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Sample records for musk shrew suncus

  1. Conditioned flavor preference and the US postexposure effect in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus

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    Kosuke eSawa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The house musk shrew (Suncus murinus is the only species of insectivore that can be used as a laboratory animal and is an interesting subject in terms of evolutional and comparative aspects. The present study on the learning faculties of shrews examines the possibility of acquiring a conditioned flavor preference and the effects of US postexposure. Subjects were allowed to a drink sucrose solution with flavor A and tap water with flavor B during training. Two extinction tests were administered after every four conditioning trials, and a significant preference for flavor A was observed. After each test, the animals were divided into two groups. Subjects in Group US were presented with a sucrose solution without flavor, while those in Group Water were given tap water. After these trials, all subjects received choice tests where they were presented with water containing the two flavors. The preference ratio was lower in Group US than in Group Water, suggesting a postexposure effect. The findings were discussed in terms of habituation to the US.

  2. Incidence of dental lesions in musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and their association with sex, age, body weight and diet.

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    Dudley, Emily S; Grunden, Beverly K; Crocker, Conan; Boivin, Gregory P

    2013-10-22

    Both wild and laboratory strains of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus) have a high incidence of periodontitis. The authors completed necropsy examinations in 51 shrews to identify dental lesions including tooth loss, mobility and fractures. Dental lesions were identified in significantly more females than males, and older animals were more likely to have lesions present. Shrews with one or more dental lesions weighed significantly less than those without lesions present. Dietary supplementation with mealworms did not significantly affect the incidence of dental lesions or the body weight of male or female shrews. The authors recommend routine body weight measurement as a simple, noninvasive method of detecting shrews with an increased likelihood of having dental lesions.

  3. Action of Bacopa monnieri to antagonize cisplatin-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew

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    Ihsan Ullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (BM, family Scrophulariaceae is used in several traditional systems of medicine for the management of epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, sleep disorders and memory deficits. The present study investigated the potential of BM methanol (BM-MetFr and BM n-butanol fractions (BM-ButFr to reduce chemotherapy-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew. Cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p. reliably induced retching and/or vomiting over a 2 day period. BM-MetFr (10–40 mg/kg, s.c. and BM-ButFr (5–20 mg/kg, s.c. antagonized the retching and/or vomiting response by ∼59.4% (p  0.05. In conclusion, the n-butanol fractions of BM have anti-emetic activity comparable with palonosetron and MPG. BM may be useful alone or in combination with other anti-emetic drugs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis in man.

  4. The unusual state of the cumulus oophorus and of sperm behaviour within it, in the musk shrew, Suncus murinus.

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    Bedford, J M; Mori, T; Oda, S

    1997-05-01

    In the musk shrew, Suncus murinus, the behaviour of the cumulus-egg complex and its interaction with spermatozoa were unusual in several respects. The cumulus oophorus was ovulated about 15.5 h after mating or treatment with hCG as a hyaluronidase-insensitive matrix-free ball of cells which remained for relatively long periods of about 14 h around fertilized, and for about 24 h around unfertilized eggs. As a probable function of the small number of up to about 10 or 20 spermatozoa that generally reached the oviduct ampulla from isthmic crypts, there was often a delay of up to 10 h after ovulation before most eggs were penetrated. Soon after ovulation, however, the corona radiata retreated progressively from the zona pellucida, creating a closed perizonal space within the cumulus oophorus. Usually, most spermatozoa that did reach the ampulla were found within a cumulus and generally within that perizonal space. However, whereas the acrosome was intact among the few free ampullary spermatozoa, and in those adhering to the zona of cumulus-free eggs after delayed mating, all spermatozoa seen moving within the cumulus or adhering to the zona of unfertilized eggs had shed the giant acrosome. In accord with current observations in other shrews, the cumulus in Suncus may therefore function not only to sequester spermatozoa, but also as an essential mediator of fertilization-probably by inducing the acrosome reaction. In the absence of the acrosomal carapace that expresses the zona receptors in most mammals, fertilizing Suncus spermatozoa could use an unusual array of barbs on the exposed perforatorium to attach to the zona pellucida.

  5. Estimation of body surface area in the musk shrew ( Suncus murinus): a small animal for testing chemotherapy-induced emesis.

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    Eiseman, Julie L; Sciullo, Michael; Wang, Hong; Beumer, Jan H; Horn, Charles C

    2017-10-01

    Several cancer chemotherapies cause nausea and vomiting, which can be dose-limiting. Musk shrews are used as preclinical models for chemotherapy-induced emesis and for antiemetic effectiveness. Unlike rats and mice, shrews possess a vomiting reflex and demonstrate an emetic profile similar to humans, including acute and delayed phases. As with most animals, dosing of shrews is based on body weight, while translation of such doses to clinically equivalent exposure requires doses based on body surface area. In the current study body surface area in musk shrews was directly assessed to determine the Meeh constant (K m ) conversion factor (female = 9.97, male = 9.10), allowing estimation of body surface area based on body weight. These parameters can be used to determine dosing strategies for shrew studies that model human drug exposures, particularly for investigating the emetic liability of cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Dietary competition between the alien Asian Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus) and a re-introduced population of Telfair's Skink (Leiolopisma telfairii).

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    Brown, D S; Burger, R; Cole, N; Vencatasamy, D; Clare, E L; Montazam, A; Symondson, W O C

    2014-08-01

    Re-introduction of rare species to parts of their historical range is becoming increasingly important as a conservation strategy. Telfair's Skinks (Leiolopisma telfairii), once widespread on Mauritius, were until recently found only on Round Island. There it is vulnerable to stochastic events, including the introduction of alien predators that may either prey upon it or compete for food resources. Consequently, skinks have been introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, another small Mauritian island that has been cleared of rats. However, the island has been invaded by Asian Musk Shrews (Suncus murinus), a commensal species spread by man well beyond its natural Asian range. Our aim was to use next-generation sequencing to analyse the diets of the shrews and skinks to look for niche competition. DNA was extracted from skink faeces and from the stomach contents of shrews. Application of shrew- and skink-specific primers revealed no mutual predation. The DNA was then amplified using general invertebrate primers with tags to identify individual predators, and then sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. 119 prey MOTUs (molecular taxonomic units) were isolated, although none could be identified to species. Seeding of cladograms with known sequences allowed higher taxonomic assignments in some cases. Although most MOTUs were not shared by shrews and skinks, Pianka's niche overlap test showed significant prey overlap, suggesting potentially strong competition where food resources are limited. These results suggest that removal of the shrews from the island should remain a priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identification of the sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord that controls male reproductive function in the mouse and Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

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    Tamura, Kei; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Hirooka, Asuka; Takanami, Keiko; Oti, Takumi; Jogahara, Takamichi; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    Several regions of the brain and spinal cord control male reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system, located in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats, controls spinal centers to promote penile reflexes during male copulatory behavior. However, little information exists on the male-specific spinal GRP system in animals other than rats. The objective of this study was to examine the functional generality of the spinal GRP system in mammals using the Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus; suncus named as the laboratory strain), a specialized placental mammal model. Mice are also used for a representative model of small laboratory animals. We first isolated complementary DNA encoding GRP in suncus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that suncus preproGRP was clustered to an independent branch. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that GRP and its receptor mRNAs were both expressed in the lumbar spinal cord of suncus and mice. Immunohistochemistry for GRP demonstrated that the sexually dimorphic GRP system and male-specific expression/distribution patterns of GRP in the lumbosacral spinal cord in suncus are similar to those of mice. In suncus, we further found that most GRP-expressing neurons in males also express androgen receptors, suggesting that this male-dominant system in suncus is also androgen-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP system exists not only in mice but also in suncus, suggesting that this system is a conserved property in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1586-1598, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Profile of Antiemetic Activity of Netupitant Alone or in Combination with Palonosetron and Dexamethasone in Ferrets and Suncus murinus (house musk shrew

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    John A Rudd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed emesis involves the activation of multiple pathways, with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin playing a major role in the initial response. Substance P tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists can reduce emesis induced by disparate emetic challenges and therefore have a clinical utility as broad inhibitory anti-emetic drugs. In the present studies, we investigate the broad inhibitory anti-emetic profile of a relatively new NK1 receptor antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination with the long acting 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, palonosetron, for a potential to reduce emesis in ferrets and shrews.Materials and Methods: Ferrets were pretreated with netupitant and/or palonosetron, or their combination, and then administered apomorphine (0.125 mg/kg, s.c., morphine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c., ipecacuanha (1.2 mg/kg, p.o., copper sulphate (100 mg/kg, intragastric, or cisplatin (5-10 mg/kg, i.p.; in other studies netupitant was administered to Suncus murinus before motion (4 cm horizontal displacement, 2 Hz for 10 min.Results: Netupitant (3 mg/kg, p.o. abolished apomorphine-, morphine-, ipecacuanha- and copper sulphate-induced emesis. Lower doses of netupitant (0.03-0.3 mg/kg, p.o. dose-dependently reduced cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.-induced emesis in an acute (8 h model, and motion-induced emesis in Suncus murinus. In a ferret cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.-induced acute and delayed emesis model, netupitant administered once at 3 mg/kg, p.o., abolished the first 24 h response and reduced the 24-72 h response by 94.6 %; the reduction was markedly superior to the effect of a three times per day administration of ondansetron (1 mg/kg, i.p.. A single administration of netupitant (1 mg/kg, p.o. plus palonosetron (0.1 mg/kg, p.o. combined with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p., once per day, also significantly antagonized cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis and was comparable with a once-daily regimen of

  9. Spermatozoa of the shrew, Suncus murinus, undergo the acrosome reaction and then selectively kill cells in penetrating the cumulus oophorus.

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    Kaneko, T; Iida, H; Bedford, J M; Mōri, T

    2001-08-01

    In the musk shrew, Suncus murinus (and other shrews), the cumulus oophorus is ovulated as a discrete, compact, matrix-free ball of cells linked by specialized junctions. In examining how they penetrate the cumulus, Suncus spermatozoa were observed to first bind consistently by the ventral face over the acrosomal region to the exposed smooth surface of a peripheral cumulus cell. This was apparently followed by point fusions between the plasma and outer acrosomal membranes. Thereafter, spermatozoa without acrosomes were observed within cumulus cells that displayed signs of necrosis, as did some radially neighboring cumulus cells linked by zona adherens and gap junctions. Eventually, penetration of spermatozoa as far as the perizonal space around the zona pellucida left linear tracks of locally necrotic cells flanked by normal cumulus cells. Based on these and previous observations, we conclude that the acrosome reaction in Suncus is always induced by cumulus cells, and that reacted spermatozoa penetrate the cumulus by selective invasion and killing of cumulus cells along a linear track. Loss of the acrosome also exposes an apical body/perforatorium that is covered with barbs that appear to assist reacted fertilizing spermatozoa in binding to the zona pellucida. Because fertilized eggs displayed no other spermatozoa within or bound to the zona, an efficient block to polyspermy must prevent such binding of additional spermatozoa.

  10. Brain Activation by H1 Antihistamines Challenges Conventional View of Their Mechanism of Action in Motion Sickness: A Behavioral, c-Fos and Physiological Study in Suncus murinus (House Musk Shrew

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    Longlong Tu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Motion sickness occurs under a variety of circumstances and is common in the general population. It is usually associated with changes in gastric motility, and hypothermia, which are argued to be surrogate markers for nausea; there are also reports that respiratory function is affected. As laboratory rodents are incapable of vomiting, Suncus murinus was used to model motion sickness and to investigate changes in gastric myoelectric activity (GMA and temperature homeostasis using radiotelemetry, whilst also simultaneously investigating changes in respiratory function using whole body plethysmography. The anti-emetic potential of the highly selective histamine H1 receptor antagonists, mepyramine (brain penetrant, and cetirizine (non-brain penetrant, along with the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, were investigated in the present study. On isolated ileal segments from Suncus murinus, both mepyramine and cetirizine non-competitively antagonized the contractile action of histamine with pKb values of 7.5 and 8.4, respectively; scopolamine competitively antagonized the contractile action of acetylcholine with pA2 of 9.5. In responding animals, motion (1 Hz, 4 cm horizontal displacement, 10 min increased the percentage of the power of bradygastria, and decreased the percentage power of normogastria whilst also causing hypothermia. Animals also exhibited an increase in respiratory rate and a reduction in tidal volume. Mepyramine (50 mg/kg, i.p. and scopolamine (10 mg/kg, i.p., but not cetirizine (10 mg/kg, i.p., significantly antagonized motion-induced emesis but did not reverse the motion-induced disruptions of GMA, or hypothermia, or effects on respiration. Burst analysis of plethysmographic-derived waveforms showed mepyramine also had increased the inter-retch+vomit frequency, and emetic episode duration. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that motion alone did not induce c-fos expression in the brain. Paradoxically, mepyramine increased c

  11. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus in Bangladesh

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    Mizanur Rahman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus, a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (S. murinus in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth was 77.9% (67/86, with six species including nematodes (3, cestodes (2, and trematodes (1. Of the detected helminths, the dominant parasitic group was from the genus Hymenolepis spp. (59%, followed by Strongyloides spp. (17%, Capillaria spp. (10%, Physaloptera spp. (3%, and Echinostoma spp. (3%. Conclusion: The finding shows that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites (Hymenolepis spp. and Capillaria spp. in Asian house shrew is ubiquitous in all types of habitat (forest land, cropland and dwelling in Bangladesh. Therefore, further investigation is crucial to examine their role in the transmission of human helminthiasis.

  12. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in Bangladesh

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    Rahman, Mizanur; Islam, Shariful; Masuduzzaman, Md.; Alam, Mahabub; Chawdhury, Mohammad Nizam Uddin; Ferdous, Jinnat; Islam, Md. Nurul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Islam, Ariful

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aim Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus), a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (S. murinus) in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae. Results The overall prevalence of GI helminth was 77.9% (67/86), with six species including nematodes (3), cestodes (2), and trematodes (1). Of the detected helminths, the dominant parasitic group was from the genus Hymenolepis spp.(59%), followed by Strongyloides spp.(17%), Capillaria spp. (10%), Physaloptera spp. (3%), and Echinostoma spp.(3%). Conclusion The finding shows that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites (Hymenolepis spp. and Capillaria spp.) in Asian house shrew is ubiquitous in all types of habitat (forest land, cropland and dwelling) in Bangladesh. Therefore, further investigation is crucial to examine their role in the transmission of human helminthiasis. PMID:29805224

  13. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in Bangladesh.

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    Rahman, Mizanur; Islam, Shariful; Masuduzzaman, Md; Alam, Mahabub; Chawdhury, Mohammad Nizam Uddin; Ferdous, Jinnat; Islam, Md Nurul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Islam, Ariful

    2018-04-01

    Asian house shrew ( Suncus murinus ), a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew ( S. murinus ) in Bangladesh. A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae. The overall prevalence of GI helminth was 77.9% (67/86), with six species including nematodes (3), cestodes (2), and trematodes (1). Of the detected helminths, the dominant parasitic group was from the genus Hymenolepis spp.(59%), followed by Strongyloides spp.(17%), Capillaria spp. (10%), Physaloptera spp. (3%), and Echinostoma spp.(3%). The finding shows that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites (Hymenolepis spp. and Capillaria spp.) in Asian house shrew is ubiquitous in all types of habitat (forest land, cropland and dwelling) in Bangladesh. Therefore, further investigation is crucial to examine their role in the transmission of human helminthiasis.

  14. The Asian house shrew Suncus murinus as a reservoir and source of human outbreaks of plague in Madagascar.

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    Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Telfer, Sandra; Savin, Cyril; Carniel, Elisabeth; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-01

    Identifying key reservoirs for zoonoses is crucial for understanding variation in incidence. Plague re-emerged in Mahajanga, Madagascar in the 1990s but there has been no confirmed case since 1999. Here we combine ecological and genetic data, from during and after the epidemics, with experimental infections to examine the role of the shrew Suncus murinus in the plague epidemiological cycle. The predominance of S. murinus captures during the epidemics, their carriage of the flea vector and their infection with Yersinia pestis suggest they played an important role in the maintenance and transmission of plague. S. murinus exhibit a high but variable resistance to experimental Y. pestis infections, providing evidence of its ability to act as a maintenance host. Genetic analyses of the strains isolated from various hosts were consistent with two partially-linked transmission cycles, with plague persisting within the S. murinus population, occasionally spilling over into the rat and human populations. The recent isolation from a rat in Mahajanga of a Y. pestis strain genetically close to shrew strains obtained during the epidemics reinforces this hypothesis and suggests circulation of plague continues. The observed decline in S. murinus and Xenopsylla cheopis since the epidemics appears to have decreased the frequency of spillover events to the more susceptible rats, which act as a source of infection for humans. Although this may explain the lack of confirmed human cases in recent years, the current circulation of plague within the city highlights the continuing health threat.

  15. The Asian house shrew Suncus murinus as a reservoir and source of human outbreaks of plague in Madagascar.

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    Soanandrasana Rahelinirina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying key reservoirs for zoonoses is crucial for understanding variation in incidence. Plague re-emerged in Mahajanga, Madagascar in the 1990s but there has been no confirmed case since 1999. Here we combine ecological and genetic data, from during and after the epidemics, with experimental infections to examine the role of the shrew Suncus murinus in the plague epidemiological cycle. The predominance of S. murinus captures during the epidemics, their carriage of the flea vector and their infection with Yersinia pestis suggest they played an important role in the maintenance and transmission of plague. S. murinus exhibit a high but variable resistance to experimental Y. pestis infections, providing evidence of its ability to act as a maintenance host. Genetic analyses of the strains isolated from various hosts were consistent with two partially-linked transmission cycles, with plague persisting within the S. murinus population, occasionally spilling over into the rat and human populations. The recent isolation from a rat in Mahajanga of a Y. pestis strain genetically close to shrew strains obtained during the epidemics reinforces this hypothesis and suggests circulation of plague continues. The observed decline in S. murinus and Xenopsylla cheopis since the epidemics appears to have decreased the frequency of spillover events to the more susceptible rats, which act as a source of infection for humans. Although this may explain the lack of confirmed human cases in recent years, the current circulation of plague within the city highlights the continuing health threat.

  16. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

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    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  17. Neonatal DHT but not E2 speeds induction of sexual receptivity in the musk shrew.

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    Ewton, Tiffany A; Siboni, Ruth B; Jackson, Andrea; Freeman, Louise M

    2010-06-01

    Neural aromatization of testosterone (T) to estrogen during development is thought to be important for sexual differentiation of many altricial mammals. We evaluated the effects of neonatal injections of the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) and estradiol (E2) on the copulatory behavior of the female musk shrew, an altricial insectivore. Following adult ovariectomy and replacement T, animals were paired with a stimulus female for two 60-minute copulatory behavior tests. The latency to induce sexual receptivity (in the form of tail-wagging by the female), mount latency and total number of mounts were recorded in experimental females and in a group of untreated control males. While neither hormone treatment significantly affected mounting behavior, DHTP-treated animals induced receptivity faster and with latencies not significantly different from intact males, suggesting that early non-aromatizable androgens can have masculinizing actions by either increasing sexual motivation or making the treated animal more attractive to the stimulus female. Reliance on androgenic rather than estrogenic metabolites for the differentiation of courtship behaviors conforms to the pattern seen more typically in primates than rodents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral patterns associated with chemotherapy-induced emesis: A potential signature for nausea in musk shrews

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    Charles Christopher Horn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in preclinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, t-pattern (temporal pattern analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research to induce acute (< 24 h and delayed (> 24 h emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating and drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and

  19. Food restriction, refeeding, and gastric fill fail to affect emesis in musk shrews

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    Horn, Charles C.; Still, Liz; Fitzgerald, Christiana; Friedman, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Nausea and emesis are common side effects of gastrointestinal disease. Reports indicate that ghrelin and endocannabinoids, agents that stimulate appetite, also reduce emesis evoked by chemotherapy treatment, which suggests that stimulation of feeding inhibits the emetic system. In the following study we conducted a more direct test of this hypothesis by determining the impact of manipulating the motivation to eat on emesis, using food restriction and refeeding. Emesis was induced in musk shre...

  20. X-irradiation-induced emesis in Suncus murinus

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    Torii, Yoshifumi; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio; Shikita, Mikio.

    1993-01-01

    X-irradiation-induced emesis was investigated in Suncus murinus, a house musk shrew. Whole body X-irradiation caused emesis, and the calculated ED 50 value that induced emesis in 50% of animals was 429 cGy. At the irradiation dose of 800 cGy all the animals vomited 10.0±2.4 times with a latency of 20.0±2.9 min. The emetogenic effect of X-irradiation was dependent on the part of the body exposed. Abdominal X-irradiation at 1000 cGy caused emesis in all animals studied, whereas the same dose to the head had no emetogenic effect. We investigated several prophylactic methods against X-irradiation-induced emesis. Surgical vagotomy completely inhibited the emesis induced by 800 cGy X-irradiation. Emesis was also prevented by the subcutaneous administration of tropisetron (ICS 205-930, a selective serotonergic 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist) with an ID 50 value of 29 μg/kg. These results suggest that (1) suncus is a useful experimental animal for the study of radiation-induced emesis and the development of prophylactic drugs, (2) serotonin plays an important role in X-irradiation-induced emesis, and (3) X-irradiation-induced emesis is very similar to that caused by cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (author)

  1. Improved starch digestion of sucrase deficient shrews treated with oral glucoamylase enzyme supplements

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    Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with Congenita...

  2. Tactile Experience Shapes Prey-Capture Behavior in Etruscan Shrews

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    Michael eBrecht

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals is most but not all aspects similar to that of adults. Second we performed whisker trimming for three to four weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew’s normal (cricket prey and the thorax – the preferred point of attack in crickets – is protected a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior.

  3. Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Zhou, Run-Hong; Fan, Fei-Neng; Ying, Xu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Wen; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-08-30

    The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dermal absorption and disposition of musk ambrette, musk ketone and musk xylene in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, David R; Elsom, Lionel F; Kirkpatrick, David; Ford, Richard A; Api, Anne Marie

    2002-05-28

    Musk ambrette, musk ketone and musk xylene have a long history of use as fragrance ingredients, although musk ambrette is no longer used in fragrances. As part of the review of the safety of these uses, it is important to consider the systemic exposure that results from these uses. Since the primary route of exposure to fragrances is on the skin, dermal doses of carbon-14 labelled musk ambrette, musk ketone and musk xylene were applied to the backs (100 cm2) of healthy human volunteers (two to three subjects) at a nominal dose level of 10-20 microg/cm2 and excess material removed at 6 h. Means of 2.0% musk ambrette, 0.5% musk ketone and 0.3% musk xylene were absorbed based on the amounts excreted in urine and faeces during 5 days. Most of the material was excreted in the urine with less than 10% of the amount excreted being found in faeces. No radioactivity was detected in any plasma sample, consistent with low absorption, and no radioactivity was detected (<0.02% dose) in skin strips taken at 120 h. Analysis of urine samples indicated that all three compounds were excreted mainly as single glucuronide conjugates. The aglycones were chromatographically different, but of similar polarity, to the major rat metabolites excreted in bile also as glucuronides.

  5. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap......, our results indicate that pitfall traps are the most efficient for capturing shrews: not only do they have a higher efficiency (yield), but the taxonomic diversity of shrews is also higher when pitfall traps are used....

  6. Elon Musk, een visionaire ondernemer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir.ing. Ruud Thelosen

    2016-01-01

    Deze biografie van de nog vrij jonge ondernemer en maatschappijvernieuwer Elon Musk is een bijzonder boek over een bijzondere man. Musk beschikt over uitzonderlijke gaven en heeft deze ook sterk ontwikkeld. Daarnaast realiseert hij zijn diepste dromen, die misschien wel leiden tot een Marskolonie.

  7. Prevalence of zoonotic Bartonella species among rodents and shrews in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangjai, Decha; Maruyama, Soichi; Boonmar, Sumalee; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Nimsuphan, Burin; Petkanchanapong, Wimol; Wootta, Wattanapong; Wangroongsarb, Piyada; Boonyareth, Maskiet; Preedakoon, Poom; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella species in 10 rodent and one shrew species in Thailand. From February 2008 to May 2010, a total of 375 small animals were captured in 9 provinces in Thailand. Bartonella strains were isolated from 57 rodents (54 from Rattus species and 3 from Bandicota indica) and one shrew (Suncus murinus) in 7 of the 9 provinces, and identified to the species level. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase and RNA polymerase β subunit genes identified the 58 isolates from each Bartonella-positive animal as B. tribocorum in 27 (46.6%) animals, B. rattimassiliensis in 17 (29.3%) animals, B. elizabethae in 10 (17.2%) animals and B. queenslandensis in 4 (6.9%) animals. R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and Suncus murinus carried B. elizabethae, which causes endocarditis in humans. The prevalence of Bartonella bacteremic animals by province was 42.9% of the animals collected in Phang Nga, 26.8% in Chiang Rai, 20.4% in Sa Kaeo, 16.7% in Nakhon Si Thammarat, 12.0% in Surat Thani, 9.1% in Mae Hong Son and Loei Provinces. These results indicate that Bartonella organisms are widely distributed in small mammals in Thailand and some animal species may serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella species in the country. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Lin, Xian-Dan [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Wen [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Shi, Mang [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Wen-Ping [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Xiao-He [Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xing, Jian-Guang [Wencheng Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel arenavirus harbored by Rodents and Shrews in Zhejiang province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Shi, Mang; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-He; Xing, Jian-Guang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the biodiversity of arenaviruses in China, we captured and screened rodents and shrews in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province, a locality where hemorrhagic fever diseases are endemic in humans. Accordingly, arenaviruses were detected in 42 of 351 rodents from eight species, and in 12 of 272 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus), by RT-PCR targeting the L segment. From these, a single arenavirus was successfully isolated in cell culture. The virion particles exhibited a typical arenavirus morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Comparison of the S and L segment sequences revealed high levels of nucleotide (>32.2% and >39.6%) and amino acid (>28.8% and >43.8%) sequence differences from known arenaviruses, suggesting that it represents a novel arenavirus, which we designated Wenzhou virus (WENV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all WENV strains harbored by both rodents and Asian house shrews formed a distinct lineage most closely related to Old World arenaviruses. - Highlights: • A novel arenavirus (Wenzhou virus) was identified in Zhejiang province, China. • The virus is highly circulating in five species of rats and one species of shrews • More efforts are needed to infer whether it is pathogenic to humans or not

  10. Improved Starch Digestion of Sucrase-deficient Shrews Treated With Oral Glucoamylase Enzyme Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Buford L; Avery, Stephen E; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Kilani, Shadi B; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Burrin, Douglas G; Hodges, Benjamin E; Chacko, Shaji K; Opekun, Antone R; Hindawy, Marwa El; Hamaker, Bruce R; Oda, Sen-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase-deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, 2 α-amylases (Amy), and 4 mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose. Amy breaks down insoluble starch to soluble dextrins; mucosal Mgam and Si can either directly digest starch to glucose or convert the post-α-amylolytic dextrins to glucose. Starch digestion is reduced because of sucrase deficiency and oral glucoamylase enzyme supplement can correct the starch maldigestion. The aim of the present study was to measure glucogenesis in suc/suc shrews after feeding of starch and improvement of glucogenesis by oral glucoamylase supplements. Sucrase mutant (suc/suc) and heterozygous (+/suc) shrews were fed with C-enriched starch diets. Glucogenesis derived from starch was measured as blood C-glucose enrichment and oral recombinant C-terminal Mgam glucoamylase (M20) was supplemented to improve starch digestion. After feedings, suc/suc and +/suc shrews had different starch digestions as shown by blood glucose enrichment and the suc/suc had lower total glucose concentrations. Oral supplements of glucoamylase increased suc/suc total blood glucose and quantitative starch digestion to glucose. Sucrase deficiency, in this model of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, reduces blood glucose response to starch feeding. Supplementing the diet with oral recombinant glucoamylase significantly improved starch digestion in the sucrase-deficient shrew.

  11. Postnatal development of EEG patterns, catecholamine contents and myelination, and effect of hyperthyroidism in Suncus brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Sitizyo, K; Harada, E

    1998-03-01

    The postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) in house musk shrew in the early stage of maturation was studied. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) in association with catecholamine contents and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunoreactivity were carried out from the 1st to the 20th day of postnatal age. Different EEG patterns which were specific to behavioral states (awake and drowsy) were first recorded on the 5th day, and the total power which was obtained by power spectrum analysis increased after this stage. The latencies of all peaks in VEP markedly shortened between the 5th and the 7th day. Noradrenalin (NA) content of the brain showed a slight increase after the 3rd day, and reached maximum levels on the 7th day, which was delayed a few days compared to dopamine (DA). In hyperthyroidism, the peak latency of VEP was shortened and biosynthesis of NA in cerebral cortex and DA in hippocampus was accelerated. The most obvious change in MBP-immunoreactivity of the telencephalon occurred from the 7th to the 10th day. These morphological changes in the brain advanced at the identical time-course to those in the electrophysiological development and increment of DA and NA contents.

  12. Synthetic musk fragrances in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2004-01-15

    Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.

  13. Classification of Suncus murinus species complex (Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in Peninsular Malaysia using image analysis and machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Arpah; Leow, Lee Kien; Ramli, Rosli; Omar, Hasmahzaiti

    2016-12-22

    Taxonomists frequently identify specimen from various populations based on the morphological characteristics and molecular data. This study looks into another invasive process in identification of house shrew (Suncus murinus) using image analysis and machine learning approaches. Thus, an automated identification system is developed to assist and simplify this task. In this study, seven descriptors namely area, convex area, major axis length, minor axis length, perimeter, equivalent diameter and extent which are based on the shape are used as features to represent digital image of skull that consists of dorsal, lateral and jaw views for each specimen. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used as classifier to classify the skulls of S. murinus based on region (northern and southern populations of Peninsular Malaysia) and sex (adult male and female). Thus, specimen classification using Training data set and identification using Testing data set were performed through two stages of ANNs. At present, the classifier used has achieved an accuracy of 100% based on skulls' views. Classification and identification to regions and sexes have also attained 72.5%, 87.5% and 80.0% of accuracy for dorsal, lateral, and jaw views, respectively. This results show that the shape characteristic features used are substantial because they can differentiate the specimens based on regions and sexes up to the accuracy of 80% and above. Finally, an application was developed and can be used for the scientific community. This automated system demonstrates the practicability of using computer-assisted systems in providing interesting alternative approach for quick and easy identification of unknown species.

  14. The Taming of the Shrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.

    1996-11-01

    Considering the extreme complexity of the turbulence problem in general and the unattainability of first-principles analytical solutions in particular, it is not surprising that controlling a turbulent flow remains a challenging task, mired in empiricism and unfulfilled promises and aspirations. Brute force suppression, or taming, of turbulence via active control strategies is always possible, but the penalty for doing so often exceeds any potential savings. The artifice is to achieve a desired effect with minimum energy expenditure. Spurred by the recent developments in chaos control, microfabrication and neural networks, efficient reactive control of turbulent flows, where the control input is optimally adjusted based on feedforward or feedback measurements, is now in the realm of the possible for future practical devices. But regardless of how the problem is approached, combating turbulence is always as arduous as the taming of the shrew. The former task will be emphasized during the oral presentation, but for this abstract we reflect on a short verse from the latter. From William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Curtis (Petruchio's servant, in charge of his country house): Is she so hot a shrew as she's reported? Grumio (Petruchio's personal lackey): She was, good Curtis, before this frost. But thou know'st winter tames man, woman, and beast; for it hath tamed my old master, and my new mistress, and myself, fellow Curtis.

  15. Behavioral patterns associated with chemotherapy-induced emesis: A potential signature for nausea in musk shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Christopher Horn; Charles Christopher Horn; Charles Christopher Horn; Charles Christopher Horn; Séverine eHenry; Kelly eMeyers; Magnus S. Magnusson

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in preclinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show ...

  16. Behavioral Patterns Associated with Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis: A Potential Signature for Nausea in Musk Shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Charles C.; Henry, Séverine; Meyers, Kelly; Magnusson, Magnus S.

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in pre-clinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show...

  17. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  18. Abundance & distribution of trombiculid mites & Orientia tsutsugamushi, the vectors & pathogen of scrub typhus in rodents & shrews collected from Puducherry & Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candasamy, Sadanandane; Ayyanar, Elango; Paily, Kummankottil; Karthikeyan, Patricia Anitha; Sundararajan, Agatheswaran; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2016-12-01

    Human cases of scrub typhus are reported every year from Puducherry and adjoining areas in southern India. However, information on the presence of causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, and its vectors is lacking. Hence, the objective of the study was to find out the vector as well as pathogen distribution in rodents and shrews present in the scrub typhus-reported areas in southern India. Trombiculid mites were collected by combing rats and shrews collected using Sherman traps and identified to species level following standard taxonomical keys. The serum samples of the animals were used for Weil-Felix test and the clots containing blood cells were used for DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 181 animals comprising four rodent species and one shrew species were collected from 12 villages. High proportion of chiggers was collected from the shrew, Suncus murinus (79.1%) and Rattus rattus (47.6%). A total of 10,491 trombiculid mites belonging to nine species were collected. Leptotrombidium deliense, the known vector of scrub typhus pathogen, was the predominant species (71.0%) and the chigger (L. deliense) index was 41.1 per animal. Of the 50 animals screened for the pathogen, 28 showed agglutination against OX-K in Weil-Felix test indicating the presence of antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus. PCR carried out with the DNA extracted from blood samples of two of the animals were positive for GroEl gene of O. tsutsugamushi. L. deliense index was well above the critical limit of chigger load, indicating that all the villages were receptive for high risk of transmission of scrub typhus to human. Pathogen positivity was higher among animals collected from villages recorded for higher chigger indices due to active transmission between the chigger mites and reservoir host animals. The results are suggestive of routine vector/pathogen surveillance at hot spots to initiate timely preventive measures.

  19. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN AQUATIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conducted a one-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota from Lake Mead (Nevada) as well as from combined sewage effluent streams feeding Lake Mead. Presented are the overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the significance of synthetic musk compounds in the aquatic environment. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than p

  20. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabo

  1. Infantile Onset Myasthenia Gravis with MuSK Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A late infantile case of myasthenia gravis (MG with anti-muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK high antibody (Ab titer is reported from Kyushu University, Fukuoka; and Nagasaki University, Japan.

  2. Elon Musk – riskanter Milliardenpoker um Tesla & Co.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipp, Reto

    2017-01-01

    Interview von Reto Lipp mit Peter Leibfried (SRF ECO): Von seinen Fans wird er wie ein Rockstar gefeiert. Ob Tesla, Solar City oder SpaceX, Elon Musk will die Welt revolutionieren. Doch seine Visionen verschlingen Unsummen. Bisher ist es ihm stets gelungen, neue Gelder zu mobilisieren und bei Bedarf Millionenbeträge zwischen seinen Unternehmen hin und her zu schieben. Doch das Firmenimperium lebt von riesigen Erwartungen der Investoren. Kann Elon Musk sie nicht einlösen, droht der Kollaps.

  3. Common tree shrews and primates share leukocyte membrane antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Letvin, N L

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human peripheral blood lymphocyte and myeloid cell surface antigens were utilized to study the phylogeny of the common tree shrew. Blood cells from the common tree shrew, but not the bat or short-tailed shrew, react with certain of these antibodies. These data strengthen the argument that the Tupaiidae are primitive primates rather than insectivores. They also indicate that this approach should be useful for further work in taxonomic systemization.

  4. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  5. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, William D.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB...

  6. Concentrations and assessment of exposure to siloxanes and synthetic musks in personal care products from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Yuan Tao; Wang Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations and profiles of 15 siloxanes (four cyclic siloxanes, D 4 -D 7 ; 11 linear siloxanes, L 4 -L 14 ), four synthetic musks (two polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN; two nitro musks, MX and MK), and HHCB-lactone, in 158 personal care products marketed in China. Siloxanes were detected in 88% of the samples analyzed, at concentrations as high as 52.6 mg g -1 ; Linear siloxanes were the predominant compounds. Among synthetic musks, more than 80% of the samples contained at least one of these compounds, and their total concentrations were as high as 1.02 mg g -1 . HHCB was the predominant musk in all of the samples analyzed, on average, accounting for 52% of the total musk concentrations. Based on the median concentrations of siloxanes and musks and the average daily usage amounts of consumer products, dermal exposure rates in adults were calculated to be 3.69 and 3.38 mg d -1 for siloxanes and musks, respectively. - Highlights: → Siloxanes and synthetic musks are determined in personal care products. → Highest siloxane concentration was 52.6 mg g -1 . → Highest musk concentration was 1.02 mg g -1 . → Daily dermal exposure rates of siloxanes and musks were in mg levels. → Dermal exposure is a major pathway of human exposure to siloxanes and musks. - Dermal application of several personal care products is a major source of human exposure to cyclic and linear siloxanes.

  7. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radosa, L.; Schlegel, M.; Gebauer, P.; Ansorge, H.; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, M.; Mošanský, L.; Fričová, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Groschup, M. H.; Krüger, D. H.; Ulrich, R. G.; Klempa, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2013), s. 403-410 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * shrew Sorex minutus * Asikkala virus * Cental Europe Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  8. DETERMINATION OF A BOUND MUSK XYLENE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk xylene (MX) is widely used as a fragrance ingredient in commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (AMX) metabolite was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Detection of AMX occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolite, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released AMX metabolite was extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. The concentration of AMX metabolite was found to range from 6.0 to 30.6 ng/g in the carp Hb, collected from the Las Vegas Wash and Lake Mead, Nevada areas. The presence of an AMX metabolite in the carp Hb was confirmed when similar mass spectral features and the same retention time of the AMX metabolite were obtained for both standard AMX and carp Hb extract solutions. In the non-hydrolyzed and reagent blank extracts, the AMX metabolite was not detected. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers,

  9. The relative host status of rock elephant shrews Elephantulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-10-18

    Oct 18, 1991 ... rocky terrain, occur in South Africa (Smithers 1983) and the distribution of ... elephant shrews on northern and on southern slopes on the farm 'Preezfon- .... this has caused paralysis in Angora goat kids (Fourie et al. 1988a).

  10. Steroid profile and IRMS analysis of musk administration for doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhu; He, Yi; Liu, Xin; Yang, Zhiyong; Yang, Wenning

    2017-11-01

    Musk, the dried secretion of the musk pod (sac) of adult male musk deer, has been used as traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China and south-east Asian countries for thousands of years. Due to the anabolic steroid component in this TCM, musk preparations have been included in the list of medical products containing prohibited substances employed for doping by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The application of musk pod formulation was claimed to be responsible for some adverse analytical findings (AAFs) in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. Our preliminary study has suggested that musk ingestion did not lead to AAFs of doping control with the single dosage of 100 mg. However, the influences of musk administration in large and multi dosage are still unclear. The aim of this study is to further investigate the influences of musk administration for doping control. Wild and domestic deer musk samples were collected. The concentrations and δ 13 C-values of steroids in musk were analyzed. In an excretion study, 200 and 100 mg of wild and domestic deer musk samples were administrated by 29 subjects, respectively. Fluctuations in steroid profile could be observed, and the ratio of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol to 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol was more sensitive than other parameters. In the IRMS test, the ∆Δδ 13 C-value between endogenous reference compound and etiocholanolone was a sensitive parameter, and AAFs were obtained. It is the first time to confirm with excretion study that musk administration could lead to positive result of doping control. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Concentrations and assessment of exposure to siloxanes and synthetic musks in personal care products from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Yuan Tao; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-12-15

    We investigated the concentrations and profiles of 15 siloxanes (four cyclic siloxanes, D{sub 4}-D{sub 7}; 11 linear siloxanes, L{sub 4}-L{sub 14}), four synthetic musks (two polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN; two nitro musks, MX and MK), and HHCB-lactone, in 158 personal care products marketed in China. Siloxanes were detected in 88% of the samples analyzed, at concentrations as high as 52.6 mg g{sup -1}; Linear siloxanes were the predominant compounds. Among synthetic musks, more than 80% of the samples contained at least one of these compounds, and their total concentrations were as high as 1.02 mg g{sup -1}. HHCB was the predominant musk in all of the samples analyzed, on average, accounting for 52% of the total musk concentrations. Based on the median concentrations of siloxanes and musks and the average daily usage amounts of consumer products, dermal exposure rates in adults were calculated to be 3.69 and 3.38 mg d{sup -1} for siloxanes and musks, respectively. - Highlights: > Siloxanes and synthetic musks are determined in personal care products. > Highest siloxane concentration was 52.6 mg g{sup -1}. > Highest musk concentration was 1.02 mg g{sup -1}. > Daily dermal exposure rates of siloxanes and musks were in mg levels. > Dermal exposure is a major pathway of human exposure to siloxanes and musks. - Dermal application of several personal care products is a major source of human exposure to cyclic and linear siloxanes.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  13. The Formation and Extinction of Fear Memory in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujiang eShang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear is an emotion that is well studied due to its importance for animal survival. Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, have been widely used to model fear. However, higher animals such as nonhuman primates have rarely been used to study fear due to ethical issues and high costs. Tree shrews are small mammals that are closely related to primates; they have been used to model human-related psychosocial conditions such as stress and alcohol tolerance. Here, we describe an experimental paradigm to study the formation and extinction of fear memory in tree shrews. We designed an experimental apparatus of a light/dark box with a voltage foot shock. We found that tree shrews preferred staying in the dark box in the daytime without stimulation and showed avoidance to voltage shocks applied to the footplate in a voltage-dependent manner. Foot shocks applied to the dark box for 5 days (10 minutes per day effectively reversed the light–dark preference of the tree shrews, and this memory lasted for more than 50 days without any sign of memory decay (extinction in the absence of further stimulation. However, this fear memory was reversed with 4 days of reverse training by applying the same stimulus to the light box. When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. Thus, our results describe an efficient method of monitoring fear memory formation and extinction in tree shrews.

  14. Identification of Bound Nitro Musk-Protein Adduct in Fish Liver By Gas Chromatography-Mass Sectrometry: Biotransformation, Dose-Response and Toxicokinetics of Nitro Musk Metabolites Protein Adducts in Trout Liver as Biomarker of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubiquitous occurrences of synthetic nitro musks are evident in the literature. The In vivo analysis of musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) - protein adducts in trout liver have been performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS). Bio...

  15. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri as a novel laboratory disease animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri is a promising laboratory animal that possesses a closer genetic relationship to primates than to rodents. In addition, advantages such as small size, easy breeding, and rapid reproduction make the tree shrew an ideal subject for the study of human disease. Numerous tree shrew disease models have been generated in biological and medical studies in recent years. Here we summarize current tree shrew disease models, including models of infectious diseases, cancers, depressive disorders, drug addiction, myopia, metabolic diseases, and immune-related diseases. With the success of tree shrew transgenic technology, this species will be increasingly used in biological and medical studies in the future.

  16. FORMATION OF NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT HEMOGLOBIN FOR POTENTIAL USE AS BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high use of nitro musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) as fragrances, and their persistence and bioaccumulation potential make them ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The 4-amino-MX (AMX) and 2-amino-MK (AMK) metabolites have been detected in trout fish hemoglobin (Hb) s...

  17. The Role of Musk in Relieving the Neurodegenerative Changes Induced After Exposure to Chronic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Wahab, Manal Galal; Ali, Soad Shaker; Ayuob, Nasra Naeim

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect induced by musk on Alzheimer's disease-such as neurodegenerative changes in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups (n = 10); control, CUMS, CUMS + fluoxetine, CUMS + musk. At the end of the experiment, behavior of the mice was assessed. Serum corticosterone level, hippocampal protein level of the glucocorticoid receptors, and brain-derived neurotropic factor were also assessed. Hippocampus was histopathologically examined. Musk improved depressive status induced after exposure to CUMS as evidenced by the forced swimming and open field tests and improved the short-term memory as evidenced by the elevated plus maze test. Musk reduced both corticosterone levels and the hippocampal neurodegenerative changes observed after exposure to CUMS. These improvements were comparable to those induced by fluoxetine. Musk alleviated the memory impairment and neurodegenerative changes induced after exposure to the chronic stress.

  18. Discovery of Novel Alphacoronaviruses in European Rodents and Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Tsoleridis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight hundred and thirteen European rodents and shrews encompassing seven different species were screened for alphacoronaviruses using PCR detection. Novel alphacoronaviruses were detected in the species Rattus norvegicus, Microtus agrestis, Sorex araneus and Myodes glareolus. These, together with the recently described Lucheng virus found in China, form a distinct rodent/shrew-specific clade within the coronavirus phylogeny. Across a highly conserved region of the viral polymerase gene, the new members of this clade were up to 22% dissimilar at the nucleotide level to the previously described Lucheng virus. As such they might represent distinct species of alphacoronaviruses. These data greatly extend our knowledge of wildlife reservoirs of alphacoronaviruses.

  19. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN: DETERMINATION BY GC WITH TWO MS DETECTION MODES: EIMS VERSUS ELECTRON CAPTURE NEGEATIVE ION MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensi...

  20. New status for two African giant forest shrews, Crocidura goliath ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New status for two African giant forest shrews, Crocidura goliath goliath and C. ... that C. g. nimbasilvanus is the sister taxon of C. nimbae, a species also endemic to ... Crocidura g. goliath is part of the C. olivieri group and closely related to C.

  1. First records of smoky shrew (sorex fumeus) in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary Felix; Lisa J. Gatens; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2009-01-01

    Conserving biodiversity in the southeastern United States begins with documenting the distribution and natural history of all taxa. Using pitfall traps between March 2005 and January 2006, we collected the fi rst Sorex fumeus (Smoky Shrew) specimens (44) from Alabama on the Cumberland Plateau in the northeastern portion of the state....

  2. Preliminary report of shrews and rodents in and around Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys during October 2004 and July 2005, in and around Lake Bogoria National Reserve, Kenya, collected evidence of nine rodent species, and one species of shrew. The diversity of small mammals live-trapped within a single habitat type was low compared to similar studies in Africa. The low diversity may be due to the ...

  3. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  4. Synthetic musk fragrances in urban and rural air of Iowa and the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    Synthetic musk fragrances are semivolatile organic compounds used to scent a variety of household and personal care products. In this study, six polycyclic musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN, ATII, AHMI, ADBI, and DPMI) and two nitro musk fragrances (musk xylene and musk ketone) were evaluated in 181 air samples collected at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Iowa and the Great Lakes. This is the largest reported study of the compounds in ambient air and reveals the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants. HHCB and AHTN were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations at all sites. Synthetic musk fragrance concentrations were highest in urban locations, including Milwaukee, WI (previously reported) and an urban location in Cedar Rapids, IA. Urban concentrations of HHCB and AHTN are on the order of 1-5 ng m -3 and background terrestrial concentrations are about an order of magnitude less. In rural Iowa, the concentrations and frequency of detection of the synthetic musk fragrances are comparable to (and often greater than) gas-phase pesticide concentrations. The concentrations measured at the suburban location in Iowa City, IA and over the Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan were generally intermediate of those measured at the rural and urban locations. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN were correlated with temperature at the sampling sites in Iowa.

  5. Characterization of CD4 and CD8 T Cell Responses in MuSK Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, JS; Guidon, A; Sparks, S; Osborne, R; Juel, VC; Massey, JM; Sanders, DB; Weinhold, KJ; Guptill, JT

    2014-01-01

    Muscle specific tyrosine kinase myasthenia gravis (MuSK MG) is a form of autoimmune MG that predominantly affects women and has unique clinical features, including prominent bulbar weakness, muscle atrophy, and excellent response to therapeutic plasma exchange. Patients with MuSK MG have predominantly IgG4 autoantibodies directed against MuSK on the postsynaptic muscle membrane. Lymphocyte functionality has not been reported in this condition. The goal of this study was to characterize T-cell responses in patients with MuSK MG. Intracellular production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-21 by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells was measured by polychromatic flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples from 11 Musk MG patients and 10 healthy controls. Only one MuSK MG patient was not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Regulatory T-cells (Treg) were also included in our analysis to determine if changes in T cell function were due to altered Treg frequencies. CD8+ T-cells from MuSK MG patients had higher frequencies of polyfunctional responses than controls, and CD4+ T-cells had higher IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IL-17. MuSK MG patients had a higher percentage of CD4+ T-cells producing combinations of IFN-gamma/IL-2/TNF-gamma, TNF-alpha/IL-2, and IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha. Interestingly, Treg numbers and CD39 expression were not different from control values. MuSK MG patients had increased frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cytokines and were primed for polyfunctional proinflammatory responses that cannot be explained by a defect in Treg function or number. PMID:24378287

  6. Phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to Glires is attributed to fast evolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiannan; Chen, Guangfeng; Gu, Liang; Shen, Yuefeng; Zheng, Meizhu; Zheng, Weisheng; Hu, Xinjie; Zhang, Xiaobai; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Cizhong

    2014-02-01

    Previous phylogenetic analyses have led to incongruent evolutionary relationships between tree shrews and other suborders of Euarchontoglires. What caused the incongruence remains elusive. In this study, we identified 6845 orthologous genes between seventeen placental mammals. Tree shrews and Primates were monophyletic in the phylogenetic trees derived from the first or/and second codon positions whereas tree shrews and Glires formed a monophyly in the trees derived from the third or all codon positions. The same topology was obtained in the phylogeny inference using the slowly and fast evolving genes, respectively. This incongruence was likely attributed to the fast substitution rate in tree shrews and Glires. Notably, sequence GC content only was not informative to resolve the controversial phylogenetic relationships between tree shrews, Glires, and Primates. Finally, estimation in the confidence of the tree selection strongly supported the phylogenetic affiliation of tree shrews to Primates as a monophyly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

  8. [Three dimensional structure of the connective tissue papillae of the tongue in Suncus murinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miyata, K; Iwasaki, S; Takahashi, K

    1989-08-01

    The surface structure of the connective tissue papillae (CP) of Suncus murinus tongue was observed by SEM after fixing with Karnovsky's fixative and removal of the epithelial cell layer with 3N or 8N HCl. On the surface of the slender conical tongue, there are densely distributed filiform papillae among which fungiform papillae are seen sporadically. A pair of vallate papillae are situated in the posterior region of the tongue. Filiform papillae appear somewhat different externally depending on the dorsal surface of the anterior tongue. At the tip of the tongue, filiform papillae are of a slender conical shape and have a slight depression in the anterior basal portion. The CP of these is seen as a spherical protrusion on which a shallow groove runs in the anteroposterior direction. In the middle region, somewhat large filiform papillae contain CP having one or two small round head-like structures on each spherical protrusion. These head-like structures are increased in number in the posterior region. In the most posterior region of the anterior tongue, there are distributed large filiform papillae having several slender protrusions that surround a basal anterior depression. These large branched filiform papillae have a glove finger like CP. Small conical filiform papillae are distributed in the posterior marginal region of the anterior tongue which have CP of a horse-shoe like protrusion that opens in the anterior direction. Spherical fungiform papillae have CP which are thick columnar in shape with many lateral thin folds running vertically and having a round depression on the top of each. CP of the vallate papillae appear as a beehive like structure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Effects of four synthetic musks on the life cycle of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitholtz, M.; Wollenberger, Leah; Dinan, L.

    2003-01-01

    A full life-cycle (:! 26 days exposure) toxicity test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes was used to study the effects of one nitro musk (musk ketone) as well as three polycyclic musks (Tonalide(TM), Celestolide(TM) and Galaxolide(TM)). A subchronic individual life-table endpoint......, the larval development rate, was recorded after 7-8 days exposure of juveniles and was significantly decreased in copepods exposed to sublethal concentrations of musk ketone, Celestolide(TM) and Galaxolide(TM). However, none of the Tonalide(TM) concentrations had any effect on larval development. The lowest...... significantly affected r(m) (***P copepods were dead at the end of the exposures. This shows that a sensitive individual life-table endpoint is protective over the population-level endpoint r(m). Though we think...

  10. Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by four synthetic musk substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Breitholtz, M.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2003-01-01

    A nitro musk (musk ketone). and three polycyclic musks (Tonalide(TM), Galaxolide(TM) and Celestolide(TM)) were tested for acute and subchronic effects on a marine crustacean, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Sublethal effects on A. tonsa larvae were investigated with a rapid and cost effective...... bioassay, which is based on the easily detectable morphological change from the last nauplius to the first copepodite stage during copepod larval development. The inhibition of larval development after 5 days exposure was a very sensitive endpoint, with 5-d-EC(50)-values as low as 0.026 mg/l (Tonalide...... of synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental pollutants. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights...

  11. Synthetic Musk fragrances in Trout from Danish fish farms and human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Pedersen, K. H.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic musk compounds used in detergents and cosmetics include nitro and polycyclic musk compounds. These compounds are discharged after use via domestic wastewater and sewage treatment plants to the aquatic environment. Quantitative detection of nitro musk and polycyclic musk compounds by GC....../HRMS in Danish farmed trout and human milk from primiparous mothers are reported. The polycyclic musk, HHCB, dominated the synthetic musk compounds found in trout samples from 1999 with a median concentration of 5.0 mu g/kg fresh weight (n.d.-52.6 mu g/kg fresh weight) and in trout samples collected in 2003....../kg fresh weight in 1999 and to a median less than the detection limit (0.23 mu g/kg fresh weight) in 2003. HHCB also dominated in Danish human milk samples collected in 1999 with a median concentration of 147 mu g/kg fat (38.0-422 mu g/kg fat). Human dietary intake assessment and body burden calculations...

  12. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW W RICE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei, which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry, and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  13. Architectonic subdivisions of neocortex in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2009-01-01

    Tree shrews are small mammals that bear some semblance to squirrels, but are actually close relatives of primates. Thus, they have been extensively studied as a model for the early stages of primate evolution. In the present study, subdivisions of cortex were reconstructed from brain sections cut in the coronal, sagittal or horizontal planes, and processed for parvalbumin (PV), SMI-32 immunopositive neurofilament protein epitopes, vesicle glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), free ionic zinc, mye...

  14. Novelties of conception in insectivorous mammals (Lipotyphla), particularly shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J Michael; Mock, Orin B; Goodman, Steven M

    2004-11-01

    In the order Lipotyphla (Insectivora), certain reproductive features differ quite distinctly from the eutherian norms, and are of interest with regard to the evolution of mammalian gamete function and perhaps for questions of lipotyphlan phylogeny. As seen in one or more members of five lipotyphlan families (shrews, moles, hedgehogs, golden moles, tenrecs), these features can involve the configuration of the male tract including the penis, the morphology of the sperm head, the anatomy of the oviduct and the patterns of sperm transport within it, the character of the cumulus oophorus, and the way in which fertilising spermatozoa interact with the eggs. However, the picture is by no means uniform within the order. Reproductive idiosyncrasies occur variously in the different lipotyphlan families, and appear consistently and strikingly in shrews--the group studied most extensively. Compared to the patterns in most Eutheria, the most interesting anomalies in soricids include (a) the regulation of sperm transport to the site of fertilisation by oviduct crypts, whose arrangement can vary even according to species, (b) a circumscribed matrix-free cumulus oophorus that appears essential for fertilisation as the inducer of the acrosome reaction, (c) barbs on the acrosome-reacted sperm head by which it may attach to the zona pellucida. With regard to the bearing such reproductive traits might have on lipotyphlan systematics, the African mouse shrew (Myosorex varius) displays a mix of traits that characterize either crocidurine or soricine shrews, consistent with the proposal that it belongs in a more primitive tribe, Myosoricinae, or subfamily, the Crocidosoricinae, from which the crocidurine and soricine lines probably evolved. Moreover, although elephant shrews are assigned now to a separate order (Macroscelidea), they display several of the unusual reproductive features seen in lipotyphlans, particularly in chrysochlorids and tenrecs. On the other hand, if used as a

  15. Captures of Crawford's gray shrews (Notiosorex crawfordi) along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Heather L. Bateman; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    We captured >2000 Crawford's gray shrews (Notiosorex crawfordi) in a riparian forest mainly consisting of cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico. Little has been published about abundance and habitat of Crawford's gray shrew throughout its distributional range. During 7 summers, we...

  16. Inputs and distributions of synthetic musk fragrances in an estuarine and coastal environment; a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Nicola R. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Science, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Guitart, Carlos, E-mail: guitart.carlos@gmail.co [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Fuentes, Gustavo [Instituto Universitario de Tecnologia del Mar (IUTEMAR), Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Margarita Island (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Readman, James W. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Synthetic musks are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Compartmental distributions (dissolved, suspended particle associated and sedimentary) of the compounds throughout an axial estuarine transect and in coastal waters are reported. High concentrations of Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) (987-2098 ng/L and 55-159 ng/L, respectively) were encountered in final effluent samples from sewage treatment plants (STPs) discharging into the Tamar and Plym Estuaries (UK), with lower concentrations of Celestolide (ADBI) (4-13 ng/L), Phantolide (AHMI) (6-9 ng/L), musk xylene (MX) (4-7 ng/L) and musk ketone (MK) (18-30 ng/L). Rapid dilution from the outfalls is demonstrated with resulting concentrations of HHCB spanning from 5 to 30 ng/L and those for AHTN from 3 to 15 ng/L. The other musks were generally not detected in the estuarine and coastal waters. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sedimentary profiles and compositions (HHCB:AHTN ratios) generally reflect the distribution in the water column with highest concentrations adjacent to sewage outfalls. - Synthetic musks were determined in coastal environmental compartments along an estuarine transect indicating their ubiquitous occurrence in transitional waters.

  17. Landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Ingo; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-02-01

    In order to investigate landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two landfills (one active and one closed) and two reference sites using high volume air samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters (particle phase) and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges (gas phase), extracted by methyl-tert butyl ether/acetone (neutral PFCs), methanol (ionic PFCs) or hexane/acetone (PBDEs, musk fragrances), and detected by GC-MS (neutral PFCs, PBDEs, musk fragrances) or HPLC-MS/MS (ionic PFCs). Total concentrations ranged from 84 to 706 pg m -3 (volatile PFCs, gas phase), from fragrances, gas + particle phase) and from 1 to 11 pg m -3 (PBDEs, gas + particle phase). Observed sum concentrations of PFCs and synthetic musk fragrances and partly PBDE concentrations were elevated at landfill sites compared to corresponding reference sites. Concentrations determined at the active landfill were higher than those of the inactive landfill. Overall, landfills can be regarded as a source of synthetic musk fragrances, several PFCs and potentially of PBDEs to ambient air.

  18. Inputs and distributions of synthetic musk fragrances in an estuarine and coastal environment; a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, Nicola R.; Guitart, Carlos; Fuentes, Gustavo; Readman, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic musks are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Compartmental distributions (dissolved, suspended particle associated and sedimentary) of the compounds throughout an axial estuarine transect and in coastal waters are reported. High concentrations of Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) (987-2098 ng/L and 55-159 ng/L, respectively) were encountered in final effluent samples from sewage treatment plants (STPs) discharging into the Tamar and Plym Estuaries (UK), with lower concentrations of Celestolide (ADBI) (4-13 ng/L), Phantolide (AHMI) (6-9 ng/L), musk xylene (MX) (4-7 ng/L) and musk ketone (MK) (18-30 ng/L). Rapid dilution from the outfalls is demonstrated with resulting concentrations of HHCB spanning from 5 to 30 ng/L and those for AHTN from 3 to 15 ng/L. The other musks were generally not detected in the estuarine and coastal waters. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sedimentary profiles and compositions (HHCB:AHTN ratios) generally reflect the distribution in the water column with highest concentrations adjacent to sewage outfalls. - Synthetic musks were determined in coastal environmental compartments along an estuarine transect indicating their ubiquitous occurrence in transitional waters.

  19. Yersinia spp. in Wild Rodents and Shrews in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Korkeala, Hannu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+java...nica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  1. Examples of the Motif of the Shrew in European Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2001-01-01

    In her article "Examples of the Motif of the Shrew in European Literature and Film" Louise O. Vasvári presents the shrew-taming story as a masterplot of both Eastern and Western folklore and literature concerned with establishing the appropriate power dynamic between a married couple. Vasvári firts reviews the comparative groundwork of the story she has documented in her earlier studies of the topic. In addition to tracing the bundle of motifs that make up the shrew story from medieval Arabic...

  2. The role of the vagus nerve in the migrating motor complex and ghrelin- and motilin-induced gastric contraction in suncus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Miyano

    Full Text Available The upper gastrointestinal (GI tract undergoes a temporally coordinated cyclic motor pattern known as the migrating motor complex (MMC in both dogs and humans during the fasted state. Feeding results in replacement of the MMC by a pattern of noncyclic, intermittent contractile activity termed as postprandial contractions. Although the MMC is known to be stimulated by motilin, recent studies have shown that ghrelin, which is from the same peptide family as motilin, is also involved in the regulation of the MMC. In the present study, we investigated the role of the vagus nerve on gastric motility using conscious suncus-a motilin- and ghrelin-producing small animal. During the fasted state, cyclic MMC comprising phases I, II, and III was observed in both sham-operated and vagotomized suncus; however, the duration and motility index (MI of phase II was significantly decreased in vagotomized animals. Motilin infusion (50 ng·kg(-1·min(-1 for 10 min during phase I had induced phase III-like contractions in both sham-operated and vagotomized animals. Ghrelin infusion (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, or 10 µg·kg(-1·min(-1 for 10 min enhanced the amplitude of phase II MMC in sham-operated animals, but not in vagotomized animals. After feeding, phase I was replaced by postprandial contractions, and motilin infusion (50 ng·kg(-1·min(-1 for 10 min did not induce phase III-like contractions in sham-operated suncus. However, in vagotomized suncus, feeding did not evoke postprandial contractions, but exogenous motilin injection strongly induced phase III-like contractions, as noted during the phase I period. Thus, the results indicate that ghrelin stimulates phase II of the MMC via the vagus nerve in suncus. Furthermore, the vagus nerve is essential for initiating postprandial contractions, and inhibition of the phase III-like contractions induced by motilin is highly dependent on the vagus nerve.

  3. Removal of two polycyclic musks in sewage treatment plants: Freely dissolved and total concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the removal of slowly degradable hydrophobic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been evaluated with emphasis on the combination of free and total concentration data. Free and total concentrations of two polycyclic musks were determined in each compartment of four

  4. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  5. Environmental risk assessment of the polycyclic musks AHTN and HHCB according to the EU-TGD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche EJ van de; Balk F; CSR

    1997-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment has been carried out for the polycyclic musks AHTN and HHCB according to the EU Technical Guidance Document for Environmental Risk Assessment for New and Existing Substances. AHTN and HHCB are used in fragrances for cosmetics and detergents. Both substances are high

  6. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool. PMID:19152713

  7. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus in two meadows in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool.

  8. Identification of the full-length β-actin sequence and expression profiles in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Yun, Chenxia; Wang, Qihui; Smith, Wanli W; Leng, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) diverges from the primate order (Primates) and is classified as a separate taxonomic group of mammals - Scandentia. It has been suggested that the tree shrew can be used as an animal model for studying human diseases; however, the genomic sequence of the tree shrew is largely unidentified. In the present study, we reported the full-length cDNA sequence of the housekeeping gene, β-actin, in the tree shrew. The amino acid sequence of β-actin in the tree shrew was compared to that of humans and other species; a simple phylogenetic relationship was discovered. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis further demonstrated that the expression profiles of β-actin, as a general conservative housekeeping gene, in the tree shrew were similar to those in humans, although the expression levels varied among different types of tissue in the tree shrew. Our data provide evidence that the tree shrew has a close phylogenetic association with humans. These findings further enhance the potential that the tree shrew, as a species, may be used as an animal model for studying human disorders.

  9. Ariosto, Gascoigne e The Taming of the Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lovascio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to offer a thorough analysis of the influence exerted by Ludovico Ariosto’s I Suppositi on William Shakespeare’s The Taming of The Shrew through George Gascoigne’s translation, Supposes, and to underscore how crucial a painstaking study of sources can prove to the understanding, in a historical perspective, of the depth and complexity of Shakespeare’s theatre. First, the article briefly introduces the Italian commedia erudita and I Suppositi, and examines the changes to the source text made in translation by Gascoigne. Then, a survey is provided of some of the most important critical stances on the topic. Finally, an analysis of the various elements which Shakespeare borrowed from his source (characters, plot, verbal echoes shows how he refashioned them in order to expand their dramatic potential as well as to make his comedy an apt ground for reflection on ethical themes of great topicality in Elizabethan society.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Liver MicroRNAs of the Chinese Tree Shrew via Deep Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Feng, Yue-Mei; Feng, Yang; Lu, Caixia; Liu, Li; Sun, Xiaomei; Dai, Jiejie; Xia, Xueshan

    2015-10-01

    Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small animal that possess many features, which are valuable in biomedical research, as experimental models. Currently, there are numerous attempts to utilize tree shrews as models for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study aimed to construct a liver microRNA (miRNA) data of the tree shrew. Three second filial generation tree shrews were used in this study. Total RNA was extracted from each liver of the tree shrew and equal quality mixed, then reverse-transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA). The cDNAs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. A total of 2060 conserved miRNAs were identified through alignment with the mature miRNAs in miRBase 20.0 database. The gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes analyses of the target genes of the miRNAs revealed several candidate miRNAs, genes and pathways that may involve in the process of HCV infection. The abundance of miR-122 and Let-7 families and their other characteristics provided us more evidences for the utilization of this animal, as a potential model for HCV infection and other related biomedical research. Moreover, 80 novel microRNAs were predicted using the software Mireap. The top 3 abundant miRNAs were validated in other tree samples, based on stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. According to the liver microRNA data of Chinese tree shrew, characteristics of the miR-122 and Let-7 families further highlight the suitability of tree shrew as the animal model in HCV research.

  11. Telemetric Study of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Homeostasis in the Day-Active Tree Shrew Tupaia belangeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Alex; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Barf, R. Paulien; Fuchs, Eberhard; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study the authors characterized sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri, a small, omnivorous, day-active mammal that is closely related to primates. Design: Adult tree shrews were individually housed under a 12-hr light/12-hr dark cycle

  12. Microgeographical distribution of shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) in the Congo River basin (Kisangani, D.R. Congo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    Research on the biodiversity of shrews was conducted in eight forest blocks at eight sampling localities: Djabir, Maiko, Masako, Yoko, Yelenge, Baliko, Bomane-1 and Bomane-2. We used pitfall traps combined with Sherman LFA traps placed on transects. We collected 724 shrews from primary forests, s...

  13. Depletion of endogenous germ cells in tree shrews in preparation for spermatogonial transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Guo, Ying; Yan, Lanzhen; Sun, Bin; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, Xudong

    2017-09-01

    To achieve successful spermatogonial transplantation, endogenous germ cells must be depleted in recipient animals to allow donor germ cells to colonize efficiently. Busulfan is commonly used for the depletion of endogenous germ cells in recipient males. However, the optimal dose of busulfan is species-specific, and the optimal dose in tree shrews is yet to be determined. The current study aimed to determine the optimal dose of busulfan for effective suppression of endogenous spermatogenesis in tree shrews. Different doses (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 mg/kg) of busulfan were injected into tree shrews intraperitoneally. Survival rates of the different treatment groups were calculated at 2 weeks and body weights were measured at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 28 weeks post-busulfan treatment. The testes were also removed and weighed at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 28 weeks post-treatment, and the cross and longitude diameters of the testes and diameters of the seminiferous tubules were measured and histologically evaluated. It was observed that there were no significant differences in the survival rates between the 15-35 mg/kg treatment groups and the control group (P>0.05), while the survival rate of the 40 mg/kg treatment group significantly decreased relative to the control group (Pendogenous germ cells in tree shrews. This dose led to maximum suppression of endogenous spermatogenesis while maintaining an acceptable survival rate of >50% of the lethal dose of busulfan for tree shrews.

  14. The identity of the enigmatic "Black Shrew" (Sorex niger Ord, 1815)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The scientific name Sorex niger Ord, 1815 (Mammalia, Soricidae) was originally applied to a North American species that George Ord called the “Black Shrew.” The origin of the name “Black Shrew,” however, was obscure, and Samuel Rhoads subsequently wrote that the species represented by this name could not be determined. The names Sorex niger Ord and Black Shrew have since been mostly forgotten. Two of Ord's contemporaries, however, noted that Ord's use of these names probably alluded to Benjamin Smith Barton's Black Shrew, whose discovery near Philadelphia was announced by Barton in 1806. Examination of two unpublished illustrations of the Black Shrew made by Barton indicates that the animal depicted is Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1822). Had the connection between Ord's and Barton's names been made more clearly, one of the most common mammals in eastern North America would bear a different scientific name today. This connection also would have affected the validity of Sorex niger Horsfield, 1851. While Sorex niger Ord remains a nomen nudum, the animal it referenced can now be identified.

  15. Drug target mining and analysis of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    Full Text Available The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research.

  16. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two

  17. Long lasting perfume--a review of synthetic musks in WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Silva, José Avelino; Ratola, Nuno; Santos, Lúcia; Alves, Arminda

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic musks have been used for a long time in personal care and household products. In recent years, this continuous input has increased considerably, to the point that they were recognized as emerging pollutants by the scientific community, due to their persistence in the environment, and hazardous potential to ecosystems even at low concentrations. The number of studies in literature describing their worldwide presence in several environmental matrices is growing, and many of them indicate that the techniques employed for their safe removal tend to be ineffective. This is the case of conventional activated sludge treatment plants (WWTPs), where considerable loads of synthetic musks enter mainly through domestic sewage. This review paper compiles and discusses the occurrence of these compounds in the sewage, effluents and sludge, main concentration levels and phase distributions, as well as the efficiency of the different methodologies of removal applied in these treatment facilities. To the present day, it has been demonstrated that WWTPs lack the ability to remove musks completely. This shows a clear need to develop new effective and cost-efficient remediation approaches and foresees potential for further improvements in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High shrew diversity on Alaska's Seward Peninsula: Community assembly and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, 6 species of shrews (genus: Sorex) were collected at a single locality on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. Such high sympatric diversity within a single mammalian genus is seldom realized. This phenomenon at high latitudes highlights complex Arctic community dynamics that reflect significant turnover through time as a consequence of environmental change. Each of these shrew species occupies a broad geographic distribution collectively spanning the entire Holarctic, although the study site lies within Eastern Beringia, near the periphery of all individual ranges. A review of published genetic evidence reflects a depauperate shrew community within ice-free Beringia through the last glaciation, and recent assembly of current diversity during the Holocene.

  19. Molecular evidence and high genetic diversity of shrew-borne Seewis virus in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resman, Katarina; Korva, Miša; Fajs, Luka; Zidarič, Tanja; Trilar, Tomi; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič

    2013-10-01

    Seewis virus, the shrew-borne hantavirus from Sorex araneus, has been molecularly detected in reservoir hosts in many different central European countries and Russia. Slovenia is a known endemic country for rodent-borne hantaviruses, therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of shrew-borne hantaviruses in insectivores. Viral L, S and M segment have been recovered only from tissue samples of 7 S. araneus, despite several shrew species were tested. Phylogenetic analysis showed high genetic diversity of SWSV in Slovenia, ranging from 3 to 19.4% for different viral segments. The most divergent were M segment sequences, with 19.4% nucleotide divergence among Slovenian strains. Above that, different SWSV strains from Slovenia do not group into separate geographic clusters. While three separate genetic clades were determined, two of them were simultaneously present in one location at the same time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Esterase variation in Turkish white-toothed shrews (Crocidura: Record of a trimeric esterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tez C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on esterase variation of the genus Crocidura in Turkey. A total of 248 white-toothed shrews were analyzed by means of cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis. Liver tissue and alfa naphthyl acetate were used to investigate esterase variation in Turkish white-toothed shrews. A different esterase banding pattern was found in one Crocidura individual. This phenotype had four anodally migrated bands on cellulose acetate gel. The Crocidura individual displaying the given phenotype was identified as Crocidura suaveolens. The different esterase banding pattern observed in this study is considered to be a result of the trimeric structure of esterase in the lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens.

  1. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Zhen YAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%. Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation.

  2. Emendation and new species of Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from musk turtles (Kinosternidae: Sternotherus) in Alabama and Florida rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jackson R; Halanych, Kenneth M; Arias, Cova R; Folt, Brian; Goessling, Jeffrey M; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-12-01

    Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922 is emended based on morphological study of existing museum specimens (type and voucher specimens) and newly-collected specimens infecting musk turtles (Testudines: Kinosternidae: Sternotherus spp.) from rivers in Alabama and Florida (USA). Hapalorhynchus conecuhensis n. sp. is described from an innominate musk turtle, Sternotherus cf. minor, (type host) from Blue Spring (31°5'27.64″N, 86°30'53.21″W; Pensacola Bay Basin, Alabama) and the loggerhead musk turtle, Sternotherus minor (Agassiz, 1857) from the Wacissa River (30°20'24.73″N, 83°59'27.56″W; Apalachee Bay Basin, Florida). It differs from congeners by lacking a body constriction at level of the ventral sucker, paired anterior caeca, and a transverse ovary as well as by having a small ventral sucker, proportionally short posterior caeca, nearly equally-sized anterior and posterior testes, a small cirrus sac, and a uterus extending dorsal to the ovary and the anterior testis. Specimens of Hapalorhynchus reelfooti Byrd, 1939 infected loggerhead musk turtles, stripe-necked musk turtles (Sternotherus peltifer Smith and Glass, 1947), Eastern musk turtles (Sternotherus odoratus [Latreille in Sonnini and Latreille, 1801]), and S. cf. minor. Those of Hapalorhynchus cf. stunkardi infected S. minor and S. odoratus. Sternothorus minor, S. peltifer, and S. cf. minor plus S. minor and S. odoratus are new host records for H. reelfooti and H. cf. stunkardi, respectively. This is the first report of an infected musk turtle from the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers (Mobile-Tensaw River Basin), Pensacola Bay Basin, or Apalachee Bay Basin. Sequence analysis of the large subunit rDNA (28S) showed a strongly-supported clade for Hapalorhynchus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    Science.gov (United States)

    HINDLE, ALLYSON G.; LAWLER, JOHN M.; CAMPBELL, KEVIN L.; HORNING, MARKUS

    2015-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  5. The Fetal Membranes of the Otter Shrews and a Synapomorphy for Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M.; Blankenship, T.N.; Enders, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The otter shrews of mainland Africa are the closest relatives of the Madagascar tenrecs. We sought for similarities in placentation between the two groups and, in a wider context, with other mammals of the Afrotheria clade. Specimens of the Nimba otter shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei) were obtain...... by two pairs of septal folds. A similar arrangement has been described for representatives of each of the remaining five orders within Afrotheria. This is significant because previous anatomical studies have failed to establish a single synapomorphy in support of Afrotheria....

  6. "The Taming of the Shrew." A Play Packet To Accompany "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Barbara; Campbell, Joy

    Intended for use by elementary school teachers as a supplement to the book, "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare," or for use by itself to produce one Shakespeare play, this play packet contains ready-to-reproduce materials for the production of "The Taming of the Shrew." Materials include: staging suggestions for scenery, props,…

  7. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, Vadim B.; Goropashnaya, Anna V.; Talbot, Sandra; Cook, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

  8. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  9. Persistence and diversification of the Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis (Family Soricidae), in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Fedorov, V.B.; Goropashnaya, A.V.; Talbot, Sandra; Cook, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental processes govern demography, species movements, community turnover and diversification and yet in many respects these dynamics are still poorly understood at high latitudes. We investigate the combined effects of climate change and geography through time for a widespread Holarctic shrew, Sorex tundrensis. We include a comprehensive suite of closely related outgroup taxa and three independent loci to explore phylogeographic structure and historical demography. We then explore the implications of these findings for other members of boreal communities. The tundra shrew and its sister species, the Tien Shan shrew (Sorex asper), exhibit strong geographic population structure across Siberia and into Beringia illustrating local centres of endemism that correspond to Late Pleistocene refugia. Ecological niche predictions for both current and historical distributions indicate a model of persistence through time despite dramatic climate change. Species tree estimation under a coalescent process suggests that isolation between populations has been maintained across timeframes deeper than the periodicity of Pleistocene glacial cycling. That some species such as the tundra shrew have a history of persistence largely independent of changing climate, whereas other boreal species shifted their ranges in response to climate change, highlights the dynamic processes of community assembly at high latitudes.

  10. Multilocus phylogeography and systematic revision of North American water shrews (genus: Sorex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Panter, Nicholas; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Nagorsen, David W.

    2014-01-01

    North American water shrews, which have traditionally included Sorex alaskanus, S. bendirii, and S. palustris, are widely distributed through Nearctic boreal forests and adapted for life in semiaquatic environments. Molecular mitochondrial signatures for these species have recorded an evolutionary history with variable levels of regional divergence, suggesting a strong role of Quaternary environmental change in speciation processes. We expanded molecular analyses, including more-comprehensive rangewide sampling of specimens representing North American water shrew taxa, except S. alaskanus, and sequencing of 4 independent loci from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We investigated relative divergence of insular populations along the North Pacific Coast, and newly recognized diversity from southwestern montane locations, potentially representing refugial isolates. Congruent independent genealogies, lack of definitive evidence for contemporary gene flow, and high support from coalescent species trees indicated differentiation of 4 major geographic lineages over multiple glacial cycles of the late Quaternary, similar to a growing number of boreal taxa. Limited divergence of insular populations suggested colonization following the last glacial. Characterization of southwestern montane diversity will require further sampling but divergence over multiple loci is indicative of a relictual sky-island fauna. We have reviewed and revised North American water shrew taxonomy including the recognition of 3 species within what was previously known as S. palustris. The possibility of gene flow between most distantly related North American water shrew lineages coupled with unresolved early diversification of this group and other sibling species reflects a complex but potentially productive system for investigating speciation processes.

  11. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation,

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well...

  13. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers and hippocampal subfield volumes in behaviorally characterized aged tree shrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, J.I.H.; de Biurrun, G.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Fuchs, E.

    2004-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decreased ability to store and retrieve information. The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in such memory processes, and its integrity is affected during normal aging. We used tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) as an animal model of aging, because in many

  14. Scented traces--Dermal exposure of synthetic musk fragrances in personal care products and environmental input assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Silva, Eduardo; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic musks are organic compounds used as fragrance and fixative additives in several personal care products. Until now, little is known about their occurrence and distribution in these household commodities. However, this information is essential to perform a human dermal exposure assessment. Therefore, this study gives an overview on the levels of 12 synthetic musks in 140 personal care products from 7 different categories (body and hair wash, toilet soaps, shaving products, dentifrice products, deodorants/antiperspirants, moisturizers and perfumes). They were analysed by QuEChERS extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Detection limits were found between 0.01ngg(-1) (galaxolide) and 5.00ngg(-1) (musk xylene). Higher average concentrations of total synthetic musks were detected in perfumes (5245.05μgg(-1)) and shampoos (487.67μgg(-1)) for adults. Galaxolide, exaltolide and cashmeran were the most detected compounds. Combining these results with the daily usage amounts, an average daily dermal exposure of 75.69μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 15.54μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for babies/children was achieved. The main contributors for adult and babies/children dermal exposure were perfumes and lotions, respectively. About 40% of the adult daily dermal exposure is related to exaltolide, 30% galaxolide, and 15% tonalide, while for babies/children 96% occurs due to exaltolide. An estimate of the amount of musks discharged "down-the-drain" into the wastewater treatment systems through the use of toiletries was also performed. An average emission per capita of 6.7mgday(-1) was determined and galaxolide and exaltolide were the predominant musks in the effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an ultrasensitive PCR assay for polycyclic musk determination in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2018-05-01

    Polycyclic musks (PCMs) in the aquatic environment and organisms have become an emerging environmental issue because of their potential risk. The most used method for polycyclic musk determination is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with different sample extractions, which are somewhat expensive to operate, complex and laborious. In this study, a novel and ultrasensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with multiple signal amplification of carboxylic-DNA by gold nanoparticle-polyamidoamine conjugation (Au-PAMAM) was developed for determining polycyclic musks in fish. Hapten and immunogen were specially prepared. Polyclonal antibodies were produced based on the optimal immunisation, and the antibodies were characterised. Due to PAMAM's unique nanostructure of numerous functional amino groups, polyclonal antibody and carboxylic-DNA were immobilised by Au-PAMAM conjugation to develop the antibody-Au-PAMAM-DNA probes, which were used as a signal DNA amplifier in the PCR system. Compared with real-time immuno-PCR, this biological probe-amplified immuno-PCR (BPAI-PCR) assay had higher sensitivity due to the probes' higher ratio of signal DNA. Finally, the BPAI-PCR assay was applied to analyse AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene,Tonalide) concentrations in fish samples in the range from 1 pg/L to 10 ng/L, giving an of LOD 0.61 pg/L. In general, due to the specificity of the antibody and novel nanoprobe design, this BPAI-PCR assay provided a potential way for trace analysis of AHTN in the aquatic organisms. The high concentrations of AHTN found in cultivated fish should encourage further toxicological studies.

  16. Musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) of the mammoth steppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Smith, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios have been used as markers for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological reconstructions across various geographical and temporal ranges. Such studies are essential for understanding how a particular species responded to changing environmental conditions...... in precipitation and that these variations were closely associated with events such as the cold and arid Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Bolling-Allerod interstadial, Younger Dryas stadial and the warmer and humid Holocene. Regional differences in the isotopic composition of the musk ox populations are also noticeable...

  17. Development of a tree shrew metabolic syndrome model and use of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xing-Hua; Zhu, Lu; Yao, Xiang; Liu, Ju-Fen; Li, Zi-An; Yang, Jian-Yong; Pang, Rong-Qing; Ruan, Guang-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a tree shrew metabolic syndrome model and demonstrate the utility of MSCs in treating metabolic syndrome. We used tree shrew umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (TS-UC-MSC) transplantation for the treatment of metabolic syndrome to demonstrate the clinical application of these stem cells and to provide a theoretical basis and reference methods for this treatment. Tree shrew metabolic syndrome model showed significant insulin resistance, high blood sugar, lipid metabolism disorders, and hypertension, consistent with the diagnostic criteria. TS-UC-MSC transplantation at 16 weeks significantly reduced blood sugar and lipid levels, improved insulin resistance and the regulation of insulin secretion, and reduced the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-6 (P metabolic syndrome model and showed that MSC migrate in diseased organs and can attenuate metabolic syndrome severity in a tree shrew model.

  18. Isolation and identification of symbiotic bacteria from the skin, mouth, and rectum of wild and captive tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui; Lai, Ren; Duan, Gang; Lyu, Long-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Ye; Liu, Huang; Xiang, Xun

    2014-11-18

    Endosymbionts influence many aspects of their hosts' health conditions, including physiology, development, immunity, metabolism, etc. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses due to their close relationship with primates. To clarify the situation of symbiotic bacteria from their body surface, oral cavity, and anus, 12 wild and 12 the third generation of captive tree shrews were examined. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, as well as the 16S rDNA full sequence analysis, 12 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from the wild tree shrews: body surface: Bacillus subtilis (detection rate 42%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%), Staphlococcus aureus (33%), S. Epidermidis (75%), Micrococcus luteus (25%), Kurthia gibsonii (17%); oral cavity: Neisseria mucosa (58%), Streptococcus pneumonia (17%); anus: Enterococcus faecalis (17%), Lactococus lactis (33%), Escherichia coli (92%), Salmonella typhosa (17%); whereas, four were indentified from the third generation captive tree shrews: body surface: S. epidermidis (75%); oral cavity: N.mucosa (67%); anus: L. lactis (33%), E. coli (100%). These results indicate that S. epidermidis, N. mucosa, L. lactis and E. coli were major bacteria in tree shrews, whereas, S. aureus, M. luteus, K. gibsonii, E. faecalis and S. typhosa were species-specific flora. This study facilitates the future use of tree shrews as a standard experimental animal and improves our understanding of the relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts.

  19. Effects of dietary exposure of polycyclic musk HHCB on the metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, María Victoria; Jiménez, María Ángeles; San Segundo, Laura; Martini, Federica; Beltrán, Eulalia; Fernández, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The compound 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-[γ]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB; galaxolide, Chemical Abstracts Service number 1222-05-5) is a synthetic musk used extensively as a fragrance in many consumer products and classified as an emerging pollutant. The ecotoxicological information available for HHCB addresses exposure via water, but this compound is frequently adsorbed into particulate matter. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of dietary exposure to several environmentally relevant HHCB concentrations adsorbed in food during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. The authors sought to determine if such exposure to this synthetic musk resulted in histological changes in the thyroid gland in conjunction with changes in development (staging, timing to metamorphosis), body weight, and length. Developmental acceleration on day 14, together with hypertrophy of the thyroid follicular epithelium in tadpoles, suggested a possible agonistic effect of HHCB, which would have been compensated after metamorphosis by regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. Further research into the potential thyroid-related mechanisms of action of HHCB should be conducted. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1428-1435. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione, 5β-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3α-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered.

  1. The timing of the shrew: continuous melatonin treatment maintains youthful rhythmic activity in aging Crocidura russula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Magnanou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. Thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. Senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. The time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have an anti-aging role. The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is an ideal study model to address questions related to aging and associated changes in biological functions: its lifespan is short and is substantially increased in captivity; daily and seasonal rhythms, while very marked the first year of life, are dramatically altered during the senescence process which starts during the second year. Here we report on an investigation of the effects of melatonin administration on locomotor activity of aging shrews.1 The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma. In both, a marked diel rhythm (low diurnal concentration; high nocturnal concentration was present in young animals but then decreased in adults, and, as a result of a loss in the nocturnal production, was absent in old animals. 2 Daily locomotor activity rhythm was monitored in pre-senescent animals that had received either a subcutaneous melatonin implant, an empty implant or no implant at all. In non-implanted and sham-implanted shrews, the rhythm was well marked in adults. A marked degradation in both period and amplitude, however, started after the age of 14-16 months. This pattern was considerably delayed in melatonin-implanted shrews who maintained the daily rhythm for significantly longer.This is the first long term study (>500 days observation of the same individuals that investigates the effects of

  2. Individual- and population-level effects of the synthetic musk, HHCB, on the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A life table response experiment lasting 120 d was used to investigate the effects of the synthetic polycyclic musk HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyrane; 0, 1.5, 26, 123, and 168 mg/kg dry wt sediment) on the life history of the infaunal polychaete...

  3. Evaluation of Simple Treat 3.0 for two hydrophobic and slowly biodegradable chemicals: Polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, predictions by Simple Treat 3.0, a fate model for organic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs), are compared with actual measurements in three STPs. Two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® (AHTN) and Galaxolide® (HHCB), were used for model evaluation. Results show that Simple

  4. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve. However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26% (5815.08 km2 is inside the protected areas and the remaining 80.73% falls outside the protected areas. Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, livestock grazing and forest fire in the musk deer habitat are important challenges for the conservation of musk deer in the country. A thorough status survey in and outside the protected areas should be carried out and a species-focused conservation action plan should be prepared and implemented properly. A program for increasing awareness and enhancing livelihood of the local populations be launched in the poor and poaching risk zones of Nepal.

  6. Waste water treatment plants as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Ingo; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    To investigate waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) as sources of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and synthetic musk fragrances to the atmosphere, air samples were simultaneously taken at two WWTPs and two reference sites using high volume samplers. Contaminants were accumulated on glass fiber filters and PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges, extracted compound-dependent by MTBE/acetone, methanol, or hexane/acetone and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Total (gas + particle phase) concentrations ranged from 97 to 1004 pg m -3 (neutral PFCs), -3 (ionic PFCs), 5781 to 482,163 pg m -3 (musk fragrances) and -3 (PBDEs) and were usually higher at WWTPs than at corresponding reference sites, revealing that WWTPs can be regarded as sources of musk fragrances, PFCs and probably PBDEs to the atmosphere. Different concentrations at the two WWTPs indicated an influence of WWTP size or waste water origin on emitted contaminant amounts. - Waste water treatment plants can be regarded as sources of musk fragrances, polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to the atmosphere

  7. Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX and PayPal, to speak on campus Feb. 21

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Elon Musk, founder and chief executive officer of Space Exploration Technologies Co. (SpaceX), will speak on his company's Falcon rocket series and the future of university space research on Tuesday, Feb. 21 at 7:30 p.m. in Virginia Tech's Burruss Hall Auditorium. The event is free and open to the public.

  8. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS FROM FISH TISSUES WITH MEASUREMENT BY OC/MS/SIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds are used as inexpensive fragrance materials for the production of perfumes and as additives to soap, detergent, and shampoo. They have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. The ubiquity of this class of compounds in the env...

  9. Influence of pre-treatment process on matrix effect for the determination of musk fragrances in fish and mussel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillos, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2015-03-01

    Musk compounds are widely used as fragrances in personal care products. On account of their widespread use and their low biodegradation, they can be found in environmental samples. In our study two extraction methodologies were compared and different clean-up strategies were also studied in order to develop a reliable analytical method, with minimum matrix effect and good detection limits, to determine synthetic musk fragrances- six polycyclic musks, three nitro musks and the degradation product of one polycyclic musk- in fish and mussel samples. The first extraction technique involves a QuEChERS extraction, a consolidate extraction methodology in the field of food analysis of growing interest over recent years, followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) as clean-up strategy. The second extraction technique consists of a conventional pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with dichloromethane and an in-cell clean-up to decrease the matrix effect and remove the undesired components(⁎)present in PLE extracts. Large volume injection (LVI) followed by gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS/MS) was chosen as the separation and detection technique. Validation parameters, such as method detection limits and method quantification limits were found at ng g(-1) levels for both fish and mussel matrices. Good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatabilities were obtained analysing fish and mussel samples spiked at 50 ng g(-1) (d.w.) (n=5, RSDsmarket in Tarragona and fish samples from the Ebro River. The results showed the presence of galaxolide (2.97-18.04 ng g(-1) (d.w.)) and tonalide (1.17-8.42 ng g(-1) (d.w.)) in all the samples analysed, while the remaining polycyclic musks such as cashmeran, celestolide and phantolide, were only detected in some of the fish samples analysed. None of the samples analysed contained detectable traces of the nitro musks studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.-J.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1 ± 43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6 ± 15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD 5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 μg/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application

  11. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western ...

  12. AFLP diversity between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Polyakov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity between of the Novosibirsk and Tomsk chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus was analyzed using 39 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragments length polymorphism markers. Exact and F-statistics tests for population differentiation demonstrated significant interracial difference in allele frequencies and significant subdivision between the races. The value of the genetic distance between the chromosome races observed in this study corresponds to that found between subspecies of mammals studied so far.

  13. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  14. Haematology, genotoxicity, enzymatic activity and histopathology as biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Chardi, A.; Marques, C.C.; Gabriel, S.I.; Capela-Silva, F.; Cabrita, A.S.; Lopez-Fuster, M.J.; Nadal, J.; Mathias, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Haematological (WBC, RBC, Hgb and Hct) and genotoxicity (MNT) parameters, hepatic enzymatic activities (GST, GPx and GR), and a histopathological evaluation of liver, kidneys and gonads were assessed as general biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula inhabiting a pyrite mining area. Specimens exposed to metals presented a few significant alterations when compared with reference animals: GST activity decreased; micronuclei increased; and evident liver alterations related to metal exposure were observed. On the basis of all the parameters studied, age was an important factor that partly explained the observed variation, whereas sex was the least important factor. Significant correlations were also found between heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers evaluated, demonstrating the great influence of these metals in the metabolic alterations. To the best of our knowledge, these data constitute the first measurements of a battery of biomarkers in shrews from a mine site and are among the few available for insectivorous mammals. - Metals from an abandoned pyrite mine produce alterations in haematological parameters, GST, MNT, and histopathology in shrews

  15. Molecular Survey on Brucellosis in Rodents and Shrews - Natural Reservoirs of Novel Brucella Species in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, J A; Ulrich, R G; Imholt, C; Scholz, H C; Jacob, J; Kratzmann, N; Nöckler, K; Al Dahouk, S

    2017-04-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease introduced from animal reservoirs to humans. In Germany, bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis were eradicated more than a decade ago and mandatory measures in livestock have been implemented to keep the officially brucellosis-free status. In contrast, surveillance of wildlife is still challenging, and reliable data on the prevalence of brucellae in small mammal populations do not exist. To assess the epidemiology of Brucella spp. in rodents and shrews, a molecular survey was carried out. A total of 537 rodents and shrews were trapped in four federal states located throughout Germany and investigated for the presence of Brucella. Using a two-step molecular assay based on the detection of the Brucella-specific bcsp31 and IS711 sequences in tissue samples, 14.2% (n = 76) of the tested animals were positive. These originated mainly from western and south-western Germany, where preliminary analyses indicate population density-dependent Brucella prevalence in voles (Myodes glareolus) and mice (Apodemus spp.). recA typing revealed a close relationship to a potentially novel Brucella species recently isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Austria. The molecular detection of brucellae in various rodent taxa and for the first time in shrew species shows that these animals may be naturally infected or at least have a history of exposure to Brucella spp. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Duchenne Musküler Distrofili Bir Olguda Anestezi Yönetimi

    OpenAIRE

    KARAHAN, N.; AKSUN, M.; KOROĞLU, L.; GİRGİN, S.; ARAN, G.; AKHAN, G.; GÜRBÜZ, A.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne Musküler Distrofi (DMD); X’e bağlı resesif olarak geçiş gösteren ilerleyici kas zayıflığı ve kas kontraktürleri ile karakterize kalıtımsal bir hastalıktır. En sık çocukluk yaşlarında ve 3.500 erkek doğumda 1 görülmektedir. Bu hastalarda anestezi yönetimi özellik göstermektedir. Çünkü inhalasyon anestezikleri ve süksinilkolin gibi ajanlar, hipermetabolik bir klinik tablo ile seyreden malign hipertermi gibi ölümcül komplikasyonlara yol açabilir. Biz ventriküler septal defekt (VSD) nede...

  17. Experimental chronic hepatitis B infection of neonatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis: A model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. Feasible and effective animal models for HBV infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. The tree shrew (Tupaia is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. Whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with HBV in vivo has been controversial for decades. Most published research has been reported on adult tree shrews, and only small numbers of HBV infected newborn tree shrews had been observed over short time periods. We investigated susceptibility of newborn tree shrews to experimental HBV infection as well as viral clearance over a protracted time period. Results Forty-six newborn tree shrews were inoculated with the sera from HBV-infected patients or tree shrews. Serum and liver samples of the inoculated animals were periodically collected and analyzed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Southern blot, and immunohistochemistry. Six tree shrews were confirmed and four were suspected as chronically HBV-infected for more than 48 (up to 228 weeks after inoculation, including three that had been inoculated with serum from a confirmed HBV-infected tree shrew. Conclusions Outbred neonatal tree shrews can be long-term chronically infected with HBV at a frequency comparable to humans. The model resembles human disease where also a smaller proportion of infected individuals develop chronic HBV related disease. This model might enable genetic and immunologic investigations which would allow determination of underlying molecular causes favoring susceptibility for chronic HBV infection and disease establishment vs. viral clearance.

  18. Dynamic changes in DNA demethylation in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain during postnatal development and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu; Hua, Hai-Rong; Chen, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Fei; Li, Shu-Qing; Li, Fan; Li, Jia-Li

    2017-03-18

    Brain development and aging are associated with alterations in multiple epigenetic systems, including DNA methylation and demethylation patterns. Here, we observed that the levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzyme-mediated active DNA demethylation products were dynamically changed and involved in postnatal brain development and aging in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis ). The levels of 5hmC in multiple anatomic structures showed a gradual increase throughout postnatal development, whereas a significant decrease in 5hmC was found in several brain regions in aged tree shrews, including in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. Active changes in Tet mRNA levels indicated that TET2 and TET3 predominantly contributed to the changes in 5hmC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in tree shrew brains during postnatal development and aging processes.

  19. Occurrence, profile and spatial distribution of UV-filters and musk fragrances in mussels from Portuguese coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M; Fernandes, J O; Pena, A; Cunha, S C

    2018-07-01

    The increasing production and consumption of Personal Care Products (PCPs), containing UV-filters and musk fragrances, has led to its widespread presence in the aquatic environment which can cause harmful effects to the aquatic organisms due to its intrinsic toxicity. This study aims to evaluate the degree of contamination of wild mussels along the entire Portuguese coastline, continually exposed in their habitat to different contaminants. For this purpose, approximately 1000 mussel specimens were sampled during one year in seven different locations, along the Portuguese coastline. Simultaneous quantification of five UV-filters and seven musks in mussels was achieved by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Ten out of the twelve target analytes were found in the analysed samples, highlighting the presence of AHTN (tonalide), EHS (2-ethylhexylsalicylate) and EHMC (2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate) in all positive samples (93%). Overall, the results obtained indicate a widespread contamination of wild mussels along Portuguese coastline, all over the year. UV-filters were more frequently detected (90%) than musk fragrances (70%) and also quantified at higher levels, with average total concentrations reaching 1155.8 ng/g (dw) against 397.7 ng/g (dw) respectively. A high correlation was observed between the most densely populated and industrialized locations and the higher levels of musks and UV-filters found. In other hand, lower levels of PCPs were found in protected areas. As expected, an increase in UV-filters levels was observed after the summer, likely due to the intense period of recreational activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. UV-filters and musk fragrances in seafood commercialized in Europe Union: Occurrence, risk and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Trabalón, L; Jacobs, S; Castro, M; Fernandez-Tejedor, M; Granby, K; Verbeke, W; Kwadijk, C; Ferrari, F; Robbens, J; Sioen, I; Pocurull, E; Marques, A; Fernandes, J O; Domingo, J L

    2018-02-01

    In the framework of the FP7 ECsafeSeafood project, 62 seafood samples commercialized in Europe Union from several representative species - mackerel, tuna, salmon, seabream, cod, monkfish, crab, shrimp, octopus, perch and plaice - were analysed for residues of 21 personal care products (PCPs), including 11 UV-filters (UV-Fs) and 10 musk fragrances (musks). PCPs analysis were performed by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged, Safe (QuEChERS), combined with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence in a wide range of samples of nine out of eleven UV-Fs compounds analysed, namely 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 2-ethylhexyl,4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone-3 (BP3), isoamyl-4-methoxycinnamate (IMC), 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone (DHMB), homosalate (HS), and octocrylene (OC), whereas galaxolide (HHCB), galaxolide lactone (HHCB-lactone), and tonalide (AHTN) were the most found musks. The potential risks to human health associated with the exposure to eight of the more prevalent PCPs - EHS, EHMC, 4-MBC, BP1, BP3, IMC, HHCB, and AHTN - through seafood consumption were assessed for consumers from five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). Results showed that the human exposure to UV-Fs and musks estimated from the concentration values found in seafood and the daily consumption of concerned seafood species, were far below toxicological reference values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the full-length cDNA encoding the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) CD28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Yan; Wang, Sha; Wang, Qinying; Shi, Jian; Shao, Zhanshe; Dai, Jiejie

    2017-11-01

    CD28 is one of the most important co-stimulatory molecules expressed by naive and primed T cells. The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), as an ideal animal model for analyzing mechanism of human diseases receiving extensive attentions, demands essential research tools, in particular in the study of cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. However, little is known about tree shrew CD28 (tsCD28) until now. In this study, a 663 bp of the full-length CD28 cDNA, encoding a polypeptide of 220 amino acids was cloned from tree shrew spleen lymphocytes. The nucleotide sequence of the tsCD28 showed 85%, 76%, and 75% similarities with human, rat, and mouse, respectively, which showed the affinity relationship between tree shrew and human is much closer than between human and rodents. The open reading frame (ORF) sequence of tsCD28 gene was predicted to be in correspondence with the signal sequence, immunoglobulin variable-like (IgV) domain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail, respectively.We also analyzed its molecular characteristics with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W 2.0 and so forth. Our results showed that tsCD28 contained many features conserved in CD28 genes from other mammals, including conserved signal peptide and glycosylation sites, and several residues responsible for binding to the CD28R, and the tsCD28 amino acid sequence were found a close genetic relationship with human and monkey. The crystal structure and surface charge revealed most regions of tree shrew CD28 molecule surface charges are similar as human. However, compared with human CD28 (hCD28) regions, in some areas, the surface positive charge of tsCD28 was less than hCD28, which may affect antibody binding. The present study is the first report of cloning and characterization of CD28 in tree shrew. This study provides a theoretical basis for the further study the structure and function of tree shrew CD28 and utilize tree shrew as an effective

  2. A new species of small-eared shrew from Colombia and Venezuela (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Genus Cryptotis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of small-eared shrews inhabiting the northern Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and adjoining Venezuelan highlands in the vicinity of Paramo de Tama have been referred alternatively to Cryptotis thomssi or Cryptotis meridensis. Morphological and morphometrical study of this population indicates that it belongs to neither taxon, but represents a distinct, previously unrecognized species. I describe this new species as Cryptotis tamensis and redescribe C. meridensis. Recognition of the population at Paramo de Tama as a separate taxon calls into question the identities of populations of shrews currently represented only by single specimens from Cerro Pintado in the Sierra de Perija, Colombia, and near El Junquito in the coastal highlands of Venezuela.

  3. Big insights from little animals: allosteric modulation and thermal sensitivity of shrew and mole hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, K.L.; Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Mass-specific metabolic rate varies inversely with size, while pulmonary transit time, muscle O2 storage capacity, and the ability to exploit anaerobic metabolism vary directly with this variable. Thus, small mammals must exploit a suite of morphological and physiological adjustments to supply...... and moles. Despite these constraints, several shrew (and mole) species flourish at elevations exceeding 4500 m (where atmospheric PO2 is ... operating near their upper limits, what if any additional functional properties of the Hb of these species make these achievements possible? Our findings suggest that changes in the intrinsic O2-affinity of the Hb moiety (rather than phosphate sensitivity) underlie transitions to and from hypoxic...

  4. [Life cycle of Maupasina weissi Seurat, 1913, Subuluroidea Nematode, parasite of the elephant shrew (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, J C; Verdier, J M

    1979-01-01

    The life cycle of Maupasina weissi Seurat, 1913, the parasite of the elephant shrew, has been experimentally obtained from the intermediate host Locusta migratoria. The biology of this Nematoda is considered as being more primitive than the Subuluridae: -- egg maturation in external environment is in fact necessary to the Maupasina larvae to penetrate into the insect, -- The different localizations of the infective larvae, such as mesenteron regeneration crypta, fat body, demonstrate that the parasite is not completely adaptated to its intermediate host, -- the ontogenesis of cephalic structures is characterized by an hypertrophy of the archaic structures mainly from cuticular origin.

  5. Quantum Calculation for Musk Molecules Infrared Spectra towards the Understanding of Odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Rose Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear so far how humans can recognize odor. One of the theories regarding structure-odor relationship is vibrational theory, which claims that odors can be recognized by their modes of vibration. In this sense, this paper brings a novel comparison made between musky and nonmusky molecules, as to check the existence of correlation between their modes on the infrared spectra and odor. For this purpose, sixteen musky odorants were chosen, as well as seven other molecules that are structurally similar to them, but with no musk odor. All of them were submitted to solid theoretical methodology (using molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics and Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap Austin Model 1 methods to optimize geometries as to achieve density functional theory spectra information, with both Gradient Corrected Functional Perdew-Wang generalized-gradient approximation (GGA/PW91 and hybrid Becke, three-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP functional. For a proper analysis over spectral data, a mathematical method was designed, generating weighted averages for theoretical frequencies and computing deviations from these averages. It was then devised that musky odorants satisfied demands of the vibrational theory, while nonmusk compounds belonging either to nitro group or to acyclic group failed to fulfill the same criteria.

  6. Air-sea exchange fluxes of synthetic polycyclic musks in the North Sea and the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian; Heemken, Olaf; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2007-08-15

    Synthetic polycyclic musk fragrances Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) were measured simultaneously in air and seawater in the Arctic and the North Sea and in the rural air of northern Germany. Median concentrations of gas-phase HHCB and AHTN were 4 and 18 pg m(-3) in the Arctic, 28 and 18 pg m(-3) in the North Sea, and 71 and 21 pg m(-3) in northern Germany, respectively. Various ratios of HHCB/AHTN implied that HHCB is quickly removed by atmospheric degradation, while AHTN is relatively persistent in the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations ranged from 12 to 2030 pg L(-1) for HHCB and from below the method detection limit (3 pg L(-1)) to 965 pg L(-1) for AHTN with median values of 59 and 23 pg L(-1), respectively. The medians of volatilization fluxes for HHCB and AHTN were 27.2 and 14.2 ng m(-2) day(-1) and the depositional fluxes were 5.9 and 3.3 ng m(-2) day(-1), respectively, indicating water-to-air volatilization is a significant process to eliminate HHCB and AHTN from the North Sea. In the Arctic, deposition fluxes dominated the air-sea gas exchange of HHCB and AHTN, suggesting atmospheric input controls the levels of HHCB and AHTN in the polar region.

  7. Identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Xu, Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-07-01

    In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew. Positive selection analyses using the Maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that tTLR8 and tTLR9 were under positive selection, which might be associated with the adaptation to the pathogen challenge. The mRNA expression levels of tTLRs presented an overall low and tissue-specific pattern, and were significantly upregulated upon Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. tTLR4 and tTLR9 underwent alternative splicing, which leads to different transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis and TLR structure prediction indicated that tTLRs were evolutionarily conserved, which might reflect an ancient mechanism and structure in the innate immune response system. Taken together, TLRs had both conserved and unique features in the Chinese tree shrew. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tree shrews (tupaia belangeri exhibit novelty preference in the novel location memory task with 24-hour retention periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakrishnan H R Nair

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Novelty preference is pervasive in mammalian species, and describes an inherent tendency to preferentially explore novelty. The novel location memory task studied here assesses the ability of animals to form accurate memories of a spatial configuration, consisting of several identical objects placed within an arena. Tree shrews were first familiarized with a particular object configuration during several sessions, and then an object was displaced during a test session. Tree shrews exhibited enhanced exploration when confronted with this novel configuration. The most reliable indicator associated with novelty preference was an enhancement in directed exploration towards the novel object, although we also observed a non-specific overall increase in exploration in one experiment. During the test session, we also observed an exploration of the location, which had previously been occupied by the displaced object, an effect termed empty quadrant. Our behavioral findings suggest multiple stages of spatial memory formation in tree shrews that are associated with various forms of behavioral responses to novelty. Reduced novelty preference has been linked to major depressive disorder in human patients. Given the established social conflict depression model in tree shrews, we anticipate that the study of the neural circuits of novelty preference and their malfunction during depression may have implications for understanding or treating depression in humans.

  9. Enzyme activity, hormone concentration in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play an important role in the seasonal adaptation of body mass and thermogenesis in wild small mammals. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, is a unique species of small mammals which is origin of island in the Oriental realm. The present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy intake, metabolism, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT, and other biochemical characters of T. belangeri during cold exposure about 21 days. Our data demonstrate that cold acclimation induced a remarkable increase in body mass, a significant increase in energy intake and metabolic rate, and high expression of UCP1 in BAT of T. belangeri. Cold acclimation induced an increase in cytochrome c oxidase (COX and Thyroidhormones (T3/T4. These data supported that T. belangeri increased the body mass and increased energy intake and expenditure under cold acclimation. Increased expression of UCP1 was potentially involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and thermogenic capacity following cold acclimation. And it through changes in enzyme activity and hormone concentration under cold acclimation, and suggested temperature changes play an important role in the regulation of thermogenic capacity in tree shrew.

  10. "The Taming of the Shrew": authority and love at the origin of the modern nuclear family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Piazza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lesson on William Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew was written on occasion of the day against the astonishing number of women murdered by men especially men who pretended to love them. This phenomenon is not to be associated to a sort of archaic culture, but, on the contrary, it is related to modernity. In fact, violence and conflicts in a heterosexual couple come explicitly to the fore with and after the institution of the patriarchal nuclear family which at the origins of modernity posits love as the motivation of marriage and the formation of a family. Shakespeare and the Elizabethan theatre face the question both in tragedies and in comedies as in the case of The Taming of the Shrew where the shrew’s final monologue problematically sounds as the manifesto of the acknowledgment of the inferiority of women and so of the husband’s right to the woman’s subjection to her husband.

  11. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

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    Cunping Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  12. Dual mechanism of chromatin remodeling in the common shrew sex trivalent (XY 1Y 2

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    Sergey N. Matveevsky

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we focus on the XY1Y2 condition in male common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, applying electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry for a comprehensive analysis of structure, synapsis and behaviour of the sex trivalent in pachytene spermatocytes. The pachytene sex trivalent consists of three distinct parts: short and long synaptic SC fragments (between the X and Y1 and between the X and Y2, respectively and a long asynaptic region of the X in-between. Chromatin inactivation was revealed in the XY1 synaptic region, the asynaptic region of the X and a very small asynaptic part of the Y2. This inactive part of the sex trivalent, that we named the ‘head’, forms a typical sex body and is located at the periphery of the meiotic nucleus at mid pachytene. The second part or ‘tail’, a long region of synapsis between the X and Y2 chromosomes, is directed from the periphery into the nucleus. Based on the distribution patterns of four proteins involved in chromatin inactivation, we propose a model of meiotic silencing in shrew sex chromosomes. Thus, we conclude that pachytene sex chromosomes are structurally and functionally two different chromatin domains with specific nuclear topology: the peripheral inactivated ‘true’ sex chromosome regions (part of the X and the Y1 and more centrally located transcriptionally active autosomal segments (part of the X and the Y2.

  13. Long-wavelength (red) light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawne, Timothy J; Ward, Alexander H; Norton, Thomas T

    2017-11-01

    In infant tree shrews, exposure to narrow-band long-wavelength (red) light, that stimulates long-wavelength sensitive cones almost exclusively, slows axial elongation and produces hyperopia. We asked if red light produces hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent animals, ages when plus lenses are ineffective. Animals were raised in fluorescent colony lighting (100-300 lux) until they began 13days of red-light treatment at 11 (n=5, "infant"), 35 (n=5, "juvenile") or 95 (n=5, "adolescent") days of visual experience (DVE). LEDs provided 527-749 lux on the cage floor. To control for the higher red illuminance, a fluorescent control group (n=5) of juvenile (35 DVE) animals was exposed to ∼975 lux. Refractions were measured daily; ocular component dimensions at the start and end of treatment and end of recovery in colony lighting. These groups were compared with normals (n=7). In red light, the refractive state of both juvenile and adolescent animals became significantly (Prefractions (0.6±0.3D) were normal. In red-treated juveniles the vitreous chamber was significantly smaller than normal (Plight-induced slowed growth and hyperopia in juvenile and adolescent tree shrews demonstrates that the emmetropization mechanism is still capable of restraining eye growth at these ages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Size evolution in Goodwin’s small-eared shrew, Cryptotis goodwini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Merritt, J.F.; Churchfield, S.; Hutterer, R.; Sheftel, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fossils of Cryptotis goodwini from Honduras indicate that body sizes of modern individuals average at least 18% larger than among members of the late Pleistocene population of this species. Palynological and other paleoenvironmental studies provide evidence that the Neotropical montane environments that these shrews inhabit were cooler and drier in the late Pleistocene than at present and supported communities of plants without modern analog. Therefore, the most likely cause of this change in size ultimately was related to climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene?but to what specific factors did the species respond? I examined the possibilities that this species changed in size: to accommodate a change in temperature regime; to escape from predators; as a response to a change in intensity of interspecific competition; to take advantage of a newly abundant food resource. Based on evidence from studies of modern communities of shrews and niche partitioning, I hypothesized that size evolution in C. goodwini was directly related to changes in the community of soil and soil-surface invertebrates upon which the species depends, specifically an increase in the availability of earthworms (Annelida).

  15. Determination of musks and other fragrance compounds at ng/L levels using CLSA (closed loop stripping analysis) and GC/MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjans, D; Ventura, F

    2004-01-01

    Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA), a suitable tool for the determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds at low trace levels (ng/l), has been used to determine and quantify seven selected musks and two fragrances (Acetyl cedrene and Amberonne). The obtained extracts are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operating in the SIM mode. Quality parameters such as limit of detection; matrix effects; precision expressed as repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations of the method and an estimation of the uncertainty have been evaluated. The method has been applied to the analysis of wastewater effluents, surface water and tap water from different places in Europe. All samples contained differents musks at ng/l levels with the polycyclic musks Galaxolide and Tonalide and both fragrances, Amberonne and Acetyl cedrene, being the most abundant. These results suggest the importance of studying and controlling the presence of these ubiquitous environmental compounds in water systems.

  16. Ancient DNA analyses exclude humans as the driving force behind late Pleistocene musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Paula; Willerslev, Eske; Sher, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions are poorly understood. Different lines of evidence point to climate change, the arrival of humans, or a combination of these events as the trigger. Although many species went extinct, others, such as caribou and bison, survived......, as it was the geographic origin of all samples studied and held a large diverse population until local extinction at approximately 45,000 radiocarbon years before present ((14)C YBP). Subsequently, musk ox genetic diversity reincreased at ca. 30,000 (14)C YBP, recontracted at ca. 18,000 (14)C YBP, and finally recovered...

  17. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Because effects of habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbance on native animals have been relatively little studied in arid areas and in insectivores, we investigated the roles of different land covers, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews, Notiosorex crawfordi and Sorex ornatus, in southern California.Notiosorex crawfordi was the numerically dominant species (trap-success rate 0·52) occurring in 21 of the 22 study sites in 85% of the 286 pitfall arrays used in this study.Sorex ornatus was captured in 14 of the sites, in 52% of the arrays with a total trap-success rate of 0·2. Neither of the species was found in one of the sites.The population dynamics of the two shrew species were relatively synchronous during the 4–5-year study; the peak densities usually occurred during the spring. Precipitation had a significant positive effect, and maximum temperature a significant negative effect on the trap-success rate of S. ornatus.Occurrence and abundance of shrews varied significantly between sites and years but the size of the landscape or the study site had no effect on the abundance of shrews. The amount of urban edge had no significant effect on the captures of shrews but increased edge allows invasion of the Argentine ants, which had a highly significant negative impact on the abundance of N. crawfordi.At the trap array level, the percentage of coastal sage scrub flora had a significant positive, and the percentage of other flora had a significant negative effect on the abundance of N. crawfordi. The mean canopy height and the abundance of N. crawfordi had a significant positive effect on the occurrence of S. ornatus.Our study suggests that the loss of native coastal sage scrub flora and increasing presence of Argentine ant colonies may significantly effect the distribution and abundance of N. crawfordi. The very low overall population densities of both shrew species in most study sites make both species

  18. The taming of the shrew: batterers' constructions of their wives' narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borochowitz, Dalit Yassour

    2008-10-01

    Constructing a life story is a need shared by all humans to give their lives meaning and coherence. This article explores some of the narrative devices that batterers use to achieve a sense of coherence when telling their stories and justifying their violent behavior. A central theme that emerged from these stories centered on the men's perception of their wives as the embodiment of their own emotions and inner world. Two narrative strategies were identified in this context: (a) The construction of a "couple narrative" that focused on an idealized marital relationship rather than "allowing" the wife her story and (b) constructing a story around the theme of "she's not the same woman I married," which portrays the wife as "a shrew" and the violence as an attempt to discipline her. The stories of 18 batterers were used for this analysis, and two narratives were used to illustrate these strategies.

  19. Tranio Transformed: Social Anxieties and Social Metamorphosis in The Taming of the Shrew

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    Sonya L. Brockman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Elizabethan anxieties about the increasing fluidity of social status through an examination of the servant Tranio in Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew. It argues that Tranio’s informed and willing participation in this social performance embodies the anxieties about social mobility held by members of the Elizabethan elite. In contrast to other figures of social metamorphosis in the play, Tranio’s social transformation is temporary, even though, like Christopher Sly, he is transformed into a gentleman at the behest of his Lord. He must return to his servile status in the final act, however, not only because he can so successfully perform the role of master, but because he knowingly participates in his own social metamorphosis. The article suggests, in conclusion, that it is the servant’s knowledge of his own performative power that makes him a threat in Elizabethan society. 

  20. Solar radiation during rewarming from torpor in elephant shrews: supplementation or substitution of endogenous heat production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michelle L; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi; Bennett, Nigel C; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Many small mammals bask in the sun during rewarming from heterothermy, but the implications of this behaviour for their energy balance remain little understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether solar radiation supplements endogenous metabolic thermogenesis (i.e., rewarming occurs through the additive effects of internally-produced and external heat), or whether solar radiation reduces the energy required to rewarm by substituting (i.e, replacing) metabolic heat production. To address this question, we examined patterns of torpor and rewarming rates in eastern rock elephant shrews (Elephantulus myurus) housed in outdoor cages with access to either natural levels of solar radiation or levels that were experimentally reduced by means of shade cloth. We also tested whether acclimation to solar radiation availability was manifested via phenotypic flexibility in basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity and/or summit metabolism (Msum). Rewarming rates varied significantly among treatments, with elephant shrews experiencing natural solar radiation levels rewarming faster than conspecifics experiencing solar radiation levels equivalent to approximately 20% or 40% of natural levels. BMR differed significantly between individuals experiencing natural levels of solar radiation and conspecifics experiencing approximately 20% of natural levels, but no between-treatment difference was evident for NST capacity or Msum. The positive relationship between solar radiation availability and rewarming rate, together with the absence of acclimation in maximum non-shivering and total heat production capacities, suggests that under the conditions of this study solar radiation supplemented rather than substituted metabolic thermogenesis as a source of heat during rewarming from heterothermy.

  1. Species interactions during diversification and community assembly in an island radiation of shrews.

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    Jacob A Esselstyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Closely related, ecologically similar species often have adjacent distributions, suggesting competitive exclusion may contribute to the structure of some natural communities. In systems such as island archipelagos, where speciation is often tightly associated with dispersal over oceanic barriers, competitive exclusion may prevent population establishment following inter-island dispersal and subsequent cladogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a combination of tools, we test the hypothesis that the distributions of shrew (Crocidura species in the Philippines are the result of competitive exclusion preventing secondary invasion of occupied islands. We first compare ecological niche models between two widespread, allopatric species and find statistical support for their ecological similarity, implying that competition for habitat between these species is possible. We then examine dispersion patterns among sympatric species and find some signal for overdispersion of body size, but not for phylogenetic branch length. Finally, we simulate the process of inter-island colonization under a stochastic model of dispersal lacking ecological forces. Results are dependent on the geographic scope and colonization probability employed. However, some combinations suggest that the number of inter-island dispersal events necessary to populate the archipelago may be much higher than the minimum number of colonization events necessary to explain current estimates of species richness and phylogenetic relationships. If our model is appropriate, these results imply that alternative factors, such as competitive exclusion, may have influenced the process of inter-island colonization and subsequent cladogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We interpret the combined results as providing tenuous evidence that similarity in body size may prevent co-occurrence in Philippine shrews and that competitive exclusion among ecologically similar species, rather

  2. Microvascularization in trigeminal ganglion of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongstaponkit, S; Pradidarcheep, W; Toutip, S; Chunhabundit, P; Somana, R

    1997-01-01

    Since there is only a limited number of studies of the blood supply to the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in mammalian species, the TG from 16 common tree shrews (Tupaia glis) were investigated by light microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the corrosion cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the TG contained clusters of neurons in the peripheral region whereas the bundles of nerve fibers were located more centrally. Each ganglionic neuron had a concentric nucleus and was ensheathed by satellite cells. It was noted that blood vessels of a continuous type were predominantly found in the area where the neurons were densely located and were much less frequently observed in the area occupied by nerve fibers. With TEM, the TG was shown to be mainly associated with large neurons containing big nuclei and prominent nucleoli. The blood supply of the TG is derived from the most rostral branch of the pontine artery, from the stapedial artery or sometimes from the supraorbital artery, and from the accessory meningeal artery which is a branch of the maxillary artery passing through the foramen ovale. These arteries give off branches and become capillary networks in the ganglion before draining blood to the peripheral region. The veins at the medial border drained into the cavernous sinus directly or through the inferior hypophyseal vein, while those at the lateral side of the ganglion carried the blood into the pterygoid plexus via an accessory meningeal vein. The veins along the trigeminal nerve root joined the posterior part of the cavernous sinus. These studies establish a unique anatomical distribution of the TG blood supply in the tree shrew and the utility of the cast/SEM technique in discerning detailed features of the blood supply in the nervous system.

  3. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, G. Kevin; Fowler, Megan C.; Hope, Andrew G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  4. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation.

  5. DETERMINATION OF A BOUND MUSK XYLENE METABOLITE IN CARP HEMOGLOBIN AS A BIOMARKER OF EXPOSURE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY USING SELECTED ION MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk xylene (MX) is widely used as a fragrance ingredient in commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (AMX) metabolite was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Detection of AMX occur...

  6. Carving out turf in a biodiversity hotspot: multiple, previously unrecognized shrew species co-occur on Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselstyn, Jacob A; Maharadatunkamsi; Achmadi, Anang S; Siler, Cameron D; Evans, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    In theory, competition among species in a shared habitat results in niche separation. In the case of small recondite mammals such as shrews, little is known about their autecologies, leaving open questions regarding the degree to which closely related species co-occur and how or whether ecological niches are partitioned. The extent to which species are able to coexist may depend on the degree to which they exploit different features of their habitat, which may in turn influence our ability to recognize them as species. We explored these issues in a biodiversity hotspot, by surveying shrew (genus Crocidura) diversity on the Indonesian island of Java. We sequenced portions of nine unlinked genes in 100-117 specimens of Javan shrews and incorporated homologous data from most known Crocidura species from other parts of island South-East Asia. Current taxonomy recognizes four Crocidura species on Java, including two endemics. However, our phylogenetic, population genetic and species delimitation analyses identify five species on the island, and all are endemic to Java. While the individual ranges of these species may not overlap in their entirety, we found up to four species living syntopically and all five species co-occurring on one mountain. Differences in species' body size, use of above ground-level habitats by one species and habitat partitioning along ecological gradients may have facilitated species diversification and coexistence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A new species of small-eared shrew (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Lázaro; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; León-Paniagua, Livia; Woodman, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of mammals in the American tropics remain incompletely known. We describe a new species of small-eared shrew (Soricidae, Cryptotis) from the Lacandona rain forest, Chiapas, southern Mexico. The new species is distinguished from other species of Cryptotis on the basis of a unique combination of pelage coloration, size, dental, cranial, postcranial, and external characters, and genetic distances. It appears most closely related to species in the Cryptotis nigrescens species group, which occurs from southern Mexico to montane regions of Colombia. This discovery is particularly remarkable because the new species is from a low-elevation habitat (approximately 90 m), whereas most shrews in the region are restricted to higher elevations, typically > 1,000 m. The only known locality for the new shrew is in one of the last areas in southern Mexico where relatively undisturbed tropical vegetation is still found. The type locality is protected by the Mexican government as part of the Yaxchilán Archaeological Site on the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF RATS AND SHREW IN ARGASOKA AND KUTABANJAR VILLAGE BANJARNEGARA SUB DISTRICT BANJARNEGARA DISTRICT 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Anggi Widayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTikus (Ordo Rodentia merupakan hewan yang mempunyai peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia baik bersifatmenguntungkan maupun merugikan. Spesies tikus mempunyai habitat masing-masing untuk berkembangbiak. Pemukimanmerupakan habitat tikus untuk memperoleh makanan. Tujuan penelitian untuk menggambarkan keberhasilan penangkapantikus dan mengidentifikasi tikus yang tertangkap di Kelurahan Argasoka dan Kutabanjarnegara. Metode penelitianmenggunakan survei dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Populasi adalah tikus yang berada di Kelurahan Argasoka danKelurahan Kutabanjarnegara. Sampel adalah tikus yang tertangkap menggunakan perangkap sebanyak 100 perangkapyang dipasang di lokasi penelitian selama 2 malam,dengan menggunakan umpan kelapa bakar dan ikan asin. Analisis datasecara deskriptif disajikan dalam bentuk narasi dan tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan keberhasilanpenangkapan tikus di Kelurahan Argasoka sebesar 10,5% dan di Kelurahan Kutabanjarnegara sebesar 6%. Tikus yangtertangkap 25 ekor Rattus tanezumi (75,76%, 1ekor R. tiomanicus (3,03%, dan 7 ekor Suncus murinus (21,21%. Tikus dancecurut berjenis kelamin jantan lebih banyak ditemukan (54,54 % daripada betina (45,45 %.Kata kunci: tikus, keberhasilan penangkapan, identifikasiABSTRACTRat is an animal that have important role to human being, even its profitable or adverse. This species have their own habitatto each depression. The community settlement is one of rat habitat to get food. The research purpose is to measure the trapsuccess of rat and to identify rat species in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. The research used surveymethod with cross sectional approach. Population were rats those lived in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village. The samplewere rats those caught using single live traps in Argasoka and Kutabanjar Village, Banjarnegara. Rat trapping wasconducted for 2 nights using 100 single live traps with the roasted coconut and salted fish. Technical

  9. Identification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Rat and Shrew Populations Using rpoB Gene and Its Spatial Distribution in Boyolali District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Widiastuti

    2016-08-01

    Ngemplak dan Desa Jeron Kecamatan Nogosari, Kabupaten Boyolali. Pemeriksaan Polymerase Chain Reaction dilakukan pada 104 sampel ginjal tikus dari dua lokasi penelitian. Analisis spasial sederhana dilakukan untuk memetakan sebaran tikus yang positif Leptospira. Terdapat enam sampel positif gen rpoB Leptospira pada Rattus tanezumi, Rattus argentiventer dan Suncus murinus. Lima dari keenam sampel menunjukkan hubungan kekerabatan yang paling dekat dengan Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe berdasarkan gen rpoB. Satu isolat tidak memiliki hubungan kekerabatan yang dekat dengan serovar manapun yang masuk dalam cluster. Analisis spasial berdasarkan jarak aktivitas harian tikus menunjukkan tikus positif Leptospira ditemukan berada dalam kisaran 30 meter dan 150 meter dari penderita leptospirosis.

  10. Sticky snack for sengis: The Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea), as a pollinator of the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Following the recent discovery of rodent pollination in the Pagoda lily, Whiteheadia bifolia (Hyacinthaceae) in South Africa, now the Cape rock elephant-shrew, Elephantulus edwardii (Macroscelidea, Afrotheria) is reported as an additional pollinator. Elephant-shrews, live-trapped near W. bifolia plants, were released in two terraria, containing the plants. The animals licked nectar with their long and slender tongues while being dusted with pollen and touching the stigmas of the flowers with their long and flexible noses. The captured elephant-shrews had W. bifolia pollen in their faeces, likely as a result of grooming their fur as they visited the flowers without eating or destroying them. The animals mostly preferred nectar over other food. This is the first record of pollination and nectar consumption in the primarily insectivorous E. edwardii, contributing to the very sparse knowledge about the behaviour of this unique clade of African mammals, as well as pollination by small mammals.

  11. Geographic isolation and elevational gradients promote diversification in an endemic shrew on Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Ryan A; Achmadi, Anang S; Giarla, Thomas C; Rowe, Kevin C; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2018-01-01

    Phylogeographic research on endemic primates and amphibians inhabiting the Indonesian island of Sulawesi revealed the existence of seven areas of endemism (AoEs). Here, we use phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of one mitochondrial gene and 15 nuclear loci to assess geographic patterns of genetic partitioning in a shrew (Crocidura elongata) that is endemic to Sulawesi, but occurs across the island. We uncover substantial genetic diversity in this species both between and within AoEs, but we also identify close relationships between populations residing in different AoEs. One of the earliest divergences within C. elongata distinguishes a high-elevation clade from low-elevation clades. In addition, on one mountain, we observe three distinct genetic groups from low, middle, and high elevations, suggesting divergence along a single elevational gradient. In general, our results show that C. elongata, like several other Sulawesi endemic taxa, harbors extensive genetic diversity. This diversity is structured in part by known AoE boundaries, but also by elevational gradients and geographic isolation within AoEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Shrews, rats, and a polecat in "the pardoner’s tale": Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sandy; Woodman, Neal; Van Dyke, Carolynn

    2012-01-01

    While historically existing animals and literary animal characters inform allegorical and metaphorical characterization in The Canterbury Tales, figurative usage does not erase recognition of the material animal. "The Pardoner's Tale," for one, challenges the terms of conventional animal metaphors by refocusing attention on common animals as common animals and common human creatures as something worse than vermin. Most attention has been paid to the larger animals-goat, hare, and horse-that constitute the physical portrait of Chaucer's Pardoner in the "General Prologue" and in the prologue to his tale.! Like these animals, rats and a polecat, together with rhetorical shrews, appear in this tale as well as in other literature, including bestiaries and natural histories. Equally to the purpose, these animals could be physically observed as constituents of both urban and rural landscapes in fourteenth-century England.2 In the Middle Ages, animals were part of the environment as well as part of the culture: they lived inside as well as outside the city gates, priory walls, and even domestic spaces; a rat in the street or the garden might not be any less welcome or uncommon than encountering someone's horses and goats nibbling vegetation or blocking a passage. Not being out of the ordinary, though, such animals could (and can) be overlooked or dismissed as com­mon, too familiar to register. This chapter reveals why readers and listeners should pay close attention to the things they think they know and what they hear about what they think they know.

  13. A climate for speciation: rapid spatial diversification within the Sorex cinereus complex of shrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Speer, Kelly A.; Demboski, John R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic climate regime of the late Quaternary caused dramatic environmental change at high latitudes. Although these events may have been brief in periodicity from an evolutionary standpoint, multiple episodes of allopatry and divergence have been implicated in rapid radiations of a number of organisms. Shrews of the Sorex cinereus complex have long challenged taxonomists due to similar morphology and parapatric geographic ranges. Here, multi-locus phylogenetic and demographic assessments using a coalescent framework were combined to investigate spatiotemporal evolution of 13 nominal species with a widespread distribution throughout North America and across Beringia into Siberia. For these species, we first test a hypothesis of recent differentiation in response to Pleistocene climate versus more ancient divergence that would coincide with pre-Pleistocene perturbations. We then investigate the processes driving diversification over multiple continents. Our genetic analyses highlight novel diversity within these morphologically conserved mammals and clarify relationships between geographic distribution and evolutionary history. Demography within and among species indicates both regional stability and rapid expansion. Ancestral ecological differentiation coincident with early cladogenesis within the complex enabled alternating and repeated episodes of allopatry and expansion where successive glacial and interglacial phases each promoted divergence. The Sorex cinereus complex constitutes a valuable model for future comparative assessments of evolution in response to cyclic environmental change.

  14. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  15. Aspects of masticatory form and function in common tree shrews, Tupaia glis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, D R

    1983-04-01

    Tree shrews have relatively primitive tribosphenic molars that are apparently similar to those of basal eutherians; thus, these animals have been used as a model to describe mastication in early mammals. In this study the gross morphology of the bony skull, joints, dentition, and muscles of mastication are related to potential jaw movements and cuspal relationships. Potential for complex mandibular movements is indicated by a mobile mandibular symphysis, shallow mandibular fossa that is large compared to its resident condyle, and relatively loose temporomandibular joint ligaments. Abrasive tooth wear is noticeable, and is most marked at the first molars and buccal aspects of the upper cheek teeth distal to P2. Muscle morphology is basically similar to that previously described for Tupaia minor and Ptilocercus lowii. However, in T. glis, an intraorbital part of deep temporalis has the potential for inducing lingual translation of its dentary, and the large medial pterygoid has extended its origin anteriorly to the floor of the orbit, which would enhance protrusion. The importance of the tongue and hyoid muscles during mastication is suggested by broadly expanded anterior bellies of digastrics, which may assist mylohyoids in tensing the floor of the mouth during forceful tongue actions, and by preliminary electromyography, which suggests that masticatory muscles alone cannot fully account for jaw movements in this species.

  16. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  17. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Nadjafova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetical and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011. However, rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists.It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008.

  18. Invading and expanding: range dynamics and ecological consequences of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula invasion in Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan D McDevitt

    Full Text Available Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus, previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013 to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008-2013, and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012-2013 showing rates of 2.4-14.1 km/yr, 0.5-7.1 km/yr and 0-5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island.

  19. Determination of Muscone in Rats Plasma following Oral Administration of Artificial Musk: Using of Combined Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibiao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop an analytical method for determination of plasma concentrations of muscone in rats following oral administration of artificial musk, with the aim of investigating the pharmacokinetic profile of artificial musk. Plasma samples were pretreated with acetonitrile to precipitate proteins. Headspace injection coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for quantitative analysis of muscone concentrations. A strong linear relationship was obtained for plasma muscone concentrations ranging from 75.6 to 7560 ng·mL−1  R2=0.9998, with the minimum detectable concentration being 25 ng·mL−1. The within-day and interday precision for determination of three different concentrations of muscone were favorable (RSD < 25%. The average absolute recovery ranged from 83.7 to 88.6%, with an average relative recovery of 100.5 to 109.8%. The method described was characterized by stability and reliability, and in the present study showed significant specificity and high sensitivity. This method would be applicable to the analysis of plasma concentrations of muscone in preclinical contexts, where artificial musk is used.

  20. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results: High grazing...... as well as in most other European countries, the amount of land covered by semi-natural grassland has decreased dramatically during the 20th century concurrent with the general intensification of the agricultural production. To reverse this trend, actions are being taken in many places to either maintain...

  1. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-06

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  2. How does the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, responds to long-term heavy metal contamination? - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Carla Cristina; Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Gabriel, Sofia Isabel; Nadal, Jacint; Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria; Luz Mathias, Maria da

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals accumulation in parallel with the evaluation of physiological and biochemical effects resulting from continued metal exposure were considered here using for the first time the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula as an in vivo model. Shrews were originated from an abandoned lead/zinc mining area and from a reference area, both in Alentejo, southern Portugal. Hepatic contents of nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Haematological parameters (white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit) were obtained in a Coulter Counter Analyser and biochemical markers of the redox balance (glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities were measured spectrophotometrically using a Duo-50 spectrophotometer. Compared with control animals, significantly higher concentration of hepatic cadmium (9.29 vs. 1.18 μg/g dry weight) and nickel (1.56 vs. 0.343 μg/g dry weight) were detected in the shrews collected in the mining area. However, no significant changes were observed on haematological or enzymatic parameters in animals exposed to metal pollution. The obtained results show that shrews are good bioaccumulators of toxic heavy metals, but very tolerant to their effects, revealing an interesting long-term adaptation to polluted environments. In addition, this study provides reference values for haematological parameters and antioxidant enzymes levels in C. russula, which may be relevant for comparative purposes in further studies

  3. Somatostatin-immunoreactive senile plaque-like structures in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of aged tree shrews and Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Akiko; Fuchs, Eberhard; Taira, Masato; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2012-06-01

    Previously, we demonstrated decreased expression of somatostatin mRNA in aged macaque brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. To investigate whether or not this age-dependent decrease in mRNA is related to morphological changes, we analyzed somatostatin cells in the cerebra of aged Japanese macaques and compared them with those in rats and tree shrews, the latter of which are closely related to primates. Brains of aged macaques, tree shrews, and rats were investigated by immunohistochemistry with special emphasis on somatostatin. We observed degenerating somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in the cortices of aged macaques and tree shrews. Somatostatin-immunoreactive senile plaque-like structures were found in areas 6 and 8 and in the nucleus accumbens of macaques, as well as in the nucleus accumbens and the cortex of aged tree shrews, where amyloid accumulations were observed. Somatostatin degenerations may be related to amyloid accumulations and may play roles in impairments of cognitive functions during aging. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Influence of elevation and forest type on community assemblage and species distribution of shrews in the central and southern Appalachian mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Timothy S. McCay; Michael A. Menzel; W. David Webster; Cathryn H. Greenberg; John F. Pagels; Joseph F. Merritt; Joseph F. Merritt

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed shrew community data from 398,832 pitfall trapnights at 303 sites across the upper Piedmont, Blue Ridge, northern Ridge and Valley, southern Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Mountains and Plateau sections of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to Pennsylvania. The objectives of our research were to describe regional...

  5. Helminth associations in white-toothed shrews Crocidura russula (Insectivora: Soricidae) from the Albufera Natural Park, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, Enrique; Granel, Pedro; Esteban, J Guillermo; Cabaret, Jacques

    2004-06-01

    The helminths of 218 white-toothed shrews from 29 sites in 2 biotopes in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) were examined from July 1990 to August 1991. An association analysis of helminths occurring at a prevalence of more than 4% was carried out for 4 species of cestodes located in the intestine (Hymenolepis pistillum, H. scalaris, H. tiara, and Pseudhymenolepis redonica) and 3 species of nematodes (Pseudophysaloptera sp. located in the stomach, Stammerinema rhopocephala larvae in the intestine and abdominal cavity, and Porrocaecum sp. in the thoracic and abdominal cavities). Bivariate (species pairs) versus multivariate analyses (associations within the entire set of species) were performed of presence-absence and of quantitative records (influence of intensity on associations). The associations were evaluated with respect to the sex and age of the host and to the sampling date and sites. The host and environment played a limited role, and the major determinant of species assemblage was phylogenetic. Positive associations were found among both the cestodes and the nematodes, whereas negative associations were found between cestodes and nematodes. The type of life cycle was probably the second greatest determinant of species associations. Nematodes using shrews as a paratenic host or as their definitive host were both positively associated.

  6. A New Approach to the Shrew Group in Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio%《聊斋志异》悍妇群新论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2016-01-01

    Shrews in Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio not only are great in number but also forms a complete picture of its group. In the past, studies on the shrews in this novel were from such aspects as views on marriage and religions, and the most typical views were to redress customs, reflect social practice and patri-archy projection. These theories, however, fail to satisfactorily explain the prevailing of shrews in this novel. Under the unique circumstances of Ming and Qing Dynasty, Pu Songling, the novelist, was deeply influenced by the ideology of “distinguishing Central China from its neighbors”, which has a profound influence on his literary works. As literacy inquisition occurred repeatedly in Qing Dynasty, writers had to seek a roundabout way to express his feeling. The group of shrews in Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio was thus formed. The novelist found his voice in the shrews and the shrews carry with them more symbolic meaning than realistic meaning. To know the symbolic meaning of the shrews helps readers understand Pu Songling and his literary recreation.%《聊斋志异》中的悍妇不仅数量众多,且可构成一体系完备的悍妇群。对《聊斋志异》悍妇的研究,多从婚姻观、宗教观角度分析,以“正风俗”、现实反映论以及男权投射论最为典型。然这些理论都不能尽解《聊斋志异》悍妇盛行之因。在明末清初特殊的社会背景下,蒲松龄深受“夷夏之辨”的思想意识影响,并深深影响其《聊斋志异》的创作;但清代文字狱迭发,抒发自己家国情怀,只能以迂回委婉的方式表达。悍妇便是这一家国情怀抒发的载体之一,其象征意义大于现实意义。了解悍妇的象征意义,对研究蒲松龄《聊斋志异》的创作有一定的意义。

  7. Neural Progenitors in the Developing Neocortex of the Northern Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri Show a Closer Relationship to Gyrencephalic Primates Than to Lissencephalic Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Römer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is the most complex part of the mammalian brain and as such it has undergone tremendous expansion during evolution, especially in primates. The majority of neocortical neurons originate from distinct neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs located in the ventricular and subventricular zone (SVZ. Previous studies revealed that the SVZ thickness as well as the abundance and distribution of NPCs, especially that of basal radial glia (bRG, differ markedly between the lissencephalic rodent and gyrencephalic primate neocortex. The northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri is a rat-sized mammal with a high brain to body mass ratio, which stands phylogenetically mid-way between rodents and primates. Our study provides – for the first time – detailed data on the presence, abundance and distribution of bRG and other distinct NPCs in the developing neocortex of the northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri. We show that the developing tree shrew neocortex is characterized by an expanded SVZ, a high abundance of Pax6+ NPCs in the SVZ, and a relatively high percentage of bRG at peak of upper-layer neurogenesis. We further demonstrate that key features of tree shrew neocortex development, e.g., the presence, abundance and distribution of distinct NPCs, are closer related to those of gyrencephalic primates than to those of ferret and lissencephalic rodents. Together, our study provides novel insight into the evolution of bRG and other distinct NPCs in the neocortex development of Euarchontoglires and introduces the tree shrew as a potential novel model organism in the area of human brain development and developmental disorders.

  8. Agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling as a therapeutic target for myasthenia gravis and other neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kinji; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako

    2017-10-01

    Signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is compromised in a diverse array of diseases including myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Isaacs' syndrome, congenital myasthenic syndromes, Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and sarcopenia. Except for sarcopenia, all are orphan diseases. In addition, the NMJ signal transduction is impaired by tetanus, botulinum, curare, α-bungarotoxin, conotoxins, organophosphate, sarin, VX, and soman to name a few. Areas covered: This review covers the agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling pathway, which drives clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and ensures efficient signal transduction at the NMJ. We also address diseases caused by autoantibodies against the NMJ molecules and by germline mutations in genes encoding the NMJ molecules. Expert opinion: Representative small compounds to treat the defective NMJ signal transduction are cholinesterase inhibitors, which exert their effects by increasing the amount of acetylcholine at the synaptic space. Another possible therapeutic strategy to enhance the NMJ signal transduction is to increase the number of AChRs, but no currently available drug has this functionality.

  9. Recessive variants of MuSK are associated with late onset CMS and predominant limb girdle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David; Töpf, Ana; Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani; Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Vroling, Bas; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Dias-Tosta, Elza; Geraldo, Argemiro; Polavarapu, Kiran; Nashi, Saraswati; Cox, Daniel; Evangelista, Teresinha; Dawson, John; Thompson, Rachel; Senderek, Jan; Laurie, Steven; Beltran, Sergi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Nalini, Atchayaram; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2018-04-28

    Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a heterogeneous disorder that causes fatigable muscle weakness. CMS has been associated with variants in the MuSK gene and, to date, 16 patients have been reported. MuSK-CMS patients present a different phenotypic pattern of limb girdle weakness. Here, we describe four additional patients and discuss the phenotypic and clinical relationship with those previously reported. Two novel damaging missense variants are described: c.1742T > A; p.I581N found in homozygosis, and c.1634T > C; p.L545P found in compound heterozygosis with p.R166*. The reported patients had predominant limb girdle weakness with symptom onset at 12, 17, 18, and 30 years of age, and the majority exhibited a good clinical response to Salbutamol therapy, but not to esterase inhibitors. Meta-analysis including previously reported variants revealed an increased likelihood of a severe, respiratory phenotype with null alleles. Missense variants exclusively affecting the kinase domain, but not the catalytic site, are associated with late onset. These data refine the phenotype associated with MuSK-related CMS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structural Analysis Of CD59 Of Chinese Tree Shrew: A New Reference Molecule For Human Immune System Specific CD59 Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subhamay; Kumari, Leena; Panda, Santamay

    2017-11-17

    Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. Subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research. CD59 glycoprotein, commonly referred to as MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL), or protectin, is encoded by the CD59 gene in human beings. It is the member of the LY6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein family. With this initial point the objective of this study was to determine a comparative composite based structure of CD59 of Chinese tree shrew. The additional objective of this study was to examine the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis with the assistance of several bioinformatical analytical tools. CD59 Amino acid sequence of Chinese tree shrew collected from the online database system of National Centre for Biotechnology Information. SignalP 4.0 online server was employed for detection of signal peptide instance within the protein sequence of CD59. Molecular model structure of CD59 protein was generated by the Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) suite. The confirmation for three-dimensional structural model was evaluated by structure validation tools. Location of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, and hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis was performed with the help of Chimera tool. Electrostatic potential analysis was carried out with the adaptive Poisson

  11. Occurrence of the Madras Tree Shrew Anathana ellioti (Waterhouse (Scandentia: Tupaiidae in the Biligirirangan Hills, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Srinivasan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Madras Tree Shrew Anathana ellioti (Waterhouse 1850 is a small mammal belonging to the order Scandentia, and is endemic to peninsular India. It inhabits deciduous forests and has till date not been reported from the Biligiriranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (BRT WLS or the contiguous hill ranges or from anywhere else in the state of Karnataka. We provide details of nine independent sightings of this species from six locations in the BRT WLS between 2003 and 2008. Photographs of the three individuals from different locations are also presented. These records indicate an extension of the range of this species in the BRT WLS, and possibly the forests contiguous to the protected area.

  12. Distributional records of shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) from Northern Central America with the first record of Sorex from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Matson, John O.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Bulmer, Walter; Ordonez-Garza, Nicte

    2012-01-01

    Short term surveys for small mammals in Guatemala and Honduras during 1992–2009 provided important new records for 12 taxa of shrews from 24 localities. These locality records expand the known geographic distributions for five species and for the genus Sorex Linnaeus, 1758: the geographic range of Cryptotis goodwini Jackson, 1933, now includes the Sierra de las Minas, Guatemala, and several isolated highlands in western Honduras; the known distribution of Cryptotis mayensis (Merriam, 1901) is increased with the first definite modern record for this shrew from Guatemala; Cryptotis merriami Choate, 1970, is now known to occur in the Sierra de las Minas and the Sierra del Merendon, Guatemala, as well as the isolated Sierra de Omoa and Montana de La Muralla in Honduras, and its documented elevational range (600–1720 m) is expanded; records of Sorex veraepacis Alston, 1877, expand the known distribution of this species to include the Sierra de Yalijux, Guatemala; and discovery of Sorex salvini Merriam, 1897, at Celaque, Honduras (1825–3110 m), represents a considerable extension of the geographic range of the species, and it is the first record of the genus Sorex from Honduras. In addition, the first record of potential syntopy among C. goodwini, C merriami, and Cryptotis orophilus (J.A. Allen, 1895), is reported at an elevation of 1430 m in the Sierra de Celaque, Honduras. Information associated with these records contributes substantially to knowledge of habitat use, elevational distributions, reproductive patterns, diet, and parasites of the species encountered. General patterns include the first evidence that Neotropical species of soricids have smaller litters than their temperate congeners.

  13. Innervation of Extrahepatic Biliary Tract, With Special Reference to the Direct Bidirectional Neural Connections of the Gall Bladder, Sphincter of Oddi and Duodenum in Suncus murinus, in Whole-Mount Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S-Q; Ren, K; Kinoshita, M; Takano, N; Itoh, M; Ozaki, N

    2016-06-01

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is one of the most important symptoms in post-cholecystectomy syndrome. Using either electrical or mechanical stimulation and retrogradely transported neuronal dyes, it has been demonstrated that there are direct neural pathways connecting gall bladder and the sphincter of Oddi in the Australian opossum and the golden hamster. In the present study, we employed whole-mount immunohistochemistry staining to observe and verify that there are two different plexuses of the extrahepatic biliary tract in Suncus murinus. One, named Pathway One, showed a fine, irregular but dense network plexus that ran adhesively and resided on/in the extrahepatic biliary tract wall, and the plexus extended into the intrahepatic area. On the other hand, named Pathway Two, exhibiting simple, thicker and straight neural bundles, ran parallel to the surface of the extrahepatic biliary tract and passed between the gall bladder and duodenum, but did not give off any branches to the liver. Pathway Two was considered to involve direct bidirectional neural connections between the duodenum and the biliary tract system. For the first time, morphologically, we demonstrated direct neural connections between gall bladder and duodenum in S. murinus. Malfunction of the sphincter of Oddi may be caused by injury of the direct neural pathways between gall bladder and duodenum by cholecystectomy. From the viewpoint of preserving the function of the major duodenal papilla and common bile duct, we emphasize the importance of avoiding kocherization of the common bile duct so as to preserve the direct neural connections between gall bladder and sphincter of Oddi. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. [Identification of a novel WART-like chromosome rearrangement in complex heterozygotes in an interracial hybrid zone of the common shrew Sorex araneus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, S V; Bulatova, N Sh

    2010-09-01

    Karyotypes uncharacteristic of pure races or hybrids were identified in the interracial hybrid zones of the common shrew Sorex araneus L. that were recently discovered in the European part of Russia. This suggests the actual existence in natural populations of WART-like rearrangements (whole-arm reciprocal translocations) along with Robertsonian fusions of acrocentrics. Demonstration of new and still rare chromosome variants is the aim of this communication.

  15. The impact of fire on habitat use by the short-snouted elephant shrew ('Elephantulus brachyrhynchus') in North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yarnell, R; Metcalfe, D; Dunstone, N; Burnside, N; Scott, D

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the response of small mammal populations to fire, but few have investigated behavioural responses to habitat modification. In this study we investigated the impact of fire on home range, habitat use and activity patterns of the short-snouted elephant shrew (Elephantulus brachyrhynchus) by radio-tracking individuals before and after a fire event. All animals survived the passage of fire in termite mound refugia. Before the fire, grassland was used more than th...

  16. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.sanchez.chardi@ub.edu; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  17. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  18. Chromosome Synapsis and Recombination in Male Hybrids between Two Chromosome Races of the Common Shrew (Sorex araneus L., Soricidae, Eulipotyphla

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    Nadezhda M. Belonogova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid zones between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus provide exceptional models to study the potential role of chromosome rearrangements in the initial steps of speciation. The Novosibirsk and Tomsk races differ by a series of Robertsonian fusions with monobrachial homology. They form a narrow hybrid zone and generate hybrids with both simple (chain of three chromosomes and complex (chain of eight or nine synaptic configurations. Using immunolocalisation of the meiotic proteins, we examined chromosome pairing and recombination in males from the hybrid zone. Homozygotes and simple heterozygotes for Robertsonian fusions showed a low frequency of synaptic aberrations (<10%. The carriers of complex synaptic configurations showed multiple pairing abnormalities, which might lead to reduced fertility. The recombination frequency in the proximal regions of most chromosomes of all karyotypes was much lower than in the other regions. The strong suppression of recombination in the pericentromeric regions and co-segregation of race specific chromosomes involved in the long chains would be expected to lead to linkage disequilibrium between genes located there. Genic differentiation, together with the high frequency of pairing aberrations in male carriers of the long chains, might contribute to maintenance of the narrow hybrid zone.

  19. The Book of Ruth and Song of Songs in the First Hebrew Translation of The Taming of the Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Lily

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the earliest Hebrew rendition of a Shakespearean comedy, Judah Elkind’s מוסר סוררה musar sorera ‘The Education of the Rebellious Woman’ (The Taming of the Shrew, which was translated directly from the English source text and published in Berditchev in 1892. Elkind’s translation is the only comedy among a small group of pioneering Shakespeare renditions conducted in late nineteenth-century Eastern Europe by adherents of the Jewish Enlightenment movement. It was rooted in a strongly ideological initiative to establish a modern European-style literature in Hebrew and reflecting Jewish cultural values at a time when the language was still primarily a written medium on the cusp of its large-scale revernacularisation in Palestine. The article examines the ways in which Elkind’s employment of a Judaising translation technique drawing heavily on romantic imagery from prominent biblical intertexts, particularly the Book of Ruth and the Song of Songs, affects the Petruchio and Katherine plotline in the target text. Elkind’s use of carefully selected biblical names for the main characters and his conscious insertion of biblical verses well known in Jewish tradition for their romantic connotations serve to transform Petruchio and Katherine into Peretz and Hoglah, the heroes of a distinctly Jewish love story which offers a unique and intriguing perspective on the translation of Shakespearean comedy.

  20. Study of male–mediated gene flow across a hybrid zone in the common shrew (Sorex araneus using Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Polyakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite many studies, the impact of chromosome rearrangements on gene flow between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 remains unclear. Interracial hybrids form meiotic chromosome complexes that are associated with reduced fertility. Nevertheless comprehensive investigations of autosomal and mitochondrial markers revealed weak or no barrier to gene flow between chromosomally divergent populations. In a narrow zone of contact between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races hybrids are produced with extraordinarily complex configurations at meiosis I. Microsatellite markers have not revealed any barrier to gene flow, but the phenotypic differentiation between races is greater than may be expected if gene flow was unrestricted. To explore this contradiction we analyzed the distribution of the Y chromosome SNP markers within this hybrid zone. The Y chromosome variants in combination with race specific autosome complements allow backcrosses to be distinguished and their proportion among individuals within the hybrid zone to be evaluated. The balanced ratio of the Y variants observed among the pure race individuals as well as backcrosses reveals no male mediated barrier to gene flow. The impact of reproductive unfitness of backcrosses on gene flow is discussed as a possible mechanism of the preservation of race-specific morphology within the hybrid zone.

  1. Distribution of 239Pu in the skeleton of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) between 15 and 50 months after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, W.; Seidel, A.

    1987-01-01

    The macroscopic and microscopic distribution of intramuscularly injected, essentially monomeric, 239 Pu was studied in the skeleton of the adult tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Data for between 15 and 50 months after injection are presented and compared with data from earlier time points. Between 83 and 500 days after injection nuclide content and wet weight of the skeleton decreased to a constant level at about 55% of maximum. The microscopic distribution was analysed in distal femora, proximal humerus, proximal tibia and lumbar vertebra over the whole time; additionally at some selected time points proximal femur, femur shaft, distal humerus and distal tibia were analysed. The initial endosteal surface activity ranged from 3.8 to 5.3 Bq/cm 2 , decreased to a minimum at about 1000 days after injection and increased thereafter. Similar behaviour was found for dose rate near bone surfaces (initially about 0.075 Gy/day on endosteal surfaces). In deep bone and deep marrow the dose rate was negligible, about 0.008 Gy/day and 0.001 Gy/day, respectively. The average cumulative dose 1500 days after injection was about 67 Gy on the endosteum; six times greater than the cumulative dose calculated from the mean concentration of plutonium in the whole skeleton. Tupaia data are compared to monkeys, dogs and rats. (author)

  2. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  3. The Mother, Who Is Not One: Reflections Of Motherhood In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet, The Tempest, And The Taming Of The Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAMAN HATICE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers will be discussed. Male/Female Subjectivity will also be questioned, in view of Irigaray's conceptualization of gender by relating it to Subject.

  4. ‘Misure‘ e ‘Flyting’: il linguaggio dell'inversione in The Taming of the Shrew di William Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Del Villano

    2016-11-01

    Rilevante, in questo senso, è una delle prime commedie di Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew, in cui il tropo dell’inversione si articola attraverso l’originale elaborazione di una ‘inversione dell’inversione’, un device drammaturgico che reinterpreta il Misrule della tradizione, attraverso: 1 espedienti metateatrali; 2 fusione tra linguaggio cortese e scortese presentando esempi dell'antica pratica del flyting; 3 la problematizzazione dei ruoli sociali e di genere. La comunicazione che propongo analizza brevemente le forme del popolaresco in Inghilterra per soffermarsi con maggiore attenzione sul teatro shakespeariano e in particolare su La bisbetica domata.

  5. Nomenclatural notes and identification of small-eared shrews (Mammalia: genus Cryptotis) from Cobán, Guatemala, in The Natural History Museum, London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    A small series of shrews collected in Guatemala and registered in the British Museum between 1843 and 1907 includes parts of type series for three species: Corsira tropicalis Gray (1843), Sorex micrurus Tomes (1862), and Blarina tropicalis Merriam (1895). These three names are now considered equivalent, but my recent review of the specimens comprising the series indicates that they include three distinct species: Cryptotis merriami Choate (1970), Cryptotis oreoryctes Woodman (2011), and Cryptotis tropicalis (Merriam 1895). I review the taxonomic history of these specimens, provide current identifications tied directly to museum register numbers, describe how to distinguish the three species, and provide revised synonymies for these species.

  6. Accumulation of Methylmercury in Invertebrates and Masked Shrews (Sorex cinereus) at an Upland Forest-Peatland Interface in Northern Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavshunsky, Ilana; Eggert, Susan L; Mitchell, Carl P J

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) methylation is often elevated at the terrestrial-peatland interface, but methylmercury (MeHg) production at this "hot spot" has not been linked with in situ biotic accumulation. We examined total Hg and MeHg levels in peat, invertebrates and tissues of the insectivore Sorex cinereus (masked shrew), inhabiting a terrestrial-peatland ecotone in northern Minnesota, USA. Mean MeHg concentrations in S. cinereus (71 ng g -1 ) fell between concentrations measured in spiders (mean 70-140 ng g -1 ), and ground beetles and millipedes (mean 29-42 ng g -1 ). Methylmercury concentrations in S. cinereus increased with age and differed among tissues, with highest concentrations in kidneys and muscle, followed by liver and brain. Nearly all Hg in S. cinereus was in the methylated form. Overall, the high proportional accumulation of MeHg in peat at the site (3.5% total Hg as MeHg) did not lead to particularly elevated concentrations in invertebrates or shrews, which are below values considered a toxicological risk.

  7. Graphene-Derivatized Silica Composite as Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent Combined with GC–MS/MS for the Determination of Polycyclic Musks in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic musks (PCMs have recently received growing attention as emerging contaminants because of their bioaccumulation and potential ecotoxicological effects. Herein, an effective method for the determination of five PCMs in aqueous samples is presented. Reduced graphene oxide-derivatized silica (rGO@silica particles were prepared from graphene oxide and aminosilica microparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PCMs were preconcentrated using rGO@silica as the solid-phase extraction sorbent and quantified by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Several experimental parameters, such as eluent, elution volume, sorbent amount, pH, and sample volume were optimized. The correlation coefficient (R ranged from 0.9958 to 0.9992, while the limits of detection and quantitation for the five PCMs were 0.3–0.8 ng/L and 1.1–2.1 ng/L, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for tap water (86.6–105.9% and river water samples (82.9–107.1%, with relative standard deviations <10% under optimal conditions. The developed method was applied to analyze PCMs in tap and river water samples from Beijing, China. Galaxolide (HHCB and tonalide (AHTN were the main PCM components detected in one river water sample at concentrations of 18.7 for HHCB, and 11.7 ng/L for AHTN.

  8. In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives, Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care.

  9. Metabolism of the polycyclic musk galaxolide and its interference with endogenous and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Denise; Dimastrogiovanni, Giorgio; Blázquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide (HHCB) in the European sea bass -Dicentrarchus labrax- following a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg HHCB/kg body weight. In addition, a group of fish was injected with 50 mg/kg of ketoconazole (KCZ), a fungicide that is known to interfere with different Cyp isoenzymes. HHCB was actively metabolised by sea bass and acted as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish. Both, HHCB and a hydroxylated metabolite were detected in bile. The fungicide ketoconazole was a strong inhibitor of Cyp11β and Cyp3a-catalyzed activities. The work contributes to the better understanding of the impact of synthetic musks on fish and proposes the determination of HHCB and/or its hydroxylated metabolite in bile as a tool to assess environmental exposure in wild fish. -- Highlights: ► The metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide has been investigated in sea bass. ► A hydroxylated metabolite was for the first time identified in fish bile. ► EROD and BCOD activities were not altered by galaxolide exposure. ► Galaxolide decreased moderately the synthesis of oxyandrogens in testes. -- HHCB is actively metabolised by sea bass and acts as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish

  10. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol differentially suppresses cisplatin-induced emesis and indices of motor function via cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in the least shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmani, N A

    2001-01-01

    We have recently shown that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist, SR 141716A, produces emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in a dose- and route-dependent manner. This effect was blocked by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The present study investigates the cannabinoid receptor mechanisms by which Delta(9)-THC produces its antiemetic effects against cisplatin (20 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced emesis as well as its cannabimimetic activity profile (motor reduction) in the least shrew. Intraperitoneal administration of Delta(9)-THC (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced both the percentage of animals vomiting (ID(50)=1.8+/-1.6 mg/kg) and the frequency of vomits (ID(50)=0.36+/-1.18 mg/kg) in a potent manner. The lowest significantly effective antiemetic dose of Delta(9)-THC for the latter emesis parameters was 2.5 mg/kg. Although Delta(9)-THC reduced the frequency of vomits up to 98%, it failed to completely protect all tested shrews from vomiting (80% protection). The cannabinoid CB(1) antagonist (SR 141716A) and not the CB(2) antagonist (SR 144528), reversed the antiemetic effects of Delta(9)-THC in a dose-dependent fashion. Delta(9)-THC (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, ip) suppressed locomotor parameters (spontaneous locomotor activity, duration of movement and rearing frequency) in a biphasic manner and only the 20-mg/kg dose simultaneously suppressed the triad of locomotor parameters to a significant degree. Subcutaneous (1-10 mg/kg) and intraperitoneal (0.05-40 mg/kg) injection of some doses of SR 141716A caused significant reductions in one or more components of the triad of locomotor parameters but these reductions were not dose dependent. Subcutaneous injection of SR 141716A (0.2, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) reversed the motor suppressant effects of a 20-mg/kg dose of Delta(9)-THC (ip) in a dose-dependent manner. Relative to its motor suppressant effects, Delta(9)-THC is a more potent antiemetic agent. Both effects are probably mediated via CB(1

  11. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem-Cell Transplantation Promotes Functional Improvement Associated with CNTF-STAT3 Activation after Hemi-Sectioned Spinal Cord Injury in Tree Shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Lin Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI can lead to spastic paralysis on the injured side, as well as flaccid paralysis on the contralateral side, which can negatively affect a patient’s daily life. Stem-cell therapy may offer an effective treatment option for individuals with hSCI. To examine the role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs transplantation on hSCI and explore related mechanisms in the tree shrews, here, we created a model of hSCI by inducing injury at the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10. Hoechst 33342-labeled BMSCs derived from adult tree shrews were isolated, cultured, and implanted into the spinal cord around the injury site at 9 days after injury. The isolated BMSCs were able to survive, proliferate and release a variety of neurotrophic factors (NTFs both in vitro and in vivo. At 28 days after injury, compared with the sham group, the hSCI group displayed scar formation and dramatic elevations in the mean interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β density and cell apoptosis level, whereas the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF mRNA was reduced. Following BMSC transplantation, motoneurons extent of shrinkage were reduced and the animals’ Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotion scale scores were significantly higher at 21 and 28 days after injury when compared with the injured group. Moreover, the hSCI-induced elevations in scar formation, IL-1β, and cell apoptosis were reduced by BMSC transplantation to levels that were close to those of the sham group. Corresponding elevations in the expression of STAT3 and CNTF mRNA were observed in the hSCI + BMSCs group, and the levels were not significantly different from those observed in the sham group. Together, our results support that grafted BMSCs can significantly improve locomotor function in tree shrews subjected to hSCI and that this improvement is associated with the upregulation of CNTF and STAT3

  12. Phylogeography and recolonization of the Swiss Alps by the Valais shrew (Sorex antinorii), inferred with autosomal and sex-specific markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannic, G; Basset, P; Hausser, J

    2008-09-01

    Using one male-inherited, one female-inherited and eight biparentally inherited markers, we investigate the population genetic structure of the Valais shrew (Sorex antinorii) in the Swiss Alps. Bayesian analysis on autosomal microsatellites suggests a clear genetic differentiation between two groups of populations. This geographically based structure is consistent with two separate postglacial recolonization routes of the species into Switzerland from Italian refugia after the last Pleistocene glaciations. Sex-specific markers also confirm genetic structuring among western and eastern areas, since very few haplotypes for either Y chromosome or mtDNA genome are shared between the two regions. Overall, these results suggest that two already well-differentiated genetic lineages colonized the Swiss Alps and came into secondary contact in the Rhône Valley. Low level of admixture between the two lineages is likely explained by the mountainous landscape structure of lateral valleys orthogonal to the main Rhône valley.

  13. The anti-asthmatic drug pranlukast suppresses the delayed-phase vomiting and reverses intracellular indices of emesis evoked by cisplatin in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Zhong, Weixia; Kim, William D; Narlesky, Matthew; Adams, Joia; Dong, Fanglong

    2017-08-15

    The introduction of second generation serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT 3 ) antagonist palonosetron combined with long-acting substance P neurokinin NK 1 receptor (NK 1 ) antagonists (e.g. netupitant) has substantially improved antiemetic therapy against early- and delayed-phases of emesis caused by highly emetogenic chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. However, the improved efficacy comes at a cost that many patients cannot afford. We introduce a new class of antiemetic, the antiasthmatic leukotriene CysLT1 receptor antagonist pranlukast for the suppression of cisplatin-evoked vomiting. Pranlukast (10mg/kg) by itself significantly reduced the mean frequency of vomits (70%) and fully protected least shrews from vomiting (46%) during the delayed-phase of cisplatin (10mg/kg)-evoked vomiting. Although, pranlukast tended to substantially reduce both the mean frequency of vomits and the number of shrews vomiting during the early-phase, these reductions failed to attain significance. When combined with a first (tropisetron)- or a second (palonosetron)-generation 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, pranlukast potentiated their antiemetic efficacy during both phases of vomiting. In addition, pranlukast by itself prevented several intracellular signal markers of cisplatin-evoked delayed-vomiting such as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PKA. When pranlukast was combined with either palonosetron or tropisetron, these combinations suppressed the evoked phosphorylation of: i) ERK1/2 during both acute- and delayed-phase, ii) PKCα/β at the peak acute-phase, and iii) PKA at the peak delayed-phase. The current and our published findings suggest that overall behavioral and intracellular signaling effects of pranlukast via blockade of CysLT1 receptors generally appear to be similar to the NK 1 receptor antagonist netupitant with some differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Karyotypic evolution and organization of the highly repetitive DNA sequences in the Japanese shrew-moles, Dymecodon pilirostris and Urotrichus talpoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, A; Yoshimura, A; Kuro-o, M; Obara, Y

    2005-01-01

    The karyological relationship and organization of highly repetitive DNA sequences in Japanese shrew-moles were studied by zoo-blot hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). When the genomic DNA of the eastern race of Urotrichus talpoides was digested with PstI, three fragments of highly repetitive DNA sequences, approximately 0.7, 0.9, and 1.4 kb in length, were observed as distinct bands. The results of FISH in the eastern race of U. talpoides using these three fragments separately as probes showed that the 0.7-kb PstI fragment was distributed in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes, and that the 0.9- and 1.4-kb fragments were predominantly located in the C-heterochromatin region of chromosome 13p. Although the western race of U. talpoides also had three PstI fragments, 0.9- and 1.4-kb PstI fragments were more ambiguous than those of the eastern race. The PstI- digested genomic DNA in Dymecodonpilirostris produced only a faint 0.9-kb band, and its signal patterns obtained by zoo-blot hybridization were clearly different from those of U. talpoides. The 0.7-kb fragment of U. talpoides hybridized strongly with the 0.9-kb fragment of D. pilirostris. In a FISH analysis, the 0.9-kb fragment of D. pilirostris hybridized with highly repetitive DNA in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes from both D. pilirostris and U. talpoides. Zoo-blot hybridization and FISH analyses suggest that the 0.9- and 1.4-kb PstI fragments were generated specifically in the genome of U. talpoides after the common ancestor differentiated into two extant shrew-mole species. A difference in the length of the centromeric elements between U. talpoides and D. pilirostris might be observed due to certain modifications of the repeating unit.

  15. Amine-functionalized MIL-53(Al)-coated stainless steel fiber for efficient solid-phase microextraction of synthetic musks and organochlorine pesticides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lijun; Liu, Shuqin; Han, Zhubing; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Xu, Weiqin; Su, Chengyong; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2017-09-01

    The fiber coating is the key part of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique, and it determines the sensitivity, selectivity, and repeatability of the analytical method. In this work, amine (NH 2 )-functionalized material of Institute Lavoisier (MIL)-53(Al) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied as the SPME fiber coating for efficient sample pretreatment owing to their unique structures and excellent adsorption properties. Under optimized conditions, the NH 2 -MIL-53(Al)-coated fiber showed good precision, low limits of detection (LODs) [0.025-0.83 ng L -1 for synthetic musks (SMs) and 0.051-0.97 ng L -1 for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)], and good linearity. Experimental results showed that the NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) SPME coating was solvent resistant and thermostable. In addition, the extraction efficiencies of the NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) coating for SMs and OCPs were higher than those of commercially available SPME fiber coatings such as polydimethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene, and polyacrylate. The reasons may be that the analytes are adsorbed on NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) primarily through π-π interactions, electron donor-electron acceptor interactions, and hydrogen bonds between the analytes and organic linkers of the material. Direct immersion (DI) SPME-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods based on NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) were successfully applied for the analysis of tap and river water samples. The recoveries were 80.3-115% for SMs and 77.4-117% for OCPs. These results indicate that the NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) coating may be a promising alternative to SPME coatings for the enrichment of SMs and OCPs.

  16. shrew, Croeidura bieolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mealworms, used as a supplement when insect catches were low, were not preferred and dung beetles were refused. On March 14, at 22h50 the female gave birth to two offspring (sexes undetermined). Parturition of the first young was not seen but that of the second was followed to com- pletion. A typical parturition posture ...

  17. Astrocytic and neuronal oxidative metabolism are coupled to the rate of glutamate-glutamine cycle in the tree shrew visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnay, Sarah; Poirot, Jordan; Just, Nathalie; Clerc, Anne-Catherine; Gruetter, Rolf; Rainer, Gregor; Duarte, João M N

    2018-03-01

    Astrocytes play an important role in glutamatergic neurotransmission, namely by clearing synaptic glutamate and converting it into glutamine that is transferred back to neurons. The rate of this glutamate-glutamine cycle (V NT ) has been proposed to couple to that of glucose utilization and of neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic neurotransmission is also coupled to the TCA cycle rate in astrocytes. For that we investigated energy metabolism by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the primary visual cortex of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) under light isoflurane anesthesia at rest and during continuous visual stimulation. After identifying the activated cortical volume by blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, 1 H MRS was performed to measure stimulation-induced variations in metabolite concentrations. Relative to baseline, stimulation of cortical activity for 20 min caused a reduction of glucose concentration by -0.34 ± 0.09 µmol/g (p glucose infusion was employed to measure fluxes of energy metabolism. Stimulation of glutamatergic activity, as indicated by a 20% increase of V NT , resulted in increased TCA cycle rates in neurons by 12% ( VTCAn, p glucose oxidation and to mitochondrial metabolism in both neurons and astrocytes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Patterns of morphological variation amongst semifossorial shrews in the highlands of Guatemala, with the description of a new species (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Cryptotis goldmani group of small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Soricidae) represent a clade within the genus that is characterized by modifications of the forelimb that include broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened foreclaws, and massive humeri with enlarged processes. These modifications are consistent with greater adaptation to their semifossorial habits than other members of the genus. The species in this group occur discontinuously in temperate highlands from southern Tamaulipas, Mexico, to Honduras. In Guatemala, there are three species: the relatively widespread Cryptotis goodwini and two species (Cryptotis lacertosus, Cryptotis mam) endemic to highland forests in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes of western Guatemala. Ongoing studies focusing on the relationships of variation in cranial and postcranial skeletal morphology have revealed a fourth species from remnant cloud forest in the Sierra de Yalijux, central Guatemala. In this paper, I describe this new species and characterize its morphology relative to other species in the C. goldmani group and to other species of Cryptotis in Guatemala. In addition, I summarize available details of its habitat and ecology.

  19. Emerging Infectious Disease Implications of Invasive Mammalian Species: The Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Is Associated With a Novel Serovar of Pathogenic Leptospira in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, Jarlath E; Arent, Zbigniew; Bayles, Darrell O; Hornsby, Richard L; Gilmore, Colm; Regan, Siobhan; McDevitt, Allan D; Yearsley, Jon; Fanning, Séamus; McMahon, Barry J

    2016-12-01

    The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in Ireland in 2007. It currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. C. russula is normally distributed in Northern Africa and Western Europe, and was previously absent from the British Isles. Whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in potentially naive populations. Pathogenic leptospires are endemic in Ireland and a significant cause of human and animal disease. From 18 trapped C. russula, 3 isolates of Leptospira were cultured. However, typing of these isolates by standard serological reference methods was negative, and suggested an, as yet, unidentified serovar. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA and secY indicated that these novel isolates belong to Leptospira alstonii, a unique pathogenic species of which only 7 isolates have been described to date. Earlier isolations were limited geographically to China, Japan and Malaysia, and this leptospiral species had not previously been cultured from mammals. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) further confirms the novelty of these strains since no similar patterns were observed with a reference database of leptospires. As with other pathogenic Leptospira species, these isolates contain lipL32 and do not grow in the presence of 8-azagunaine; however no evidence of disease was apparent after experimental infection of hamsters. These isolates are genetically related to L. alstonii but have a novel REA pattern; they represent a new serovar which we designate as serovar Room22. This study demonstrates that invasive mammalian species act as bridge vectors of novel zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira.

  20. Injection of Aβ1-40 into hippocampus induced cognitive lesion associated with neuronal apoptosis and multiple gene expressions in the tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Lei; Qian, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Piao; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Gao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can incur significant health care costs to the patient, their families, and society; furthermore, effective treatments are limited, as the mechanisms of AD are not fully understood. This study utilized twelve adult male tree shrews (TS), which were randomly divided into PBS and amyloidbetapeptide1-40 (Aβ1-40) groups. AD model was established via an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Aβ1-40 after being incubated for 4 days at 37 °C. Behavioral, pathophysiological and molecular changes were evaluated by hippocampal-dependent tasks, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), silver staining, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, TUNEL assay and gene sequencing, respectively. At 4 weeks post-injection, as compared with the PBS group, in Aβ1-40 injected animals: cognitive impairments happened, and the hippocampus had atrophied indicated by MRI findings; meanwhile, HE staining showed the cells of the CA3 and DG were significantly thinner and smaller. The average number of cells in the DG, but not the CA3, was also significantly reduced; furthermore, silver staining revealed neurotic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampi; TUNEL assay showed many cells exhibited apoptosis, which was associated with downregulated BCL-2/BCL-XL-associated death promoter (Bad), inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), Cytochrome c (CytC) and upregulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1); lastly, gene sequencing reported a total of 924 mobilized genes, among which 13 of the downregulated and 19 of the upregulated genes were common to the AD pathway. The present study not only established AD models in TS, but also reported on the underlying mechanism involved in neuronal apoptosis associated with multiple gene expression.

  1. Neural coding of image structure and contrast polarity of Cartesian, hyperbolic, and polar gratings in the primary and secondary visual cortex of the tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, Jordan; De Luna, Paolo; Rainer, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    We comprehensively characterize spiking and visual evoked potential (VEP) activity in tree shrew V1 and V2 using Cartesian, hyperbolic, and polar gratings. Neural selectivity to structure of Cartesian gratings was higher than other grating classes in both visual areas. From V1 to V2, structure selectivity of spiking activity increased, whereas corresponding VEP values tended to decrease, suggesting that single-neuron coding of Cartesian grating attributes improved while the cortical columnar organization of these neurons became less precise from V1 to V2. We observed that neurons in V2 generally exhibited similar selectivity for polar and Cartesian gratings, suggesting that structure of polar-like stimuli might be encoded as early as in V2. This hypothesis is supported by the preference shift from V1 to V2 toward polar gratings of higher spatial frequency, consistent with the notion that V2 neurons encode visual scene borders and contours. Neural sensitivity to modulations of polarity of hyperbolic gratings was highest among all grating classes and closely related to the visual receptive field (RF) organization of ON- and OFF-dominated subregions. We show that spatial RF reconstructions depend strongly on grating class, suggesting that intracortical contributions to RF structure are strongest for Cartesian and polar gratings. Hyperbolic gratings tend to recruit least cortical elaboration such that the RF maps are similar to those generated by sparse noise, which most closely approximate feedforward inputs. Our findings complement previous literature in primates, rodents, and carnivores and highlight novel aspects of shape representation and coding occurring in mammalian early visual cortex. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Phylogeography of the Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, in East Asia: role of the Korean Peninsula as refugium for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Jin; Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lin, Liang-Kong; Lin, Y Kirk; Li, Yuchun; Shin, E-Hyun; Han, Sang-Hoon; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok

    2018-04-01

    Many peninsulas in the temperate zone played an important role as refugia of various flora and fauna, and the southern Korean Peninsula also served as a refugium for many small mammals in East Asia during the Pleistocene. The Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, is a widely distributed species in East Asia, and is an appropriate model organism for exploring the role of the Korean Peninsula as a refugium of small mammals. Here, we investigated phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity based on the entire sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). A Bayesian tree for 98 haplotypes detected in 228 C. shantungensis specimens from East Asia revealed the presence of three major groups with at least 5 subgroups. Most haplotypes were distributed according to their geographic proximity. Pairwise F ST 's and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation and variance among regions as well as among populations within region, implying little gene flow among local populations. Genetic evidence from South Korean islands, Jeju-do Island of South Korea, and Taiwan leads us to reject the hypothesis of recent population expansion. We observed unique island-type genetic characteristics consistent with geographic isolation and resultant genetic drift. Phylogeographic inference, together with estimates of genetic differentiation and diversity, suggest that the southern most part the Korean Peninsula, including offshore islands, played an important role as a refugium for C. shantungensis during the Pleistocene. However, the presence of several refugia on the mainland of northeast Asia is also proposed.

  3. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2009-01-01

    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  4. Rediscovery of the type series of the Acadian Masked Shrew, Sorex acadicus Gilpin, 1865 (Mammalia: Soricidae), with the designation of a neotype and a reevaluation of its taxonomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2018-01-01

    The name Sorex acadicus Gilpin, 1865 is currently recognized as the valid name for the Nova Scotian subspecies of the masked shrew, S. cinereus Kerr, 1792 (Mammalia: Soricidae), but a holotype for the taxon was never designated, and the location of the type series has been a mystery. The authority for this species, John Bernard Gilpin, was associated with the Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, NS, but that institution has no Gilpin specimens in its possession, and I could find no record of Gilpin shrews in any other Canadian Museum. I recently discovered a series of Gilpin specimens in the Mammal Collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (USNM), some of which may have been part of the original type series of S. acadicus, and I show that these specimens best represent Gilpin's concept of the taxon. From this series, I designate a neotype for S. acadicus. I also evaluate the distinctiveness of Nova Scotian S. c. acadicus compared with S. c. cinereus from Maine, New Brunswick, and New Hampshire and determine that S. acadicus should be considered a junior synonym of S. c. cinereus.

  5. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveevsky, Sergey N; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Maret M Acaeva; Oxana L Kolomiets

    2012-01-01

    Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids) of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in Sorex araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow - Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  6. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Matveevsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in S. araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow – Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  7. Environmental exposure of pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances in the Somes River before and after upgrading the municipal wastewater treatment plant Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Zaharie; Chira, Romeo; Alder, Alfredo C

    2009-08-01

    ), cyclophosphamide (cytostatic), ibuprofen (analgesic), and galaxolide (musk fragrance), were determined in samples of the Somes River. The analytes were enriched by solid-phase extraction and subsequently determined by GC/MS. Caffeine, pentoxifylline, and galaxolide were determined underivatized, whereas the acidic pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, cyclophosphamide, and ibuprofen were determined after derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide. The concentrations in the Somes River varied from below 10 ng/L up to 10 microg/L. A substantial decrease of the exposure in the Somes River could be observed due to the upgrade of the municipal WWTP in Cluj-Napoca. The loads in the river stretch between Cluj-Napoca and Dej (Somes Mic) varied strongly: caffeine (400-2,000 g/day), carbamazepine (78-213 g/day), galaxolide (140-684 g/day), ibuprofen (84-108 g/day). After the upgrade of the WWTP Cluj-Napoca, the concentrations in the Somes of caffeine, pentoxifylline, cyclophosphamide, galaxolide, and tonalide were significantly reduced (over 75%). One might be cautious comparing both studies because the relative efficiency of the WWTP's removal of PPCP was not evaluated. However, the significantly lower concentrations of most compounds after the upgrade of the WWTP Cluj-Napoca allow one to infer that the technical measures at the source substantially reduced inputs of contaminants to the receiving river. Dej loads of the poorly biodegradable substance carbamazepine increased by a factor of 2-3 as a result of wastewater discharges into the river. The disproportionate increase in caffeine loads by a factor of 4 below Cluj-Napoca indicates inputs of untreated wastewater from the Somes Mare due to the discharge of untreated wastewater derived from Bistrita, Nasaud, and Beclean (115,000 inhabitants). The relative contribution of treated and untreated wastewater in surface water might be assessed by measuring chemical markers. Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals like carbamazepine are

  8. "European" race-specific metacentrics in East Siberian common shrews (Sorex araneus): a description of two new chromosomal races, Irkutsk and Zima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Svetlana V; Borisov, Sergei A; Timoshenko, Alexander F; Sheftel, Boris I

    2017-01-01

    Karyotype studies of common shrews in the vicinity of Lake Baikal (Irkutsk Region, Eastern Siberia) resulted in the description of two new chromosomal races of Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Lypotyphla, Mammalia), additional to 5 races formerly found in Siberia. In the karyotypes of 12 specimens from 3 locations, the polymorphism of metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes of the Robertsonian type was recorded and two distinct groups of karyotypes interpreted as the chromosomal races were revealed. They are geographically distant and described under the racial names Irkutsk (Ir) and Zima (Zi). Karyotypes of both races were characterized by species-specific (the same for all 74 races known so far) metacentric autosomes af, bc, tu and jl , and the typical sex chromosome system - XX/XY 1 Y 2 . The race-specific arm chromosome combinations include three metacentrics and four acrocentrics in the Irkutsk race ( gk, hi, nq, m, o, p, r ) and four metacentrics and two acrocentrics in the Zima race ( gm, hi, ko, nq, p, r ). Within the races, individuals with polymorphic chromosomes were detected ( g/m, k/o, n/q, p/r ). The presence of the specific metacentric gk allowed us to include the Irkutsk race into the Siberian Karyotypic Group (SKG), distributed in surrounding regions. The Zima race karyotype contained two metacentrics, gm and ko , which have been never found in the Siberian part of the species range, but appear as the common feature of chromosomal races belonging to the West European Karyotypic Group (WEKG). Moreover, the metacentrics of that karyotype are almost identical to the Åkarp race (except the heterozygous pair p/r ) locally found in the southern Sweden. One of two Siberian races described here for the first time, the Zima race, occurs in an area considerably distant from Europe and shares the common metacentrics ( gm, hi, ko ) with races included in WEKG. This fact may support a hypothesis of independent formation of identical arm chromosome combinations

  9. Layer 2/3 synapses in monocular and binocular regions of tree shrew visual cortex express mAChR-dependent long-term depression and long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Portia; Norton, Thomas T; McMahon, Lori L

    2008-07-01

    Acetylcholine is an important modulator of synaptic efficacy and is required for learning and memory tasks involving the visual cortex. In rodent visual cortex, activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) induces a persistent long-term depression (LTD) of transmission at synapses recorded in layer 2/3 of acute slices. Although the rodent studies expand our knowledge of how the cholinergic system modulates synaptic function underlying learning and memory, they are not easily extrapolated to more complex visual systems. Here we used tree shrews for their similarities to primates, including a visual cortex with separate, defined regions of monocular and binocular innervation, to determine whether mAChR activation induces long-term plasticity. We find that the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) not only induces long-term plasticity, but the direction of the plasticity depends on the subregion. In the monocular region, CCh application induces LTD of the postsynaptic potential recorded in layer 2/3 that requires activation of m3 mAChRs and a signaling cascade that includes activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. In contrast, layer 2/3 postsynaptic potentials recorded in the binocular region express long-term potentiation (LTP) following CCh application that requires activation of m1 mAChRs and phospholipase C. Our results show that activation of mAChRs induces long-term plasticity at excitatory synapses in tree shrew visual cortex. However, depending on the ocular inputs to that region, variation exists as to the direction of plasticity, as well as to the specific mAChR and signaling mechanisms that are required.

  10. Why are chillies pungent?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ultrapotent analogue of capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, is found in the latex of the succulent spiny shrub. Euphorbia resinifera, and its use in pain mediation has been known since Roman times (Appendino and Szallasi 1997). Resiniferatoxin has been shown to have acute emetic effects in the house musk shrew (Andrews et al ...

  11. ABSTRACT The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is a beehive of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbe H.I

    footprints, songs, calls, burrows, nests and trails were estimated to .... Insectivora: The Nigeria musk shrew. (Crocidura nigeriae) is an insect eating rodent. The animal also feeds on other animal life like insects and earthworms. The average density of the ... and arboreal and live within palm plantations especially in Ebocha ...

  12. 基因芯片研究蟾酥急性毒性及配伍减毒机制%Acute Toxicity of Venenum Bufonis and Compatibility of Heart Musk Protecting Pills by Microarray Expression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱文; 范雪梅; 李雪; 梁琼麟; 王义明; 罗国安

    2011-01-01

    利用基因芯片技术研究了蟾酥对大鼠心脏的急性毒性及其组方成麝香保心丸后的配伍减毒机制.通过表达谱芯片检测了药物作用后的基因表达差异,对差异表达基因进行了牛物信息学研究并结合实时荧光定量PCR分析.结果表明,低剂量蟾酥可以通过干扰离子稳态和肌动蛋白构建来影响心脏的收缩,同时还会导致心脏细胞的抗凋亡和脂类代谢等应激反应;高剂量蟾酥除进一步干扰离子稳态和肌动蛋白构建外,还会引发铁离子蓄积,最终可能导致细胞凋亡;且蟾酥对心脏的影响具有剂量依赖性.当蟾酥组方成麝香保心丸后,上述影响均不明显,主要影响血压调节和心肌修复等作用,体现了中药配伍的减毒作用.%The differentially expressed genes involved in acute toxicity and compatibility of Heart Musk Pro tecting Pills(HMP) via cDNA microarray were investigated in this paper. Then the GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed as well as the functional analysis and RT-PCR validation of two important genes. The results indicated that the ion homeostasis and actin organization were affected in the low dosage group for Venenum Bufonis. Meanwhile, regulation of anti-apoptosis and fatty acid metabolism could be in duced within 2 h; the myocardial contraction was finally disturbed. The ion homeostasis and actin organization could also be disturbed more quickly in the high dosage group. In addition, the iron accumulation could lead to oxidation reduction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. For HMP, there were some clinical functions, such as blood pressure regulation and myocardial structure organization. However, the related acute toxicity of Vene num Bufonis was not shown. This paper could provide a novel research strategy in the compatibility study of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM ).

  13. Leucismo en la musaraña de orejas cortas Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia: Soricomorpha, endémica de México Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia: Soricomorpha, endemic to Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Guevara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El leucismo es la reducción de la pigmentación parcial o total del pelaje, pero que mantiene la coloración normal de los ojos y la piel. Aquí se presenta el registro de un individuo de la musaraña endémica de México Cryptotis mexicana recolectado en Veracruz, México, que presenta esta condición. Esta coloración, considerada anormal en estado silvestre, puede incrementar la presión de selección sobre esos individuos. Además, es un reflejo indirecto de la baja variabilidad genética en las poblaciones naturales.Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, México, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, uncommon in the wild, may result in negative selective pressure on these mammals. Moreover, this genetic-based condition reflects on the low levels of genetic variability within natural populations.

  14. Musk as a Pheromone? Didactic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersted, Chris T.

    A classroom/laboratory exercise has been used to introduce college students to factorial research designs, differentiate between interpretations for experimental and quasi-experimental variables, and exemplify application of laboratory research methods to test practical questions (advertising claims). The exercise involves having randomly divided…

  15. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su Soricidae, Talpidae ed Arvicolidae d'Italia predati da Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning Tyto alba diets in peninsular Italy about: - Sorex minutus, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - Sorex araneus (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - Crocidura suaveolens and - Suncus etruscus, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - Talpa caeca, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - Talpa romana

  16. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  17. Metabolism and thermoregulation in the tree shrew, Tupaia belangeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maximum metabolic rate is a physiological limitation that is an important for animals' survival, reproduction and geographic. Basal metabolic rate (BMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST, and maximum metabolic rate (MMR were measured was in a small mammal species, Tupaia belangeri, which is a unique species of small-bodied mammals in the Oriental realm. Thermal neutral zone (TNZ was 30 - 35°C and BMR was 1.38±0.09 ml g-1 h-1. NST and MMR were 2.64±0.08 ml g-1 h-1 and 7.14±0.38 ml g-1 h-1 in summer, respectively. The ecophysiological properties of relatively high body temperature, wide TNZ, low BMR and thermogenic capacity enable this species to adapt to its environment.

  18. A Charming, Troubling Circus: The Taming of the Shrew | Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  20. Anti-musk positive myasthenia gravis and three semiological cardinal signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P.C. Matta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is a relatively uncommon disorder with an annual incidence of approximately 7 to 9 new cases per million. The prevalence is about 70 to 165 per million. The prevalence of the disease has been increasing over the past five decades. This is thought to be due to better recognition of the condition, aging of the population, and the longer life span of affected patients. MG causes weakness, predominantly in bulbar, facial, and extra-ocular muscles, often fluctuating over minutes to weeks, in the absence of wasting, sensory loss, or reflex changes. The picture of fluctuating, asymmetric external ophthalmoplegia with ptosis and weak eye closure is virtually diagnostic of myasthenia. We report an atypical MG case with three semiological cardinal signs.

  1. Clinical Characteristics of MuSK Antibody-positive Myasthenia Gravis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chuan Huang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Circulating antibodies of the acetylcholine receptor (AchRAb are detectable in most patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG. A newly discovered antibody against muscle-specific kinase (MuSKAb has been detected in 40–70% of AchRAb-negative MG patients. We report a series of Taiwanese MuSKAb-positive patients, and compare their clinical features with MuSKAb-negative patients and also with MuSKAb-positive Caucasians. Five out of 44 seronegative generalized MG patients (11.4% were positive for MuSKAb. Patients with MuSKAb tended to have severe disability and bulbar involvement, and more often experienced crisis or impending crisis. Although all of these patients showed an initial response to immunosuppressant therapy, they had greater disability at follow-up. The clinical features of Taiwanese MuSKAb-positive patients were not different from those of Caucasians, except for a lower prevalence.

  2. Abraham Sybant Tames the taming of the shrew for the Amsterdam stage (1654 Abraham Sybant Tames the taming of the shrew for the Amsterdam stage (1654

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Hoenselaars

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, translation studies have found themselves in a veritable flux. After decades of concentration on the purely linguistic correspondences between the so-called source text and the actual translation in the target language (an approach of interest only to the scholar bilingual in the two languages concerned, a clear tendency among translation critics and scholars now is to concentrate on matters contextual to the act and to the product of the act of translation. Shakespeare studies have profited greatly from this shift in emphasis. In recent years, translation studies have found themselves in a veritable flux. After decades of concentration on the purely linguistic correspondences between the so-called source text and the actual translation in the target language (an approach of interest only to the scholar bilingual in the two languages concerned, a clear tendency among translation critics and scholars now is to concentrate on matters contextual to the act and to the product of the act of translation. Shakespeare studies have profited greatly from this shift in emphasis.

  3. African shrews endemic to the Albertine Rift: two new species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Myosorex has a classic relict distribution within sub-Saharan Africa. Montane populations in eastern and western equatorial Africa are separated by ca. 2900 km. Until this study, the closest known populations in southern Africa were separated by nearly 2000 km from the closest populations in the Albertine Rift ...

  4. Altitudinal partitioning of two chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in West Siberia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polyakov, A. V.; Volobouev, V. T.; Aniskin, V. M.; Zima, Jan; Searle, J. B.; Borodin, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2003), s. 201-207 ISSN 0025-1461. [Evolution in the Sorex araneus group: cytogenetic and molecular aspects. Meeting of the International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee (ISACC) and associated Symposium in Honour of Professor Karl Fredga /6./. Paris, 03.09.2002-07.09.2002] Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 01-04-49518; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 01-04-48875 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Sorex araneus * chromosome races * hybrid zone s Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.269, year: 2003

  5. Homeostatic maintenance in excitability of tree shrew hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons after chronic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, MHP; Czeh, B; Fuchs, E

    2004-01-01

    The experience of chronic stress induces a reversible regression of hippocampal CA3 apical neuron dendrites. Although such postsynaptic membrane reduction will obviously diminish the possibility of synaptic input, the consequences for the functional membrane properties of these cells are not well

  6. A new coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the rufous elephant shrew, Elephantulus rufescens, from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Jirků, M.; Hůrková, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2005), s. 327-329 ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1548 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Eimeria elephantuli * Elephantulus rufescens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2005

  7. The use of albendazole for the treatment of trematodiasis in two tree shrews (Tupala glis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, B.A.; Tuggle, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Albendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic of the benzimidazole group which has been tested in several rodents and domestic animals. Albendazole has been used effectively to treat trematodes in sheep, cattle, dogs, and cats. The use of this anthelmintic in exotic small mammals has not been reported to the authors' knowledge.

  8. Toxicity assessment of simulated urban runoff containing polycyclic musks and cadmium in Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Gao Jie; Zhou Qixing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of simulated urban runoff on Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers. The activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of C. auratus were analyzed after a 7-, 14- and 21-day exposure to simulated urban runoff containing galaxolide (HHCB) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of MDA increased significantly exposed to the simulated urban runoff containing HHCB alone or mixture of HHCB and Cd. The activity of the investigated enzymes and the content of MDA then returned to the blank level over a longer period of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the liver of C. auratus under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Highlights: ► We assessed potential toxicity of urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd. ► Exposure of simulated urban runoff can caused oxidative stress in C. auratus liver. ► SOD and CAT are more sensitive than POD and more suitable for indicating the toxicity of urban runoff. ► The present study using oxidative stress biomarkers could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Simulated urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd could cause oxidative stress on the liver of Carassius auratus, which could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff.

  9. Co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in seafood and macroalgae collected in European hotspots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha, S.C.; Fernandes, J.O.; Vallecillos, L.; Kotterman, M.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, awareness regarding personal care products (PCP), i.e. synthetic organic chemicals frequently used in cosmetic and hygienic products, has become a forward-looking issue, due to their persistency in the environment and their potential multi-organ toxicity in both human and

  10. UV-filters and musk fragrances in seafood commercialized in Europe Union: Occurrence, risk and exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha, S. C.; Trabalón, L.; Jacobs, S.

    2018-01-01

    -MS/MS). The results showed the presence in a wide range of samples of nine out of eleven UV-Fs compounds analysed, namely 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 2-ethylhexyl,4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone-3 (BP3), isoamyl-4-methoxycinnamate (IMC), 2...

  11. Differential Cytokine Changes in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis with Antibodies against AChR and MuSK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuslat Yilmaz

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular transmission failure in myasthenia gravis (MG is most commonly elicited by autoantibodies (ab to the acetylcholine receptor or the muscle-specific kinase, constituting AChR-MG and MuSK-MG. It is controversial whether these MG subtypes arise through different T helper (Th 1, Th2 or Th17 polarized immune reactions and how these reactions are blunted by immunosuppression. To address these questions, plasma levels of cytokines related to various Th subtypes were determined in patients with AChR-MG, MuSK-MG and healthy controls (CON. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were activated in vitro by anti-CD3, and cytokines were quantified in supernatants. In purified blood CD4+ T cells, RNA of various cytokines, Th subtype specific transcription factors and the co-stimulatory molecule, CD40L, were quantified by qRT-PCR. Plasma levels of Th1, Th2 and Th17 related cytokines were overall not significantly different between MG subtypes and CON. By contrast, in vitro stimulated PBMC from MuSK-MG but not AChR-MG patients showed significantly increased secretion of the Th1, Th17 and T follicular helper cell related cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21. Stimulated expression of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 was not significantly different. At the RNA level, expression of CD40L by CD4+ T cells was reduced in both AChR-MG and MuSK-MG patients while expression of Th subset related cytokines and transcription factors were normal. Immunosuppression treatment had two effects: First, it reduced levels of IL12p40 in the plasma of AChR-MG and MuSK-MG patients, leaving other cytokine levels unchanged; second, it reduced spontaneous secretion of IFN-γ and increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 by cultured PBMC from AChR-MG, but not MuSK-MG patients. We conclude that Th1 and Th17 immune reactions play a role in MuSK-MG. Immunosuppression attenuates the Th1 response in AChR-MG and MuSK-MG, but otherwise modulates immune responses in AChR-MG and MuSK-MG patients differentially.

  12. Antibodies to AChR, MuSK and VGKC in a patient with myasthenia gravis and Morvan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Rojas-García, Ricard; Gallardo, Eduard; Juárez, Cándido; Martínez-Domeño, Alejandro; Martínez-Ramírez, Sergi; Dalmau, Josep; Blesa, Rafael; Illa, Isabel

    2007-07-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented to a local hospital with acute respiratory failure and a 2-year progressive history of fatigue, personality changes, increased sweating, dysphagia with substantial weight loss, dysarthria, and intermittent ptosis and diplopia. Neurological examination showed facial weakness, lingual atrophy and bulbar palsy, which necessitated the use of a feeding tube and ventilatory support. Mild limb weakness with severe muscle atrophy and diffuse muscle twitches were observed. The patient had also developed visual hallucinations and persecutory delusions. Her personal and family medical histories were unremarkable. Sensory and motor nerve conduction studies, repetitive nerve stimulation, electromyogram, blood-cell counts, general chemistry and metabolic function tests, a CT scan, an [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET scan, and tests for serum antibodies to acetylcholine receptors, muscle-specific tyrosine kinase, voltage-gated potassium channels, P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and paraneoplastic antigens, were carried out. Myasthenia gravis associated with antibodies to acetylcholine receptor and muscle-specific tyrosine kinase, and Morvan's syndrome associated with antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels in the absence of thymoma. Combined treatment with prednisone, intravenous immunoglobulin, ciclosporin, and rituximab.

  13. Flying lemurs – The 'flying tree shrews'? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volobouev Vitaly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates form a superordinal clade called Supraprimates (or Euarchontoglires, the phylogenetic placement of Dermoptera within Supraprimates remains ambiguous. Results To search for cytogenetic signatures that could help to clarify the evolutionary affinities within this superordinal group, we have established a genome-wide comparative map between human and the Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus by reciprocal chromosome painting using both human and G. variegatus chromosome-specific probes. The 22 human autosomal paints and the X chromosome paint defined 44 homologous segments in the G. variegatus genome. A putative inversion on GVA 11 was revealed by the hybridization patterns of human chromosome probes 16 and 19. Fifteen associations of human chromosome segments (HSA were detected in the G. variegatus genome: HSA1/3, 1/10, 2/21, 3/21, 4/8, 4/18, 7/15, 7/16, 7/19, 10/16, 12/22 (twice, 14/15, 16/19 (twice. Reverse painting of G. variegatus chromosome-specific paints onto human chromosomes confirmed the above results, and defined the origin of the homologous human chromosomal segments in these associations. In total, G. variegatus paints revealed 49 homologous chromosomal segments in the HSA genome. Conclusion Comparative analysis of our map with published maps from representative species of other placental orders, including Scandentia, Primates, Lagomorpha and Rodentia, suggests a signature rearrangement (HSA2q/21 association that links Scandentia and Dermoptera to one sister clade. Our results thus provide new evidence for the hypothesis that Scandentia and Dermoptera have a closer phylogenetic relationship to each other than either of them has to Primates.

  14. The Réunion Fody and Sonnerat's Shrew and the validity of scientifically naming animals described without physical types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Anthony S; Hume, Julian P

    2018-02-21

    An essential requirement of the current edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999) is to designate a holotype or syntypes for a species or subspecies newly described after 1999. Where specimens exist this makes sense (and is indeed essential), but is meaningless when describing a species-group taxon from an old illustration or written account in which specimens were not preserved or even necessarily taken at all. The naming of two species which one or both of us described post-1999 from old accounts without designating types has been singled out as invalid on this basis. As the revisers of the ICZN apparently did not anticipate further naming of taxa from old accounts, and thus allowed a logical paradox to arise, we strongly recommend that, in respect of descriptions from old accounts with no specimens, this rule be waived by a retrospective amendment, as it is likely that other similar cases exist, and it serves no-ones' interest to strike down otherwise properly described names on a pointless technicality. Prior to our proposed change in the Code, in this note Foudia delloni Cheke Hume sp. nov. (Aves: Passeriformes: Ploceidae), from Réunion Island, and Diplomesodon sonnerati Cheke sp. nov. (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae), from southern India, are named anew using the same names and the original diagnoses.

  15. Aging is accompanied by a subfield-specific reduction of serotonergic fibers in the tree shrew hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, Jeanine I H; Keijser, Jan N.; Nyakas, Csaba; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a crucial structure for learning and memory, and serotonin together with other neurotransmitters is essential in these processes. Although the effects of aging on various neurotransmitter systems in the hippocampus have been extensively investigated, it is not entirely

  16. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT HEMOGLOBIN: DOSE-RESPONSE AND TOXICOKINETICS DETERMINATION BY GC-NICI-MS FOR A SENTINEL SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinet...

  17. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  18. Extreme feeding behaviours in the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis siculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Capula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the occurrence of cannibalism, unusual predation on small reptiles [Hemidactylus turcicus (Reptilia, Gekkonidae], and foraging on small mammal carrion [Suncus etruscus (Mammalia, Soricidae] by P. siculus is reported.

  19. Seeking a Human Spaceflight Program Worthy of a Great Nation. Review of U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Steve Metschan George E. Mueller Elon Musk Jack Mustard Clive Neal Scott Neish Benjamin J. Neumann Mike O’Brien Sean O’Keefe John Olson Scott Pace Anatoly...July 2009 Musk , Elon , “COTS Status Update & Crew Capabilities”, SpaceX, 16 June 2009 Musk , Elon , “COTS Status Update & Crew Capabilities”, SpaceX

  20. Examination of the Benefits of Standardized Interfaces on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    them to enter the once impenetrable aerospace market: Elon Musk with Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Richard Branson with Virgin Galactic, and...systems-engineering- guide/se-life cycle-building-blocks/concept-development/highlevel-conceptual- definition. Musk , Elon . 2009. Risky Business... Musk , 2009) Unknown effects of prolonged exposure to radiation Degraded system capability (JPL 2015) Replenishment of the system capability may

  1. Deterioration of the Gαo vomeronasal pathway in sexually dimorphic mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Suárez

    Full Text Available In mammals, social and sexual behaviours are largely mediated by the vomeronasal system (VNS. The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB is the first synaptic locus of the VNS and ranges from very large in Caviomorph rodents, small in carnivores and ungulates, to its complete absence in apes, elephants, most bats and aquatic species. Two pathways have been described in the VNS of mammals. In mice, vomeronasal neurons expressing Gαi2 protein project to the rostral portion of the AOB and respond mostly to small volatile molecules, whereas neurons expressing Gαo project to the caudal AOB and respond mostly to large non-volatile molecules. However, the Gαo-expressing pathway is absent in several species (horses, dogs, musk shrews, goats and marmosets but no hypotheses have been proposed to date to explain the loss of that pathway. We noted that the species that lost the Gαo pathway belong to Laurasiatheria and Primates lineages, both clades with ubiquitous sexual dimorphisms across species. To assess whether similar events of Gαo pathway loss could have occurred convergently in dimorphic species we studied G-protein expression in the AOB of two species that independently evolved sexually dimorphic traits: the California ground squirrel Spermophilus beecheyi (Rodentia; Sciurognathi and the cape hyrax Procavia capensis (Afrotheria; Hyracoidea. We found that both species show uniform expression of Gαi2-protein throughout AOB glomeruli, while Gαo expression is restricted to main olfactory glomeruli only. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathway has occurred independently at least four times in Eutheria, possibly related to the emergence of sexual dimorphisms and the ability of detecting the gender of conspecifics at distance.

  2. Neurophysiological analytics for all! Free open-source software tools for documenting, analyzing, visualizing, and sharing using electronic notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David M; Horn, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    Neurophysiology requires an extensive workflow of information analysis routines, which often includes incompatible proprietary software, introducing limitations based on financial costs, transfer of data between platforms, and the ability to share. An ecosystem of free open-source software exists to fill these gaps, including thousands of analysis and plotting packages written in Python and R, which can be implemented in a sharable and reproducible format, such as the Jupyter electronic notebook. This tool chain can largely replace current routines by importing data, producing analyses, and generating publication-quality graphics. An electronic notebook like Jupyter allows these analyses, along with documentation of procedures, to display locally or remotely in an internet browser, which can be saved as an HTML, PDF, or other file format for sharing with team members and the scientific community. The present report illustrates these methods using data from electrophysiological recordings of the musk shrew vagus-a model system to investigate gut-brain communication, for example, in cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis. We show methods for spike sorting (including statistical validation), spike train analysis, and analysis of compound action potentials in notebooks. Raw data and code are available from notebooks in data supplements or from an executable online version, which replicates all analyses without installing software-an implementation of reproducible research. This demonstrates the promise of combining disparate analyses into one platform, along with the ease of sharing this work. In an age of diverse, high-throughput computational workflows, this methodology can increase efficiency, transparency, and the collaborative potential of neurophysiological research. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Chromosomal rearrangements do not seem to affect the gene flow in hybrid zones between karyotypic races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horn, A.; Basset, P.; Yannic, G.; Banaszek, A.; Borodin, P. M.; Bulatova, N. S.; Jadwiszczak, K.; Jones, R. M.; Polyakov, A. V.; Ratkiewicz, M.; Searle, J. B.; Shchipanov, N. A.; Zima, Jan; Hausser, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2012), s. 882-889 ISSN 0014-3820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genetic structure * microsatellites * Robertsonian rearrangements * Sorex araneus * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2012

  4. Known from a handful of specimens: analyzing the worldwide patterns of occurrence and conservation of rodents and shrews recorded only from the type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, conservation research has not focused on Rodentia and Soricomorpha, and many species are known from a handful of specimens and the type locality only (few and type locality species (FETP.  Here we studied the patterns of occurrence of FETP rodents and soricomorphs in relation to geographical area and vegetation zones and report some conservation considerations.  Overall, 91 species of Rodentia and 19 species of Soricomorpha were selected.  There was a positive correlation between number of species per genus and number of FETP species in each genus.  The majority of FETP rodents occur in the Neotropical, Afrotropical and Oriental regions, and soricomorphs in the Afrotropical and Oriental regions. Higher numbers of FETP rodent species occurred in Argentina and Indonesia.  There was a positive relationship between species richness of rodents per country and number of FETP species.  In terms of habitat type, FETP species of rodents and soricomorphs showed similar patterns, with most species being found in rainforest.  The great majority of selected species of both groups were Data Deficient (DD, with Critically Endangered (CR accounting for 16.5% of Rodentia and 5.3% of Soricomorpha.  Overall, IUCN threatened species mostly occur in the Neotropical region, followed by the Afrotropical region.  It is urged that IUCN authorities should promptly revise all FETP species and their precautionary CR status, at least when a reasonable timespan (i.e., >25 years has passed since the last records. 

  5. Chronic psychosocial stress in tree shrews : effect of the substance P (NK1 receptor) antagonist L-760735 and clomipramine on endocrine and behavioral parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hart, MGC; de Biurrun, G; Czeh, B; Rupniak, NMJ; den Boer, JA; Fuchs, E

    Rationale: Substance P and its preferred receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), have been proposed as possible targets for new antidepressant therapies, although results of a recently completed phase III trial failed to demonstrate that the NK1R antagonist MK-869 is more effective than placebo

  6. [The Gongylonematid parasitic in the elephant shrew Elephantus rozeti (Macrocelidae) in Tunisia was identified as Gongylonema brevispiculum Seurat, 1914 (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, J C; Seureau, C

    1978-01-01

    Its larval form obtained from experimentally infected intermediate hosts, differs from those of other Gongylonematids. In the genus Gongylonema four types of larvae were recognized. They are characterized by the size and the cephalic and caudal structures of the larvae. The cellular reactions caused by the larvae of G. brevispiculum in the insect muscles are similar to those caused by infections with larvae of Acuarid nematodes.

  7. Leading in the Arctic; Translating the United States Arctic Strategy into Opportunities for Peace and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Elon Musk , the well-known founder of Tesla and Space-X. His life’s work focuses on developing the means to find and get to...nat_arctic_strategy.pdf 58. Elon Musk , “ Elon Musk -The man behind Tesla, Space X, Solar City…” (Filmed February 2013, TED video, 21:04. Posted March 2013) https...Exploitation. London, UK: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2012. Musk , Elon . “ Elon Musk -The man behind Tesla, Space X, Solar City…” Filmed February 2013, TED

  8. Viabilidade da irrigação do meloeiro com águas salinas em diferentes fases fenológicas Feasibility of irrigation of musk melon with salinity water in different phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Queiroz Porto Filho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da aplicação de águas de irrigação de diferentes salinidades no rendimento do melão irrigado por gotejamento e de associar a produção obtida com o custo da água utilizada, desenvolveu-se este trabalho em Mossoró-RN. Águas de diferentes salinidades (S1=0,6, S2=1,9, S3=3,2 e S4=4,5dS m-1, utilizadas de forma incremental em três estádios de desenvolvimento ou sem variar durante o ciclo da cultura, formaram dez tratamentos arranjados em blocos inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições. O uso de águas salinas por longos períodos afetou a produção de melão. Substituições tardias na salinidade da água tenderam a não exercer efeito significativo sobre a produção do meloeiro. O tratamento irrigado com a água de menor salinidade durante todo ciclo apresentou, simultaneamente, o maior custo com água de irrigação e o maior lucro na produção de melão.This study was carried out in Mossoró, RN, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different irrigation water salinity levels on yield of drip irrigated melon, and to relate yield with the cost of water. The waters of different salinities (S1=0.6, S2=1.9, S3=3.2 e S4=4.5dS m-1 were used both in incremental way in three different phenological stages and without replacement during the crop cycle totalizing ten treatments arranged in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The use of saline waters without substitutions affected melon production. The treatments irrigated with low salinity water presented simultaneously the higher cost of irrigation water and higher profits of melon cultivation.

  9. 50 CFR 25.12 - What do these terms mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... large game animals, including moose, elk, caribou, reindeer, musk ox, deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goat... services. Examples include: Farming, grazing, haying, timber harvesting, and trapping. Regional Chief means...

  10. Expression and Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 and Its Receptor in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy T. Desaulniers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1 and its receptor (GnRHR1 drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2 and its receptor (GnRHR2 also exist in mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, signifying high selection pressure and a critical biological role. However, the GnRH2 gene is absent (e.g., rat or inactivated (e.g., cow and sheep in some species but retained in others (e.g., human, horse, and pig. Likewise, many species (e.g., human, chimpanzee, cow, and sheep retain the GnRHR2 gene but lack the appropriate coding sequence to produce a full-length protein due to gene coding errors; although production of GnRHR2 in humans remains controversial. Certain mammals lack the GnRHR2 gene (e.g., mouse or most exons entirely (e.g., rat. In contrast, old world monkeys, musk shrews, and pigs maintain the coding sequence required to produce a functional GnRHR2. Like GnRHR1, GnRHR2 is a 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with Gαq/11 to mediate cell signaling. However, GnRHR2 retains a cytoplasmic tail and is only 40% homologous to GnRHR1. A role for GnRH2 and its receptor in mammals has been elusive, likely because common laboratory models lack both the ligand and receptor. Uniquely, both GnRH2 and GnRHR2 are ubiquitously expressed; transcript levels are abundant in peripheral tissues and scarcely found in regions of the brain associated with gonadotropin secretion, suggesting a divergent role from GnRH1/GnRHR1. Indeed, GnRH2 and its receptor are not physiological modulators of gonadotropin secretion in mammals. Instead, GnRH2 and GnRHR2 coordinate the interaction between nutritional status and sexual behavior in the female brain. Within peripheral tissues, GnRH2 and its receptor are novel regulators of reproductive organs. GnRH2 and GnRHR2 directly stimulate steroidogenesis within the porcine testis. In the female, GnRH2 and

  11. Stress-Induced Neurodegeneration: Mechanisms and Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyerhoff, James

    2000-01-01

    .... chronic stress in several species, including mouse, rat, tree shrew and monkey, have been reported to develop alterations in hippocampal morphology, including apical dendritic atrophy, depletion...

  12. Illumina-based de novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq technology to perform de novo assembly of heart and musk gland transcriptomes from the Chinese forest musk deer. A total of 239,383 transcripts and 176,450 unigenes were obtained, of which 37,329 unigenes were matched to known sequences in the NCBI nonredundant ...

  13. 75 FR 28636 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... listed Final listing rule ANIMALS Buena Vista Lake ornate shrew... Sorex ornatus Endangered........ U.S.A.... La Graciosa thistle Cirsium Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 65 FR 14888, 3/20/ loncholepis... Fish and Wildlife Office at (760) 431-9440. For the Buena Vista Lake ornate shrew, California clapper...

  14. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  15. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  16. Assessing the diurnal variability of pharmaceutical and personal care products in a full-scale activated sludge plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, R.; Marques, R.; Noronha, J.P.; Mexia, J.T.; Carvalho, G.; Oehmen, A.; Reis, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    An intensive sampling campaign has been carried out in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to assess the dynamics of the influent pharmaceutical active compounds (PhAC) and musks. The mass loadings of these compounds in wastewater influents displayed contrasting diurnal variations depending on the compound. The musks and some groups of PhACs tended to follow a similar diurnal trend as compared to macropollutants, while the majority of PhACs followed either the opposite trend or no repeatable trend. The total musk loading to the WWTP was 0.74 ± 0.25 g d -1 , whereas the total PhAC mass loading was 84.7 ± 63.8 g d -1 . Unlike the PhACs, the musks displayed a high repeatability from one sampling day to the next. The range of PhAC loadings in the influent to WWTPs can vary several orders of magnitude from one day or week to the next, representing a challenge in obtaining data for steady-state modelling purposes. - Highlights: → Investigated the variations in influent wastewater pharmaceutical and musk loadings. → A high number of different pharmaceutical and musk compounds was analysed. → Many pharmaceutical groups displayed different characteristic patterns. → A representative steady-state pattern was observable for musks, not pharmaceuticals. → The results are relevant to the design of sampling campaigns for modelling purposes. - The diurnal variations of pharmaceuticals and musks were studied in an activated sludge plant, where the loadings of the musks were more repeatable than the pharmaceuticals.

  17. Leptospira and rodents in Cambodia : environmental determinants of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, S.; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, K.; Chaval, Y.; Buchy, P.; Guillard, B.; Morand, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were ...

  18. Illumina–based de novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... (Shanghai, China) following manufacturer's protocols (Illumina, San .... suggests that pathways involved in musk production are expressed at a ..... Strickler S. R., Aureliano B. and Mueller L. A. 2012 Designing a transcriptome.

  19. Illumina-based de novotranscriptome sequencing and analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHONGXIAN XU

    2017-12-18

    Dec 18, 2017 ... hai, China) following manufacturer's protocols (Illumina,. San Diego, USA), and PE .... participating in the regulation of musk production. Discussion. Illumina ..... Strickler S. R., Aureliano B. and Mueller L. A. 2012 Design-.

  20. PRELIMINARY NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF FIVE SPECIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pumpkin or squash gourd), Cucurbita moschata (musk melon), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd or calabash) and Cucumis sativus (“Ibo” egusi). The moisture content was determined by drying in an oven to constant weight, crude protein content by ...

  1. Maintenance plasma exchange treatment for muscle specific kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chisa; Teener, James W; Davenport, Robertson D; Cooling, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Anti-muscle specific kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis (MuSK MG) is often characterized by a relatively severe and progressive course, refractoriness to standard myasthenia gravis (MG) medications, and an increased risk of myasthenic crisis. We report here successful management of three MuSK MG patients using maintenance therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) treatment for up to 4.5 years. The study was a 5-year retrospective review of all MG patients treated with TPE between 2008 and 2013 at University of Michigan. Inclusion criteria of MuSK MG were positive for anti-MuSK antibodies and a diagnosis of MuSK MG by staff neurologists. Patient data included age, gender, diagnostic testing results, medications, and the dates and response to TPE treatments. A total of 153 MG patients underwent at least one course of TPE between 2008 and 2013. A total of 12 patients (7.8%) were positive for anti-MuSK antibodies. Patients were predominantly female (83.3%) and a median age of onset was 46-years old. Three MuSK MG patients were successfully managed with maintenance TPE. Maintenance TPE may be an effective option for MuSK MG patients. The key of successful maintenance treatment at our institution has been to tailor the TPE frequency for each individual, and to modify the treatment interval in conjunction with medical management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Qualidade de frutos de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado em função do número de frutos por planta Quality of fruits of five musk melon cultivars in function of the number of fruits per plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Castoldi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado, com dois e três frutos por planta, utilizando fibra da casca de coco e fertirrigação. Para tanto, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação na UNESP-FCAV, Câmpus de Jaboticabal, com delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os fatores avaliados foram cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado (Maxim, Bônus nº 2, Shinju 200, Fantasy e Louis e número de frutos por planta (2 ou 3 frutos. Os frutos foram colhidos quando atingiram o máximo do desenvolvimento. Foram avaliados: sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, pH, vitamina C e massa média dos frutos. Para todas as características avaliadas, não houve interação entre híbridos e o número de frutos por planta. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que o híbrido Bônus nº 2 apresentou o maior número de características qualitativas desejáveis quando cultivada sob ambiente protegido, utilizando fibra da casca de coco e fertirrigação. O número de frutos por planta não afetou as características qualitativas avaliadas, exceto o teor de sólidos solúveis e massa média dos frutos, sendo maior quando deixados dois frutos por planta.The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of five cultivars muskmelon, conducted with two or three fruits per plant, using coconut fiber and fertirrigation. This research was carried in green house conditions in UNESP-FCAV, Campus of Jaboticabal, with experimental design of randomized blocks in factorial scheme 5 x 2, with four replications. The studied factors were five cultivars muskmelon (Maxim, Bônus 2, Shinju 200, Fantasy e Louis and number of fruits per plant (2 or 3 fruits. Fruits were harvested after they have achieved the maximum growth. The following parameters were studied: soluble solids; total tritritable acidity; vitamine C and average mass of the fruit. There wasn't interaction between cultivars and the number fruits per plant for all the evaluated characteristics. Based on the final results, it was concluded that the cultivar Bônus 2 presented higher number of qualifying desirable characteristics when cultivated in protected environment, using coconut fiber and fertirrigation. The number of fruits per plant did not affect the qualifying characteristics that were evaluated, except the soluble solids content and average fruit mass, being higher when two fruits per plant were left.

  3. Isolation and molecular identification of a Serratia strain from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... family Tupaiidae, mainly found in Southern China, India and Southeast Asia. The 17 known species of tree shrews ... for pathogenic coccus cultivation and nutrient agar culture dish and. MacConkey agar for pathogenic rod ...

  4. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: A study of rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of toxoplasmosis in child-bearing women in rural Sudan is even higher ranging ... crops. Animal trapping. Live rodents and shrews were captured in cultivated ..... P., Hodný, Z. & Vondrová, M. (2011) Fatal attraction phenomenon in.

  5. The Trinity River Greenway: A Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    study have gone into the formulation of a multipurpose plan of management designed to tame the raging waters of the Trinity, subdue its flooding crests...TABLE 6 MAMMALS OF THE STUDY AREA Shorttail Shrew (Blarina brevicauda) Beaver (Castor canadensis) Least Shrew (Crytotis parva) Armadillo (Dasypjs...property resulted. The Trinity became an J :enemy, a raging torrent to be tamed and eventually subdued. Meanwhile, thoughful men began to realize that

  6. Red River of the North, Reconnaissance Report: Bois de Sioux-Mustinka Rivers Subbasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    grazing 10. Little bluestem-stonyhills muhly-sideoats grama community: in the more xeric areas of steep slopes and hills 11. Tame grassland community...subbasin, with typical animals consisting of the short-tailed shrew , striped skunk, meadow vole, and northern grasshopper mouse (Henderson, 1979a and b...Nlon-game mamals indicated as priority species include the Arctic shrew (Ottertail County), northern grasshopper mouse (Ottertail, Grant, Traverse

  7. Taxonomic uncertainty and the loss of biodiversity on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Mark D B; Meek, Paul D; Johnson, Rebecca N

    2014-04-01

    The taxonomic uniqueness of island populations is often uncertain which hinders effective prioritization for conservation. The Christmas Island shrew (Crocidura attenuata trichura) is the only member of the highly speciose eutherian family Soricidae recorded from Australia. It is currently classified as a subspecies of the Asian gray or long-tailed shrew (C. attenuata), although it was originally described as a subspecies of the southeast Asian white-toothed shrew (C. fuliginosa). The Christmas Island shrew is currently listed as endangered and has not been recorded in the wild since 1984-1985, when 2 specimens were collected after an 80-year absence. We aimed to obtain DNA sequence data for cytochrome b (cytb) from Christmas Island shrew museum specimens to determine their taxonomic affinities and to confirm the identity of the 1980s specimens. The Cytb sequences from 5, 1898 specimens and a 1985 specimen were identical. In addition, the Christmas Island shrew cytb sequence was divergent at the species level from all available Crocidura cytb sequences. Rather than a population of a widespread species, current evidence suggests the Christmas Island shrew is a critically endangered endemic species, C. trichura, and a high priority for conservation. As the decisions typically required to save declining species can be delayed or deferred if the taxonomic status of the population in question is uncertain, it is hoped that the history of the Christmas Island shrew will encourage the clarification of taxonomy to be seen as an important first step in initiating informed and effective conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. IgG4 autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase undergo Fab-arm exchange in myasthenia gravis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneczny, Inga; Stevens, Jo A A; De Rosa, Anna; Huda, Saif; Huijbers, Maartje G; Saxena, Abhishek; Maestri, Michelangelo; Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Tzartos, Socrates; Verschuuren, Jan; van der Maarel, Silvère M; van Damme, Philip; De Baets, Marc H; Molenaar, Peter C; Vincent, Angela; Ricciardi, Roberta; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; Losen, Mario

    2017-02-01

    Autoimmunity mediated by IgG4 subclass autoantibodies is an expanding field of research. Due to their structural characteristics a key feature of IgG4 antibodies is the ability to exchange Fab-arms with other, unrelated, IgG4 molecules, making the IgG4 molecule potentially monovalent for the specific antigen. However, whether those disease-associated antigen-specific IgG4 are mono- or divalent for their antigens is unknown. Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies to muscle specific kinase (MuSK-MG) is a well-recognized disease in which the predominant pathogenic IgG4 antibody binds to extracellular epitopes on MuSK at the neuromuscular junction; this inhibits a pathway that clusters the acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) receptors and leads to failure of neuromuscular transmission. In vitro Fab-arm exchange-inducing conditions were applied to MuSK antibodies in sera, purified IgG4 and IgG1-3 sub-fractions. Solid-phase cross-linking assays were established to determine the extent of pre-existing and inducible Fab-arm exchange. Functional effects of the resulting populations of IgG4 antibodies were determined by measuring inhibition of agrin-induced AChR clustering in C2C12 cells. To confirm the results, κ/κ, λ/λ and hybrid κ/λ IgG4s were isolated and tested for MuSK antibodies. At least fifty percent of patients had IgG4, but not IgG1-3, MuSK antibodies that could undergo Fab-arm exchange in vitro under reducing conditions. Also MuSK antibodies were found in vivo that were divalent (monospecific for MuSK). Fab-arm exchange with normal human IgG4 did not prevent the inhibitory effect of serum derived MuSK antibodies on AChR clustering in C2C12 mouse myotubes. The results suggest that a considerable proportion of MuSK IgG4 could already be Fab-arm exchanged in vivo. This was confirmed by isolating endogenous IgG4 MuSK antibodies containing both κ and λ light chains, i.e. hybrid IgG4 molecules. These new findings demonstrate that Fab-arm exchanged antibodies

  9. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: evaluation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Julie S; Halbrook, Richard S; Woolf, Alan; French, John B; Melancon, Mark J

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received betaNF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  10. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  11. Extensive characterization of Tupaia belangeri neuropeptidome using an integrated mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzziello, Filomena; Fouillen, Laetitia; Wadensten, Henrik; Kretz, Robert; Andren, Per E; Rainer, Gregor; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2012-02-03

    Neuropeptidomics is used to characterize endogenous peptides in the brain of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews are small animals similar to rodents in size but close relatives of primates, and are excellent models for brain research. Currently, tree shrews have no complete proteome information available on which direct database search can be allowed for neuropeptide identification. To increase the capability in the identification of neuropeptides in tree shrews, we developed an integrated mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach that combines methods including data-dependent, directed, and targeted liquid chromatography (LC)-Fourier transform (FT)-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis, database construction, de novo sequencing, precursor protein search, and homology analysis. Using this integrated approach, we identified 107 endogenous peptides that have sequences identical or similar to those from other mammalian species. High accuracy MS and tandem MS information, with BLAST analysis and chromatographic characteristics were used to confirm the sequences of all the identified peptides. Interestingly, further sequence homology analysis demonstrated that tree shrew peptides have a significantly higher degree of homology to equivalent sequences in humans than those in mice or rats, consistent with the close phylogenetic relationship between tree shrews and primates. Our results provide the first extensive characterization of the peptidome in tree shrews, which now permits characterization of their function in nervous and endocrine system. As the approach developed fully used the conservative properties of neuropeptides in evolution and the advantage of high accuracy MS, it can be portable for identification of neuropeptides in other species for which the fully sequenced genomes or proteomes are not available.

  12. High-Arctic Plant-Herbivore Interactions under Climate Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thomas B.; Schmidt, Niels M.; Høye, Toke Thomas

    production upon which the herbivores depend, and snow may be the most important climatic factor affecting the different trophic levels and the interactions between them. Hence, the spatio-temporal distribution of snow, as well as thawing events during winter, may have considerable effects on the herbivores...... by both the timing of onset and the duration of winter snow-cover. Musk oxen significantly reduced the productivity of arctic willow, while high densities of collared lemmings during winter reduced the production of mountain averts flowers in the following summer. Under a deep snow-layer scenario, climate...... and the previous year's density of musk oxen had a negative effect on the present year's production of arctic willow. Previous year's primary production of arctic willow, in turn, significantly affected the present year's density of musk oxen positively. Climatic factors that affect primary production of plants...

  13. [Investigation of antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from rat-like animals around a hospital in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue-Shan; Ge, Jing; Chen, Shao-Wei; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Huo, Shu-Ting; Chen, Qing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in fecal samples from rat-like animals. Rat-like animals were captured using cages around a hospital and the neighboring residential area between March and October, 2015. K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were isolated from the fecal samples of the captured animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2014). A total of 329 rat-like animals were captured, including 205 Suncus murinus, 111 Rattus norvegicus, 5 Rattus flavipectus and 8 Mus musculus. The positivity rates of K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were 78.4% and 34.7% in the fecal samples from the captured animals, respectively. K. pneumoniae isolates from Suncus murinus showed a high resistance to ampicillin, cephazolin, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin and cefotaxime (with resistance rates of 100%, 51.2%, 44.2%, 37.2%, and 23.3%, respectively), and K. pneumoniae isolates from Rattus spp. showed a similar drug-resistance profile. The prevalence rates of multidrug resistance and ESBLs were 40.9% and 10.7%, respectively. P. aeruginosa from both Suncus murinus and Rattus spp. exhibited the highest resistance rates to aztreonam (12.4% and 16.0%, respectively), followed by penicillins and fluoroquinolones. P. aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to cephems, aminoglycosides and carbapenems (with resistance rates below 5%). K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa isolated from rat-like animals showed drug-resistance profiles similar to those of the strains isolated from clinical patients, suggesting that the possible transmission of K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa between rat-like animals and human beings.

  14. Effects of Mutagen-Sensitive Mus Mutations on Spontaneous Mitotic Recombination in Aspergillus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, P.; Kafer, E.

    1992-01-01

    Methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive, radiation-induced mutants of Aspergillus were shown to define nine new DNA repair genes, musK to musS. To test mus mutations for effects on mitotic recombination, intergenic crossing over was assayed between color markers and their centromeres, and intragenic recombination between two distinguishable adE alleles. Of eight mutants analyzed, four showed significant deviations from mus(+) controls in both tests. Two mutations, musK and musL, reduced reco...

  15. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    pharmaceuticals and two personal care products (PPCPs; e.g. betablockers, antibiotics, antiphlogistics, carbamazepine, musk fragrances, iodinated contrast media (ICM) and estrogens). No differences in PPCP pollution of the groundwater were found due to irrigation of STP effluents with and without addition....... In the groundwater and lysimeter samples primarily the ICM diatrizoate and iopamidol, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole were detected up to several mu g l(-1), while the acidic pharmaceuticals, musk fragrances, estrogens and betablockers were likely sorbed or transformed while...

  16. Disease: H01594 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tures include early-onset, late-onset, thymoma, MUSK, LRP4, antibody-negative, and ocular forms of myasthenia...B ... TITLE ... Diagnostic and clinical classification of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. ... JOURNAL ... J Autoimmu... ... AUTHORS ... Dalakas MC ... TITLE ... Future perspectives in target-specific immunotherapies of myasthenia grav...AUTHORS ... Gold R, Hohlfeld R, Toyka KV ... TITLE ... Progress in the treatment of myasthenia gravis. ... JOURNAL...Auto-antibodies to the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK in patients with myasthenia gravis without acetylcholin

  17. Archaeological Investigations at the San Gabriel Reservoir Districts, Central Texas. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    both edges have clearly been ground or smoothed. 2. unnamed biface: n = 1 From San Geronimo dated levels from this site comes an elon - gated rectangular...Slider Chrysemys Sp. X Musk /Muditotesp. xnseid X tsh turtle Trionyx Sp. x AMPHIBIANS t sp. Cent ridae X BulrgRana catesbiana x oSp. Salamander sp...sp. ?3 3.19 Viper 10 1.39 Coluber 62 8.62 Turtle sp. 3 0/41 Musk /Mud Turtle 1 0.13 Lizard 15 2.08 Toad/Frog 7 0.97 Salamander 1 0.13 Fish sp. 10 1.39

  18. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)

  19. Responses of small mammals to clear-cutting in temperate and boreal forests of Europe: a meta-analysis and review

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdziewicz, Michał; Zwolak, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the responses of small mammals to clear-cutting in temperate and boreal forests in Europe. We conducted a meta-analysis of published research on most often studied small mammal species (the striped field mouse, the yellow-necked mouse, the wood mouse, the field vole, the common vole, the bank vole, the Eurasian harvest mouse, the common shrew and the Eurasian pygmy shrew), comparing their abundance on clear-cuts and in unharvested stands. For four other species (the gray-sided vol...

  20. Studies on the nature of the incompatibility in a cucurbitaceous graft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, de H.C.M.

    1956-01-01

    Musk melon (M), cucumber (C) and Cucurbita ficifolia (F) could succesfully be grafted in all single combinations, except for M/F which required foliage on the stock to survive. Defoliation of this stock caused the plant to wilt and die, generally in 4-5 days; necrosis started in the stock: a rapid

  1. Survival on Land and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-01-01

    person will keep his eyes open and do a little experimenting. In the mountains of New Guinea, Java , and the Philippines the vegetation is less...found in summer but hibernate in winter. Musk-ox provide excellent food but ar« now found in only a lew remote localities in the Far North. 146

  2. 78 FR 35922 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Second List of Chemicals and Substances for Tier 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... health or the environment due to disruption of the endocrine system. The determination that a chemical... chemicals (e.g., triclosan, alkylphenols and alkylphenol polyethoxylates, bisphenol A, musk fragrances, and..., methanol, and perchlorate) can occur naturally in the environment, this is not the only known pathway of...

  3. Comparison of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of cyclopentadecanolide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methyl 15-hydroxy-pentadecanate, which is made from Malana oleifera chum oil, is an ideal material to synthesize cyclopentadecanolide, an important macrocycle musk, with wide applications in the fields of perfume, cosmetic, food and medicine, etc. One kind of screened lipase from Candida sp.GXU08 strain was used to ...

  4. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management System (ECAMP), U.S. Air Force - German Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    lizard *Lacerta parva Zwerg-Zaumeidecbse dwad sand lizard *Lacerta. princeps Zagros-Eidecbse Zagros’ lizard *Lacerta viridis Smaragdeidechse green...Moschusbock musk beetle oak beetle Agrilus viridis Buchenprachtkaefer beech beetle (Lsubholzprachtksefer) deciduous tree beetles Anthaxia quadiipunctata...meadow sulfur -all European species not individually listed *Coistra. fragariae Erdbeereule strawberry moth *Consta. veronicae Rotbraune Wintereule red

  5. Transformation products and reaction kinetics of fragrances in advanced wastewater treatment with ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzen, Niklas; Dopp, Elke; Hesse, Julia

    2011-01-01

    ) ethanone (musk ketone/MK), and 1-(2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (OTNE) with ozone in tap water as well as waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is described. Several transformation products are characterized by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass...

  6. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. MINGYAO YANG. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 1033-1040 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Illumina-based de novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of Chinese forest musk deer · ZHONGXIAN XU HANG JIE BINLONG CHEN UMA GAUR ...

  7. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taking of fish and wildlife... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.40 Taking of fish and wildlife. (a..., bison, musk ox, wolf and wolverine until after 3 a.m. on the day following the day in which the flying...

  8. Identification of Acute Phase Proteins and Assays Applicable in Nondomesticated Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M.; Grøndahl, C.

    2009-01-01

    potential APPs-serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin (Hp)-was evaluated in eight species. For SAA, a turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA) demonstrated significant detective abilities ill the Asian elephant (Elaphas maximus), impala (Aepyceros melampus), musk ox (Ovibos moschatus...

  9. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  10. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis with anti-muscle specific kinase antibodies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, Erik H.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Verschuuren, Jan J. G. M.

    The epidemiology of myasthenia gravis subtypes and the frequency of antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) was studied in patients with generalised myasthenia gravis without anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies who had an onset of symptoms between 1990 and 2004 in a well-defined region in the

  11. Patch testing with fragrances: results of a multicenter study of the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group with 48 frequently used constituents of perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1995-01-01

    ), citronellol (1) and amyl salicylate (1)). The remaining 41 fragrances were negative. 28 irritant or doubtful reactions on day 3/4 were observed to a total of 19 FF materials (more than 1 reaction: 5% citronellol (2), 1% amyl salicylate (2), 1% isononyl acetate (3), 0.1% musk xylol (2), 1% citral (2), and 1...

  12. Identifikasi berat, diameter, dan tebal daging buah melon (Cucumis melo L. kultivar action 434 tetraploid akibat perlakuan kolkisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ulung Anggraito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian farmers are very dependence on certificated seed from another countries. In the other side the natural resources andmen powers very abundance. For these reason it is properly developed the research in agriculture sector, especially on plants breeding.It can be hoped that in the future the dependence on certificated seed from another countries can be minimized. The objective of thisresearch were: (1 to find out the concentration and dipping period which is effective to induce polyploid in musk melon plant, (2identify the weight, diameter, dan flesh thickness of tetraploid musk melon as result of colchicines treatment. The sample of this researchwas Action 434 musk melon cultivar, product of Chia-Thai Seed, Thailand. The number of sample was 480 plants, which plants on fieldrandomly. There were four colchicines concentration as an independent variable: 0.0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.2%. The dipping periodwere 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours for each concentration respectively. Completely Random Design was used in three replications. Datameasurement were analyzed with Two Way ANOVA, DMRT, and LSD. From this research can be concluded that: (1 0.2 % colchicinesis the most effective concentration to induce polyploid on musk melon, with dipping period effective varied from 16–24 hours, (2 thereare changes in weight, diameter, and flesh thickness characters, with the increased tendency of each character in definite norm.

  13. Proceedings of Interservice/Industry Training Systems and Education Conference (15th) Held November 29 - December 2, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-02

    Item is one which musk alweys be provided by the CMI system to be AICC compliant. Core Items are those which a lesson may always depend upon being...hndliment mhat showing the necessary control and then click some nocane to the en elon tat ontol. achconrcl as unque were necessary to access the new

  14. China Report, Red Flag, Number 1, 1 January 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-05

    li0dSOf,the thlrd’ f°Urth’ and the fifth e^ elon . It is impossible for them to change. In recent times I have always told foreign guests that the...people sell hides, musk , and other articles to Han people in exchange for cloth and salt. The Yi costumes are completely different from the Han

  15. Characterization of Electrically Active Defects in Si Using CCD Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    made of each slice using the elon -asoorbio aold developer described in Appendix D. The inagers were then thinned using the procedure at Appendix taor...investigated for use an diffusion or implantation musks . The use of high pressure thermal oxidation at lower temperatures my serve to reduoe the

  16. Fossil Rodents from Curaçao and Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1959-01-01

    The fossil remains of rodents described in the present paper are from various localities. The large extinct musk rat Megalomys occurs in reddish-brown phosphatic “oolite” fillings of irregular cavities in a marine limestone found by Mr. P. H. DE BUISONJÉ in the north-western part of the Duivelsklip,

  17. Examination of transcript amounts and activity of protein kinase CK2 in muscle lysates of different types of human muscle pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuss, Dieter; Klascinski, Janine; Schubert, Steffen W; Moriabadi, Tehmur; Lochmüller, Hanns; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2008-09-01

    Motoneurons release the heparansulfate proteoglycan agrin and thereby activate the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which is the main organizer of subsynaptic specializations at the neuromuscular junction. Recently, we showed that (1) the protein kinase CK2 interacts with the intracellular region of MuSK; (2) the CK2 protein is enriched and co-localized with MuSK at postsynaptic specializations; (3) CK2-mediated phosphorylation of serine residues within a specific MuSK epitope, named the kinase insert, regulates acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering; (4) muscle-specific CK2beta knockout mice develop a myasthenic phenotype due to impaired muscle endplate structure and function (see Genes Dev 20(13):1800-1816, 2006). Here, we investigated for the first time if CK2 is modulated in biopsies from human patients. To this end, we measured transcript amounts of the subunits CK2alpha and CK2beta and determined holoenzyme CK2 activity in 34 muscle biopsies of human patients with different muscle pathologies.

  18. DETERMINASI SEROVAR BAKTERI LEPTOSPIRA PADA RESERVOIR DI KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira. Leptospirosis transmitted to human through direct contact with body fluids of infected animals or indirectly through contaminated puddles . The prevalence of leptospirosis in Banyumas tends to increase for 3 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the leptospira serovar in reservoir to prove of a current infection. Surveys was conducted using single live traps for three consecutive days, determination of leptospira serovar was conducted using Microscopic Aglutination Test (MAT. Data analysis was performed by univariate and presented in tables and graphs. The results showed that the trapped animals consisted of Rattus tanezumi (70.6% and Suncus murinus (29.4% with 6.5% succsess trap. Rattus tanezumi were dominantly caught inside the house (51% than outside the house (49%. Female rats were dominantly caught (66.7% than male rats (33.3%. Suncus murinus and Rattus tanezumi shown a titer of 1/100 to be infected with L.icterohaemorrhagiae , L.javanica and L.cynopteri which are pathogenic Leptospira in humans. Efforts are needed to improve community participation in preventing tranmission of leptospirosis by avoiding contact with contaminated water and soil. For people who are risk of exposure to infected animal should wear protective clothes or footwear.

  19. Food Habits of Spotted Owlet Athene brama (Temminck, 1821 in the Campus of Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur: an Ecological representation of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Paunikar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on food habits of the Spotted Owlet, Athene brama (Temminck, 1821 in Tropical Forest Research Institute campus, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India was conducted in June 2011 to May 2012 by analyzing their regurgitated pellets. The insect order Coleoptera with three dung beetle species, Onitis philemon, Onitis virens, Onitis brahma and two orders and five species of small mammals, Mus booduga, Vandeleuria oleracea, Millardia meltada, Suncus etruscus and Suncus murinus were recorded from the pellets. The other insect taxa found in the pellets include Carabidae and Hydrophilidae beetles and Earwigs in the order Dermaptera. This is for the first time food habits of the spotted owlets, being reported from the state of Madhya Pradesh, which further provides identifying key characters of the dung beetles along with illustrations, obtained from the pellet materials. The study on the feeding habits of the owlet species is very important not only for its significance in conservation but also for their predatory potential, as they are the main predators of insects and non insect pests (rodents of forestry and agricultural importance.

  20. Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric; Jang, Seogjoo; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Sekharan, Sivakumar; Dethier, Bérénice; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Gundala, Sivaji; Pan, Yi; Li, Shengju; Li, Zhen; Lodge, Stephene N; Ozbil, Mehmet; Jiang, Huihong; Penalba, Sonia F; Batista, Victor S; Zhuang, Hanyi

    2015-05-26

    The vibrational theory of olfaction assumes that electron transfer occurs across odorants at the active sites of odorant receptors (ORs), serving as a sensitive measure of odorant vibrational frequencies, ultimately leading to olfactory perception. A previous study reported that human subjects differentiated hydrogen/deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of the musk compound cyclopentadecanone as evidence supporting the theory. Here, we find no evidence for such differentiation at the molecular level. In fact, we find that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous OR expression system and robustly responding to cyclopentadecanone and muscone, fails to distinguish isotopomers of these compounds in vitro. Furthermore, the mouse (methylthio)methanethiol-recognizing receptor, MOR244-3, as well as other selected human and mouse ORs, responded similarly to normal, deuterated, and (13)C isotopomers of their respective ligands, paralleling our results with the musk receptor OR5AN1. These findings suggest that the proposed vibration theory does not apply to the human musk receptor OR5AN1, mouse thiol receptor MOR244-3, or other ORs examined. Also, contrary to the vibration theory predictions, muscone-d30 lacks the 1,380- to 1,550-cm(-1) IR bands claimed to be essential for musk odor. Furthermore, our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed electron transfer mechanism of the vibrational frequencies of odorants could be easily suppressed by quantum effects of nonodorant molecular vibrational modes. These and other concerns about electron transfer at ORs, together with our extensive experimental data, argue against the plausibility of the vibration theory.

  1. Notes on two brief surveys of the small mammal fauna on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two brief (31~ days each) trapping surveys of the small mammal fauna in fynbos ... three shrew and one small carnivore species were captured. Estimates of .... related with the amount of grass cover. Table 6 shows that ..... population densities of mammals in fynbos and the results of ... to be close to their peak. Trapping in ...

  2. 78 FR 39835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... conservation benefit of the shrew under the associated BO, the Secretary is not exercising her discretion to... benefits of exclusion outweigh the benefits of designation, unless the exclusion will result in the... Secretary of the Interior's authority under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, that the benefits of exclusion...

  3. NOTES ON THE ECOLOGY, CAPTURE AND BEHAVIOUR IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lighting in the animal room corresponded to the hours of daylight. New captives, however, appeared to respond favourably to an additional light placed immediately over their cage in the middle ofthe day. The captive elephant shrews receive a diet oflocusts, grasshoppers, mealworms, occasional oranges and bananas.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 127 ... Vol 26, No 1 (2009), Occurrence of foot and mouth disease serotypes in ... of Spirometra and other gastrointestinal helminths in dogs of Minjingu village, ... Vol 28, No 1 (2013), Rodents and Shrews as Vectors of Zoonotic ...

  5. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wild animals also utilised the accumulated water for drinking. The Thar ... collected up to 12 saw-scaled vipers Echis carinatus during a 15 km long .... weed species have invaded the desert through transport of soil and water ... On the other hand, the shrew .... will reveal whether the boa evolves new methods of procuring.

  6. The Importance of Perceived Control: Fact or Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    thus Shakespeare’s com- ment in Taming of the Shrew that “there’s small choice in rotten apples” requires further commentary. Let’s turn now to......Maryland Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. The findings in this report are not to be construed as an

  7. Reproduction, Contestation, and Political Theater: Reflections on Three Productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Considers the potential of political theater to raise questions of social justice in a provocative manner for students. Describes three productions at a Swiss boarding school, in which the author served as director: a feminist "Taming of the Shrew," a student-written satirical cabaret, and Brecht's "The Good Person of Sezuan."…

  8. Word Magic: Shakespeare's Rhetoric for Gifted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Ellen S.

    Intended for teachers of gifted students in grades 4-12, the curriculum uses six of Shakespeare's comedies ("The Taming of the Shrew,""The Tempest,""Twelfth Night,""The Comedy of Errors,""As You Like It," and "A Midsummer Night's Dream") as materials for nurturing intellectual and…

  9. Propelling Students into Active Grammar Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurhill, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    "O! this learning, what a thing it is." -W. Shakespeare, "The Taming of the Shrew." The aim of this action research was to find out if active grammar involvement amongst students might lead to better results. My approach was to activate my students during grammar instruction by using cooperative learning: that is a form of…

  10. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of…

  11. Environmental Assessment, Minuteman III and Peacekeeper Silo Elimination, Malmstrom AFB, Montana; F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming; and Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Baccharis pilularis), California sagebrush (Artemisia californica), and poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum ) are common species in the area (Vandenberg AFB...spotted bat (Euderma maculatum ) and Preble’s shrew (Sorex preblei). Habitat for the spotted bat is most often in rough, rocky, semiarid, and arid

  12. Design and field tests of a modified small mammallivetrap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vinyl-chloride) and metal small mammal live-trap has been developed and subjected to field tests. The PVC traps captured greater numbers of very small rodents and shrews but fewer large rodents than did hardboard ones. s. Afr. J. Zool.

  13. Small mammal - heavy metal interactions in contaminated floodplains. Bioturbation and accumulation in periodically flooded ebvironments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, S.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of interactions between biota and contaminants in floodplains is needed as it is uncertain whether ecological rehabilitation of floodplains is possible at the current contaminant levels. This study investigates where and when contacts between small mammals (voles, mice, shrews

  14. The taxonomic status of giant sengis ( genus Rhynchocyon ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sengis (elephant-shrews) of Mozambique are poorly known, especially the taxonomic status of the giant sengis, genus Rhynchocyon. Currently, Rhynchocyon from Mozambique are thought to be chequered sengis, R. cirnei with specimens from the central coastal areas being placed in the subspecies R. c. cirnei, while ...

  15. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  16. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human–Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Doty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax. Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0% of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus; one Cricetomys emini; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus, and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus; no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  17. Placentation in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-01-01

    but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells...

  18. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Los Angeles Air Force Base, California and Relocation of Space Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    1. The slender- horned spine flower is a federally-listed endangered species. Because of the highly disturbed nature of the proposed sites, none of...deposit include deer, antelope, gazelle, horse, pig, camel, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, rabbit, beaver, mole, shrew, ground sloth, hedgehog

  19. The Modified Hole Board - Measuring Behavior, Cognition and Social Interaction in Mice and Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labots, Maaike; Van Lith, Hein A.; Ohl, Frauke; Arndt, Saskia S.

    This protocol describes the modified hole board (mHB), which combines features from a traditional hole board and open field and is designed to measure multiple dimensions of unconditioned behavior in small laboratory mammals (e.g., mice, rats, tree shrews and small primates). This paradigm is a

  20. Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human-Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jeffrey B; Malekani, Jean M; Kalemba, Lem's N; Stanley, William T; Monroe, Benjamin P; Nakazawa, Yoshinori U; Mauldin, Matthew R; Bakambana, Trésor L; Liyandja Dja Liyandja, Tobit; Braden, Zachary H; Wallace, Ryan M; Malekani, Divin V; McCollum, Andrea M; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Kondas, Ashley; Peterson, A Townsend; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E; Karem, Kevin L; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S

    2017-10-03

    During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to assess evidence of MPXV infection and other Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infections in these small mammals. Seven (2.0%) of these animal samples were found to be anti-orthopoxvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody positive (six rodents: two Funisciurus spp.; one Graphiurus lorraineus ; one Cricetomys emini ; one Heliosciurus sp.; one Oenomys hypoxanthus , and one elephant shrew Petrodromus tetradactylus ); no individuals were found positive in PCR-based assays. These results suggest that a variety of animals can be infected with OPXVs, and that epidemiology studies and educational campaigns should focus on animals that people are regularly contacting, including larger rodents used as protein sources.

  1. Lack of a distinct gradient in biomarker responses in small mammals collected at different distances from a highway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Smit, L.A.M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Koeman, J.H.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes biomarker effects in small mammals exposed to traffic emissions. Animals were collected at 10-50 m (site 1), 150-200 m (site 2), and 5 km (site 3) from a very busy highway (A2). To distinguish between routes of exposure, strictly carnivorous common shrews (Sorex araneus) and

  2. Reproductive features of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) and star-nose mole (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Nagdas, S K; Winfrey, V P; Olson, G E

    1999-11-01

    Since moles are closely related to shrews, the gametes and reproductive tracts of the star-nose mole (Condylura cristata) and the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) were examined to gain further insight into unusual reproductive traits of the Soricidae. Moles display many of these soricid traits, but with some important differences. The cumulus oophorus of Scalopus, ovulated about 16 h after hCG injection, was largely dispersed by hyaluronidase and, though quite dense, was nevertheless more similar to that of higher mammals than to the compact 'ball of the soricid cumulus. Within the female tract in these moles, approximately 85% of the length of the oviduct comprises a narrow ampulla with numerous differentiated crypts that, in shrews, house spermatozoa. However, in contrast to shrews, moles produce considerably larger numbers of spermatozoa, which challenges the proposal that, in shrews, oviductal sperm crypts specifically permit lower sperm production by the males. In the sperm head of these two moles, the acrosome displays the long rostrum that is typical of other Insectivora, and the perforatorium has the barbs by which soricid spermatozoa probably bind to the zona pellucida. Perhaps allied to this, immunoblots indicated that the immunoreactive acrosomal matrix of Scalopus spermatozoa is simpler than the polypeptide complex of the bovine and hamster acrosomal matrix.

  3. Examining SLV-323, a novel NK1 receptor antagonist, in a chronic psychosocial stress model for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czeh, B; Pudovkina, O; van der Hart, MGC; Simon, M; Heilbronner, U; Michaelis, T; Watanabe, T; Frahm, J; Fuchs, E

    Rationale: Substance P antagonists have been proposed as candidates for a new class of antidepressant compounds. Objectives: We examined the effects of SLV-323, a novel neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist, in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm of adult male tree shrews. Methods: Animals

  4. Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony; Enders, Allen

    2009-01-01

    nutrition involving columnar trophoblast cells. These range from areolae in moles through complexly folded hemophagous regions in tenrecs to the trophoblastic annulus in shrews. Of these placental characters, few offer support to current phylogenies. However, the case for placing hedgehogs and gymnures...

  5. Thinning effects on spotted owl prey and other forest-dwelling small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd M. Willson; Eric D. Forsman

    2013-01-01

    Th inning has been promoted as a method for accelerating the development of late-seral habitat and improving the overall health and function of young forests in the Pacifi c Northwest. Population studies have shown early and positive responses to thinning by some small forest-floor mammals (primarily mice, terrestrial voles, and shrews). However, thinning reduces the...

  6. 77 FR 40705 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... as a result of human activities, particularly carbon dioxide emissions from use of fossil fuels (IPCC... factors negatively impacting and restricting the shrew and its habitat, including selenium toxicity... variability, as well as various scenarios of potential levels and timing of GHG emissions, to evaluate the...

  7. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Berch, van der G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the

  8. Archaeological Sites Inventory of the High Priority Portions of Training Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, and H of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-18

    badger, and porcupine . Small mammals and nongame mammals found in the area are snowshoe hare, squirrel, muskrat, weasel, ringtail, shrew, mole...often buying up water sources and allowing their herds to roam across public and private land. By the early 1920s most of the public land had been

  9. Injection of a soluble fragment of neural agrin (NT-1654 considerably improves the muscle pathology caused by the disassembly of the neuromuscular junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hettwer

    Full Text Available Treatment of neuromuscular diseases is still an unsolved problem. Evidence over the last years strongly indicates the involvement of malformation and dysfunction of neuromuscular junctions in the development of such medical conditions. Stabilization of NMJs thus seems to be a promising approach to attenuate the disease progression of muscle wasting diseases. An important pathway for the formation and maintenance of NMJs is the agrin/Lrp4/MuSK pathway. Here we demonstrate that the agrin biologic NT-1654 is capable of activating the agrin/Lrp4/MuSK system in vivo, leading to an almost full reversal of the sarcopenia-like phenotype in neurotrypsin-overexpressing (SARCO mice. We also show that injection of NT-1654 accelerates muscle re-innervation after nerve crush. This report demonstrates that a systemically administered agrin fragment has the potential to counteract the symptoms of neuromuscular disorders.

  10. The Myotonic Plot Thickens: Electrical Myotonia in Antimuscle-Specific Kinase Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Magnussen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical myotonia is known to occur in a number of inherited and acquired disorders including myotonic dystrophies, channelopathies, and metabolic, toxic, and inflammatory myopathies. Yet, electrical myotonia in myasthenia gravis associated with antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK has not been previously reported. We describe two such patients, both of whom had a typical presentation of proximal muscle weakness with respiratory failure in the context of a significant electrodecrement in repetitive nerve stimulation. In both cases, concentric needle examination revealed electrical myotonia combined with myopathic motor unit morphology and early recruitment. These findings suggest that MuSK myasthenia should be included within the differential diagnosis of disorders with electrical myotonia.

  11. Muscle-Specific Tyrosine Kinase and Myasthenia Gravis Owing to Other Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivner, Michael H; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J; Mei, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Around 20% of patients with myasthenia gravis are acetylcholine receptor antibody negative; muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies (MuSK) were identified as the cause of myasthenia gravis in 30% to 40% of these cases. Anti MuSK myasthenia gravis is associated with specific clinical phenotypes. One is a bulbar form with fewer ocular symptoms. Others show an isolated head drop or symptoms indistinguishable from acetylcholine receptor-positive myasthenia gravis. These patients usually respond well to immunosuppressive therapy, but not as well to cholinesterase inhibitors. Other antibodies associated with myasthenia gravis, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4, are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SURVEILLANCE OF SEAPORT RODENTS AND ITS PARASITES AT SEMARANG, CENTRAL JAVA, AND UJUNG PANDANG, SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Megawe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survai rodent dan pinjal dilakukan di pelabuhan Semarang dan Ujung Pandang pada bulan Desember 1984 — Mei 1985. Pada survai tersebut ditemukan 3 jenis tikus yaitu Rattus norvegicus, R. r. diardii dan R. exulans dan satu jenis cecurut Suncus murinus. Jenis tikus yang banyak di­temukan di pelabuhan Semarang adalah R. r. diardii sedang di pelabuhan Ujung Pandang adalah R. norvegicus. Pinjal Xenopsylla cheopis ditemukan di kedua daerah yang disurvai, infestasi lebih tinggi pada R. norvegicus dan R. r. diardii daripada R. exulans dan S. murinus. Indeks pinjal di pelabuhan Ujung Pandang dan sekitarnya 4 kali lebih besar daripada di Semarang. Hasil uji kerentanan pinjal menunjukkan bahwa pinjal di kedua daerah pelabuhan tersebut masih peka terhadap DDT 4%, malathion 0,5% dan fenitrothion 1%.

  13. SURVEILLANCE OF SEAPORT RODENTS AND ITS FLEA-INDICES IN CILACAP, CENTRAL JAVA AND PANJANG, SUMATERA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Megawe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu survai terhadap tikus dan pinjal telah diselenggarakan di daerah pelabuhan Cilacap dan Panjang, pada November 1985 sampai Maret 1986. Dalam survai itu diidentifikasi empat spesies tikus, yaitu Rattus r. diardii, R. norregicus, Bandicota indica, dan Mus musculus, serta seekor insektivora, Suncus murinus. Kepadatan polusi binatang-binatang ini rendah di dalam pelabuhan dan sedang di perkampungan sekitarnya. R.r. diardii terbukti merupakan tikus yang terbanyak dijumpai baik di pelabuhan maupun di perkampungan sekitar. Kepadatan Xenopsylla cheopis ternyata rendah baik pada tikus-tikus maupun insektivora di kedua daerah pelabuhan. Indeks pinjal spesifik tertinggi didapatkan pada R.r. diardii. Tes kerentanan X. cheopis terhadap insektisida dengan menggunakan DDT 4%, melathion 0,5% dan fenit rothion 1% menunjukkan bahwa pinjal itu lebih sensitif terhadap melathion dan fenitrothion dibanding terhadap DDT, di kedua daerah pelabuhan.

  14. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mari?o-S?nchez, Franklin; Quint?, Lloren?; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, C?sar; Marin, Concepci?

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting: The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants: N...

  15. Pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis: update on disease types, models, and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William D.; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) caused by antibodies that attack components of the postsynaptic membrane, impair neuromuscular transmission, and lead to weakness and fatigue of skeletal muscle. This can be generalised or localised to certain muscle groups, and involvement of the bulbar and respiratory muscles can be life threatening. The pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis depends upon the target and isotype of the autoantibodies. Most cases are caused by immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG3 antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). They produce complement-mediated damage and increase the rate of AChR turnover, both mechanisms causing loss of AChR from the postsynaptic membrane. The thymus gland is involved in many patients, and there are experimental and genetic approaches to understand the failure of immune tolerance to the AChR. In a proportion of those patients without AChR antibodies, antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), or related proteins such as agrin and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), are present. MuSK antibodies are predominantly IgG4 and cause disassembly of the neuromuscular junction by disrupting the physiological function of MuSK in synapse maintenance and adaptation. Here we discuss how knowledge of neuromuscular junction structure and function has fed into understanding the mechanisms of AChR and MuSK antibodies. Myasthenia gravis remains a paradigm for autoantibody-mediated conditions and these observations show how much there is still to learn about synaptic function and pathological mechanisms. PMID:27408701

  16. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Proposed Coyote Control Across Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    bases, such as fetid meat, urine, or musk to attract the animal . In some situations, a draw station such as a carcass , animal parts, or a large piece...areas of the installation, the presence of coyotes in these areas has increased. This has resulted in coyotes hunting domestic animals and a fearless...considered predatory animals . However, by statute, the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish (NMDGF) has the responsibility to manage predator damage

  17. CRREL (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) Technical Publications. Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Utilization for Fresh Water Production, ROAD. CHIMCAL COMPOSITION OF DUST nical memorandum~ Mar. 1976, No. 116, Muske Re- Weather Modilicationt, and...it appeared in a J-9 core Commes a i elon teo kEvromna 516 on an unusual boundary layer showing in th core andaa PV.e sEvromns assessment of the...AN ELON - TRA, REFLECOTIVTY, TEMPERATURE PF- NIP 1855 GATED, UNIAXIAL BRASS ICE STRESS SEN* FECTS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS. DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC

  18. From academia to industry: The story of Google DeepMind

    OpenAIRE

    Legg, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Shane Legg left academia to cofound DeepMind Technologies in 2010, along with Demis Hassabis and Mustafa Suleyman. Their vision was to bring together cutting edge machine learning and systems neuroscience in order to create artificial agents with general intelligence. Following investments from a number of famous technology entrepreneurs, including Peter Thiel and Elon Musk, they assembled a team of world class researchers with backgrounds in systems neuroscience, deep learning, reinforcement...

  19. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    including horse, camel, mammoth, Ertm E-TR-48-III-II 20 musk ox, and certain species of bison, goat, and bear, which had previously inhabited the marsh and...34 - - -9,$.. 𔄃 Im I I I Si to * Location lype/Contents Affiliation 42B@644 rid e over cr ek - P/J depression, cleared areas, Fr elon (f4-5-18-92) ground

  20. Public opinion and the politics of the killer robots debate

    OpenAIRE

    Michael C Horowitz

    2016-01-01

    The possibility that today’s drones could become tomorrow’s killer robots has attracted the attention of people around the world. Scientists and business leaders, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk, recently signed a letter urging the world to ban autonomous weapons. Part of the argument against these systems is that they violate the public conscience provision of the Martens Clause due to public opposition, making them illegal under international law. What, however, does the US public think o...

  1. The Hyperloop as a Source of Interesting Estimation Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Rhett

    2014-03-01

    The Hyperloop is a conceptual high speed transportation system proposed by Elon Musk. The basic idea uses passenger capsules inside a reduced pressure tube. Even though the actual physics of dynamic air flow in a confined space can be complicated, there are a multitude estimation problems that can be addressed. These back-of-the-envelope questions can be approximated by physicists of all levels as well as the general public and serve as a great example of the fundamental aspects of physics.

  2. Neck Injury in Advanced Military Aircraft Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    hours (hi total fiying tine. Equipment: Helmet and musk Used was a hGU-26P/MBU-5P (1.9kg) fitted with Velcro pads only (not custom fit). Mission...innery) pablla:.ad by Lea t. Febloar. PhIla,-reiphio, pp. 2C2 to 149; 1951, 6.P elon l., Aoffrel t9 R. e’ al .: Acvldenmu icl Cnea-Ilaes and

  3. Off Like a Rocket: A Media Discourse Analysis of Tesla Motor Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Energy and transportation are topics of great importance to global sustainable development.  Tesla Motor Corporation is an electric vehicle company with the objective to “accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy” (Musk, 2016).  This thesis, a media discourse analysis, examines media texts concerning Tesla Motors to provide a better understanding of the company’s hitherto success in penetrating the automotive market.  Qualitative analyses of text were utilized to first define th...

  4. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Task and Research Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    u Z’ ELon ~9 inrp of sli puhns on ~ veh- r Read_ _ _k IsIO a Usi No vike 5 4 talk juw arnimuthe &-A dziExzziizz to J lntoj idntf asal is ~ o -a~o...13 ~ Larry prwadilve musk 19 11 1’ositioraigh~ht wispon. 16 I1i- Move Imptht vapidly. tactially 1 18 9L1 COOAOmfaloemsadthus qaad 12 9 I I i1h,MW

  5. Det er fullt her inne!

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Simen Formo

    2018-01-01

    Program og foto. Teaterforestilling vist 12., 13., 14., 16.-18. april 2018 på Seilduken Scene 6 Bacheloroppgave i regi, fra Teaterhøgskolen, med regi av Simen F.H.. Et avgangsprosjekt, med skuespillerne Ina Svenningdal, Sindre Hansen, Sarah Francesca Brænne, Brede Fristad, William Greni Arnø, Lars Halvor Andreassen. Bandet Elon Musk deltar, og kleskolleksjon lanseres av Alva Brosten / Hijacked. Foto: S. Hutton?

  6. Pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis: update on disease types, models, and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William D; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) caused by antibodies that attack components of the postsynaptic membrane, impair neuromuscular transmission, and lead to weakness and fatigue of skeletal muscle. This can be generalised or localised to certain muscle groups, and involvement of the bulbar and respiratory muscles can be life threatening. The pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis depends upon the target and isotype of the autoantibodies. Most cases are caused by immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG3 antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). They produce complement-mediated damage and increase the rate of AChR turnover, both mechanisms causing loss of AChR from the postsynaptic membrane. The thymus gland is involved in many patients, and there are experimental and genetic approaches to understand the failure of immune tolerance to the AChR. In a proportion of those patients without AChR antibodies, antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), or related proteins such as agrin and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), are present. MuSK antibodies are predominantly IgG4 and cause disassembly of the neuromuscular junction by disrupting the physiological function of MuSK in synapse maintenance and adaptation. Here we discuss how knowledge of neuromuscular junction structure and function has fed into understanding the mechanisms of AChR and MuSK antibodies. Myasthenia gravis remains a paradigm for autoantibody-mediated conditions and these observations show how much there is still to learn about synaptic function and pathological mechanisms.

  7. Pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis: update on disease types, models, and mechanisms [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Phillips

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ caused by antibodies that attack components of the postsynaptic membrane, impair neuromuscular transmission, and lead to weakness and fatigue of skeletal muscle. This can be generalised or localised to certain muscle groups, and involvement of the bulbar and respiratory muscles can be life threatening. The pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis depends upon the target and isotype of the autoantibodies. Most cases are caused by immunoglobulin (IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR. They produce complement-mediated damage and increase the rate of AChR turnover, both mechanisms causing loss of AChR from the postsynaptic membrane. The thymus gland is involved in many patients, and there are experimental and genetic approaches to understand the failure of immune tolerance to the AChR. In a proportion of those patients without AChR antibodies, antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK, or related proteins such as agrin and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4, are present. MuSK antibodies are predominantly IgG4 and cause disassembly of the neuromuscular junction by disrupting the physiological function of MuSK in synapse maintenance and adaptation. Here we discuss how knowledge of neuromuscular junction structure and function has fed into understanding the mechanisms of AChR and MuSK antibodies. Myasthenia gravis remains a paradigm for autoantibody-mediated conditions and these observations show how much there is still to learn about synaptic function and pathological mechanisms.

  8. National Security Space Launch Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Company Clayton Mowry, President, Arianespace Inc., North American—“Launch Solutions” Elon Musk , CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX...technologies to the NASA Exploration Initiative (“…Moon, Mars and Beyond.”).1 EELV Technology Needs The Atlas V and Delta IV vehicles incorporate current... Mars and other destinations.” 46 National Security Space Launch Report Figure 6.1 U.S. Government Liquid Propulsion Rocket Investment, 1991–2005

  9. The Future of (Artificial) Intelligence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The news media in recent months have been full of dire warnings about the risk that AI poses to the human race, coming from well-known figures such as Stephen Hawking, Frank Wilczek and Elon Musk. Should we be concerned? If so, what can we do about it? While some in the mainstream AI community dismiss these concerns, I will argue instead that a fundamental reorientation of the field is required.

  10. ON-SITE SOLID PHRASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. A I -L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition. An on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent has been developed. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-sol

  11. IN SITU SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of 1-L samples. A 1-L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition.We have developed an on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-s

  12. ON-SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are required to verify that a target analyte has been found by comparison with the mass spectra of fragrance compounds in the NIST mass spectral library. A I -L sample usually provides insufficient analyte for full scan data acquisition. This paper describes an on-site extraction method developed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)- Las Vegas Nevada - for synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for a wide array of synthetic musks. Quantification of these compounds was achieved from the full-scan data directly, without the need to acquire SIM data. The detection limits obtained with this method are an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from liquid-liquid and other solid phase extraction methods. This method is highly reproducible, and recoveries ranged from 80 to 97% in spiked sewage treatment plant effluent. The high rate of sorbent-sample mass transfer eliminated the need for a methanolic activation step, which reduced extraction time, labor, and solvent use, More samples could be extracted in the field at lower cost. After swnple extraction, the light- weight cartridges ar

  13. Dissipation of fragrance materials in sludge-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFrancesco, Angela M; Chiu, Pei C; Standley, Laurel J; Allen, Herbert E; Salvito, Daniel T

    2004-01-01

    A possible removal mechanism for fragrance materials (FMs) in wastewater is adsorption to sludge, and sludge application to land may be a route through which FMs are released to the soil environment. However, little is known about the concentrations and fate of FMs in soil receiving sludge application. This study was conducted to better understand the dissipation of FMs in sludge-amended soils. We first determined the spiking and extraction efficiencies for 22 FMs in soil and leachate samples. Nine FMs were detected in digested sludges from two wastewater treatment plants in Delaware using these methods. We conducted a 1-year die-away experiment which involved four different soils amended with sludge, with and without spiking of the 22 FMs. The initial dissipation of FMs in all spiked trays was rapid, and only seven FMs remained at concentrations above the quantification limits after 3 months: AHTN, HHCB, musk ketone, musk xylene, acetyl cedrene, OTNE, and DPMI. After 1 year, the only FMs remaining in all spiked trays were musk ketone and AHTN. DPMI was the only FM that leached significantly from the spiked trays, and no FMs were detected in leachate from any unspiked tray. While soil organic matter content affected the dissipation rate in general, different mechanisms (volatilization, transformation, leaching) appeared to be important for different FMs.

  14. Biomonitoring of chemicals in biota of two wetland protected areas exposed to different levels of environmental impact: results of the "PREVIENI" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Alessi, Eva; Baroni, Davide; Caserta, Dante; Caserta, Donatella; De Sanctis, Augusto; Fanello, Emiliano Leonida; La Rocca, Cinzia; Mariottini, Michela; Renzi, Monia; Tait, Sabrina; Zaghi, Carlo; Mantovani, Alberto; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

    2017-08-18

    The PREVIENI project (funded by the Ministry of Environment) investigated the exposure to endocrine disrupters in samples of human population and environmental biota in Italy. The environmental biomonitoring considered two Italian WWF Oasis, with the aim to compare the presence and effects of endocrine disruptors in organisms from two protected natural areas, respectively, upstream and downstream a chemical emission site. Chemical analysis of pollutants' tissue levels was made on tissues from earthworm, barbell, trout, and coot, selected as bioindicator organisms. The contaminants considered were as follows: the perfluorinated compounds perfuoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 58 congeners), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, 13 congeners), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds), toxic trace elements, the phthalate di-2-ethylexyl phthalate (DEHP) and its primary metabolite, bisphenol A, synthetic musk compounds (musk xylene, musk ketone, tonalide, and galaxolide), and p-nonylphenol. The analyses showed low concentrations of most pollutants in all species from both areas, compared to available literature; noticeable exceptions were the increases of DEHP's primary metabolite, PBDE, PAHs, Hg, and Pb in barbells, and of PCB and Cd in earthworms from the downstream area. The results showed the presence of endocrine disruptors, including those considered as "non-persistent," in bioindicators from protected areas, albeit at low levels. The results provide a contribution to the evaluation of reference values in biota from Mediterranean Europe and support the relevance of monitoring exposure to pollutants, in particular for freshwater environment, also in protected areas.

  15. Transient neonatal myasthenia gravis due to a mother with ocular onset of anti-muscle specific kinase myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Min, Ju-Hong; Han, Sueng-Han; Han, Jinu

    2017-07-01

    We describe a 27-year-old pregnant female with new onset of conjugate gaze deficit during the third trimester of pregnancy. Repetitive nerve stimulation tests, neostigmine tests, and acetylcholine receptor antibody assays were all negative. The patient delivered a normal healthy baby at a local clinic via cesarean section. The baby became hypotonic and had respiratory failure several minutes after birth. The result of acetylcholine receptor antibody was negative in the neonate. The neonate became healthy spontaneously and was extubated after 21 days of ventilation care. Two months after delivery, the mother developed ptosis and generalized symptoms and subsequent workup revealed she was muscle specific kinase (MuSK) antibody positive. The neonate was presumed to have an anti-MuSK-mediated transient neonatal myasthenia gravis. Although MuSK antibody testing is rarely indicated in ocular myasthenia gravis, MuSK antibody testing is necessary in pregnant women who are presumed ocular myasthenia gravis to warn occurrence of transient neonatal myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperloops, Nuclear Spacecraft, and the New York City Subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Frustrated by the speed and high cost-per-mile of the California High-Speed Rail project linking Los Angeles with San Francisco, Elon Musk proposed the Hyperloop: a high-speed train running in a sealed, partially-evacuated tube. Musk released a white paper that described the technology and concluded that the Hyperloop could be built for less than a tenth of a cost of the California High-Speed Rail. Musk's white paper focused heavily on the scientific and technical questions that must be answered, but public transportation is a domain at the intersection of science and society. Public transportation infrastructure is shaped as much by the pressures of government and citizens as by the technology behind the transportation. Tube-based transport like the Hyperloop has been proposed before, but has never gone further than words on a page. Why? Historical examples like the development of the New York City subway and the proposed nuclear-powered Orion spacecraft shed light on the societal barriers that new transportation must overcome, and help illuminate why technology-based answers are not a full response to transportation questions.

  17. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole,Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n= 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse,Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./spp. from M. californicus andNotiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus.

  18. Leptopsylla algira costai (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae: New host and new geographical record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the emerging ectoparasites associated with shrews in Hamedan Province of Iran. Methods: We have captured bicoloured white-toothed shrews [Crocidura leucodon (C. leucodon] using the live traps in April 2014. Ectoparasites collected by brushing the skins were removed and preserved in 70% ethanol containing 5% glycerin, and subsequently they were sent to the parasitology laboratory and processed. The fleas isolated from infested specimen were cleared in 10% aqueous potassium hydroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using reliable keys. Results: In general, eight fleas (one male, seven females were collected from C. leucodon in Hamedan Province, Western Iran. The fleas were identified as Leptopsylla algira costai Smit, 1955. Conclusions: Fleas are medically important because they transmit a wide variety of diseases to their hosts. In addition, this aricle reports Leptopsylla algira costai for the first time in new host (C. leucodon and new geographical region (Iran.

  19. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  20. Cooper Lake and Channels, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    wintergrass (Gould, 1975). Much of the area, however, has been brought under cultivation and/or converted to tame pasture. (2) Forest trends. The total...bottomlands such as the shrew , and species primarily adapted to stream environments such as the bea- ver, mink, and river otter. The mink will continue to...DEVELOPED FOR PREPARATION OF THE EIS. ADDITIONAL iNFORMATION AVAILABLE AT US ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, POST OFFICE BOX 60267, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA

  1. U.S. Policy Towards Cuba as a Two Level Game or: Defending Executive Policy Discretion in the Face of Domestic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Foreign Policy Agenda,” International Security 8:1 (1983): 113-128. Dominguez, Jorge I. “ Taming the Cuban Shrew ,” Foreign Policy 10 (1973): 94-116...CUBA AS A TWO LEVEL GAME OR: DEFENDING EXECUTIVE POLICY DISCRETION IN THE FACE OF DOMESTIC PRESSURE by Kevin G. Werry, JR. March 2008...No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  2. Flood Control at Grafton, North Dakota, Park River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    expected to occur, in the escarpment forest include mice, shrews , voles, bats, rabbits, squirrels, muskrat, woodchuck, beaver, pocket gopher, ground...although short-grass prairie would probably eventually be invaded by either taller tame grasses, such as brome, or taller native grasses). 2. The ...grass prairie would eventually be invaded by either taller tame grasses (brome) or taller natives in this area. Thus, the statement that "there would

  3. Comparison of Ecological Impacts of Postulated Oil Spills at Selected Alaskan Locations. Volume 2, Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    DISCUSSION TaMe 2-22 presents the results of the oil spill scenarios examined at St. Matthew Island without cleanup. 2-485 DIESEL-2 CRUDE BUNKER...include red fox, Arctic ground squirrel, lemmings, shrews , and voles. The Arctic fox, an inhabitant of both the terrestrial area and the pack ice, is... the time you ordered this report— which is only one of the hundreds of thou- sands in the NTIS information collection avail- able to you—and the

  4. Big River Reservoir Project - Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins - Water and Related Land Resources Study. Volume III. Appendices H-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    House wren --- -*- --- --- R Mockingbird --- --- --- -- Catbird Q R C C C Brown thrasher --- -- - --- R Robin R - C R 0 Wood thrush --- --- 0...new growth and kill it. At this stage, the terrestrial ecosystem will have been all but replaced by a large area of standing water. Hilltops vegetated...mice, voles, shrews, etc.) will be unavoidably killed or injured as clearing and construction occurs. Animals occu- pying burrows will suffer high

  5. Natural Setting and Vegetation of the Florida Panhandle. An Account of the Environments and Plant Communities of Northern Florida, West of the Suwannee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    burrowers in the panhandle are moles, mice, shrews, cotton rats, pocket gophers, gopher turtles , crayfish, ants, and earthworms. . The detrital feeders...applicability of the terms, primeval, original, and virgin for our vegetation suddenly becomes nebulous . ., l Nonetheless there remains an obvious...mechanism for soil disturbance in wiregrass lands with the possible exception of the burrowing of gopher turtles . Anthesis occurs 5-9 months following

  6. Recreational Appendix Report, Elm Fork Flood Control Project, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    Juniperus virginiana 2. Willow Salix nigra 3. Cottonwood Populus deltoides 4. Black Walnut Juglans migra 5. Pecan Carya illinoensis 6. Bur Oak...Maclura pomifera 12. Red Mulberry Morus rubra 13. Sycamore Platanus occidentailis 14. Red Haw Crataegus, sps. 15. Wild Plum Prunus mexicana 16. Mesquite...also provides a habitat for a number of mammals including: 1. Opossum Didelphis virginiana 2. Shrews Blarina brevicuada and Cryptotis parva 3. Raccoon

  7. [Characteristics of the distribution of Ixodes persulcatus in the forest-park area of Novosibirsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapegina, V F; Dorontsova, V A; Telegin, V I; Ibleva, N G; Dobrotvorskiĭ, A K

    1985-01-01

    Only one species of ixodid ticks Ixodes persulcatus occurs in the forest-park zone. Conditions of foliage forests with high grass, where occur hosts of all developmental phases of ticks (elks, hares, rodents, insectivores), are most favourable for I. persulcatus. Preimaginal phases of I. persulcatus feed, in general, on dominant species (common shrew, redbacked and narrow-skulled voles, field mouse and northern birch mouse).

  8. Effects of deforestation on structure and diversity of small mammal communities in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Heroldová, Marta; Zejda, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2002), s. 295-306 ISSN 0001-7051 R&D Projects: GA MŽP ZZ/620/2/97; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : rodents * shrews * deforestation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2002 http://acta.zbs.bialowieza.pl/contents/?art=2002-047-3-0295

  9. Final Environmental Impact Statement. F-15E Beddown at Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-18

    ulc.rs, c:lotis, asthma , and headaches; I ncreased risX of disease irom general lowering of resistance rel.ted to the fatigue effect, oi noise exposure...tern, gray bat, Indiana bat, Kemp’s (atlantic) ridley sea I turtle, leatherback sea turtle, and the recently proposed endangered northeastern beach tiger ...Fish and Wildlife Service’s Raleigh Field Office. There would be no construction activity in the habitats of the shrew and tiger beetle and the Iong

  10. Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in the Development and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    possesses antinociceptive actions in preclinical models of cancer pain (Guerrero et al. 2008) and can suppress radiation induced- emesis in the least...as, chemotherapy and radiation associated emesis in preclinical models. This could offer a third facet to WIN55,212-2’s mechanism of action, which... emesis in the least shrew. Eur J Pharmacol 563(1-3):187- 96. Guerrero AV, Quang P, Dekker N, Jordan RC, Schmidt BL. 2008. Peripheral cannabinoids

  11. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marine; Scheumann, Marina; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri). We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task) and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit) on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  12. Posture does not matter! Paw usage and grasping paw preference in a small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Joly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting quadrupedal mammals, we studied trees shrews (Tupaia belangeri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established a behavioural test battery for examining paw usage comparable to small-bodied primates and tested 36 Tupaia belangeri. We studied paw usage in a natural foraging situation (simple food grasping task and measured the influence of varying postural demands (triped, biped, cling, sit on paw preferences by applying a forced-food grasping task similar to other small-bodied primates. Our findings suggest that rooting tree shrews prefer mouth over paw usage to catch food in a natural foraging situation. Moreover, we demonstrated that despite differences in postural demand, tree shrews show a strong and consistent individual paw preference for grasping across different tasks, but no paw preference at a population level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tree shrews showed less paw usage than small-bodied quadrupedal and arboreal primates, but the same paw preference. Our results confirm that individual paw preferences remain constant irrespective of postural demand in some small-bodied quadrupedal non primate and primate mammals which do not require fine motoric control for manipulating food items. Our findings suggest that the lack of paw/hand preference for grasping food at a population level is a universal pattern among those species and that the influence of postural demand on manual lateralisation in quadrupeds may have evolved in large-bodied species specialised in fine manipulations of food items.

  13. Remembrance of things past : Shakespeare’s Comedies on French Television

    OpenAIRE

    Vienne-Guerrin , Nathalie; Hatchuel , Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Cet article est reproduit en ligne dans "Shakespeare on Screen in Francophonia" en tant que document PDF avec l'aimable autorisation des Publications des Universités de Rouen et du Havre, 2008.; International audience; This essay explores how Shakespeare's comedies were adapted, appropriated and transformed by French television, with a focus on the early days of television. It analyses several French adaptations of Shakespeare's comedies: As You Like It, The Taming of the Shrew, Twelfth Night...

  14. 着衣と脱衣の詩学 : Shakespeare喜劇における

    OpenAIRE

    滝川, 睦; TAKIKAWA, Mutsumu

    2013-01-01

    This paper is intended as an investigation of the poetics of dressing and undressing in Shakespeare's comedies. The focal points are as follows: the undressing and uncrowning of Katherina in The Taming of the Shrew (Shr.); Julia's male clothing in The Two Gentlemen of Verona (TGV); Benedick's dressing and uncrowning in Much Ado about Nothing (Ado). The first chapter, focusing upon Katherina's gesture of throwing off her cap in the final scene, examines the undressing process in Shr.'s taming ...

  15. Molecular, serological and epidemiological observations after a suspected outbreak of plague in Nyimba, eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Stanley S; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Kilonzo, Bukheti S; Kabeta, Mathews N; Cornellius, Mundia; Sinkala, Yona

    2017-01-01

    Plague is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The disease has caused periodic global devastation since the first outbreak in the 6th century. Two months after a suspected plague outbreak in Nyimba district, samples were collected from 94 livestock (goats and pigs), 25 rodents, 6 shrews and 33 fleas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to investigate the presence of Y. pestis, which showed that 16.0% (4/25) of rodents, 16.7% (1/6) of shrews (Crocidura spp) and 6.0% (5/83) of goats were positive for IgG antibodies against Fraction 1 antigen of Y. pestis. Plasminogen activator (Pla) gene (DNA) of Y. pestis was detected in five pools containing 36.4% (12/33) fleas collected from pigs (n = 4), goats (n = 5) and rodents (n = 3). The detection of Pla gene in fleas and IgG antibodies against Fraction1 antigen in rodents, shrews and goats suggest that Y. pestis had been present in the study area in the recent past. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Evaluation of the ecological risks to terrestrial wildlife associated with a coal ash disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1955 and 1989, coal ash was deposited within an impounded watershed on the Oak Ridge Reservation, creating the 3.6 ha-Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP). The site has subsequently become vegetated, providing habitat for wildlife. To evaluate the risks that metals in the ash may pose to wildlife, ash, surface water, small mammal, and vegetation samples were collected and metal residues were determined. Metal concentrations, As and Se in particular, were elevated in ash, surface water, plant foliage, and small mammals relative to reference materials. Estimates of metal exposures received from food, water, and ash consumption were calculated for short-tailed shrews, white-footed mice, white-tailed deer, red fox, and red-tailed hawks. While shrews and mice were assumed to reside exclusively at and receive 100% exposure from the site, exposure experienced by deer, fox, and hawks was assumed to be proportional to the size of the site relative to their home range. Because deer had been observed to consume ash presumably for it's high sodium content, exposure experienced by deer consuming ash to meet sodium requirements was also estimated. To assess the risk of coal ash to wildlife, exposure estimates were compared to body-size adjusted toxicity data for each metal. These comparisons suggest that metals at the site may be detrimental to reproduction and survivorship of mice, shrews, deer and fox; hawks do not appear to be at risk

  17. Serological and PCR investigation of Yersinia pestis in potential reservoir hosts from a plague outbreak focus in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, S S; Hang'ombe, B M; Mulenga, E; Kilonzo, B S

    2017-07-28

    Plague is a bacterial zoonotic disease, caused by Yersinia pestis. Rodents are the natural hosts with fleas as the vehicle of disease transmission. Domestic and wild dogs and cats have also been identified as possible disease hosts. In Zambia, plague outbreaks have been reported in the Southern and Eastern regions in the last 20 years. Based on these observations, Y. pestis could possibly be endemically present in the area. To substantiate such possibility, sera samples were collected from rodents, shrews, dogs and cats for detection of antibodies against Fraction 1 gene (Fra1) of Y. pestis while organs from rodents and shrews, and fleas from both dogs and rodents were collected to investigate plasminogen activator gene (pla gene) of Y. pestis using ELISA and PCR respectively. A total of 369 blood samples were collected from domestic carnivores, shrews and domestic and peri-domestic rodents while 199 organs were collected from the rodents and shrews. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against Fra1 antigen using ELISA and 3% (5/165) (95% CI 0.99-6.93%) dogs were positive while all cats were negative. Of 199 sera from rodents and shrews, 12.6% (95% CI 8.30-17.98%) were positive for antibodies against Fra1 using anti-rat IgG secondary antibody while using anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody, 17.6% (95% CI 12.57-23.60%) were positive. PCR was run on the organs and 2.5% (95% CI 0.82-5.77%) were positive for plasminogen activator gene of Y. pestis and the amplicons were sequenced and showed 99% identity with Y. pestis reference sequences. All 82 fleas collected from animals subjected to PCR, were negative for pla gene. The specific rat-flea and dog-flea indices were 0.19 and 0.27 respectively, which were lower than the level required to enhance chances of the disease outbreak. We concluded that plague was still endemic in the area and the disease may infect human beings if contact is enhanced between reservoir hosts and flea vectors. The lower specific rodent

  18. Mechanism of acetylcholine receptor cluster formation induced by DC electric field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Luke Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The formation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR cluster is a key event during the development of the neuromuscular junction. It is induced through the activation of muscle-specific kinase (MuSK by the heparan-sulfate proteoglycan agrin released from the motor axon. On the other hand, DC electric field, a non-neuronal stimulus, is also highly effective in causing AChRs to cluster along the cathode-facing edge of muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand its molecular mechanism, quantum dots (QDs were used to follow the movement of AChRs as they became clustered under the influence of electric field. From analyses of trajectories of AChR movement in the membrane, it was concluded that diffuse receptors underwent Brownian motion until they were immobilized at sites of cluster formation. This supports the diffusion-mediated trapping model in explaining AChR clustering under the influence of this stimulus. Disrupting F-actin cytoskeleton assembly and interfering with rapsyn-AChR interaction suppressed this phenomenon, suggesting that these are integral components of the trapping mechanism induced by the electric field. Consistent with the idea that signaling pathways are activated by this stimulus, the localization of tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of AChR β-subunit and Src was observed at cathodal AChR clusters. Furthermore, disrupting MuSK activity through the expression of a kinase-dead form of this enzyme abolished electric field-induced AChR clustering. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that DC electric field as a physical stimulus elicits molecular reactions in muscle cells in the form of cathodal MuSK activation in a ligand-free manner to trigger a signaling pathway that leads to cytoskeletal assembly and AChR clustering.

  19. Multiscale Simulations Suggest a Mechanism for the Association of the Dok7 PH Domain with PIP-Containing Membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Buyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dok7 is a peripheral membrane protein that is associated with the MuSK receptor tyrosine kinase. Formation of the Dok7/MuSK/membrane complex is required for the activation of MuSK. This is a key step in the complex exchange of signals between neuron and muscle, which lead to neuromuscular junction formation, dysfunction of which is associated with congenital myasthenic syndromes. The Dok7 structure consists of a Pleckstrin Homology (PH domain and a Phosphotyrosine Binding (PTB domain. The mechanism of the Dok7 association with the membrane remains largely unknown. Using multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations we have explored the formation of the Dok7 PH/membrane complex. Our simulations indicate that the PH domain of Dok7 associates with membranes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs via interactions of the β1/β2, β3/β4, and β5/β6 loops, which together form a positively charged surface on the PH domain and interact with the negatively charged headgroups of PIP molecules. The initial encounter of the Dok7 PH domain is followed by formation of additional interactions with the lipid bilayer, and especially with PIP molecules, which stabilizes the Dok7 PH/membrane complex. We have quantified the binding of the PH domain to the model bilayers by calculating a density landscape for protein/membrane interactions. Detailed analysis of the PH/PIP interactions reveal both a canonical and an atypical site to be occupied by the anionic lipid. PH domain binding leads to local clustering of PIP molecules in the bilayer. Association of the Dok7 PH domain with PIP lipids is therefore seen as a key step in localization of Dok7 to the membrane and formation of a complex with MuSK.

  20. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincas, O; Avram, V; Moldovan, Z; Petrov, P; Ternes, T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  1. Amino acid composition of casein isolated from the milks of different species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, B H; Baker, B E

    1977-01-01

    Casein was isolated from the milks of the following species: cow, horse, pig, reindeer, caribou, moose, harp seal, musk-ox, polar bear, dall sheep, and fin whale. The caseins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, the resultant amino acids were converted to their n-butyl-N-trifluoroacetyl esters, and the amino acid composition of the caseins was determined by gas chromatographic analysis of these esters. Notable among the results was the close similarity, with respect to amino acid composition, of reindeer and caribou caseins. The results of the amino acid analyses of the other caseins are presented and discussed.

  2. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincas, O; Avram, V; Moldovan, Z [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Petrov, P [Water Treatment Station Siluet B, 21 Pencho Slaveikov Street, Varna 9000 (Bulgaria); Ternes, T, E-mail: olivian.marincas@itim-cj.r [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  3. HABP2 p.G534E variant in patients with family history of thyroid and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro, Maísa; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Tonhosolo, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) has been described as a hereditary predisposition cancer syndrome associated with mutations in candidate genes including HABP2. Two of 20 probands from families with history of PTC and breast carcinoma (BC) were evaluated by whole exome sequencing (WES...... familial PTC cases. Genes potentially associated with deregulation of the extracellular matrix organization pathway (CTSB, TNXB, COL4A3, COL16A1, COL24A1, COL5A2, NID1, LOXL2, MMP11, TRIM24 and MUSK) and DNA repair function (NBN and MSH2) were detected by WES, suggesting that other cancer-associated genes...

  4. Fate and effects of fragrance material on the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lina; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Fragrance materials (FMs) have been used ubiquitously at low concentrations in perfume, cosmetics, detergents etc. The primary pathway into the aquatic environment is down-the-drain on a continual basis. Most published papers about FMs are concerned with the polycyclic and nitro musks. Acetyl...... organic matter content in the sediment. Therefore, We used 3 worm densities (C. teleta of the same age at 0, 44,000 and 88,000 individuals per m2), sediments with different organic matter content (4% and 2.7%) and AC spiked sediment (0, 50, 100 µg AC/g dw sed), to examine the fate of sediment...

  5. Anti-MuSK-Positive Myasthenia Gravis in a Patient with Parkinsonism and Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lanfranconi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase- (MuSK- antibodies-positive Myasthenia Gravis accounts for about one third of Seronegative Myasthenia Gravis and is clinically characterized by early onset of prominent bulbar, neck, shoulder girdle, and respiratory weakness. The response to medical therapy is generally poor. Here we report a case of late-onset MuSK-antibodies-positive Myasthenia Gravis presenting with signs of cognitive impairment and parkinsonism in addition to bulbar involvement and external ophthalmoplegia. The pattern of involvement of both peripheral and central nervous system dysfunction might suggest a common pathogenic mechanism, involving impaired cholinergic transmission.

  6. Neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Adi; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Aschner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Fragrance compounds are chemicals belonging to one of several families, which are used frequently and globally in cosmetics, household products, foods and beverages. A complete list of such compounds is rarely found on the ingredients-list of such products, as "fragrance mixtures" are defined as "trade secrets" and thus protected by law. While some information regarding the general toxicity of some of these compounds is available, their neurotoxicity is known to a lesser extent. Here, we discuss the prevalence and neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds belonging to the three most common groups: phthalates, synthetic musks and chemical sensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyperloop: The Future of Transportation

    KAUST Repository

    Ahlborn, Dirk

    2017-01-11

    What is Hyperloop? Hyperloop is a new way to move people or things anywhere in the world quickly, safely, efficiently, on-demand and with minimal impact to the environment. The system, using updated technologies, by Elon Musk, relies on electric propulsion to accelerate a passenger or cargo vehicle through a tube in a low-pressure environment. The autonomous vehicle levitates slightly above the track and glides at faster-than-airline speeds over long distances. We eliminate direct emissions, noise, delay, weather concerns and pilot error. Itメs the next mode of transportation.

  8. Formal Synthesis and Data-Driven Verification of Cyber-Physical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Balkan, Ayca

    2017-01-01

    At a conference in March 2015, while advocating self-driving cars, Elon Musk, the chief executive officer of Tesla Motors, referred to (traditional) cars as “two-ton death machines”. The biggest promise of autonomous systems is the elimination of, or compensation for, the human-error factor. However, making sure that such systems which are designed by humans themselves, will behave as we expect them to do, is an unarguably challenging task. According to the RAND Corporation’s recent findings,...

  9. Estimation of urban traffic density from street camera images

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakaladharan, Shreyas

    2017-01-01

    Traffic is a very real problem in today’s world. Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX and Tesla, has created a start-up which aims to bore tunnels to better manage traffic. While we do not dare to challenge him, we propose to better manage traffic on roads by leveraging currently available technologies in a novel way. Our project aims to give accurate real-time predictions of traffic, so that prospective commuters can choose routes that are free of traffic, thereby automatically balanci...

  10. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  11. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  12. Assessing ecorelevance of emerging chemicals in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Great Lakes and elsewhere has detected the presence of a wide variety of chemicals which has raised concern that these chemicals pose risks to resident species. Sediments are of particular interest due to their tendency to accumulate hydrophobic and persistent...... chemicals and because less is known about toxic effects of chemicals to sediment-feeding organisms than to pelagic species. Data collected on the polycyclic musks provides available evidence relevant to assessing exposure and effects in Great Lakes' sediments. Studies at Roskilde University demonstrate how...

  13. A superlinear convergence estimate for an iterative method for the biharmonic equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M.A. [Wichita State Univ., Wichita, KS (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In [CDH] a method for the solution of boundary value problems for the biharmonic equation using conformal mapping was investigated. The method is an implementation of the classical method of Muskhelishvili. In [CDH] it was shown, using the Hankel structure, that the linear system in [Musk] is the discretization of the identify plus a compact operator, and therefore the conjugate gradient method will converge superlinearly. The purpose of this paper is to give an estimate of the superlinear convergence in the case when the boundary curve is in a Hoelder class.

  14. STUDI KOLEKSI REFERENSI RESERVOIR PENYAKIT DI DAERAH ENZOOTIK PES DI JAWA BARAT DAN JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyanto -

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHReservoir Reference Study Collection Disease, particularly rats have been conducted in several areas such as the enzootic plague area in the district of Nongkojajar, Pasuruan, East Java and Ciwidey district, Bandung regency, West Java. These were organized in May-October 2007. The method used for the collection and reference reservoir of disease is rodentia survey methods. Result of the reference collection reservoir of disease is the house rat Rattus tanezumi Nongkojajar found either in the of Pasuruan, East Java (3 rats and the District of Ciwidey (4 rats. Polynesian rat R. exulans, three rats were only found in the District Nongkojajar, whereas three rats R. tiomanicus, three rats were found in Ciwidey. In addition another types of mice were also found 1 Insectivora mice Suncus murinus in the District Ciwidey. Type of rats captured in habitat homes in the District Ciwidey Bandung regency, West Java and Pasuruan, East Java is the same type, namely house rat Rattus tanezumi. Types of mice caught in the habitat garden in the District Ciwidey Bandung regency, West Java (tiomanicus R. tree rats were different from mice found in Pasuruan, East Java (Polynesian rat R. exulans. Local environment in plague enzootic area in Pasuruan, East Java is mountainous and forest conservation area Bromo-Tengger, while District Ciwidey, Bandung is the highland tourism areas / mountainous and agricultural areas.INDONESIAKoleksi referensi reservoir penyakit khususnya tikus telah dilakukan di beberapa daerah enzootik pes seperti di Kecamatan Nongkojajar, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Jawa Timur dan Kecamatan Ciwidey, Kabupaten Bandung, Jawa Barat. Kegiatan tersebut dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Oktober 2007. Metode yang digunakan untuk koleksi dan referensi reservoir penyakit adalah metode survei rodensia. Hasil koleksi referensi reservoir penyakit adalah tikus rumah Rattus tanezumi ditemukan baik di Kecamatan Nongkojajar, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Jawa Timur (3 ekor maupun

  15. Comparative morphology of the penis and clitoris in four species of moles (Talpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen; Catania, Kenneth; Shinohara, Akio; Baskin, Lawrence; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2017-01-01

    The penile and clitorial anatomy of four species of Talpid moles (broad-footed, star-nosed, hairy-tailed, and Japanese shrew moles) were investigated to define penile and clitoral anatomy and to examine the relationship of the clitoral anatomy with the presence or absence of ovotestes. The ovotestis contains ovarian tissue and glandular tissue resembling fetal testicular tissue and can produce androgens. The ovotestis is present in star-nosed and hairy-tailed moles, but not in broad-footed and Japanese shrew moles. Using histology, 3D reconstruction, and morphometric analysis, sexual dimorphism was examined in regard to a nine feature masculine trait score that included perineal appendage length (prepuce), anogenital distance, and presence/absence of bone. The presence/absence of ovotestes was discordant in all four mole species for sex differentiation features. For many sex differentiation features, discordance with ovotestes was observed in at least one mole species. The degree of concordance with ovotestes was highest for hairy-tailed moles and lowest for broad-footed moles. In relationship to phylogenetic clade, sex differentiation features also did not correlate with the similarity/divergence of the features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Hairy-tailed and Japanese shrew moles reside in separated clades, but they exhibit a high degree of congruence. Broad-footed and hairy-tailed moles reside within the same clade but had one of the lowest correlations in features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Thus, phylogenetic affinity and the presence/absence of ovotestes are poor predictors for most sex differentiation features within mole external genitalia. PMID:28251823

  16. Reproductive characteristics of the african pygmy hedgehog, atelerix albiventris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Nagdas, S K; Winfrey, V P; Olson, G E

    2000-09-01

    To obtain further perspective on reproduction and particularly gamete function among so-called primitive mammals presently grouped in the Order Insectivora, we have examined the African hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris, in light of unusual features reported in shrews and moles. Atelerix proves to share many but not all of the characteristics seen in these other insectivores. The penis of Atelerix has a 'snail-like' form, but lacks the surface spines common in insectivores and a number of other mammals. Hedgehog spermatozoa display an eccentric insertion of the tail on the sperm head, and they manifest the barbs on the perforatorium that, in shrews, probably effect the initial binding of the sperm head to the zona pellucida. As a possible correlate, the structural matrix of the hedgehog acrosome comprises only two main components, as judged by immunoblotting, rather than the complex of peptides seen in the matrix of some higher mammals. The Fallopian tube of Atelerix is relatively simple; it displays only minor differences in width and in the arborized epithelium between the isthmus and ampulla, and shows no evidence of the unusual sperm crypts that characterize the isthmus or ampulla, depending on the species, in shrews and moles. In common with other insectivores, Atelerix appears to be an induced ovulator, as judged by the ovulation of some 6-8 eggs by about 23 h after injection of hCG. The dense cumulus oophorus appeared to have little matrix, in keeping with the modest dimensions of the tubal ampulla and, while it was not quite as discrete as that of soricids, it did show the same insensitivity to 0.5% (w/v) ovine or bovine hyaluronidase.

  17. Pulvinar projections to the striatum and amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Day-Brown

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Visually-guided movement is possible in the absence of conscious visual perception, a phenomenon referred to as blindsight. Similarly, fearful images can elicit emotional responses in the absence of their conscious perception. Both capabilities are thought to be mediated by pathways from the retina through the superior colliculus (SC and pulvinar nucleus. To define potential pathways that underlie behavioral responses to unperceived visual stimuli, we examined the projections from the pulvinar nucleus to the striatum and amygdala in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, a species considered to be a protypical primate. The tree shrew brain has a large pulvinar nucleus that contains two SC-recipient subdivisions; the dorsal (Pd and central (Pc pulvinar both receive topographic (specific projections from SC, and Pd receives an additional nontopographic (diffuse projection from SC (Chomsung et al., 2008; JCN 510:24-46. Anterograde and retrograde tract tracing revealed that both Pd and Pc project to the caudate and putamen, and Pd, but not Pc, additionally projects to the lateral amygdala. Using immunocytochemical staining for substance P (SP and parvalbumin (PV to reveal the patch/matrix organization of tree shrew striatum, we found that SP-rich/PV-poor patches interlock with a PV-rich/SP-poor matrix. Confocal microscopy revealed that tracer-labeled pulvinostriatal terminals preferentially innervate the matrix. Electron microscopy revealed that the postsynaptic targets of tracer-labeled pulvino-striatal and pulvino-amygdala terminals are spines, demonstrating that the pulvinar nucleus projects to the spiny output cells of the striatum matrix and the lateral amygdala, potentially relaying: 1 topographic visual information from SC to striatum to aid in guiding precise movements, and 2 nontopographic visual information from SC to the amygdala alerting the animal to potentially dangerous visual images.

  18. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix A. Background Information & Problem Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    fritlenreptorit oient ()n Tame sectdy of tfuue ar is emhourizneds of entlr Wingto lo meirpltearn rea ntswt the p io alec for hei ofeatent of ater fromthetn...squirrel, eastern chipmonk, white-footed mouse, pine vole, and short-tailed shrew . Since colonial days, the timber wolf, panther, elk, and American bison...tion; demand reduction; Cooperative Operations on the Potomac; flowby; SI4 ATITRACTY dvree oft fW d md tEwtiIfp by blck nmmbr) In response to the Water

  19. Studies on Trombiculid Mites (Chiggers) and Other Ectoparasites as Vectors of Rickettsial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    shrews which come In contact with the ground in endemic foci wre nevertheless Important In the ecology of ohIggwr-boz’ne raohttalosis in that they serve...chiggers of rats over vast distances, e.g. Nepal-Pakistan-and Africa. B. The genms Guntherana Is one of the major tame of trombiculids on rats in Now...6LEVEL * S.UDE ON i.MIoUzm crWn A 00 11130T103o ~FNAL sciNUTD’C RPE T by Charles L. Wiseman, Jr., M.D. t March 1979 (For the period I Sept 1969 to 30

  20. MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Grapes (0.28) 327 Sour Grapes, analog The Taming of the Shrew (0.22), Merry Wives 251 (0.18), S[11 stories], Sour Grapes (-0.19) Sour Grapes, literal... The Institute for the 0 1 Learning Sciences Northwestern University CD• 00 MAC/FAC: A MODEL OF SIMILARITY-BASED RETRIEVAL Kenneth D. Forbus Dedre...Gentner Keith Law Technical Report #59 • October 1994 94-35188 wit Establisthed in 1989 with the support of Andersen Consulting Form Approved REPORT

  1. Litigation Technical Support and Services Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Biota Remedial Investigation, Version 3.2. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    is not justified. .. mmnt 19t L~age 4-43.n tame sgnpeclt The exclusion of certain analytes from certain species (arsenic from mall3rds, DDE from mule...achieve. The 13 ppm figure was calculated using two overly conservative sources: ti) shrews accumulate more cadmium than other small mýnrnals, and (2...tI1BUTION CODE APPROVE.D FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED O IJ. ABSTRA(t (Mjumum200 woJi) tn THE PURPOSE Or TH4E BIOTA REMEDIAL INV

  2. Traffics and wildlife: A preliminary study on road-kill

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiati, Elly Lestari

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary finding on road kill survey by direct observations onthe high ways. The road-kills recorded of small wildlife, including medium size-mammal (2.50%, n =1), birds (5.00%, n = 2) and small mammals (92.50%, n = 37). The small mammals include the mostcommon mammals in the areas, squirrels, raccoons, skunks and woodchuck. Of mammals, squirrels(35.00%) were the highest recorded, followed by woodchucks (25.00%), mice/shrew (17.50%),raccoons (10.00%), skunk (5.00%) ...

  3. Using of Synchrotron radiation for study of multielement composition of the small mammals diet and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezel, V S [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Koutzenogii, K P [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mukhacheva, S V [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chankina, O V [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Savchenko, T I [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    The Synchrotron radiation X-ray Fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) was used for estimation of 'geochemical selection' of elements by small mammals, which belong to different trophic groups and inhabit polluted and background areas (the Middle Ural). The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, Pb in the diet and into hepar of a herbivorous (bank vole) and carnivorous (Laxmann's shrew) small mammals were compared. Herbivores play a particular role in chemical elements translocation between trophic levels, limiting element transition to consumers of the consequent levels. Whereas, insectivores concentrate most elements in their tissues under the same conditions.

  4. Neural glycoprotein M6a is released in extracellular vesicles and modulated by chronic stressors in blood

    OpenAIRE

    Monteleone, Melisa C.; Billi, Silvia C.; Brocco, Marcela A.; Frasch, Alberto C.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane neuronal glycoprotein M6a is highly expressed in the brain and contributes to neural plasticity promoting neurite growth and spine and synapse formation. We have previously showed that chronic stressors alter hippocampal M6a mRNA levels in rodents and tree shrews. We now show that M6a glycoprotein can be detected in mouse blood. M6a is a transmembrane glycoprotein and, as such, unlikely to be free in blood. Here we demonstrate that, in blood, M6a is transported in extracellular vesic...

  5. HIPPOCAMPAL ADULT NEUROGENESIS: ITS REGULATION AND POTENTIAL ROLE IN SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  6. Records of seven small mammal species (Insectivora, Chiroptera new to the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L Rautenbach

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.

  7. Metal contamination in wildlife living near two zinc smelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Pattee, O.H.; Sileo, L.; Hoffman, D.J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Wildlife in an oak forest on Blue Mountain was studied 10 km upwind (Bake Oven Knob site) and 2 km downwind (Palmerton site) of two zinc smelters in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous studies at sites near these smelters had shown changes in populations of soil microflora, lichens, green plants and litter-inhabiting arthropods. The 02 soil litter horizon at Palmerton was heavily contaminated with Pb (2700 mg kg-1), Zn (24000 mg kg-1), and Cd (710 mg kg-1), and to a lesser extent with Cu (440 mg kg-1). Various kinds of invertebrates (earthworms, slugs and millipedes) that feed on soil litter or soil organic matter were rare at, or absent from, the Palmerton site. Those collected at Bake Oven Knob tended to have much higher concentrations of metals than did other invertebrates. Frogs, toads and salamanders were very rare at, or absent from, the Palmerton site, but were present at Bake Oven Knob and at other sites on Blue Mountain farther from the smelters. Metal concentrations (dry wt) in different organisms from Palmerton were compared. Concentrations of Pb were highest in shrews (110 mg kg-1), followed by songbirds (56 mg kg-1), leaves (21 mg kg-1), mice (17 mg kg-1), carrion insects (14 mg kg-1), berries (4.0 mg kg-1), moths (4,3 mg kg-1) and fungi (3.7 mg kg-1). Concentrations of Cd, in contrast, were highest in carrion insects (25 mg kg-1 ),followed by fungi (9.8 mg kg-1), leaves (8.1 mg kg-1), shrews (7.3 mg kg-I), moths (4.9 mg kg-1), mice (2.6 mg kg -1), songbirds (2.5 mg kg -1) and berries (1.2 mg kg-1). Concentrations of Zn and Cu tended to be highest in the same organisms that had the highest concentrations of Cd. Only a small proportion of the metals in the soil became incorporated into plant foliage, and much of the metal contamination detected in the biota probably came from aerial deposition. The mice from both sites seemed to be healthy. Shrews had higher concentrations of metals than did mice, and one shrew showed evidence of Pb poisoning; its red

  8. Ultra-high foraging rates of harbour porpoises make them vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewska, Danuta; Johnson, Mark; Teilmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The question of how individuals acquire and allocate resources to maximize fitness is central in evolutionary ecology. Basic information on prey selection, search effort and capture rates are critical for understanding a predator's role in its ecosystem and for predicting its response to natural...... success rate of >90%. Porpoises therefore target fish that are smaller than those of commercial interest, but must forage almost continually to meet their metabolic demands with such small prey, leaving little margin for compensation. Thus, for these "aquatic shrews", even a moderate level...

  9. Damage to the forest ecosystem on Blue Mountain from zinc smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    Emissions from two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pennsylvania, have caused widespread destruction of the forest on Blue Mountain. There have been striking changes in the species composition and structure of the community of vascular plants, as well as population reductions of lichens, mosses, arthropods inhabiting the letter, and amphibians. Reductions in the populations of decomposers of organic matter have led to an accumulation of litter on the forest floor. Zinc poisoning was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer, and lead poisoning was diagnosed in a shrew. White-tailed deer also contained high concentrations of cadmium.

  10. A Literary Study on Moschus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Jae Lee

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Literary investigation of existing data was conducted to verify effects of Moschus and its herbal acupuncture, and determine quality management through component analysis. Results : Following results were obtained through literary investigation. 1. Deer musk (Moschus is dried navel gland secretions of the adult male musk deer. 2. Moschus is known to be effective for treating various febrile diseases, to revive senses, heart and abdominal pain, complications from cerebral hemorrhage, angina, and others. 3. Single dosage of Moschus is between and should not exceed 1g. Normally taken as powder or pill and may be used externally. 4. Moschus also has protective effects for the liver cells, and experiments revealed possible efficacies for hyperlipidemia, brain damage, hypertension, and etc. 5. For herbal acupuncture usage, Fel Ursi, Bezoar Bovis, and Moschus are used as a mixture (BUM, and it's known to be effective for protecting the liver and treating arthritis. 6. For component analysis of Moschus, aromatic matter 'muscone' should be used as a standard matter.

  11. Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira-Fernandes

    Full Text Available Recently the environmental obesogen hypothesis has been formulated, proposing a role for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the development of obesity. To evaluate this hypothesis, a screening system for obesogenic compounds is urgently needed. In this study, we suggest a standardised protocol for obesogen screening based on the 3T3-L1 cell line, a well-characterised adipogenesis model, and direct fluorescent measurement using Nile red lipid staining technique. In a first phase, we characterised the assay using the acknowledged obesogens rosiglitazone and tributyltin. Based on the obtained dose-response curves for these model compounds, a lipid accumulation threshold value was calculated to ensure the biological relevance and reliability of statistically significant effects. This threshold based method was combined with the well described strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD method for classification of non-, weak- or strong obesogenic compounds. In the next step, a range of EDCs, used in personal and household care products (parabens, musks, phthalates and alkylphenol compounds, were tested to further evaluate the obesogenicity screening assay for its discriminative power and sensitivity. Additionally, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ dependency of the positive compounds was evaluated using PPARγ activation and antagonist experiments. Our results showed the adipogenic potential of all tested parabens, several musks and phthalate compounds and bisphenol A (BPA. PPARγ activation was associated with adipogenesis for parabens, phthalates and BPA, however not required for obesogenic effects induced by Tonalide, indicating the role of other obesogenic mechanisms for this compound.

  12. Comparison of passive sampling and biota for monitoring of tonalide in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumova, Jitka; Grabicova, Katerina; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Kodes, Vit; Fedorova, Ganna; Grabic, Roman; Kroupova, Hana Kocour

    2017-10-01

    Synthetic musk compounds are extensively used in personal care and cosmetic products all over the world. Afterwards, they are discharged into the environment mainly because they are not completely removed in wastewater treatment plants. The aim of this study was to investigate if a passive sampler is applicable for the monitoring of tonalide, a polycyclic musk compound, in the aquatic environment and to compare the levels of tonalide in pesticide-polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and biota. For this purpose, four sampling localities on the three biggest rivers in the Czech Republic were selected. Tonalide was determined in POCIS at all sampling sites in the concentration ranging from 9 ng/POCIS (Labe River, Hradec Králové) to 25 ng/POCIS (Morava River, Blatec). The locality with the most frequent occurrence of tonalide in biota samples was the Morava River which well corresponded with the highest tonalide concentration in POCIS among sampling sites. The highest number of positive tonalide detections among all studied biota samples was found in fish plasma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence that tonalide bioaccumulates in fish blood. Tonalide levels were below the limit of quantification in benthos samples at all sampling sites.

  13. Myasthenia gravis: subgroup classification and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhus, Nils Erik; Verschuuren, Jan J

    2015-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that is characterised by muscle weakness and fatigue, is B-cell mediated, and is associated with antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor, muscle-specific kinase (MUSK), lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LRP4), or agrin in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. Patients with myasthenia gravis should be classified into subgroups to help with therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Subgroups based on serum antibodies and clinical features include early-onset, late-onset, thymoma, MUSK, LRP4, antibody-negative, and ocular forms of myasthenia gravis. Agrin-associated myasthenia gravis might emerge as a new entity. The prognosis is good with optimum symptomatic, immunosuppressive, and supportive treatment. Pyridostigmine is the preferred symptomatic treatment, and for patients who do not adequately respond to symptomatic therapy, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and thymectomy are first-line immunosuppressive treatments. Additional immunomodulatory drugs are emerging, but therapeutic decisions are hampered by the scarcity of controlled studies. Long-term drug treatment is essential for most patients and must be tailored to the particular form of myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. KAJIAN EPIDEMIOLOGI KEJADIAN LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KOTA SEMARANG DAN KABUPATEN DEMAK TAHUN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yuniarto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of rodent borne neglected diseases, but health problem in day. Transmision of Leptospirosis occurs by contact with water or humid soil contaminated with urine from rodent infected with Leptospira. The aim of this research was to know epidemiology Leptospirosis in Semarang City and Demak District, in April-November 2008. The design of this research was cross sectional. The activity included Leptospirosis diagnosis with Rapid Diagostic Test (Leptotek Dri Dot and rat trappings. Data were analysed descriptively by using tables, graphics and maps. The result showed that in 2008, Leptospirosis incidence in the both areas was higher compared to the previous year. The Leptospirosis cases tended to increase in the rainy season. In Semarang City, Leptospirosis cases were mostly found in the age group of 0-19 years (44,1% and 51% of the total cases were female. In Demak District, the cases were mostly found in the age group of 40-49 years (25,7% and 75,7% from the total cases were male. The spesies rats found in this research were Rattus tanezumi, R.norvegicus, B.indica, Mus musculus, R.exculan and Suncus murinus. Kidney test of the rats caught in Semarang City showed Rattus tanezumi, R.norwegicus, B.indica, and R.exculan were infected with Leptospira sp.

  15. POPULASI TIKUS DAN PENGETAHUAN MASYARAKAT TENTANG TIKUS DAN PENYAKIT YANG DITULARKANNYA DI KECAMATAN BERBAH, KABUPATEN SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Pramestuti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTLeptospirosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted by Leptospira bacteria by rats as the main reservoir. Cases of leptospirosisoccurred in several districts in Sleman. One of them is Berbah Sub-district with one case of leptospirosis in 2011. Thepurpose of this study to identify the biotic and abiotic environmental conditions, species of rodents captured in the studysite, trap success, and Leptospira bacteria in the blood serum and kidney of rats. The study was conducted in the JogotirtoVillage, Berbah Sub-district, Sleman District. As many as 150 traps had been used in 2 trapped indoor and 2 trappedoutdoor during 3 days. Measurements, observations environmental conditions and interviews about rats and rats diseasetransmission around leptospirosis cases. Rats had been trapped identified, blood and kidneys was taken to be examined inthe presence of Leptospira bacteria by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Data were analyzed descriptively intables and graphs. Biotic and abiotic environmental conditions favor transmission of leptospirosis. Rats spesies had beenfound were Rattus tanezumi, Suncus murinus, and R. tiomanicus with trap succes indoor as much 10.5% and outdoor asmuch 5.2%. People had less knowledge about rats and rats disease transmission.Keywords: rats, knowledge, Sleman

  16. High Prevalence of Rickettsia spp. Infections in Small Mammals in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surveillance for Rickettsia spp. is urgently needed due to the recent emergence of many novel rickettsioses around the globe, but previous studies in Taiwan have been limited to small areas and no investigation of infections in vertebrate hosts has ever been attempted. We surveyed rickettsial infections systematically in small-mammal hosts trapped between 2006 and 2010 throughout Taiwan. Fragments of ompB and gltA genes in the liver, spleen, and kidney of mammals were targeted by nested polymerase chain reaction. We trapped 1375 individuals of 10 species, among which Rattus losea was the most common (54.6%), followed by Suncus murinus (20.6%) and Mus caroli (10.6%). The overall rate of Rickettsia infections in the liver, spleen, or kidney of 309 assayed small mammals was 60.5%, with a rate of infection ≥50% for each mammal species. DNA nucleotide sequences of 184 successfully sequenced genes were most similar to nine Rickettsia species: Rickettsia conorii, R. felis, R. japonica, R. raoultii, R. rickettsii, Rickettsia sp. IG-1, Rickettsia sp. TwKM01, Rickettsia sp. TwKM02, and R. typhi. Our results suggest that several novel Rickettsia spp. are common and widespread across various habitats throughout Taiwan and suggest the need for further study of emerging rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:25629776

  17. Habitat, food, and small mammal community structure in Namaqualand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Deventer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of habitat differences and food availability on small mammal (rodent and elephant shrew species richness, diversity, density and biomass was investigated in Namaqualand, South Africa. Species richness in the three habitats sampled, namely Upland Succulent Karoo, Dry Riverine Shrub and North-western Mountain Renosterveld was low, with only 2–4 species per habitat. Rodents trapped were predominantly Gerbillurus paeba and Aethomys namaquensis, with fewer Mus minutoides and Petromyscus sp. The only non-rodent was the elephant shrew Elephantulus edwardii. Ten habitat features, the percentage of total plant cover, tree cover, shrub cover, grass cover, plant litter, total basal cover, sand, gravel or rock cover, and the dominant plant height were recorded at 30 randomly chosen points on five sampling grids in each habitat. Small mammal density and biomass was significantly correlated with food availability (green foliage cover, seeds, and relative density and biomass of insects. Species richness and diversity of small mammals were significantly correlated with shrub cover. Numbers and biomass of specific species correlated significantly with different habitat features in each case.

  18. Life history dictates fluorosis risk in a small mammal community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, D.P.; Faulkner, B.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W. Jr.; McBee, K.

    1995-01-01

    Dental lesions, due to fluorosis, previously have been reported in wild, male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) on an abandoned oil refinery located at the Oklahoma Refining Company in Cyril, Oklahoma. This study was expanded to include examinations of the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), house mouse (Mus musculus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius), least shrew (Cryptotis parva), shorttailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), and deer mouse (Peromyscus spp.) at this same site. A sample of each species was collected form the contaminated refining site and a reference site with no known contamination. The authors grossly scored dentition of lower and upper incisors, microscopically examined cellular aberrations in ameloblasts and ondontoblasts, and quantified femur fluoride levels. Alterations in the lower and upper incisors were common in prairie voles, whose incisors possessed striations and erosion of the enamel and appeared chalky white. Incisors of animals taken from the reference site were normal. Patterns in occurrence of fluorosis and degree of enamel erosion was examined relative to the life history characteristics of the species

  19. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of the Cryptotis mexicanus group (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae): two new species from Honduras supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amy B.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Trujillo, Robert G.; Kang, Yuan Yuan; Esmaeiliyan, Mehdi; Valdez, Joselyn; Woodman, Neal; Bickham, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Small-eared shrews of the genus Cryptotis (Mammalia: Eulipotyphla: Soricidae) are widespread in the northern Neotropics. Systematic studies of these shrews over the past two decades have revealed previously undocumented morphological and species diversity, resulting in a quadrupling of the number of recognized species. Unfortunately, a small proportion of the species in the genus have been included in molecular phylogenetic studies, and evolutionary relationships within the genus are incompletely known. Traditionally, species have been assigned to four or five morphologically defined ‘species groups’, but tests of the monophyly of some of these groups show weak support and relationships amongst species groups remain somewhat speculative. The largest species group is the C. mexicanus group inhabiting Mexico and northern Central America. We studied sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome-b and 16S genes, as well as nuclear ApoB and BRCA1 genes from 22 species of Cryptotis, including 15 species in the C. mexicanus group. Our combined analysis shows that the C. goldmani subgroup is very weakly supported as monophyletic; however, the C. mexicanus group as a whole is not monophyletic. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm the distinctiveness of two newly described species (C. celaque and C. mccarthyi) from isolated highlands of western Honduras and illustrate their relationship with other species formerly considered part of a widespread C. goodwini.

  20. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  1. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) from insectivores. Two classes of mammalian SINEs distinguished by A-rich tail structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, O R; Kramerov, D A

    2001-10-01

    Four tRNA-related SINE families were isolated from the genome of the shrew Sorex araneus (SOR element), mole Mogera robusta (TAL element), and hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus (ERI-1 and ERI-2 elements). Each of these SINEs families is specific for a single Insectivora family: SOR, for Soricidae (shrews); TAL, for Talpidae (moles and desmans); ERI-1 and ERI-2, for Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). There is a long polypyrimidine region (TC-motif) in TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements located immediately upstream of an A-rich tail with polyadenylation signals (AATAAA) and an RNA polymerase III terminator (T(4-6)) or TCT(3-4)). Ten out of 14 analyzed mammalian tRNA-related SINE families have an A-rich tail similar to that of TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements. These elements were assigned to class T+. The other four SINEs including SOR element have no polyadenylation signal and transcription terminator in their A-rich tail and were assigned to class T-. Class T+ SINEs occur only in mammals, and most of them have a long polypyrimidine region. Possible models of retroposition of class T+ and T- SINEs are discussed.

  2. The diet of wintering Barn Owls (Tyto alba in the region of Histria, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNDOR D. Attila

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Barn Owl (Tyto alba is a common nocturnal predator of agro-ecosystems and it is widely distributed, especially in European countryside. The species uses human artifacts, ruins, barns, attics, towers for breeding and roosting, these sites can provide researchers with hundreds of pellets, thus its diet is well known. A first assessment of the diet and food selection was made for the southern part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in the wintering period, in a unique wetland-grassland complex, with large areas of steppes. Mammals dominated the diet spectrum, with the shrews (Soricidae being the most frequent (48.3%, followed by the mice (Muridae, and the voles (Arvicolinae. The mammalian component of the diet is important also in terms of biomass (97.8 %. The most valuable species is the Sibling Vole (Microtus epiroticus equalling 25.5 % of all biomass consumed, followed by the Common White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens and the Mound-building Mouse (Mus spicilegus. Birds and amphibians made up a small portion of the diet, both in terms of occurrence and of biomass. Three species of birds were captured, the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus being the most important. The results suggest that the Barn Owl is a specialized feeder relying on small mammals and completing its diet with other prey only occasionally.

  3. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  4. The evolution of micro-cursoriality in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Mowoe, Metobor O

    2014-04-15

    In this study we report on the evolution of micro-cursoriality, a unique case of cursoriality in mammals smaller than 1 kg. We obtained new running speed and limb morphology data for two species of elephant-shrews (Elephantulus spp., Macroscelidae) from Namaqualand, South Africa, which we compared with published data for other mammals. Elephantulus maximum running speeds were higher than those of most mammals smaller than 1 kg. Elephantulus also possess exceptionally high metatarsal:femur ratios (1.07) that are typically associated with fast unguligrade cursors. Cursoriality evolved in the Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla and Carnivora coincident with global cooling and the replacement of forests with open landscapes in the Oligocene and Miocene. The majority of mammal species, though, remained non-cursorial, plantigrade and small (mammal earlier than in other mammalian crown groups. Micro-cursoriality evolved first in forests, presumably in response to selection for rapid running speeds facilitated by local knowledge, in order to avoid predators. During the Miocene, micro-cursoriality was pre-adaptive to open, arid habitats, and became more derived in the newly evolved Elephantulus and Macroscelides elephant-shrews with trail running.

  5. The evolutionary emergence and refinement of the mammalian pattern of foot architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, O J

    1983-08-01

    It is shown that in form and function the articular complexes of the monotreme foot are pre-adaptive to the therian condition, but the echidna differs by having a tuber calcaneus which is directed downward and distally. The cynodont foot (TR. 8) and that of the Triassic mammal Eozostrodon seem to possess the essential articular features present in monotremes, but they are assembled rather differently. In both, tuber calcaneus was apparently directed downwards. It follows that monotremes were probably derived from some way along the lineage usually, but inappropriately, termed "Theria'. A calcaneofibular articulation is present in kangaroos, certain shrews, elephant shrews, rabbits and artiodactyls. In all of them it is an apomorphic condition involving annexation of part of the posterior talar facet on the calcaneus by the fibula, which invariably shows some degree of amalgamation with the tibia. It is shown that the trochlear process of the mammalian calcaneus has the dual function of providing origin for the m. flexor accessorius and acting as a supporting shelf for the bundle of peroneal tendons. It is almost certainly a derivative of the lateral flange on the cynodont calcaneus, which presumably had a comparable function. In man, the process is fragmented, one of its derivatives being the lateral process of the calcaneal tuber which shows varying degrees of migration towards the medial process and amalgamation with it. The importance of these morphological features is discussed in relation to their use in cladistic analysis and their relevance to theories of the early evolution of the mammals.

  6. Chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae as biomonitor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Rubí, Javier R; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Etxebarría, Nestor; Soto, Manu; Espinoza, Félix; Ahrens, Michael J; Marigómez, Ionan

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the use of mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomonitor species for chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems. Sampling was carried out in eight localities (three in Nicaragua and five in Colombia) with different types and levels of contamination. Oysters were collected during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013 and the tissue concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined. Low tissue concentrations of metals (except Hg) and PAHs; moderate-to-high tissue concentrations of Hg, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs); detectable levels of chlorpyrifos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (mainly CB28, CB118, CB138 and CB 153) and brominated diphenyl ethers 85 (BDE85); and negligible levels of musks were recorded in Nicaraguan oysters. A distinct profile of POPs was identified in Colombia, where the tissue concentrations of PCBs and synthetic musk fragrances were low to moderate, and Ag, As, Cd, Pb, and PAHs ranged from moderate to extremely high. Overall, the values recorded for HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Nicaraguan mangrove cupped oysters greatly exceeded the reference values in tissues of C. rhizophorae from the Wider Caribbean Region, whereas only the levels of PCBs were occasionally surpassed in Colombia. Different contaminant profiles were distinguished between oysters from Nicaragua and Colombia in radar plots constructed using the main groups of contaminants (metals, PAHs, musks, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)). Likewise, integrated pollution indices revealed differences in the levels of contaminants. Moreover, the profiles and levels in oyster tissues also varied with season. Thus, principal component analysis clearly discriminated Nicaraguan and Colombian localities and, especially in Colombia, seasonal trends in chemical contamination and differences

  7. Determination of 24 personal care products in fish bile using hybrid solvent precipitation and dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Lv, Yin-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2018-05-25

    Personal care products (PCPs) are ubiquitous in aquatic environments owing to the continuous discharge of domestic wastewater from highly urbanized regions. These PCPs can be adsorbed by fish and thereafter usually enter the bile of the fish through biliary excretion. In this study, a sensitive method based on a combination of hybrid solvent precipitation and dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) purification was developed to simultaneously extract and detect 24 PCPs, namely, 16 biocides, 4 synthetic musks, and 4 benzotriazoles, from fish bile. Hybrid precipitation on solid phase extraction (SPE) tubes was applied to remove phospholipids and proteins, and a d-SPE procedure was used for further purification. The extraction solvents for the hybrid precipitation/SPE tubes and d-SPE materials were optimized. The method performance for bile samples both with and without enzyme hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase/aryl-sulfatase were validated. The 24 PCPs in fish bile were spiked with standard concentrations of 10 ng/mL, 20 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, and 200 ng/mL to evaluate recoveries, which ranged from 70 to 120% for 16, 16, 22, and 21 analytes with hydrolysis, respectively, and 70-120% for 14, 15, 23, and 23 analytes without hydrolysis, respectively. The quantification limits for target PCPs were in the range 0.26-7.38 ng/mL [excluding musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK)] and 0.20-9.48 ng/mL (excluding MX and MK) for bile samples with and without enzyme hydrolysis, respectively. After enzyme hydrolysis, 12 PCPs were detected in bile from fish collected from the Yangtze River, with a maximum detected concentration of 460 ng/mL, for triclosan (TCS). The hydrolysis reaction indicated that high percentages of glucuronide and sulfate metabolites for some PCPs, i.e. four parabens and TCS, existed in the bile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Leptospira spp. in Small Mammals from Areas with Low and High Human Hantavirus Incidences in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Albrecht, Christoph; Dafalla, Maysaa; Drewes, Stephan; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Turni, Hendrik; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans. In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene. Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank voles were infected with PUUV. Double infection of PUUV and Leptospira spp. occurrence in bank voles is 1.86 times (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 0.72-4.73) more likely than infections with each pathogen separately. Leptospira- positive bank voles are focally positively associated with PUUV infection in bank voles and with human hantavirus cases. It should be considered that shrews may serve as Leptospira spp. reservoirs.

  9. Biotechnology of flavours and fragrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocho, Shinobu

    1987-10-20

    This paper presents the research and development of fragrant materials using the technologies of microorganism, enzyme and tissue culture. Flavour of dairy products by diacetyl, flavour and tests of blue cheese by methyl ketones, formation of small of fruit such as banana, grapefruit, lemon and peach, flavour of dairy products by reacting butterfat with lipase, patchoulenol as cosmetic perfume, production of musk perfume from carboxylic acid biologically produced from n-paraffin, cool taste of l-menthol and production of lactones for food flavour are being investigated using microorganisms and enzymes. The production of essential oil is being studied by the tissue culture of fragrant plants. Some of these studies have been commercialized and some of them are being developed. The characteristic biochemical processes such as stereospecific reaction, stereoselective reaction and asymmetric reaction will be applied to the conversion of material using biocatalyst. (5 figs, 43 refs)

  10. Fuel formula for lighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.

    1982-04-10

    A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.

  11. Semivolatile organic compounds in residential air along the Arizona - Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R.W.; Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Robertson, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about indoor air quality and the potential effects on people living in these environments are increasing as more reports about the toxicities and the potential indoor air exposure levels of household-use chemicals and chemicals fromhousingandfurnishingmanufactureinairarebeingassessed. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to confirm numerous airborne contaminants obtained from the analysis of semipermeable membrane devices deployed inside of 52 homes situated along the border between Arizona and Mexico. We also describe nontarget analytes in the organochlorine pesticide fractions of 12 of these homes; this fraction is also the most likelytocontainthebroadestscopeofbioconcentratablechemicals accumulated from the indoor air. Approximately 400 individual components were identified, ranging from pesticides to a wide array of hydrocarbons, fragrances such as the musk xylenes, flavors relating to spices, aldehydes, alcohols, esters and phthalate esters, and other miscellaneous types of chemicals. The results presented in this study demonstrate unequivocally that the mixture of airborne chemicals present indoors is far more complex than previously demonstrated. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. High-Arctic Plant-Herbivore Interactions under Climate Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thomas B.; Schmidt, Niels M.; Høye, Toke Thomas

    This chapter focuses on a 10-year data series from Zackenberg on the trophic interactions between two characteristic arctic plant species, arctic willow Salix arctica and mountain avens Dryas octopetala, and three herbivore species covering the very scale of size present at Zackenberg, namely......, the moth Sympistis zetterstedtii, the collared lemming Dicrostonyx groenlandicus and the musk ox Ovibos moschatus. Data from Zackenberg show that timing of snowmelt, the length of the growing season and summer temperature are the basic variables that determine the phenology of flowering and primary...... production upon which the herbivores depend, and snow may be the most important climatic factor affecting the different trophic levels and the interactions between them. Hence, the spatio-temporal distribution of snow, as well as thawing events during winter, may have considerable effects on the herbivores...

  13. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F

    2014-08-15

    The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Illegal and Unsustainable Wildlife Hunting and Trade in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zahler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports and studies document dramatic declines in a wide variety of wildlife species in Mongolia. The prime driver in these declines appears to be illegal and unsustainable hunting, both for local trade and consumption and for the international market. While data on these declines are sparse, comparisons of survey reports since the 1980s present evidence that some species may have declined by up to 90% in recent years. We outline the situation for eight major species of wildlife in Mongolia (saiga antelope, Mongolian gazelle, red deer , musk deer , ar gali, brown bear , Siberian marmot, and saker falcon. We then review the existing legal conditions and government efforts to control this situation, and suggest specific changes and actions that Mongolia should take to halt these dramatic declines in wildlife populations and avoid what may soon become an extinction crisis.

  15. Macrocyclic lactones: A versatile source for omega radiohalogenated fatty acid analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, A.H.; Lyster, D.M.; Robertson, K.A.; Vincent, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    For each omega halogenated fatty acid there exists a potential omega hydroxy fatty acid and the corresponding macrocyclic lactone. The authors have utilized such lactones as starting materials for omega /sup 123/I fatty acid analogs intended for myocardial imaging. Macrocyclic musk lactones are industrially available; 120 analogs are described in the literature. The preparation requires saponification, tosylation, and radio-iodide substitution. Iodo-fatty acids are readily separated from tosylate fatty acids on TLC. While providing a secure source of 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid and 17-iodo-heptadecanoic acid, the scheme allows ready access to a large number of untried fatty acid analogs. Examples presented are 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-7-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-12-oxa-hexadecanoic acid, 15-iodo-pentadecanoic acid, and 15-iodo-12-keto-pentadecanoic acid. Metabolic studies are in progress in mice and dogs to assess the utility of these analogs for myocardial imaging

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  17. Seronegative myasthenia gravis associated with malignant thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jason; Howard, James F

    2017-05-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is generally caused by antibodies directed against the neuromuscular junction, including antibodies against the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Pathologic abnormalities of the thymus gland, including thymoma, are associated with MG. We report a 56-year-old woman who presented with double vision. Single fiber EMG confirmed myasthenia gravis. AChR, striational muscle and MuSK antibodies were absent in the serum. Chest CT demonstrated a malignant thymoma. We report the first case of seronegative myasthenia gravis associated with malignant thymoma. The case challenges the conventional wisdom that all patients with thymoma associated MG test positive for antibodies against AChR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Myopathy in Childhood Muscle-Specific Kinase Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzinger, Lukas; Khomenko, Andrei; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm; Backhaus, Roland; Platen, Sabine; Schalke, Berthold

    2016-12-01

    Adult and pediatric patients suffering from MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) -antibody positive myasthenia gravis exhibit similar features to individuals with acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies, but they differ in several characteristics such as a predominant bulbar, respiratory and neck weakness, a generally worse disease severity and a tendency to develop muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy is a rare phenomenon that is usually restricted to the facial muscles. We describe a girl with MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis who developed a myopathy with severe generalized muscular weakness, muscle atrophy, and myopathic changes on electromyography. This is the first published example of a generalized myopathic syndrome in myasthenia gravis. We review the relevant literature and discuss the hypothesis of a mitochondrial myopathy as a pathogenic mechanism in MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Clinical Outcome and Therapeutic Treatment of a Patient with Double Seronegative Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azanjac Ana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prikazali smo slučaj 22-godišnjeg muskarca sa kliničkom slikom otežanog gutanja i dvoslika. Bolest myasthenia gravis (MG je dijagnostikovana na osnovu pozitivnog faramakološkog testa, pozitivnog testa neuromišićne transmisije, kompjuterizovane tomografije medijastinuma. Antitela protiv acetilholinskog receptora (AChR i antitela protiv mišićno specifičnog receptora za tirozin kinazu (MuSK. bila su negativna. Zabeleženo je delimično poboljšanje u neurološkom nalazu na ordiniranu terapiju Piridostigminom, Ciklosporinom, kortikosteroidima. Bolesnik je imao povoljan odgovor na izmenu plazme sa povlačenjem svih kliničkih siimptoma što potvrdjuje hipotezu o učešću humoralnih faktora u patogenezi dvostruko negativne MG.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, M.E.; Bydder, G.M.; Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders

  1. Sensing of Scent, Fragrance, Smell, and Odor Emissions from Biota Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People encounter enormous numbers of chemicals present in the outdoor atmosphere and/or in the various facilities they use daily. Despite such diversity, not many of them have necessarily the potential to draw human’s nasal attraction if their perception thresholds are in general not sufficiently low enough, regardless of abundance. In this sense, many types of scents, musks, fragrances, smells, odors, and pheromones are unique enough to draw a great deal of attention mainly by their presence at or near threshold levels which are far lower than those of common chemicals with poor odorant characteristics. It is known that most of the diverse characters of odor-related ingredients or expressions are commonly produced from various biota sources present in the biosphere, e.g., fauna, flora, bacteria, fruits, flowers, trees, meats, fresh/decaying foods, etc.

  2. Hyperloop : le droit et le devoir de douter...

    OpenAIRE

    Crozet , Yves

    2016-01-01

    National audience; C’est comme si c’était fait ! Les journaux les plus sérieux (Les Echos) nous annoncent que le premier test du prototype Hyperloop dans le désert du Nevada est un succès. Le projet futuriste d’Elon Musk se concrétise. Un véhicule terrestre de transport collectif va bientôt se déplacer à plus de 1000 km/h entre San Francisco et Los Angeles. Comme pour donner du crédit à cette information, la SNCF, via sa filiale SYSTRA va devenir partenaire du projet. Déjà les journaux de Pro...

  3. Could our nuclear vision benefit from a spell of Tesla magic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2018-01-01

    As I put the finishing touches to this latest article, US entrepreneur and boss of the Tesla car giant, Elon Musk, successfully launched a new rocket, the Falcon Heavy, from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. What this has to do with nuclear today? Technologically speaking nothing. But think 'outside the box' - as I'm sure many of you have been told in those corporate management-training classes. The answer is: 'vision'. The unabashed vision to be bold, daring, imaginative. The vision to believe in technology and to be unafraid to build on the experience and knowledge gained to date, including the failures, as we take the next steps forward.

  4. Climate Change Influences on Species Interrelationships and Distributions in High-Arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. R., Klein; Bruun, H. H.; Lundgren, R.

    2008-01-01

    , reproduction, and dispersal of all life forms present. Climate-associated changes in the biotic communities of the region are altering inter-species interactions, notably pollination, seed dispersal and plant-herbivore relations. Sexual reproduction and dispersal of propagules, primarily seeds, are essential...... be of particular significance to long-distance seed dispersal. In Northeast Greenland, dispersal of viable seeds may frequently occur by passage through the guts of geese and musk oxen. Research at Zackenberg on the role of insects in pollination of flowering plants has shown that Diptera species, primarily flies...... Cassiope tetragona, and mountain avens Dryas octopetala are the primary species represented in the pollen present on pollinating insects at Zackenberg. The effects of climate warming that may enhance environmental conditions for plant growth in Northeast Greenland and accelerate invasion of new species...

  5. Progress towards sustainable development : 1997 sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ways in which Shell Canada has been able to incorporate sustainable development concepts into the Company's business strategies were highlighted. The report describes Shell Canada's plans for protecting the air, water, wilderness, wildlife, soil and groundwater. Land reclamation of abandoned well sites, building a solid capability in emergency preparedness and a strong program to ensure health and safety, are also high on Shell Canada's priorities list. Achievements in 1997, led by the completion of environmental and socio-economic impact assessment of the Sable Offshore Energy Project and the announcement of plans for the construction of a mine and extraction plant north of Fort McMurray (Musked River Mine) Alberta, were reviewed. An ambitious list of objectives and targets for 1998 were also outlined. While in 1997 improvements in safety and sustainable development performance were impressive, financial results were also gratifying, with the Company reporting its best financial results ever. tabs., figs

  6. Effects of mutagen-sensitive mus mutations on spontaneous mitotic recombination in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P; Kafer, E

    1992-04-01

    Methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive, radiation-induced mutants of Aspergillus were shown to define nine new DNA repair genes, musK to musS. To test mus mutations for effects on mitotic recombination, intergenic crossing over was assayed between color markers and their centromeres, and intragenic recombination between two distinguishable adE alleles. Of eight mutants analyzed, four showed significant deviations from mus+ controls in both tests. Two mutations, musK and musL, reduced recombination, while musN and musQ caused increases. In contrast, musO diploids produced significantly higher levels only for intragenic recombination. Effects were relatively small, but averages between hypo- and hyperrec mus differed 15-20-fold. In musL diploids, most of the rare color segregants resulted from mitotic malsegregation rather than intergenic crossing over. This indicates that the musL gene product is required for recombination and that DNA lesions lead to chromosome loss when it is deficient. In addition, analysis of the genotypes of intragenic (ad+) recombinants showed that the musL mutation specifically reduced single allele conversion but increased complex conversion types (especially recombinants homozygous for ad+). Similar analysis revealed differences between the effects of two hyperrec mutations; musN apparently caused high levels solely of mitotic crossing over, while musQ increased various conversion types but not reciprocal crossovers. These results suggest that mitotic gene conversion and crossing over, while generally associated, are affected differentially in some of the mus strains of Aspergillus nidulans.

  7. Do contaminants originating from state-of-the-art treated wastewater impact the ecological quality of surface waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0-100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this

  8. Multi-residue analysis of legacy POPs and emerging organic contaminants in Singapore's coastal waters using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Bayen, Stéphane; Kelly, Barry C

    2015-08-01

    A gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) based method was developed for determination of 86 hydrophobic organic compounds in seawater. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was employed for sequestration of target analytes in the dissolved phase. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and florisil chromatography were utilized for determination of concentrations in suspended sediments (particulate phase). The target compounds included multi-class hydrophobic contaminants with a wide range of physical-chemical properties. This list includes several polycyclic and nitro-aromatic musks, brominated and chlorinated flame retardants, methyl triclosan, chlorobenzenes, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Spiked MilliQ water and seawater samples were used to evaluate the method performance. Analyte recoveries were generally good, with the exception of some of the more volatile target analytes (chlorobenzenes and bromobenzenes). The method is very sensitive, with method detection limits typically in the low parts per quadrillion (ppq) range. Analysis of 51 field-collected seawater samples (dissolved and particulate-bound phases) from four distinct coastal sites around Singapore showed trace detection of several polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other legacy POPs, as well as several current-use emerging organic contaminants (EOCs). Polycyclic and nitro-aromatic musks, bromobenzenes, dechlorane plus isomers (syn-DP, anti-DP) and methyl triclosan were frequently detected at appreciable levels (2-20,000pgL(-1)). The observed concentrations of the monitored contaminants in Singapore's marine environment were generally comparable to previously reported levels in other coastal marine systems. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of these emerging contaminants of concern in Singapore or Southeast Asia. The developed method may prove beneficial for future environmental monitoring of hydrophobic organic contaminants

  9. Do Contaminants Originating from State-of-the-Art Treated Wastewater Impact the Ecological Quality of Surface Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0–100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this

  10. Occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation behaviour of hydrophobic organic contaminants in a large-scale constructed wetland in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Kelly, Barry C

    2017-09-01

    This study involved a field-based investigation to assess the occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation behaviour of hydrophobic organic contaminants in a large-scale constructed wetland. Samples of raw leachate, water and wetland plants, Typha angustifolia, were collected for chemical analysis. Target contaminants included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), as well as several halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and personal care products (triclosan and synthetic musks). In addition to PCBs and OCPs, synthetic musks, triclosan (TCS) and dechlorane plus stereoisomers (syn- and anti-DPs) were frequently detected. Root concentration factors (log RCF L/kg wet weight) of the various contaminants ranged between 3.0 and 7.9. Leaf concentration factors (log LCF L/kg wet weight) ranged between 2.4 and 8.2. syn- and anti-DPs exhibited the greatest RCF and LCF values. A strong linear relationship was observed between log RCF and octanol-water partition coefficient (log K OW ). Translocation factors (log TFs) were negatively correlated with log K OW . The results demonstrate that more hydrophobic compounds exhibit higher degrees of partitioning into plant roots and are less effectively transported from roots to plant leaves. Methyl triclosan (MTCS) and 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (DCDD), TCS degradation products, exhibited relatively high concentrations in roots and leaves., highlighting the importance of degradation/biotransformation. The results further suggest that Typha angustifolia in this constructed wetland can aid the removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants present in this landfill leachate. The findings will aid future investigations regarding the fate and bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do contaminants originating from state-of-the-art treated wastewater impact the ecological quality of surface waters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stalter

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0-100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in

  12. Common functional correlates of head-strike behavior in the pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria and combative artiodactyls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Snively

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA, incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals.

  13. Determination of Methanol Content in Herbal Distillates Produced in Urmia Using Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Delirrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal distillates have been used for many centuries as drinks, flavors, and herbal medicine in Iran, especially in the city of Urmia. Recently, some studies claimed the presence of methanol in different types of herbal distillates. Methanol is a highly toxic compound which can cause acute or chronic toxicity in humans. Acute poisoning with methanol can cause different complications and even death while chronic methanol exposure has a wide range of nonspecific and misleading findings. The main purpose of this study was to determine methanol content in the commonly-used industrial herbal distillates produced in Urmia. Methods: Five samples of six types of most commonly used herbal distillates (peppermint, musk willow, lemon balm, pennyroyal, dill, and rose water were purchased from five active herbal distillates manufacturers in Urmia. All samples were transferred to the laboratory and methanol content of each sample was measured two times according to the standard method of analysis using spectrophotometer. Results: The lowest and highest concentration of methanol were found in rose water (mean=72.4±32.1 ppm and musk willow (mean=278.3±106 ppm samples, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among methanol concentrations in the studied herbal distillates (F=60.9, P <0.001. Discussion: Different amounts of methanol were found in herbal distillates and it seems that there are statistically significant differences in methanol concentrations of various types of herbal distillates. Therefore, considering the harmful effects of methanol on human health, further studies are required for determining permitted levels of methanol in herbal distillates.

  14. Mammalian Herbivores in the Boreal Forests: Their Numerical Fluctuations and Use by Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Danell

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the boreal zone, there are about 50 native mammalian herbivore species that belong to the orders Artiodactyla, Rodentia, and Lagomorpha. Of these species, 31 occur in the Nearctic and 24 in the Palaearctic. Only six species occur in both regions. Species of the family Cervidae have probably been, and still are, the most important group for man, as they provide both meat and hides. Pelts from squirrels, muskrats, and hares were commercially harvested at the beginning of the century, but have less value today. The semi-domestic reindeer in the Palaearctic produces meat and hides on a commercial basis. It is also used for milking, to a limited extent, as is the semi-domestic moose in Russia. The Siberian musk deer is used for its musk and is raised in captivity in China. All species heavier than 1 kg are utilized by man, those with a body mass in the range 1 kg - 1 hg are sometimes used, and species lighter than 1 hg are rarely used. Here, we review the numerical fluctuations in terms of periodicity and amplitude, based on an extensive data set found in the literature, especially from the former Soviet Union. Current understanding of the underlying factors behind the population fluctuations is briefly reviewed. Management and conservation aspects of the mammalian herbivores in the boreal zone are also discussed. We conclude that there is a challenge to manage the forests for the mammalian herbivores, but there is also a challenge to manage the populations of mammalian herbivores for the forests.

  15. Micromammals in the diet of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus at the W.W.F.'s Oasi San Giuliano (Matera, South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cecere

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of small mammals in the winter diet of a dormitory made up of 5 specimens living at the WWF's Oasi San Giuliano (province of Matera is analysed in the following study. The data confirm the presence of small mammals, Microtinae in particular, as a main prey of the Long-eared Owl. 1921 prey-individuals totalling 37695 grams in biomass were found. Rodentia are dominant (86.93% of the biomass; Microtus savii is of particular importance and represents 61.06% of the total biomass and was found in 60.42% of the pellets found. The second most frequently hunted species is the Apodemus sp.: 24.06% of the biomass, 37.08% of the frequency. The other mammals preyed on (Suncus etruscus, Crocidura sp., Pipistrellus sp., Vespertilius sp., Rattus sp., Moscardinus avellanarius are of little importance: 1.27% of the biomass. The owls preyed upon 9 of the 11 species of mammals present (the Talpa sp. and the Mus domesticus are absent. Affinity among different periods, estimated through Sorensen's Index, was found to be medium-high (0.67-0.72. The data analysis confirms the stenophagy of the Long-eared Owl, in this area that is characterised by extensive cereal cultivation and few shrubs and trees. In comparison with other Italian localities, a greater number of preyed species was recorded (8 mammals, 9 birds, 1 insect. Roost owls preyed mainly upon Chiroptera (0.36% compared with 0.1-0.2. Myotis capaccinii and Pipistrellus savii were also found in the diet of the Long-eared Owl for the first time in Italy.

  16. Ecotoxicological suitability of floodplain habitats in The Netherlands for the little owl (Athene noctua vidalli)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, N.W. van den; Groen, N.M.; Jonge, J. de; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs pose a risk to little owls from floodplain habitats. - This study describes the actual risks of exposure to contaminants, which little owls (Athene noctua vidalli) face in Dutch river floodplains. The results indicate that PCBs pose a risk: not only are levels in little owls from floodplains higher than levels found in little owls from a reference site but the PCB patterns in owls from the floodplains also indicate induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by dioxin like compounds, possibly PCBs. Of the heavy metals, only cadmium is thought to pose a risk in certain conditions, for example, when little owls are feeding only on earthworms over a prolonged period of time. The results do not indicate any effects on the occurrence of prey items of the little owl like for instance earthworm, beetles and shrews. Hence, it is not expected that little owls will be affected by diminishing prey availability due to contamination

  17. A morphological basis for orientation tuning in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooser, François; Bosking, William H; Fitzpatrick, David

    2004-08-01

    Feedforward connections are thought to be important in the generation of orientation-selective responses in visual cortex by establishing a bias in the sampling of information from regions of visual space that lie along a neuron's axis of preferred orientation. It remains unclear, however, which structural elements-dendrites or axons-are ultimately responsible for conveying this sampling bias. To explore this question, we have examined the spatial arrangement of feedforward axonal connections that link non-oriented neurons in layer 4 and orientation-selective neurons in layer 2/3 of visual cortex in the tree shrew. Target sites of labeled boutons in layer 2/3 resulting from focal injections of biocytin in layer 4 show an orientation-specific axial bias that is sufficient to confer orientation tuning to layer 2/3 neurons. We conclude that the anisotropic arrangement of axon terminals is the principal source of the orientation bias contributed by feedforward connections.

  18. Reproducibility and convergences in the cyberspace: the diffusion of literary texts in television adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líliam Cristina Marins Prieto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, multimodal circulation of literary texts in television adaptations is outlined, emphasizing their implications in the conceptualization and value judgment in the Arts (particularly in Literature. The technological boom in several social segments and new reading practices in the current information revolution age have influenced the circulation of literature in new forms and intersemiotic medias. By congregating theories about cyberculture and media convergence (Negroponte, Lévy and Jenkins and the analysis of specific cases, such as the adaptation of Shakespeare´s The Taming of the Shrew (1593 in O Cravo e a Rosa (2000, a Brazilian telenovela directed by Walcyr Carrasco and Mário Teixeira, a new cultural context emerges. In this new configuration where television and cyberspace are part of the convergence culture, the media and their users interact. This interaction contributes towards the survival of the literary text and the emergence of new reading practices.

  19. Comparative uptake of uranium, thorium, and plutonium by biota inhabiting a contaminated Tennessee floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Bondietti, E.A.; Walker, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of 238 U, 232 Th, and 239 Pu from soil by fescue, grasshoppers, and small mammals was compared at the contaminated White Oak Creek floodplain in East Tennessee. Comparisons of actinide uptake were based on analyses of radionuclide ratios (U/Pu and Th/Pu) in soil and biota. U:Pu ratios in small mammal carcasses (shrews, mice, and rats) and bone samples from larger mammals (rabbit, woodchuck, opossum, and raccoon) were significantly greater (P less than or equal to 0.05) than U/Pu ratios in soil (based on 8M HNO 3 extractable). There was no significant difference between Th/Pu ratios in animals and soil. The order of actinide accumulation by biota from the site relative to contaminated soil was U > Th approx. = Pu

  20. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  1. SHORT REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, S. H.; Dormion, J.; Hugot, J.-P.; Yanagihara, R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae and Talpidae) has challenged the conventional view that rodents serve as the principal reservoir hosts. Nova virus (NVAV), previously identified in archival liver tissue of a single European mole (Talpa europaea) from Hungary, represents one of the most highly divergent hantaviruses identified to date. To ascertain the spatial distribution and genetic diversity of NVAV, we employed RT–PCR to analyse lungs from 94 moles, captured in two locations in France, during October 2012 to March 2013. NVAV was detected in more than 60% of moles at each location, suggesting efficient enzootic virus transmission and confirming that this mole species serves as the reservoir host. Although the pathogenic potential of NVAV is unknown, the widespread geographical distribution of the European mole might pose a hantavirus exposure risk for humans. PMID:24044372

  2. [An assessment of the status of natural foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Smirnova, S E; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1992-04-01

    The parasitological data and the results of the virological and serological investigations of materials, collected in nature and in the course of study of the immune structure of the population, are indicative of the circulation of CHF virus in the Crimea and the possibility of human infection. Data on spontaneous infection of four species of Ixodes ticks with CHF virus have been confirmed, including the data, obtained for the first time for this region, on the participation of Dermacentor marginatus in this process. The study has revealed, also for the first time, that, together with European brown hares, the natural foci of this infection may be maintained by scilly shrews, common voles and European wood mice. Low activity of the Crimean focus may be the result of active land reclamation, keeping the cattle stalled in most of the stock-breeding farms of the region, as well as a sharp decline in the number of hares at the territories of hunting preserves.

  3. [An evaluation of the status of natural foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Smirnova, S E; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1991-09-01

    Parasitological data, the results of virological and serological investigations of materials, collected in nature and during the study of the immune structure of the population and indicative of the circulation of CCHF, virus in the Crimea and the possibility of human infection, are presented. The data on the spontaneous CCHF virus infection of 4 tick species belonging to the genus Ixodes have been confirmed, and evidence on the participation of Dermacentor marginatus in this process obtained for the first time in this region. The study has revealed for the first time that, besides European brown hares, scilly shrews, common voles and field mice may contribute to the maintenance of the natural foci of this infection. The low activity of the Crimean focus of CCHF may be the result of the intensive use of land, the widely spread stall-feeding of cattle, as well as a sharp decrease in the number of hares on the territories of hunting preserves.

  4. Tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development.

  5. Responses of Mammalian Insectivores, Amphibians, and Reptiles to Broad-Scale Manipulation of Coarse Woody Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCay, T.S.; Forschler, B.T.; Komoroski, M.J.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-03-10

    Sampled shrews at 9.3 ha plots from logs manually removed and control plots in loblolly pine forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Capture rates of Cryptotis parva were lower at plots from which deadwood was removed whereas capture rates of Blarina cavolinensis and Sorex longirostris did not differ between control and removal plots. Cryptotis may have been most sensitive to removal plots due to low population density, hence poor ability to move into areas of low reproduction. (Second Abstract, p. 37)Presentation of evidence that juvenile amphibians including Ambystomatid salamanders may disperse hundreds of meter from their natal wetlands within the weeks to months following metamorphosis. Data indicates Ambystoma trigrinum metamorphs can take at least six months to disperse and en route use non-polar lipid reserves garnished as larvae. Report suggests a land management regime that allows for both juvenile amphibian dispersal and also the consumptive use of the surrounding landscape.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    CAU 568 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 568, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 03-23-17, S-3I Contamination Area • 03-23-19, T-3U Contamination Area • 03-23-20, Otero Contamination Area • 03-23-22, Platypus Contamination Area • 03-23-23, San Juan Contamination Area • 03-23-26, Shrew/Wolverine Contamination Area These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report.

  7. Contribution to the distribution of terrestrial small mammals in the Sǎlaj county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubányi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the research period (2014-2015 287 small mammals, five species of shrews and eight species of rodents (Crocidura leucodon, C. suaveolens, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys anomalus, Microtus agrestis M. arvalis, M. subterraneus, Myodes glareolus. Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis were detected in the Sǎlaj County. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius and the common vole (Microtus arvalis proved to be the characteristic dominant species of the small mammal communities investigated in this area. The number of terrestrial small mammalian species lagged behind our expectations. Micromys minutus was not collected during the research period in the habitats characterized by reed-bed and/or tall sedge vegetation.

  8. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 55 chemicals on six representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, white-footed mouse, cottontail ink, red fox, and whitetail deer) and eight avian wildlife species (American robin, woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, Cooper`s hawk, and redtailed hawk) (scientific names are presented in Appendix C). These species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The benchmarks presented in this report are values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species.

  9. Ecotoxicological suitability of floodplain habitats in The Netherlands for the little owl (Athene noctua vidalli)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, N.W. van den; Groen, N.M.; Jonge, J. de; Bosveld, A.T.C

    2003-03-01

    PCBs pose a risk to little owls from floodplain habitats. - This study describes the actual risks of exposure to contaminants, which little owls (Athene noctua vidalli) face in Dutch river floodplains. The results indicate that PCBs pose a risk: not only are levels in little owls from floodplains higher than levels found in little owls from a reference site but the PCB patterns in owls from the floodplains also indicate induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by dioxin like compounds, possibly PCBs. Of the heavy metals, only cadmium is thought to pose a risk in certain conditions, for example, when little owls are feeding only on earthworms over a prolonged period of time. The results do not indicate any effects on the occurrence of prey items of the little owl like for instance earthworm, beetles and shrews. Hence, it is not expected that little owls will be affected by diminishing prey availability due to contamination.

  10. Emotion and the humors: scoring and classifying major characters from Shakespeare's comedies on the basis of their language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2010-06-01

    The theory of humors, which was the prevalent theory of affect in Shakespeare's day, was used to explain both states (moods, emotions) and traits (personalities). This article reports humoral scores appropriate to the major characters of Shakespeare's comedies. The Dictionary of Affect in Language was used to score all words (N = 180,243) spoken by 105 major characters in 13 comedies in terms of their emotional undertones. These were translated into humoral scores. Translation was possible because emotional undertones, humor, and personality (e.g., Eysenck's model) are defined by various axes in the same two-dimensional space. Humoral scores differed for different types of characters, e.g., Shakespeare's lovers used more Sanguine language and his clowns more Melancholy language than other characters. A study of Kate and Petruchio from The Taming of the Shrew demonstrated state-like changes in humor for characters as the play unfolded.

  11. Mammalian life histories: their evolution and molecular-genetic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Survival curves for various species of mammals are discussed and a table is presented to show recorded maximum life spans of about 30 species of mammals. The range of longevities is from one year for shrews and moles up to more than 80 years for the fin whale. The constitutional correlates of longevity are discussed with regard to body size, brain weight,metabolic rates, and body temperature. It is concluded that longevity evolved as a positive trait, associated with the evolution of large body size and brain size. Life table data for man, the thorough-bred horse, beagle dogs, and the laboratory rodents, Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus are discussed. The data show a pattern of exponential increase of death rate with age. A laboratory model using Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus for the study of the longevity-assurance mechanisms is described. (HLW)

  12. Proliferation of granule cell precursors in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys is diminished by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth; Tanapat, Patima; McEwen, Bruce S.; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Although granule cells continue to be added to the dentate gyrus of adult rats and tree shrews, this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in the dentate gyrus of adult primates. To determine whether neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult primates, adult marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr or 3 weeks later. BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into proliferating cells during S phase. A substantial number of cells in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys incorporated BrdU and ≈80% of these cells had morphological characteristics of granule neurons and expressed a neuronal marker by the 3-week time point. Previous studies suggest that the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult dentate gyrus can be inhibited by stress in rats and tree shrews. To test whether an aversive experience has a similar effect on cell proliferation in the primate brain, adult marmoset monkeys were exposed to a resident-intruder model of stress. After 1 hr in this condition, the intruder monkeys were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr later. The number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of the intruder monkeys was compared with that of unstressed control monkeys. We found that a single exposure to this stressful experience resulted in a significant reduction in the number of these proliferating cells. Our results suggest that neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys and that the rate of precursor cell proliferation can be affected by a stressful experience. PMID:9501234

  13. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  14. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L; Brecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin-negative and calbindin-positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin-positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10-fold over a 20,000-fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conserved size and periodicity of pyramidal patches in layer 2 of medial/caudal entorhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert K.; Ray, Saikat; Prokop, Stefan; Las, Liora; Heppner, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis. In rodents, which show sustained theta oscillations in entorhinal cortex, cholinergic innervation targeted calbindin patches. In bats and humans, which only show intermittent entorhinal theta activity, cholinergic innervation avoided calbindin patches. The organization of calbindin‐negative and calbindin‐positive cells showed marked differences in entorhinal subregions of the human brain. Layer 2 of the rodent medial and the human caudal entorhinal cortex were structurally similar in that in both species patches of calbindin‐positive pyramidal cells were superimposed on scattered stellate cells. The number of calbindin‐positive neurons in a patch increased from ∼80 in Etruscan shrews to ∼800 in humans, only an ∼10‐fold over a 20,000‐fold difference in brain size. The relatively constant size of calbindin patches differs from cortical modules such as barrels, which scale with brain size. Thus, selective pressure appears to conserve the distribution of stellate and pyramidal cells, periodic arrangement of calbindin patches, and relatively constant neuron number in calbindin patches in medial/caudal entorhinal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:783–806, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26223342

  16. The prey composition of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba with respect to landscape structure of its hunting area (Zala County, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szép Dávid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prey composition of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba can be monitored indirectly by pellet analysis and we used this method to investigate less known small mammal species of Zala County. The number and abundance of small mammal species depend on the structure of the landscape of Barn Owls’ hunting area, therefore we analysed landscape features in the surrounding circles with 2 km radius around the sampling sites. In 2016 we collected 1106 pellets from 13 sampling localities. From the pellets we identified 21 species of 3022 individuals of small mammals (more than 98% of prey. Among the 21 species there was the rare Parti-colured Bat (Vespertilio murinus and a new species for the county the Steppe Mouse (Mus spicilegus. Positive correlation was found between the diversity of the small mammal fauna of each sampling site and the landscape complexity (number of the landscape patches of the Barn Owl hunting area. Relative abundance of the Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus showed positive correlation with the number of landscape patches, while the abundance of the Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens, the Miller’s Water Shrew (Neomys anomalus, the Striped Field Mouse (Apodemus agrarius and the Harvest Mouse (Micromys minutus was higher in hunting areas with more homogenous landscapes. Significant correlations were found between the relative abundance of some small mammal species and the landscape structure of the potential hunting area of owls that confirmed the consistency in habitat preference of some species. Our results proved that the prey-composition of Barn Owls reflects the land use through the distribution and abundance of small mammal species, therefore this method is suitable for ecological analyses of landscape.

  17. Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enders Allen C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the number of tissues separating maternal from fetal blood, placentas are classified as epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial or hemochorial. We review the occurrence of these placental types in the various orders of eutherian mammals within the framework of the four superorders identified by the techniques of molecular phylogenetics. The superorder Afrotheria diversified in ancient Africa and its living representatives include elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvark, elephant shrews and tenrecs. Xenarthra, comprising armadillos, anteaters and sloths, diversified in South America. All placentas examined from members of these two oldest superorders are either endotheliochorial or hemochorial. The superorder Euarchontoglires includes two sister groups, Glires and Euarchonta. The former comprises rodents and lagomorphs, which typically have hemochorial placentas. The most primitive members of Euarchonta, the tree shrews, have endotheliochorial placentation. Flying lemurs and all higher primates have hemochorial placentas. However, the lemurs and lorises are exceptional among primates in having epitheliochorial placentation. Laurasiatheria, the last superorder to arise, includes several orders with epitheliochorial placentation. These comprise whales, camels, pigs, ruminants, horses and pangolins. In contrast, nearly all carnivores have endotheliochorial placentation, whilst bats have endotheliochorial or hemochorial placentas. Also included in Laurasiatheria are a number of insectivores that have many conserved morphological characters; none of these has epitheliochorial placentation. Consideration of placental type in relation to the findings of molecular phylogenetics suggests that the likely path of evolution in Afrotheria was from endotheliochorial to hemochorial placentation. This is also a likely scenario for Xenarthra and the bats. We argue that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it

  18. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E. [New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  19. Closed substance cycle and substance cycling management: Compilation and evaluation of data for the assessment of priority organic contaminants in secondary raw-material fertilisers (slightly polluted sewage sludge from rural areas and compost) and organic farm fertilisers (liquid manure and slurry) for a risk assessment; Kreislaufwirtschaft - Stoffstrommanagement: Ermittlung und Auswertung von Daten zur Beurteilung prioritaerer organischer Schadstoffe in Abfallduengern (niedrig belastete Klaerschlaemme aus laendlichen Regionen und Kompost) sowie in organischen Wirtschaftsduengern (Guelle und Jauche) fuer eine Risikobewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, A.; Klein, M.

    2003-07-31

    In the scope of the presently discussed closed substance cycle management and the resulting substance cycling management the agricultural use of animal wastes, sewage sludges and composts as fertilisers and soil improvers, respectively, plays an important role. The aim of the present project was the scientific preparation of deliberations aiming to find out which concentrations of selected contaminants occurring in secondary raw-material fertilisers (sewage sludge and compost) and farm fertilisers can still be tolerated, which do not have harmful effects on the environment. Information on the occurrence in sewage sludges and soils and their effects on soil organisms were compiled and evaluated for the following substances: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), nonylphenol (NP), tributyltin (TBT), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEPH) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In addition, respective data were searched for polyacrylamide (PAM), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic musk compounds. The impact of composts by organic contaminants was described giving examples for diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concerning the farm fertiliser slurry, information about organic pollutants stemming from cleaning agents or disinfectants, NP, LAS and quartenary ammonium compounds were collected. LAS, NP, TBT and DEHP were detected in most of the sewage sludge samples. DBP occurred less frequently and in lower concentrations than DEHP. Single exceedings of the respective limit-values of the 3{sup rd} Draft of the EU-Sewage Sludge Directive (LAS, NP, DEHP) or other expert groups (BaP) were observed. In compliance with the respective regulations, there seems to be no risk potential for terrestrial organisms. To derive reliable environmental standards for TBT, there is a need for more data. In compost, content of organic contaminants is generally dependent on impurities. Compost made of &apos

  20. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is