC/MS/MS. ICM, derived from radiological examinations, were present with the highest concentrations (diatrizoate: 5.7 microgl(-1), iopromide: 5.2 microgl(-1)). By applying 10-15 mgl(-1) ozone (contact time: 18 min), all the pharmaceuticals investigated as well as musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN) and estrone were no longer detected. However, ICM (diatrizoate, iopamidol, iopromide and iomeprol) were still detected in appreciable concentrations. Even with a 15 mgl(-1) ozone dose, the ionic diatrizoate only exhibited removal efficiencies of not higher than 14%, while the non-ionic ICM were removed to a degree of higher than 80%. Advanced oxidation processes (O(3)/UV-low pressure mercury arc, O(3)/H(2)O(2)), which were non-optimized for wastewater treatment, did not lead significantly to a higher removal efficiency for the ICM than ozone alone.

  18. Effects of four synthetic musks on the life cycle of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitholtz, M.; Wollenberger, Leah; Dinan, L.

    2003-01-01

    significantly affected r(m) (***P dead at the end of the exposures. This shows that a sensitive individual life-table endpoint is protective over the population-level endpoint r(m). Though we think...... that it is necessary to obtain population-level endpoints from standardised toxicity test, for ecologically successful risk characterisation of synthetic musks as well as other chemicals. The results from the present study show that it is possible to obtain population-level data from the full life-cycle test with N...

  19. Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonism reduces lithium chloride-induced vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Erin M; Boulet, Nathalie; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda A

    2016-09-05

    We aimed to investigate the potential anti-emetic and anti-nausea properties of targeting the cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor. We investigated the effect of the selective CB2 agonist, HU-308, on lithium chloride- (LiCl) induced vomiting in Suncus murinus (S. murinus) and conditioned gaping (nausea-induced behaviour) in rats. Additionally, we determined whether these effects could be prevented by pretreatment with AM630 (a selective CB2 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist). In S. murinus, HU-308 (2.5, 5mg/kg, i.p.) reduced, but did not completely block, LiCl-induced vomiting; an effect that was prevented with AM630. In rats, HU-308 (5mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed, but did not completely block, LiCl-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour; an effect that was prevented by AM630. These findings are the first to demonstrate the ability of a selective CB2 receptor agonist to reduce nausea in animal models, indicating that targeting the CB2 receptor may be an effective strategy, devoid of psychoactive effects, for managing toxin-induced nausea and vomiting.

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione, 5β-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3α-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered.

  1. 麝鼠泌香机制研究进展%Research Progress on the Mechanism of Musk Secretion in Muskrat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竭航; 赵贵军; 封孝兰; 张承露; 陈强; 曾德军

    2015-01-01

    麝鼠因其分泌的麝鼠香具有与林麝麝香类似的化学成分和药理作用而越来越受到人们的关注。我国自上世纪90年代就开始进行麝鼠的人工养殖,但关于麝鼠泌香机制的研究却进展缓慢。通过对麝鼠香的化学成分和药用价值、麝鼠香腺的组织解剖结构、激素与麝鼠泌香的关系以及麝鼠香腺细胞体外培养的综述,剖析了当前麝鼠泌香机制研究过程中存在的问题和展望该领域的发展趋势,以期为深入研究麝鼠的泌香机制和提高麝鼠香产量提供参考。%People are paying more and more attention to muskr because it can secrete musk with similar chemical components and pharmacologi-cal effects to that secreted by forest musk deer in recent years .In China ,muskrat husbandary has been conducted since 1990 ,but little progress has been made on the mechanism of musk secretion in muskrat .Therefore ,by reviewing the chemical components and medicinal value ,histologi-cal and anatomical structure of musk gland ,the relationship between sex hormones and the musk secretion process ,and the progress of musk gland cells culture in vitro ,the existing problems in investigating the musk secretion mechanism were analyzed and the development trends in this field were also discussed ,in order to provide a reference for further studies on the musk secretion mechanism and improve musk production of muskrat .

  2. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, Sandra; Cook, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

  3. The neurobiology and behavior of the American water shrew (Sorex palustris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-06-01

    American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that dive into streams and ponds to find prey at night. They do not use eyesight for capturing fish or for discriminating shapes. Instead they make use of vibrissae to detect and attack water movements generated by active prey and to detect the form of stationary prey. Tactile investigations are supplemented with underwater sniffing. This remarkable behavior consists of exhalation of air bubbles that spread onto objects and are then re-inhaled. Recordings for ultrasound both above and below water provide no evidence for echolocation or sonar, and presentation of electric fields and anatomical investigations provide no evidence for electroreception. Counts of myelinated fibers show by far the largest volume of sensory information comes from the trigeminal nerve compared to optic and cochlear nerves. This is in turn reflected in the organization of the water shrew's neocortex, which contains two large somatosensory areas and much smaller visual and auditory areas. The shrew's small brain with few cortical areas may allow exceptional speed in processing sensory information and producing motor output. Water shrews can accurately attack the source of a water disturbance in only 50 ms, perhaps outpacing any other mammalian predator.

  4. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, unc

  5. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation,

  6. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  7. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers and hippocampal subfield volumes in behaviorally characterized aged tree shrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, J.I.H.; de Biurrun, G.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Fuchs, E.

    2004-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decreased ability to store and retrieve information. The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in such memory processes, and its integrity is affected during normal aging. We used tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) as an animal model of aging, because in many characteris

  8. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, unc

  9. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chai, Anping; Zhou, Qixin; Lv, Longbao; Wang, Liping; Yang, Yuexiong; Xu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference), unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  10. Chronic clomipramine treatment reverses core symptom of depression in subordinate tree shrews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-induced depression. The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine treats many of the core symptoms of depression in humans. To further test the validity of the tree shrew model of depression, we examined the effects of clomipramine on depression-like behaviors and physiological stress responses induced by social defeat in subordinate tree shrews. Social defeat led to weight loss, anhedonia (as measured by sucrose preference, unstable fluctuations in locomotor activity, sustained urinary cortisol elevation, irregular cortisol rhythms, and deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Clomipramine ameliorated anhedonia and irregular locomotor activity, and partially rescued the irregular cortisol rhythm. In contrast, weight loss increased, cortisol levels were even higher, and in vitro LTP was still impaired in the clomipramine treatment group. These results demonstrate the unique advantage of the tree shrew social defeat model of depression.

  11. [Preliminary investigation of viruses to the wild tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri Chinese)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Jing-Xiao; Wang, Wen-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Mei; He, Chun-Yan; Dai, Jie-Jie

    2011-02-01

    Virological testing and monitoring is a fundamental part of quality control of experimental animals. However, there are few papers regarding the spectrum and status of natural infection in wild tree shrews with human and animal pathogenic viruses. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent adsorption assay (ELISA), we tested sixty wild tree shrews captured from Qinglong, an outskirt region of Kunming, Yunnan Province, China for eleven viruses, including herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus, influenza virus, HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, dengue virus, hemorrhagic fever virus and measles virus. Our results showed that, in the serum samples, 22/60 (36.7%) and 1/60 (1.67%) were antibody positive for herpes simplex virus and coxsackie virus, respectively, and 4/60 (6.7%) were antigen positive for rotavirus in the feces. The remaining species of viruses were negative in these tree shrews. Based on these results, we propose that herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus and cotavirus should be listed as top priority for routine virological monitoring of tree shrews.

  12. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-lin Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 µg/L to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews.

  13. Social stress in tree shrews: effects on physiology, brain function, and behavior of subordinate individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2002-08-01

    Social stress is known to be involved in the etiology of central nervous disorders such as depression. In recent years, animal models have been developed that use chronic stress to induce neuroendocrine and central nervous changes that might be similar to those occurring in the course of the development of depressive disorders. The present review gives a summary of observations made in the tree shrew chronic social stress model. During periods of daily social stress, male tree shrews develop symptoms that are known from many depressed patients such as persistent hyperactivities of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system, disturbances in sleeping patterns, and reduced motor activity. Moreover, various physiological parameters indicate an acceleration of the over all metabolic rate in socially stressed tree shrews. Some of these parameters can be renormalized by antidepressants thus supporting the view of the tree shrew social stress paradigm as model for major depression. In the brains of socially stressed animals, monoamine receptors show dynamic changes that reflect adaptation to the persistent monoaminergic hyperactivity during periods of chronic stress. In addition to the changes in neurotransmitter systems, there are structural changes in neurons, e.g., retraction of the dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Together, these processes are suggested as a cause of behavioral alterations that can be counteracted by antidepressants in this naturalistic social stress model.

  14. Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX and PayPal, to speak on campus Feb. 21

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Elon Musk, founder and chief executive officer of Space Exploration Technologies Co. (SpaceX), will speak on his company's Falcon rocket series and the future of university space research on Tuesday, Feb. 21 at 7:30 p.m. in Virginia Tech's Burruss Hall Auditorium. The event is free and open to the public.

  15. A novel role for MuSK and non-canonical Wnt signaling during segmental neural crest cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Gordon, Laura; Donn, Thomas M; Berti, Caterina; Moens, Cecilia B; Burden, Steven J; Granato, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Trunk neural crest cells delaminate from the dorsal neural tube as an uninterrupted sheet; however, they convert into segmentally organized streams before migrating through the somitic territory. These neural crest cell streams join the segmental trajectories of pathfinding spinal motor axons, suggesting that interactions between these two cell types might be important for neural crest cell migration. Here, we show that in the zebrafish embryo migration of both neural crest cells and motor axons is temporally synchronized and spatially restricted to the center of the somite, but that motor axons are dispensable for segmental neural crest cell migration. Instead, we find that muscle-specific receptor kinase (MuSK) and its putative ligand Wnt11r are crucial for restricting neural crest cell migration to the center of each somite. Moreover, we find that blocking planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in somitic muscle cells also results in non-segmental neural crest cell migration. Using an F-actin biosensor we show that in the absence of MuSK neural crest cells fail to retract non-productive leading edges, resulting in non-segmental migration. Finally, we show that MuSK knockout mice display similar neural crest cell migration defects, suggesting a novel, evolutionarily conserved role for MuSK in neural crest migration. We propose that a Wnt11r-MuSK dependent, PCP-like pathway restricts neural crest cells to their segmental path.

  16. Evaluation of Simple Treat 3.0 for two hydrophobic and slowly biodegradable chemicals: Polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, predictions by Simple Treat 3.0, a fate model for organic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs), are compared with actual measurements in three STPs. Two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® (AHTN) and Galaxolide® (HHCB), were used for model evaluation. Results show that Simple Tr

  17. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Waste water treatment plants as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, Ingo, E-mail: ingoweinberg@web.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Max Planck Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lueneburg, Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststr. 1, 21335 Lueneburg (Germany); Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Max Planck Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    To investigate waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two WWTPs and two reference sites using high volume samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges, extracted compound-dependent by MTBE/acetone, methanol, or hexane/acetone and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Total (gas + particle phase) concentrations ranged from 97 to 1004 pg m{sup -3} (neutral PFCs), musk fragrances) and <1 to 27 pg m{sup -3} (PBDEs) and were usually higher at WWTPs than at corresponding reference sites, revealing that WWTPs can be regarded as sources of musk fragrances, PFCs and probably PBDEs to the atmosphere. Different concentrations at the two WWTPs indicated an influence of WWTP size or waste water origin on emitted contaminant amounts. - Waste water treatment plants can be regarded as sources of musk fragrances, polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to the atmosphere

  19. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS FROM FISH TISSUES WITH MEASUREMENT BY OC/MS/SIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds are used as inexpensive fragrance materials for the production of perfumes and as additives to soap, detergent, and shampoo. They have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. The ubiquity of this class of compounds in the env...

  20. Evaluation of Simple Treat 3.0 for two hydrophobic and slowly biodegradable chemicals: Polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, predictions by Simple Treat 3.0, a fate model for organic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs), are compared with actual measurements in three STPs. Two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® (AHTN) and Galaxolide® (HHCB), were used for model evaluation. Results show that Simple

  1. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve. However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26% (5815.08 km2 is inside the protected areas and the remaining 80.73% falls outside the protected areas. Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, livestock grazing and forest fire in the musk deer habitat are important challenges for the conservation of musk deer in the country. A thorough status survey in and outside the protected areas should be carried out and a species-focused conservation action plan should be prepared and implemented properly. A program for increasing awareness and enhancing livelihood of the local populations be launched in the poor and poaching risk zones of Nepal.

  2. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fang; Duan, Ying; Jin, Shubo; Sui, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews' behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM) injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA) paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  3. Asia-Pacific mussel watch for emerging pollutants: Distribution of synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers in Asian and US coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Shinohara, Ryu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Yusuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Kim, Eun Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Frank, Donnell; Lauenstein, Gunnar; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of the shrew enteric virome reveals novel viruses related to human stool-associated viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Ueno, Keisuke; Ishii, Akihiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    Shrews are small insectivorous mammals that are distributed worldwide. Similar to rodents, shrews live on the ground and are commonly found near human residences. In this study, we investigated the enteric virome of wild shrews in the genus Crocidura using a sequence-independent viral metagenomics approach. A large portion of the shrew enteric virome was composed of insect viruses, whilst novel viruses including cyclovirus, picornavirus and picorna-like virus were also identified. Several cycloviruses, including variants of human cycloviruses detected in cerebrospinal fluid and stools, were detected in wild shrews at a high prevalence rate. The identified picornavirus was distantly related to human parechovirus, inferring the presence of a new genus in this family. The identified picorna-like viruses were characterized as different species of calhevirus 1, which was discovered previously in human stools. Complete or nearly complete genome sequences of these novel viruses were determined in this study and then were subjected to further genetic characterization. Our study provides an initial view of the diversity and distinctiveness of the shrew enteric virome and highlights unique novel viruses related to human stool-associated viruses.

  5. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui; Lai, Ren; Duan, Gang; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Ye; Liu, Huang; Xiang, Xun

    2014-11-18

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts.

  6. The timing of the shrew: continuous melatonin treatment maintains youthful rhythmic activity in aging Crocidura russula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Magnanou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. Thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. Senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. The time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have an anti-aging role. The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is an ideal study model to address questions related to aging and associated changes in biological functions: its lifespan is short and is substantially increased in captivity; daily and seasonal rhythms, while very marked the first year of life, are dramatically altered during the senescence process which starts during the second year. Here we report on an investigation of the effects of melatonin administration on locomotor activity of aging shrews. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 1 The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma. In both, a marked diel rhythm (low diurnal concentration; high nocturnal concentration was present in young animals but then decreased in adults, and, as a result of a loss in the nocturnal production, was absent in old animals. 2 Daily locomotor activity rhythm was monitored in pre-senescent animals that had received either a subcutaneous melatonin implant, an empty implant or no implant at all. In non-implanted and sham-implanted shrews, the rhythm was well marked in adults. A marked degradation in both period and amplitude, however, started after the age of 14-16 months. This pattern was considerably delayed in melatonin-implanted shrews who maintained the daily rhythm for significantly longer. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first long term study (>500 days observation of the

  7. Evaluating the Phylogenetic Position of Chinese Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) Based on Complete Mitochondrial Genome:Implication for Using Tree Shrew as an Alternative Experimental Animal to Primates in Biomedical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xu; Shi-Yi Chen; Wen-Hui Nie; Xue-Long Jiang; Yong-Gang Yao

    2012-01-01

    Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is currently placed in Order Scandentia and has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia and Southwest China.Due to its unique characteristics,such as small body size,high brain-to-body mass ratio,short reproductive cycle and life span,and low-cost of maintenance,tree shrew has been proposed to be an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research.However,there are some debates regarding the exact phylogenetic affinity of tree shrew to primates.In this study,we determined the mtDNA entire genomes of three Chinese tree shrews (T.belangeri chinensis) and one Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus).Combined with the published data for species in Euarchonta,we intended to discern the phylogenetic relationship among representative species of Dermoptera,Scandentia and Primates.The mtDNA genomes of Chinese tree shrews and Malayan flying lemur shared similar gene organization and structure with those of other mammals.Phylogenetic analysis based on 12 concatenated mitochondrial proteinencoding genes revealed a closer relationship between species of Scandentia and Glires,whereas species of Dermoptera were clustered with Primates.This pattern was consistent with previously reported phylogeny based on mtDNA data,but differed from the one reconstructed on the basis of nuclear genes.Our result suggested that the matrilineal affinity of tree shrew to primates may not be as close as we had thought.The ongoing project for sequencing the entire genome of Chinese tree shrew will provide more information to clarify this important issue.

  8. Muscle-Specific Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (MuSK) Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Rebecca L; Gooch, Clifton L

    2016-07-01

    Autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) is the prototypic, antibody-mediated neuromuscular disease and is characterized by a decrease in the number of functional acetylcholine receptors (AChR) within the muscle end plate zone of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Although the pathophysiology of AChR-mediated myasthenia gravis has been extensively studied over the last 40 years since its original description by Patrick and Lindstrom (Science 180:871-872, 1973), less is known about the much more recently described muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) antibody-mediated MG. MuSK-MG has features clinically distinct from Ach-R MG, as well as a different pattern of response to treatment and a unique immunopathogenesis.

  9. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  10. ENZYME ACTIVITY, HORMONE CONCENTRATION IN TREE SHREW (TUPAIA BELANGERI) DURING COLD ACCLIMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zhang,; Wanlong Zhu; Zhengkun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors play an important role in the seasonal adaptation of body mass and thermogenesis in wild small mammals. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri), is a unique species of small mammals which is origin of island in the Oriental realm. The present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy intake, metabolism, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and other biochemical characters of T. belangeri...

  11. High density lipoproteins and prevention of experimental atherosclerosis with special reference to tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L

    1990-01-01

    According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG METABOLIC RATE OF TREE SHREWS (TUPAIA BELANGERI) UNDER COLD ACCLIMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zhang; Wenrong Gao; Wenxiu Jiang; Zhengkun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Many small mammals inhabiting cold environments display enhanced capacity for seasonal changes in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and thermoregulatory maximum metabolic rate (MMR). However, it is not known how this plasticity remains in a mammal that rarely experiences extreme cold fluctuations. In order to answer this question, we determined body mass ( Mb), basal metabolic rate (BMR), NST, and MMR on a tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), acclimated to cold (5 ºC) conditions. NST was measured a...

  13. Chronic Clomipramine Treatment Reverses Core Symptom of Depression in Subordinate Tree Shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Anping Chai; Qixin Zhou; Longbao Lv; Liping Wang; Yuexiong Yang; Lin Xu

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress is the major cause of clinical depression. The behavioral signs of depression, including anhedonia, learning and memory deficits, and sleep disruption, result from the damaging effects of stress hormones on specific neural pathways. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is an aggressive non-human primate with a hierarchical social structure that has become a well-established model of the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological changes associated with stress-ind...

  14. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews II. Projections of four nuclei to areas of visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Patterns of thalamocortical connections were related to architectonically defined subdivisions of the pulvinar complex and the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews are of special interest because they are considered close relatives of primates, and they have a highly developed visual system. Several distinguishable tracers were injected within and across cortical visual areas in individual tree shrews in order to reveal retinotopic patterns and cortical targets of subdivisions of the pulvinar. The results indicate that each of the three architectonic regions of the pulvinar has a distinctive pattern of cortical connections and that one of these divisions is further divided into two regions with different patterns of connections. Two of the pulvinar nuclei have similar retinotopic patterns of projections to caudal visual cortex. The large central nucleus of the pulvinar (Pc) projects to the first and second visual areas, V1 and V2, and an adjoining temporal dorsal area (TD) in retinotopic patterns indicating that the upper visual quadrant is represented dorsal to the lower quadrant in Pc. The smaller ventral nucleus (Pv) which stains darkly for the Cat-301 antigen, projects to these same cortical areas, with a retinotopic pattern. Pv also projects to a temporal anterior area, TA. The dorsal nucleus (Pd), which densely expresses AChE, projects to posterior and ventral areas of temporal extrastriate cortex, areas TP and TPI. A posterior nucleus, Pp, projects to anterior areas TAL and TI, of the temporal lobe, as well as TPI. Injections in different cortical areas as much as 6 mm apart labeled overlapping zones in Pp and double-labeled some cells. These results indicate that the visual pulvinar of tree shrews contains at least four functionally distinct subdivisions, or nuclei. In addition, the cortical injections revealed that the LGN projects topographically and densely to V1 and that a significant number of LGN neurons

  15. [cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of pluripotency genes in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Yun; Ma, Yun-Han; He, Da-Jian; Yang, Shi-Hua

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, partial sequences of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc genes were cloned and sequenced, which were 382, 612, and 485 bp in length and encoded 127, 204, and 161 amino acids, respectively. Whereas, their cDNA sequence identities with those of human were 89%, 98%, and 89%, respectively. Their phylogenetic tree results indicated different topologies and suggested individual evolutional pathways. These results can facilitate further functional studies.

  16. Haematology, genotoxicity, enzymatic activity and histopathology as biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, A. [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Servei de Microscopia, Facultat de Ciencies, Ed. C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: Alejandro.Sanchez.Chardi@uab.es; Marques, C.C.; Gabriel, S.I. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Capela-Silva, F. [Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias da Saude, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Evora, 7002-552 Evora (Portugal); Cabrita, A.S. [Centro de Histofisiologia, Instituto de Patologia Experimental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopez-Fuster, M.J.; Nadal, J. [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mathias, M.L. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-12-15

    Haematological (WBC, RBC, Hgb and Hct) and genotoxicity (MNT) parameters, hepatic enzymatic activities (GST, GPx and GR), and a histopathological evaluation of liver, kidneys and gonads were assessed as general biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula inhabiting a pyrite mining area. Specimens exposed to metals presented a few significant alterations when compared with reference animals: GST activity decreased; micronuclei increased; and evident liver alterations related to metal exposure were observed. On the basis of all the parameters studied, age was an important factor that partly explained the observed variation, whereas sex was the least important factor. Significant correlations were also found between heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers evaluated, demonstrating the great influence of these metals in the metabolic alterations. To the best of our knowledge, these data constitute the first measurements of a battery of biomarkers in shrews from a mine site and are among the few available for insectivorous mammals. - Metals from an abandoned pyrite mine produce alterations in haematological parameters, GST, MNT, and histopathology in shrews.

  17. Molecular Survey on Brucellosis in Rodents and Shrews - Natural Reservoirs of Novel Brucella Species in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, J A; Ulrich, R G; Imholt, C; Scholz, H C; Jacob, J; Kratzmann, N; Nöckler, K; Al Dahouk, S

    2017-04-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease introduced from animal reservoirs to humans. In Germany, bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis were eradicated more than a decade ago and mandatory measures in livestock have been implemented to keep the officially brucellosis-free status. In contrast, surveillance of wildlife is still challenging, and reliable data on the prevalence of brucellae in small mammal populations do not exist. To assess the epidemiology of Brucella spp. in rodents and shrews, a molecular survey was carried out. A total of 537 rodents and shrews were trapped in four federal states located throughout Germany and investigated for the presence of Brucella. Using a two-step molecular assay based on the detection of the Brucella-specific bcsp31 and IS711 sequences in tissue samples, 14.2% (n = 76) of the tested animals were positive. These originated mainly from western and south-western Germany, where preliminary analyses indicate population density-dependent Brucella prevalence in voles (Myodes glareolus) and mice (Apodemus spp.). recA typing revealed a close relationship to a potentially novel Brucella species recently isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Austria. The molecular detection of brucellae in various rodent taxa and for the first time in shrew species shows that these animals may be naturally infected or at least have a history of exposure to Brucella spp. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. THE TREE SHREW APOLIPOPROTEIN C-I cDNA: SEQUENCE AND ITS EXPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克勤; 吕新跃; 吴钢; 薛红; 陈保生

    2001-01-01

    A rabbit anti-serum to tree shrew apolipoprotein C-I (apo C-l) was used to screen an expression cDNA li-braDy constructed by us from tree shrew (TS) liver tissue. Two apo C-I cDNA clones were obtained. The longerone consists of 380 nucleotides, including 21 bp and 95 bp at the 5' and 3' end of the non-translated region srespectively, and a 2 64-bp fragment in an open reading frame encoding 88 amino acids prepropeptide which con-ta-ins 26 amino acids of signal peptide and a mature protein (62 amino acids). Comparing the amino-acid se-quence deduced from this cDNA with those of the published mammalian apo C-Is reveals that it shared some struc-tural similarity with zat, mouse and dog apo C-l, but it had 5 more amino acids than that of human and baboon.The expression of apo C-I mRNA in 8 different tissues were also assayed with Northern blot. The results demonstrat-ed that liver had the highest expression, intestine had much less expression and no expression in other tissues,which is much different from human and other species. This study has laid down a good foundation for further study-ing on the function and the stucture of tree shrew apo C-I gene.``

  19. Acoustic features to arousal and identity in disturbance calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehka, Simone; Zimmermann, Elke

    2009-11-05

    Across mammalian species, comparable morphological and physiological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations are suggested to lead to commonalities in the vocal conveyance of acoustic features to specific attributes of callers, such as arousal and individual identity. To explore this hypothesis we examined intra- and interindividual acoustic variation in chatter calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). The calls were induced experimentally by a disturbance paradigm and related to two defined arousal states of a subject. The arousal state of an animal was primarily operationalised by the habituation of the subject to a new environment and additionally determined by behavioural indicators of stress in tree shrews (tail-position and piloerection). We investigated whether the arousal state and indexical features of the caller, namely individual identity and sex, are conveyed acoustically. Frame-by-frame videographic and multiparametric sound analyses revealed that arousal and identity, but not sex of a caller reliably predicted spectral-temporal variation in sound structure. Furthermore, there was no effect of age or body weight on individual-specific acoustic features. Similar results in another call type of tree shrews and comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence that comparable physiological and morphological constraints in the production of airborne vocalisations across mammals lead to commonalities in acoustic features conveying arousal and identity, respectively.

  20. The tree shrews: useful animal models for the viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Er-Bin; Cao, Ji; Su, Jian-Jia; Chow, Pierce

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are major diseases worldwide. HBV infection and chemical carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 are known to be two key factors in the development of HCC. Animal models for hepatitis and HCC are very useful in the in vivo studies of mechanism involved in the development and prevention of these diseases and the pre-clinical research of drugs for the treatment of these diseases. Now, several animals, such as woodchucks, ground squirrels, chimpanzees, ducks and tree shrews, have been used to establish hepatitis and HCC models. HCC occurs in some woodchucks and ground squirrels that are infected with their own hepatitis viruses and exposed to carcinogens. Chimpanzees and ducks can be infected with human and duck hepatitis B viruses, respectively, but HCC is rarely observed in these animals. The tree shrews are non-rodent, small animals and close to primates in evolution. This review focuses on the establishment of human HBV-induced hepatitis and human HBV-associated HCC in tree shrews and their applications in the study of HCC development.

  1. Altered active zones, vesicle pools, nerve terminal conductivity, and morphology during experimental MuSK myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vishwendra; Oh, Anne; Voit, Antanina; Sultatos, Lester G; Babu, Gopal J; Wilson, Brenda A; Ho, Mengfei; McArdle, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate reduced motor-nerve function during autoimmune muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) myasthenia gravis (MG). To further understand the basis of motor-nerve dysfunction during MuSK-MG, we immunized female C57/B6 mice with purified rat MuSK ectodomain. Nerve-muscle preparations were dissected and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) studied electrophysiologically, morphologically, and biochemically. While all mice produced antibodies to MuSK, only 40% developed respiratory muscle weakness. In vitro study of respiratory nerve-muscle preparations isolated from these affected mice revealed that 78% of NMJs produced endplate currents (EPCs) with significantly reduced quantal content, although potentiation and depression at 50 Hz remained qualitatively normal. EPC and mEPC amplitude variability indicated significantly reduced number of vesicle-release sites (active zones) and reduced probability of vesicle release. The readily releasable vesicle pool size and the frequency of large amplitude mEPCs also declined. The remaining NMJs had intermittent (4%) or complete (18%) failure of neurotransmitter release in response to 50 Hz nerve stimulation, presumably due to blocked action potential entry into the nerve terminal, which may arise from nerve terminal swelling and thinning. Since MuSK-MG-affected muscles do not express the AChR γ subunit, the observed prolongation of EPC decay time was not due to inactivity-induced expression of embryonic acetylcholine receptor, but rather to reduced catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase. Muscle protein levels of MuSK did not change. These findings provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of autoimmune MuSK-MG.

  2. Altered active zones, vesicle pools, nerve terminal conductivity, and morphology during experimental MuSK myasthenia gravis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwendra Patel

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate reduced motor-nerve function during autoimmune muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK myasthenia gravis (MG. To further understand the basis of motor-nerve dysfunction during MuSK-MG, we immunized female C57/B6 mice with purified rat MuSK ectodomain. Nerve-muscle preparations were dissected and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs studied electrophysiologically, morphologically, and biochemically. While all mice produced antibodies to MuSK, only 40% developed respiratory muscle weakness. In vitro study of respiratory nerve-muscle preparations isolated from these affected mice revealed that 78% of NMJs produced endplate currents (EPCs with significantly reduced quantal content, although potentiation and depression at 50 Hz remained qualitatively normal. EPC and mEPC amplitude variability indicated significantly reduced number of vesicle-release sites (active zones and reduced probability of vesicle release. The readily releasable vesicle pool size and the frequency of large amplitude mEPCs also declined. The remaining NMJs had intermittent (4% or complete (18% failure of neurotransmitter release in response to 50 Hz nerve stimulation, presumably due to blocked action potential entry into the nerve terminal, which may arise from nerve terminal swelling and thinning. Since MuSK-MG-affected muscles do not express the AChR γ subunit, the observed prolongation of EPC decay time was not due to inactivity-induced expression of embryonic acetylcholine receptor, but rather to reduced catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase. Muscle protein levels of MuSK did not change. These findings provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of autoimmune MuSK-MG.

  3. Development of a selective solid phase extraction method for nitro musk compounds in environmental waters using a molecularly imprinted sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nogueroles, Marina; Lordel-Madeleine, Sonia; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Pichon, Valérie

    2013-06-15

    A powerful analytical method for the determination of the family of the nitro musk compounds at trace level in environmental waters-river, sea, and water from a treatment plant-is presented. The method is based on the use of molecularly imprinted silica (MIS) as sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) used for the clean-up and the concentration step of the target analytes previous to their determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optimized extraction procedure allowed extraction recoveries between 61% and 87% using the MIS. The comparison with a non-imprinted silica (NIS) sorbent, for which extraction recoveries between 8% and 26% were obtained, showed the high selectivity of the MIS for the nitro musks. Moreover, high enrichment factors, ranging between 580 and 827, were achieved. The imprinted sorbent was compared to a conventional polymeric SPE sorbent for the extraction of the target compounds from environmental waters, showing high selectivity of the MIS and its clean-up potential. For the first time, the five nitro musk compounds were selectively extracted with an imprinted material.

  4. Hand Rearing of Tree Shrews%树实验种群的繁育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    探讨了树实验种群的繁育。结果是5对成年树在7个月内共产11窝31只仔树。27只出生后即人工喂养的仔树中,25只健康存活至进入动物实验。成年树平均产仔周期为(52±8.9)d;仔树的人工喂养成活率为92.6%。可以认为树实验种群的人工繁育是可行的。人工繁育的树有望取代野外捕获的树用于有关的动物实验研究。%The experiment was to explore and develop a practical way of hand rearing tree shrews. Five pairs of adult tree shrews were raised in breeding cages, fed with mixed food composed of purified standard diet, cheese, fruits and vegetables. Newborn tree shrews were weaned from their mothers soon after they were born, and kept in an incubator for about 3 weeks. The infant tree shrews were fed with a milk formula for the first 3 weeks, then they were moved out from the incubator and fed with a transitional diet for 10 days when they got ready for adult food. As a result, 31 pups in 11 litters were born within 7 months by 5 pairs of adults. Twenty seven pups were hand-reared from birth and 25 of them survived to 7 weeks of age when they were used in experiment. The average period between the day of putting the female and male adults together and the day of delivery was (52±8.9) days. The survival rate for hand-rearing newborns was 92.6%, which was higher than any data in known publications. The success in hand rearing tree shrews would meet the increasing need for them in medical research, especially in the field related to liver cancer and hepatitis.

  5. Alteration of p53and p21 during hepatocarcinogenesis in shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jia Su; Rui-Qi Yang; Ke-Chen Ban; Yuan Li; Liu-Liang Qin; Hui-Yun Wang; Chun Yang; Chao Ou; Xiao-Xian Duan; Young-Lk Lee

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate p53 mutation and p21 expression in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV)and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in tree shrews, and to reveal the role of these genes in hepatocarcinogenesis.METHODS: Tree shrews were divided into four groups:group A, those infected with HBV and fed with AFB1 (n = 39);group B, those infected with HBV alone (n = 28); group C,those fed with AFB1 alone (n = 29); and group D, normal controls (n = 20). The tree shrews underwent liver biopsies once every 15 wk. Expression of p53 and p21 proteins and genes in the biopsies and tumor tissues of the experimental tree shrews was detected, respectively, by immunohistochemistry,and by Southern blottdng and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.RESULTS: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) was higher in group A (66.7%) than that in group B (3.57%) and C (30%). The time of HCC occurrence was also earlier in group A than that in group C (120.0±16.6 wk vs 153.3±5.8 wk, respectively, P<0.01). p53 protein was not detected by immunohistochemistry in all groups before the 75th wk of the experiment. At the 105th wk, the positive rates fo p53 were 78.6%, 60% and 71.4% in groups A, B and C, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in group D (10%) (all P<0.05). An abnormal band of p53gene was observed in groups A and C. The mutation points of p53gene in tree shrews with HCC were at codons 275, 78 and 13. The nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of tree shrew's wild-type p53 showed 91.7%and 93.4% homologies with those of human p53,respectively. The immunopositivity for p21 was found before HCC development. The incidence of HCC was significantly higher in tree shrews that were positive for p21 than those negative for p21 (80.0% vs 11.0%, P<0.001).The incidence of HCC in p21 positive animals in group A was significantly higher than those positive for p21 in group C (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: A remarkable synergistic effect on HCC

  6. Experimental chronic hepatitis B infection of neonatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis: A model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. Feasible and effective animal models for HBV infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. The tree shrew (Tupaia is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. Whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with HBV in vivo has been controversial for decades. Most published research has been reported on adult tree shrews, and only small numbers of HBV infected newborn tree shrews had been observed over short time periods. We investigated susceptibility of newborn tree shrews to experimental HBV infection as well as viral clearance over a protracted time period. Results Forty-six newborn tree shrews were inoculated with the sera from HBV-infected patients or tree shrews. Serum and liver samples of the inoculated animals were periodically collected and analyzed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Southern blot, and immunohistochemistry. Six tree shrews were confirmed and four were suspected as chronically HBV-infected for more than 48 (up to 228 weeks after inoculation, including three that had been inoculated with serum from a confirmed HBV-infected tree shrew. Conclusions Outbred neonatal tree shrews can be long-term chronically infected with HBV at a frequency comparable to humans. The model resembles human disease where also a smaller proportion of infected individuals develop chronic HBV related disease. This model might enable genetic and immunologic investigations which would allow determination of underlying molecular causes favoring susceptibility for chronic HBV infection and disease establishment vs. viral clearance.

  7. Analytical Determination of KDOC-Values of Polycyclic Musk Compounds with HS-SPME and GC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, L.; Düring, R.-A.

    2009-04-01

    Polycyclic musk compounds, used as fragrances in cosmetics and detergents, get into rivers via domestic wastewater and sewage treatment plants and with sewage sludge as fertilizer into soils. Because of their persistence and lipophilic character they accumulate in biota, so they are pollutants with environmental relevance. The coefficient KDOC is used to quantify the distribution of substances between aqueous phase and dissolved organic matter (DOM) which is quantified by the determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). DOM is of specific relevance for the transport and fate of persistent and lipophilic compounds in the environment. The affinity to DOM increases, the more lipophilic a substance is. So the environmental mobility is enhanced with increasing binding on DOM. For that reason, measured KDOC-values are important to predict the fate and behaviour of chemicals in the environment and should be used for environmental fate modelling purposes. LITZ ET AL. (2007) state that, to carry out a risk-assessment for polycyclic musk compounds, further research on their sorption-behaviour is necessary. For the determination of KDOC-values, different concentrations of humic acid were spiked with a multi-component stock solution. The samples were analysed with headspace solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC/MS/MS). The KDOC-values were calculated according to YABUTA ET AL. (2004). The method was validated with single substance stock solutions and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results show that the method is applicable, repeatable and suitable to get KDOC-values for many substances very fast, cheap and solvent-free. With our results KDOC-values for polycyclic musk compounds were determined for the first time. Literature LITZ, N. TH., MüLLER, J. AND BöHMER, W. (2007): Occurrence of Polycyclic Musks in Sewage Sludge and their Behaviour in Soils and Plants. Part 2: Investigation

  8. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Sage, G.K.; Fowler, M.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  9. [Significance of the smell of a conspecific for the spatial distribution of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumas'ian, F A; Shchipanova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The significance of smell marks of conspecifics for the spatial distribution of common shrews was studied. The existence of two groups of individuals, which differ in their reaction to the smell of a conspecific, was shown. Individuals with different reactions were shown to have reliable differences in the sizes of the areas visited by them, the mutual location of their plots, and the percent of activity combined with the activity of the neighbor. The significance of such differences in reactions for the formation of the social system of shrews is discussed.

  10. Hand Rearing of Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)%树鼩的人工哺育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑗; LI Yuan; Karen Baumgartner; Karen Baumgartner; Denise MacMillan; Denise MacMillan; Bill D.Roebuck; Bill D. Roebuck

    2001-01-01

    To explore and develop a practical way for hand rearing tree shrews, which is one kind of very useful animal in medical research. 5 pairs of adult tree shrews were housed in breeding cages, fed on the food mixed with purified standard diet, cheese,fruits and vegetables. Newborn tree shrews were moved out from their mothers' cages soon after birth and kept in an incubator for about 3 weeks. The infant tree shrews were fed on a milk formula for the first 3 weeks, then they were moved out from the incubator and fed on a transitional diet for 10 days when they got ready for adult food. There were 31 pups in 11 litters were born in 7 months by 5 pairs of adults, in which 27 pups were hand-reared from birth and 25 of them survived to 7 weeks of age when they were used in an experiment. The average period between the day of pairing and the day of parturition was 52 ± 8. 9 days. The average litter size was 2. 8±0. 4. The results showed that the survival rate of hand-rearing the newborns in this experiment was 92.6%, which is higher than those reported in related publications. The success in hand rearing tree shrews would make it possible to meet the increasing demand of tree shrew in medical research, especially in the field related to liver cancer and hepatitis.%为探索和建立人工哺育树鼩的可行方法,将5对成年树鼩配对后饲养在繁殖笼内,喂与由标准动物粉状饲料、奶酪、新鲜蔬菜和水果构成的混合食物.新生树鼩出生后立即从母笼移出至孵育箱,每日人工喂与专门配制的牛奶制品.三周后将小树鼩从孵育箱移出,经喂与转换食物约10 d,过度到自食成年食物.结果7个月内5对成年树鼠句在共产11窝31只仔树鼩.在27只出生后人工喂养的仔树鼩中,25只健康存活至进入动物实验,人工喂养成活率为92.6%.树鼩平均产仔间隔52±8.9 d;平均窝产仔数2.8±0.4只.人工哺育树鼩的成功为提供树鼩应用于医学实验研究,尤其是与肝癌

  11. Quantum Calculation for Musk Molecules Infrared Spectra towards the Understanding of Odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Rose Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear so far how humans can recognize odor. One of the theories regarding structure-odor relationship is vibrational theory, which claims that odors can be recognized by their modes of vibration. In this sense, this paper brings a novel comparison made between musky and nonmusky molecules, as to check the existence of correlation between their modes on the infrared spectra and odor. For this purpose, sixteen musky odorants were chosen, as well as seven other molecules that are structurally similar to them, but with no musk odor. All of them were submitted to solid theoretical methodology (using molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics and Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap Austin Model 1 methods to optimize geometries as to achieve density functional theory spectra information, with both Gradient Corrected Functional Perdew-Wang generalized-gradient approximation (GGA/PW91 and hybrid Becke, three-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP functional. For a proper analysis over spectral data, a mathematical method was designed, generating weighted averages for theoretical frequencies and computing deviations from these averages. It was then devised that musky odorants satisfied demands of the vibrational theory, while nonmusk compounds belonging either to nitro group or to acyclic group failed to fulfill the same criteria.

  12. Big insights from little animals: allosteric modulation and thermal sensitivity of shrew and mole hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, K.L.; Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    tissue mitochondria with sufficient O2 to fuel oxidative metabolism, such as blood with a high Bohr coefficient and half-saturation pressure (P50). However, a high P50 may drastically impede hemoglobin (Hb) saturation at low ambient PO2's and place a considerable strain on the hypoxia tolerance of shrews......Mass-specific metabolic rate varies inversely with size, while pulmonary transit time, muscle O2 storage capacity, and the ability to exploit anaerobic metabolism vary directly with this variable. Thus, small mammals must exploit a suite of morphological and physiological adjustments to supply...

  13. Comparison of Nonshivering Thermogenesis Induced by Norepinephrine Stress in Tree Shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-long Zhu; Di Zhang; Jia Zheng; Lin ZHang; Jin-hu Liu; Jin Cheng; Zheng-kun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Nonshivering thermogenesis (NST)is an important thermogenic mechanism for small mammals. Quantitative measurement of NST is usually stimulated by injection of norepinephrine. The injection dosage of norepinephrine (NE) is critical for eliciting the maximum NST. Three empirical equations of NE dosages were often referenced in previous studies: (1) NE (mg / kg)= 2.53W-0.4; (2) NE(mg/kg) = 3.3W-0.458 and (3) NE(mg/kg)= 6.6W-0.458. In the present study , we used tree shrews (Tupaia bel...

  14. [Effects of some extenders and monoamines on sperm cryopreservation in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Shu-Huang; Wang, Cai-Yun; Tang, Wen-Ru; Luo, Ying; Yang, Shi-Hua

    2012-02-01

    The tree shrew may be an important experimental animal for disease models in humans. The effects of some extenders and momamines on sperm cryopreservation will provide helpful data for experimentation of strains and conservation of genetic resources in tree shrews. Epididymal sperm were surgically harvested from male tree shrews captured around Kunming, China and sperm motility, acrosome integrity and fertility were assessed during cryopreservation. In Experiment 1 eight extenders (TTE, TCG, TCF, TTG, BWW, BTS, DM, and SR) supplemented with 0.4 mol/L DMSO were used to dilute the sperm: only TTE, DM and SR showed no differences in motility and acrosome integrity compared to fresh controls after equilibration. After freezing and thawing, sperm in any extender showed lower motility than fresh control and sperm in DM showed higher motility than other groups. However, BWW produced the lowest motility. For acrosome integrity, TTE and DM showed higher than BWW, BTS and SR after equilibration. The parameter in DM was higher than other groups (except TTE) after thawing. In Experiment 2 four penetrating cryoprotectant agents (CPA) [dimethyl-formamide (DF), formamide (F), dimethylacetamide (DA), and acetamide (A)] at 0.2 mol/L, 0.4 mol/L, 0.8 mol/L, and 1.2 mol/L, respectively were added to the DM extender. Motility showed no difference among CPA groups and non-CPA group (control) after equilibration, but all thawed sperm showed lower values in motility and acrosome integrity than pre-freezing groups. However, sperm in 0.8 mol/L DF and 0.4 mol/L DMSO showed higher values in both parameters than that in other CPA groups (P>0.05). In Experiment 3 the fertilization rate of oocytes inseminated with 0.4mol/L DMSO (50%) were higher than that with 0.8mol/L DF (16%). In conclusion, non-ion extenders supplemented with egg yolk may be better for sperm cryopreservation in tree shrews and cryoprotectant effects of monoamines agents should be further studied in this species.

  15. Ancient DNA analyses exclude humans as the driving force behind late Pleistocene musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Paula; Willerslev, Eske; Sher, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions are poorly understood. Different lines of evidence point to climate change, the arrival of humans, or a combination of these events as the trigger. Although many species went extinct, others, such as caribou and bison, survived......, as it was the geographic origin of all samples studied and held a large diverse population until local extinction at approximately 45,000 radiocarbon years before present ((14)C YBP). Subsequently, musk ox genetic diversity reincreased at ca. 30,000 (14)C YBP, recontracted at ca. 18,000 (14)C YBP, and finally recovered...

  16. Tree shrews (tupaia belangeri exhibit novelty preference in the novel location memory task with 24-hour retention periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan H R Nair

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Novelty preference is pervasive in mammalian species, and describes an inherent tendency to preferentially explore novelty. The novel location memory task studied here assesses the ability of animals to form accurate memories of a spatial configuration, consisting of several identical objects placed within an arena. Tree shrews were first familiarized with a particular object configuration during several sessions, and then an object was displaced during a test session. Tree shrews exhibited enhanced exploration when confronted with this novel configuration. The most reliable indicator associated with novelty preference was an enhancement in directed exploration towards the novel object, although we also observed a non-specific overall increase in exploration in one experiment. During the test session, we also observed an exploration of the location, which had previously been occupied by the displaced object, an effect termed empty quadrant. Our behavioral findings suggest multiple stages of spatial memory formation in tree shrews that are associated with various forms of behavioral responses to novelty. Reduced novelty preference has been linked to major depressive disorder in human patients. Given the established social conflict depression model in tree shrews, we anticipate that the study of the neural circuits of novelty preference and their malfunction during depression may have implications for understanding or treating depression in humans.

  17. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis, a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqiang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR and type 2 diabetes (T2D, for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4 corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis, which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD.

  18. Flooding ecology of voles, mice and shrews: the importance of geomorphological and vegetational heterogeneity in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.; Velde, G. van der; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Smits, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Since voles, mice and shrews are important animals in food chains of river floodplains, there is a need for data on their spatial and temporal distribution in periodically flooded areas. During a live trapping study between two successive floods in an embanked river floodplain, the ’Afferdensche en

  19. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liao, Shasha; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Xiao, Ruyue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4) corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD. PMID:27659689

  20. Alkoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities and polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in shrews as biomarkers in environmental risk assessments: sensitivity and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Alkoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (AROD) biomarkers are useful indicators of the exposure of organisms to dioxin-like compounds. In the current study, an in vivo validation of the use of such biomarkers in shrews was conducted. Furthermore, the use of changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) patterns as

  1. The Two-Oscillator Circadian System of Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri) and Its Response to Light and Dark Pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.H.; Daan, S.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Hermann, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The wheel-running activity rhythm of tree shrews (tupaias; Tupaia belangeri) housed in constant darkness (DD) phase-advanced following a 3-hr light pulse at circadian time (CT) 21. Dark pulses of 3 hr presented to tupaias in bright constant light (LL) did not induce significant phase shifts of the

  2. The chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews: evaluation of a novel animal model for depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Marja; Kramer, Marian; Hiemke, Christoph; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2002-02-01

    To improve our knowledge of the causal mechanisms of stress-related disorders such as depression, we need animal models that mirror the situation in patients. One promising model is the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews, which is based on the territorial behaviour of these animals that can be used to establish naturally occurring challenging situations under experimental control in the laboratory. Co-existence of two males in visual and olfactory contact leads to a stable dominant-subordinate relationship, with subordinates showing distinct stress-induced behavioural and neuroendocrine alterations that are comparable to the symptoms observed during episodes of depression in patients such as constantly elevated circulating glucocorticoid hormones due to a chronic hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To elucidate whether the chronic psychosocial stress model in tree shrews besides its "face validity" for depression also has "predictive validity", we treated subordinate tree shrews with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine and found a time-dependent restoration of both endocrine and behavioural parameters. In contrast, the anxiolytic diazepam was ineffective. Although the chronic psychosocial stress model in tree shrews requires further validation, it has sufficient face, predictive, and construct validity to become an interesting non-rodent model for research on the etiology and pathophysiology of depression.

  3. Distribution of vasopressin, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R-J; Shu, Y-M; Wang, J; Yin, J-C; Xu, L; Zhou, J-N

    2014-04-18

    Vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OXT) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the brain modulate physiological and behavioral processes in many vertebrates. Day-active tree shrews, the closest relatives of primates, live singly or in pairs in territories that they defend vigorously against intruding conspecifics. However, anatomy concerning peptidergic neuron distribution in the tree shrew brain is less clear. Here, we examined the distribution of VP, OXT and VIP immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using the immunohistochemical techniques. Most of VP and OXT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were found in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. In addition, VP-ir or OXT-ir neurons were scattered in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamic areas, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, stria terminalis, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala. Interestingly, a high density of VP-ir fibers within the ventral lateral septum was observed in males but not in females. Both VP-ir and VIP-ir neurons were found in different subdivisions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) with partial overlap. VIP-ir cells and fibers were also scattered in the cerebral cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, amygdala and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These findings provide a comprehensive description of VIP and a detailed mapping of VP and OXT in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews, which is an anatomical basis for the participation of these neuropeptides in the regulation of circadian behavior and social behavior.

  4. The Two-Oscillator Circadian System of Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri) and Its Response to Light and Dark Pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.H.; Daan, S.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Hermann, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The wheel-running activity rhythm of tree shrews (tupaias; Tupaia belangeri) housed in constant darkness (DD) phase-advanced following a 3-hr light pulse at circadian time (CT) 21. Dark pulses of 3 hr presented to tupaias in bright constant light (LL) did not induce significant phase shifts of the f

  5. Inference Based on Transitive Relation in Tree Shrews ("Tupaia belangeri") and Rats ("Rattus norvegicus") on a Spatial Discrimination Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Six tree shrews and 8 rats were tested for their ability to infer transitively in a spatial discrimination task. The apparatus was a semicircular radial-arm maze with 8 arms labeled A through H. In Experiment 1, the animals were first trained in sequence on 4 discriminations to enter 1 of the paired adjacent arms, AB, BC, CD, and DE, with right…

  6. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) exhibit novelty preference in the novel location memory task with 24-h retention periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jayakrishnan; Topka, Marlene; Khani, Abbas; Isenschmid, Manuela; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Novelty preference is pervasive in mammalian species, and describes an inherent tendency to preferentially explore novelty. The novel location memory task studied here assesses the ability of animals to form accurate memories of a spatial configuration, consisting of several identical objects placed within an arena. Tree shrews were first familiarized with a particular object configuration during several sessions, and then an object was displaced during a test session. Tree shrews exhibited enhanced exploration when confronted with this novel configuration. The most reliable indicator associated with novelty preference was an enhancement in directed exploration towards the novel object, although we also observed a non-specific overall increase in exploration in one experiment. During the test session, we also observed an exploration of the location, which had previously been occupied by the displaced object, an effect termed empty quadrant. Our behavioral findings suggest multiple stages of spatial memory formation in tree shrews that are associated with various forms of behavioral responses to novelty. Reduced novelty preference has been linked to major depressive disorder in human patients. Given the established social conflict depression model in tree shrews, we anticipate that the study of the neural circuits of novelty preference and their malfunction during depression may have implications for understanding or treating depression in humans.

  7. Size evolution in Goodwin’s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Merritt, J.F.; Churchfield, S.; Hutterer, R.; Sheftel, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  8. Evolution of morphological integration. I. Functional units channel stress-induced variation in shrew mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Foresman, Kerry R

    2004-06-01

    Stress-induced deviations from normal development are often assumed to be random, yet their accumulation and expression can be influenced by patterns of morphological integration within an organism. We studied within-individual developmental variation (fluctuating asymmetry) in the mandible of four shrew species raised under normal and extreme environments. Patterns of among-individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry were strongly concordant in traits that were involved in the attachment of the same muscles (i.e., functionally integrated traits), and fluctuating asymmetry was closely integrated among these traits, implying direct developmental interactions among traits involved in the same function. Stress-induced variation was largely confined to the directions delimited by functionally integrated groups of traits in the pattern that was concordant with species divergence--species differed most in the same traits that were most sensitive to stress within each species. These results reveal a strong effect of functional complexes on directing and incorporating stress-induced variation during development and might explain the historical persistence of sets of traits involved in the same function in shrew jaws despite their high sensitivity to environmental variation.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing.

  10. Cloning and characterization of a novel apolipoprotein gene, apolipoprotein AV, in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Luo, Huairong; Sun, Guotao; Wu, Guisheng; Wu, Gang; Wang, Yan; Man, Yong; Wang, Shu; Li, Jian; Chen, Baosheng

    2013-09-01

    Apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) modulates plasma triglyceride levels, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. ApoAV is also involved in atherosclerosis lesion formation. In order to systematically evaluate the apolipoprotein-related gene profile in tree shrew, a model for its insusceptibility to atherosclerosis, we performed apoAV cloning and characterization. The full-length cDNA of apoAV was identified using SMART-RACE. ApoAV cDNA sequence revealed two transcripts, 1,948 and 1,397 base pairs, due to alternative polyadenylation. These two transcripts share the same open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a 369-amino acid protein with high identity to human apoAV (75 %), including a 23-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. ApoAV is expressed exclusively in the liver. Mature apoAV was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and purified by Ni-chelated resin. Lipoprotein lipase activity was significantly stimulated by this recombinant protein. The full-length ORF of apoAV was cloned into pDsRed-monomer-N1 vector with a red fluorescent protein tag and was primarily localized in cytoplasm of hepG2 cells. The successful cloning, expression and localization of apoAV in tree shrew has laid down the foundation for further investigation on its structure and functions.

  11. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews I. Multiple subdivisions revealed through acetylcholinesterase and Cat-301 chemoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Tree shrews are highly visual mammals closely related to primates. They have a large visual pulvinar complex, but its organization and relation to visual cortex is only partly known. We processed brain sections through the pulvinar with seven different procedures in an effort to reveal histologically distinct compartments. The results revealed three major subdivisions. A dorsal subdivision, Pd, stains darkly for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and occupies the dorsoposterior one-third of the pulvinar complex. A ventral subdivision, Pv, stains darkly when processed with the Cat-301 antibody and occupies the ventroanterior fifth of the pulvinar complex along the brachium of the superior colliculus. Unexpectedly, part of Pv is ventral to the brachium. A large central subdivision, Pc, stains moderately dark for AChE and cytochrome oxidase (CO), and very light for Cat-301. Pc includes about half of the pulvinar complex, with parts on both sides of the brachium of the superior colliculus. These architectonic results demonstrate that the pulvinar complex of tree shrews is larger and has more subdivisions than previously described. The complex resembles the pulvinar of primates by having a portion ventral to the brachium and by having histochemically distinct nuclei; the number of nuclei is less than in primates, however.

  12. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunping Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  13. The relationship among metabolic rate of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri under cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small mammals inhabiting cold environments display enhanced capacity for seasonal changes in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST and thermoregulatory maximum metabolic rate (MMR. However, it is not known how this plasticity remains in a mammal that rarely experiences extreme cold fluctuations. In order to answer this question, we determined body mass ( Mb, basal metabolic rate (BMR, NST, and MMR on a tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri, acclimated to cold (5 ºC conditions. NST was measured as the maximum response of metabolic rate (NSTmax after injection of norepinephrine (NE in thermoneutrality minus BMR. Maximum metabolic rate was assessed in animals exposed to enhanced heat-loss atmosphere (He-O2 connected with an open-flow respirometer. Body mass and metabolic variables increased significantly after cold acclimation with respect to control group but to a high extent (BMR, 87.97%; NST, 69.77%; and MMR, 32.35%. However, aerobic scope (MMR/BMR, and calculated shivering thermogenesis (ST did not significantly change with control group. Our data suggest: 1. The body mass and the capacity of heat production in the cold acclimated group were higher; 2. The increase of BMR and MMR during cold acclimation was the main pattern of heat production in the tree shrews.

  14. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Ruan, Guangping; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing; Pan, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bouskila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (eCB system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing.

  16. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  17. Acoustical expression of arousal in conflict situations in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehka, Simone; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Zimmermann, Elke

    2007-08-01

    Empirical research on human and non-human primates suggests that communication sounds express the intensity of an emotional state of a signaller. In the present study, we have examined communication sounds during induced social interactions of a monogamous mammal, the tree shrew. To signal their unwillingness to mate, female tree shrews show defensive threat displays towards unfamiliar males paralleled by acoustically variable squeaks. We assumed that the distance between interacting partners as well as the behavior of the male towards the female indicates the intensity of perceived social threat and thereby the arousal state of a female. To explore this hypothesis we analyzed dynamic changes in communication sounds uttered during induced social interactions between a female and an unfamiliar male. Detailed videographic and sound analyzes revealed that the arousal state predicted variations in communication sound structure reliably. Both, a decrease of distance and a male approaching the female led to an increase in fundamental frequency and repetition rate of syllables. These findings support comparable results in human and non-human primates and suggest that common coding rules in communication sounds govern acoustic conflict regulation in mammals.

  18. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal.

  19. IN SITU SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-TRACE SYNTHETIC MUSKS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE EFFLUENT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY, FULL-SCAN MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of 1-L samples. A 1-L sample, however, usually provides too little ana...

  20. Clinical fluctuations in MuSK myasthenia gravis are related to antigen-specific IgG4 instead of IgG1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, E H; van Leeuwen, Y; Leite, M I; Dekker, F W; Wintzen, A R; Wirtz, P W; Vincent, A; van Tol, M J D; Jol-van der Zijde, C M; Verschuuren, J J G M

    2008-01-01

    We studied the longitudinal relation between disease severity and titers of antigen-specific IgG subclasses in sera of patients with myasthenia gravis and antibodies to Muscle Specific Kinase (MuSK MG). Six patients were included of whom 55 samples had been collected during 2.5-13.4 years. Anti-MuSK

  1. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp. in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyou Li

    Full Text Available Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp. abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation.

  2. Anti-genotoxic ability of α-tocopherol and Anthocyanin to counteract fish DNA damage induced by musk xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Lucia; Mottola, Filomena; Santonastaso, Marianna; Saputo, Valentina; Cusano, Elena; Costagliola, Domenico; Suero, Teresa; Pacifico, Severina; Stingo, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    Many compounds released into the environment are able to interact with genetic material. The main purpose of genetic toxicology is to investigate the adverse effects of genotoxic molecules such as reduced fitness, changes in gene frequencies and their impact on genetic diversity in populations following genotoxic exposure. However, the ecological effects of many genotoxic compounds remain poorly understood. The aim of this research was to evaluate the genotoxic activity of an artificial musk (musk xylene, MX) and the potential anti-genotoxicity against this chemical compound of two antioxidant substances (α-tocopherol and an anthocyanins enriched extract). The studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro, using the teleost Danio rerio and the DLEC (Dicentrarchus labrax embryonic cells) cell line. We carried out the exposure to these substances at different times. DNA and cell damage and their possible repair were detected by various experimental approaches: DNA strand breaks (Comet Assay), degree of apoptosis (Diffusion Assay) and molecular alterations at the genomic level (RAPD-PCR technique). Data were collected and analyzed for statistical significance using the Student's t test. The results of this study showed that MX exhibited a genotoxic activity even after short exposure times. The anti-genotoxicity experiments evidenced that both α-tocopherol and Anthocyanin were able to contrast the genotoxic effects induced by MX, both in vivo and in vitro.

  3. Photo-induced oxidative damage to dissolved free amino acids by the photosensitizer polycyclic musk tonalide: Transformation kinetics and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hansun; Gao, Yanpeng; Wang, Honghong; Yin, Hongliang; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng

    2017-05-15

    Residue from the polycyclic musks (PCMs) in household and personal care products may harm human beings through skin exposure. To understand the health effects of PCMs when exposed to sunlight at molecular level, both experimental and computational methods were employed to investigate the photosensitized oxidation performance of 19 natural amino acids, the most basic unit of life. Results showed that a typical PCM, tonalide, acts as a photosensitizer to significantly increase photo-induced oxidative damage to amino acids. Both common and exceptional transformation pathways occurred during the photosensitization damage of amino acids. Experimental tests further identified the different mechanisms involved. The common transformation pathway occurred through the electron transfer from α amino-group of amino acids, accompanying with the formation of O2(•-). This pathway was controlled by the electronic density of N atom in α amino-group. The exceptional transformation pathway was identified only for five amino acids, mainly due to the reactions with reactive oxygen species, e.g. (1)O2 and excited triplet state molecules. Additionally, tonalide photo-induced transformation products could further accelerate the photosensitization of all amino acids with the common pathway. This study may support the protection of human health, and suggests the possible need to further restrict polycyclic musks use.

  4. Study on Proliferation and Function of Artificial Musk on HUVEC%人工麝香对HUVEC增殖及功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛; 穆融融

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察人工麝香对体外培养的人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC)增殖及功能的影响.方法 体外培养HUVEC,采用MTT比色法测定不同浓度人工麝香溶液对HUVEC增殖的作用;Western Blot检测HUVEC中p-ERK和p-P38蛋白的表达水平;RT-PCR法测定HUVEC中eNOS、VEGFR1和VEGFR2 mRNA表达水平.结果 0.3、1μg/ml的人工麝香溶液具有促进HUVEC增殖的效应,其中1μg/ml作用显著(P<0.01);人工麝香可浓度依赖性地促进ERK和P38的磷酸化,且效应强于对照药硝酸甘油组;人工麝香溶液亦可浓度依赖性地促进HUVEC中eNOS和VEGFR2的mRNA表达,但对VEGFR1的mRNA表达没有影响.结论 人工麝香可通过促进HUVEC增殖,一定程度上代偿性地起到抗心肌缺血的作用.%Objective Observation the effects of proliferation and function of artificial musk on the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured. Methods HUVEC were cultured in vitro, and the the proliferation effect of different concentrations artificial musk solution on HUVEC was determined by MTT colorimetric method, Western Blot was used to detect expression levels of p-ERK and p-P38 proteins in HUVEC, and the mRNA expression levels of eNOS, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in HUVEC were determined by RT-PCR. Results Artificial musk solutions (0.3, 1 ug/ml) had the proliferation effect in HUVEC, 1 ug/ml artificial musk solution had significant effect (P<0.01). Artificial musk could promote phosphorylation of ERK and P38 in concentration-dependent manner, and the effect was more significant than the nitroglycerin control group. The mRNA expression of eNOS and VEGFR2 in HUVEC were increased by the artificial musk solution in concentration-dependent manner, but the mRNA expression of VEGFR1 had no effect. Conclusion Artificial musk could be compensatory for the anti-myocardial ischemia to a certain extent by promoting proliferation of HUVEC.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little...... is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well...... of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina...

  6. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  7. [Biotope distribution of cestodes from the common shrew Sorex araneus in southern Karelia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikanova, V S; Ieshko, E P; Bugmyrin, S V; Borodina, K A

    2003-01-01

    Specific features in the formation of cestode species composition in the common shrew in different biotopes have been analyzed. Four categories of parasites have been recognized depending on a degree of dominance: dominants (Neoskrjabinolepis singularis, Molluscotaenia crassiscolex), subdominants (Ditestolepis diaphana), adominants A (Staphylocystis furcata, Vigisolepis spinulosa, adominants B (Hymenolepis scutigera, Dilepis undula, D. secunda, Taenia mustelae). A significant similarity was discovered between the species diversity and the dominance characteristics of cestodes. It was found that the distribution of mass species of parasites in the host population corresponds to the gamma distribution model. In regard to cestodes examined, a hypothesis considering the spatial structure and size of territory occupied by stable parasitic system is put forward.

  8. White-toothed shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Crocidura of coastal islands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Abramov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available New findings of the white-toothed shrews (Crocidura spp. from offshore islands of Vietnam are reported. The species identifications have been confirmed by the analysis of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp. Crocidura phuquocensis is the only species found in the Phu Quoc Island. Crocidura fuliginosa has been recorded from two islands of the Con Dao Archipelago (Con Son and Bai Canh. The occurrence of C. fuliginosa in Vietnam has been genetically confirmed for the first time. Crocidura attenuata has been collected from the Cat Ba Island for the first time, and this finding corresponds well with the proposal that the species’ distribution is confined to the north and east of the Red River only.

  9. Proportion and cluster analyses of the skull in various species of the tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    The skull adaptation was functional-morphologically examined in 14 species of the tree shrews. From the data of the proportion indices, the similarities were confirmed between T. minor and T. gracilis, T. tana and T. dorsalis, and T. longipes and T. glis. We demonstrated that the splanchnocranium was elongated in terrestrial T. tana and T. dorsalis and shortened in arboreal T. minor and T. gracilis from the proportion data. In both dendrogram from the matrix of the Q-mode correlation coefficients and scattergram from the canonical discriminant analysis, the morphological similarities in the skull shape suggested the terrestrial-insectivorous adaptation of T. tana and T. dorsalis, and the arboreal adaptation of T. minor and T. gracilis. Since the osteometrical skull similarities were indicated among the three species of Tupaia by cluster and canonical discriminant analyses, the arbo-terrestrial behavior and its functional-morphological adaptation may be commonly established in T. montana, T. longipes and T. glis.

  10. Solar radiation during rewarming from torpor in elephant shrews: supplementation or substitution of endogenous heat production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy.

  11. Broad characterization of endogenous peptides in the tree shrew visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranc, Vaclav; Petruzziello, Filomena; Kretz, Robert; Argandoña, Enrike G; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-05-17

    Endogenous neuropeptides, acting as neurotransmitters or hormones in the brain, carry out important functions including neural plasticity, metabolism and angiogenesis. Previous neuropeptide studies have focused on peptide-rich brain regions such as the striatum or hypothalamus. Here we present an investigation of peptides in the visual system, composed of brain regions that are generally less rich in peptides, with the aim of providing the first broad overview of peptides involved in mammalian visual functions. We target three important parts of the visual system: the primary visual cortex (V1), lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC). Our study is performed in the tree shrew, a close relative of primates. Using a combination of data dependent acquisition and targeted LC-MS/MS based neuropeptidomics; we identified a total of 52 peptides from the tree shrew visual system. A total of 26 peptides, for example GAV and neuropeptide K were identified in the visual system for the first time. Out of the total 52 peptides, 27 peptides with high signal-to-noise-ratio (>10) in extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) were subjected to label-free quantitation. We observed generally lower abundance of peptides in the LGN compared to V1 and SC. Consistently, a number of individual peptides showed high abundance in V1 (such as neuropeptide Y or somatostatin 28) and in SC (such as somatostatin 28 AA1-12). This study provides the first in-depth characterization of peptides in the mammalian visual system. These findings now permit the investigation of neuropeptide-regulated mechanisms of visual perception.

  12. c-FOS expression in the visual system of tree shrews after monocular inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Toru; Kaas, Jon H

    2017-01-01

    Tree shrews possess an unusual segregation of ocular inputs to sublayers rather than columns in the primary visual cortex (V1). In this study, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and V1 were examined for changes in c-FOS, an immediate-early gene, expression after 1 or 24 hours of monocular inactivation with tetrodotoxin (TTX) in tree shrews. Monocular inactivation greatly reduced gene expression in LGN layers related to the blocked eye, whereas normally high to moderate levels were maintained in the layers that receive inputs from the intact eye. The SC and caudal pulvinar contralateral to the blocked eye had greatly (SC) or moderately (pulvinar) reduced gene expressions reflective of dependence on the contralateral eye. c-FOS expression in V1 was greatly reduced contralateral to the blocked eye, with most of the expression that remained in upper layer 4a and lower 4b and lower layer 6 regions. In contrast, much of V1 contralateral to the active eye showed normal levels of c-FOS expression, including the inner parts of sublayers 4a and 4b and layers 2, 3, and 6. In some cases, upper layer 4a and lower 4b showed a reduction of gene expression. Layers 5 and sublayer 3c had normally low levels of gene expression. The results reveal the functional dominance of the contralateral eye in activating the SC, pulvinar, and V1, and the results from V1 suggest that the sublaminar organization of layer 4 is more complex than previously realized. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:151-165, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Gene expression analysis in the hippocampal formation of tree shrews chronically treated with cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Julieta; Agüero, Fernán; Sanchez, Daniel O; Flugge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard; Frasch, Alberto C C; Pollevick, Guido D

    2004-12-01

    Adrenal corticosteroids influence the function of the hippocampus, the brain structure in which the highest expression of glucocorticoid receptors is found. Chronic high levels of cortisol elicited by stress or through exogenous administration can cause irreversible damage and cognitive deficits. In this study, we searched for genes expressed in the hippocampal formation after chronic cortisol treatment in male tree shrews. Animals were treated orally with cortisol for 28 days. At the end of the experiments, we generated two subtractive hippocampal hybridization libraries from which we sequenced 2,246 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) potentially regulated by cortisol. To validate this approach further, we selected some of the candidate clones to measure mRNA expression levels in hippocampus using real-time PCR. We found that 66% of the sequences tested (10 of 15) were differentially represented between cortisol-treated and control animals. The complete set of clones was subjected to a bioinformatic analysis, which allowed classification of the ESTs into four different main categories: 1) known proteins or genes (approximately 28%), 2) ESTs previously published in the database (approximately 16%), 3) novel ESTs matching only the reference human or mouse genome (approximately 5%), and 4) sequences that do not match any public database (50%). Interestingly, the last category was the most abundant. Hybridization assays revealed that several of these clones are indeed expressed in hippocampal tissue from tree shrew, human, and/or rat. Therefore, we discovered an extensive inventory of new molecular targets in the hippocampus that serves as a reference for hippocampal transcriptional responses under various conditions. Finally, a detailed analysis of the genomic localization in human and mouse genomes revealed a survey of putative novel splicing variants for several genes of the nervous system.

  14. 基于数字信号处理的一种Shrew DDoS攻击检测方法%A detection approach of Shrew DDoS based on digital signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹妮

    2006-01-01

    首先简要介绍了传统DDoS的一般检测方法,进而介绍了一种新型的DDoS攻击--Shrew DDoS攻击,这是一种不同于传统DDoS的低频攻击.针对这种攻击提出了一种基于数字信号处理的检测方法.

  15. 青海省海北州麝香资源及其开发利用和发展前景%Development, Utilization and Prospects of Musk Resources in Haibei State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万明

    2012-01-01

    The musk is the dry secretion from the sweet bursa of mature male body of horse musk deer and forest musk deer, is Chinese special product of famous medicinal materials and one of the famous four in the world. The animal morphological characteristics of horse musk deer and forest musk deer as well as the collecting and processing method, commodity quality and identification method of musk were introduced, furthermore the production and sale situation and development prospect were proposed.%麝香是由鹿科动物马麝和林麝成熟雄体香囊中的分泌物干燥而成,为我国特产的名贵药材和世界四大名香之一。介绍了马麝和林麝的动物形态特征以及麝香的采集加工方法、商品质量与鉴别方法及产销情况。并展望了麝香的发展前景。

  16. This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Carleton, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

  17. Carving out turf in a biodiversity hotspot: multiple, previously unrecognized shrew species co-occur on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselstyn, Jacob A; Maharadatunkamsi; Achmadi, Anang S; Siler, Cameron D; Evans, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    In theory, competition among species in a shared habitat results in niche separation. In the case of small recondite mammals such as shrews, little is known about their autecologies, leaving open questions regarding the degree to which closely related species co-occur and how or whether ecological niches are partitioned. The extent to which species are able to coexist may depend on the degree to which they exploit different features of their habitat, which may in turn influence our ability to recognize them as species. We explored these issues in a biodiversity hotspot, by surveying shrew (genus Crocidura) diversity on the Indonesian island of Java. We sequenced portions of nine unlinked genes in 100-117 specimens of Javan shrews and incorporated homologous data from most known Crocidura species from other parts of island South-East Asia. Current taxonomy recognizes four Crocidura species on Java, including two endemics. However, our phylogenetic, population genetic and species delimitation analyses identify five species on the island, and all are endemic to Java. While the individual ranges of these species may not overlap in their entirety, we found up to four species living syntopically and all five species co-occurring on one mountain. Differences in species' body size, use of above ground-level habitats by one species and habitat partitioning along ecological gradients may have facilitated species diversification and coexistence.

  18. A new species of small-eared shrew in the Cryptotis thomasi species group from Costa Rica (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of small-eared shrew, genus Cryptotis Pomel, 1848 (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), from near the community of Monteverde in the Tilarán highlands of northwestern Costa Rica. The new species is immediately distinguished from all other Costa Rican shrews its large size and long tail. Morphologically, it belongs to the Cryptotis thomasi group of small-eared shrews, a clade that is more typically distributed in the Andes Cordillera and other highland regions of northern South America. The new Costa Rican species and the Panamanian endemic Cryptotis endersi Setzer, 1950 are the only two members of this species group known to occur in Central America. Like most other members of the C. thomasi group for which the postcranial skeleton has been studied, the new species tends be more ambulatory (rather than semi-fossorial) when compared with other members of the genus. Our survey efforts over several decades failed to locate a population of the new species, and we discuss its conservation status in light of its limited potential distribution in the Tilarán highlands and the significant climatic change that has been documented in the Monteverde region during the past four decades.

  19. Depression-like behaviors in tree shrews and comparison of the effects of treatment with fluoxetine and carbetocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaolu; Shen, Fang; Li, Chunlu; Li, Yonghui; Wang, Xuewei

    2016-06-01

    Tree shrews, a species phylogenetically close to primates, are regarded as a suitable and naturalistic animal model for depression studies. However, psychological symptoms that are essential for depression diagnosis and treatment, such as helplessness and social withdrawal, have not been studied in this model. Therefore, in this study, we first investigated learned helplessness, social interaction and sucrose preference induced by two chronic stress paradigms: uncontrollable foot shocks (1-week foot shocks) and multiple unpredictable stimuli (1-week foot shocks and 3-week unpredictable stressors) in tree shrews. Our results showed that uncontrollable foot shocks could only induce learned helplessness in animals; whereas animals treated with multiple unpredictable stimuli exhibited more depression-like behaviors including social withdrawal, anhedonia and learned helplessness. These findings suggested that multiple unpredictable stimuli could effectively induce various depression-like behaviors in tree shrews. More importantly, we compared the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine and carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analog, on specific depression-like behaviors. Our present data displayed that, compared with fluoxetine, carbetocin was also effective in reversing learned helplessness, elevating sucrose preference and improving social interaction behaviors in depression-like animals. Therefore, carbetocin might be a potential antidepressant with applications in humans.

  20. 树鼩的动物福利措施探讨%Discussion on welfare of tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡德宣; 孙晓梅; 江勤芳; 仝品芬; 陆彩霞; 高家红; 代解杰

    2013-01-01

    树鼩在生物学特性、生理生化、新陈代谢和基因组等方面近似于人类,被广泛应用于生理学、病理学、病毒学、免疫学、药理学及遗传学等多个领域.迄今为止用于生物医学研究的树鼩大部分来自野生,实验树鼩尚无国家质量控制标准.为了保证树鼩引种、驯化、饲养、繁殖、质量控制及福利的规范化和科学化,提高树鼩繁殖率和成活率,本文从兽医公共卫生及实验动物科学的角度,对野生树鼩的捕捉、运输、检疫、饲养及繁育等方面的基本原则及技术操作和福利要求作一简述,为从事树鼩工作的有关人员及树鼩实验动物化研究提供参考.%Tree shrew is similar to human beings in many aspects such as biological characteristics, physiology and biochemistry, metabolism, genome, and etc. It has played an important role in many scientific research fields, such as physiology, pathology, virology, immunology, pharmacology, genetics and so forth. To this day most of wild tree shrews have been used in biomedical studies, yet there is no national quality control standard. In order to assure the standardization and scientific quality of tree shrew introduction, domestication, alimentation, reproduction, quality control, animal welfare, and increase the reproduction rate and survival rate of tree shrews, we will summarize in this paper some basic principles, technical operation and welfare requirements related to tree shrews according to the requirement of veterinary public health and laboratory animal sciences, including wild catching, transportation, quarantine, feeding, breeding and some other items, and provide some useful reference information for related workers and researches.

  1. BDNF Expression in the Central Nervous System of Tree Shrews (Tupaia Belangeri Chinensis)%BDNF在树鼩中枢神经系统的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何保丽; 刘汝文; 陈丽玲; 李波; 李进涛; 角建林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect BDNF expression in the central nervous system(hippocampus and brainstem) of tree shrews. Method RT-PCR was used to detect BDNF expression in the central nervous system(hippocampus and brainstem) of tree shrews from embryo to adult. Results BDNF expressed in hippocampus and brainstem of tree shrews from embryo to adult. The expression level of BDNF mRNA in adult was significantly higher than that of embryo and newborn tree shrews (F< 0.05) . Conclusion The expression level of BDNF is still high in adult tree shrews.%目的 观测脑源性神经营养因子(6rain-derived neurotrophic factor,BDNF)在树鼩中枢神经系统的表达.方法 用RT—PCR技术探讨从胎儿、新生到成年过程中,观察树鼩中枢神经系统海马和脑干BDNF的表达变化.结果 BDNF在胎儿、新生和成年树鼩的海马和脑干均有表达,成年树鼩海马中的表达量显著高于胎儿和新生树鼩,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 BDNF在成年树鼩仍有较高的表达量.

  2. 树鼩自发性乳腺癌的病理学观察%Pathologial observation of Spontaneous Breast Cancer in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何保丽; 杨仁华; 李进涛; 李波; 王丽梅; 角建林

    2013-01-01

    为了探索树鼩自发乳腺癌的情况,试验观察了100只雌性树鼩在人工饲养条件下自发产生乳腺癌的情况,并用HE染色分析乳腺癌组织的病理学改变。结果显示,人工饲养的雌性树鼩能自发发生乳腺癌,发生率为4%,其中有1例发生了乳腺癌肺转移。%To explore spontaneous breast cancer of tree shrews ,the incidence and development of breast cancer in 100 female tree shrews were investigated .The pathological lesions were analyzed by HE stai-ning .The result showed the tree shrews in captivity can develop breast cancer spontaneously .The inci-dence of the breast cancer occurred in female tree shrews was four percent .Breast cancer lung metastasis occurred in one tree shrew .

  3. 树鼩催乳饲料中草药添加效果研究%Effect of Chinese Medicine Additive on Lactiferous Fodder of Tree Shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝文; 陈丽玲

    2012-01-01

    中药添加剂对树鼩催乳效果的研究结果表明,基础日粮+配方I处理泌乳量显著高于基础日粮处理(P〈0.05),仔树鼩的体重和成活率最高。%The effect of Chinese medicine additive on lactiferous fodder of tree shrews was studied. The results showed that the treatments with basal diet+Drug Group I had significantly difference with the treatments with basal diet, the weight and survival rate of tree shrew were highest.

  4. Shrews, rats, and a polecat in "the pardoner’s tale": Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sandy; Woodman, Neal; Van Dyke, Carolynn

    2012-01-01

    While historically existing animals and literary animal characters inform allegorical and metaphorical characterization in The Canterbury Tales, figurative usage does not erase recognition of the material animal. "The Pardoner's Tale," for one, challenges the terms of conventional animal metaphors by refocusing attention on common animals as common animals and common human creatures as something worse than vermin. Most attention has been paid to the larger animals-goat, hare, and horse-that constitute the physical portrait of Chaucer's Pardoner in the "General Prologue" and in the prologue to his tale.! Like these animals, rats and a polecat, together with rhetorical shrews, appear in this tale as well as in other literature, including bestiaries and natural histories. Equally to the purpose, these animals could be physically observed as constituents of both urban and rural landscapes in fourteenth-century England.2 In the Middle Ages, animals were part of the environment as well as part of the culture: they lived inside as well as outside the city gates, priory walls, and even domestic spaces; a rat in the street or the garden might not be any less welcome or uncommon than encountering someone's horses and goats nibbling vegetation or blocking a passage. Not being out of the ordinary, though, such animals could (and can) be overlooked or dismissed as com­mon, too familiar to register. This chapter reveals why readers and listeners should pay close attention to the things they think they know and what they hear about what they think they know.

  5. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  6. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  7. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Nadjafova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetical and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011. However, rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists.It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008.

  8. Psychosocial stress, glucocorticoids, and structural alterations in the tree shrew hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E; Flügge, G; Ohl, F; Lucassen, P; Vollmann-Honsdorf, G K; Michaelis, T

    2001-06-01

    Animal models for chronic stress represent an indispensable preclinical approach to human pathology since clinical data point to a major role of psychological stress experiences, acute and/or chronic, to the development of behavioral and physiological disturbances. Chronic emotional arousal is a consequence of various types of social interactions, and one major neurohumoral accompaniment is the activation of the classic stress circuit, the limbic--hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenocortical (LHPA) axis. The adrenocortical glucocorticoid hormones cortisol and corticosterone are principal effectors within this circuit since they affect neurotransmission and neuroendocrine control, thus having profound effects on mood and behavior. Using the experimental paradigm of chronic psychosocial stress in tree shrews, we investigated the impact of aversive chronic social encounters on hippocampal structure and function. In chronically stressed animals, we observed dendritic atrophy of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and an impairment of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. However, a stress-induced loss of hippocampal neurons was not observed in this animal model. This review summarizes our recent results on structural changes occurring during chronic stress in neurons of the hippocampus and their potential influence on learning and memory. We discuss whether these changes are reversible and to what extent glucocorticoids might be responsible for the stress-induced effects.

  9. Calretinin and FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervus terminalis of prenatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malz, Cordula Renate; Kuhn, Hans-Jürg

    2002-04-30

    The distribution and development of FMRFamide- and calretinin-immunoreactive neurons were investigated in the nervus terminalis of prenatal tree shrews from gestation day 19 onwards. The first FMRFamide-immunoreactive cells were observed medially in the olfactory epithelium on gestation day 20. From gestation day 23 onwards, the migrating nervus terminalis ganglion cells showed FMRFamide calretinin immunoreactivity. The distribution pattern of FMRFamide- and calretinin-immunoreactive cells was similar along the migratory route and in the ganglion of the terminal nerve. However, most probably calretinin and FMRFamide were expressed in separate neuronal populations. For the first time in a mammal, FMRFamide and calretinin are reported to occur in the migrating perikarya and neuronal processes of the nervus terminalis during prenatal development. The results suggest (i) an early activation of the rostral FMRFamide-immunoreactive migratory stream comparable to that described for the GnRH-immunoreactive part of the terminal nerve in other mammals and possibly (ii) an involvement of calretinin in mechanisms of cell migration and outgrowth of neuronal processes in the terminal nerve during the studied period.

  10. Comparison of Nonshivering Thermogenesis Induced by Norepinephrine Stress in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-long Zhu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonshivering thermogenesis (NSTis an important thermogenic mechanism for small mammals. Quantitative measurement of NST is usually stimulated by injection of norepinephrine. The injection dosage of norepinephrine (NE is critical for eliciting the maximum NST. Three empirical equations of NE dosages were often referenced in previous studies: (1 NE (mg / kg= 2.53W-0.4; (2 NE(mg/kg = 3.3W-0.458 and (3 NE(mg/kg= 6.6W-0.458. In the present study , we used tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri as experiment subjects to test the effects of the three dosages of NE on NST. Results showed that all the three dosages of NE could induce the maximum NST for T. belangeri. No significant differences were found in NST among groups and the NST was respectively 2.63±0.12 (formula 1, 2.66±0. 11 (formula 2 and 2.78±0.15 (formula 3. However, when injected with NE dosage from formula 3, the increase of body temperatures was significantly higher than the other two NE dosages (increased 1.5±0. 1 oC (formula 3, 0.8±0. 2 oC (formula 2, and 0.6±0. 1 oC (formula 1, respectively. In order to prevent the death because of hyperthermia, formula 1 or 2 is recommended to be used.

  11. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  12. Affinities of `hyopsodontids' to elephant shrews and a Holarctic origin of Afrotheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Shawn P.; Penkrot, Tonya A.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Rose, Kenneth D.

    2005-03-01

    Macroscelideans (elephant shrews or sengis) are small-bodied (25-540g), cursorial (running) and saltatorial (jumping), insectivorous and omnivorous placental mammals represented by at least 15 extant African species classified in four genera. Macroscelidea is one of several morphologically diverse but predominantly African placental orders classified in the superorder Afrotheria by molecular phylogeneticists. The distribution of modern afrotheres, in combination with a basal position for Afrotheria within Placentalia and molecular divergence-time estimates, has been used to link placental diversification with the mid-Cretaceous separation of South America and Africa. Morphological phylogenetic analyses do not support Afrotheria and the fossil record favours a northern origin of Placentalia. Here we describe fossil postcrania that provide evidence for a close relationship between North American Palaeocene-Eocene apheliscine `hyopsodontid' `condylarths' (early ungulates or hoofed mammals) and extant Macroscelidea. Apheliscine postcranial morphology is consistent with a relationship to other ungulate-like afrotheres (Hyracoidea, Proboscidea) but does not provide support for a monophyletic Afrotheria. As the oldest record of an afrothere clade, identification of macroscelidean relatives in the North American Palaeocene argues against an African origin for Afrotheria, weakening support for linking placental diversification to the break-up of Gondwana.

  13. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  14. Invading and expanding: range dynamics and ecological consequences of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula invasion in Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan D McDevitt

    Full Text Available Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus, previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013 to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008-2013, and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012-2013 showing rates of 2.4-14.1 km/yr, 0.5-7.1 km/yr and 0-5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island.

  15. PTEN/PIK3CA genes are frequently mutated in spontaneous and medroxyprogesterone acetate-accelerated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumours of tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hou-Jun; He, Bao-Li; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Ge, Guang-Zhe; Zhang, Yuan-Xu; Lv, Long-Bao; Jiao, Jian-Lin; Chen, Ceshi

    2014-12-01

    Tree shrew has increasingly become an attractive experimental animal model for human diseases, particularly for breast cancer due to spontaneous breast tumours and their close relationship to primates and by extension to humans. However, neither normal mammary glands nor breast tumours have been well characterised in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). In this study, normal mammary glands from four different developmental stages and 18 spontaneous breast tumours were analysed. Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that normal mammary gland morphology and structures of tree shrews were quite similar to those found in humans. Spontaneous breast tumours of tree shrews were identified as being intraductal papilloma, papillary carcinoma, and invasive ductal carcinoma with or without lung metastasis. To further analyse breast cancer tumours among tree shrews, 40 3-4 month-old female tree shrews were orally administrated 20 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or peanut oil thrice, and then, 15 of these DMBA administrated tree shrews were implanted with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) pellets. DMBA was shown to induce breast tumours (12%) while the addition of MPA increased the tumour incidence (50%). Of these, three induced breast tumours were intraductal papillary carcinomas and one was invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The PTEN/PIK3CA (phosphatase and tensin homologue/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha), but not TP53 and GATA3, genes are frequently mutated in breast tumours, and the PTEN/PIK3CA gene mutation status correlated with the expression of pAKT in tree shrew breast tumours. These results suggest that tree shrews may be a promising animal model for a subset of human breast cancers with PTEN/PIK3CA gene mutations.

  16. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results: High grazing...... habitat types for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape in Europe. Hay cutting and livestock grazing is known to affect a number of organisms, but the response to grazing may vary across classes of organisms and with the intensity of Published: 20...

  17. Removal of polycyclic synthetic musks and antineoplastic drugs in ozonated wastewater: Quantitation based on the data of differential spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Nanaboina, Venkateswarlu; Chen, Fang; Korshin, Gregory V

    2016-03-05

    This study examined the degradation behavior of polycyclic musks (PMs) and antineoplastic drugs (ADs) and the absorbance spectra of effluent organic matter (EfOM) in municipal wastewater by ozone. Specific ozone doses used in the experiments ranged from 0 to 1mg O3/mg dissolved organic matter (DOC). The examined PMs included galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, traseolide and phantolide. ADs included busulfan, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, flutamide, ifosfamide, tamoxifen and methotrexate. Strong monotonic albeit nonlinear correlations were found to exist between relative changes of EfOM absorbance at 254 nm (i.e. ΔA254/A(0)254) and the degradation of the selected PMs and ADs. This result was interpreted based on the concept of the simultaneous oxidation of EfOM and, on the other hand, PMs and ADs. This interpretation showed that PMs were degraded primarily via OH radical attack, with tonalide and phantolide being less reactive compared with the other PMs. ADs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and busulfan were also determined to undergo oxidation by OH radicals. Comparison of the behavior of the radical probe para-chlorobenzoic acid and the examined ADs and PMs allowed evaluating corresponding reaction rate constants for reactions between these species and OH radicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRULENCE GENES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF LUNG PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATES IN FOREST MUSK DEER (MOSCHUS BEREZOVSKII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Jian-guo; Luo, Yan; Dai, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Zou, Li-kou; Li, Bei; Xiao, Jiu-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated genotypic diversity, 26 virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of lung pathogenic Escherichia coli (LPEC) isolated from forest musk deer. Associations between virulence factors (VFs) and phylogenetic group, between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and phylogenetic group, and between AMR and VFs were subsequently assessed. The results showed 30 LPEC isolated were grouped into seven different clusters (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G). The detection rates of crl (90%), kpsMT II (76.67%), mat (76.67%), and ompA (80%) were over 75%. The most frequent types of resistance were to amoxicillin (100%), sulfafurazole (100%), ampicillin (96.67%), and tetracycline (96.67%), with 93.33% (n = 28) of isolates resistant to more than eight types of drugs. There were significant relationships between resistance to cefalotin and the presence of iucD(a) (P < 0.001), papC (P = 0.032), and kpsMT II (P = 0.028); between resistance to chloromycetin and the presence of irp2 (P = 0.004) and vat (P = 0.047); between resistance to nalidixic acid and the presence of crl (P = 0.002) and iucD(a) (P = 0.004); and between resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam and the presence of vat (P = 0.013). These results indicated there could be some association between resistance and VFs, and there is a great need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in LPEC.

  19. Determination of hemoglobin adduct of a musk xylene metabolite in trout as biomarker of exposure by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOTTALEB Mohammad Abdul; KARIM Mohammad Rezaul

    2005-01-01

    Musk xylene(MX) is frequently used as fragrances in formulation of personal care products. Quantification of a bound 4-aminoMX(4-AMX) as cysteine adducts in trout hemoglobin(Hb) was made by gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry(GC/MS). The Hb samples were collected from trout after 24 h exposure to MX at 10 μg/g, and or menhaden oil(control). The formation of cysteine-Hb adduct was observed from nitroso derivative of MX, released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released 4-AMX metabolite was extracted in nhexane. The extract was then reduced by evaporation, and analyzed by GC/MS. When similar agreement of mass spectral features and retention time of 4-AMX were obtained in both standard and sample solutions, the presence of 4-AMX metabolite in the Hb was confirmed.The concentration of 4-AMX was found to be 3.1 x 10-6- 6.9 x 10-6 mg/g in the Hb solution. Quantitation was made based on an internal standard, a calibration plot, and response factor. In the non-hydrolyzed and laboratory blank extracts, the 4-AMX metabolite was not detected. Additionally, coeluting and interfering ions were observed in the biological samples.

  20. Polycyclic Musks in the Air and Water of the Lower Great Lakes: Spatial Distribution and Volatilization from Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carrie A; Helm, Paul A; Muir, Derek; Puggioni, Gavino; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic musks (PCMs) are synthetic fragrance compounds used in personal care products and household cleaners. Previous studies have indicated that PCMs are introduced to aquatic environments via wastewater and river discharge. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were deployed in air and water during winter 2011 and summer 2012 to investigate the role of population centers as sources of these contaminants to the Great Lakes and determine whether the lakes were acting as sources of PCMs via volatilization. Average gaseous Σ5PCM ranged from below detection limits (Lake Erie in Toledo. Average dissolved Σ5PCM ranged from Lake Ontario near the mouth of the Oswego River. Significant correlations were observed between population density and Σ5PCM in both air and water, with strongest correlations within a 25 and 40 km radius, respectively. At sites where HHCB was detected it was generally volatilizing, while the direction of AHTN air-water exchange was variable. Volatilization fluxes of HHCB ranged from 11 ± 6 to 341 ± 127 ng/m(2)/day, while air-water exchange fluxes of AHTN ranged from -3 ± 2 to 28 ± 10 ng/m(2)/day. Extrapolation of average air-water exchange flux values over the surface area of the lakes' coastal boundary zone suggested volatilization may be responsible for the loss of 64-213 kg/year of dissolved Σ5PCM from the lakes.

  1. Detection and characterization of antibiotic-resistance genes in Arcanobacterium pyogenes strains from abscesses of forest musk deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Lei; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiu-Yue; Palahati, Paha'erding; Wang, Hong-Ning; Yue, Bi-Song

    2011-12-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes is commonly isolated from ruminant animals as an opportunistic pathogen that co-infects with other bacteria, normally causing surface or internal abscesses. Twenty-eight strains of A. pyogenes isolated from forest musk deer suppurative samples were identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequences, and confirmed by amplification of the pyolysin-encoding gene (plo) in all isolates. The MICs of 14 commonly used antibiotics were determined by an agar dilution method. Class 1 and 2 intI genes were amplified to determine whether integrons were present in the A. pyogenes genome. Class 1 gene cassettes were detected by specific primers and analysed by sequencing. All of the strains were susceptible to most fluoroquinolone antibiotics; however, high resistance rates were observed for β-lactams and trimethoprim. A total of 18 of the isolates (64.3%) were positive for the class 1 intI gene, and 16 (57.1%) contained class 1 gene cassettes with the aacC, aadA1, aadA2, blaP1 and dfr2a genes. Most were present in the multi-resistant isolates, indicating a general concordance between the presence of gene cassettes and antibiotic resistance, and that the integrons have played an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in this species.

  2. How does the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, responds to long-term heavy metal contamination? - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Carla Cristina [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ccmarques@fc.ul.pt; Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gabriel, Sofia Isabel [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Nadal, Jacint [Departament Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Luz Mathias, Maria da [Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Departamento Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-04-15

    Heavy metals accumulation in parallel with the evaluation of physiological and biochemical effects resulting from continued metal exposure were considered here using for the first time the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula as an in vivo model. Shrews were originated from an abandoned lead/zinc mining area and from a reference area, both in Alentejo, southern Portugal. Hepatic contents of nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Haematological parameters (white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit) were obtained in a Coulter Counter Analyser and biochemical markers of the redox balance (glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities were measured spectrophotometrically using a Duo-50 spectrophotometer. Compared with control animals, significantly higher concentration of hepatic cadmium (9.29 vs. 1.18 {mu}g/g dry weight) and nickel (1.56 vs. 0.343 {mu}g/g dry weight) were detected in the shrews collected in the mining area. However, no significant changes were observed on haematological or enzymatic parameters in animals exposed to metal pollution. The obtained results show that shrews are good bioaccumulators of toxic heavy metals, but very tolerant to their effects, revealing an interesting long-term adaptation to polluted environments. In addition, this study provides reference values for haematological parameters and antioxidant enzymes levels in C. russula, which may be relevant for comparative purposes in further studies.

  3. Research and Application of Compound Feed for Tree Shrew%实验树鼩配合饲料的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝品芬; 高家红; 匡德宣; 代解杰; 江勤芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To design and manufacture a practical experimental feed for tree shrew breeding and growth, according to the biological characteristics of tree shrew and relevant standards for laboratory animal feed. The results indicate this feed can meet the needs of growth, reproduction and experiments of tree shrews. Both the feed nutritional ingredients and uniformity of admixture are accord with local governmental standards for tree shrews. It is not only convenient to manufacture and feed but also promising in application and popularyzation.%根据树鼩的生物学特性并参考有关实验动物饲料标准为树鼩设计和加工生产一种实验饲育饲料.结果表明该饲料能满足树鼩的健康生长、饲养繁殖和实验树鼩的营养需求.该饲料的营养成分和混合均匀度均符合地方标准,生产和饲喂方便,具有一定的应用和推广前景.

  4. The position of tree shrews in the mammalian tree: Comparing multi-gene analyses with phylogenomic results leaves monophyly of Euarchonta doubtful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuming; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-03-01

    The well-accepted Euarchonta grandorder is a pruned version of Archonta nested within the Euarchontoglires (or Supraprimates) clade. At present, it includes tree shrews (Scandentia), flying lemurs (Dermoptera) and primates (Primates). Here, a phylogenomic dataset containing 1912 exons from 22 representative mammals was compiled to investigate the phylogenetic relationships within this group. Phylogenetic analyses and hypothesis testing suggested that tree shrews can be classified as a sister group to Primates or to Glires or even as a basal clade within Euarchontoglires. Further analyses of both modified and original previously published datasets found that the phylogenetic position of tree shrews is unstable. We also found that two of three exonic indels reported as synapomorphies of Euarchonta in a previous study do not unambiguously support the monophyly of such a clade. Therefore, the monophyly of both Euarchonta and Sundatheria (Dermoptera + Scandentia) are suspect. Molecular dating and divergence rate analyses suggested that the ancestor of Euarchontoglires experienced a rapid divergence, which may cause the unresolved position of tree shrews even using the whole genomic data.

  5. Progress and prospect in research on laboratory tree shrew in China%中国树鼩实验动物化研究进展和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈培清; 角建林; 郑红; 刘汝文; 陈丽玲; 李波; 何保丽; 李进涛; 贲昆龙; 曹筱梅

    2011-01-01

    We outline the historical research on the laboratory tree shrew in China and discuss its current research trends. Five key aspects of applied research are emphasized in this review, including quality control standards for laboratory tree shrews, the establishment of an inbred colony, commercial preparation of major molecular and cellular research tools, further research on tree shrew models for human diseases, and the establishment of the tree shrew seed institution at state level.%该文回顾了我国树鼩驯养繁殖和研究的发展历史,介绍了树鼩实验动物化研究的最新进展,并结合我国目前的状况,提出了今后的工作建议:加强实验树鼩标准化(包括地方和国家标准)的研究、近交系动物的研制、达到商业化树鼩的基础分子与细胞生物学研究工具的研制、人类重大疾病树鼩动物模型研究和建设国家实验树鼩种源基地等.

  6. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) gene family in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming; Ge, Guang-Zhe; Liu, Wen-Jing; Xiao, Ji; Xia, Hou-Jun; Fan, Yu; Zhao, Feng; He, Bao-Li; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-12-10

    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating embryonic development and diseases. The phylogenetics of KLFs has not been studied in tree shrews, an animal lineage with a closer relationship to primates than rodents. Here, we identified 17 KLFs from Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). KLF proteins are highly conserved among humans, monkeys, rats, mice and tree shrews compared to zebrafish and chickens. The CtBP binding site, Sin3A binding site and nuclear localization signals are largely conserved between tree shrews and human beings. Tupaia belangeri (Tb) KLF5 contains several conserved post-transcriptional modification motifs. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression patterns of multiple tbKLFs are tissue-specific . TbKLF5, like hKLF5, significantly promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation in vitro. These results provide insight for future studies regarding the structure and function of the tbKLF gene family.

  7. Diffuse and specific tectopulvinar terminals in the tree shrew: synapses, synapsins, and synaptic potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Wei

    Full Text Available The pulvinar nucleus of the tree shrew receives both topographic (specific and nontopographic (diffuse projections from superior colliculus (SC, which form distinct synaptic arrangements. We characterized the physiological properties of these synapses and describe two distinct types of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs that correlate with structural properties of the specific and diffuse terminals. Synapses formed by specific terminals were found to be significantly longer than those formed by diffuse terminals. Stimulation of these two terminal types elicited two types of EPSPs that differed in their latency and threshold amplitudes. In addition, in response to repetitive stimulation (0.5-20 Hz one type of EPSP displayed frequency-dependent depression whereas the amplitudes of the second type of EPSP were not changed by repetitive stimulation of up to 20 Hz. To relate these features to vesicle release, we compared the synapsin content of terminals in the pulvinar nucleus and the dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN by combining immunohistochemical staining for synapsin I or II with staining for the type 1 or type 2 vesicular glutamate transporters (markers for corticothalamic and tectothalamic/retinogeniculate terminals, respectively. We found that retinogeniculate terminals do not contain either synapsin I or synapsin II, corticothalamic terminals in the dLGN and pulvinar contain synapsin I, but not synapsin II, whereas tectopulvinar terminals contain both synapsin I and synapsin II. Finally, both types of EPSPs showed a graded increase in amplitude with increasing stimulation intensity, suggesting convergence; this was confirmed using a combination of anterograde tract tracing and immunocytochemistry. We suggest that the convergent synaptic arrangements, as well as the unique synapsin content of tectopulvinar terminals, allow them to relay a dynamic range of visual signals from the SC.

  8. Retinal thinning in tree shrews with induced high myopia: optical coherence tomography and histological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Carla J; Grünert, Ulrike; Pianta, Michael J; McBrien, Neville A

    2011-02-09

    This study determined retinal thinning in a mammalian model of high myopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological sections from the same retinal tissue. High myopia was induced in three tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) by deprivation of form vision via lid suture of one eye, with the other eye a control. Ocular biometry data was obtained by Ascan ultrasonography, keratometry and retinoscopy. The Zeiss StratusOCT was used to obtain Bscans in vivo across the retina. Subsequently, eyes were enucleated and retinas fixed, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned. Treated eyes developed a high degree of axial myopia (-15.9 ± 2.3D; n = 3). The OCT analysis showed that in myopic eyes the nasal retina thinned more than the temporal retina relative to the disc (p=0.005). Histology showed that the retinas in the myopic eyes comprise all layers but were thinner than the retinas in normal and control eyes. Detailed thickness measurements in corresponding locations of myopic and control eyes in superior nasal retina using longitudinal reflectivity profiles from OCT and semithin vertical histological sections showed the percentage of retinal thinning in the myopic eyes was similar between methods (OCT 15.34 ± 5.69%; histology 17.61 ± 3.02%; p = 0.10). Analysis of retinal layers revealed that the inner plexiform, inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers thin the most. Cell density measurements showed all neuronal cell types are involved in retinal thinning. The results indicate that in vivo OCT measurements can accurately detect retinal thinning in high myopia.

  9. Morphological adaptation of the skull for various behaviors in the tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Motokawa, Masaharu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J

    2003-08-01

    Skull size and shape were examined among 14 species of the tree shrews (Tupaia montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, T. mulleri, T. longipes, T. glis, T. javanica, T. minor, T. gracilis, T. dorsalis, T. tana, Dendrogale melanura, D. murina, and Ptilocercus lowii). The bones of face were rostro-caudally longer in T. tana and T. dorsalis, contrasting with T. minor and T. gracilis, D. melanura, D. murina and P. lowii which have smaller facial length ratios. The arbo-terrestrial species (T. longipes and T. glis) were similar to terrestrial species in length ratios of bones of face unlike the other arbo-terrestrial species (T. montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, and T. mulleri). We propose that T. longipes and T. glis have adapted to foraging for termites and ants as have T. tana and T. dorsalis. Additionally small body size in T. javanica may be the result of being isolated in Java. We separated the species into 5 groups from the measurment values of skulls: 1) Terrestrial species; T. tana and T. dorsalis, 2) Arboreal species; T. minor and T. gracilis, 3) Arbo-terrestrial species group 1: T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, and T. javanica, 4) Arbo-terrestrial species group 2: T. glis and T. longipes, 5) Arboreal species of Dendrogale and Ptilocercus. Principal component analysis separated species into 8 clusters as follows: 1) T. tana, 2) T. dorsalis, 3) T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, 4) T. glis and T. longipes, 5) T. javanica, 6) T. minor and T. gracilis, 7) D. melanura and D. murina, and 8) P. lowii. We suggest that these clusters correspond to behavioral strategies and peculiarities observed in foraging, feeding and locomotion in each species.

  10. A New Approach to the Shrew Group in Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio%《聊斋志异》悍妇群新论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2016-01-01

    Shrews in Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio not only are great in number but also forms a complete picture of its group. In the past, studies on the shrews in this novel were from such aspects as views on marriage and religions, and the most typical views were to redress customs, reflect social practice and patri-archy projection. These theories, however, fail to satisfactorily explain the prevailing of shrews in this novel. Under the unique circumstances of Ming and Qing Dynasty, Pu Songling, the novelist, was deeply influenced by the ideology of “distinguishing Central China from its neighbors”, which has a profound influence on his literary works. As literacy inquisition occurred repeatedly in Qing Dynasty, writers had to seek a roundabout way to express his feeling. The group of shrews in Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio was thus formed. The novelist found his voice in the shrews and the shrews carry with them more symbolic meaning than realistic meaning. To know the symbolic meaning of the shrews helps readers understand Pu Songling and his literary recreation.%《聊斋志异》中的悍妇不仅数量众多,且可构成一体系完备的悍妇群。对《聊斋志异》悍妇的研究,多从婚姻观、宗教观角度分析,以“正风俗”、现实反映论以及男权投射论最为典型。然这些理论都不能尽解《聊斋志异》悍妇盛行之因。在明末清初特殊的社会背景下,蒲松龄深受“夷夏之辨”的思想意识影响,并深深影响其《聊斋志异》的创作;但清代文字狱迭发,抒发自己家国情怀,只能以迂回委婉的方式表达。悍妇便是这一家国情怀抒发的载体之一,其象征意义大于现实意义。了解悍妇的象征意义,对研究蒲松龄《聊斋志异》的创作有一定的意义。

  11. The Application of Electronic Chip in the Management of Tree Shrews%电子芯片在树鼩管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江勤芳; 匡德宣; 孙晓梅; 仝品芬; 代解杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish simple and practicable labelling method of identifying tree shrews with quick and restless behavior to realize scientific management for tree shrews population. Method 40 young tree shrews and 40 adult tree shrews of the F1 generation were selected randomly. Electronic chips with a size of 2. 12 mm × 12 mm and a weight of 0.09 g, were implanted into subcutaneous part of the neck back through injecting. Observation of implantation site and periodic review were carried out. Result 90% of the chips were detected in young tree shrews and 95% of those were detected in adult tree shrews. Conclusion It is a simple, effective and lasting method to mark tree shrews with electronic chips.%目的 树鼩具有灵活、多动的行为特性,建立一种适合树鼩个体标记简单易行的方法,对于树鼩种群的科学化管理十分必要.方法 随机挑选自繁F1代的幼龄树鼩和成年树鼩各40只,采用2.12 mm x12 mm,质量为0.09 g的电子芯片,通过注射植入树鼩颈背部皮下;观察芯片植入部位情况并定期复查.结果 在注射芯片10个月之后,对动物复检结果显示,对大笼内群养树鼩标记有效率为90%;单笼饲养树鼩的有效率达到95%.结论 对树鼩个体采用电子芯片标记技术是一种简单、有效和持久的方法.

  12. Identification of aflatoxin M1-N7-guanine in liver and urine of tree shrews and rats following administration of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Patricia A; Yu, Xiang; Johnson, Jesse K; Nathasingh, Christopher K; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W; Roebuck, Bill D

    2003-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and concurrent infection with hepatitis B lead to a multiplicative risk of developing liver cancer. This chemical-viral interaction can be recapitulated in the tree shrew (Tupia belangeri chinensis). As an initial characterization of this model, the metabolism of AFB(1) in tree shrews has been examined and compared to a sensitive bioassay species, the rat. Utilizing LC/MS/MS, an unreported product, aflatoxin M(1)-N(7)-guanine (AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine), was detected in urine and hepatic DNA samples 24 h after administration of 400 microg/kg AFB(1). In hepatic DNA isolated from tree shrews, AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine was the predominant adduct, 0.74 +/- 0.14 pmol/mg DNA, as compared to 0.37 +/- 0.07 pmol/mg DNA of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine. Conversely, in rat liver, 6.56 +/- 2.41 pmol/mg DNA of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine and 0.42 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg DNA of AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine were detected. Rats excreted 1.00 +/- 0.21 pmol AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine and 0.29 +/- 0.10 pmol AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine as compared to 0.60 +/- 0.12 pmol AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine and 0.69 +/- 0.16 pmol AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine excreted by the tree shrew. Furthermore, tree shrew urine contained 40 times more of the hydroxylated metabolite, AFM(1), than was excreted by rats. In vitro experiments confirmed this difference in oxidative metabolism. Hepatic microsomes isolated from tree shrews failed to produce aflatoxin Q(1) or aflatoxin P(1) but formed a significantly greater amount of AFM(1) than rat microsomes. Bioassays indicated that the tree shrew was considerably more resistant than the rat to AFB(1) hepatocarcinogenesis, which may reflect the significant differences in metabolic profiles of the two species.

  13. Scale Breeding of Tree Shrews and the Establishment of Breeding Population%树鼩规模化繁殖及繁殖群的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江勤芳; 匡德宣; 仝品芬; 孙晓梅; 代解杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 对野生来源树鼩的繁殖性能及仔树鼩的哺育方法进行了研究,探索出一套经济实用、规模化的繁殖方法,取代以往依靠人工喂养的方式.方法 提供适合的饲养管理环境和条件,完全由母树鼩主动自然哺育新生树鼩,观察统计怀孕率、产仔数、成活率、仔树鼩生长情况.结果 2010年通过120对繁殖群,成功离乳354只F1代仔树鼩,自然繁殖成活率为90.76%.目前已建立野生来源树鼩繁殖群150对,F1代繁殖群40对,为建立达到标准要求的树鼩种群奠定了基础.结论 该方法的树鼩繁殖率和成活率较高,成本低且操作简单,为树鼩实验动物化应提倡的一种方法.%Objective Observation the reproductive features of wide original tree shrews. Exploring an optimum method that is economical, practical and on a large scale to raising tree shrews baby. Instead of artificial feeding which were reported previously. Method Provided suitable environment and conditions for feeding and management, entirely breast feeding and care by mother tree shrews. More data were collected and statistics from the pregnancy rate , each litter size , survival rate and observation the growth of young tree shrews. Results In 2010,354 tree shrews offspring have been successfully weaned from 120 couples and the survival rate of natural reproduction was 90. 76 percent. Now breeding population had been established with 150 couples of wild original tree shrews and 40 couples of Fl generation, which have laid the foundation for reaching standard requirements. Conclusion This method was one of higher reproductive and survival rate, low cost and simple to operate, it should be promoted to scale produce the tree shrews as laboratory animals.

  14. 自发性树鼩乳腺肿瘤的特性%Characterization of spontaneous breast tumor in tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri chinenesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏厚军; 王春艳; 张海林; 何保丽; 角建林; 陈策实

    2012-01-01

    乳腺癌是严重危害女性健康的常见恶性肿瘤,建立合适的乳腺癌动物模型对于研究人类乳腺癌的生物学机制及发展新的防治方法至关重要.相对于常用的啮齿类动物,树鼩(Tupaia belangeri chinensis,tree shrew)因在进化层次上更接近于人类而可用于建立更适合的乳腺癌模型.该文详细了介绍一例树鼩自发性乳头状良性乳腺肿瘤.免疫组化结果显示该例肿瘤孕激素受体阳性且Ki-67阳性细胞比例显著增加;而活化的Caspase 3阳性细胞比例较低;且肿瘤的形态和病理与人导管内乳头状肿瘤非常接近.提示利用树鼩建立乳腺肿瘤模型的可行性.%Breast cancer is a common malignant tumor.It is essential to develop suitable animal models for discovering novel preventive and therapeutic approaches.Tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri chinensis)have a closer evolutionary relationship with humans than do rodents,which have been widely used in laboratory research.Spontaneous breast tumors were identified in tree shrews in 1960s; however,no detailed studies about tree shrew breast tumors have been conducted to date.Here,we characterized a spontaneous breast tumor from tree shrews by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E)staining.This tumor was identified as a papillary tumor.Immunohistochemical staining(IHC)for progesterone receptor(PR),Ki-67 and cleaved caspase-3 showed that tumor cells were positive for PR,highly proliferative,and less apoptotic compared to normal breast epithelial cells.Thus,the spontaneous tumor of tree shrew is very close to human papillary tumors in terms of morphology and pathology and we concluded that tree shrew may be a suitable animal model for breast cancer research.

  15. Functional and laminar dissociations between muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic neuromodulation in the tree shrew primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Bießmann, Felix; Veit, Julia; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor

    2012-04-01

    Acetylcholine is an important neuromodulator involved in cognitive function. The impact of cholinergic neuromodulation on computations within the cortical microcircuit is not well understood. Here we investigate the effects of layer-specific cholinergic drug application in the tree shrew primary visual cortex during visual stimulation with drifting grating stimuli of varying contrast and orientation. We describe differences between muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic effects in terms of both the layer of cortex and the attribute of visual representation. Nicotinic receptor activation enhanced the contrast response in the granular input layer of the cortex, while tending to reduce neural selectivity for orientation across all cortical layers. Muscarinic activation modestly enhanced the contrast response across cortical layers, and tended to improve orientation tuning. This resulted in highest orientation selectivity in the supra- and infragranular layers, where orientation selectivity was already greatest in the absence of pharmacological stimulation. Our results indicate that laminar position plays a crucial part in functional consequences of cholinergic stimulation, consistent with the differential distribution of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors function to enhance sensory representations arriving in the cortex, whereas muscarinic receptors act to boost the cortical computation of orientation tuning. Our findings suggest close homology between cholinergic mechanisms in tree shrew and primate visual cortices.

  16. A multi-locus phylogeny of Nectogalini shrews and influences of the paleoclimate on speciation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Li, Ya-Jie; Brandley, Matthew C; Lin, Liang-Kong; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2010-08-01

    Nectogaline shrews are a major component of the small mammalian fauna of Europe and Asia, and are notable for their diverse ecology, including utilization of aquatic habitats. So far, molecular phylogenetic analyses including nectogaline species have been unable to infer a well-resolved, well-supported phylogeny, thus limiting the power of comparative evolutionary and ecological analyses of the group. Here, we employ Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of eight mitochondrial and three nuclear genes to infer the phylogenetic relationships of nectogaline shrews. We subsequently use this phylogeny to assess the genetic diversity within the genus Episoriculus, and determine whether adaptation to aquatic habitats evolved independently multiple times. Moreover, we both analyze the fossil record and employ Bayesian relaxed clock divergence dating analyses of DNA to assess the impact of historical global climate change on the biogeography of Nectogalini. We infer strong support for the polyphyly of the genus Episoriculus. We also find strong evidence that the ability to heavily utilize aquatic habitats evolved independently in both Neomys and Chimarrogale+Nectogale lineages. Our Bayesian molecular divergence analysis suggests that the early history of Nectogalini is characterized by a rapid radiation at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, thus potentially explaining the lack of resolution at the base of the tree. Finally, we find evidence that nectogalines once inhabited northern latitudes, but the global cooling and desiccating events at the Miocene/Pliocene and Pliocene/Pleistocene boundaries and Pleistocene glaciation resulted in the migration of most Nectogalini lineages to their present day southern distribution.

  17. Intracortical Microstimulation Maps of Motor, Somatosensory, and Posterior Parietal Cortex in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri) Reveal Complex Movement Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Cooke, Dylan F; Krubitzer, Leah

    2016-01-11

    Long-train intracortical microstimulation (LT-ICMS) is a popular method for studying the organization of motor and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in mammals. In primates, LT-ICMS evokes both multijoint and multiple-body-part movements in primary motor, premotor, and PPC. In rodents, LT-ICMS evokes complex movements of a single limb in motor cortex. Unfortunately, very little is known about motor/PPC organization in other mammals. Tree shrews are closely related to both primates and rodents and could provide insights into the evolution of complex movement domains in primates. The present study investigated the extent of cortex in which movements could be evoked with ICMS and the characteristics of movements elicited using both short train (ST) and LT-ICMS in tree shrews. We demonstrate that LT-ICMS and ST-ICMS maps are similar, with the movements elicited with ST-ICMS being truncated versions of those elicited with LT-ICMS. In addition, LT-ICMS-evoked complex movements within motor cortex similar to those in rodents. More complex movements involving multiple body parts such as the hand and mouth were also elicited in motor cortex and PPC, as in primates. Our results suggest that complex movement networks present in PPC and motor cortex were present in mammals prior to the emergence of primates.

  18. Blockade of glucocorticoid receptors with ORG 34116 does not normalize stress-induced symptoms in male tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kampen, Marja; De Kloet, E Ronald; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2002-12-20

    Glucocorticoid receptors play an important role in the regulation of the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The present study investigated the effect of the specific glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34116 (a substituted 11,21 bisarylsteroid compound) in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) chronic psychosocial stress model, an established animal model for depressive disorders. Animals were stressed for 10 days before treatment with ORG 34116 started (25 mg/kg p.o. for 28 days). Stress induced a decrease in body weight, which just failed significance, whereas ORG 34116 did not affect body weight in stress and control animals. ORG 34116 enhanced the stress-induced increase in the concentration of urinary-free cortisol, although no differences between the different experimental groups existed during the last week of treatment. In stressed animals, ORG 34116 did not affect marking behavior, but decreased locomotor activity. Post mortem analysis of 5-HT(1A) receptors revealed a decreased affinity of 3[H]-8-OH-DPAT (3[H]-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino]tetralin) binding sites in the hippocampus of animals treated with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34116 did not normalize the depressive-like symptoms in the psychosocial stress model of male tree shrews. This finding, however, does not exclude that specific central, neuroendocrine and behavioral features are affected by the compound.

  19. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: a study of rodents and shrews in cultivated and fallow land, Morogoro rural district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgode, Georgies F; Katakweba, Abdul S; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Fwalo, Frank; Bahari, Mohamed; Mdangi, Mashaka; Kilonzo, Bukheti S; Mulungu, Loth S

    2014-07-01

    Leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis are among understudied zoonotic diseases that are also not diagnosed routinely in Tanzania. Humans get leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis through contact with an environment contaminated with Leptospira bacteria and Toxoplasma protozoa from reservoir hosts, which are rodents and cats, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira and Toxoplasma infections in rodents and shrews in Mikese area of Morogoro Rural District in eastern Tanzania. A total of 89 rodents and one shrew from cultivated and fallow land were tested for leptospirosis using six Leptospira serovars: Sokoine, Kenya, Canicola, Lora, Hebdomadis and Pomona. Toxoplasmosis was determined in 46 rodents brain smears. The prevalence of leptospirosis was 25.8%, and Leptospira serovar Sokoine was the most prevalent serovar (16.9%). Toxoplasma was detected in one rodent (2.17%) individual while three rodent individuals had Toxoplasma-like parasites hence were considered suspect positive. Findings suggest potential existence of human leptospirosis which needs to be further investigated. Public awareness of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis should be promoted and their diagnosis considered in patients in health care facilities.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of synthetic musk fragrances in aqueous matrices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Alice; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of twelve synthetic musks in water samples, using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was successfully developed. The influence of seven factors (volume of the extraction solvent and disperser solvent, sample volume, extraction time, ionic strength, type of extraction and disperser solvent) affecting the UA-DLLME extraction efficiency was investigated using a screening design. The significant factors were selected and optimised employing a central composite design: 80 μL of chloroform, 880 μL of acetonitrile, 6 mL of sample volume, 3.5% (wt) of NaCl and 2 min of extraction time. Under the optimised conditions, this methodology was successfully validated for the analysis of 12 synthetic musk compounds in different aqueous samples (tap, sea and river water, effluent and influent wastewater). The proposed method showed enrichment factors between 101 and 115 depending on the analyte, limits of detection in the range of 0.004-54 ng L(-1) and good repeatability (most relative standard deviation values below 10%). No significant matrix effects were found, since recoveries ranged between 71% and 118%. Finally, the method was satisfactorily applied to the analysis of five different aqueous samples. Results demonstrated the existence of a larger amount of synthetic musks in wastewaters than in other water samples (average concentrations of 2800 ng L(-1) in influent and 850 ng L(-1) in effluent). Galaxolide, tonalide and exaltolide were the compounds most detected.

  1. The placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the Mammalian placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kirsten; Siniza, Swetlana; Zeller, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    Placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. In this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. The morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of Marsupialia, have already been reconstructed. To contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of Placentalia, a histological and ultrastructural investigation of the placenta in three representatives of Eulipotyphla, that is, core insectivores, has been carried out in this study. We studied the Musk shrew (Suncus murinus), the four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). As a result, a eulipotyphlan placental morphotype consisting of a compact and invasive placenta was reconstructed. This supports the widely accepted hypothesis that the stem lineage of Placentalia is characterized by an invasive, either endothelio- or hemochorial placenta. Evolutionary transformations toward a diffuse, noninvasive placenta occurred in the stem lineages of lower primates and cetartiodactyles and were associated with prolonged gestation and the production of few and highly precocial neonates. Compared to the choriovitelline placenta of Marsupialia, the chorioallantoic placenta of Placentalia allows for a more intimate contact and is associated with more advanced neonates.

  2. Fossil shrews from Honduras and their significance for late glacial evolution in body size (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Croft, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Our study of mammalian remains excavated in the 1940s from McGrew Cave, north of Copan, Honduras, yielded an assemblage of 29 taxa that probably accumulated predominantly as the result of predation by owls. Among the taxa present are three species of small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis. One species, Cryptotis merriami, is relatively rare among the fossil remains. The other two shrews, Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis orophila, are abundant and exhibit morpho metrical variation distinguishing them from modern populations. Fossils of C. goodwini are distinctly and consistently smaller than modern members of the species. To quantify the size differences, we derived common measures of body size for fossil C. goodwini using regression models based on modern samples of shrews in the Cryptotis mexicana-group. Estimated mean length of head and body for the fossil sample is 72-79 mm, and estimated mean mass is 7.6-9.6 g. These numbers indicate that the fossil sample averaged 6-14% smaller in head and body length and 39-52% less in mass than the modern sample and that increases of 6-17% in head and body length and 65-108% in mass occurred to achieve the mean body size of the modern sample. Conservative estimates of fresh (wet) food intake based on mass indicate that such a size increase would require a 37-58% increase in daily food consumption. In contrast to C. goodwini, fossil C. orophila from the cave is not different in mean body size from modern samples. The fossil sample does, however, show slightly greater variation in size than is currently present throughout the modern geographical distribution of the taxon. Moreover, variation in some other dental and mandibular characters is more constrained, exhibiting a more direct relationship to overall size. Our study of these species indicates that North American shrews have not all been static in size through time, as suggested by some previous work with fossil soricids. Lack of stratigraphic control within the site and our

  3. Fully automated ionic liquid-based headspace single drop microextraction coupled to GC-MS/MS to determine musk fragrances in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillos, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2012-09-15

    A fully automated ionic liquid-based headspace single drop microextraction (IL-HS-SDME) procedure has been developed for the first time to preconcentrate trace amounts of ten musk fragrances extensively used in personal care products (six polycyclic musks, three nitro musks and one polycyclic musk degradation product) from wastewater samples prior to analysis by gas chromatography and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS/MS). Due to the low volatility of the ILs, a large internal diameter liner (3.4 mm i.d.) was used to improve the ILs evaporation. Furthermore, a piece of glass wool was introduced into the liner to avoid the entrance of the ILs in the GC column and a guard column was used to prevent analytical column damages. The main factors influencing the IL-HS-SDME were optimized. For all species, the highest enrichments factors were achieved using 1 μL of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([OMIM][PF(6)]) ionic liquid exposed in the headspace of 10 mL water samples containing 300 g L(-1) of NaCl and stirred at 750 rpm and 60 °C for 45 min. All compounds were determined by direct injection GC-IT-MS/MS with a chromatographic time of 19 min. Method detection limits were found in the low ng mL(-1) range between 0.010 ng mL(-1) and 0.030 ng mL(-1) depending on the target analytes. Also, under optimized conditions, the method gave good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatabilities in wastewater samples with relative standard deviations varying between 3% and 6% and 5% and 11%, respectively (n=3, 1 ng mL(-1)). The applicability of the method was tested with different wastewater samples from influent and effluent urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and one potable treatment plant (PTP). The analysis of influent urban wastewater revealed the presence of galaxolide and tonalide at concentrations of between 2.10 ng mL(-1) and 0.29 ng mL(-1) and 0.32 ng mL(-1) and waters from PTP only galaxolide was found at a concentration higher than MQL.

  4. Movements and home range of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis, surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana A; Shukor MN; Muhd Norhazizi H; Intan Nurlemsha B; Ho TM

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document movement patterns, home range, nesting behaviour and social organization of 5 individuals (3 males and 2 females) of a common species of tree-shrew, Tupaia glis (T. glis) surrounding houses of otoacariasis cases. Methods:Each shrew was fitted with a transmitter chip radio-collar which operates between the frequencies of 154.13 MHz to 154.21 MHz. Each transmitter was then tracked with a Portable Telemetry Receiver (Sirtrack, New Zealand) fitted with a 3-element Yagi antenna. Collared shrews were located using standard methods of ground-based triangulation. Each location was taken from at least 2 directional fixes and a minimum of 3 compass bearings. Fixes were taken hourly for each collared individual from the time of emergence from nest (beginning of activity) till time of entry into the nest (end of activity) every day for 5 to 7 continuous days. Three series of radio telemetry observations were carried out. The bearings, time and positions of an observer were recorded and later plotted on a graph paper in order to derive coordinates of the collared animal. [These coordinates then analyzed using Ecological Software Solutions (Biotas Version 1.03)]. Results: Nests were found in a jack fruit tree, long bushes, and 2 houses. Daily telemetry detections demonstrated 2 individuals of different sex having nests (or a nest) in the same house. All shrews emerged from and returned to their nests between 0601 to 0659 hours and 1901 to 1959 hours, respectively. Both the time of exit from and entry into nest were the same between sexes (P>0.05). Their average total active period was 4.90 to 7.00 hours with a total daily travel distant of 270 m to 382 m. A male and a female shrew can move as far as 3 285 m and 4 591 m, respectively. Active movements of T. glis were during daytime. They regularly entered some houses in the area during day and night except for one individual which visited during daytime only. The sizes of home range and core area for the

  5. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Pryce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS. Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the

  6. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Christopher R; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the predictive validity

  7. Differential expression of genes during aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Li; Dan Luo; Hui-Fen Yue; Li-Sheng Zhang; Jian-Ren Gu; Da-Fang Wan; Jian-Jia Su; Ji Cao; Chao Ou; Xiao-Kun Qiu; Ke-Chen Ban; Chun Yang; Liu-Liang Qin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Through exploring the regulation of gene expression during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1),to find out the responsible genes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to further understand the underlying molecular mechanism.METHODS: Tree shrews ( 7upaia belangeri chinensis)were treated with or without AFB1 for about 90 weeks. Liver biopsies were performed regularly during the animal experiment. Eight shares of total RNA were respectively isolated from 2 HCC tissues, 2 HCC-surrounding noncancerous liver tissues, 2 biopsied tissues at the early stage (30th week) of the experiment from the same animals as above, 1 mixed sample of three liver tissues biopsied at the beginning (0th week) of the experiment, and another 1 mixed sample of two liver tissues from the untreated control animals biopsied at the 90th week of the experiment. The samples were then tested with the method of AtlasTM cDNA microarray assay. The levels of gene expression in these tissues taken at different time points during hepatocarcinogenesis were compared.RESULTS: The profiles of differently expressed genes were quite different in different ways of comparison. At the same period of hepatocarcinogenesis, the genes in the same function group usually had the same tendency for up- or down-regulation. Among the checked 588 genes that were known to be related to human cancer, 89 genes (15.1%) were recognized as "important genes" because they showed frequent changes in different ways of comparison. The differentially expressed genes during hepatocarcinogenesis could be classified into four categories: genes up-regulated in HCC tissue, genes with similar expressing levels in both HCC and HCC-surrounding liver tissues which were higher than that in the tissues prior to the development of HCC,genes down-regulated in HCC tissue, and genes up-regulated prior to the development of HCC but down-regulated after the development of HCC.CONCLUSION: A considerable number of genes could change

  8. Differential expression of genes during aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wan, Da-Fang; Su, Jian-Jia; Cao, Ji; Ou, Chao; Qiu, Xiao-Kun; Ban, Ke-Chen; Yang, Chun; Qin, Liu-Liang; Luo, Dan; Yue, Hui-Fen; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Gu, Jian-Ren

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Through exploring the regulation of gene expression during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), to find out the responsible genes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to further understand the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) were treated with or without AFB1 for about 90 weeks. Liver biopsies were performed regularly during the animal experiment. Eight shares of total RNA were respectively isolated from 2 HCC tissues, 2 HCC-surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues, 2 biopsied tissues at the early stage (30th week) of the experiment from the same animals as above, 1 mixed sample of three liver tissues biopsied at the beginning (0th week) of the experiment, and another 1 mixed sample of two liver tissues from the untreated control animals biopsied at the 90th week of the experiment. The samples were then tested with the method of AtlasTM cDNA microarray assay. The levels of gene expression in these tissues taken at different time points during hepatocarcinogenesis were compared. RESULTS: The profiles of differently expressed genes were quite different in different ways of comparison. At the same period of hepatocarcinogenesis, the genes in the same function group usually had the same tendency for up- or down-regulation. Among the checked 588 genes that were known to be related to human cancer, 89 genes (15.1%) were recognized as “important genes” because they showed frequent changes in different ways of comparison. The differentially expressed genes during hepatocarcinogenesis could be classified into four categories: genes up-regulated in HCC tissue, genes with similar expressing levels in both HCC and HCC-surrounding liver tissues which were higher than that in the tissues prior to the development of HCC, genes down-regulated in HCC tissue, and genes up-regulated prior to the development of HCC but down-regulated after the development of HCC. CONCLUSION: A considerable number of genes could

  9. ON-SITE SOLID PHRASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-TRACE SYNTHETIC MUSKS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE EFFLUENT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY, FULL-SCAN MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. A I -L sample, however, usually provides too little ana...

  10. ON-SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-TRACE SYNTHETIC MUSKS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE EFFLUENT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE FULL-SCAN MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are requ...

  11. Introduction to Biological Characteristics of Tree Shrew%树鼩的生物学特性研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏傲蕾; 秦银鸽; 郑禹; 陈群; 运晨霞; 黄正团; 冷静

    2014-01-01

    Tree shrews are the peculiar small mammals of the Southeast Asia,it mainly distributes in torrid zone and subtropical zone such as North of the Ganges River of India,Burma,Philippines,and Yunnan province,Guangxi District of China as well.It is similar to human beings in many aspects such as biological characteristics,biochemis-try,metabolism,physiology and biochemistry,genome,and etc.,which has been proposed as an alternative experi-mental animal to primates.Its value in biomedical research has drew attention to researchers.This article summa-rized the biology research progress and status of tree shrews,including its classification,phylogeny,living habit,rai-sing and breeding,anatomy,histomorphology,physiology,biochemistry and genetics etc.It also pointed out the present problems existing in the research of tree shrews,thus it will be of great importance of the consolidation and integration in the national laboratory animal germplasm resources.%树鼩是东南亚特有的小型哺乳动物,主要分布在热带和亚热带地区,如东南亚的印度恒河北部、缅甸和菲律宾,以及我国云南、广西和海南等地。它在生物学特征、新陈代谢、生理生化和基因组等方面与人类近似,被认为是有望代替灵长类动物的新型实验动物。它在生物医学研究中的价值日益受到研究者关注,将其作为实验动物的试验需求越来越多。论文对树鼩的生物学研究进展及现状进行综述,内容涉及其分类与系统发生、生活习性、饲养与繁殖、解剖和组织形态、生理生化及遗传等方面,并指出我国树鼩目前研究存在的一些问题,对推动我国实验动物种质资源的整理与整合研究具有积极的意义。

  12. One-step microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction for the rapid determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in oyster by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shin-Fang; Liu, Li-Lian; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2012-07-15

    A rapid, simple and solvent-free procedure was developed for the determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in oyster samples by using one-step microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction (MA-HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two commonly used synthetic polycyclic musks, galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN), were selected in the method development and validation. The parameters (microwave irradiation power, extraction time, amount of water added, pH value and addition of NaCl) affecting the extraction efficiency of analytes from oyster slurry were systematically investigated and optimised. The best extraction conditions were achieved when the oyster tissue mixed with 10-mL deionised water (containing 3g of NaCl in a 40-mL sample-vial) was microwave irradiated at 80 W for 5 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/g in 5-g of wet tissue. The good precision and accuracy of one-step MA-HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS for the determination of trace level of AHTN in oyster samples was also demonstrated.

  13. Distributional records of shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) from Northern Central America with the first record of Sorex from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Matson, John O.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Bulmer, Walter; Ordonez-Garza, Nicte

    2012-01-01

    Short term surveys for small mammals in Guatemala and Honduras during 1992–2009 provided important new records for 12 taxa of shrews from 24 localities. These locality records expand the known geographic distributions for five species and for the genus Sorex Linnaeus, 1758: the geographic range of Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933, now includes the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, and several isolated highlands in western Honduras; the known distribution of Cryptotis mayensis (Merriam, 1901) is increased with the first definite modern record for this shrew from Guatemala; Cryptotis merriami Choate, 1970, is now known to occur in the Sierra de las Minas and the Sierra del Merendon, Guatemala, as well as the isolated Sierra de Omoa and Montana de La Muralla in Honduras, and its documented elevational range (600–1720 m) is expanded; records of Sorex veraepacis Alston, 1877, expand the known distribution of this species to include the Sierra de Yalijux, Guatemala; and discovery of Sorex salvini Merriam, 1897, at Celaque, Honduras (1825–3110 m), represents a considerable extension of the geographic range of the species, and it is the first record of the genus Sorex from Honduras. In addition, the first record of potential syntopy among C. goodwini, C merriami, and Cryptotis orophilus (J.A. Allen, 1895), is reported at an elevation of 1430 m in the Sierra de Celaque, Honduras. Information associated with these records contributes substantially to knowledge of habitat use, elevational distributions, reproductive patterns, diet, and parasites of the species encountered. General patterns include the first evidence that Neotropical species of soricids have smaller litters than their temperate congeners.

  14. A new hantavirus from the stripe-backed shrew (Sorex cylindricauda) in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shu-Qing; Gong, Zheng-Da; Fang, Li-Qun; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Jiu-Song; Zhao, Qiu-Min; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-05-12

    Inspired by the recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses from insectivore species worldwide, we performed a small-scale search for insectivore-borne hantaviruses. In this paper, we report the discovery of a new hantavirus, which was designated the Qian Hu Shan virus (QHSV). This virus was detected in the lung tissues of three stripe-backed shrews (Sorex cylindricauda), which were captured in the Yunnan Province, China. The full-length S genomic segment of the representative QHSV strain YN05-284 was 1661 nucleotides and is predicted to encode a nucleocapsid protein of 429 amino acids that starts at nucleotide position 48. It exhibited the highest similarity with other Sorex-related hantaviruses, with 68.1%-72.8% nucleotide and 71.9%-84.4% amino acid sequence identities. An analysis of a 1430-nucleotide region of the partial M segment exhibited approximately 54.4%-79.5% nucleotide and 43.2%-90.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. A comparison of a 432-nucleotide region of the L segment also showed similar degrees of identity, with 68.9%-78.4% nucleotide and 71.1%-93.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian methods indicated that QHSV shared the most recent common ancestor with other Sorex-related hantaviruses. The host was identified using a morphological assessment and verified using mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cyt b) gene sequencing. A pair-wise comparison of the 1140-nucleotide mt-Cyt b gene sequence from the host demonstrated that the host was close to S. cylindricauda from Nepal with 94.3% identity. The virus-host association tanglegram, which was constructed using the Dendroscope software, indicated that the QHSV phylogeny and the host phylogeny were approximately matched, which suggests no evidence of host switching for QHSV. Our results contribute to a wider viewpoint regarding the heterogeneity of viruses that infect shrews.

  15. Noninvasive measurement of blood pressure and heart rate in tree shrews%树鼩血压和心率的无创测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝品芬; 陆彩霞; 江勤芳; 孙晓梅; 高家红; 匡德宣; 代解杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the normal reference values of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) of healthy tree shrews, and discuss the differences of HR and BP in tree shrews of different sources, sex and age. Methods One hundred eighty tree shrews were randomly divided in three groups: wild adult group, F1 generation artificial breeding adult group and juvenile group. Each group included 60 animals ( half female and half male). An indirect blood pressure meter(BP-98A, Softron) was used to measure the heart rate ( HR) , systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MBP). Results The HR of wild adult, artificial breeding adult and juvenile tree shrews were 394.33 ±37.74 BPM, 351.61 ±72.76 BPM, and 378. 19 ±69.04 BPM, respectively. There was a significant difference between the wild adult and artificial breeding adult tree shrew groups ( P < 0. 05 ). The SBP, DBP and MBP of artificial breeding adult group were very significantly lower than those of juvenile group ( P < 0. 01 ). There were no significant differences between the SBP, DBP and MBP of wild adult and artificial breeding adult groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions The rat indirect blood pressure meter ( Softron, BP-98A ) is suitable for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate of tree shrews. The HR and BP of wild adult, F1 generation of artificial breeding adult and juvenile tree shrews obtained in this study enriched the basic physiological data o tree shrews and provide scientific reference for relevant researches.%目的 建立健康树鼩的心率、血压正常值参考范围,并探讨不同来源、不同性别、不同年龄树鼩心率、血压的差异.方法 随机挑选实验树鼩180只,按来源分为野生成年组、F1代自繁成年组和青幼年组三个组,每组雌雄各半,共60只.采用智能无创血压计(鼠仪)逐只测定HR(心率)、SBP(收缩压)、DBP(舒张压)和MBP(平均动脉压).结果 野生成年树鼩、自繁成年

  16. Morphological and molecular differentiation of Staphylocystis clydesengeri n. sp. (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) from the vagrant shrew, Sorex vagrans (Soricomorpha, Soricidae), in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Makarikov, Arseny A; Kinsella, John M

    2013-01-01

    Staphylocystis clydesengeri n. sp. is described from shrews Sorex vagrans in Montana and Washington, United States. It differs from the only previously known North American representative of the genus, S. schilleri, in having more numerous (37-42 vs. 22-30) and larger (39-44 microm vs. 27-30 microm) rostellar hooks. The two species also differ in several other important characters such as relative length of the cirrus pouch, position of gonads and shape of mature proglottides. Morphological differentiation of the new species from all previously known Palearctic species of Staphylocystis from Sorex is also provided. Differentiation from Staphylocystis parasitic in crocidurine shrews is not provided due to the high level of specificity among shrew hymenolepidids to the host genera and much greater levels of sequence divergence between Staphylocystis from the two groups of shrews. Molecular differentiation based on 2,800 base pair long sequences of nuclear ribosomal RNA (complete ITS region and partial 28S region), 663 base pair long sequences of mitochondrial nad1 gene and 542 base pair long sequences of mitochondrial ribosomal 16S gene strongly support the status of Staphylocystis clydesengeri n. sp. Relative utility of the DNA fragments used in this study for reliable differentiation among closely related species of mammalian hymenolepidids is discussed. Nuclear ribosomal RNA region appears to be too conserved for this purpose. Use of at least one mitochondrial gene in addition to nuclear ribosomal RNA or without it, is recommended. Vampirolepis novosibirskiensis Sawada & Kobayashi, 1994 is transferred to Staphylocystis as a junior synonym of S. furcara (Stieda, 1862). Rodentolepis gnoskei Greiman & Tkach, 2012 is transferred to Pararodentolepis Makarikov and Gulyaev, 2009 as a new combination Pararodentolepis gnoskei (Greiman & Tkach, 2012) n. comb.

  17. Progress in the basic ophthalmological research of tree shrew%树鼩在眼科学的基础研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广龙; 朱勤; 李振宇; 陈玲霞; 尹博文; 胡敏; 孙晓梅

    2015-01-01

    Tree shrews have an excellent visual system, their cones accounted for 96%of the photorecepter cells, so that their color vision and stereo vision are well developed.With their rich resources and low cost, tree shrews have been considered as an ideal animal model in eye research in comparative medicine and genomics research.The ophthalmological research on tree shrew mainly focused on the establishment of myopia model, as well as the changes in myopic sclera and choroids, and the basic studies of their retina, optic and visual cortex.This paper reviewed the basic ophthalmological re-search of tree shrew.%树鼩具有发达的视觉系统,视锥细胞数量占感光细胞的96%,具有较好的色觉及立体视觉。我国的树鼩资源丰富,成本较低,比较医学和基因组学研究证实树鼩是理想的眼科实验动物模型。利用树鼩开展眼科研究主要集中在近视模型的建立、近视对巩膜和脉络膜造成的变化,以及树鼩视网膜、视神经、角膜及视皮质的基础研究。本文对树鼩在眼科学方面的基础研究结果进行综述。

  18. The Determination of the Whole Blood Cholinesterase Activities of Tree Shrews%树鼩全血胆碱酯酶活性测定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木云珍; 曹慧芳; 周肇晏; 杨彤; 王婧; 李波

    2012-01-01

    目的 测定分析树鼩全血胆碱酯酶活性.方法 采用WS/T66-1996全血胆碱酯酶活性的羟胺-三氯化铁分光光度法测定10只树鼩和10只小鼠全血胆碱酯酶活性.结果 树鼩的全血胆碱酯酶活性个体差异比小鼠小,树鼩全血胆碱酯酶活性(μmol/mL全血,37℃,30min)绝对值为94.15±4.65,大于小鼠的平均值78.22±8.77,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 树鼩在全血胆碱酯酶活性相关研究方面是较好的实验动物.%Objective To determine and analyse the whole blood cholinesterase activities of Tree Shrews. Method The whole blood cholinesterase activities of 10 rats and 10 Tree Shrews were determinted by WS/T66-1996 hydroxylamine hydrochloride- ferric chloride Spectrophotometer. Results The tree shrew's whole blood cholinesterase activity (μmol/mL, 37℃, 30 min) was 94.15± 4.65 , which was higher than mouse's whole blood cholinesterase activity (78.22± 8.77), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Tree shrews are excellent experimental animals for the related research on the whole blood cholinesterase activities.

  19. The effect of intravitreal injection of vehicle solutions on form deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-04-01

    lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid

  20. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.sanchez.chardi@ub.edu; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  1. Identification and distribution of the Olympic Shrew (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae), Sorex rohweriRausch et al., 2007 in Oregon and Washington, based on USNM specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Fisher, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Review of specimens of long-tailed shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae, Sorex) from the northwestern United States in the National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Washington, DC, has revealed the presence of the Olympic Shrew, Sorex rohweri Rausch et al., 2007, in the Coastal Range west of the Willamette Valley in Oregon. This determination nearly doubles the documented distribution for this species and increases the species diversity of soricids in Oregon to eleven. Sorex rohweri is relatively uncommon, but it occurs in a variety of forest successional stages and even clear cuts, as long as there is nearby forest and trees are allowed to regenerate. All USNM specimens from Washington formerly identified as S. cinereus streatori Merriam, 1895 are instead referable to the Olympic Shrew. The distribution of S. c. streatori is thereby restricted to the Pacific coasts of British Columbia north of the lower Frasier River and south central Alaska. Our study highlights the importance of taking and preserving high-quality voucher specimens in a collection where they are readily available for re-study.

  2. Neural response dynamics of spiking and local field potential activity depend on CRT monitor refresh rate in the tree shrew primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Julia; Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor

    2011-11-01

    Entrainment of neural activity to luminance impulses during the refresh of cathode ray tube monitor displays has been observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) of humans and macaque monkeys. This entrainment is of interest because it tends to temporally align and thus synchronize neural responses at the millisecond timescale. Here we show that, in tree shrew V1, both spiking and local field potential activity are also entrained at cathode ray tube refresh rates of 120, 90, and 60 Hz, with weakest but still significant entrainment even at 120 Hz, and strongest entrainment occurring in cortical input layer IV. For both luminance increments ("white" stimuli) and decrements ("black" stimuli), refresh rate had a strong impact on the temporal dynamics of the neural response for subsequent luminance impulses. Whereas there was rapid, strong attenuation of spikes and local field potential to prolonged visual stimuli composed of luminance impulses presented at 120 Hz, attenuation was nearly absent at 60-Hz refresh rate. In addition, neural onset latencies were shortest at 120 Hz and substantially increased, by ∼15 ms, at 60 Hz. In terms of neural response amplitude, black responses dominated white responses at all three refresh rates. However, black/white differences were much larger at 60 Hz than at higher refresh rates, suggesting a mechanism that is sensitive to stimulus timing. Taken together, our findings reveal many similarities between V1 of macaque and tree shrew, while underscoring a greater temporal sensitivity of the tree shrew visual system.

  3. The First Iranian Record of Suncus Murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. farhang Azad

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available 199 human serum samples were examined for the presence of Myxovirus Parainfluenza 3 (MPI 3 haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies. or tbe total male sera, 75% and female 70.52% had HI antibody titers of t:32 or greater. The percentage of positive samples increased according to the age grouping of the human beings. These results indicate that MPI 3 virus infection is widespread among the human population in Iran. and it may be considered as one of the causes of respiratory illnesses in children and adults.

  4. Cross-reactivity of tree shrew sera with various secondary antibodies:extensive application to tree shrew models of diseases%树鼩血清与多种二抗的交叉反应:可在树鼩疾病动物模型中广泛应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮光萍; 姚翔; 刘菊芬; 王金祥; 何洁; 杨建勇; 潘兴华

    2015-01-01

      结果与结论:Western 结果表明树鼩的血清与抗兔、抗羊、抗人、抗小鼠、抗大鼠的二抗均不发生反应,与抗猴的二抗有交叉反应。ELISA 的结果也表明树鼩的血清与抗猴的二抗有交叉反应,而与其他二抗没有交叉反应。结果说明通常卖的二抗不能用于树鼩IgG的免疫检测,只有抗猴的二抗与树鼩的血清发生交叉反应,必需制备抗树鼩IgG的单克隆和多克隆抗体,在没有现成抗体可用时,可采用抗猴的二抗替代检测,能在树鼩疾病动物模型的研究中得到广泛应用。%BACKGROUND:Tree shrew is a representative between insectivore and primates, has a high degree of evolution, is more inexpensive primates, has high use of medical biology, and has been attached by scholars. OBJECTIVE:To detect whether the commonly used secondary antibodies have immune response with tree shrew serum. METHODS:Western blot assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were utilized to detect whether the tree shrew serum had cross-reacts with anti-rabbit, anti-goat, anti-human, anti-mouse, anti-rat, and anti-monkey secondary antibodies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Western blot assay results indicated that tree shrew serums did not react with anti-rabbit, anti-goat, anti-human, anti-mouse, and anti-rat secondary antibodies and had cross reaction with anti-monkey secondary antibody. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay results also indicated that tree shrew serums were cross-reactive with anti-monkey secondary antibody, but did not have cross-reactivity with the other secondary antibodies. Above data confirmed that the usual y soled secondary antibody cannot be used to immunoassay with tree shrews IgG. Only anti-monkey secondary antibody has cross-react with tree shrew serum. It is necessary to prepare anti-tree shrew IgG monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. When no antibody is readily available at present, anti-monkey secondary antibody can be used to substitute

  5. Individual- and population-level effects of the synthetic musk, HHCB, on the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A life table response experiment lasting 120 d was used to investigate the effects of the synthetic polycyclic musk HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyrane; 0, 1.5, 26, 123, and 168 mg/kg dry wt sediment) on the life history of the infaunal polychaete...... Capitella species I. The HHCB exposure showed no detectable effects on adult survival, age at first reproduction, length of the reproductive period, number of broods, individual worm body volumes, or body size-specific egestion rates. In contrast, HHCB significantly affected juvenile survival (>= 123 mg...... and exposed groups were not significant. Thus, despite detectable effects of HHCB on individual life-history traits, the results suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of HHCB are not likely to reduce the growth rate of Capitella sp. I populations....

  6. Hypertensive nephropathy treatment by heart-protecting musk pill: a study of anti-inflammatory therapy for target organ damage of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengke Tian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengke Tian1, Shuang Ling1, Gangling Chen1, Yajuan Li1, Jun Liu1, Murad Ferid1,2, Ka Bian1,21Murad Research Institute for Modernized Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, PR, China; 2Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the heart-protecting musk pill (HMP on inflammatory injury of kidney from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. Male SHRs aged 4 weeks were divided into SHR model group, HMP low-dosage group (13.5 mg/kg, and HMP high-dosage group (40 mg/kg. Age-matched Wistar–Kyoto rats were used as normal control. All rats were killed at 12 weeks of age. Tail-cuff method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine rat systolic blood pressure and angiotensin II (Ang II contents, respectively. Renal inflammatory damage was evaluated by the following parameters: protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines, carbonyl protein contents, nitrite concentration, infiltration of monocytes/macrophages in interstitium and glomeruli, kidney pathological changes, and excretion rate of urinary protein. HMP did not prevent the development of hypertension in SHR. However, this Chinese medicinal compound decreased renal Ang II content. Consistent with the change of renal Ang II, all the parameters of renal inflammatory injury were significantly decreased by HMP. This study indicates that HMP is a potent suppressor of renal inflammatory damage in SHR, which may serve as a basis for the advanced preventive and therapeutic investigation of HMP in hypertensive nephropathy.Keywords: spontaneously hypertensive rat, inflammation, musk pill, nephropathy

  7. Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction for the rapid analysis of synthetic polycyclic musks using thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wu-Hsun; Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2013-09-13

    A simple and solvent-free method for the rapid analysis of five synthetic polycyclic musks in water samples is described. The method involves the use of dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) coupled with direct thermal desorption (TD) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in the selected-ion-storage (SIS) mode. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from water sample and the thermal desorption conditions in the GC injection-port were optimized using a central composite design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved immersing 3.2mg of a typical octadecyl (C18) bonded silica adsorbent (i.e., ENVI-18) in a 10mL water sample. After extraction by vigorously shaking for 1.0min, the adsorbents were collected and dried on a filter. The adsorbents were transferred to a micro-vial, which was directly inserted into GC temperature-programmed injector, and the extracted target analytes were then thermally desorbed in the GC injection-port at 337°C for 3.8min. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were determined to be 1.2-3.0ng/L. Precision, as indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs), was less than 9% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 74 and 90%. A preliminary analysis of the river water samples revealed that galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the two most common synthetic polycyclic musks present. Using a standard addition method, their concentrations were determined to in the range from 11 to 140ng/L.

  8. Establishment of an osteoporosis model in tree shrews by bilateral ovariectomy%去卵巢法骨质疏松树鼩模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运林; 匡德宣; 马朝霞; 王娅娟; 张利东; 高斌; 徐显鑫; 胡敏; 段宜强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an osteoporosis model in tree shrews by bilateral ovariectomy.Methods One hundred healthy 6-24 month old female tree shrews were used in this study.The diagnosis and treatment of osteoporo-sis in the model tree shrews was assessed according to the Interpretation of the Clinical Practice Guideines for Primary Oste-oporosis 2011 released by the Chinese Medical Association of Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Salt Disease Branch.① Ac-cording to the human natural life span, sexual maturation time and peak bone mineral density ( PBMD) and the tree shrew natural life span and sexual maturation time, we estimated the PBMD of tree shrew in the age of months.Six 6-, 12-, 18-and 24-month old tree shrews in each group were randomly taken for measurement of BMD, and compared the differences between groups to verify the PBMD age of tree shrews.②We chose 62 6-month old tree shrews from the rest of tree shrews to measure their BMD to determine the mean and standard deviation of BMD.Then we divided them into study group ( n =32) and control group (n =30).Bilateral ovariectomy was performed in the study group, while omentectomy was done in the control group.BMD was measured at 3, 6, 9, 12 months after the surgery, 6 animals from each group.The animals which met the criteria of guideline were taken for pathological examination.Results ①The PBMD of 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-month old tree shrews was 0.138 ±0.012, 0.143 ±0.010, 0.141 ±0.009, and 0.139 ±0.009) g/cm2 , respectively, showing no significant differences among them (P>0.05).②The mean PBMD of the tree shrews was 0.143 ±0.016 g/cm2 .③In the model groups, the number of tree shrews whose BMD met the criteria of guideline was 0, 5, 4, 5, respec-tively.The pathological examination of the proximal tibia from the model group showed sparse and some disrupted trabecu-lae and enlarged inter-trabecular space.In the control group, the tibia tissues showed normal histology of bone structure and no one tree shrew

  9. Improving effect of Ginkgolide B on mitochondrial respiration of ischemic neuron after cerebral thrombosis in tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-qing; ZHANG Ying; YANG Li-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been known that platelet activating factor receptors (PAFR) may mediate many acute pathological responses and that PAFR antagonist Ginkgolide B (GB) possesses multiple effects, but the actions of GB on PAFR affinity and mitochondrial respiration in the ischemic neuron were unclear until now. This study explored the possible effects of GB on PAFR and the mitochondrial respiration of the neuron in the ischemic microenvironment.Methods Thrombotic cerebral ischemia in tree shrews was induced by a photochemical reaction; changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, using 99mTc tracer technique ), the brain water content (specific gravimetric method), PAFR (3H-labelled PAF assay), the respiratory control rate (RCR), the phosphorus-oxygen (P/O) ratio of mitochondrial respiration (Clark oxygen electrode), mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, and the mitochondrial ultrastructure in the ischemic neurons were also observed. Data were compared between the two groups (the ischemia group vs the sham group, and the ischemia group vs the GB group).Results There were high affinity and low affinity sites for PAFR on the tree threws' brain cell membranes. The varying-affinity PAFR binding sites, the respiration state Ⅲ, the state Ⅳ, RCR, the P/O ratio of the mitochondria, and the rCBF all decreased markedly (respectively, P<0.01 and P<0.05), but the water content increased (P<0.01) in the ischemia group after the application of cerebral thrombosis. In tree shrews treated with GB (5 mg/kg I.v.) 6 hours after photochemical reaction, their PAFR binding sites and respiratory state increased markedly. The rCBF gradually increased and the brain edema ameliorated (P<0.01) at 24h after cerebral ischemia. There were significant differences between the ischemia group and sham group (P<0.01). In GB treated isolated neurons' mitochondria, with or without cerebral ischemia, the energy metabolism of the mitochondria had not been changed

  10. Nocturnal hyperthermia induced by social stress in male tree shrews: relation to low testosterone and effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhause, Susan; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Schlumbohm, Christina; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2011-10-24

    Stress is known to elevate core body temperature (CBT). We recorded CBT in a diurnal animal, the male tree shrew, during a one-week control period and a one-week period of social stress using a telemetric system. During the stress period, when animals were confronted with a dominant male for about 1h daily, CBT was increased throughout the day. We analyzed CBT during the night when animals were left undisturbed and displayed no locomotor activity. To determine whether nocturnal hyperthermia may be related to stress-induced changes in hormonal status, we measured testosterone, noradrenalin and cortisol in the animals' morning urine. The daily social stress increased the mean nocturnal temperature by 0.37 °C. Urinary testosterone was reduced during the stress period, and there was a significant negative correlation between testosterone and the area under the curve (AUC) of the nocturnal CBT. This means that stress-induced hyperthermia was strongest in the animals with the lowest testosterone concentrations. As expected, urinary noradrenalin was elevated during the stress week but a positive correlation with the AUC data was only found for animals younger than 12 months. Cortisol was also increased during the stress week but there were no correlations with nocturnal hyperthermia. However, the stress-induced increases in noradrenalin and cortisol correlated with each other. Furthermore, there were no correlations between the stress-induced increase in nocturnal CBT and body weight reduction or locomotor activity during the light phase. Interestingly, the extent of nocturnal hyperthermia depended on the animals' ages: In animals younger than 12 months, stress increased the AUC by 48%, in animals aged between 12 and 24 months, stress increased the AUC by 36%, and older animals showed only a 7% increase. However, testosterone was not significantly reduced in the older animals. The present data reveal an interrelation between the extent of stress-induced nocturnal

  11. Breeding management method of long-term artificial cultivation of tree shrew in beijing area%北京地区实验树鼩的饲养管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琰; 吴婷婷; 李翼飞; 孙晔; 孙慧; 胡丽娜; 屈会化; 王庆国

    2013-01-01

    树鼩作为低等灵长类动物,在生物学研究中的价值日益引起研究者重视,将其作为实验动物的实验需求越来越多.作为南方亚热带动物,树鼩如何适应北方地区的生活是北方地区将其用作实验动物的前提.本实验室探索出适宜树鼩居住的饲养笼具,确定了饲养环境温度、湿度、光照时间、噪声及通风等条件,制定了规范化的卫生管理标准,建立了北京地区长期人工培育树鼩的饲养管理方法,为今后利用树鼩进行中医药病证结合动物模型的研究奠定了基础.%Tree shrew, a species of lower primates, its value in biomedical research has draw attention of researchers, and have been more and more demanded as a laboratory animal. However, tree shrew as a southern subtropical animal, how to adapt it to live in northern China becomes the premise that tree shrew can be used as a laboratory animal in northern China. Our laboratory has explored feeding cage, which is suitable for tree shrew living, determined feeding environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, illumination time, noise, ventilation, etc. , formulated the health management standard and established breeding management method of long-term artificial cultivation of tree shrew in Beijing area. Therefore, we have laid the foundation for the application of tree shrew in research on traditional Chinese medicine syndrome combined with establishment of disease animal models in the future.

  12. Applications of Long Chain Dicarboxylic Acid in Synthetic Musk Ketone%长碳链二元酸在人工合成麝香酮方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于得江; 曹务波

    2012-01-01

    The artificial synthesis of musk ketone has become the main source of supply of raw materials and raw materials, but because of price, many synthetic pathways can realize industrialized production. Microbial production of long carbon chain dicarboxylic acid is a synthetic musk provides rich and cheap raw materials resources. An overview of 12 - 16Tridecanedioic Acid as raw materials of musk ketone synthesis pathway.%人工合成已经成为麝香酮的主要来源,但由于原料供应和原料价格问题,许多合成途径都无法实现工业化生产。微生物法生产的长碳链二元酸为人工合成麝香提供了丰富廉价的原料资源,本文概述了以12-16碳二元酸为原料的麝香酮合成途径。

  13. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A

    2014-07-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  14. Identification of all pachytene bivalents in the common shrew using DAPI-staining of synaptonemal complex spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonogova, N M; Karamysheva, T V; Biltueva, L S; Perepelov, E A; Minina, J M; Polyakov, A V; Zhdanova, N S; Rubtsov, N B; Searle, J B; Borodin, P M

    2006-01-01

    A major problem in studies of synaptonemal complexes (SC) is the difficulty in distinguishing individual chromosomes. This problem can be solved combining SC immunostaining with FISH of chromosome-specific sequences. However, this procedure is expensive, time-consuming and applicable only to a very limited number of species. In this paper we show how a combination of SC immunostaining and DAPI staining can allow identification of all chromosome arms in surface-spreads of the SC of the common shrew (Sorex araneus L.). Enhancement of brightness and contrast of the images with photo editing software allowed us to reveal clear DAPI-positive and negative bands with relative sizes and positions similar to DAPI landmarks on mitotic metaphase chromosomes. Using FISH with DNA probes prepared from chromosome arms m and n we demonstrated correct recognition of the chromosomes mp and hn on the basis of their DAPI pattern. We show that the approach we describe here may be applied to other species and can provide an important tool for identification of individual bivalents in pachytene surface-spreads.

  15. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the round-eared sengis or elephant-shrews, genus Macroscelides (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Macroscelidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Dumbacher

    Full Text Available The round-eared sengis or elephant-shrews (genus Macroscelides exhibit striking pelage variation throughout their ranges. Over ten taxonomic names have been proposed to describe this variation, but currently only two taxa are recognized (M. proboscideus proboscideus and M. p. flavicaudatus. Here, we review the taxonomic history of Macroscelides, and we use data on the geographic distribution, morphology, and mitochondrial DNA sequence to evaluate the current taxonomy. Our data support only two taxa that correspond to the currently recognized subspecies M. p. proboscideus and M. p. flavicaudatus. Mitochondrial haplotypes of these two taxa are reciprocally monophyletic with over 13% uncorrected sequence divergence between them. PCA analysis of 14 morphological characters (mostly cranial grouped the two taxa into non-overlapping clusters, and body mass alone is a relatively reliable distinguishing character throughout much of Macroscelides range. Although fieldworkers were unable to find sympatric populations, the two taxa were found within 50 km of each other, and genetic analysis showed no evidence of gene flow. Based upon corroborating genetic data, morphological data, near sympatry with no evidence of gene flow, and differences in habitat use, we elevate these two forms to full species.

  16. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease.

  17. Distributions of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 in the visual system of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, P; Isaamullah, M; Petry, H M; Bickford, M E; Kaas, J H

    2015-08-15

    Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) proteins regulate the storage and release of glutamate from synapses of excitatory neurons. Two isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are found in most glutamatergic projections across the mammalian visual system, and appear to differentially identify subsets of excitatory projections between visual structures. To expand current knowledge on the distribution of VGLUT isoforms in highly visual mammals, we examined the mRNA and protein expression patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus, pulvinar complex, and primary visual cortex (V1) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), which are closely related to primates but classified as a separate order (Scandentia). We found that VGLUT1 was distributed in intrinsic and corticothalamic connections, whereas VGLUT2 was predominantly distributed in subcortical and thalamocortical connections. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were coexpressed in the LGN and in the pulvinar complex, as well as in restricted layers of V1, suggesting a greater heterogeneity in the range of efferent glutamatergic projections from these structures. These findings provide further evidence that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 identify distinct populations of excitatory neurons in visual brain structures across mammals. Observed variations in individual projections may highlight the evolution of these connections through the mammalian lineage.

  18. Distributions of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 in the visual system of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, P; Isaamullah, M; Petry, HM; Bickford, ME; Kaas, JH

    2014-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) proteins regulate the storage and release of glutamate from synapses of excitatory neurons. Two isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are found in most glutamatergic projections across the mammalian visual system, and appear to differentially identify subsets of excitatory projections between visual structures. To expand current knowledge on the distribution of VGLUT isoforms in highly visual mammals, we examined the mRNA and protein expression patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus, pulvinar complex, and primary visual cortex (V1) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), which are closely related to primates but classified as a separate order (Scandentia). We found that VGLUT1 was distributed in intrinsic and corticothalamic connections, whereas VGLUT2 was predominantly distributed in subcortical and thalamocortical connections. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were coexpressed in the LGN and in the pulvinar complex, as well as in restricted layers of V1, suggesting a greater heterogeneity in the range of efferent glutamatergic projections from these structures. These findings provide further evidence that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 identify distinct populations of excitatory neurons in visual brain structures across mammals. Observed variations in individual projections may highlight the evolution of these connections through the mammalian lineage. PMID:25521420

  19. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  20. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  1. Examining novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E; Czéh, B; Flügge, G

    2004-09-01

    Despite decades of research on psychiatric disorders, the aetiology and precise biological mechanisms that underlie depressive diseases are still poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that psychiatric disorders not only have a neurochemical basis but are also associated with morphological alterations in central nervous neurons and/or glial cells. Antidepressants may act by restoring structure as well as function of neural networks, meaning that they may, as a fundamental principle, affect neural plasticity underlying normal brain functioning. To examine these novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant medication we have carried out a series of experiments using the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews, an animal model with a high validity for the pathophysiology of depressive disorders, in which the animals were treated with the tricyclic antidepressant compound clomipramine. We found that one month of stress reduced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus, and decreased the total hippocampal volume. Gene transcription analysis revealed that, under these experimental conditions, expression of genes known to be involved in processes of cell differentiation is suppressed. These effects of social conflict on hippocampal cells, including gene transcription, and on the entire hippocampal volume could be counteracted by chronic treatment with the antidepressant clomipramine. Stress also induced a constant hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and suppressed both motor and marking behaviour. These neuroendocrine and behavioural stress-induced changes were also re-normalized by clomipramine.

  2. Fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela; Schilling, Nadja

    2007-04-01

    Muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. Enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. In the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers (SO) and fatigable fast-twitch fibers (FG) were inversely related to each other, whereas the percentage of intermediate FOG-fibers varied independently. A segregation of fatigue resistant SO-fibers into deep muscle regions is indicative of differential activation of histochemically distinct muscle regions in which deep regions stabilize the joint against gravitational loading. In all three species, this antigravity function was demonstrated for both the supraspinatus and the cranial subscapularis muscle, which prevent passive joint flexion during the support phase of the limb. The infraspinatus muscle showed a high content of SO-fibers in the primate species but not in the tree shrew, which demonstrates the "new" role of the infraspinatus muscle in joint stabilization related to the higher degree of humeral protraction in primates. In the tree shrew and the cotton-top tamarin, a greater proportion of the body weight is carried on the forelimb, but the squirrel monkey exhibits a weight shift to the hind limbs. The lower amount of forelimb loading is reflected by an overall lower proportion of fatigue resistant muscle fibers in the shoulder muscles of the squirrel monkey. Several muscles such as the deltoid no longer function as joint stabilizers and allow the humerus to move beyond the scapular plane. These differences among species demonstrate the high plasticity of the internal muscle architecture and physiology which is suggested to be the underlying reason for different muscle activity patterns in homologous muscles

  3. 天麻素对老年痴呆树鼩海马BDNF表达的影响%Effects of Gastrodin on BDNF Expression in AD Tree Shrew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何保丽; 角建林; 李波; 李进涛; 王丽梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gastrodin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in Alzheimer's disease ( AD) tree shrew. Methods AD tree shrew model was established by intracerebroventricular injection with amyloid-βpeptide (Aβ) . Since the eighth day after injection, the tree shrews were treated with gastrodin for thirty days. The expression of BDNF in tree threw hippocampus was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) . Results The expression of BDNF mRNA in the treatment group was higher than that in the model group ( <0.05) . Conclusion Gastrodin can increase some degree of the expression of BDNF.%目的:探讨天麻素对老年痴呆树鼩脑内海马BDNF表达的影响.方法用β-淀粉样蛋白(Aβ)侧脑室注射建立树鼩老年痴呆模型.从模型制作后第8天开始,治疗组树鼩连续30 d灌胃给予天麻素.通过RT-PCR检测海马脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF) mRNA的表达.结果海马BDNF mRNA在天马素治疗组的表达高于模型组(<0.05).结论天麻素能在一定程度上上调树鼩海马BDNF的表达.

  4. Social stress in tree shrews as an animal model of depression: an example of a behavioral model of a CNS disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Eberhard

    2005-03-01

    Animal models are invaluable in preclinical research on human psychopathology. Valid animal models to study the pathophysiology of depression and specific biological and behavioral responses to antidepressant drug treatments are of prime interest. In order to improve our knowledge of the causal mechanisms of stress-related disorders such as depression, we need animal models that mirror the situation seen in patients. One promising model is the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews. Coexistence of two males in visual and olfactory contact leads to a stable dominant/subordinate relationship, with the subordinates showing obvious changes in behavioral, neuroendocrine, and central nervous activity that are similar to the signs and symptoms observed during episodes of depression in patients. To discover whether this model, besides its "face validity" for depression, also has "predictive validity," we treated subordinate animals with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine and found a time-dependent recovery of both endocrine function and normal behavior. In contrast, the anxiolytic diazepam was ineffective. Chronic psychosocial stress in male tree shrews significantly decreased hippocampal volume and the proliferation rate of the granule precursor cells in the dentate gyrus. These stress-induced changes can be prevented by treating the animals with clomipramine, tianeptine, or the selective neurokinin receptor antagonist L-760,735. In addition to its apparent face and predictive validity, the tree shrew model also has a "molecular validity" due to the degradation routes of psychotropic compounds and gene sequences of receptors are very similar to those in humans. Although further research is required to validate this model fully, it provides an adequate and interesting non-rodent experimental paradigm for preclinical research on depression.

  5. 树鼩独立换气笼具的设计%Design on Dedicated Individual Ventilated Cage for Tree Shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡德宣; 江勤芳; 黄璋琼; 罕圆圆; 陆彩霞; 冯建洪; 许长兴; 孙晓梅; 代解杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To design a kind of individual ventilated cage for breeding tree shrews on infectious diseases experimental purpose. Methods The cage was designed for tree shrews according to its biological characteristics, biosafety requirement and considering the cages of other experimental animals. Results The individual ventilated cage applies to use and operate in infectious diseases tree shrews model. Conclusion The individual ventilated cage can meet requirements of maintaining animal welfare, ensuring animal quality, protecting person health and the environment against infection pollution. It has broad popularizing prospect to carry out infectious disease experiment.%目的 设计研究一种满足于树鼩感染性疾病动物模型实验生物安全要求的独立换气专用隔离笼具.方法 根据树鼩的生物学特性、实验生物安全要求及有关实验动物笼具标准进行设计.结果 该笼舍完全适用于感染性疾病实验树鼩的饲养和实验操作.结论 该笼具能达到维护实验动物福利,保证实验动物质量,保障人身健康,保护环境的要求,对于使用树鼩开展人类重大传染病研究具有广泛的应用价值和市场前景.

  6. 玫瑰麝香油气相色谱图像的建立%Establish Chromatography profile of Rose Musk Essential Oil by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德忠; 余少文

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱法玫瑰麝香油色谱图像,为其质量控制提供依据。方法:采用毛细管柱气相色谱法,用DB-FFAP(30m×0.25mm×0.25um)柱,以硝基对苯二酸改性的聚乙二醇为固定相;进样口温度为250℃,分流比为100∶1,程序升温:初始为70℃,保持5min,以5℃·min-1升温至220℃,保持5min;载气为氮气,流量为1.0ml·min-1;以FID为检测器,检测器温度为280℃;进样量为0.2μl。结果:建立玫瑰麝香油气相色谱图像,并设定各主要成分低限,D-柠檬萜为2.3%,芳樟醇为2.7%,乙酸苄酯为5.2%,乙酸香叶酯为0.8%,香叶醇为14.0%,香豆素为9.8%。结论:本方法简便、可靠,可用于评价玫瑰麝香油的质量,亦可为其他天然辅料的质量控制提供思路。%Objective : To establish a chromatographyprofile for rose musk essential oil. Method:A capillary gas chromatographic methodwas carried out, DB-FFAP capillary column (30m×0.25mm×0.25μm)was usedwith the injection port temperature of 250℃, and the split ratio wasset at 100∶1. The column temperaturewas raised by temperature programming.The initialcolumn temperature was 70℃, maintained for 5min, raised to 220℃with a rate of 5℃·min-1,maintained for 5 min.The carry gas was nitrogen and the flow rate of carry gas was 1.0ml·min-1. The temperature of FIDwas set at 280℃, and the samplevolume was setat0.2ul.Results:the Chromatography profile of Rose Musk Essential Oils by GC was established ,and the limited of compositions were set , D-Limonene is 2.3%,Linalool is 2.7%, Benzyl Acetate is 5.2%, Geranyl Acetate is 0.8% ,Geraniol is 14.0%, and Coumarin is 9.8%.Conclusion:This method is simpleand reliable, and can be used to evaluate the quality of Rose musk, and also can provide ideas of quality control for other natural excipients.

  7. The Mother, Who Is Not One: Reflections Of Motherhood In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet, The Tempest, And The Taming Of The Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAMAN HATICE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers will be discussed. Male/Female Subjectivity will also be questioned, in view of Irigaray's conceptualization of gender by relating it to Subject.

  8. Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

  9. Interferon-lambda3 (IFN-λ3 and its cognate receptor subunits in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri: genomic sequence retrieval, molecular identification and expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Li Li

    Full Text Available Type III IFNs (IFN-λs constitute a new subfamily with antiviral activities by signaling through a unique receptor complex composed of IFN-λs receptor 1 (IFNλR1 and interleukin-10 receptor 2 (IL10R2. As tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri have shown susceptiblility to several human viruses, they are a potentially important model for analyzing viral infection. However, little is known about their IFN-λs system. We used the tree shrew genome to retrieve IFN-λs and their receptor contig sequences by BLASTN and BLASTZ algorithms, and GenScan was used to scan transcripts from the putative contig sequences. RT-PCR and bioinformatic methods were then used to clone and characterize the IFN-λs system. Due to its highest identity with human IFN-λ3, we opted to define one intact IFN-λ gene, tsIFN-λ3, as well as its two receptor subunits, tsIFNλR1 and tsIL10R2. Additionally, our results showed that tsIFN-λ3 contained many features conserved in IFN-λ3 genes from other mammals, including conserved signal peptide cleavage and glycosylation sites, and several residues responsible for binding to the type III IFNR. We also found six transcript variants in the receptors: three in tsIFNλR1, wherein different extracellular regions exist in three transmembrane proteins, resulting in different affinities with IFN-λs; and three more variants in tsIL10R2, encoding one transmembrane and two soluble proteins. Based on tissue distribution in the liver, heart, brain, lung, intestine, kidney, spleen, and stomach, we found that IFN-λs receptor complex was expressed in a variety of organs although the expression level differed markedly between them. As the first study to find transcript variants in IL-10R2, our study offers novel insights that may have important implications for the role of IFN-λs in tree shrews' susceptibility with a variety of human viruses, bolstering the arguments for using tree shrews as an animal model in the study of human viral infections.

  10. 不同来源树鼩的弓形虫感染调查%Infection investigation of Toxoplasma gondii in tree shrews from various sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝品芬; 王文广; 匡德宣; 张媛; 孙晓梅; 代解杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查不同群体树鼩弓形虫的感染情况,为建立树鼩寄生虫学监测指标提供依据。方法分别从野外来源、人工驯化一年和人工繁殖的子一代三个树鼩群体中,随机采集动物全血样本各40份,用间接血凝试验(IHA)检测弓形虫抗体,PCR 方法检测其核酸,根据两种方法的检测结果分析树鼩弓形虫的感染情况。结果IHA 和 PCR 检测结果显示,120份树鼩血样均为阴性,两种检测方法结果一致。结论本次调查三个群体来源的树鼩均未感染弓形虫,树鼩对弓形虫的易感情况还需要通过扩大样本量和感染性实验来进一步验证。%Objective To investigate the infection status of Toxoplasma gondii in different colonies of tree shrews and then provide the basis for parasitological monitoring .Methods Each of the forty blood samples were randomly collected from three tree shrews colonies : wild origin, domesticated and first generation, respectively.Both indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) and PCR assay were used to detect the Toxoplasma gondii.Results No positive sample of Toxoplasma gondii was detected from either IHA or PCR results .The results from IHA and PCR assays were in coincidence with each other.Conclusions According to the survey none of the tree shrews from the three groups is infected with Toxoplasma gondii.More samples or infection experiments are needed to determine whether tree shrews can be infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

  11. 树鼩Retn基因的克隆及序列测定%Cloning and sequencing of Retn gene in tree shrew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁帅尧; 和占龙; 禹文海; 赵远; 陈瑜; 李鸿钧

    2011-01-01

    目的 克隆树鼩(Tupaia belangeri)Retn基因,为在树鼩中开展Retn相关研究提供实验资料.方法 在树鼩脂肪组织中抽提总RNA,用RT-PCR进行基因扩增,通过基因克隆、重组质粒的酶切鉴定,对Retn克隆质粒的序列测定和分析.结果 抽提的总RNA完整性较好,RT-PCR产物电泳检测得到了目的条带,重组克隆质粒经Pst I单酶切证明了Retn基因已克隆至质粒载体,测序获得了363个核苷酸序列,1个编码114个氨基酸的开放阅读框,序列提交GenBank,登录号为JF267792;经Blast软件进行序列分析,其核苷酸序列和氨基酸序列与鼠类的同源性分别为95%和99%.结论 成功克隆了树鼩Retn基因及序列测定,为树鼩Retn基础数据的建立和开展相关研究提供了实验资料.%Objective The aim of this study was to clone the Retn gene of tree shrews to provide basic data for further research. Methods Total RNA was extracted from adipose tissue of tree shrews. Retn gene was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned. The sequence of Retn gene was identified by sequencing and enzyme digestion. Results The total RNA had good integrity. The expected 363 bp fragment was obtained by RT-PCR. The Retn gene was cloned in vector and identified by enzyme digestion (Pst I). 363 nucleotide acids encoded an open reading frame with 114 amino acids. The sequence has been submitted to GenBank (No. JF267792). The results showed a 95% similarity in nucleotide acids and 99% in amino acids with mouse Retn gene. Conclusion We have first reported the Retn gene of the tree shrew, and lay a foundation for further study on biological functions of Retn gene in tree shrews.

  12. 树鼩粪便细菌分离培养与鉴定%Isolation, culture and identification of bacterial strains from tree shrews feces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽君; 余柄廷; 胡凝珠; 孙晓梅; 王玮; 孙静; 胡云章; 李建芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective Study the fecal flora diversity of the tree shrew , to provide a basis data of fecal bacteria of feeding the tree shrew .Methods Ten tree shrews were used in this study .The Stools of the animals were respectively cultured with oxygen and without oxygen to isolate the bacterial .Then the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA of the bacterial was sequenced and analyzed .Results 25 bacterial strains belonging to ten bacterial species were isolated by anaerobic incubation , and 25 bacterial strains belonging to twelve bacterial species were isolated by aerobic incubation .Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia fergusonii, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus , Aeromonas salmonicida subsp .masoucida , Rahnella aquatilis , Exiguobacterium aquaticum , Raoultella terrigena , and Escherichia coli were identified in this study .Conclusions There is a fecal flora diversity of the tree shrew, and the Proteus vulgaris , Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium may be the major parasitic flora .%目的:了解人工饲养树鼩粪便菌群多样性,为树鼩的正常饲养繁殖和微生物质量控制标准化提供依据。方法随机采集10份树鼩粪便样品,利用有氧及厌氧培养基进行细菌分离培养,提取细菌基因组DNA后PCR扩增16SrRNA基因并测序鉴定。结果本实验从树鼩粪便样品中,经有氧培养分离鉴定出25株、12种细菌,经厌氧培养分离鉴定出25株、10种细菌,包括变形杆菌属、肠球菌属、埃希菌属、志贺菌属、葡萄球菌属、气单胞菌属、拉恩氏菌属、拉乌尔菌属、微小杆菌属、链球菌属、明串珠菌属。结论树鼩肠道好氧菌及厌氧菌具有丰富的种属多样性,普通变形杆菌群、费格森埃希菌群和屎肠球菌群可能是树鼩肠道的主要寄生菌群。

  13. Interferon-lambda3 (IFN-λ3) and its cognate receptor subunits in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri): genomic sequence retrieval, molecular identification and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Li; Xu, Wen-Wen; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Wang, Wen-Ju; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Shi-You; Willden, Andrew; Huang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Type III IFNs (IFN-λs) constitute a new subfamily with antiviral activities by signaling through a unique receptor complex composed of IFN-λs receptor 1 (IFNλR1) and interleukin-10 receptor 2 (IL10R2). As tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) have shown susceptiblility to several human viruses, they are a potentially important model for analyzing viral infection. However, little is known about their IFN-λs system. We used the tree shrew genome to retrieve IFN-λs and their receptor contig sequences by BLASTN and BLASTZ algorithms, and GenScan was used to scan transcripts from the putative contig sequences. RT-PCR and bioinformatic methods were then used to clone and characterize the IFN-λs system. Due to its highest identity with human IFN-λ3, we opted to define one intact IFN-λ gene, tsIFN-λ3, as well as its two receptor subunits, tsIFNλR1 and tsIL10R2. Additionally, our results showed that tsIFN-λ3 contained many features conserved in IFN-λ3 genes from other mammals, including conserved signal peptide cleavage and glycosylation sites, and several residues responsible for binding to the type III IFNR. We also found six transcript variants in the receptors: three in tsIFNλR1, wherein different extracellular regions exist in three transmembrane proteins, resulting in different affinities with IFN-λs; and three more variants in tsIL10R2, encoding one transmembrane and two soluble proteins. Based on tissue distribution in the liver, heart, brain, lung, intestine, kidney, spleen, and stomach, we found that IFN-λs receptor complex was expressed in a variety of organs although the expression level differed markedly between them. As the first study to find transcript variants in IL-10R2, our study offers novel insights that may have important implications for the role of IFN-λs in tree shrews' susceptibility with a variety of human viruses, bolstering the arguments for using tree shrews as an animal model in the study of human viral infections.

  14. Expression of IGF-Ⅱ, p53, p21 and HBxAg in precancerous events of hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AFB1 and/or HBV in tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Liang Qin; Jian Jia Su; Yuan Li; Chun Yang; Ke Chen Ban; Rue Qi Yian

    2000-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION In order to study the relationship between oncogene expression and HCC generation, we observed the precancerous hepatic GGT foci, IGF-Ⅱ, p53 and p21 expression during hepatocarcinogenesis of tree shrew induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or aflatoxin B1 (AFB1).

  15. 树鼩模型在骨代谢疾病中的应用研究进展%The progress in the application research using tree shrew model of bone metabolic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雨杉; 伍雪; 赵宏斌; 钱传云

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as hyperlipoidemia, atherosclerosis, and osteoporosis have seriously threatened human health. The shape, physiological function and biochemical metabolism of the tree shrew are extremely similar to those of mankind.The distinctive property of the tree shrew in the lipid metabolism is likely to have obvious advantage in the research of metabolic diseases.This paper reviews the progresses the use of the tree shrew in metabolic diseases in recent years, aiming at demonstrating various types of metabolic diseases in tree shrew models, and further providing a reference for later research of bone metabolic diseases.%高脂血症、动脉粥样硬化及骨质疏松症等代谢性疾病严重威胁人类健康。树鼩的形态、生理机能及生化代谢与人类极为相似,树鼩在脂代谢方面的独特之处可能成为其在研究代谢性疾病的明显优势。本文就近年来树鼩在代谢性疾病中应用的进展作一综述,旨在阐述各种代谢性疾病的树鼩模型,为骨代谢疾病的研究提供借鉴。

  16. Measuring airborne components of seismic body vibrations in a Middle-Asian sand-dwelling Insectivora species, the piebald shrew (Diplomesodon pulchellum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, Ilya A; Zaytseva, Alexandra S; Ilchenko, Olga G; Volodina, Elena V; Chebotareva, Anastasia L

    2012-08-15

    Self-produced seismic vibrations have been found for some subterranean rodents but have not been reported for any Insectivora species, although seismic sensitivity has been confirmed for blind sand-dwelling chrysochlorid golden moles. Studying the vocal behaviour of captive piebald shrews, Diplomesodon pulchellum, we documented vibrations, apparently generated by the whole-body wall muscles, from 11 (5 male, 6 female) of 19 animals, placed singly on a drum membrane. The airborne waves of the vibratory drumming were digitally recorded and then analysed spectrographically. The mean frequency of vibration was 160.5 Hz. This frequency matched the periodicity of the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation (159.4 Hz) found in loud screech calls of the same subjects. The body vibration was not related to thermoregulation, hunger-related depletion of energy resources or fear, as it was produced by well-fed, calm animals, at warm ambient temperatures. We hypothesize that in the solitary, nocturnal, digging desert piebald shrew, body vibrations may be used for seismic exploration of substrate density, to avoid energy-costly digging of packed sand for burrowing and foraging. At the same time, the piercing quality of screech calls due to the deep sinusoidal frequency modulation, matching the periodicity of body vibration, may be important for agonistic communication in this species.

  17. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  18. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a wild bird (ural owl) and its feed (shrew-moles): comparison of molecular types with human isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Chihiro; Umeda, Kaoru; Inamori, Ikuko; Kosono, Yuka; Tanigawa, Tomokazu; Komiya, Takako; Iwaki, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Nakatsu, Susumu

    2016-03-22

    Corynebacterium ulcerans is a pathogen causing diphtheria-like illness to humans. In contrast to diphtheria by Corynebacterium diphtheriae circulating mostly among humans, C. ulcerans infection is zoonotic. The present study aimed to clarify how a zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans circulates among wild birds and animals. By screening 380 birds, a single strain of toxigenic C. ulcerans was isolated from a carnivorous bird, ural owl (Strix uralensis). The bacterium was also isolated from two individuals of Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides), a food preference of the owl. Analysis by ribotyping showed that the owl and mole isolates were classified in a group, suggesting that C. ulcerans can be transmissible among wild birds and their prey animals. Moreover, our isolates were found to belong to a group of previously reported C. ulcerans isolates from dogs and a cat, which are known to serve as sources for human infection. The findings suggest that the shrew-mole may be a potential reservoir of a zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans.

  19. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information.

  20. Determination of a bound musk xylene metabolite in carp hemoglobin as a biomarker of exposure by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, M A; Brumley, W C; Pyle, S M; Sovocool, G W

    2004-10-01

    Musk xylene (MX) is widely used as a fragrance ingredient in commercial toiletries. Identification and quantitation of a bound 4-amino-MX (AMX) metabolite was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Detection of AMX occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin (Hb), derived from the nitroso metabolite, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released AMX metabolite was extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. The concentration of AMX metabolite was found to range from 6.0 to 30.6 ng/g in the carp Hb, collected from the Las Vegas Wash and Lake Mead, NV areas. The presence of an AMX metabolite in the carp Hb was confirmed when similar mass spectral features and the same retention time of the AMX metabolite were obtained for both standard AMX and carp Hb extract solutions. In the nonhydrolyzed and reagent blank extracts, the AMX metabolite was not detected.

  1. Prevention of AMI Induced Ventricular Remodeling: Inhibitory Effects of Heart-Protecting Musk Pill on IL-6 and TNF-Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Hoppe, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Heart-Protecting Musk Pill (HMP) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been used for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease in clinic. The current study investigated the effect of HMP on the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and observed the relationship between level changes of inflammatory cytokines and ventricular remodeling in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Animal models of AMI were made by coronary artery ligation in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. AMI rats showed increased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. Treatment with HMP decreases IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations in rats with AMI. Histopathological and transmission electron microscopic findings were also essentially in agreement with biochemical findings. The results of our study revealed that inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α induce cardiac remodeling in rats after AMI; HMP improves cardiac function and ameliorates ventricular remodeling by downregulating the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and further suppressing the ultrastructural changes of myocardial cells. PMID:28373886

  2. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic musks in blood and urine by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; Huang, Liping; Chen, Yuxin; Guo, Liman; Li, Limin; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-06-15

    A rapid, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 5 polycyclic musks (PCMs) in biological fluids was developed by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). All parameters influencing SLE-GC-MS performance, including electron energy of electron-impact ionization source, collision energy for tandem mass spectrometer when operated in selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, type and volume of elution reagent, nitrogen evaporation time, pH and salinity of sample have been carefully optimized. Eight milliliter of n-hexane was finally chosen as elution reagent. Blood and urine sample could be loaded into SLE cartridge without adjusting pH and salinity. Deuterated tonalide (AHTN-d3) was chosen as internal standard. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The dynamic range spanned over two orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds in blood and urine ranged from 0.008 to 0.105μgL(-1) and 0.005 to 0.075μgL(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of PCMs in human blood and urine obtaining satisfying recoveries on low, medium and high levels. The method was compared with SLE-GC-MS and shown one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity.

  3. In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives, Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care.

  4. 中缅树鼩微卫星分子标记的筛选%Isolation of microsatellite markers in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧潇; 王新兴; 王文广; 孙晓梅; 代解杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To isolate microsatellite markers in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis) , and to fill the gap of lack of specific genetic markers of tree shrews. Methods A partial genomic library was constructed in tree shrews. Thirty-six positive clones were isolated from screening about 1500 clones of the genomic library with ( CA) 15 probe labelled at the 5' end with digoxin. Sequences of these clones and 15 microsatellites were isolated which included one repeated clones and one short flank sequence. Results The other 13 primers were designed based on unique sequences flanking each motif with the software Primer3. PCR assays were performed with these primers, and all gave expected bands. Annealing temperature of these primers was between 44℃ and 52℃. So the positive cloning efficiency was 2. 4% , and the microsatellite cloning efficiency was 1%. Conclusions The microsatellite cloning efficiency of isolating microsatellite markers in tree shrews with probe labelled by digoxin is almost the same as that of probe labelled by radioisotope, yet avoided the radioactive contamination. The new polymorphic microsatellite markers we have identified and characterized will contribute to the tree shrew genetic linkage mapping, molecular evolution and marker-assisted selection.%目的 筛选中缅树鼩微卫星分子标记,逐步填补中缅树鼩特异性遗传标记的空白.方法 建立中缅树鼩基因小片段插入文库,利用5’端地高辛标记的(CA)15探针从约1500个菌落中选出36个阳性克隆.对这些克隆进行测序,发现其中15个含有重复序列,其中1个为重复克隆,1个因两端序列太短而不能设计引物.结果 用Primer3软件设计13对引物.PCR结果,13对均有条带.退火温度分布在44~52℃之间.阳性克隆率为2.4%,微卫星克隆率为1%.结论 利用地高辛标记探针筛选树鼩微卫星分子标记所得的微卫星克隆率,可达到传统放射性核素标记探针同等的效果,并可避免

  5. Pathological analysis of the induced breast tumor models in tree shrew%人工诱导树鼩乳腺肿瘤的病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何保丽; 夏厚军; 角建林; 王春艳; 张海林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a tree shrew mode of breast tumor.Method Forty-five 3 to 4 month-old female tree shrews were orally gavaged with 20 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or peanut oil per animal for three times.Following that, fifteen DMBA administrated tree shrews were implanted 90 day-release medroxyprogesterone acetate ( MPA) pellets.The tree shrews were palpated once weekly to detect mammary tumors for 45 weeks after first DMBA administration.Results DMBA were able to induce breast tumors (12.5%) in tree shrews, and MPA increased the tumor incidence (50%) while no breast tumors were observed in the control group.Three induced breast tumors were intraductal papillary carcinomas and one was IDC by H&E stain.Conclusion All induced tumors are similar with spontaneous tumors in structure and molecular markers.%目的 建立树鼩乳腺肿瘤模型.方法 用DMBA联合人工合成孕激素MPA的方法,挑选45只雌性树鼩,随机分为3组.(1)DMBA组:连续3次进行DMBA(20 mg/次)灌胃处理,每周1次;(2)DMBA+MPA组:每3周1次,连续3次DMBA灌胃处理之后,于树鼩背部左侧皮下第1次植入MPA缓释片剂(150 mg/片,90 d缓释),间隔3个月,第2次植入MPA片;(3)正常对照组:使用花生油进行灌胃处理,每3周1次,连续3次.实验处理后,每周定期观察肿瘤发生情况,共观察45周.采用HE染色对诱发肿瘤的病理类型进行鉴定.结果 DMBA能单独诱导树鼩特异的产生乳腺肿瘤,诱发率为12%;联合MPA皮下植入可以把DMBA诱导的乳腺肿瘤发病率提高到50%;而对照组没有观察到乳腺肿瘤的发生.诱导的肿瘤主要为导管内乳头状瘤,恶性程度低,仅有一例为恶性程度高的浸润性导管癌.结论 所诱导的树鼩导管内乳头状瘤和浸润性导管癌均为人类共有的肿瘤病理类型.诱发肿瘤形态与自发肿瘤相似.

  6. DMBA Induced Breast Tumors in Tree Shrews (Tupaia Belangeri Chinese)%DMBA诱导树鼩乳腺肿瘤(中缅树鼩)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小珊; 侯小明; 王伟; 郝佩琪; 朱克伦; 剡海阔; 黄群山; 杨世华

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立一个合适的乳腺癌动物模型将在研究人类乳腺癌的发生、发展、转移等方面中发挥着越来越重要的作用.7,12-二甲基苯并蒽(7,12-dimethylbenz anthracene,DMBA)在实验中能诱导大鼠产生乳腺肿瘤.树鼩的基因的结构与人类的相似程度比啮齿类动物要高,而且树鼩的自发性乳腺癌已经有被报道,因而树鼩很有可能是研究乳腺肿瘤更合适的动物模型.因此我们想用致癌剂DMBA诱导树鼩产生乳腺肿瘤而建立树鼩的乳腺肿瘤模型.方法:在这个研究中,我们采用了十只在分娩之后失去幼崽的雌树鼩,其中一半的树鼩在腰部双侧乳房的脂肪垫注射100 mg/kg的DMBA,其余的树鼩作为对照组没有作DMBA处理.对生成的肿瘤组织进行病理切片HE染色的形态特点分析以及免疫组化化学法测定Ki-67、雌激素受体、孕酮受体、人表皮生长因子受体-2、E-钙粘蛋白、P120连环蛋白的表达.结果:通过诊断在DMBA处理的树鼩中,5分之1发展浸润性导管癌,其余发展成原位导管癌.结果还证明了诱导出来的乳腺肿瘤的形态学和病理学特征与人类的浸润性导管癌相似.结论:结果显示我们采用DMBA注射失去幼崽的雌树鼩的乳腺来诱导乳腺肿瘤是有效的,诱导出来的肿瘤组织学特征与人的乳腺癌相似,诱导的肿瘤组织表达目前人常用的乳腺癌相关分子生物学标记,并且表达情况与人的乳腺癌相似.这表明了DMBA诱导树鼩乳腺癌可以提供一个适合于研究人类乳腺癌发生、发展、转移和治疗的动物模型.%Objective:The establishment of a suitable animal model for study of human breast cancer development,metastasis and other aspects is more crucial.7,12-dimethylbenz anthracene (DMBA) has potential to induce experimental breast tumors in rat.Tree shrew is a more appropriate animal for disease models due to its genetic makeup similarities with human as compared with

  7. Synaptic organization of striate cortex projections in the tree shrew: A comparison of the claustrum and dorsal thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Brown, Jonathan D; Slusarczyk, Arkadiusz S; Zhou, Na; Quiggins, Ranida; Petry, Heywood M; Bickford, Martha E

    2017-04-15

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) striate cortex is reciprocally connected with the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the ventral pulvinar nucleus (Pv), and the claustrum. In the Pv or the dLGN, striate cortex projections are thought to either strongly "drive", or more subtly "modulate" activity patterns respectively. To provide clues to the function of the claustrum, we compare the synaptic arrangements of striate cortex projections to the dLGN, Pv, and claustrum, using anterograde tracing and electron microscopy. Tissue was additionally stained with antibodies against γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to identify GABAergic interneurons and non-GABAergic projection cells. The striate cortex terminals were largest in the Pv (0.94 ± 0.08 μm(2) ), intermediate in the claustrum (0.34 ± 0.02 μm(2) ), and smallest in the dLGN (0.24 ± 0.01 μm(2) ). Contacts on interneurons were most common in the Pv (39%), intermediate in the claustrum (15%), and least common in the dLGN (12%). In the claustrum, non-GABAergic terminals (0.34 ± 0.01 μm(2) ) and striate cortex terminals were not significantly different in size. The largest terminals in the claustrum were GABAergic (0.51 ± 0.02 μm(2) ), and these terminals contacted dendrites and somata that were significantly larger (1.90 ± 0.30 μm(2) ) than those contacted by cortex or non-GABAergic terminals (0.28 ± 0.02 μm(2) and 0.25 ± 0.02 μm(2) , respectively). Our results indicate that the synaptic organization of the claustrum does not correspond to a driver/modulator framework. Instead, the circuitry of the claustrum suggests an integration of convergent cortical inputs, gated by GABAergic circuits. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1403-1420, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Transplantation Promotes Functional Improvement Associated with CNTF-STAT3 Activation after Hemi-Sectioned Spinal Cord Injury in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Lin Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI can lead to spastic paralysis on the injured side, as well as flaccid paralysis on the contralateral side, which can negatively affect a patient’s daily life. Stem-cell therapy may offer an effective treatment option for individuals with hSCI. To examine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs transplantation on hSCI and explore related mechanisms in the tree shrews, here, we created a model of hSCI by inducing injury at the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10. Hoechst 33342-labeled BMSCs derived from adult tree shrews were isolated, cultured, and implanted into the spinal cord around the injury site at 9 days after injury. The isolated BMSCs were able to survive, proliferate and release a variety of neurotrophic factors (NTFs both in vitro and in vivo. At 28 days after injury, compared with the sham group, the hSCI group displayed scar formation and dramatic elevations in the mean interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β density and cell apoptosis level, whereas the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF mRNA was reduced. Following BMSC transplantation, motoneurons extent of shrinkage were reduced and the animals’ Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotion scale scores were significantly higher at 21 and 28 days after injury when compared with the injured group. Moreover, the hSCI-induced elevations in scar formation, IL-1β, and cell apoptosis were reduced by BMSC transplantation to levels that were close to those of the sham group. Corresponding elevations in the expression of STAT3 and CNTF mRNA were observed in the hSCI + BMSCs group, and the levels were not significantly different from those observed in the sham group. Together, our results support that grafted BMSCs can significantly improve locomotor function in tree shrews subjected to hSCI and that this improvement is associated with the upregulation of CNTF and STAT3

  9. Biological transformation, kinetics and dose-response assessments of bound musk ketone hemoglobin adducts in rainbow trout as biomarkers of environmental exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M A Mottaleb; J H Zimmerman; T W Moy

    2008-01-01

    Low levels (ng/g) of musk ketone (MK), used as a fragrance additive in the formulation of personal care products, are frequently detected in the water and other environment. Thus, aquatic organisms can be continuously exposed to MK. In this study, kinetics and dose-response assessments of 2-amino-MK (AMK) metabolite, bound to cysteine-hemoglobin (Hb) in rainbow trout, formed by enzymatic nitro-reduction of MK have been demonstrated. Trout were exposed to a single exposure of 0.010, 0.030, 0.10, and or 0.30 mg MK/g of fish. Twenty-six Hb samples were collected from exposed- and control fish subsequent to exposure intervals of 1 d (24 h), 3 d (72 h), and 7 d (168 h). Basic hydrolysis released bound AMK metabolite was extracted into n-hexane and then concentrated and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) electron capture negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) mass spectrometry (MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM). The presence of the AMK metabolite in Hb extracts was confirmed by agreement of similar mass spectral features and retention time with a standard. In the dose-response study, maximum adduct formation was obtained at the 0.10 mg/g dose with an average AMK metabolite concentration of 2.2 ng/g. For kinetics, the highest concentration of the AMK metabolite was found to be 32.0 ng/g at 0.03 mg/g dose in 3-d sample. Further elimination of the metabolite showed kinetics with a half-life estimated to be 2 d, assuming first-order kinetics. The metabolite was not detected in the control samples, non-hydrolyzed Hb, and reagent blank extracts. The detection limit for AMK in the Hb was approximately 0.30 (g/L, based on a signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3).

  10. Binocular lens treatment in tree shrews: Effect of age and comparison of plus lens wear with recovery from minus lens-induced myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, John T; Norton, Thomas T

    2010-11-01

    We examined normal emmetropization and the refractive responses to binocular plus or minus lenses in young (late infantile) and juvenile tree shrews. In addition, recovery from lens-induced myopia was compared with the response to a similar amount of myopia produced with plus lenses in age-matched juvenile animals. Normal emmetropization was examined with daily noncycloplegic autorefractor measures from 11 days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]) when the eyes were in the infantile, rapid growth phase and their refractions were substantially hyperopic, to 35 days of VE when the eyes had entered the juvenile, slower growth phase and the refractions were near emmetropia. Starting at 11 days of VE, two groups of young tree shrews wore binocular +4 D lenses (n=6) or -5 D lenses (n=5). Starting at 24 days of VE, four groups of juvenile tree shrews (n=5 each) wore binocular +3 D, +5 D, -3 D, or -5 D lenses. Non-cycloplegic measures of refractive state were made frequently while the animals wore the assigned lenses. The refractive response of the juvenile plus-lens wearing animals was compared with the refractive recovery of an age-matched group of animals (n=5) that were myopic after wearing a -5 D lens from 11 to 24 days of VE. In normal tree shrews, refractions (corrected for the small eye artifact) declined rapidly from (mean±SEM) 6.6±0.6 D of hyperopia at 11 VE to 1.4±0.2 D at 24 VE and 0.8±0.4 D at 35 VE. Plus 4 D lens treatment applied at 11 days of VE initially corrected or over-corrected the young animals' hyperopia and produced a compensatory response in most animals; the eyes became nearly emmetropic while wearing the +4 D lenses. In contrast, plus-lens treatment starting at 24 days of VE initially made the juvenile eyes myopic (over-correction) and, on average, was less effective. The response ranged from no change in refractive state (eye continued to experience myopia) to full compensation (emmetropic with the lens in place

  11. Mercury in soil, earthworms and organs of voles Myodes glareolus and shrew Sorex araneus in the vicinity of an industrial complex in Northwest Russia (Cherepovets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komov, V T; Ivanova, E S; Poddubnaya, N Y; Gremyachikh, V A

    2017-03-01

    The characteristic properties of uptake and distribution of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems have received much lesser attention compared to aquatic particularly in Russia. Terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to large industrial manufactures-potential sources of mercury inflow into the environment frequently remain unstudied. This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the basic elements of terrestrial ecosystems situated close to a large metallurgical complex.Mean values of mercury concentration (mg Hg/kg dry weight) in the vicinity of city of Cherepovets were the following: 0.056 ± 0.033-in the humus layer of soil; 0.556 ± 0.159-in earthworms; in the organs of voles Myodes glareolus (kidneys-0.021 ± 0.001; liver-0.014 ± 0.003; muscle-0.014 ± 0.001; brain-0.008 ± 0.002); in the organs of shrew Sorex araneus (kidneys-0.191 ± 0.016; liver-0.124 ± 0.011; muscle-0.108 ± 0.009; brain-0.065 ± 0.000). Correlation dependences between Hg content in soil and earthworms (r s  = 0.85, p < 0.01) as well as soil and all studied shrews' organs (rs = 0.44-0.58; p ≤ 0.01) were found.The results obtained evidence for a strong trophic link in the bioaccumulation of Hg in terrestrial food webs. Despite the vicinity to a large metallurgical complex, mercury content in the studied objects was significantly lower than values of corresponding parameters in the soils and biota from industrial (polluted) areas of Great Britain, the USA, and China.

  12. Epidermal sensory organs of moles, shrew moles, and desmans: a study of the family talpidae with comments on the function and evolution of Eimer's organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, K C

    2000-09-01

    The epidermal sensory organs of members of the family Talpidae (moles, shrew-moles, and desmans) were investigated and compared to determine the range of sensory specializations and better understand how they evolved. Small domed mechanosensory organs called 'Eimer's organs' were present on the rhinarium of nearly all species of talpids, but not among the sister group of shrews (Soricidae) or other insectivore families. This suggests that the common ancestor to the talpids possessed Eimer's organs. Two species of moles from the driest habitats did not exhibit Eimer's organs - suggesting that their sensory organs degenerated in response to harsh, abrasive soil conditions. The semi-aquatic desmans uniquely possessed tiny sensory hairs interspersed with their Eimer's organs; these may act to sense water currents. Some species exhibited a subdivided, star-like, rhinarium - resembling an early embryonic stage of the star-nosed mole and providing clues to the evolution of the star. A single genera (Uropsilus) that branched off early in the evolution of the talpids had Eimer's organ-like structures but lacked some typical components. These findings fill a major gap in our knowledge of talpid sensory biology and suggest (1) how Eimer's organs evolved, (2) how the unusual appendages of the star-nosed mole evolved, (3) that the evolution of Eimer's organ is convergent with the mechanosensory push-rod of monotremes. The results also demonstrate the features that distinguish Eimer's organ from similar configurations of sensory receptors in other mammalian skin surfaces. Finally, a mechanism for Eimer's organ function in detecting object and prey specific surface features is proposed.

  13. Establishment of tree shrew chronic morphine dependent model%慢性吗啡依赖树鼩模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永梅; 杨建珍; 孙华英; 马原野; 王建红

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of morphine to reduce pain is limited because of its drug tolerance, dependence and addiction. In the present study, the tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) developed morphine tolerance and chronic morphine dependence by morphine injections with increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg body weight for 7 days). Meanwhile, the naloxone (1.25 mg/kg body weight)-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) and the withdrawal symptom were also found. The tree shrew model of chronic morphine dependence can be used to investigate the withdrawal symptoms and to select potential withdrawal symptoms reducing drugs in the future.%吗啡是一种有效的镇痛药,但易使动物产生耐受性和成瘾性.在该实验中,中缅树鼩(Tupaia belangeri chinensis)连续7d,每天接受三次肌肉注射递增剂量(5、10、15、20 mg/kg体重)吗啡后对吗啡产生耐受和依赖;吗啡注射完成后,腹腔注射纳洛酮(1.25 mg/kg体重)催瘾,可诱导其条件性位置厌恶(conditioned place aversion,CPA)及相应吗啡戒断症状的出现.该结果提示树鼩慢性吗啡依赖模型的建立可用于研究吗啡依赖和耐受的生物学机制,以及减轻戒断症状药物的筛选.

  14. 树鼩水动力转染方法的建立及在HBV模型探索中的应用%Tree shrew model of acute hepatitis B virus infection generated by hydrodynamic injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 阎少多; 闫虎; 段相国; 王纪东; 章金刚; 詹林盛

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种水动力注射将外源基因导入树鼩肝脏的方法,并用此方法建立HBV树鼩模型.方法 用萤火虫荧光素酶(firefly luciferase,Fluc)和β-半乳糖苷酶(β-galactosidase,β-Gal)作为报告基因,通过树鼩大隐静脉将报告基因用水动力注射方法导入树鼩肝脏,活体成像和β-Gal染色观察水动力转染效果.将pHBV1.2质粒用水动力注射方法转入树鼩肝脏,检测树鼩血清中ALT、实时荧光定量检测血清中HBV DNA,ELISA 检测血清中HBsAg、HBsAb.结果 通过大隐静脉水动力注射,报告基因能够在肝脏特异性表达,转染HBV1.2质粒后树鼩血清中能够检测到相关阳性指标.结论 大隐静脉水动力注射法能够作为树鼩肝脏外源基因导入的一种方法,并用此方法初步探索了树鼩的HBV模型.%Objective To establish a method for hydrodynamic-based transfection to tree shrews and generate a tree shrew model of hepatitis B virus infection. Methods The firefly luciferase ( Flue ) and a β-galactosidase (β-Gal ) as reporter genes were delivered to hepatocytes of tree shrews by hydrodynamic-based injection via the great saphenous vein. Bi-oluminescence imaging and β-Gal staining were used to verify the gene expression. The tree shrew was hydrodynamically injected with pHBV1.2 plasmid. At various times, the sera were collected in which ALT, HBsAg, HBsAb and HBV DNA were examined by ELISA or real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR respectively. Results The reporter genes were detected only in the liver of tree shrews by bioluminescence imaging and β-Gal staining. Markers of HBV were detected in the sera of tree shrews injected hydrodynamically with pHBVl. 2. Conclusion Hydrodynamic-based injection by the great saphenous vein can be used to deliver the gene to hepatocytes of tree shrews. A tree shrew model of acute HBV infection is generated by the hydrodynamic injection.

  15. 树鼩消化道胰高血糖素样肽-1阳性细胞分布的研究%Research on distribution of gastrointestinal peptide glucagon-1 of positive cells in tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽雄; 王俊斌; 刘汝文; 吕龙宝; 陈丽玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe tree shrews gastrointestinal glucagon like peptide 1 ( glp-1 ) immune response positive cells ( EG cells) distribution and the difference of the digestive tract of rats.Methods Immunohisto chemical SABC method to detect tree shrews diges-tive tract (except for oral cavity, pharynx) glp-1 cells positive content.Results EG cells distributed in tree shrews duodenum,ileum and colon,glandular epithelial cells of jejunum,positive material is distributed in the cytoplasm.Tree shrews stomach,rectum did not see EG cell distribution.Ileal immune dyeing results show positive,EG cells of the digestive tract,only the ileum and colon distribution glp-1 more posi-tive, tree shrews compared with the rats in the digestive tract glp-1 significant difference (P<0.01).Conclusion Gastrointestinal tree shrew in duodenum,ileum and colon,jejunum have glucagon positive cells.The rat only have positive cells in the ileum and colon.According to the mechanism of the glp-1 and the distribution of tree shrews gastrointestinal glp-1,tree shrews atherosclerosis ( atherosclerosis,AS) AS the model is not easy to make may be associated with the role of glp-1.%目的:观察树鼩胃肠道胰高血糖素样肽-1( GLP-1)免疫反应阳性细胞( EG细胞)分布情况与大鼠消化道的差异,以期为树鼩模型的进一步使用提供参考。方法免疫组化SABC法检测树鼩消化道(口腔、咽除外) GLP-1的细胞阳性含量。结果EG细胞分布于树鼩十二指肠、回肠、结肠、空场中的腺上皮细胞间,阳性物质分布于细胞质。树鼩胃、直肠未见EG细胞分布。回肠免疫组织化学染色结果显示EG细胞阳性,消化道中只有回肠、结肠分布GLP-1阳性较多,树鼩与大鼠相比较消化道中GLP-1差异显著( P<0.01)。结论树鼩胃肠道内十二指肠、回肠和结肠、空肠都有胰高血糖素阳性细胞。大鼠只在回肠、结肠有阳性细胞。据GLP-1的作

  16. Detection and comparison of physiological indexes in the wild and laboratory tree shrew%野生和人工繁育树鼩部分生理指标检测与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马旭通; 李福林; 蒋宏君; 李文辉; 张云; 杜廷义

    2011-01-01

    To provide fundamental basis for the tree shrew models of human diseases, we examined and compared the physiological and biochemical indexes between wild and laboratory tree shrews. Blood samples were taken from 54wild tree shrews that were housed in laboratory for 1 - 2 months, and from 54 first-generation of the laboratory tree shrews; each group had nearly equal male and female composition. Some of the first reported physiological and biochemical indexes were showed no significant differences between genders, and these indexes in laboratory tree shrews were as follows [medium (inter-quartile range) ]: CK 1449 (956) U/L, CTNI 5.94 (7.23) μg/L, TBA15.6 (19.7) μrnol/L,FRUC 393.5 (80.8) μmol/L and LDL-C0.36 (0.32); and in the wild tree shrews, 986 (564) U/L, 4.01 (4.10) μg/L, 20.0(20.6) μmol/L, 379.0 (104.0) μmol/L and 0.46 (0.23) mmol/L, respectively. In the laboratory tree shrews, the variations of physiological and biochemical indexes were smaller, but the mean values of some indicators related to liver and heart functions became higher These data would be valuable for the development of tree shrew models of human diseases.%比较野生和人工繁育树鼩的部分生理指标,为人类疾病的动物模型创制提供基本参数.血液采自昆明地区54只野生树鼩(被捕获后人工饲养1-2月)和54只子一代人工繁育树鼩.该研究首次报道在两组动物中,肌酸激酶、肌钙蛋白I、总胆汁酸、果糖胺、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇等在性别间差异无显著性;这些指标在人工繁育树鼩中的中位数(四分位数间距)依次为:1449(956)U/L、5.94(7.23)μg/L、15.6(19.7)μmol/L、393.5(80.8)μmol/L和0.36(0.32)mmol/L;在野生树鼩中依次为:986(564)U/L、4.01(4.10)μg/L、20.0(20.6)μmol/L、379.0(104.0)μmol/L和0.46(0.23)mmol/L.人工繁育树鼩生理指标表现出个体间离散程度降低趋势,但个别反映肝脏功能及心肌情况的指标表现出平均值上升,个体离散程度扩大的现

  17. 树鼩应用于丙型肝炎病毒相关领域的研究进展%Progress in Researches on Application of Tree Shrews to the Relevant Field of Hepatitis C Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡德宣; 江勤芳; 孙晓梅; 仝品芬; 高家红; 陆彩霞; 代解杰

    2013-01-01

    Persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a global public health problem. The lack of proper study models has brought difficulties in the study of the mechanism of viral infection, life cycle and pathogenic mechanism of HCV. Tree shrews are classified into the primate animal and many biological characteristics are close to human. In recent years, Tree shrews has aroused the common interest in the biomedical researchers and the relevant regulators. The domestic and foreign scholars have made many positive attempts in order to determine whether or not tree shrews is used as the model of HCV infection. This article will introduce the newly progress of application of tree shrew in HCV experimental model research.%丙型肝炎病毒慢性感染已成为世界范围的公共健康问题,由于缺少合适的丙型肝炎病毒研究模型,所以对丙肝病毒感染机制、生活周期和致病机制的研究进展较为缓慢.树鼩属于低等的灵长类动物,许多生物学特性近似于人类.近年来引起医学生物界和相关管理部门的重视和关注,国内外的学者在树鼩是否可作为丙型肝炎病毒感染的动物模型方面作过十分有益的尝试.本文介绍了国内外树鼩应用于丙型肝炎病毒模型研究的进展情况及应用前景.

  18. Culture in Vitro and Identification of Neural Stem Cells From Hippocampus of Neonatal Tree Shrew%新生树鼩海马神经干细胞的体外培养与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元桢; 欧阳轶强; 黄玲; 杨桥樱; 黄世文; 陆彩玲; 蒙智娟; 何以源; 郭松超

    2012-01-01

    目的 分离培养树鼩海马神经干细胞,并对其进行鉴定.方法 应用加有B27添加剂、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子和表皮生长因子的培养液对新生树鼩海马部脑细胞进行体外培养,并进行传代.采用免疫组织化学及免疫荧光法对培养细胞的Nestin抗原进行鉴定.结果 从新生树鼩海马部分离的细胞可连续传代和不断增殖形成神经球,神经球在含血清培养基中具有多向分化能力,Nestin表达阳性.结论 采用特定的培养液可以在体外培养树鼩海马神经干细胞.%Objective To investigate the isolation culture and identification of neural stem cells( NSCs ) from hippocampus of tree shrew. Methods The solution mixed with B-27 supplement, the basic fibroblast growth factor ( bFGF ) and epidermal growth factor( ECF ) was applied to culture the hippocampal cells of neonatal tree shrew in vitro,and continuous passage culture was performed. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods were used to identify the Nestin antigen of the cells. Results The cells isolated from the tree shrews hippocampus had the ability of serial passage and proliferated continuously to become nerve bulbs,which was with multi-directional differentiation in the serum culture and expressed Nestin positively. Conclusion NSCs from hippocampus of tree shrew can grow in vitro with special culture solution.

  19. The wavelength composition and temporal modulation of ambient lighting strongly affect refractive development in young tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawne, Timothy J; Siegwart, John T; Ward, Alexander H; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-12-12

    Shortly after birth, the eyes of most animals (including humans) are hyperopic because the short axial length places the retina in front of the focal plane. During postnatal development, an emmetropization mechanism uses cues related to refractive error to modulate the growth of the eye, moving the retina toward the focal plane. One possible cue may be longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), to signal if eyes are getting too long (long [red] wavelengths in better focus than short [blue]) or too short (short wavelengths in better focus). It could be difficult for the short-wavelength sensitive (SWS, "blue") cones, which are scarce and widely spaced across the retina, to detect and signal defocus of short wavelengths. We hypothesized that the SWS cone retinal pathway could instead utilize temporal (flicker) information. We thus tested if exposure solely to long-wavelength light would cause developing eyes to slow their axial growth and remain refractively hyperopic, and if flickering short-wavelength light would cause eyes to accelerate their axial growth and become myopic. Four groups of infant northern tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri, dichromatic mammals closely related to primates) began 13 days of wavelength treatment starting at 11 days of visual experience (DVE). Ambient lighting was provided by an array of either long-wavelength (red, 626 ± 10 nm) or short-wavelength (blue, 464 ± 10 nm) light-emitting diodes placed atop the cage. The lights were either steady, or flickering in a pseudo-random step pattern. The approximate mean illuminance (in human lux) on the cage floor was red (steady, 527 lux; flickering, 329 lux), and blue (steady, 601 lux; flickering, 252 lux). Refractive state and ocular component dimensions were measured and compared with a group of age-matched normal animals (n = 15 for refraction (first and last days); 7 for ocular components) raised in broad spectrum white fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux). During the 13 day

  20. Progress in application of tree shrew models in research on human viral diseases%树鼩模型在人类病毒性疾病研究中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷安国; 匡德宣; 李晓飞; 张媛; 孙晓梅; 夏雪山; 代解杰

    2014-01-01

    由于树鼩在进化上接近于灵长类动物,在生理、生化及解剖学等生物学特性方面与人类有着相似之处,树鼩得到越来越多的关注,研究人员运用与其他动物相比具有多种优势的树鼩建立了一系列的疾病模型,如病毒类疾病、神经系统、肿瘤等,本文着重就树鼩在人类病毒疾病方面的研究进展进行概述。%Tree shrews get more and more concerns due to many of its physiological , biochemical and anatomical characteristics similar to those of human beings .Therefore, tree shrews models of human diseases such as viral diseases , neurological diseases and tumors attract more and more attention of researchers .In this article we will review the recent ad-vances in application of tree shrew models in research on human viral diseases .

  1. shrew, Croeidura bieolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upon her death, seven weeks later, she was iden- tified, using cranial ... behavioural development of the young from Day 0 (birth) ... were totally naked with eyes and ears closed. .... produce more milk, grow at a faster rate and that behavioural.

  2. 低频电刺激对中国树鼩死亡后脏器中激素水平影响%Effect of low frequency electrical stimulation on hormone levels in the organs of Chinese tree shrew cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞发荣; 张璟; 郭丽蓉; 俞文; 连秀珍; 谢明仁; 李登楼; 张诗爽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索低频电刺激对中国树鼩死亡后脏器中激素水平的影响。方法给予中国树鼩低频电刺激,分别于死亡后0、3、6、12、18、24、36 h和72 h取甲状腺、肝、脾,用放射免疫法测定内皮素( endothelin, ET)、心钠素( atrial natriuretic factor, ANF)、血栓素( thromboxane, TX)水平;剥取死后0 h中国树鼩中脑腹侧背盖区( ventral tegmental area,VTA)检测c-fos表达。结果电刺激后,中国树鼩尸体脏器中内皮素、心钠素、血栓素水平比对照组显著升高,其水平随死亡后时间的延长而降低;VTA c-fos表达明显增强。结论低频电刺激能引起中国树鼩脏器中激素的合成、释放和脑组织c-fos表达。%Objective To study the effect of low frequency electrical stimulation on hormone levels in organs of Chinese tree shrews after death.Methods Giving Chinese tree shrews low frequency electrical stimulation.At 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, 36 h and 72 h after death, the thyroid, liver, spleen were taken,and the levels of endothelin (ET), atrial natriuretic factor( ANF) , thromboxane ( TX) were determined by RIA method.At 0 h after death, midbrain ventral tegmental area ( VTA) of Chinese tree shrews was taken to detect the c-fos expression.Results After electrical stimula-tion, ET, ANF, TX levels in the cadaver organs and VTA c-fos expression of Chinese tree shrews were significantly in-creased than in the control group.The contents were decreasing with the time after death.Conclusions Low frequency e-lectrical stimulation can induce the synthesis and release of hormones in organs and c-fos expression in brain tissue of Chi-nese tree shrews.

  3. 北京市母乳中人工合成麝香暴露水平研究%Occurrence of synthetic musks in human milk samples collected from Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 尹杰; 张晶; 吴永宁; 邵兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of 13 kinds of synthetic musk and triclosan in breast milk samples collected from Beijing, and to estimate the exposure of breastfed infants. Methods Target compounds in 65 milk samples collected from 4 districts of Beijing in 2004 were analyzed by means of gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry ( CC - MS/MS) and quantified by internal standards. The exposure of infants was analyzed statistically by SPSS software. Results HHCB, AHTN, OTNE, MT and Triclosan were detected in milk samples in the range of 0.6~ 174. 1 ng/g lipid, with some difference in 4 districts. It is estimated that the intake of synthetic musks and triclosan for each infant from breast milk would be 13. 5 - 3917 ng/d. Conclusion Commonly used synthetic musks and tricloson were generally detected in breast milk. Further study should be focused on monitoring and tracing the possible source of pollution.%目的 了解北京市母乳中人工合成麝香及三氯生的污染水平,初步评价婴儿经母乳喂养的暴露量.方法 在北京市崇文、海淀、石景山和通州4区县采集母乳样品65份,采用气相色谱串联质谱法( GC-MS/MS)测定13种人工合成麝香及三氯生含量,内标法定量,应用SPSS软件对检测结果进行统计分析,计算婴儿经哺乳的暴露重.结果 母乳中检出佳乐麝香、吐纳麝香、OTNE、西藏麝香等四种人工合成麝香及三氯生,含量在0.6 ~174.1ng/g lipid范围内,不同区县母乳样品中目标化合物的含量存在差异;婴儿经母乳的摄入量为13.5~3917ng.结论 常用的人工合成麝香和三氯生在母乳中普遍检出,值得进一步关注,应加强监测,追溯可能的污染来源.

  4. In vitro Infection of Tree Shrew Immunocytes with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Ⅰ%树免疫细胞体外感染Ⅰ型人免疫缺陷病毒的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立; 贲昆龙

    2001-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by HIV-1 is spreading all over the world.The slow progress in AIDS therapy and vaccine partially imputes to be lack of appropriate animal models used to study AIDS pathogenesis and to evaluate vaccines.To find an animal model is an imperative task in HIV research.Tree shrew is widely used in biomedical research,and is susceptible to many medically important viruses.Whether tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) can be infected by HIV-1 is a valuable approach.In present study,wild tree shrews from Yunnan Province were maintained in laboratory animal facility for more than 2 weeks before sacrifice.Tree shrew spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages and human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes were separately infected by 5 HIV-1 strains (HIV-1ⅢB,HIV-1JR-FL,HIV-1Ada-M,HIV-1Ba-L,HIV-1SF162),which use different coreceptors after the cells were activated by allogeneic lymphocytes,PHA and IL-2 for 72 h.The HIV-1 infected cells were then cultured in vitro for 15 days.The proliferation rates and viability of HIV-1 infected human immunocytes obviously dropped on day 15,but those of tree shrew immunocytes did not despite either infected or not infected by HIV-1.HIV-1 particles in the infected culture supernatant and proviral DNA in the cells were respectively detected by RT-PCR using primer sk145/431 and by PCR using primer sk68/69 on days 1,3,5,7,9,12,15 after infection with HIV-1.In addition,the expression of HIV-1 specific antigens on the tree shrew and human immunocytes after infection were detected by flow cytometry,for which an AIDS patient plasma was used as the first antibody,and FITC-conjugated sheep anti-human-IgG as the second antibody.HIV-1 RNA and proviral DNA were respectively found in the culture supernatant of the HIV-1 infected human immunocytes and in the infected cells.Using flow cytometry,HIV-1 specific antigens were also measurable on the surface

  5. 树鼩CD4全长编码序列的克隆及分子特征分析%Cloning of full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD4 and prediction of its molecular characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田巍威; 高跃东; 郭彦; 黄京飞; 肖昌; 李作生; 张华堂

    2012-01-01

    The tree shrews, as an ideal animal model receiving extensive attentions to human disease research, demands essential research tools, in particular cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. In this paper, a 1365 bp of the full-length CD4 cDNA encoding sequence was cloned from total RNA in peripheral blood of tree shrews, the sequence completes two unknown fragment gaps of tree shrews predicted CD4 cDNA in the GenBank database, and its molecular characteristics were analyzed compared with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W2.0 and so forth. The results showed that the extracellular and intracellular domains of tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence are conserved. The tree shrews CD4 amino acid sequence showed a close genetic relationship with Homo sapiens and Macaca mulatto.. Most regions of the tree shrews CD4 molecule surface showed positive charges as humans. However, compared with CD4 extracellular domain Dl of human, CD4 Dl surface of tree shrews showed more negative charges, and more two N-glycosylation sites, which may affect antibody binding. This study provides a theoretical basis for the preparation and functional studies of CD4 monoclonal antibody.%树鼩作为多种人类疾病研究模型的可能性已受到广泛关注,但尚缺乏研究其免疫功能的基本标志以及单克隆抗体.该实验首先以树鼩外周血总RNA为材料,通过RT-PCR扩增得到长度为1365 bp的树鼩CD4全长编码序列,并确定了数据库中缺失的两个片段,进而通过Clustal W等软件对其序列和分子特征进行分析,发现树鼩CD4氨基酸序列胞外和胞内域保守性较好,且与人类和猴的亲缘关系较近.虽然树鼩和人CD4分子表面大部分区域均带正电荷,但与人CD4胞外域D1相比,树鼩CD4 D1结构区域表面带负电荷较多,且多出两个N-糖基化位点.这些差异对抗体的结合可能存在影响.该研究为今后树鼩CD4单克隆抗体制备及功能研究奠定了基础.

  6. A depression model of social defeat etiology using tree shrews%社会竞争失败病因学的抑郁症树鼩模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 周启心; 吕龙宝; 徐林; 杨跃雄

    2012-01-01

    brain function between rodents and people. Tree shrews are the closest sister to primates, and brain functions in these species are closer to those of humans. In this review, we discuss a tree shrew model of depression with social defeat etiology and aspects of construct, face and predicted validity of an animal model. Although a tree shrew model of depression has long been ignored and not fully established, its similarities to those aspects of depression in humans may open a new avenue to address this human condition.

  7. The effect of age on compensation for a negative lens and recovery from lens-induced myopia in tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Thomas T; Amedo, Angela O; Siegwart, John T

    2010-03-17

    We examined in tree shrews the effect of age on the development of, and recovery from, myopia induced with a negative lens. Starting at 11, 16, 24, 35 or 48days after natural eye-opening (days of visual experience [VE]), juvenile tree shrews (n=5 per group) wore a monocular -5D lens for 11days. A long-term lens-wear group (n=6) began treatment at 16days of VE and wore the lens for 30days. A young adult group (n=5) began to wear a -5D lens between 93 and 107days of VE (mean+/-SD, 100+/-6days of VE) and wore the lens for 29-54days (mean+/-SD, 41.8+/-9.8days). The recovery phase in all groups was started by discontinuing -5D lens wear. Contralateral control eyes in the three youngest groups were compared with a group of age-matched normal eyes and showed a small (refractions. After 11days of lens wear, the induced myopia was similar for the four younger groups (near full compensation: 11days, -5.1+/-0.4D; 16days, -4.7+/-0.3D; 24days, -4.9+/-0.4D; 35days, -4.0+/-0.02) and slightly less in the oldest juvenile group (48days, -3.3+/-0.5D). The young adult animals developed -4.8+/-0.3D of myopia after a longer lens-wear period. The rate of compensation (D/day) was high in the 4 youngest groups and decreased in the 48-day and young adult groups. The refractions of the long-term lens-wear juvenile group remained stable after compensating for the -5D lens. During recovery, all animals in the youngest group recovered fully (12days) occurred in all age groups except the youngest. Every animal showed more rapid recovery (higher recovery slope) in the first 4days than afterward. One animal showed extremely slow recovery. Based on the time-course of myopia development observed in the youngest age groups, the start of the susceptible period for negative-lens wear is around 11-15days after eye opening; the rate of compensation remains high until approximately 35days of VE and then gradually declines. Compensation is stable with continued lens wear. The emmetropization mechanism

  8. Intravitreally-administered dopamine D2-like (and D4), but not D1-like, receptor agonists reduce form-deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of intravitreal injections of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists and D4 receptor drugs on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates. In eleven groups (n = 7 per group), we measured the amount of FDM produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) over an 11-day treatment period. The untreated fellow eye served as a control. Animals also received daily 5 µL intravitreal injections in the FD eye. The reference group received 0.85% NaCl vehicle. Four groups received a higher, or lower, dose of a D1-like receptor agonist (SKF38393) or antagonist (SCH23390). Four groups received a higher, or lower, dose of a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole) or antagonist (spiperone). Two groups received the D4 receptor agonist (PD168077) or antagonist (PD168568). Refractions were measured daily; axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 (before treatment) and day 12. We found that in groups receiving the D1-like receptor agonist or antagonist, the development of FDM and altered ocular component dimensions did not differ from the NaCl group. Groups receiving the D2-like receptor agonist or antagonist at the higher dose developed significantly less FDM and had shorter vitreous chambers than the NaCl group. The D4 receptor agonist, but not the antagonist, was nearly as effective as the D2-like agonist in reducing FDM. Thus, using intravitreally-administered agents, we did not find evidence supporting a role for the D1-like receptor pathway in reducing FDM in tree shrews. The reduction of FDM by the dopamine D2-like agonist supported a role for the D2-like receptor pathway in the control of FDM. The reduction of FDM by the D4 receptor agonist, but not the D4 antagonist, suggests an important role for activation of the dopamine D4 receptor in the control of axial elongation and refractive development.

  9. A novel fear conditioning memory model formation and erasing by foot-shock in tree shrew%足底电击诱导树鼩条件恐惧记忆模型的建立及抹除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭呈斌; 张晨; 王烈成

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the way of fear conditioning memory model evoked and erased by foot-shock in tree shrew. Methods First, detect the tree shrew activities regularly in light/dark box. Second, test a suitable voltage degree of foot shock on tree shrew. Third, investigate the memory formation and erasing of fear conditioning on tree shrew of trial group. Results The duration of tree shrew (n=4) stay in the dark-box was significantly lon-ger than that of in the light box (P<0. 01) in normal condition. In the same environment of two light boxes, given different voltage degrees, the durations of tree shrew (n=6) stay in the stimulating chamber gradually reduced and the durations of tree shrew stay had significant difference between stimulatus chamber and no stimulatus chamber when the stimulus voltage up to 12 V ( P<0. 05 ) , 16 V ( P<0. 01 ) and 20 V ( P<0. 01 ) . The animal of trial group ( n=4 ) could build up the fear conditioning memory of the dark box with the stimulus of 16 V foot-shock in the dark box ( P<0. 001 ) . After formation of the fear conditioning memory, the same stimulus in light box ap-peared for 4 days. The durations of tree shrew stay in trial group (n=4) decreased in light box, and there was no significant difference between the trial group and the control group. Conclusion Tree shrew prefers to stay in the dark box. The suitable voltage for foot-shock on tree shrew is 16 V. The fear conditioning memory can be evoked and erased by foot-shock.%目的 探索足底电击诱导树鼩条件恐惧记忆模型的建立及抹除方法. 方法 测定在无刺激条件下,树鼩在明暗箱中的活动规律;然后用梯度刺激实验测定合适的足底电击电压;最后用合适的电压通过足底电击诱导并建立实验组树鼩条件恐惧记忆模型并抹除其记忆. 结果 正常条件下,树鼩(n=4)在暗箱中的停留时间明显多于明箱中的停留时间(P<0. 01);在两明箱中,足底电压梯度刺激实验显示,随着

  10. Redescription and systematic position of Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a cestode species parasitic in shrews of the genus Sorex, including erection of Gulyaevilepis gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Svetlana A; Binkiene, Rasa

    2014-04-01

    Soricinia tripartita Zarnowski, 1955 is redescribed on the basis of specimens from the type host Sorex araneus Linnaeus from Lithuania, Latvia and Russia (Republic of Karelia and Republic of Komi - a new geographical record) as well as from Sorex satunini Ognev and Sorex volnuchini Ognev from Russia (Nalchik Area in the Caucasus Mountains). The strobilar morphology of S. tripartita is compared with that of other hymenolepidid cestodes of shrews with an unarmed scolex and serial development of proglottides in the strobila, i.e. species of Mathevolepis Spassky, 1948, Ditestolepis Soltys, 1952, Spasskylepis Schaldybin, 1964, Ecrinolepis Spassky et Karpenko, 1983 and Diorchilepis Lykova, Gulyaev, Melnikova et Karpenko, 2006. It was noted that S. tripartita does not correspond to any of the known genera. The following unique characters are found for S. tripartita: heteronomous serial strobilation with one or two sterile proglottides at the end of each series in the strobila and the whole copulatory part of the vagina covered with numerous, fine spines. Therefore, the new genus Gulyaevilepis is erected, with Gulyaevilepis tripartita (Zarnowski, 1955) comb. n. as its type and only species. Since the type material of Soricinia tripartita is not known to exist, a neotype from the same host species and from a locality close to the type locality is designated.

  11. High levels of gene expression in the hepatocytes of adult mice, neonatal mice and tree shrews via retro-orbital sinus hydrodynamic injections of naked plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaoduo; Fu, Qiuxia; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Jidong; Liu, Ying; Duan, Xiangguo; Jia, Shuaizheng; Peng, Jianchun; Gao, Bo; Du, Juan; Zhou, Qianqian; Li, Yuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhan, Linsheng

    2012-08-10

    Hydrodynamic-based gene delivery has emerged as an efficient and simple method for the intracellular transfection of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) in vivo. In this system, a hydrodynamic injection via the tail vein is the most effective non-viral method of liver-targeted gene delivery. However, this injection is often technically challenging when used in animals whose tail veins are difficult to visualize or too small to operate on. To overcome this limitation, an alternative in vivo gene delivery method, the rapid injection of large volume of pDNA solution through retro-orbital sinus, was established. Using this technique, we successfully delivered pDNA to the tissue of adult mice, neonatal mice and tree shrews. The efficient expression of exogenous genes was specifically detected in the liver of test animals treated with this gene delivery method. This study demonstrates for the first time that the hydrodynamic gene delivery via the retro-orbital sinus can not only reach the same transgene efficiency as a tradition hydrodynamic-based intravascular injection but also be used in animals that are difficult to inject via the tail vein. This method could open up new areas in gene function studies and gene therapy disease treatment.

  12. Observation on Motions, Growth and Development after Tail Docking in Tree Shrew%树鼩断尾后运动及生长发育状况观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 金会艳; 陈丽玲; 郑红; 刘汝文; 何保丽; 沈培清; 角建林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索性进行树鼩断尾试验,初步探讨断尾对实验室驯养树鼩运动状况及生长发育的影响.方法 选取45只树鼩随机均分成3组,组1(断尾后饲养3个月)与组2(断尾后饲养6个月)从第2、3尾椎或3、4尾椎间实施断尾手术,分别饲养3个月、6个月后,用生理仪测定树鼩腓肠肌肌张力增量,与组3(对照组)腓肠肌肌张力增量进行比较.光镜检查各组腓肠肌组织机构;各组内动物雌雄以1∶1交配(每组雌雄各5只),观察记录树鼦受孕、产仔及离乳情况.结果 断尾树鼩全部存活;组1和组2,与对照组腓肠肌肌张力增量比较差异显著(P<0.05);各组树鼩实验结束体重与增量无显著性差异(P>0.05);各组树鼩受孕率无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 断尾对实验室驯养树鼩的运动有一定抑制作用,断尾树鼩可以正常生长发育.%Objective To explore the tail docking experiment in tree shrews and to observe the effects on their motions and reproduction conditions in the laboratory domestication. Methods Forty-five tree shrews were chosen and randomly divided into three groups: tree shrews in group 1 (bred for three months after tail docking, n=15) and group 2 ( bred for six months after tail docking, n=15) are tailed between the second and the third caudal vertebra or between the third and the forth caudal vertebra. Group 3 is the blank control group (n=15). The increases of gastrocnemius muscle tension of group 1 and 2 were compared with group 3. The structures of gastrocnemius of each group were detected by light microscope. Tree shrews in each group mated 1 : 1( five males and females each group). Pregnancy, breeding and weaning were observed and recorded. Result All the tailed tree shrews have survived. The difference in the increases of gastronomies muscle tension in group 1 and 2 is significant compared with the blank control group (P0.05). No differences in conception rate were observed (P>0

  13. Life cycle of Renylaima capensis, a brachylaimid trematode of shrews and slugs in South Africa: two-host and three-host transmission modalities suggested by epizootiology and DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirgel Wilhelm F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The life cycle of the brachylaimid trematode species Renylaima capensis, infecting the urinary system of the shrew Myosorex varius (Mammalia: Soricidae: Crocidosoricinae in the Hottentots Holland Nature Reserve, South Africa, has been elucidated by a study of its larval stages, epizootiological data in local snails and mammals during a 34-year period, and its verification with mtDNA sequencing. Methods Parasites obtained from dissected animals were mounted in microscope slides for the parasitological study and measured according to standardized methods. The mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene was sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results The slugs Ariostralis nebulosa and Ariopelta capensis (Gastropoda: Arionidae act as specific first and second intermediate hosts, respectively. Branched sporocysts massively develop in A. nebulosa. Intrasporocystic mature cercariae show differentiated gonads, male terminal duct, ventral genital pore, and usually no tail, opposite to Brachylaimidae in which mature cercariae show a germinal primordium and small tail. Unencysted metacercariae, usually brevicaudate, infect the kidney of A. capensis and differ from mature cercariae by only a slightly greater size. The final microhabitats are the kidneys and ureters of the shrews, kidney pelvis and calyces in light infections and also kidney medulla and cortex in heavy infections. Sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae and adults proved to belong to R. capensis by analysis of a 437-bp-long cox1 fragment, which was identical except for three mutations in metacercariae, of which only one silent. Epizootiological studies showed usual sporocyst infection in A. nebulosa and very rare metacercarial infection in A. capensis, which does not agree with high prevalences and intensities in the shrews. Conclusions The presence of monotesticular adult forms and larval prevalences and intensities observed suggest that R. capensis may use two transmission

  14. 树鼩巴尔通体 PCR 方法的建立及初步应用%Establishment and application of a PCR method for detection of Bartonella in tree shrew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯育芳; 邢进; 付瑞; 巩薇; 贺争鸣; 岳秉飞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish an effective PCR assay for detection of Bartonella, and application of this assay in tree shrew .Methods Sequence of Bartonella was obtained from NCBI Genbank .Three pairs of primers were designed based on this sequence .One pair of primers was determined through amplifying the major strains in China .Sixty tree shrew blood samples were tested with this PCR assay .The positive amplified fragments were sequenced to verify the reliability of this method .Results A PCR method for detection of Bartonella is successfully established , with a high specificity and the sensitivity was of 2.0 ×10 -5 μg/mL.Among the tested 60 blood samples , 15 positive cases were detected.Sequencing of the samples confirmed a 25%infection rate of Bartonella in the tree shrews, well consistent with the amplification results , and verified the applicability of this detection method .Conclusion The establishment of this method provides the basis for detection of Bartonella in tree shrew.%目的:建立有效的树鼩巴尔通体PCR检测方法,并进行初步应用。方法针对NCBI公布的巴尔通体序列设计3对引物,通过对我国主要流行菌株的扩增实验来确定1对引物,并进行体系优化、特异性和敏感性测试;运用该PCR方法对60份树鼩样品进行检测,阳性样本进行序列测定。结果所建树鼩巴尔通体PCR检测方法特异性良好,灵敏度较高(2.0×10-5μg/mL),60份树鼩样本中有15份阳性样本,通过序列测定证实树鼩巴尔通体感染率为25%,与扩增结果完全相符,验证了该方法的可行性。结论该方法的建立为树鼩巴尔通体的检测奠定了基础。

  15. 昆明城郊中国树鼩群体线粒体DNA遗传多样性%Genetic diversity and matrilineal structure in Chinese tree shrews inhabiting Kunming, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仕毅; 许凌; 吕龙宝; 姚永刚

    2011-01-01

    由于树鼩是灵长类动物的近亲,且具有体型小、繁殖周期短、饲养管理成本低等优点,长期以来被认为有望替代灵长类动物用于人类疾病的动物模型研究.然而,目前对树鼩的群体遗传结构还知之甚少,这极大地限制了其在疾病动物模型研究的应用,也是其品系资源创制的瓶颈.本研究通过分析80只采自于云南省昆明周边地区的野生树鼩(Tupaia belangeri chinensis)线粒体DNA(mtDNA)多态性,结合国外报道的2个树鼩(Tupaia belangeri)序列比较后发现,在604 bp的mtDNA控制区片段中兵检测到29个核苷酸替代变异,这些变异共界定了13种单倍型,表现较高的群体遗传多样度.另外,昆明地区的树鼩与国外报道的2个树鼩间存在较大的遗传分化,mtDNA控制区单倍型之间的核苷酸替换数大于18个,远高于昆明地区树鼢群体内部不同单倍型之间的差异.选择含有代表性的mtDNA控制区单倍型的17个昆明地区树鼩个体进一步测定了细胞色素b基因片段(1134 bp),结合前人报道的数据分析,结果进一步支持mtDNA控制区数据反映的遗传格局及揭示的昆明地区树询与国外报道树鼩之间的明显差异.本研究结果提示,昆明地区树鼩与国外树鼩之间存在较大遗传差异,在将树鼩用于人类疾病动物模型研究中要注意这些遗传差别.昆明城郊的树鼩群体具有较高的遗传多样度,在开展近交系建立等工作时须考虑选取群体内部具有代表性的mtDNA世系.%Due to their special phylogenetic position in the Euarchontoglires and close affinity to primates, tree shrews have been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, the population genetic structure of tree shrews has largely remained unknown and this has hindered the development of tree shrew breeding and selection. Here we sampled 80 Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) in Kunming, China

  16. 野生成年树鼩主要脏器重量及脏器系数的测定分析%Measurement and Analysis of the Weight and Coefficients of Major Organs in Wild Adult Tree Shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶尤松; 罕园园; 黄璋琼; 陆彩霞; 江勤芳; 孙晓梅; 代解杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To measure the body weight and weight of major organs in wild adult tree shrews, and calculate the organ coefficient. Methods Sixty wild adult tree shrews (35 male and 25 female) were chosen, and the body weight and the weight of 11 organs were determined, then the organ coefficients were calculated. Finally the data were statistically analyzed. Results Between female and male tree shrews, the heart and lung weights showed a very significant difference ( P < 0.01 ) and the difference of weight of brain, adrenal gland and pancreas was significant ( P < 0. 05 ), the coefficient of the adrenal and pancreas had very significant difference ( P < 0. 01 ) and the difference of heart, lung and kidney was significant ( P < 0. 05 ). The growth of major organs of animal community was in a good harmony determined through the analysis of Kendall coefficients. Conclusions Significant sex differences exist in the weights of heart, lung,brain, adrenal gland, pancreas, and coefficients of adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, lung, kidney between female and male wild adult tree shrews.%目的 对野生成年树鼩的体重和主要脏器重量进行测定,计算其脏器系数.方法 测定60只野生成年树嗣体重及11个主要脏器重量,并计算其脏器系数.进行脏器重量、脏器系数的性别间比较分析及Kendall和谐系数分析.结果 性别同比较心、肺重量差异极显著(P<0.01),脑、肾上腺、胰腺重量之间差异显著(P<0.05);肾上腺、胰腺系数差异有极显著性(P<0.01),心、肺、肾系数之间差异均达到了显著水平(P<0.05).Kendall和谐系数(W)分析表明,动物与其个体各主要器官整体发育协调性较好.结论 野生成年树鼩心重量、肺重量、脑重量、肾上腺重量、胰腺重量、肾上腺系数、胰腺系数、心系数、肺系数、肾系数性别间存在差异.

  17. Primary Study on Experimental Infection of Tree Shrew(Tupaia belangeri) by Swine Hepatitis E virus%戊型肝炎病毒树鼩感染模型的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雷; 尹革芬; 舒相华; 李进涛; 胡映开; 杨贵树; 李文贵

    2013-01-01

    At present, nonhuman primates are mostly frequently used in Hepatitis E virus ( HEV) research. However, high cost, difficulties in handling, manipulating and housing severely restrict their use in large numbers in research. To analyze the possibility of using tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri) to establish infection model of HEV, tree shrews were experimentally inoculated with swine HEV via intravenous. Sera and feces samples were collected, two tree shrews from test group were necropsied weekly, pathological changes were recorded and tissue samples collected for further investigation. Study results found that HEV RNA could be detected in feces, blood, liver and intestine 7 days post inoculation. Histopathological changed as kupffer cells increased, multiple lymphocyte infiltration and congestion in hepatic sinusoid were observed in hepatic tissues. These results indicate that tree shrews could potentially use as an ideal animal model for the study of HEV.%戊型肝炎病毒(HEV)研究多以灵长类动物为感染模型.由于灵长类动物价格昂贵,实验条件的控制和饲养管理较困难等原因,严重阻碍了HEV研究进展.本研究对应用树鼩(Tupaia belangeri)建立HEV感染模型的可行性进行了探索.从猪群中分离、鉴定HEV,经静脉注射途径感染树鼩,按计划采集粪便、血液以及器官组织,应用巢式RT-PCR检测树鼩感染情况,观察感染后树鼩各器官组织病理学病化.结果发现,感染7d后血液、粪便、肝脏、小肠等样品可检测出HEV RNA,病毒血症持续约2周.组织病理学观察结果,人工感染HEV的树鼩肝脏可见静脉窦淤血、多发性淋巴细胞浸润、库普弗细胞增多等病变.研究结果表明树鼩对HEV具有易感性,感染后肝脏出现病毒性肝炎的病理学变化,具有作为戊型肝炎的感染模型的潜在价值.

  18. 恒河猴和树鼩角膜内皮细胞的比较分析%Comparison of the corneal endothelial cells of rhesus monkeys and tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 李娜; 孙晓梅; 胡竹林

    2016-01-01

    的合适实验动物。%Objective To analyze and compare the characteristics and differences of corneal endothelial cells of rhesus monkey and tree shrew eyes.Methods Corneal endothelial cells of 6 healthy rhesus monkeys (12 eyes) and 20 healthy tree shrews (40 eyes) were measured using a non-contact SP3000P specular microscope.Eight parameters were de-termined and compared with relevant parameters of human eyes reported in the literature, including minimum cell area (Smin), maximum cell area (Smax), average cell area (Savg), standard deviation of cell area (SD), coefficient of variabili-ty ( CV) , cell density ( CD) , hexagonality percentage ( HG%) and central corneal thickness ( CCT) .Results The ima-ging and measurement of all parameters could be completed in a short time both in rhesus monkeys and tree shrews.The time spent in the two kinds of animals was not significantly different.The CCT was ( 449.2 ±12.8 ) μm and ( 262.4 ± 24.6) μm, Smin was (120.4 ±26.3) S/μm2 and (153.2 ±42.9) S/μm2 , Smax was (705.0 ±130.8) S/μm2 and (468.7 ±109.3) S/μm2 , Savg was (351.1 ±26.1) and (295.4 ±18.9) S/μm2 , SSD was (113.1 ±27.4) and (75.9 ±27.3) S/μm2, CV was (31.9 ±6.0) and (25.3 ±8.3), CD was (2874.2 ±203.8) p/cell· mm-2 and (3399.3 ±224.7) p/cell· mm-2 , and the HG% was (58.6 ±9.1) and (94.0 ±9.7) in the rhesus monkeys andt tree shrews, respectively. The differences of all the above parameters between rhesus monkeys and tree shrews were statistically significant ( P<0.05 for all) .The cornea of tree shrews was significantly thinner than that of rhesus monkeys.The area and coefficient of varia-bility of tree shrews were smaller to those of rhesus monkeys, while the cell density and hexagonality percentage were higher than those of rhesus monkeys.Compared with human eyes, the CCT, CV and HG%in rhesus monkeys were highly simi-lar, while the CD was lower than that of human eyes.The CCT in tree shrew was only 60%of the rhesus monkey eyes and 50%of human eyes, while the CD and Savg

  19. Emerging Infectious Disease Implications of Invasive Mammalian Species: The Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Is Associated With a Novel Serovar of Pathogenic Leptospira in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, Jarlath E.; Arent, Zbigniew; Bayles, Darrell O.; Hornsby, Richard L.; Gilmore, Colm; Regan, Siobhan; McDevitt, Allan D.; Yearsley, Jon; Fanning, Séamus; McMahon, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations. Pathogenic leptospires are endemic in Ireland and a significant cause of human and animal disease. From 18 trapped C. russula, 3 isolates of Leptospira were cultured. However, typing of these isolates by standard serological reference methods was negative, and suggested an, as yet, unidentified serovar. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA and secY indicated that these novel isolates belong to Leptospira alstonii, a unique pathogenic species of which only 7 isolates have been described to date. Earlier isolations were limited geographically to China, Japan and Malaysia, and this leptospiral species had not previously been cultured from mammals. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) further confirms the novelty of these strains since no similar patterns were observed with a reference database of leptospires. As with other pathogenic Leptospira species, these isolates contain lipL32 and do not grow in the presence of 8-azagunaine; however no evidence of disease was apparent after experimental infection of hamsters. These isolates are genetically related to L. alstonii but have a novel REA pattern; they represent a new serovar which we designate as serovar Room22. This study demonstrates that invasive mammalian species act as bridge vectors of novel zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira. PMID:27935961

  20. ‘Misrule’ and ‘Flyting’: the language of inversion in William Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Del Villano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to analyze some specific aspects of the relationship between Shakespeare’s comedic language and the popular culture of the English Renaissance, starting from the application and redefinition of Bakhtin’s interpretative paradigm of the Carnival. Though not identical to the French and European Carnival, many Medieval popular festivities in England were characterized by a similar world-upside-down logic. For example, the election of a Lord of Misrule – linked to a very popular collective festivity – was responsible for a parodic reorganization of the ‘real life’, in which the King – at least for one day – belonged to the lowest rank of the population and was given the power of mocking and ridiculing any member of the community, including the most authoritative ones. When the disintegration of the Medieval communal world reaches its highpoint in the sixteenth century, under the weight of the economy of enclosures, the new mercantilism and the move from country to city, the motif of the inversion of roles becomes central throughout the Elizabethan theater, and in particular in Shakespeare’s drama, in which it is used to problematize and re-conceptualize a world challenged by an unprecedented social mobility. Significant, in this sense, appears to be The Taming of the Shrew, in which the trope of the inversion is shaped as a 'reverse inversion', a dramatic device that reinterprets the Misrule of tradition through: 1 metatheatrical devices; 2 language games, such as flyting; 3 the questioning of social and gender roles. This paper focuses specifically on these aspects of the play.

  1. Injection of Aβ1-40 into hippocampus induced cognitive lesion associated with neuronal apoptosis and multiple gene expressions in the tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Lei; Qian, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Piao; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Gao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can incur significant health care costs to the patient, their families, and society; furthermore, effective treatments are limited, as the mechanisms of AD are not fully understood. This study utilized twelve adult male tree shrews (TS), which were randomly divided into PBS and amyloidbetapeptide1-40 (Aβ1-40) groups. AD model was established via an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Aβ1-40 after being incubated for 4 days at 37 °C. Behavioral, pathophysiological and molecular changes were evaluated by hippocampal-dependent tasks, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), silver staining, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, TUNEL assay and gene sequencing, respectively. At 4 weeks post-injection, as compared with the PBS group, in Aβ1-40 injected animals: cognitive impairments happened, and the hippocampus had atrophied indicated by MRI findings; meanwhile, HE staining showed the cells of the CA3 and DG were significantly thinner and smaller. The average number of cells in the DG, but not the CA3, was also significantly reduced; furthermore, silver staining revealed neurotic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampi; TUNEL assay showed many cells exhibited apoptosis, which was associated with downregulated BCL-2/BCL-XL-associated death promoter (Bad), inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), Cytochrome c (CytC) and upregulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1); lastly, gene sequencing reported a total of 924 mobilized genes, among which 13 of the downregulated and 19 of the upregulated genes were common to the AD pathway. The present study not only established AD models in TS, but also reported on the underlying mechanism involved in neuronal apoptosis associated with multiple gene expression.

  2. Emerging Infectious Disease Implications of Invasive Mammalian Species: The Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Is Associated With a Novel Serovar of Pathogenic Leptospira in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, Jarlath E; Arent, Zbigniew; Bayles, Darrell O; Hornsby, Richard L; Gilmore, Colm; Regan, Siobhan; McDevitt, Allan D; Yearsley, Jon; Fanning, Séamus; McMahon, Barry J

    2016-12-01

    The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations. Pathogenic leptospires are endemic in Ireland and a significant cause of human and animal disease. From 18 trapped C. russula, 3 isolates of Leptospira were cultured. However, typing of these isolates by standard serological reference methods was negative, and suggested an, as yet, unidentified serovar. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA and secY indicated that these novel isolates belong to Leptospira alstonii, a unique pathogenic species of which only 7 isolates have been described to date. Earlier isolations were limited geographically to China, Japan and Malaysia, and this leptospiral species had not previously been cultured from mammals. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) further confirms the novelty of these strains since no similar patterns were observed with a reference database of leptospires. As with other pathogenic Leptospira species, these isolates contain lipL32 and do not grow in the presence of 8-azagunaine; however no evidence of disease was apparent after experimental infection of hamsters. These isolates are genetically related to L. alstonii but have a novel REA pattern; they represent a new serovar which we designate as serovar Room22. This study demonstrates that invasive mammalian species act as bridge vectors of novel zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira.

  3. The developmental toxicity assay of synthetic musks using the mouse embryonic stem cells%人工合成麝香对胚胎干细胞发育毒性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施嘉琛; 张晶; 邵兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential embryotoxicity of two commonly used musks, tonalide ( AHTN) and galaxolide (HHCB) , using the 129 mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods The cytotoxicity assay with MTT method and differentiation assay were used to determinate the potential developmental toxicities of the musks. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed the IC50 of AHTN and HHCB were 34 and 29 μg/ml. The differentiation assay showed the ID50 of AHTN and HHCB were 257 and 153 jig/ml. Conclusion Both AHTN and HHCB were evaluated as weak-embryotoxicity, the toxicological effect of these compounds should be further concerned in future study.%目的 研究常用人工合成麝香吐纳麝香(A HTN)和佳乐麝香(HHCB)对129小鼠胚胎干细胞的发育毒性效应.方法 利用MTT法检测两种麝香对胚胎干细胞的毒性效应,结合不同暴露浓度下麝香对胚胎干细胞体外分化为心肌细胞能力的抑制情况,判断受试物的发育毒性.结果 MTT实验表明,AHTN和HHCB对小鼠胚胎干细胞半数毒性浓度IC50分别为34和29 μg/ml,而分化抑制实验表明这两种麝香对胚胎干细胞向心肌细胞的半数分化抑制浓度ID50分别为257和153 μg/ml.结论 人工麝香对胚胎发育具有弱发育毒性,对孕妇和儿童发育的影响需要在相关的发育毒性研究中给予重视.

  4. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2009-01-01

    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  5. Genome-wide prediction of interferon family members of tree shrew and their molecular characteristics analysis%树鼩干扰素家族的基本构成及分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明利; 田巍威; 高跃东; 郭彦; 黄京飞; 张华堂

    2012-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) represent proteins with antiviral activities that are secreted from cells in response to a variety of stimuli. In addition to antiviral, antibacterial and anti-parasitic host-defense functions they are now also recognized as crucial regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and death as well as activators of specialized cell functions particularly in the immune system and play important roles in infectious and inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were found to be susceptible to several human viruses and therefore are widely regarded as good models for analyzing mechanism of human diseases. In this report, we have forecasted the interferon family members of tree shrew from its genome mainly using the methods like Blast (whole genome shotgun sequence) and gene prediction. Our data show that tree shrew interferon system includes: type I IFN: a (five subtypes), β, ω,κ, ε,δ; type II IFN: y; type III IFN: λ1, λ2/3. Furthermore, the predicted structures of a and X have similar character with those of other mammals. However, there are some differences in cysteine position and N-glycosylation numbers between human and Tree shrew IFNs. These results provide fundamental basis for further molecular cloning and function analysis of tree shrew IFNs in future.%干扰素(IFN)是在“危险信号”刺激下,由细胞分泌的具有抗病毒、抗肿瘤、抑制细胞增殖和免疫调节等多重作用的糖蛋白家族,在机体免疫系统中具有重要地位.树鼩作为多种人类疾病研究模型的前景已受到广泛关注,但对其IFN家族的研究尚属空白.该研究在现有的树鼩全基因组数据基础上,应用大片段核酸序列比对、基因预测等方法,对树鼩IFN家族的基本构成和分子特征进行预测和分析.结果显示,树鼩具有Ⅰ型IFN:α(5个亚型)、β、ω、κ、ε、δ;Ⅱ型IFN-γ; Ⅲ型IFN:IFN-λ1、λ2/3,所编码的氨基酸序列

  6. 树鼩腺病毒(TAV)PCR方法的建立及初步应用%Establishment and application of a PCR method for detection of the Tupaia (tree shrew) adenovirus (TAV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑菁; 付瑞; 李晓波; 王吉; 卫礼; 巩薇; 贺争鸣; 岳秉飞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish and apply an effective PCR assay for detection of the Tupaia ( tree shrew) adenovirus ( TAV) .Methods According to NCBI Genbank, TAV genome DNA from 19418 to 19917 were synthetized and inserted into a plasmid as positive standards.One pair of primers was designed based on this sequence.Sixty blood samples and fifty-six stool samples from tree shrew were detected with this PCR assay.Results A PCR method for detection of TAV was successfully established, with a high specificity and the sensitivity was 13.5 ×10 -7μg/mL.The PCR results of testing sixty tree shrew blood DNA samples were negative.24 positive cases were tested among 56 stool DNA samples.Sequencing of the samples confirmed a 42.9%infection rate of TAV in tree shrew stool samples, well consistent with the PCR results.Conclusions The PCR method for detecting TAV established in this study has good specificity and high sensitivity, therefore, can be used in conventional detection of tree shrew adenovirus.%目的:建立树鼩腺病毒( TAV) PCR检测方法,并进行初步应用。方法根据NCBI公布的TAV基因组序列,选择19418-19917区域人工合成一段DNA序列并转入质粒中,作为阳性标准质粒。设计1对特异性引物建立TAV PCR检测方法,考察其特异性和灵敏度。应用该PCR方法对60份树鼩血DNA及56份树鼩粪便DNA进行检测。结果所建立的PCR检测方法经特异性和灵敏度测定,最低可检测13.5 x10-7μg/mL,与其他腺病毒无交叉,特异性好,灵敏度较高。60份树鼩血DNA检测均为阴性,56份树鼩粪便DNA检测有24份阳性,通过测序证实树鼩粪便中TAV感染率为42.9%,与扩增结果一致。结论建立的树鼩腺病毒PCR检测方法特异性强,灵敏度高,可用于树鼩腺病毒的常规检测中。

  7. Cloning of the full-length coding sequence of tree shrew CD127 and prediction of its molecular characteristics%树鼩CD127全长编码序列的克隆及分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田巍威; 高跃东; 郭彦; 黄京飞; 肖昌; 李作生; 张华堂

    2012-01-01

    目的 树鼩可作为多种人类疾病研究的良好模型,但其免疫系统各类细胞表面标志、功能以及在疾病发生、发展过程中的作用和意义尚无系统研究.研究以获得树鼩调节性T细胞(Tr)相关分子CD127为目的,以分析其分子特征.方法 提取树鼩外周血总RNA反转录,经巢式PCR扩增获得目的片段,进而以Discovery Studio等生物软件进行分析.结果 扩增得到全长为1 392 bp的树鼩CD127编码序列,确定了现有数据库中缺失的一处未知片段.树鼩CD127与人、黑猩猩亲缘关系较近,其氨基酸序列具有较高保守性,蛋白质三维结构整体与人相似,但N糖基化位点数目以及电荷分布存在差异.结论 所得序列能够编码具有正常功能的蛋白,全长序列为后续单克隆抗体制备奠定了基础,有助于鉴定树鼩Treg细胞以及相关疾病机理的研究.%Objective Tree shrews is a good human diseases models.The cloning of its immune cellular markers is necessary.This study is to obtain Tree shrews CD127 for analyzing its molecular characteristics.Methods The CD127 gene was amplified from total RNA of tree shrews peripheral blood by RT-nested PCR and its biological characteristics were analyzed by biology software such as Discovery Studio.Results The fulllength CD127 cDNA encoding 1392bp of Tree shrews was cloned and one unknown fragment of tree shrews CD127 cDNA in the database was defined.Tree shrews CD127 amino acid sequence was conserved,and showed a close genetic relationship with Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.The structure of Tree shrews CD127 showed a similarity with human CD127,but some differences in the N-glyasylation sites number and the charge distribution have been detected.Conclusions The full-length sequence obtained in this study encodes Tree shrews CD127 which would function as its counterpart of the primate.It is useful for the preparation of antibody and studies of the role of Tree shrews Tr in human diseases.

  8. 树鼩肝脏疾病动物模型研究新进展%A new study progress of animal models with liver disease by tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕淑娟; 唐安洲

    2014-01-01

    肝病的危害,尤其是肝炎的流行以及肝癌的高死亡率已经成为国内外共同关注的重要卫生问题之一,由于缺乏理想的动物模型,某些肝炎及肝癌目前尚未清楚其发病的生理学机制,为了寻找有效的防治方法,建立合适的动物模型显得极其重要。树鼩在医学研究中的价值近年来受到越来越多的关注。国内外的研究发现,人们利用树鼩成功建立了多种肝脏疾病的动物模型,多数研究集中在人类病毒性肝炎及肝癌方面。本文主要介绍肝脏疾病树鼩动物模型的国内外新进展。%Hepatopathy damage, especially the popular of hepatitis and high-mortality of liver cancer has become one of the major health issues of common concern at home and abroad, due to the lack of ideal animal model, pathophysiological mechanisms of some hepatitis and liver cancer was not yet clear, establishing an appropriate animal mode should be extremely important in order to find effective prevention methods. The value of medical research of tree shrew had been payed more and more attention in recent years. Researches found that people established a variety of animal models with liver disease successfully by using the tree shrew, most research had focused on aspects of human viral hepatitis and liver cancer. This paper described a new progress of animal model with liver disease by tree shrews.

  9. 野生树鼩可培养细菌和真菌携带情况的调查%The Survey of Culturable Bacteria and Fungi in Wild Tree Shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢进; 冯育芳; 付瑞; 岳秉飞; 孙晓梅; 代解杰; 贺争鸣

    2012-01-01

    To providet the basis for the development of national standards of experimental animals of tree shrew by means of preliminarily investigating the cultivable rnicrobiome. Method Collection of respiratory secretions, inleslinal contents and hair samples of 61 wild tree shrews, cultured and isolated in a variety of corresponding medium and identified the isolated strains and DNA samples by biochemical isolates, susceptibility and 16SrRNA sequencing. Result We isolated and detected the 56 species of 32 genus of 16 family bacteria and the 11 species of 10 genus fungi of the genus. In the isolated, the carrier rate of Enterobacter, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Mycoplasma were the highest. There were the common pathogens, Salmonella paratyphi A, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Streptococcus pneumvniae, Campylubacter jejuni, Citrobacter jreundii, Shigella boydii and Mycoplasma sp. . Conclusion The tree shrew microbiome is abundant and complex, and there are a variety of zoonotic hacterial pathogens.%目的 对树鼩携带的可培养微生物群系进行初步调研,为制定树鼩的微生物学等级标准提供依据.方法 采集61只野生树鼩呼吸道分泌物、肠道内容物和体表毛发,接种于多种培养基进行细菌分离培养,并进行生化、药敏和16SrRNA测序鉴定.结果 在所采集的样品中共分离和检测到可培养的16个科32个属56种细菌及10个属的11种真菌;以肠杆菌属、葡萄球菌属、链球菌属和支原体属的携带率最高.其中常见病原菌有甲型副伤寒沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、嗜肺巴斯德杆菌、肺炎链球菌、空肠弯曲菌、弗劳地柠檬酸杆菌、鲍氏志贺菌和支原体等.结论 树鼩携带细菌和真菌的属种丰富、复杂,存在着多种人兽共患疫病的病原微生物.

  10. Changes of Kupffer cells during tree shrew chronically infected with hep-atitis B virus%树鼩慢性感染乙肝病毒过程中枯否细胞变化的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮萍; 孙雯; 李瑗; 肖健; 杨春; 苏建家; 欧超; 曹骥; 骆成漂; 唐艳萍; 秦虹

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To explore the changes and significance of Kupffer cells in the process of tree shrew chroni -cally infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV).METHODS:The animals were divided into 3 groups.Group A consists of 6 tree shrews that were identified as persistently infected with HBV;group B consists of 3 tree shrews that were suspected as persistently infected with HBV;group C consists of 4 tree shrews that were not inoculated with HBV and were applied as normal controls.Liver biopsies were collected regularly from all animals , and the Kupffer cells were isolated , purified and primarily cultured.The techniques of flow cytometry , immunohistochemistry, lysosomal fluorescent probe staining and real-time RT-PCR were applied to determine the number and function of these Kupffer cells .RESULTS: The result showed that the count and proportion of CD 163+cells in group A were significantly higher than those in group B and group C ( P<0.05).Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensity levels of lysosomal , the number of lysozyme-positive cells and the mRNA ex-pression level of TNF-αin the Kupffer cells in group A were significantly lower than those in group B and group C ( P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Kupffer cells may play a regulatory role during host’s chronic HBV infection.%目的:探索枯否细胞在树鼩感染乙肝病毒( HBV)慢性化过程中的意义。方法:树鼩分为3组:A组6只,为前期实验已确定慢性感染HBV的树鼩;B组3只,为疑似慢性感染HBV的树鼩;C组4只,为未接种HBV的正常对照树鼩。全部动物定期抽血和进行肝活检手术;对手术切取的树鼩肝组织进行枯否细胞的分离、纯化和原代培养,采用流式细胞术、细胞免疫组化、溶酶体荧光探针及实时荧光定量RT-PCR等方法检测CD163+细胞数量、溶酶体数量、溶菌酶的表达及肿瘤坏死因子α( TNF-α) mRNA表达水平。结果:(1)慢性感染HBV的树鼩肝脏枯否细胞比例及肝组织内CD163

  11. Preliminary investigation of viruses to the wild tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinese)%野生中缅鼩病毒携带情况的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新兴; 李婧潇; 王文广; 孙晓梅; 何春艳; 代解杰

    2011-01-01

    病毒学检测和监测是树鼩实验动物化和质量控制的重要标准和依据,而野生中缅树鼩是否携带人兽共患病毒鲜见报道.本研究采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)方法,对来源于云南昆明市城郊青龙峡地区的野生树鼩是否携带单纯疱疹病毒、轮状病毒、流感病毒、柯萨奇病毒、甲肝病毒、乙肝病毒、丙肝病毒、丁肝病毒、登革热病毒、出血热病毒和麻疹病毒等11种常见病毒进行筛查.结果表明,在已筛查的60只野生中缅树鼩中,可检测到单纯疱疹病毒和柯萨奇病毒,其血清抗体阳性比例分别为36.7%(22/60)和1.67%(1/60),而在粪便中仅检测到轮状病毒,其抗原阳性为6.7%(4/60),未检测到其他病毒,初步显示了野生树鼩自然状态下携带病毒的状况.为此,建议将单纯疱疹病毒、柯萨奇病毒和轮状病毒列为普通级树鼩病毒质量控制的首检项目,进一步大样本筛查将显示是否将其他病毒列为必检项目.%Virological testing and monitoring is a fundamental part of quality control of experimental animals.However, there are few papers regarding the spectrum and status of natural infection in wild tree shrews with human and animal pathogenic viruses. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent adsorption assay (ELISA), we tested sixty wild tree shrews captured from Qinglong, an outskirt region of Kunming, Yunnan Province, China for eleven viruses, including herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus, influenza virus, HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, dengue virus, hemorrhagic fever virus and measles virus. Our results showed that, in the serum samples, 22/60 (36.7%) and 1/60 (1.67%) were antibody positive for herpes simplex virus and coxsackie virus, respectively, and 4/60 (6.7%) were antigen positive for rotavirus in the feces.The remaining species of viruses were negative in these tree shrews. Based on these results, we propose that herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus and cotavirus should be listed as

  12. Progress on establishment of tree shrew (Tupaia) chronic infection with HBV in vivo%乙型肝炎病毒树鼩体内慢性感染模型的研究历程和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑗; 苏建家; 杨春; 曹骥; 欧超; 梁亮; 杨芳; 王琦

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the important health problems worldwide, especially in China.Feasible and effective animal models of HBV infection in vivo are prerequisite for the HBV-related basic and clinical studies. Located in the highly prevalent region of HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the laboratory of Guangxi Cancer Institute has focused on the cause, pathogenesis and chemoprevention of HCC, and has started the work of establishing tree shrew (Tupaia) models of HBV infection in vivo since the early 1980s. This paper provides an overview of the research process, and highlights the new progress on the chronic infection of tree shrews after inoculated with HBV neonatally in vivo.%乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)感染是全球和我国的重要健康问题,建立方便有效的HBV感染动物体内模型是开展HBV相关基础和临床研究的重要前提.该实验室地处乙型肝炎和肝癌高发流行的广西地区,自建立以来一直以肝癌的病因、发病机制和化学预防作为主要研究方向,于20世纪80年代初开始树鼩体内感染HBV模型方面的研究并持续至今.该文对此研究历程作一概述,并重点介绍关于用新生树鼩慢性感染HBV的新进展.

  13. Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression as Molecular Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Musks%抗氧化酶基因作为多环麝香污染分子标志物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春; 周启星; 刘潇威

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular toxicological effects of low level synthetic musks exposure on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.The method of Sybr Green Ⅰ real time quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR) for detecting gene expression level was established.SOD(superoxide dismutase) and CAT(catalase) mRNA expression levels were measured after 28 days of AHTN and HHCB exposure.The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curve demonstrated that the selected primers were suitable for mRNA quantification.The liner correlation coefficients of SOD and CAT standard curves were 0.997 and 0.994,respectively,and the PCR amplification efficiencies were both close to 100%.Therefore,relative quantification method could be applied to analyze the gene expression levels.The significant elevation of malondialdehyde(MDA) levels indicated that the reactive oxygen species-induced cellular oxidative injury might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB.Besides,a significant positive correlation was observed between the up-regulation of SOD,CAT mRNA and the MDA levels,suggesting that possible changes in the transcript expression of antioxidant enzyme genes were associated with the oxidative stress.Furthermore,the dose-response correlation between SOD,CAT mRNA levels and the exposure concentrations was also found.The overall results indicated that SOD and CAT genes might be potential molecular biomarkers for the evaluation of the pollution stress and toxicological effects of synthetic musks in the environment.%为研究土壤中低剂量合成麝香暴露的分子毒理效应,以蚯蚓超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)基因为供试基因,建立mRNA表达水平的Sybr GreenⅠ荧光定量PCR检测方法;并且采用自然土壤染毒实验,检测了吐纳麝香(AHTN)或佳乐麝香(HHCB)胁迫诱导SOD、CAT mRNA的表达水平变化.序列同源性比较与熔解曲线分析表明设计的引物适合

  14. Study of the Changes on Tree Shrew Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Xuanwei Bituminous Coal Dust%宣威烟煤粉尘诱发树鼩支气管粘膜上皮改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小波; 贺猛; 李光剑; 周永春; 赵光强; 雷玉洁; 杨凯云; 田琳玮; 黄云超

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的肺癌在许多国家和地区已成为发病率和死亡率最高的恶性肿瘤,建立科学合适的肺癌动物模型,用以模拟出与人类肺癌的病因、发病机制、发展过程相似的动物模型是亟待解决的问题。通过宣威烟煤粉尘PM10(particulate matter with diameters of 10μm or less, PM10)对树鼩支气管上皮的影响,探索建立宣威烟煤粉尘致肺癌模型的可行性。方法健康成年树鼩,切开颈部皮肤,充分暴露甲状软骨,于甲状软骨上方薄弱处,采用特制灌注针行穿刺的方法进行气管内试剂灌注。定期行X线检查,观察肺部影像学改变,处死动物行肺组织病理检查,观察灌注后支气管上皮改变情况。结果烟尘处理组树鼩灌注药物后1周内开始死亡,空白对照组、溶剂对照组树鼩灌注后至实验结束无异常死亡。定期处死树鼩行肺组织HE染色切片病理检查,空白对照组及溶剂对照组无明显病理改变,烟尘处理组树鼩肺组织可见支气管粘膜上皮过度增生-鳞状化生-不典型增生-早期浸润癌的病理变化过程。结论宣威烟煤粉尘可以导致树鼩支气管上皮出现支气管粘膜上皮过度增生-鳞状化生-不典型增生-早期浸润癌的病理变化,应用宣威烟煤粉尘PM10行气管内灌注可以诱发树鼩肺癌。可以建立肺癌模型。%Background and objective Lung cancer is the type of cancer with the highest incidence and mortality in numerous countries and regions. Establishing an appropriate animal model that can be used to simulate lung cancer etiology, pathogenesis, and similar processes, is urgent. We explore the feasibility of establishing a lung cancer model induced by Xuan-wei bituminous coal dust PM10 (particulate matter with diameters of 10 μm or less), which affects bronchial epithelium of tree shrews.Methods hTe neck skin of adult tree shrews is dissected, and the thyroid cartilage is fully

  15. 中缅树鼩精子形态特征及冷冻损伤%Morphological characteristics and cryodamage of Chinese tree shrew(Tupaia belangeri chinensis)sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远旭; 平述煌; 杨世华

    2012-01-01

    树鼩作为一种新型的、接近灵长类的实验动物,在医学生物学上的应用受到越来越多的重视.精子的结构特性研究及冷冻后结构的完整性分析是精子生物学的主要内容,也有助于树鼩的实验室快速繁殖.该研究采用人工饲养的中缅树鼩(Tupaia belangeri chinensis),结果显示其睾丸占总体重的(1.05±0.07)%,总体积为(1.12±0.10)mL.附睾尾及输精管精子总量估计在2.2×107~8.8×107,其运动度和顶体完整率分别为(68.8±3.9)%和(90.0±2.1)%.利用扫描电子显微镜和透射电子显微镜对树鼩附睾精子的超微结构进行的观察和分析显示精子头部呈圆形或卵圆形;头部长度、宽度平均分别为6.65和5.82 μm;精子尾部中段、主段、尾段和精子总长度平均分别为13.39、52.35、65.74和73.05 μm;尾部中段的线粒体螺旋数量为48个,其轴丝结构为典型的“9+9+2”结构.冷冻解冻后的精子主要表现在顶体与质膜不完整、精子断裂、尾部扭曲和膨大.上述结果提示树鼩精子与其他哺乳动物精子的结构特征相似,但是精子大小和线粒体螺旋数目有明显的差别,且超微结构改变仍是冷冻精子运动和受精能力下降的主要原因.%The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small non-rodent mammal, which is a relatively new experimental animal in medicine due to its close evolutionary relationship to primates and its rapid propagation. Sperm characteristics and cryopreservation in the tree shrew were the main contents of our spermatological research. Epididymal sperm were surgically harvested from male tree shrews captured from the Kunming area. The rate of testis weight to body weight was (1.05±0.07)%, volume of both testis was (1.12+0.10) Ml, total sperm from epididymis and vas deferens were 2.2-8.8xlO7, and sperm motility and acrosome integrity were (68.8±3.9)% and (90.0±2.1)%, respectively. Sperm ultrastructure of the tree shrew was

  16. Thapsigargin-induced activation of Ca(2+)-CaMKII-ERK in brainstem contributes to substance P release and induction of emesis in the least shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2016-04-01

    Cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization has been proposed to be an important factor in the induction of emesis. The selective sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin, is known to deplete intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which consequently evokes extracellular Ca(2+) entry through cell membrane-associated channels, accompanied by a prominent rise in cytosolic Ca(2+). A pro-drug form of thapsigargin is currently under clinical trial as a targeted cancer chemotherapeutic. We envisioned that the intracellular effects of thapsigargin could cause emesis and planned to investigate its mechanisms of emetic action. Indeed, thapsigargin did induce vomiting in the least shrew in a dose-dependent and bell-shaped manner, with maximal efficacy (100%) at 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.). Thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg) also caused increases in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the brainstem emetic nuclei including the area postrema (AP), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX), as well as enhancement of substance P (SP) immunoreactivity in DMNX. In addition, thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) led to vomit-associated and time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the brainstem. We then explored the suppressive potential of diverse chemicals against thapsigargin-evoked emesis including antagonists of: i) neurokinin-1 receptors (netupitant), ii) the type 3 serotonin receptors (palonosetron), iii) store-operated Ca(2+) entry (YM-58483), iv) L-type Ca(2+) channels (nifedipine), and v) SER Ca(2+)-release channels inositol trisphosphate (IP3Rs) (2-APB)-, and ryanodine (RyRs) (dantrolene)-receptors. In addition, the antiemetic potential of inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059) were investigated. All tested antagonists/blockers attenuated emetic parameters to varying degrees except palonosetron, however a combination of non

  17. [Molecular variability in the commom shrew Sorex araneus L. from European Russia and Siberia inferred from the length polymorphism of DNA regions flanked by short interspersed elements (Inter-SINE PCR) and the relationships between the Moscow and Seliger chromosome races].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, A A; Bulatova, N Sh; Kramerov, D A

    2006-06-01

    Genetic exchange among chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus and the problem of reproductive barriers have been extensively studied by means of such molecular markers as mtDNA, microsatellites, and allozymes. In the present study, the interpopulation and interracial polymorphism in the common shrew was derived, using fingerprints generated by amplified DNA regions flanked by short interspersed repeats (SINEs)-interSINE PCR (IS-PCR). We used primers, complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: mammalian element MIR and the SOR element from the genome of Sorex araneus. Genetic differentiation among eleven populations of the common shrew from eight chromosome races was estimated. The NP and MJ analyses, as well as multidimensional scaling showed that all samples examined grouped into two main clusters, corresponding to European Russia and Siberia. The bootstrap support of the European Russia cluster in the NJ and MP analyses was respectively 76 and 61%. The bootstrap index for the Siberian cluster was 100% in both analyses; the Tomsk race, included into this cluster, was separated with the bootstrap support of NJ/MP 92/95%.

  18. Novel serological tools for detection of Thottapalayam virus, a Soricomorpha-borne hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Mathias; Tegshduuren, Erdenesaikhan; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Petraityte, Rasa; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Hammerschmidt, Bärbel; Friedrich, Robert; Mertens, Marc; Groschup, Martin H; Arai, Satoru; Endo, Rika; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Yasuda, Shumpei; Ishihara, Chiaki; Ulrich, Rainer G; Arikawa, Jiro; Köllner, Bernd

    2012-11-01

    We developed serological tools for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies and hantavirus antigens in shrews. The work was focussed to generate Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and anti-shrew immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The mAbs against TPMV nucleocapsid (N) protein were produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant TPMV N proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, baculovirus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-mediated expression systems. In total, six TPMV N-protein-specific mAbs were generated that showed a characteristic fluorescent pattern in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using TPMV-infected Vero cells. Out of the six mAbs tested, five showed no cross-reaction to rodent-associated hantaviruses (Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Tula, Dobrava-Belgrade and Sin Nombre viruses) in IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), although one mAb reacted to Sin Nombre virus in IFA. None of the mAbs cross-reacted with an amino-terminal segment of the shrew-borne Asama virus N protein. Anti-shrew-IgG sera were prepared after immunization of rabbits and BALB/c-mice with protein-G-purified shrew IgG. TPMV-N-protein-specific sera were raised by immunisation of Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) with purified yeast-expressed TPMV N protein. Using these tools, an indirect ELISA was developed to detect TPMV-N-protein-specific antibodies in the sera of shrews. Using an established serological assay, high TPMV N protein specific antibody titres were measured in the sera of TPMV-N-protein-immunized and experimentally TPMV-infected shrews, whereas no cross-reactivity to other hantavirus N proteins was found. Therefore, the generated mAbs and the established ELISA system represent useful serological tools to detect TPMV, TPMV-related virus antigens or hantavirus-specific antibodies in hantavirus-infected shrews.

  19. Histological observation of the major endocrine organs in laboratory tree shrews%实验树鼩主要内分泌器官的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡德宣; 孙晓梅; 陆彩霞; 王文广; 仝品芬; 殷安国; 李晓飞; 代解杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解树鼩主要内分泌器官的组织学结构特征,建立树鼩正常的内分泌器官组织学图谱。方法选取人工饲养的健康树鼩10只,麻醉后放血处死和病理解剖,对甲状腺、甲状旁腺、肾上腺及脑垂体进行病理大体检查和取材,常规病理制片,采用常规组织HE 染色技术,显微镜下观察组织学结构。结果(1)甲状腺呈淡黄色,位于气管两侧,在第2~4气管软骨环之间,呈板状,表面包有薄层被膜,被膜伸人甲状腺实质内分成若干小叶。小叶内有滤泡和滤泡旁细胞,滤泡腔内可见红染胶质。(2)甲状旁腺每侧一个,位于甲状腺颅侧或中部外表面,稍被甲状腺覆盖,呈圆形或卵圆形,其实质由主细胞和嗜酸性细胞组成,并可见腺泡样结构。(3)脑垂体位于蝶鞍内,没有垂体隐窝,垂体有腺垂体和神经垂体两部组成,表面包有结缔组织被膜。腺垂体分为远侧部、中间部和结节部,神经垂体由神经部和漏洞部组成。(4)肾上腺呈卵圆形,赭黄色,位于肾门颅侧,与肾相连。肾上腺外包被膜,实质明显区分为皮质和髓质两部分。皮质从外到内可分为球状带、束状带和网状带。球状带最厚,束状带最薄,网状带介于中间。髓质部细胞形成团块或网状,髓质中央有静脉。结论基本建立了树鼩内分泌器官组织学图谱,其在组织形态学上接近于灵长类动物,可以为研究树鼩内分泌器官的功能和病变,以及建立人类相关疾病的动物模型提供组织学依据。%Objective To understand the histological characteristics of the major endocrine organs of tree shrew , and provide a normal histological atlas of endocrine organs of tree shrew .Methods Ten artificially fed healthy tree shrews were killed and dissected after anesthesia .The thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pituitary glands were observed by gross

  20. Isolating Enteropathogenic E.coli from Clinical Pneumonia in Dead Tree Shrews%从临床肺炎死亡树鼩中分离到致病性大肠埃希菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高家红; 仝品芬; 孙晓梅; 江勤芳; 代解杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 对6例1月内因肺炎死亡的树鼩采样进行病原菌分离培养鉴定分析.方法 解剖死亡树鼩,利用无菌刀片切开肺组织,用无菌接种环插入肺内采样接种于营养琼脂培养基,另取两份样品进行细菌涂片革兰氏染色和抗酸染色.培养出来的细菌进行进一步分离和菌落生长情况的观察,并经革兰氏染色、抗酸染色、氧化酶试验、生化编码鉴定和9种药敏试验,初步确定树鼩肺部感染的致病菌及其药敏情况.结果 样本革兰氏染色见到大量阴性杆菌,抗酸染色结果显示为非结核分枝杆菌,大小约为0.2 μm×2~6 μm.营养琼脂培养6例样品中均仅见1株旺盛生长的细菌,进一步分离培养经革兰氏染色为阴性杆菌,抗酸染色为非结核分枝杆菌,大小和染色结果与样本涂片相同,经鉴定为致病性大肠埃希菌.药敏试验表明该菌对头孢哌酮,呋喃妥因,氨苄西林,阿米卡星,氧氟沙星,诺氟沙星,磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄定高度敏感;对庆大霉素和青霉素G为低度敏感.结论 6例树鼩死亡原因均为细菌性肺炎,病原菌初步鉴定为致病性大肠埃希菌.药敏实验筛选出的药物可为临床治疗树鼩该类病例用药提供指导.%Objective To isolate, culture and identify the pathogenic bacterium from 6 cases of bacterial pneumonia within 1 month in tree shrews. Methods We Dissected the dead tree shrew, cut open the lung tissue with sterile blade to insert focus of infection in the lung with inoculating loop to get samples for inoculating on nutrient agar and another two samples for bacterial smear with Gram staining and acid-fast staining. The bacterium obtained was isolated and cultivated for bacterial growth observation, then the pathogenic bacterium of tree shrew and its antibiotic susceptibilities was initially identified by Gram staining, acid-fast staining, oxidase test, biochemistrical encoding identification system and 9-kind antibiotic

  1. Expression levels of BDNF, trkB and ChAT in the brain of adult tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri)%成年中缅树鼩大脑 BDNF、trkB、ChAT mRNA 与蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红; 牛世伟; 李进涛; 薛整风; 张荣平; 角建林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression levels of BDNF, trkB and ChAT mRNA and proteins in the brain of adult tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri ) .Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to detect the expression levels of BDNF, trkB and ChAT mRNA in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and frontal cortex of adult tree shrews.The expression levels of BDNF, trkB and ChAT proteins andβ-actin was used as internal standard.Results The expression level of BDNF mRNA was highest in the hippocampus of adult tree shrew, and there were significant differences between that in the hippocampus, and basal ganglia and frontal cortex (P0.05) in the expressions of trkB protein among the hippocampus, basal ganglia and frontal cortex of the adult tree shrews.There were no significant differences in expressions of ChAT mRNA and protein among the hippocampus, basal ganglia and frontal cortex in adult tree shrews ( P>0.05 ) . Conclusions The expression levels of ChAT mRNA were consistent with that of ChAT protein in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and frontal cortex of adult tree shrews, while the expression levels of BDNF and trkB mRNA were not consistent with their proteins, which might indicate that the transcriptional regulation pattern might be more complex.Tree shrew is a valuable animal model in the study of mechanism of BDNF/trkB gene expression.%目的:观察成年中缅树鼩大脑BDNF、trkB、ChAT mRNA 及蛋白的表达。方法利用q-PCR和Western blotting方法检测成年中缅树鼩大脑海马、基底核和皮层BDNF、trkB、ChAT mRNA及蛋白的表达。结果成年树鼩大脑BDNF mRNA在海马最高,与基底核和皮层差异具有显著性( P <0.01);trkB mRNA在海马最低,额叶皮层最高,二者间差异显著( P<0.05);ChAT mRNA 在海马、基底核和额叶皮层的表达差异无显著性( P>0.05)。成年树鼩大脑BDNF蛋白表达在基底核最高,与海马或皮层有显著性差异( P<0.01

  2. 影响树鼩体内慢性感染乙型肝炎病毒因素的研究%Factors influencing long-term hepatitis B virus infection of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) as an in vivo model of chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 汪多平; 王晓娟; 王佳; 阮萍; 李瑗; 杨春; 苏建家; 曹骥; 欧超; 杨芳; 张晶晶; 史後林; 杨芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the methods for establishing an in vivo model of long-term hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).Methods Seventyseven neonate (1-3 days old) and 49 young adult (2 weeks to 1 year old) tree shrews were inoculated with different HBV sources (chronic hepatitis B (CHB) human patient serum,single or pooled; HBV-infected tree shrew serum,single only; HBV-infected HepG2.2.15 cells' culture medium supernatant; HBV genome-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells' culture medium supernatant) through various routes of injection (subcutaneous,intraperitoneal,and direct liver via abdominal skin; adults also received intravenous and indirect liver via spleen).Serum and liver biopsies were collected from the animals at various time points post-inoculation for detection of HBV markers by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,time-resolved immunofluorescence,Southern blotting,dot blotting,immunohistochemistry,and microscopy.Results Among the neonatal group of tree shrews,six (7.8%) were confirmed as HBV-infected for more than 72 (up to 228) weeks after inoculation and another seven (9.1%) were suspected of persistent infections.None of the young adult tree shrews developed persistent infection.Inoculation with single-source serum from either CHB humans or tree shrews were responsible for the most cases of infections,and the subcutaneous injection produced more infections than the other inoculation routes.The most reliable methods of determining HBV infection status were detection of serum HBV immunoreactive markers and intrahepatic HBV DNA.Conclusion In order to establish an in vivo model of CHB in the tree shrew,the animals should be inoculated in the neonatal period using subcutaneous injection.%目的 探索影响树鼩体内长期感染HBV的因素.方法 77只新生期和49只非新生期树鼩,分别以不同的感染源和注射方式接种HBV,部分动物加以

  3. Muscone Content was Measured by Ultrasonic Extraction / Mass Spectrometry in Musk%超声萃取/气相色谱法测定麝香中的麝香酮含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓田; 孟凡丽

    2011-01-01

    利用气相色谱法-氢火焰离子化检测器(GC/FID)快速测定麝香中麝香酮含量。样品经乙醇-超声波提取、过滤后,直接利用GC/FID测定,外标法定量。实验测定麝香酮回收率大于95%;定量限为0.80μg.mL-1;校准曲线线性范围为0-320μg.mL-1,线性相关系数r为0.9995;三次高、中、低浓度(50、150、300μg.mL-1)测定峰面积RSD%分别为1.08、0.89、0.55。本实验表明,乙醇超声波提取-GC/FID测定麝香中的麝香酮含量是一种简单、快速、准确的方法。%Muscone content was quickly measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in musk.. Samples were extracted by ethanol-ultrasonic, and filtered, directly determined by GC/FID, Recovery rate of Museone was more than 95% in experiment, quantify was limited 0.80 u g·mL-1 ; calibration curve linear range was 0-320 u g·mL-1, Linear correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9995; Peak area RSD of which three high-lever, medium, low concentration respectively were 50, 150, 300 ug·mL-1 were respectively determined 1.08,0.89,0.55.The result was showed that Muscone content was determined by ethanol-ultrasonic extraction and GC/FID was a simple, rapid, accurate method.

  4. 基因芯片研究蟾酥急性毒性及配伍减毒机制%Acute Toxicity of Venenum Bufonis and Compatibility of Heart Musk Protecting Pills by Microarray Expression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱文; 范雪梅; 李雪; 梁琼麟; 王义明; 罗国安

    2011-01-01

    利用基因芯片技术研究了蟾酥对大鼠心脏的急性毒性及其组方成麝香保心丸后的配伍减毒机制.通过表达谱芯片检测了药物作用后的基因表达差异,对差异表达基因进行了牛物信息学研究并结合实时荧光定量PCR分析.结果表明,低剂量蟾酥可以通过干扰离子稳态和肌动蛋白构建来影响心脏的收缩,同时还会导致心脏细胞的抗凋亡和脂类代谢等应激反应;高剂量蟾酥除进一步干扰离子稳态和肌动蛋白构建外,还会引发铁离子蓄积,最终可能导致细胞凋亡;且蟾酥对心脏的影响具有剂量依赖性.当蟾酥组方成麝香保心丸后,上述影响均不明显,主要影响血压调节和心肌修复等作用,体现了中药配伍的减毒作用.%The differentially expressed genes involved in acute toxicity and compatibility of Heart Musk Pro tecting Pills(HMP) via cDNA microarray were investigated in this paper. Then the GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed as well as the functional analysis and RT-PCR validation of two important genes. The results indicated that the ion homeostasis and actin organization were affected in the low dosage group for Venenum Bufonis. Meanwhile, regulation of anti-apoptosis and fatty acid metabolism could be in duced within 2 h; the myocardial contraction was finally disturbed. The ion homeostasis and actin organization could also be disturbed more quickly in the high dosage group. In addition, the iron accumulation could lead to oxidation reduction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. For HMP, there were some clinical functions, such as blood pressure regulation and myocardial structure organization. However, the related acute toxicity of Vene num Bufonis was not shown. This paper could provide a novel research strategy in the compatibility study of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM ).

  5. The Reaserch of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Thrombotic Cerebral Ischemia in Tree Shrews%树鼩血栓性脑缺血磁共振成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何波; 韩丹; 何亮; 张峰睿; 李树清

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究树鼩血栓性脑缺血动物模型的MRI表现,探讨其动态演变规律.方法 采用3.0 TMR在缺血后4h、24 h、48 h及72 h对树鼩脑部行MRI,观察各时间点MRI表现,测量和计算出各时间点扩散加权成像(DWI)、T2WI异常信号体积;分别应用HE染色、红四氮唑(2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride,TTC)染色技术显示脑缺血后不同时间点病理改变和皮层梗死体积的变化.结果 缺血后4 h MRI可见信号改变,T2WI为高信号,T1WI为低信号,DWI为高信号,增强扫描可见强化;TTC染色所测体积与MRI体积比较,4h时DWI及T2WI所测体积大于TTC(P <0.05),病理显示周边为水肿带;缺血后4h至24 h梗死灶体积增大明显(P<0.05);光镜示缺血后中心区神经元可见皱缩,脱失明显,出现嗜酸神经元.结论 MRI可动态反映树鼩血栓性脑缺血动物模型缺血后不同时间点的病理演变过程.%Objective To study the dynamic evolution of magnetic resonance imaging of thrombotic cerebral ischemia in Tree Shrews. Methods The tree shrew were scaned by 3. 0 T MRI in 4 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after ischemia. The MR findings, pathological features and TTC staining were observed. The ischemic volume in DWI, T2W1 and TTC were measured and calculated in each time point. Results The signal changes could be seen on MRI in 4 h after ischemia. The ischemic lesion showed high sigal on T2WI,low signal on T1WI and high signal on DWI. The ischemic volume measured by MRI were greater than TTC staining in 4h after ischemia( P < 0. 05). The pathology revealed peripheral edema in 4 h after ischemia. The ischemic volume increased significantly from 4 h to 24 h after ischemia( P <0.05). The pyknosis,loss and e-osinophilic changes of the neurons could be detected in pathology. Conclusion MRI can reflect dynamically the pathological changes of thrombotic cerebral ischemia in Tree Shrews.

  6. Therapeutic Experiment of Bovine Lactoferrin on Rotavirus-infected Tree Shrew%牛乳铁蛋白对感染轮状病毒树鼩的治疗试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婉萍; 孔繁智

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察牛乳铁蛋白(bovine lactoferrin,bLF)对感染轮状病毒树鼩的治疗作用.方法 建立感染轮状病毒动物模型后,用不同剂量bLF的对腹泻树鼩进行治疗,各给药组和对照组经过连续给药10d后用电镜法观察粪便中的轮状病毒,并计算轮状病毒的抗原检出率及抗原滴度及动物死亡率、平均死亡日、延长生命率.结果 bLF高、中、低剂量组的死亡率分别为10%,20%,60%;平均死亡日分别为9.3,8.9,7.0d:延长生命率分别为93.7%,85.4%,45.8%.与模型对照组死亡率70%、平均死亡日4.8d均有显著差异.治疗后,抗原滴度下降.结论 乳铁蛋白能有效的降低感染轮状病毒动物的死亡率,提高感染轮状病毒动物的延长生命率.同时能降低轮状病毒抗原滴度.%OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of bovine lactoferrin(bLF) on the treatment of rotavirus-infected tree shrew. METHODS After establishment of animal model of tree threw with totavirus-infected, the animal model was treated with distinct doses of bLF. RESULTS The death rates of totavirus-infected tree shrew in bLF treatment group with high, middle and low doses were 10%, 20% and 60%.The mean days of death were 9.3, 8.9, 7.0 d. The rate of the prolonged survival time were 93.7%, 85.4%, 45.8%. Compared with infection-control group with no bLF treatment, the death rates and the mean days of death were reduced remarkably. CONCLUSION bLF can reduce the mortality rate of rotavirus infections of animals effectively and improve the life-prolonging rate, which can also reduce the rotavirus antigen titer.

  7. Phylogeographical footprints of the Strait of Gibraltar and Quaternary climatic fluctuations in the western Mediterranean: a case study with the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula (Mammalia: Soricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Jean-François; Hutterer, Rainer; Libois, Roland; Sarà, Maurizio; Taberlet, Pierre; Vogel, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We used mitochondrial cyt b sequences to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Crocidura russula (sensu lato) populations across the Strait of Gibraltar, western Europe, Maghreb, and the Mediterranean and Atlantic islands. This revealed very low genetic divergence between European and Moroccan populations. The application of a molecular clock previously calibrated for shrews suggested that the separation of European from Moroccan lineages occurred less than 60 000 bp, which is at least 5 million years (Myr) after the reopening of the Strait of Gibraltar. This means that an overwater dispersal event was responsible for the observed phylogeographical structure. In contrast, genetic analyses revealed that Moroccan populations were highly distinct from Tunisian ones. According to the molecular clock, these populations separated about 2.2 million years ago (Ma), a time marked by sharp alternations of dry and humid climates in the Maghreb. The populations of the Mediterranean islands Ibiza, Pantelleria, and Sardinia were founded from Tunisian populations by overwater dispersal. In conclusion, overwater dispersal across the Strait of Gibraltar, probably assisted by humans, is possible for small terrestrial vertebrates. Moreover, as in Europe, Quaternary climatic fluctuations had a major effect on the phylogeographical structure of the Maghreb biota.

  8. Leucismo en la musaraña de orejas cortas Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia: Soricomorpha, endémica de México Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia: Soricomorpha, endemic to Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Guevara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El leucismo es la reducción de la pigmentación parcial o total del pelaje, pero que mantiene la coloración normal de los ojos y la piel. Aquí se presenta el registro de un individuo de la musaraña endémica de México Cryptotis mexicana recolectado en Veracruz, México, que presenta esta condición. Esta coloración, considerada anormal en estado silvestre, puede incrementar la presión de selección sobre esos individuos. Además, es un reflejo indirecto de la baja variabilidad genética en las poblaciones naturales.Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, México, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, uncommon in the wild, may result in negative selective pressure on these mammals. Moreover, this genetic-based condition reflects on the low levels of genetic variability within natural populations.

  9. 新生期树鼩接种人乙型肝炎病毒的长期实验观察%Long-term observation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in new-born tree shrews inoculated with HBV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 李瑗; 曹骥; 张晶晶; 王琦; 苏建家; 杨春; 欧超; 史俊林; 汪多平

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察新生期树鼩接种HBV后体内HBV感染标志物的长期动态.方法 6只树鼩于新生期接种人HBV DNA阳性血清,每4-6周抽血1次和每6~12周做肝活体组织检查1次,应用巢式聚合酶链反应(nPCR)、荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)、Southern blot、酶联免疫吸附试验和免疫组织化学染色等方法动态观察血清和肝组织中HBV感染标志物的消长,用电镜寻找肝组织内的HBV颗粒和用光镜观察肝组织病理变化.结果 新生期树鼩接种后48周,3只动物(1、2和6号)血清和肝组织标本经多对引物进行的nPCR,均稳定显示HBV DNA阳性,肝组织HBVcccDNA阳性;FQ-PCR显示血清和肝组织HBV DNA的拷贝数分别为103-104/ml和每微克肝组织总DNA 107~108拷贝;Southern blot检测显示肝组织存在HBV复制中间体HBV cccDNA和HBV单链DNA;酶联免疫吸附试验检测显示血清HBsAg持续阳性;免疫组织化学染色可见数量逐步增多的HBsAg阳性肝细胞.其中的1号动物至接种后2年每微克肝组织总DNA仍可测得107~108拷贝的HBV DNA,电镜下可见疑似HBV颗粒.另3只动物除nPCR显示肝组织HBV DNA阳性条带和FQ-PCR显示低拷贝数(每微克肝组织总DNA103拷贝)HBV DNA外,其余的HBV感染标志物均为阴性或一过性阳性.结论 新生树鼩能够长期感染HBV,并且HBV能够在树鼩体内稳定复制和长期存在.%Objective To observe the hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in the tree shrews that were inoculated with HBV at neonatal period.Methods Six new-born tree shrews were inoculated with human HBV positive serum.Blood samples and liver biopsies were colleted at different time points after inoculation.The HBV infection markers were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR),fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR),Southern blot,ELISA and immunohistoehemistry staining.The liver tissues were observed under electron and light microscope.Results 48 weeks after

  10. Adaptive thermogenesis of the brown adipose tissue in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) during cold acclimation%冷驯化对中缅树鼩褐色脂肪组织适应性产热的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文荣; 曹能; 朱万龙; 张浩; 王政昆; 陈金龙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ambient temperature on body mass, thermogenic activity and un-coupling protein-1 ( UCP1) content of brown adipose tissue ( BAT) in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri) , and to provide the-oretical basis for establishing tree shrews model of obesity.Methods Forty healthy adult tree shrews with similar body mass were uesd in our experiment.The tree shrews were divided into five groups (n=8):control group (0 d), the ani-mals were maintained under 25 ±1℃ and 12L:12D ( light : dark, lights on 08:00) photoperiod; and the animals were maintained under 5 ±1℃and 12L:12D photoperiod for 7 d, 14 d, 21 d and 28 d groups, respectively.At the end of ex-periment, the changes of body mass, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST), BAT mass and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) con-tent were determined.Results Compared with the control group (0 d), the body mass, NST, BAT mass and UCP1 con-tent of the cold acclimation groups were improved significantly, the BAT color also obviously deepened, and after cold accli-mation for 28 d, the body mass, NST, BAT mass and UCP1 content were increased by 26.32%, 20.65, 53.85%and 43%, respectively.Apparently, the UCP1 content was significantly positively correlated with BAT mass and NST.Conclusions BAT proliferation may be induced and UCP1 expression upregulated by cold acclimation in Tupaia belangeri, therefore, en-hancing the thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue to increase energy expenditure.We would speculate that BAT might be used as a target organ for treatment of obesity by energetic approach in the future.%目的:探讨环境温度对中缅树鼩体重、褐色脂肪组织( BAT)产热活性及解偶联蛋白1含量的影响,为建立树鼩肥胖模型提供理论依据。方法将40只体重相似的成年中缅树鼩随机分为5组(每组8只):对照组(0 d),置于(25±1)℃,12 L/12 D条件下饲养;以及置于(5±1)℃,12 L/12 D条件下分别驯化7、14、21

  11. Tree shrew models: A chronic social defeat model of depression and a one-trial captive conditioning model of learning and memory%树鼩模型:抑郁症的社会竞争失败与学习和记忆的被捕获条件反射

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 周启心; 田孟; 杨跃雄; 徐林

    2011-01-01

    that tree shrew is in the order or a closest sister of primates, and thus may be one of the best animals to model human diseases. In this paper, we report on a social defeat model of depression in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). Two male tree shrews were housed in a pair-cage consisting of two independent cages separated by a wire mesh partition with a door connecting the two cages. After one week adaptation, the connecting door was opened and a brief fighting occurs between the two male tree shrews and this social conflict session consisted of 1 h direct conflict (fighting) and 23 h indirect influence (e.g. smell, visual cues) per day for 21 days. The defeated tree shrew was considered the subordinate. Compared with naive animals, subordinate tree shrews at the final week of social conflict session showed alterations in body weight, locomotion, avoidance behavior and urinary cortisol levels.Remarkably, these alterations persisted for over two weeks. We also report on a novel captive conditioning model of learning and memory in tree shrew. An automatic trapping cage was placed in a small closed room with a freely-moving tree shrew. For the first four trials, the tree shrew was not trapped when it entered the cage and ate the bait apple, but it was trapped and kept in the cage for 1 h on the fifth trial. Latency was defined as the time between release of the tree shrew and when it entered the captive cage. Latencies during the five trials indicated adaptation. A test trial 24 h later was used to measure whether the one-trial trapping during the fifth trial could form captive memory. Tree shrews showed much longer trapping latencies in the test trial than the adaptation trials. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), known to prevent the formation of memory, did not affect latencies in the adaptation trails, but did block captive memory as it led to much shorter trapping latencies compared to saline treatment in the test

  12. Brad Pitt musklis ja miniseelikus / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2004-01-01

    Brad Pitt Achilleusena mängufilmis "Trooja" ("Troy") : režissöör Wolfgang Petersen : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2004. Sama pealkirja all "Pitt paneb mehed miniseelikuid kandma" Nädal nr. 20, lk. 71 : ill

  13. Musk as a Pheromone? Didactic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersted, Chris T.

    A classroom/laboratory exercise has been used to introduce college students to factorial research designs, differentiate between interpretations for experimental and quasi-experimental variables, and exemplify application of laboratory research methods to test practical questions (advertising claims). The exercise involves having randomly divided…

  14. Musk as a Pheromone? Didactic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersted, Chris T.

    A classroom/laboratory exercise has been used to introduce college students to factorial research designs, differentiate between interpretations for experimental and quasi-experimental variables, and exemplify application of laboratory research methods to test practical questions (advertising claims). The exercise involves having randomly divided…

  15. Enantioselectivity of the Musk Odor Sensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Fráter; P. Kraft

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Chiral recognition of substrates is one of the most characteristic phenomena of biological activity. And one of the most fundamental biological activities of chemical substances is their smell. In 1991, Linda Buck and Richard Axel[1] discovered a large multigene family that en codes odorant receptors, for which they were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology. These odorant receptors are highly homologous,consist of ca. 320 amino acids, and show a heptahelical transmembrane structure as typical for G-protein-coupled receptors. In the human genome, 347 putative full-length olfactory receptor genes have been identified,which allow via characteristic activation patterns of the associated glomeruli the differentiation of more than 10 000 odorants. Since the odorant receptors are built from enantiomerically pure amino acids, they are themselves chiral. Consequently, one would expect a strong diastereomeric interaction, and enantiomeric pairs of odorants should thus differ significantly in both their odor character and their strengths or odor threshold.

  16. Problems concerning musk oxen in Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the range of muskox in Greenland. The predominant habitat of the muskox is in northern and northeastern Greenland; however, it has appeared...

  17. Test and Analysis of Coagulation Time of Four Kinds of Coagulation Factors in Captive Bred Tree Shrew and Rhesus Monkey%人工饲养树鼩和猕猴的部分凝血因子凝集时间的测定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璋琼; 代解杰; 孙晓梅; 李辛斌; 高家红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test and analyze the coagulation time of four kinds of coagulation factors in healthy , captive bred tree shrew and rhesus monkey, and to establish the reference values range of coagulation factors values in the two animals. Methods Prothrombin time ( PT) , activated partial thromboplastin time ( APTT) , fibrinogen time ( FIB) , and thrombin time ( TT) of captive bred tree shrews and rhesus monkeys were tested by using the Sysmex CA-510 automated blood coagulation analyzer, then the data were analyzed in using the statistics analysis software SPSS vl7. 0. Results In Tree shrew and Rhesus monkey, TT was respectively 19. 27 s and 20. 81 s;PT was respectively 17.34 s and 9.82 s; FIB was respectively 30.51 s and 18.73s; APPT was respectively 27. 88 s and 33. 56 s. The differences in PT and FIB were highly significant(P <0. 01) between captive bred tree shrew and rhesus monkey;and the differences in TT and APTT were also statistical significant(P <0. 05) between the captive bred tree shrew and the rhesus monkey. Conclusion There were significant differences in coagulation time of the four kinds of coagulation factors between animals, but there had no differencees in the different gender of same species.%目的 目前有关人工饲养树鼩与猕猴部分凝血因子凝集时间的资料甚少,拟初步建立这两种动物部分凝血因子凝集时间的参考值范围.方法采用全自动血凝仪测定树鼩、猕猴的血浆凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶原时间(PT).结果树鼩的TT、PT、Fib和APTT值分别为19.27、17.34、30.51和27.88s.猕猴的TT、PT、Fib和APTT值分别为20.81、9.82、18.73和33.56 s.人工饲养树鼩与猕猴的PT值、Fib值存在显著性差异(P<0.01),APTT值、TT值存在差异(P<0.05).结论人工饲养树鼩和猕猴部分凝血因子的凝集时间存在一定差异,同一物种雌雄个体间部分凝血因子的凝集时间没有明显差异.

  18. 龙血竭联合马应龙麝香痔疮膏治疗Ⅲ期压疮的效果%Effect of Dragon' s Blood combined with Musk hemorrhoids ointment on patients with pressure sore of stage Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎红梅; 李敏; 刘建平; 辜红娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the curative effect of dragon's blood combined with Musk Hemorrhoids Ointment on the treatment of stage Ⅲ pressure sore patients.Methods Totals of 76 cases of Ⅲ stage pressure sore patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group,with 38 cases in each group,two groups of local same method to treat the wound.The observation group was treated with dragon's blood,Musk Hemorrhoids Ointment to tune into a paste coating wound,operation incision sterile protective film fixed.While control group treated with moist burn ointment coating wound,sterile gauze bandage fixed.Therapeutic effect and healing time was compared between the two groups.Results In the observation group and the control group,the total effective rates were 100% and 78.95%,and the difference was statistically significant (x2 =3.945,P <0.05).The healing time of observation group and control group respectively were (13.56 ±4.35) days and (21.45 ± 3.47) days,and the difference was statistically significant (t =2.365,P< 0.01).Conclusions The dragon's blood combined with Musk Hemorrhoids Ointment for external application in the treatment of Ⅲ patients with satisfactory results,which can shorten the treatment time,improve the cure rate.%目的 探讨龙血竭联合马应龙麝香痔疮膏治疗Ⅲ期压疮的疗效.方法 将76例Ⅲ期压疮患者按随机数字余数法分为观察组和对照组各38例,两组局部采用相同方法处理创面,观察组采用龙血竭、马应龙麝香痔疮膏调成糊状涂敷创面,手术切口无菌保护膜固定;对照组采用湿润烧伤膏涂敷创面,无菌纱布包扎固定,比较两组患者的治疗效果及治愈时间.结果 观察组和对照组总有效率分别为100%,78.95%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(x2=3.945,P均<0.05).观察组与对照组患者Ⅲ期压疮治愈时间分别为(13.56±4.35)d,(21.45±3.47)d,观察组优于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2

  19. Detection significance of AchR antibody,Titin antibody and MuSK antibody in myasthenia gravis combined with thymic lesion%重症肌无力合并胸腺病变患者血清乙酰胆碱受体抗体、肌联蛋白抗体和肌肉特异性酪氨酸激酶抗体的检测意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岚剑; 杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究对重症肌无力合并胸腺病变的患者血清中乙酰胆碱受体(acetylcholine receptors,AchR)抗体、肌联蛋白(Titin)抗体和肌肉特异性酪氨酸激酶(muscle specific tyrosine kinase,MuSK)抗体的检测意义。方法选取我院收治的80例重症肌无力患者,根据是否存在胸腺病变分为胸腺病变组48例和非胸腺病变组32例,另取80例健康个体作为对照组,通过免疫酶联吸附试验对3组成员血清中 AchR 抗体、Titin 抗体和 MuSK 抗体进行检测并比较。结果重症肌无力患者血清 AchR 抗体和 Titin 抗体阳性率(76.3%,52.5%)均明显高于对照组(11.3%,5.0%)(P <0.05);重症肌无力组及对照组患者血清 MuSK 抗体阳性率均为0,但前者血清中 MuSK 抗体水平明显高于后者(P <0.05);AchR,Titin 两种抗体联合检测可明显提高检测重症肌无力的灵敏度;AchR 和 Titin 抗体在胸腺病变组中的阳性率明显高于非胸腺病变组(P <0.05);全身型重症肌无力患者的血清 AchR 抗体和 Titin 抗体阳性率明显高于眼肌型(P <0.05)。结论 AchR 抗体和 Titin 抗体的阳性率与重症肌无力患者的病情相关,病情严重或合并胸腺病变可明显提高两者的阳性率,此外两者联合检测可提高诊断的灵敏度。而 MuSK 抗体在我国重症肌无力患者中的阳性率较低。%ABSTRACT:Objective To explore the significance of AchR antibody,Titin antibody and MuSK antibody in myasthenia gravis patients combined with thymic lesion.Methods A total 80 cases of myasthenia gravis patients treated in our hospital were selected.They were divided into thymic lesion group(n =48)and no-thymic lesion group (n = 32 ).Another 80 cases of healthy individuals were selected as control group.The positive rates of AchR antibody,Titin antibody and MuSK antibody were compared among three groups and different Osserman types. Results The positive rates of AchR antibody and Titin antibody of myasthenia gravis

  20. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning Tyto alba diets in peninsular Italy about: - Sorex minutus, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - Sorex araneus (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - Crocidura suaveolens and - Suncus etruscus, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - Talpa caeca, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - Talpa romana

  1. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  2. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  3. Establishment and application of a RT-nPCR assay for detection of orthoreovirus in tree shrews%树鼩呼肠孤病毒 RT-nPCR 检测方法的建立及初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓飞; 殷安国; 张媛; 罗军; 孙晓梅; 代解杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction ( RT-nPCR ) assay for detection of tree shrews orthoreovirus (TRV).Methods Three strains of TRV were respectively isolated from fresh feces of three tree shrews that came from the same field at different times .We designed and synthesized two pairs of MRV L1 gene nested primers and established the system of RT-nPCR.The TRV RNA was extracted and reversely transcribed to cDNA as a template for nested-PCR amplification.The developed RT-nPCR was optimized.The specificity and sensitivity were tested.Finally, the RT-nPCR was used to detect TRV in 25 tree shrew samples.Results Taking the genomic RNA of TRV as template, the RT-nPCR was able to amplify a specific fragment band targeting the L 1 gene, while there were no target bands in the normal cell control , ( Wa strain rotavirus , hepatitis A virus , and herpes simplex virus ) .The RNA of TRV was diluted by 1:10 to 1:109 .Each dilution sample was analyzed by the RT-nPCR.The minimum detectable concentration of RNA was 0.01 pg/μL.The results of RT-nPCR detection showed that 4 of the 15 tree shrews were TRV-positive in the survival group , and 10 of 10 tree shrews were TRV-positive in the death group . Conclusions The RT-nRCR assay established in this study is accurate , specific and sensitive .Therefore, it can be used for routine detection of TRV in quality assurance testing .%目的:建立树鼩呼肠孤病毒( TRV) RT-nPCR检测方法,为树鼩的质量控制提供检测方法。方法从三批野外来源的具有感染临床症状的树鼩粪便中分离得到三株病毒,经电镜观察和聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳鉴定为哺乳动物呼肠孤病毒(MRV)。根据GenBank 中已发表的MRV L1基因的保守区域,设计合成巢式引物,对所分离的三株树鼩呼肠孤病毒(TRV1、TRV2、TRV3)的RNA 进行RT-nPCR 扩增,优化反应条件,进行特异性、敏感性试验。应用RT-nPCR 方法对25只

  4. The expression and significance of MCM7 protein in hepatocellu-lar carcinoma tissues of human, rat and tree shrew%MCM7蛋白在人大鼠树鼩肝癌组织中的表达和意义*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伶群; 杨春; 秦虹; 卢晓旭; 李瑗; 欧超; 苏建家; 曹骥

    2013-01-01

      目的:应用跨种属策略研究MCM7蛋白在人、大鼠、树鼩3个不同种属肝癌、癌旁组织及正常肝组织中的表达,探讨MCM7与肝癌发生发展的关系及临床意义。方法:应用Western blot及免疫组织化学技术检测MCM7蛋白在人、大鼠、树鼩的肝癌、癌旁组织及正常肝组织中的表达并进行临床病理因素分析。结果:Western blot结果显示,MCM7蛋白在人和大鼠肝癌组织中的表达水平显著高于对应癌旁及正常肝组织(P均0.05)。免疫组织化学结果显示,MCM7蛋白主要在细胞核中表达,其在人、大鼠、树鼩肝癌组织中的阳性表达率明显高于癌旁及正常肝组织(P均0.05)。结论:MCM7蛋白在肝癌发生发展中可能起着关键分子的作用,并与人肝癌的临床分期,肝外转移及术后复发密切相关,有可能成为肝癌治疗的新靶点。%Objective:To test the expression of Minichromosome maintenance complex component 7(MCM7) protein in hepato-cellular carcinoma(HCC) of different species including human, rat and tree shrew (tupaia) by cross-species oncogenomics approach, and to investigate the relationship between the expression of MCM7 and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance. Methods:Western blot and Immunohistochemistry were applied to detect the expression levels of MCM7 protein in HCC tissues,corresponding HCC-adjacent liver tissues and normal liver tissues collected from different species including human, rat and tree shrew, respectively. The clinicopathologic factors were also analyzed with the results of Immunohistochemistry. Results:Western blot analysis showed that the expression of MCM7 protein in HCC tissues of human and rat were higher than that in corresponding HCC-ad-jacent liver tissues and normal liver tissues, respectively and significantly (P0.05).There was also no significant difference between HCC-adjacent liver tis-sues and normal liver

  5. Effects of some extenders and monoamines on sperm cryopreservation in tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri)%几种冷冻稀释液与单胺类防冻剂对中缅树鼩精子冷冻存活率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平述煌; 王彩云; 唐文如; 罗瑛; 杨世华

    2012-01-01

    The tree shrew may be an important experimental animal for disease models in humans. The effects of some extenders and momamines on sperm cryopreservation will provide helpful data for experimentation of strains and conservation of genetic resources in tree shrews. Epididymal sperm were surgically harvested from male tree shrews captured around Kunming, China and sperm motility, acrosome integrity and fertility were assessed during cryopreservation. In Experiment 1 eight extenders (TTE, TCG, TCF, TTG, BWW, BTS, DM, and SR) supplemented with 0.4 mol/L DMSO were used to dilute the sperm: only TTE, DM and SR showed no differences in motility and acrosome integrity compared to fresh controls after equilibration. After freezing and thawing, sperm in any extender showed lower motility than fresh control and sperm in DM showed higher motility than other groups. However, BWW produced the lowest motility. For acrosome intergrity, TTE and DM showed higher than BWW, BTS and SR after equilibration. The parameter in DM was higher than other groups (except TTE) after thawing. In Experiment 2 four penetrating cryoprotectant agents (CPA) [dimethyl-formamide (DF), formamide (F), dimethylacetamide (DA), and acetamide (A)] at 0.2 mol/L, 0.4 mol/L, 0.8 mol/L, and 1.2 mol/L, respectively were added to the DM extender. Motility showed no difference among CPA groups and non-CPA group (control) after equilibration, but all thawed sperm showed lower values in motility and acrosome intergrity than pre-freezing groups. However, sperm in 0.8 mol/L DF and 0.4 mol/L DMSO showed higher values in both parameters than that in other CPA groups (P>0.05). In Experiment 3 the fertilization rate of oocytes inseminated with 0.4mol/L DMSO (50%) were higher than that with 0.8mol/L DF (16%). In conclusion, non-ion extenders supplemented with egg yolk may be better for sperm cryopreservation in tree shrews and cryoprotectant effects of monoamines agents should be further studied in this species.%该文实

  6. 生活环境条件对中国树鼩血激素水平和心理行为的影响%Effects of living environment conditions on the blood hormone levels and psychological behavior in Chinese tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞发荣; 常青云; 连秀珍; 张振南; 谢明仁; 李登楼

    2014-01-01

    目的:探索生活环境条件(居住环境条件和动物之间相互作用的因素)对中国树鼩血激素水平和心理行为的影响。方法采用空间大小不等的笼具饲养中国树鼩,或给予利血平,分别在15、30、60、120、180 d时用乙醚吸入麻醉,从心脏采血,用放射免疫法检测血液中睾酮(testosterone,T)、雌二醇(estradiol, E2)、内皮素(endo-thelin, ET)、肾上腺素(adrenaline, A)和去甲肾上腺素(noradrenaline, NA)水平。结果①将中国树鼩分别放入大笼( D1组)、小笼( X1组)单独饲养15、30、60、120、180 d时检测,与大笼( D1组)比:小笼( X1组) T水平显著降低(P<0.01),A、NA、ET水平显著升高(P<0.01)。②小笼和大笼临近饲养(X2组)饲养15、30、60、120、180 d时检测, X2组T、A、NA水平均比小笼单独饲养( X1组)显著升高(均P<0.01)。③利血平各组A、NA水平均显著降低(均P<0.01)。④小笼单独饲养( X1组)、小笼和大笼临近饲养( X2组)的动物均出现猝丧、食欲降低、睾丸萎缩、阴茎外露下垂等应激症状。利血平组中国树鼩均出现性情温顺,活动显著减少,食欲降低,停喂利血平,放入大笼饲养,动物逐渐恢复到正常生活状态。结论居住环境条件和动物之间的相互作用均能引起中国树鼩血激素水平变化和心理行为的改变。%Objective To study the effects of living environment conditions and animal-animal interaction on the blood hormone levels and psychological behavior in Chinese tree shrews .Methods Chinese tree shrews were raised in ca-ges of different space sizes or were administered reserpine for 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 days, respectively.Then the animals were anesthetized by ether inhalation , and blood samples were taken from the heart to detect the levels of blood testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), endothelin (ET), adrenaline

  7. Aβ1-40侧脑室注射模拟阿尔茨海默病树鼩模型的核磁共振成像特征%Analysis of the MRI characteristics in tree shrew model of Alzheimer’ s disease induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-40

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红; 李树德; 王振宇; 薛整风; 张荣平; 角建林

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析阿尔茨海默病( AD)模型树鼩大脑影像学特征。方法在脑立体定位仪上侧脑室注射Aβ1-40建立AD动物模型。经视觉-空间行为学检测确定模型成功后,用MRI作脑冠状面T2加权成像( T2 WI)和弥散张量成像(DTI)分析。结果模型组模型组参考记忆错误(3周,4周)和工作记忆错误(2周,3周,4周)显著多于对照组(P<0.05)。模型组完成任务的时间(2周,3周)显著多于对照组(P<0.05)。3周起模型组树鼩单侧或双侧海马减小,相应侧脑室或双侧脑室增大。12周时模型组树鼩双侧颞角宽度显著大于对照组和治疗组( P<0.01)。弥散张量成像扫描显示,模型组树鼩海马双侧表观弥散系数(ACD)大于对照组(P<0.01)。模型组胼胝体纤维束缺失严重。结论侧脑室注射Aβ1-40可引起树鼩学习记忆障碍。 MRI能显示AD树鼩脑部的特征性改变,颞角宽度、海马ADC值、胼胝体纤维受损对痴呆的诊断有参考价值。%Objective To analyze the neuroimaging changes of tree shrew models of Alzheimer’ s disease.Methods Nineteen healthy adult female tree shrews were randomly divided into control (5 animals) and model group (14 animals). The model of Alzheimer’s disease was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-40 using a stereotaxic devise and proved successfully by visuospatial congnitive task.The in vivo microstructural changes in the brain of tree shrew AD models and control group (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks) were observed on 1.5T MRI (T2WI), and on 7.0T MRI (12 week)(T2WI, DTI). Results Reference memory errors were increased in the model group at 3 or 4 weeks (P<0.05), and so working memory errors (P<0.05) and period of time to perform (P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.01) from 2 to 4 weeks.Thus the model was proved to be established successfully.T2WI test and DTI test were carried out.Hippocampus atrophy of the model group at 3

  8. Mammalian genome projects reveal new growth hormone (GH) sequences. Characterization of the GH-encoding genes of armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), bat (Myotis lucifugus), hyrax (Procavia capensis), shrew (Sorex araneus), ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), elephant (Loxodonta africana), cat (Felis catus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Michael

    2008-01-15

    Mammalian growth hormone (GH) sequences have been shown previously to display episodic evolution: the sequence is generally strongly conserved but on at least two occasions during mammalian evolution (on lineages leading to higher primates and ruminants) bursts of rapid evolution occurred. However, the number of mammalian orders studied previously has been relatively limited, and the availability of sequence data via mammalian genome projects provides the potential for extending the range of GH gene sequences examined. Complete or nearly complete GH gene sequences for six mammalian species for which no data were previously available have been extracted from the genome databases-Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo), Erinaceus europaeus (western European hedgehog), Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat), Procavia capensis (cape rock hyrax), Sorex araneus (European shrew), Spermophilus tridecemlineatus (13-lined ground squirrel). In addition incomplete data for several other species have been extended. Examination of the data in detail and comparison with previously available sequences has allowed assessment of the reliability of deduced sequences. Several of the new sequences differ substantially from the consensus sequence previously determined for eutherian GHs, indicating greater variability than previously recognised, and confirming the episodic pattern of evolution. The episodic pattern is not seen for signal sequences, 5' upstream sequence or synonymous substitutions-it is specific to the mature protein sequence, suggesting that it relates to the hormonal function. The substitutions accumulated during the course of GH evolution have occurred mainly on the side of the hormone facing away from the receptor, in a non-random fashion, and it is suggested that this may reflect interaction of the receptor-bound hormone with other proteins or small ligands.

  9. 大型鼩鼱Beremendia(食虫目,鼩鼱科)在江南的首次发现及其古气候学意义%FIRST DISCOVERY OF THE LARGE SHREW, BEREMENDIA (INSECTIVORA, SORICIDAE) , FROM THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE OF SOUTH CHINA AND ITS PALEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金昌柱; 张颖奇; 孙承凯; 郑龙亭

    2009-01-01

    A new species of the large shrew, Beremendiajiangnanensis sp. nov., is described here.The materials were excavated from the Early Pleistocene deposits of Renzidong Cave located on the south bank of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, near Fanchang County, Anhui Province, South China. The new species is the largest in the genus. It is morphologically more primitive than B. po-haiensis from China, but more advanced than the type species, B. fissidens, from the lower Pliocene of Europe. Beremendia was initially reported from the Pliocene of northern Europe. It had been widely distributed in the high latitude regions of Europe and central Asia with a high population density, and became extinct by the end of the Middle Pleistocene. In East Asia, however, it appeared later, and was only rarely reported from the Early Pleistocene of North China. The origin of the genus is still un-clear. The new species is a typical member of Renzidong fauna which is composed of more than 70 mammals. The analyses of ecological and taxonomic composition of the fauna show that it is noticea-bly distinct from the known Early Pleistocene faunas from northern and southern China and the mod-em local fauna for the reason that it is characterized by the coexistence of both Palearctic and Oriental faunal elements. But the Palearctic elements are somewhat predominate. The occurrence of the Palearctic element, Beremendia, as well as Equus sanmeniensis, Hypolagus, Kowalskia, and Mi-momys, in the present-day Oriental Region strongly indicates that there was a cooling event during the Early Pleistocene, which drove the Palearctic elements to migrate southwards to the south of Yang-tze River. So the southern boundary of the Palearctic Realm was more southernly located than present then. The first discovery of the hygrophilous and cryophylactic large shrew, Beremendia, in the pres-ent-day Oriental Region of East China will be helpful to the study of the evolution of Beremendia, and will provide

  10. Effects of cerebral ischemia and postconditioning on signaling molecules PERK and GRP78 in hippocampus tissue of tree shrew during endoplas-mic reticulum stress%脑缺血及后适应对树鼩海马内质网应激信号分子 PERK 及 GRP78的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈理军; 马艳; 李霞; 陈静; 李树清; 张颖

    2015-01-01

    [ ABSTRACT] AIM:To investigate the effects of cerebral ischemia and postconditioning on protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in the hippocampus tissue of tree shrew during endoplasmic reticulum stress and the mechanism of post-conditioning protecting the brain from damage.METH-ODS:The focal cerebral ischemic model was duplicated by photochemical reaction in tree shrew and the postconditioning was induced by alternatively occluding and opening the carotid artery of ischemic side for 3 cycles (5 min each cycle) at 3.5 h after ischemia.The damage and ultrastructural changes of the hippocampal neurons were observed by HE staining. The expression of PERK and GRP78 at mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampal tissue at different time points after cer-ebral ischemia and postconditioning was determined by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot.RESULTS:The injuries of hippocampal neurons were aggravated with prolonged cerebral ischemia, which was most severe at 24 h after ischemia while the postconditioning alleviated these damages correspondingly.The expression of PERK at mRNA and pro-tein levels was upregulated at 4 h, 24 h and 72 h after ischemia (P lated the expressions of GRP78 at IP24 h group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:The focal thrombotic cerebral ischemia ac-tivates the endoplasmic reticulum stress in ischemic hippocampus of tree shrews, leading to the changes in mRNA and pro-tein expression of PERK in the PERK/eIF2αsignal transduction pathway.The postconditioning treatment alleviates endo-plasmic reticulum stress and neuronal damages by downregulating PERK and upregulating GRP78, thereby protecting the brain from injury.%目的:探讨脑缺血及后适应对树鼩海马内质网应激信号分子蛋白激酶R样内质网激酶( PERK)及葡萄糖调节蛋白78(GRP78)的影响及后适应的脑保护机制。方法:光化学反应诱导树鼩局部血栓性脑缺血,于脑缺血后3.5 h

  11. PREVALENCE AND DIVERSITY OF BARTONELLA SPECIES IN WILD SMALL MAMMALS IN ASIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Soon; Inoue, Kai; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Takada, Tomoe; Pangjai, Decha; Chiu, Shih-Hui; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    We collected 641 small mammals belonging to 17 species of Rodentia and four species of Soricomorpha in Japan, Korea, Russia, Taiwan, and Thailand and investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species. Apodemus (field mice) and Rattus (rats) were the most-common genera captured, making up 56.0% and 23.1% of the total specimens, respectively. Bartonellae were isolated from 54.6% of the collected animals, and the prevalence varied depending on the host species and the country of origin. The isolates were identified to the species level based on gltA and rpoB sequences. Although most Bartonella species were shared by more than two host species, the distribution patterns of Bartonella species clearly differed among the four most-common host genera: Apodemus, Rattus, Myodes (voles), and Suncus (shrews). The predominant Bartonella species were Bartonella grahamii in Apodemus, Bartonella tribocorum in Rattus, B. grahamii and Bartonella taylorii in Myodes, and an unclassified Bartonella sp. in Suncus.

  12. 社会环境压力对中国树鼩血液学和骨髓象指标的影响%Effects of the social environment stress on the indexes of hematology and myelogram in Chinese tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞发荣; 连秀珍

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The stress can induce sympathic nervous-adrenalmedulla system to release a lot of noradrenalin(NE) and adrenalin(E),pro mote bone marrow hemopoietic stem cells to differentiate towards lympho cyte and plasmocyte,decrease the number of granulocyte,thus organism can adapt to surrounding stress,so as to protect critical organs from damage. OBJECTIVE: To observe effect of confinement and vibration stress on in dexes of hematology and myelogram in Chinese tree shrews. DESIGN: Sex-marched and controlled experiment. MATERIALS: Thirty Chinese tree shrews (15 females, 15 males) weigh ing 120 g to 140 g were selected. Self-made experimental cylinders with many vent-holes, 16 cm length and 6cm inside diameter,were used, one side of which was sealed with plexglass,and the other side was blocked by mov able plexiglass for animals in and out.The air bath and homothermal vibra tor(Type SHZ-82,made in Changzhou,China). METHODS: The experiment was completed at the Experimental Center of Public Security, Gansu Political Science and Law Institute from March to October in 2003. ①Thirty Chinese tree shrews were randomly divided into five groups(n=6):The animals in the control group(C group) were fed nor mally; The experimental groups consisted of reserpine + vibration and vi bration groups. The animals in the reserpine + vibration (R+V)group were administered reserpine (0.05 mg/kg, im.) and vibrated at 140 beats/min; the vibration groups (V1,V2,V3) were vibrated at 70, 140, 210 beats/min, respectively. ② The animals in experimental groups were individually kept in the experimental tubes for 5 minutes, then put the tubes into the air bath and homothermal vibrator for 2 minutes. ③ The bleeding time, blood sedimentation, clotting time, and indexes of hemogram were determined with the methods of Duke, Westergren, glass capillary, and full-automatic biochemical instruments (type 721, Japan), respectively. ④ Dunnett ANO- VA was used to compare the differences between

  13. 巴基斯坦旁遮普中部仓鸮食性的季节性变化%Seasonal variation in the diet of the barn owl Tyto alba stertens in central Punjab, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN; Mirza Azhar BEG; Habib ALI

    2007-01-01

    在巴基斯坦对仓鸮食性的季节变化进行了研究.通过分析连续3年在6个地区搜集的2 360个仓鸮回吐食物团,发现其食物主要是小型哺乳动物(95.6%).其中,家鼩(Suncus murinus)有最高的比例,达65.6%(冬季最多78%,夏季最少27%).就生物量而言,小型哺乳动物占仓鸮食物总生物量的99%[动物学报 53(3):431-436,2007].%Seasonal and climatic changes influence the diet of the barn owl Tyto alba throughout its range. We conducted the first long-term study in Pakistan to understand seasonal changes in the diet of this raptor. Regurgitated pellets (n=2 360) were collected for three years from six districts of central Punjab. An analysis of these pellets revealed that the barn owl depended mainly on small mammals (95.6%) for its food. The house shrew Suncus murinus was the main food item (65.6%) in its diet. It was the most common prey item in winter (78%) and was consumed the least during summer (27%). This seasonal rise and fall in the frequency of shrews in the diet was related to an inverse pattern of rise and fall in the frequency of rodents, birds and bats. Small mammals contributed 99% of the biomass consumed by the barn owl[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3):431-436,2007].

  14. 驯养中缅树鼩的消化道寄生虫监测及寄生蠕虫驱虫效果%Dectection of parasitic infection in domesticatedtree shrew and the determination of de-wormingeffect by examining the fecal samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕龙宝; 马玉华; 邹丰才; 刘世高; 杨建发

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the infection and parasite-expelling effect on wild and domesticated tree shrews, respectively. Methods The wild tree shrews randomly captured three days before the tests, domesticated ones reared for a month, and the Fl, F2 and F3 generation were included in this study. Either the wild or the domestic tree threws were divided into 5 cages (3-4 animals in each cage). The examination of fecal parasitic ova or oo-cysts was carried out using saturated sodium chloride flotation method, and then the species of the parasites were identificated by their shaps. Results This experiment resulted in 2 species of parasitic wireworm eggs, that is Trichocephalus and Rictu-laria sp. ,Hymenolepis diminuta eggs, and a kind of coccidian oocysts. Among the animals wildly captured and those domasti-cally reared for one month, the infection rate of parasitic wireworm both reached 100% , with 100% and 80% of serious infes-tative rates, 60% and 20% of cestode eggs, 40% and 20% of coccidia oocyst eggs, respectively. By contrast, parasitic wire-worm eggs infected only 20% of the Fl generation and disappeared in the F2 or F3 generation. These results were consistent with those obtained immediately after the first expelling of the parasites. 39 Rictularia sp. , 3 Trichocephalus and 18 Hymenolepis diminuta were collected on the first expelling day. Except coccidia oocyst eggs, no parasites such as nematode eggs or cestode eggs were detected on the following two days in the fecal samples from the animals. Conclusions The results of present study provide elementary information for the detection and control of gastrointestinal parasite infection in the tree threws.%目的 了解野外树鼩和驯养树鼩寄生虫感染情况及其驱虫效果.万法 随机远取野外捕获3 d和已驯1个月(未驱虫)、F1代、F2代、F3代树鼩,各五笼,每笼3~4只,用饱和食盐水漂浮法检查粪样虫卵或卵囊,根

  15. Stable carbon isotope values document how a Late Holocene expansion in grasslands impacted vertebrates in northwestern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, B. E.; Samonds, K.

    2012-12-01

    Madagascar is home to some of the world's most distinctive plants and animals. Unfortunately, forest loss and habitat degradation has had a dramatic impact on both floral and faunal communities. Here we use carbon isotope values in radiocarbon-dated bones to examine how the vertebrate community at Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar, responded to a Late Holocene increase in C4 grass abundance. Our data demonstrate that major changes in the vegetation and animal community are recent phenomena at Anjohibe. Extinct lemurs and hippopotamuses were present until ca. 1500 years ago. These taxa relied exclusively on C3 resources. Locally extirpated fauna were present until 300 years ago. The majority of these species also relied on C3 resources. Their presence strongly suggests that the region surrounding the cave was more wooded than it is now, possibly as recently as 300 years ago. All introduced individuals are modern. Rats (Rattus sp.), shrews (Suncus murinus), and the giant frog Hoplobatrachus cf. tigrinus, have remarkably high carbon isotope values, implicating substantial ingestion of C4 foods. It is possible that grass abundance has increased dramatically in the past 100 years. Alternatively, opportunistically granivorous rats and shrews may selectively consume seeds from C4 grasses. In agreement with previous studies, stable isotope data reveal details of vegetation and faunal turnover in Northwestern Madagascar. Grasses have increased, forest dwelling species have vanished, and introduced taxa are exploiting a novel niche.

  16. 树鼩海马微环境Ca2+异常与rCBF相互作用机制的探讨%Explore the mutual action mechanism between the Ca2+ abnormality in the micro environment of hippocampusand regional cerebral blood flow in Tree Shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海芸; 罗耀辉; 李树清

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the mutual action and possible mechanism of abnormality of calcium ion in the microenvironment of hippocampus and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Methods: A lateral hippocampus was microperfused by individual high,middle,low concentration of calcium ion during 4 h by a kind of single-pumped push-pull perfusion system in Tree Shrews. The rCBF in hippocampus CAI area was detected by laser-Doppler (LD) flow meter and the ultramicrostructure of blood vessel endothelium in hippocampus was observed. Then the change of above-mentioned index are observed when perfused Nimodipine in situ. Results: The rCBF gradually reduced along with heighten concentration of calcium ion (P < 0.01 ), especially in high concentration( 2.9 ± 0.81 ,P < 0.01 ); But the rCBF significant increased after utilization the calcium ion channal antagonist Nimodipine, and that the damage of vascular endothelial cells was also observed the decrease under electron microscope. Conclusion: The decrease of rCBF can degrade calcium ion in the microenvironment when ischemia happen, and induce abnormal microenvironment. The abnormality of calcium ion in the microenvironment of hippocampus also causes the decrease of rCBF.%目的:探讨海马微环境内异常Ca2+与局部脑血流(regional cerebral blood flow,rCBF)相互作用变化及其可能机制.方法:单泵等速微灌流系统分别行树鼩海马高、中、低Ca2+微灌流4 h,通过激光多普勒血流计测量海马CA1区rCBF含量;并用电镜观测海马血管内皮细胞的超微结构.微灌流Ca2+溶液后原位灌流尼莫地平,观测上述指标的变化.结果:树鼩微环境内随着Ca2+的增加海马rCBF逐渐降低(P<0.01),其中高浓度Ca2+微灌流后的rCBF(PU)最低(2.9±0.81,P<0.01),使用Ca2+通道拮抗剂尼莫地平后可显著升高rCBF,同时在电镜下可观察到血管内皮细胞的损伤有所减轻.结论:缺血时rCBF的降低会引起微环境内Ca2+降低,致使微

  17. Re-Teaching Shakespeare (II): The Shrew Oppressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Describes a "Shakespeare Coursework Unit" in which Shakespearean and other literary works of the Tudor era were analyzed for evidence of the gender biases prevalent in that period. Notes that by the end of the course, students accepted the assertion that textual analysis is never truly completed. (SG)

  18. Metabolism and thermoregulation in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maximum metabolic rate is a physiological limitation that is an important for animals' survival, reproduction and geographic. Basal metabolic rate (BMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST, and maximum metabolic rate (MMR were measured was in a small mammal species, Tupaia belangeri, which is a unique species of small-bodied mammals in the Oriental realm. Thermal neutral zone (TNZ was 30 - 35°C and BMR was 1.38±0.09 ml g-1 h-1. NST and MMR were 2.64±0.08 ml g-1 h-1 and 7.14±0.38 ml g-1 h-1 in summer, respectively. The ecophysiological properties of relatively high body temperature, wide TNZ, low BMR and thermogenic capacity enable this species to adapt to its environment.

  19. EARLY WARNING OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN SELANDAKA VILLAGE, SUMPIUH SUB DISTRICT, BANYUMAS DISTRICT AT 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Puspita Ningsih

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLeptospirosis di Kabupaten Banyumas mulai dilaporkan sejak tahun 2010 sebanyak satu kasus. Tahun 2011 meningkatmenjadi 5 kasus, 2012 sebanyak 3 kasus dan sampai dengan bulan Juli 2013 sebanyak 3 kasus. Tujuan penelitian untukmengidentifikasi rodensia jenis tikus sebagai hewan penular leptospirosis dan keberadaan bakteri Leptospira pada tikusdan manusia. Penelitian ini merupakan survei potong lintang, lokasi penelitian di Desa Selandaka Kecamatan SumpiuhKabupaten Banyumas pada bulan Juli 2013. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan penangkapan tikus dan cecurut, sertapenjaringan kasus leptospirosis. Pemeriksaan sampel ginjal tikus dan darah manusia dilakukan dengan metode PolymeraseChain Reaction (PCR di Instalasi Bakteriologi Balai Litbang P2B2 Banjarnegara. Analisis data secara deskriptif. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan keberhasilan penangkapan tikus dalam rumah lebih besar (10,67% daripada luar rumah (9,33%.Tikus yang tertangkap Rattus tanezumi sebanyak 10 ekor dan 5 ekor cecurut Suncus murinus. Hasil pemeriksaanlaboratorium menunjukkan tidak ditemukan bakteri Leptospira pada tikus, cecurut maupun serum penderita suspekleptospirosis.Kata kunci : leptospirosis, Banyumas, tikusABSTRACTLeptospirosis became known in Banyumas since the discovery of one case in 2010, 5 cases in 2011, 3 cases in 2012 and untilJuly 2013, 3 cases occurred in Selandaka village, Sumpiuh sub-District. This research aimed to identify rats spesies andshrew as reservoir of leptospirosis and to detect the presence of Leptospira sp in rats, shrew and human at the area withleptospirosis problem in Banyumas. The research method was a survey with cross sectional approach, located in Selandakavillage Sumpiuh, Banyumas on July 2013. Traping rats and case screening using the Rapid Diagnostic Test ( RDT forLeptospira IgG/IgM were conducted during the survey. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay was performed atBacteriology Laboratory in BalaiLitbang P2B2 Banjarnegara to detect

  20. Why Can’t Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  1. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

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    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  2. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic