WorldWideScience

Sample records for music performance p66

  1. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  2. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  3. On the Performance of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kure

    2007-12-01

    At the level of performance, Kivy’s critique of the representative method of understanding absolute music is confirmed, because such an understanding can lead to the neglect of esthetic criteria in the interpretation of music. This article defends the viewpoint that the performance of a musical work is not something that is destructive to the understanding and preservation of a musical work, but something that is authentically musical.

  4. Music in Kamigata Rakugo Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rakugo is the Japanese tradition of staged comic storytelling presented by highly trained hanashika storytellers associated with small urban variety theatres called yose, found in the Kamigata and Edo regions. Although yose theatres are associated with spoken rather than musical events, music is an integral component of Kamigata rakugo performance. It is central both to the rendering of a storyteller’s performance and to creating the overall atmosphere in the yose theatre. This paper addresses the lack of detailed research on music in Kamigata rakugo performance, particularly in English. It demonstrates and documents the centrality of music in Kamigata rakugo performance, specifically the way that this music, which is rich in symbolism, aids a storyteller’s performance and is intrinsically bound up in the hierarchical structure of the storytellers and yose-bayashi ensemble musicians. It focuses on how the music functions in the performances, transmitting meanings and supporting the social structure of the ensemble.

  5. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  6. On music performance, theories, measurement en diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.; Honing, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of musical performances is of interest to studies in musicology, music psychology and music performance practice, but in general it has not been considered the main issue: when analyzing Western classical music, these disciplines usually focus on the score rather than the performance.

  7. Modeling vibrato and portamento in music performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.W.M.; Honing, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Research in the psychology of music dealing with expression is often concerned with the discrete aspects of music performance, and mainly concentrates on the study of piano music (partly because of the ease with which piano music can be reduced to discrete note events). However, on other

  8. The P66Shc/Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Pathway Determines Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Savino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis play a crucial role in neurodegenerative disease and aging. Both mitochondrial permeability transition (PT and swelling of mitochondria have been involved in neurodegeneration. Indeed, knockout mice for cyclophilin-D (Cyc-D, a key regulatory component of the PT pore (PTP that triggers mitochondrial swelling, resulted to be protected in preclinical models of multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. However, how neuronal stress is transduced into mitochondrial oxidative stress and swelling is unclear. Recently, the aging determinant p66Shc that generates H2O2 reacting with cytochrome c and induces oxidation of PTP and mitochondrial swelling was found to be involved in MS and ALS. To investigate the role of p66Shc/PTP pathway in neurodegeneration, we performed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE experiments in p66Shc knockout mice (p66Shc−/−, knock out mice for cyclophilin-D (Cyc-D−/−, and p66Shc Cyc-D double knock out (p66Shc/Cyc-D−/− mice. Results confirm that deletion of p66Shc protects from EAE without affecting immune response, whereas it is not epistatic to the Cyc-D mutation. These findings demonstrate that p66Shc contributes to EAE induced neuronal damage most likely through the opening of PTP suggesting that p66Shc/PTP pathway transduces neurodegenerative stresses.

  9. Gender and the performance of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond C Sergeant

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. If such propositions are substantive, gendered qualities might be imparted to the musical ‘message’ at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or superimposed in the course of listener perceptions. Four research hypotheses are identified and relevant literature of music behaviours and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the four hypotheses: i two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, ii four ‘music characteristics’ scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically trained listeners heard the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that if gendering of music is a reality, the properties are imposed subjectively by the perceiver, and the respective qualities appear to be primarily related to the tempo of the music.

  10. Healthy Behaviours in Music and Non-Music Performance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsborg, Jane; Kreutz, Gunter; Thomas, Mike; Williamon, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the self-reported health-promoting behaviours of music and non-music performance students in higher education. It also seeks to determine the extent to which perceived health and self-reported symptoms are associated with lifestyle, emotional affect state, self-regulation and self-efficacy.…

  11. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eLotze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Training difficult passages repeatedly has the potential to induce fatigue in tendons and muscles and can ultimately result in the development of dystonia. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are travelling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. Furthermore, slight co-movement, for instance of the fingers, usually occurs when imagining musical performance, a situation different to the laboratory condition where movement execution is strictly controlled. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.

  12. Gender and the performance of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Desmond C.; Himonides, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical “message,” gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at these three stages. Three research hypotheses were identified and relevant literature of music behaviors and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the three hypotheses: (i) two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, (ii) four “music characteristics” scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically-trained listeners listened to the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that gendered properties are imposed subjectively by the listener, and these are primarily related to the tempo of the music. PMID:24795663

  13. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are traveling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory, or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.

  14. Musical Performance and the Changing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . At the same time, new music cultures have emerged, and music has become a driver for cultural events and festivals, channeling the dynamics of a society characterized by the social change, media intensity, and the neoliberal forces of post-industrial urban contexts. The volume brings together scholars from......A contribution to the field of urban music studies, this book presents new interdisciplinary approaches to the study of music in urban social life. It takes musical performance as its key focus, exploring how and why different kinds of performance are evolving in contemporary cities...... in the interaction among social groups, commercial entrepreneurs, and institutions. From conventional concerts in rock clubs to new genres such as the flash mob, the forms and meanings of musical performance are deeply affected by urban social change and at the same time respond to the changing conditions. Music has...

  15. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  16. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  17. EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON WORK PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUSIC , *HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING), (*ATTENTION, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), REFLEXES, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), QUESTIONNAIRES, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES

  18. Music Performance Anxiety among Students of the Academy in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliaukiene, Vilma; Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Eimontas, Jonas; Skeryte-Kazlauskiene, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) affects amateurs, students and professional musicians. We aimed to analyse MPA among students of music performance in a higher education academy in Lithuania. A sample of 258 music performance arts students of the Lithuanian Music and Theatre Academy participated in this study. The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety…

  19. Background music: effects on attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Hsin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that noise may affect worker attention. However, some background music in the work environment can increase worker satisfaction and productivity. This study compared how music with, and without, lyrics affects human attention. One hundred and two participants, aged 20-24 years, were recruited into this study. Fifty-six males and 46 females participated in this study. Background music with, and without lyrics, was tested for effects on listener concentration in attention testing using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. The comparison results revealed that background music with lyrics had significant negative effects on concentration and attention. The findings suggest that, if background music is played in the work environment, music without lyrics is preferable because songs with lyrics are likely to reduce worker attention and performance.

  20. Different types of asynchronous music and effects on performance of basketball foul shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, G; Leith, L M

    2001-12-01

    48 undergraduate women performed basketball foul shots with and without background music. Slow music, fast music, and music personally selected by subjects did not significantly affect shooting performance.

  1. The Interpretive Shaping of Music Performance Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rink

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In their study of nine pianists Buck, MacRitchie and Bailey observe a universal embodiment of phrasing structure and other higher-level structural features of the music, the physical makeup of which is nevertheless particular to both the individual performers and the pieces they are performing. Such a conclusion invites renewed consideration of assumptions in the literature on musical performance about the nature and role of structure and about performers' 'interpretations' thereof. The findings also raise interesting questions about the musical viability of empirical research on performance and its capacity to shed light on how performers shape the music they play, their motivations in doing so, and how those listening to them might in turn be affected by this.

  2. Expressiveness in musical performance: Pedagogic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Natalija R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our research relates to pedagogic aspects of expressive vocal-instrumental musical performance. We intended to examine: (1 how undergraduate students see/conceptualize and evaluate expressiveness in musical performance; (2 whether and how they were trained in the skill of expressive musical performance during their musical training; (3 whether and in which way they rehearse the expressive component of musical performance and interpretation and (4 whether there are any differences regarding gender, age, instrument, department, year of study and years of instrument playing in relation to the group of dependant variables related to expressiveness, tuition and practice. The sample for the research included 82 students of instrumental and theory departments at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade. Psychological and pedagogical aspects of musical expressiveness during vocal-instrumental performance were analyzed. The results show that students highly evaluate expressiveness but its place is secondary compared to mastering technical and tonal requirements. Statistically significant differences were shown regarding gender, age and departments. It can be concluded that there is a potential for the development and enhancement of expressiveness of students if we abandon the traditional view that expressiveness is linked exclusively to talent. The findings indicate that pedagogical work should be directed towards finding purposeful strategies for training individual expressiveness.

  3. Effect of music tempo on task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, C; Moss, S

    1989-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of music tempo on task performance. In Study 1, 44 undergraduate business students were asked to be "workers" in a stock market project by collecting closing stock prices and calculating the percentage of change in the price from week to week. Subjects were randomly divided into groups such that they either listened to fast-paced music while they worked, to slow-paced music, or to no music. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on both the quantity and quality of the subjects' work, using music listening habits as a covariate. There were no differences in either the quantity or quality of the work produced by the groups. There were some methodological concerns regarding Study 1, so a second study was conducted. The 70 undergraduate business students in Study 2 completed the same task under the same music conditions as in Study 1. Analyses of variance indicated women performed significantly better than men, performance was significantly higher in the rock condition than in the heartbeat condition, and subjects in the rock condition had a significantly higher perceived level of distraction by the music.

  4. The Empirical Testing of a Musical Performance Assessment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of aurally perceived performer-controlled musical factors that influence assessments of performance quality. Previous research studies on musical performance constructs, musical achievement, musical expression, and scale construction were examined to identify the factors that influence…

  5. Effects of Koto Performance Seminar on Music Teacher Training

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 真; 平山, 裕基

    2017-01-01

    Music teachers need to have wide range of knowledge and teaching skills. This includes knowledge of world music such as Japanese traditional music, methods of instruction and performance skill. The department of Music Culture Education in Hiroshima University provides a variety of lectures and seminars on Japanese traditional music as a part of music teacher training, of which playing the koto (a long Japanese zither with 13 strings) is especially stressed as a continuous learning opportunity...

  6. Gender and the performance of music

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond C Sergeant; Evangelos eHimonides

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical “message,” gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at...

  7. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  8. EFFECTS OF MUSIC INTERVENTIONS ON EMOTIONAL STATES AND RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65 who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2 to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running

  9. p66Shc Aging Protein in Control of Fibroblasts Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz R. Wieckowski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are wieldy accepted as one of the main factors of the aging process. These highly reactive compounds modify nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and affect the functionality of mitochondria in the first case and ultimately of the cell. Any agent or genetic modification that affects ROS production and detoxification can be expected to influence longevity. On the other hand, genetic manipulations leading to increased longevity can be expected to involve cellular changes that affect ROS metabolism. The 66-kDa isoform of the growth factor adaptor Shc (p66Shc has been recognized as a relevant factor to the oxygen radical theory of aging. The most recent data indicate that p66Shc protein regulates life span in mammals and its phosphorylation on serine 36 is important for the initiation of cell death upon oxidative stress. Moreover, there is strong evidence that apart from aging, p66Shc may be implicated in many oxidative stress-associated pathologies, such as diabetes, mitochondrial and neurodegenerative disorders and tumorigenesis. This article summarizes recent knowledge about the role of p66Shc in aging and senescence and how this protein can influence ROS production and detoxification, focusing on studies performed on skin and skin fibroblasts.

  10. A Rediscovered Alliance: Can New Music Performance Teaching Policy Save Music Education? A New Framework for the Music Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Music education in K-12 school programs may continue to lose ground to other subjects unless music education and performance studies are viewed as interdependent. The author argues that the reinvigoration of both music education and performance requires that the studio experience integrate a research-based pedagogy, multi-stylistic range of…

  11. Music experience influences laparoscopic skills performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Tanner; Jung, Inkyung; Van Sickle, Kent; Schwesinger, Wayne; Michalek, Joel; Bingener, Juliane

    2008-01-01

    Music education affects the mathematical and visuo-spatial skills of school-age children. Visuo-spatial abilities have a significant effect on laparoscopic suturing performance. We hypothesize that prior music experience influences the performance of laparoscopic suturing tasks. Thirty novices observed a laparoscopic suturing task video. Each performed 3 timed suturing task trials. Demographics were recorded. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used to examine the effects of prior music experience on suturing task time. Twelve women and 18 men completed the tasks. When adjusted for video game experience, participants who currently played an instrument performed significantly faster than those who did not (PMen who had never played an instrument or were currently playing an instrument performed better than women in the same group (P=0.002 and P<0.001). There was no sex difference in the performance of participants who had played an instrument in the past (P=0.29). This study attempted to investigate the effect of music experience on the laparoscopic suturing abilities of surgical novices. The visuo-spatial abilities used in laparoscopic suturing may be enhanced in those involved in playing an instrument.

  12. Effects of music interventions on emotional States and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Davis, Paul A; Devonport, Tracey J

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key pointsListening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance.Beliefs on the

  13. A Case Study of Teaching Musical Expression to Young Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Brenda; Strand, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean to teach musical expression to child performers? Is it teaching how to interpret a piece of music "correctly," or is there more involved? In this case study, we explored the beliefs and practices of five teachers who specialized in teaching children to perform in a variety of musical performance areas, including violin,…

  14. Potential therapeutic gain from using p(66)/Be neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabbert, J.P.; Jones, D.T.L.; Theron, C.; Serafin, A.; Bohm, L.; Schmitt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron therapy will be beneficial to patients with tumor types which are resistant to photons but relatively sensitive to high-LET radiation. In this work 15 different cell types, mostly of human tumor decent, were exposed in vitro to 60 Co γ-rays and p(66)/Be neutrons. Micronuclei frequencies in bi-nucleated cells and surviving fractions were determined for each cell type. Following exposure to either 1 or 1.5 Gy neutrons, micronuclei frequencies were significantly correlated with that observed from 2 Gy photons. A strong correlation between mean inactivation doses determined for these radiation modalities from survival curve inactivation parameters, was also noted. In spite of this a significant correlation between the variation in neutron RBE values and photon resistance was established. It is concluded that although neutron and photo sensitivities are related in the group of cell types studies, the use of this high energy neutron source may constitute a potential therapeutic gain for some tumor types. (authors)

  15. Hyperventilation complaints in music performance anxiety among classical music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina; Danuser, Brigitta; Hildebrandt, Horst; Arial, Marc; Gomez, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of respiration and hyperventilation in anxiety disorders, research on breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation is rare in the field of music performance anxiety (MPA, also known as stage fright). The only comparable study in this area reported a positive correlation between negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints during performance. The goals of this study were (a) to extend these previous findings to the period before performance, (b) to test whether a positive correlation also exists between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem, (c) to investigate instrument-specific symptom reporting, and (d) to confirm gender differences in negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints reported in other studies. We assessed 169 university students of classical music with a questionnaire comprising: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for negative feelings of MPA, the Nijmegen Questionnaire for hyperventilation complaints, and a single item for the experience of stage fright as a problem. We found a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA before performance and a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem. Wind musicians/singers reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms than other musicians. Furthermore, women scored significantly higher on hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA. These results further the findings of previous reports by suggesting that breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation may play a role in MPA prior to going on stage. Experimental studies are needed to confirm whether hyperventilation complaints associated with negative feelings of MPA manifest themselves at the physiological level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Let the music play the feelings: the performative effect of advertising music

    OpenAIRE

    Alaminos, Antonio; Santacreu, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Throughout history, the ability of music in order to influence people has been considered. In fact, music is a very important expressive way not ignored by sociology (Weber, Marx, Adorno...). On the other hand, the persuasive ability of music, as a basis of attraction and attention, causes that it is considered as an important and performative element of the advertising manifest.

  17. Computational modelling of expressive music performance in hexaphonic guitar

    OpenAIRE

    Siquier, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Computational modelling of expressive music performance has been widely studied in the past. While previous work in this area has been mainly focused on classical piano music, there has been very little work on guitar music, and such work has focused on monophonic guitar playing. In this work, we present a machine learning approach to automatically generate expressive performances from non expressive music scores for polyphonic guitar. We treated guitar as an hexaphonic instrument, obtaining ...

  18. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Barbar, Ana E.; Crippa, José A.; Osório, Flávia L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. Method: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. ...

  19. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar, Ana E; Crippa, José A; Osório, Flávia L

    2014-09-01

    To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Subjects with social anxiety indicators exhibited higher mean total K-MPAI scores, as well as higher individual scores on 62% of its items. The area under the ROC curve was 0.734 (p = 0.001), and considered appropriate. Within the possible cutoff scores presented, the score -15 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity values. However, the score -7 had greater specificity and accuracy. The K-MPAI showed appropriate discriminant validity, with a marked association between music performance anxiety and social anxiety. The cutoff scores presented in the study have both clinical and research value, allowing screening for music performance anxiety and identification of possible cases.

  20. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E. Barbar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI, in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. Method: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Results: Subjects with social anxiety indicators exhibited higher mean total K-MPAI scores, as well as higher individual scores on 62% of its items. The area under the ROC curve was 0.734 (p = 0.001, and considered appropriate. Within the possible cutoff scores presented, the score -15 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity values. However, the score -7 had greater specificity and accuracy. Conclusion: The K-MPAI showed appropriate discriminant validity, with a marked association between music performance anxiety and social anxiety. The cutoff scores presented in the study have both clinical and research value, allowing screening for music performance anxiety and identification of possible cases.

  1. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sona Matloubi; Ali Mohammadzadeh; Zahra Jafari; Alireza Akbarzade Baghban

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female) with normal hearing, aged betw...

  2. Considerações sobre a aprendizagem da performance musical Considerations about music performance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lemos Cerqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo oferece uma proposta para fundamentação da prática musical de instrumentos e canto, enfatizando procedimentos de estudo, baseando-se principalmente na Teoria da Aprendizagem Pianística de José Alberto Kaplan. Paralelamente, foi realizada uma breve releitura crítica da história do ensino de instrumentos musicais e métodos para educação musical, em diálogo com áreas afins à Performance Musical, entre elas Psicologia Cognitiva, Neurociência e Educação Física.The present work offers a systematized proposal for the practice of musical instruments and singing, emphasizing study procedures. The main basis for this work is the Pianistic Learning Theory (Teoria da Aprendizagem Pianística by Brazilian pedagogue José Alberto Kaplan. There is also a brief critical overview of the history of musical instrument learning and music education methods, dialoguing with areas such as Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience and Physical Education.

  3. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Music performance anxiety in young musicians: comparison of playing classical or popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark; Spahn, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) is an issue frequently experienced by musicians. It occurs not only in experienced musicians but also in children and adolescents. Furthermore, most research on MPA has been done with musicians who specialized in classical music. This study investigated the development of MPA across the ages in young musicians focusing on the classical and popular genres. In a cross-sectional survey, 239 students at German music schools, aged between 7 and 20 yrs, were asked about their perceived MPA and musical background. The data were analyzed according to musical genre and age. Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the influences of musical experiences on MPA. The analyses yielded high levels of MPA for classical musicians between 7 and 16 yrs, which was reduced in older students; for popular musicians, low MPA was seen in the younger (7-11 yrs) and high MPA in the older (16+ yrs) musicians. MPA was influenced by gender and the number of performances in the classical music group and only by gender and age in the popular music group. The results showed clear different trends for the development of MPA between musical genres that should be taken into account for educational aspects in musical training.

  5. Music teaching as a profession. On professionalism and securing the quality of music teaching in Norwegian municipal schools of music and performing arts

    OpenAIRE

    Jordhus-Lier, Anne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to reflect on whether and how music teaching can be understood as a profession, by looking into general traits of professions and seeing how they relate to music teaching. The discussion is centred on music teachers in the Norwegian municipal school of music and performing arts (MSMPA). For that reason, this article includes a section on the conditions of music teaching in Norway, as well as a discussion of music teachers’ professional identity. That is ...

  6. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Matloubi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003 and the null music condition (p=0.01. The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.

  7. Treatment and prevention of music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) regularly occurs when musicians present themselves before an audience in performance situations, and thus, it plays an important role in the careers of professional musicians. MPA is expressed on the emotional and physical level, as well as on the levels of thinking and behavior, and extends along a continuum of varying severity. Its performance-impairing, afflicting form is considered to be a specific type of social phobia, which requires therapy. There are different psychological theories, which contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of MPA and provide basic principles for the various treatment approaches. Current "best practice," in our clinical experience, is a personal- and problem-oriented approach within a multimodal therapy model, including the range of psychoanalytic and cognitive behavioral therapies, body-oriented methods, and mental techniques. In order to avoid severe MPA, prevention in the field of music pedagogic is very important. Thus, the concepts of dealing positively with MPA should be implemented very early into the instrumental and vocal education of musicians. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of music elevates pain threshold and positive affect: implications for the evolutionary function of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R I M; Kaskatis, Kostas; MacDonald, Ian; Barra, Vinnie

    2012-10-22

    It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance) in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative) affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making.

  9. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Design and Methods: Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face–name pairs. Participants’ memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Results: Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults’ associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults’ failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. Implications: These data have important practical implications for older adults’ ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. PMID:26035876

  10. Performance of Music Elevates Pain Threshold and Positive Affect: Implications for the Evolutionary Function of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I.M. Dunbar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making.

  11. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face-name pairs. Participants' memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults' associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults' failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. These data have important practical implications for older adults' ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. When music flows. State and Trait Flow in musical performance, composition and listening: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eChirico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not unusual to experience a sense of total absorption, concentration, action-awareness, distortion of time and intrinsic enjoyment during an activity that involves music. Indeed, it is noted that there is a special relationship between these two aspects (i.e., music and flow experience. In order to deeply explore flow in the musical domain, it is crucial to consider the complexity of the flow experience—both as a state and as a trait. Secondly, since music is a multifaceted domain, it is necessary to concentrate on specific music settings, such as (i musical composition; (ii listening; and (iii musical performance. To address these issues, the current review aims to outline flow experience as a trait and as a state in the three above-mentioned musical domains. Clear and useful guidelines to distinguish between flow as a state and as a trait are provided by literature concerning flow assessment. For this purpose, three aspects of the selected studies are discussed and analyzed: (i the characteristics of the flow assessments used; (ii the experimental design; (iii the results; and (iv the interrelations between the three domains. Results showed that the dispositional approach is predominant in the above-mentioned settings, mainly regarding music performance. Several aspects concerning musical contexts still need to be deeply analyzed.Future challenges could include the role of a group level of analysis, overcoming a frequency approach towards dispositional flow, and integrating both state and dispositional flow perspectives in order to deepen comprehension of how flow takes place in musical contexts.Finally, to explain the complex relationship between these two phenomena, we suggest that music and flow could be seen as an emergent embodied system.

  13. Attributional Theory in Investigating Public Music Performance in Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider Grings, Ana Francisca; Hentschke, Liane

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the causes attributed by undergraduate music students to situations of failure and success in public music performance. Attributional Theory has been used in this research as the theoretical framework to understand how situations of success and failure are interpreted by the person of the activity.…

  14. THE PERFORMANCE PRACTICE IN AYELE MUSIC AND DANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This paper focuses on Ayele music and dance of the Unuwazi village in Uromi, Esan North East Local Government Area of Edo State. It examines the term Ayele, its tradition of origin, its musical instruments, context of performance and performance practices. So as to be able to elicit data from the field, ...

  15. Physical activity helps to control music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Sérgio F; Marocolo, Moacir; Corrêa, Elisangela N V; Morato, Gledys S G; da Mota, Gustavo R

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated if regular physical activity could influence musical performance anxiety (MPA) in college music students. Levels of MPA, as measured with the Kenny MPA Inventory, and a survey about the physical activity habits were obtained from 87 students of music. The results showed that physically active musicians had lower MPA scores (pindependent of gender. We conclude that there is an association between physical activity and minor MPA, and studies with a longitudinal design should be done to explore this important issue.

  16. Beyond reproduction: Semiotic perspectives on musical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional musicological conception of performance is as the reproduction of pre-existing texts. This makes no allowance for the extent to which meaning emerges from the act of performance, and from the interactions between the various participants in performance events. A broadly semiotic approach focusses attention on such issues, and in this article I illustrate such an approach in terms of the communicative function of the mazurka ‘script’ and the role of performance gesture in conditioning musical meaning. I argue that, instead of thinking in terms of the reproduction of works, it is better to borrow Jeff Pressing’s term and think in terms of performances referencing scores, traditions, and other pre-existing entities: this way it is possible to conceptualise performances that range from the Werktreue ideology or tribute bands to parody or burlesque. Discourses of the relationship between works and performances are mirrored by those between performances and recordings, and consideration of the latter helps to clarify features shared by both: creativity, collaboration, and semiosis.

  17. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  18. A yoga intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judith R S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-09-01

    Music performance anxiety can adversely affect musicians. There is a need for additional treatment strategies, especially those that might be more acceptable to musicians than existing therapies. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 9-week yoga practice on reducing music performance anxiety in undergraduate and graduate music conservatory students, including both vocalists and instrumentalists. The intervention consisted of fourteen 60-minute yoga classes approximately twice a week and a brief daily home practice. Of the 24 students enrolled in the study, 17 attended the post-intervention assessment. Participants who completed the measures at both pre- and post-intervention assessments showed large decreases in music performance anxiety as well as in trait anxiety. Improvements were sustained at 7- to 14-month follow-up. Participants generally provided positive comments about the program and its benefits. This study suggests that yoga is a promising intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students and therefore warrants further research.

  19. Managing the "wow factor" at live music performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Manners

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine what attendees at live music performances regard as critical success factors for different music genres in order to enhance memorable visitor experiences. Surveys were conducted for various genres at live music performances. A total of 4 110 questionnaires were administered. A general profile of the visitors for the different genres was determined whereafter a factor analysis was performed to determine the critical success factors for the genres. An ANOVA was subsequently applied to compare the critical success factors identified in the factor analysis. The results indicated significant statistical differences with regard to what visitors at the different music genres regard as being important for a memorable visitor experience. Determining the differences with regard to the critical success factors contribute towards event specific education and information for current as well as future live music performance managers.

  20. Expert music performance: cognitive, neural, and developmental bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability. We address three main questions. (1) What is expert performance? (2) How do musicians achieve expert-level performance? (3) How does expert performance come about? We address the first question by describing musicians' ability to remember, plan, execute, and monitor their performances in order to perform music accurately and expressively. We address the second question by reviewing evidence for possible cognitive and neural mechanisms that may underlie or contribute to expert music performance, including the integration of sound and movement, feedforward and feedback motor control processes, expectancy, and imagery. We further discuss how neural circuits in auditory, motor, parietal, subcortical, and frontal cortex all contribute to different facets of musical expertise. Finally, we address the third question by reviewing evidence for the heritability of musical expertise and for how expertise develops through training and practice. We end by discussing outlooks for future work. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

  2. Driving with music : Effects on arousal and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, Ayca Berfu; de Waard, Dick; Epstude, Kai; Steg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we aimed at exploring the influence of music on driving performance, arousal and mental effort while carrying out a monotonous car-following task in a low-complexity traffic setting. Participants (N = 47) were randomly assigned to loud and moderate volume music groups, and

  3. The Performance-Pedagogy Paradox in Choral Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Patrick K.

    2011-01-01

    Choral music teachers simultaneously work toward two potentially competing goals: the quality of the musical performance and the quality of the education they provide for students. Is either goal preeminent, or can both exist in an ever-shifting balance? This paper highlights how this conundrum has existed since the emergence of North American…

  4. Music-related reward responses predict episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-12-01

    Music represents a special type of reward involving the recruitment of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. According to recent theories on episodic memory formation, as dopamine strengthens the synaptic potentiation produced by learning, stimuli triggering dopamine release could result in long-term memory improvements. Here, we behaviourally test whether music-related reward responses could modulate episodic memory performance. Thirty participants rated (in terms of arousal, familiarity, emotional valence, and reward) and encoded unfamiliar classical music excerpts. Twenty-four hours later, their episodic memory was tested (old/new recognition and remember/know paradigm). Results revealed an influence of music-related reward responses on memory: excerpts rated as more rewarding were significantly better recognized and remembered. Furthermore, inter-individual differences in the ability to experience musical reward, measured through the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire, positively predicted memory performance. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the relationship between music, reward and memory, showing for the first time that music-driven reward responses are directly implicated in higher cognitive functions and can account for individual differences in memory performance.

  5. The interrelationship between performance anxiety and efficiency of solo music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the influence of performance anxiety on efficiency of solo music performance. Internal (self-contempt, positive self-evaluation and external criteria (musical rewards, successful solo performances, successful auditions of efficiency of solo music performance were taken into consideration. The research was grounded on studies from the field of sports psychology and on the few studies that were carried out in the field of psychology of music. The research was conducted on 94 students of Music Academy, grouped by gender and field of study (instrumentalists, solo vocalists and composers vs. students of music teaching. The symptoms of performance anxiety were measured by a part of the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire, and efficiency of solo music performance by the Efficiency of Music Performance Questionnaire. Both questionnaires were developed for the purpose of the study. The results reveal the interrelationship between the internal criteria of efficiency in solo music performance and performance anxiety. On the other hand, only trends of correlation were established between performance anxiety and the external criteria of solo music performance. The research findings imply the important role of cognition as a mediator between performance anxiety and performance efficiency.

  6. The p66(Shc adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response in early bovine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean H Betts

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of mammalian embryos suffers from high frequencies of developmental failure due to excessive levels of permanent embryo arrest and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. The p66Shc stress adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response of somatic cells by regulating intracellular ROS levels through multiple pathways, including mitochondrial ROS generation and the repression of antioxidant gene expression. We have previously demonstrated a strong relationship with elevated p66Shc levels, reduced antioxidant levels and greater intracellular ROS generation with the high incidence of permanent cell cycle arrest of 2-4 cell embryos cultured under high oxygen tensions or after oxidant treatment. The main objective of this study was to establish a functional role for p66Shc in regulating the oxidative stress response during early embryo development. Using RNA interference in bovine zygotes we show that p66Shc knockdown embryos exhibited increased MnSOD levels, reduced intracellular ROS and DNA damage that resulted in a greater propensity for development to the blastocyst stage. P66Shc knockdown embryos were stress resistant exhibiting significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels, DNA damage, permanent 2-4 cell embryo arrest and diminished apoptosis frequencies after oxidant treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that p66Shc controls the oxidative stress response in early mammalian embryos. Small molecule inhibition of p66Shc may be a viable clinical therapy to increase the developmental potential of in vitro produced mammalian embryos.

  7. Analyzing Musical Self-Esteem and Performance Anxiety Levels of Students Receiving Professional Music Education at Different Institutions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gürsen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to establish which variables cause the interrelations between musical self-esteem and performance-anxiety levels of students receiving professional music education at different institutions to vary. In relation to this framework, "musical self-esteem" and "performance anxiety" scores of students…

  8. Effects of Tempo and Performing Medium on Children's Music Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; Cote, Richard

    1983-01-01

    This study measured the effect of three levels of tempo and two levels of performing medium, vocal and instrumental, on the expressed preference of fifth- and sixth-grade students for traditional jazz music listening examples. (Author/SR)

  9. Sirtuin1-regulated lysine acetylation of p66Shc governs diabetes-induced vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santosh; Kim, Young-Rae; Vikram, Ajit; Naqvi, Asma; Li, Qiuxia; Kassan, Modar; Kumar, Vikas; Bachschmid, Markus M.; Jacobs, Julia S.; Kumar, Ajay; Irani, Kaikobad

    2017-01-01

    Many oxidative stimuli engage the 66-kDa Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (p66Shc) to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS regulated by p66Shc promotes aging and contributes to cancer, diabetes, obesity, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis. Here we identify a fundamental mechanism that controls p66Shc and p66Shc-regulated ROS. We show that p66Shc is lysine acetylated when cells are faced with an oxidative stimulus (diabetes), and lysine acetylation of p66Shc is obligatory for p66...

  10. Interplay between gut microbiota and p66Shc affects obesity-associated insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciliot, Stefano; Albiero, Mattia; Campanaro, Stefano; Poncina, Nicol; Tedesco, Serena; Scattolini, Valentina; Dalla Costa, Francesca; Cignarella, Andrea; Vettore, Monica; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Bogialli, Sara; Avogaro, Angelo; Fadini, Gian Paolo

    2018-02-21

    The 66 kDa isoform of the mammalian Shc gene promotes adipogenesis, and p66Shc -/- mice accumulate less body weight than wild-type (WT) mice. As the metabolic consequences of the leaner phenotype of p66Shc -/- mice is debated, we hypothesized that gut microbiota may be involved. We confirmed that p66Shc -/- mice gained less weight than WT mice when on a high-fat diet (HFD), but they were not protected from insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. p66Shc deletion significantly modified the composition of gut microbiota and their modification after an HFD. This was associated with changes in gene expression of Il-1b and regenerating islet-derived protein 3 γ ( Reg3g) in the gut and in systemic trimethylamine N-oxide and branched chain amino acid levels, despite there being no difference in intestinal structure and permeability. Depleting gut microbiota at the end of HFD rendered both strains more glucose tolerant but improved insulin sensitivity only in p66Shc -/- mice. Microbiota-depleted WT mice cohoused with microbiota-competent p66Shc -/- mice became significantly more insulin resistant than WT mice cohoused with WT mice, despite no difference in weight gain. These findings reconcile previous inconsistent observations on the metabolic phenotype of p66Shc -/- mice and illustrate the complex microbiome-host-genotype interplay under metabolic stress.-Ciciliot, S., Albiero, M., Campanaro, S., Poncina, N., Tedesco, S., Scattolini, V., Dalla Costa, F., Cignarella, A., Vettore, M., Di Gangi, I. M., Bogialli, S., Avogaro, A., Fadini, G. P. Interplay between gut microbiota and p66Shc affects obesity-associated insulin resistance.

  11. Considerações sobre a aprendizagem da performance musical

    OpenAIRE

    Cerqueira,Daniel Lemos; Zorzal,Ricieri Carlini; Ávila,Guilherme Augusto de

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo oferece uma proposta para fundamentação da prática musical de instrumentos e canto, enfatizando procedimentos de estudo, baseando-se principalmente na Teoria da Aprendizagem Pianística de José Alberto Kaplan. Paralelamente, foi realizada uma breve releitura crítica da história do ensino de instrumentos musicais e métodos para educação musical, em diálogo com áreas afins à Performance Musical, entre elas Psicologia Cognitiva, Neurociência e Educação Física.

  12. Assessment of Student Music Performances Using Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashis Pati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance assessment is a highly subjective task often relying on experts to gauge both the technical and aesthetic aspects of the performance from the audio signal. This article explores the task of building computational models for music performance assessment, i.e., analyzing an audio recording of a performance and rating it along several criteria such as musicality, note accuracy, etc. Much of the earlier work in this area has been centered around using hand-crafted features intended to capture relevant aspects of a performance. However, such features are based on our limited understanding of music perception and may not be optimal. In this article, we propose using Deep Neural Networks (DNNs for the task and compare their performance against a baseline model using standard and hand-crafted features. We show that, using input representations at different levels of abstraction, DNNs can outperform the baseline models across all assessment criteria. In addition, we use model analysis techniques to further explain the model predictions in an attempt to gain useful insights into the assessment process. The results demonstrate the potential of using supervised feature learning techniques to better characterize music performances.

  13. Effects of music tempo upon submaximal cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J; Hudson, P; Edwards, B

    2010-08-01

    In an in vivo laboratory controlled study, 12 healthy male students cycled at self-chosen work-rates while listening to a program of six popular music tracks of different tempi. The program lasted about 25 min and was performed on three occasions--unknown to the participants, its tempo was normal, increased by 10% or decreased by 10%. Work done, distance covered and cadence were measured at the end of each track, as were heart rate and subjective measures of exertion, thermal comfort and how much the music was liked. Speeding up the music program increased distance covered/unit time, power and pedal cadence by 2.1%, 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively; slowing the program produced falls of 3.8%, 9.8% and 5.9%. Average heart rate changes were +0.1% (faster program) and -2.2% (slower program). Perceived exertion and how much the music was liked increased (faster program) by 2.4% and 1.3%, respectively, and decreased (slower program) by 3.6% and 35.4%. That is, healthy individuals performing submaximal exercise not only worked harder with faster music but also chose to do so and enjoyed the music more when it was played at a faster tempo. Implications of these findings for improving training regimens are discussed.

  14. Musical theatre: the hazards of the performer's workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennie

    2015-03-01

    Being a musical theatre performer requires excellence in the combined skills of dancing, singing, and acting, and artists undergo rigorous training in these disciplines in order to achieve the professional standards expected by a discerning audience. However, the performer has more to do than just execute the choreography, vocal repertoire, and dialogue--he or she will also be navigating the often highly complex on-stage and off-stage areas which are fraught with hazards. This article seeks to highlight the challenges that lie beyond the visible part of the performance and to raise questions of how best to equip our musical theatre performers to safely negotiate these issues.

  15. Impact of music type on motor coordination task performance among introverted and extroverted students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidzad, Maryam; Maghsoudipour, Maryam; Zakerian, Seyed Abolfazl; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Coh, Paul

    2018-06-26

    People are interested in music. In this study, we assessed the impact of music type on objective performance. We distributed 64 medical science students in Tehran into four groups: Iranian pop music, traditional music, Mozart's classical music and control groups. All participants performed the two-arm coordination test once without music and once with music (except for the control group), with an interval of 1 week. In the music groups, music was playing during the performance of the test. Participants were categorized as either introverted or extroverted and were distributed equally in the groups. There was a significant decrease of test time in the second trial, observed in all music groups, and no significant difference identified in the control group. The traditional music group had less difference of mean time compared to the pop music group. The differences in the traditional and classical groups were not significantly different. In the music groups, both extroverted and introverted students decreased their test time significantly after music intervention, but extroverted students decreased more. Listening to music would enhance the speed of performance. Music with a higher tempo, such as pop music, increased the speed more.

  16. The Effect of Implied Performer Age and Group Membership on Evaluations of Music Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implied performer age and group membership on listeners' evaluations of music performances. Undergraduate music majors (n = 23), nonmusic majors (n = 17), and members of a New Horizons ensemble (n = 16) were presented with six 30-second excerpts of concert band performances. Excerpts were presented to all…

  17. Perspectives on gesture from music informatics, performance and aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer; Frimodt-Møller, Søren; Grund, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This article chronicles the research of the Nordic Network of Music Informatics, Performance and Aesthetics (NNIMIPA), and shows how the milieux bridge the gap between the disciplines involved. As examples, three projects within NNIMIPA involving performance interaction examine the role of audio...... and gestures in emotional musical expression using motion capture, the visual and auditive cues musicians provide each other in an ensemble when rehearsing, and the decision processes involved when a musician coordinates with other musicians. These projects seek to combine and compare intuitions derived from...... low-tech instructional music workshops that rely heavily on the use of whole-body gestures with the insights provided by high-tech studies and formal logic models of the performing musician, not only with respect to the sound, but also with regard to the movements of the performer and the mechanisms...

  18. PERFORMANCE PRACTICE IN AFROBEAT MUSIC OF FELA ANIKULAPO KUTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Oikelome

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fela Anikulapo Kuti, the creator of Afrobeat genre was an accomplished performer in every sense of the word. His creative ingenuity was evident in all the musical and extra-musical exertions that went into the production of Afrobeat This paper therefore examines the   performance practices of Fela Anikulapo Kuti. It  further examines the audience participation in  performence process and the importance of the ‘yabis’ used by Fela in communicating his political ideologies. The instrumental ensemble play a significant role in Fela’s performances. It will discuss the ensembles used in afrobeat performences and how it has helped in interpreting Fela’s African Musical ideologies in concrete terms. In collating relevant data for the study, the interview method was adopted by the researcher. This involved collecting information on Fela’s performance from  former members of his band, as well as a critical analysis of  Several videos of his performances. Ultimately, this paper establishes the concept of Fela’s performance as a total theatre, highlighting the effect of music, dance and visual  effects in his performances.

  19. Performing Theory: Playing in the Music Therapy Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Performative writing is an art form that seeks to enliven our discourse by including the senses as a primary source of information processing. Through performative writing, one is seduced into engaging with the aesthetic. My art is music. My craft is Music Therapy. My theme is performing theory. Listen to the sound and silence of words, phrases, punctuation, syllables, format. My muses? I thank D. Soyini Madison, Ron Pelias, Philip Glass, Elliot Eisner, and Tom Barone for inspiration, and my teachers/Indigenous Elders and knowledge keepers who embraced the long tradition of oral transmission of knowledge and the healing power of sound. Stay, stay in the presence of the aesthetic. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Internal Consistency of Performance Evaluations as a Function of Music Expertise and Excerpt Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music experience and excerpt familiarity on the internal consistency of performance evaluations. Participants included nonmusic majors who had not participated in high school music ensembles, nonmusic majors who had participated in high school music ensembles, music majors, and experts…

  1. Music to My Eyes: Cross-Modal Interactions in the Perception of Emotions in Musical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Bradley W.; Krumhansl, Carol L.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Dalca, Ioana M.; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate non-verbal communication through expressive body movement and musical sound, to reveal higher cognitive processes involved in the integration of emotion from multiple sensory modalities. Participants heard, saw, or both heard and saw recordings of a Stravinsky solo clarinet piece, performed with three distinct expressive styles:…

  2. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  3. EFFECTS OF MUSIC TEACHER CANDIDATES’ ATTITUDES RELATED TO BOOK READING ON PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hasan OKAY; H. Serdar CAKIRER; Zafer KURTASLAN

    2015-01-01

    Music education depends on processing complex applications by considering educational aims because of its nature. Deep and multi dimensional form of music performance requires a detailed teoritical substructure in every disciplines related to music making. Knowing well that teoritical substructure by musicians or music making learners/teachers effects directly deepness of musical cause and quality and so on achievement. These elements requires to be powered on that substructure for who are re...

  4. The Body in Musical Performance: Perceptions, knowledge and beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is part of a process of reflection on the relation, relevance and intervention of the body in the musical performance. Considering that the entire performative process demands a unified participation of the instrument, mind and body, it is necessary to deepen the reflection about the perceptions, knowledge and convictions of the faculty, student and professional in the field of music. Given the complementarity between body and performative dimension, it is fundamental to consider the quality that this relationship assumes in the learning processes. Given the objectives of the study, we opted for a methodological conception that allows the articulation of qualitative and quantitative approaches, fundamental to understand, describe and interpret the different representations / perceptions of the participants. In this way, the questionnaire survey (Questionnaire I and II was directed to the faculty and students of the area of music of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and researchers of the Brazilian Association of Musical Performance. The obtained results show that the differentiated coordination and the body movements assume an essential condition for the musician and his performance.

  5. Music Performance as a Therapy for Managing Stress amongst the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serious breakdown in health of the academics in Nigerian Federal Universities which placed them in chronic dependency on drugs has necessitated this study. The study adopted a descriptive survey approach which ascertained that music performance as therapy would be a vital tool for managing stress amongst the ...

  6. Cognitive Strategies and Skill Acquisition in Musical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Gary E.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a longitudinal study of high school instrumentalists that examined the development of four distinct types of musical performance (playing by ear, playing from memory, sight reading, and improvising) over three years. Reveals a significant improvement in these skills while also demonstrating changes in aural and creative activities. (CMK)

  7. Does expressive timing in music performance scale proportionally with tempo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is presented that expressive timing in music is not relationally invariant with global tempo. Our results stem from an analysis of repeated performances of Beethoven's variations on a Paisiello theme. Recordings were made of two pianists playing the pieces at three tempi. In contrast with

  8. African musical arts creativity and performance: The science of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... arts idioms, ensemble rationalizations and performance norms aim to humanize the individual and bond humanity, and 'the African science of instrument technology' which proves that scientific research informed the design, material and construction of peculiar timbres or sonic vibrancies of indigenous music instruments.

  9. Acoustics and the Performance of Music Manual for Acousticians, Audio Engineers, Musicians, Architects and Musical Instrument Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Acoustics and the Performance of Music connects scientific understandings of acoustics with practical applications to musical performance. Of central importance are the tonal characteristics of musical instruments and the singing voice including detailed representations of directional characteristics. Furthermore, room acoustical concerns related to concert halls and opera houses are considered. Based on this, suggestions are made for musical performance. Included are seating arrangements within the orchestra and adaptations of performance techniques to the performance environment. In the presentation we dispense with complicated mathematical connections and deliberately aim for conceptual explanations accessible to musicians, particularly for conductors. The graphical representations of the directional dependence of sound radiation by musical instruments and the singing voice are unique. Since the first edition was published in 1978, this book has been completely revised and rewritten to include current rese...

  10. The effect of virtual audiences on music performance anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Castle-Green, Teresa Anne

    2015-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is experienced by a large number of musicians throughout their careers. In many cases this anxiety can have debilitating consequences for the performer preventing them from delivering a performance to the standard they are capable of. Very little research has been conducted within the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) into the ways in which technology can assist musicians with learning to manage their MPA. This paper builds on the limited body of resear...

  11. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  12. Biologically-Inspired Control Architecture for Musical Performance Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Solis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At Waseda University, since 1990, the authors have been developing anthropomorphic musical performance robots as a means for understanding human control, introducing novel ways of interaction between musical partners and robots, and proposing applications for humanoid robots. In this paper, the design of a biologically-inspired control architecture for both an anthropomorphic flutist robot and a saxophone playing robot are described. As for the flutist robot, the authors have focused on implementing an auditory feedback system to improve the calibration procedure for the robot in order to play all the notes correctly during a performance. In particular, the proposed auditory feedback system is composed of three main modules: an Expressive Music Generator, a Feed Forward Air Pressure Control System and a Pitch Evaluation System. As for the saxophone-playing robot, a pressure-pitch controller (based on the feedback error learning to improve the sound produced by the robot during a musical performance was proposed and implemented. In both cases studied, a set of experiments are described to verify the improvements achieved while considering biologically-inspired control approaches.

  13. When music “flows”. State and trait in musical performance, composition and listening: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Alice; Serino, Silvia; Cipresso, Pietro; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    It is not unusual to experience a sense of total absorption, concentration, action-awareness, distortion of time and intrinsic enjoyment during an activity that involves music. Indeed, it is noted that there is a special relationship between these two aspects (i.e., music and flow experience). In order to deeply explore flow in the musical domain, it is crucial to consider the complexity of the flow experience—both as a “state” and as a “trait.” Secondly, since music is a multifaceted domain, it is necessary to concentrate on specific music settings, such as (i) musical composition; (ii) listening; and (iii) musical performance. To address these issues, the current review aims to outline flow experience as a “trait” and as a “state” in the three above-mentioned musical domains. Clear and useful guidelines to distinguish between flow as a “state” and as a “trait” are provided by literature concerning flow assessment. For this purpose, three aspects of the selected studies are discussed and analyzed: (i) the characteristics of the flow assessments used; (ii) the experimental design; (iii) the results; and (iv) the interrelations between the three domains. Results showed that the dispositional approach is predominant in the above-mentioned settings, mainly regarding music performance. Several aspects concerning musical contexts still need to be deeply analyzed. Future challenges could include the role of a group level of analysis, overcoming a frequency approach toward dispositional flow, and integrating both state and dispositional flow perspectives in order to deepen comprehension of how flow takes place in musical contexts. Finally, to explain the complex relationship between these two phenomena, we suggest that music and flow could be seen as an emergent embodied system. PMID:26175709

  14. Criteria of ‘authenticity’ in traditional Georgian musical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabisonia Tamaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today we often use term ‘authentic’ in relation to different appearances of Georgian folk music. Along with the unambiguous meaning ‘real’ this term also has other meanings: ‘ethnic’, ‘rural’, ‘old’, ‘function of usual environment’, ‘traditional-stylistic’, ‘authoritative’, or ‘reproductive’. In spite of some interconnections that arise from the term ‘authentic’ and its other meanings, the most relevant way to apply this popular term for performers and audiences of ‘real folklore’ is traditionality. This factor is manifested in the following contexts: a performer (receiver and distributor of tradition, unobtrusively and orally, b motivation/function (representative and spontaneous function, hereditary, utilitarian and aesthetic-daily motivation, c repertoire (compliance of musical and verbal text’s sample with its social function, eluding canonized versions, d expression (adequate articulation, performing regulation which is not determined by the stage, traditional instrument etc.. The problem of authenticity is more successfully regulated in traditional Georgian church music than in folk music. For the latter, in this regard the special difficulty is caused by identification of modern trends that contain folk motifs. The most popular among them is distinctive, with its stylistic reminiscent layer from the Eastern Georgian Mountains, which we refer as ‘para-folkore’. Notwithstanding the fact that Georgian folklore is not centrally authorized, modernization of folklore samples and also those manifestations of post-folklore that are further away from the traditional motifs attract a wide range of listeners. Essentially, the meaning of ‘authentic’ in the Georgian ethno-musical context is presented as performance of the traditional rural repertoire with traditional articulation. However, we think that it is convenient for the criteria of traditional, usual environment to be added to this

  15. Teaching performance in performative arts. Video conference in higher music education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin

    in a virtual room put apart in physical room (what we identify as the third room). The music teacher must find new ways of facilitating the performative aspects of practising music. A teaching practice of narration, metaphors and dramatization appears to be an effective mode of helping the student to play......Teaching performance in performative arts – video conference on the highest level of music education Mie Buhl, Rikke Ørngreen, Karin Levinsen Aalborg University, KILD – Communication, it and learning design & ILD – It and Learning Design Video Conferencing (VC) is becoming an increasing teaching......-learning relations take place are performed in new ways. When the performing art of music is taught on a distance, the phenomenon of performativity also materializes in new ways: in the dialogue between teachers and learners; due to the technical possibilities; as well as in the separation of being together...

  16. Music in the Gurus' View: Sikh Religious Music, Memory, and the Performance of Sikhism in America

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Charles Michael

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic and historical study of transnational Sikhism through the lens of Gurbani kirtan, the living Sikh tradition and central religious practice of musically performing the hymns of the Guru Granth Sahib (the central Sikh scripture). It traces the history of Gurbani kirtan from the time of Guru Nanak (1469-1539, the first Guru of Sikhism) through its major developments and current practice in south Asia, and its role in the transference of Sikhism around the wor...

  17. Practice is performance: a study of the musical development of popular music undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Esslin-Peard, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written in the last 30 years about musical practice and performance, but there is little consensus over what practice really means, or how musicians progress by practising. Whilst academics historically focused primarily on the experiences of Western classical musicians and on individual learning in the conservatoire, more recent research has been devoted to popular, jazz and folk musicians. Informal behaviours, such as aural learning, self-teaching and jamming out in the band a...

  18. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea R

    2017-05-01

    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organisation of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. Our study compared performance during dual task execution in expert musicians compared to controls with little if any musical experience. Participants performed a music recognition task and a visuo-spatial task separately (single task) or simultaneously (dual task). Both groups showed a significant but similar performance decline during dual tasks. In addition, the two groups showed a similar decline of dual task performance during encoding and retrieval of the musical information, mainly attributed to a decline in sensitivity. Our results suggest that attention during dual tasks is similarly distributed by expert and non-experts. These findings are in line with previous studies showing a lack of sensitivity to difficulty and lack of practice effect during dual tasks, supporting the idea that different tasks may rely on different and not-sharable attentional resources.

  19. Managing a live music performance: A supply-side analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Manners

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objective: The purpose of this research is to determine what managers regard as important critical success factors in ensuring a memorable visitor experience at a live music performance. Problem investigated: When organising a live music performance, it is evident that the various characteristics that form part of the visitor experience have to be considered. The critical success factors of live music performances from the supply side are fundamental, since the costs of organising live music performances are high, the needs of the visitors are constantly changing and competition plays a major role in the success of such events. Management furthermore constantly needs to be aware of the ever-changing external environment by determining what factors visitors consider to be vital for a rewarding experience at a major music event. This is extremely important since the concept of experience has become more pervasive, mainly given that the event sector, such as live music performances, has adopted experience as a tool to make individual businesses more competitive, as the organisations operating within this sector exist to provide consumers with an experience. Design and/or methodology and/or approach: A qualitative research method, by means of interviews, was used to obtain the relevant information from the selected participants. All the data collected in the process were transcribed into text and presented in narrative form. The six steps of data analysis and interpretation were applied to analyse the data. Findings and impications: The following four major themes emerged from the analysis; each theme was differentiated in terms of various categories and subcategories. Theme 1:The most important aspects for a memorable visitor experience; Theme 2:Main purpose when organising a live music performance; Theme 3:Important aspects regarding the management of a live music performance; Theme 4:Timing of event management

  20. The Effects of Background Music on Primary School Pupils' Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Price, John; Katsarou, Georgia

    2002-01-01

    Presents two studies that explored the effects of music perceived as calming and relaxing on arithmetic and memory performance tasks of 10- to 12-year-old children. Reports that the calming music led to better performance on both tasks when compared with the non-music condition. Includes references. (CMK)

  1. Investigating Musical Performance: Commonality and Diversity among Classical and Non-Classical Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Hadden, Elizabeth; Potter, John; De Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The research project "Investigating Musical Performance: Comparative Studies in Advanced Musical Learning" was devised to investigate how classical, popular, jazz and Scottish traditional musicians deepen and develop their learning about performance in undergraduate, postgraduate and wider music community contexts. The aim of this paper is to…

  2. Composers on Stage: Ambiguous Authorship in Contemporary Music Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, workflows within the field of contemporary classical music have changed drastically. Increasingly, composers are active in the process of creating and co-creating performances, not only the auditory dimensions but also the visual design and theatrical staging. The practice has...... but involving themselves in other ways. The article explores the ambivalent authorship at stake in these performances, arguing that they appear to be projects that reveal the processes of musical performance in ways that undermine the Romantic idea of the composer while concurrently celebrating that very same...... idea through their exposition and staging of the composer. The examples used to illustrate my argument are analyses of All the Time (Hodkinson, 2001), Buenos Aires (Steen-Andersen 2014) and Ord for Ord (Rønsholdt, 2014)...

  3. MODELLING THE FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ READINESS TO PERFORMING AND INTERPRETIVE ACTIVITY DURING INSTRUMENTAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenj Bo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main fields of training future music teachers in Ukrainian system of higher education is instrumental music one, such as skills of performing and interpretive activities. The aim of the article is to design a model of the future music teachers’ readiness to performing and interpretive activities in musical and instrumental training. The process of modelling is based on several interrelated scientific approaches, including systemic, personality-centered, reflective, competence, active and creative ones. While designing a model of music future teachers’ readinesses to musical interpretive activities, its philosophical, informative, interactive, hedonistic, creative functions are taken into account. Important theoretical and methodological factors are thought to be principles of musical and pedagogical education: culture correspondence and reflection; unity of emotional and conscious, artistic and technical items in musical education; purposeful interrelations and art and pedagogical communication between teachers and students; intensification of music and creative activity. Above-mentioned pedagogical phenomenon is subdivided into four components: motivation-oriented, cognitive-evaluating, performance-independent, creative and productive. For each component relevant criteria and indicators are identified. The stages of future music teachers’ readiness to performing interpretative activity are highlighted: information searching one, which contributes to the implementation of complex diagnostic methods (surveys, questionnaires, testing; regulative and performing one, which is characterized by future music teachers’ immersion into music performing and interpretative activities; operational and reflective stage, which involves activation of mechanisms of future music teachers’ self-knowledge, self-realization, formation of skills of independent artistic and expressive various music genres and styles interpretation; projective and

  4. The Effects of Music Salience on the Gait Performance of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Natalie; Kempster, Cody; Doucette, Angelica; Doan, Jon B; Hu, Bin; Brown, Lesley A

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a rhythmic beat in the form of a metronome tone or beat-accentuated original music can modulate gait performance; however, it has yet to be determined whether gait modulation can be achieved using commercially available music. The current study investigated the effects of commercially available music on the walking of healthy young adults. Specific aims were (a) to determine whether commercially available music can be used to influence gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability), (b) to establish the effect of music salience on gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability), and (c) to examine whether music tempi differentially effected gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability). Twenty-five participants walked the length of an unobstructed walkway while listening to music. Music selections differed with respect to the salience or the tempo of the music. The genre of music and artists were self-selected by participants. Listening to music while walking was an enjoyable activity that influenced gait. Specifically, salient music selections increased measures of cadence, velocity, and stride length; in contrast, gait was unaltered by the presence of non-salient music. Music tempo did not differentially affect gait performance (gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability) in these participants. Gait performance was differentially influenced by music salience. These results have implications for clinicians considering the use of commercially available music as an alternative to the traditional rhythmic auditory cues used in rehabilitation programs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of background music on objective and subjective performance measures in an auditory BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  6. Effect of different types of music on exercise performance in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anuprita M; Yardi, Sujata S

    2013-01-01

    While exercising, people seem to enjoy listening to music believing that it relaxes them or helps give the necessary rhythm for exercise. But is music really beneficial? In view of different people listening to different types of music, this study was intended to assess effect of different types of music on exercise performance. 30 healthy female college students in the age group of 18 to 25 years were made to walk on the treadmill 3 times at one week interval: without music (A), with slow music (B), with fast music (C). Duration of exercise and rate of perceived exertion were recorded at the end of each session. The results showed an increase in the duration of exercise in Group B and Group C as compared to Group A and the increase was more in Group C as compared to Group B. It was observed that level of RPE was the same at the end of every exercise session. The reason for increase in exercise duration with music could be because of various factors like dissociation, arousal, motivation, etc. It can be thus suggested that exercises can be performed for longer duration with music than without music and the effect is more with fast music than with slow music. Also with music, the same level of exertion is perceived though the walking duration is considerably increased.

  7. Demanding Epistemic Democracy and Indirect Civics Pedagogy: The Performance-Oriented Music Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrcz, Greg; MacLean, Tessa; Hopkins, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The participation of young adults in performance-oriented music ensembles can be seen to enhance democratic capacities and virtues. Much, however, turns on the particular conception of democracy at work. Although contemporary currents in music education tend towards models of liberal and participatory democracy to govern music ensembles, this…

  8. The Apperception of Musical Creativity: Performance as Ritual, Composition as Self-Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Musical invention is defined in this article as a form of inward creativity. The creative acts of musical performance are understood in terms of ritual-like symbolic and stylized actions, and those of musical composition as the mind's enactment of meditation and reflection. This article draws on the relationship between two psychological…

  9. Use of nonelectrolytes reveals the channel size and oligomeric constitution of the Borrelia burgdorferi P66 porin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Bárcena-Uribarri

    Full Text Available In the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the outer membrane protein P66 is capable of pore formation with an atypical high single-channel conductance of 11 nS in 1 M KCl, which suggested that it could have a larger diameter than 'normal' Gram-negative bacterial porins. We studied the diameter of the P66 channel by analyzing its single-channel conductance in black lipid bilayers in the presence of different nonelectrolytes with known hydrodynamic radii. We calculated the filling of the channel with these nonelectrolytes and the results suggested that nonelectrolytes (NEs with hydrodynamic radii of 0.34 nm or smaller pass through the pore, whereas neutral molecules with greater radii only partially filled the channel or were not able to enter it at all. The diameter of the entrance of the P66 channel was determined to be ≤1.9 nm and the channel has a central constriction of about 0.8 nm. The size of the channel appeared to be symmetrical as judged from one-sidedness of addition of NEs. Furthermore, the P66-induced membrane conductance could be blocked by 80-90% by the addition of the nonelectrolytes PEG 400, PEG 600 and maltohexaose to the aqueous phase in the low millimolar range. The analysis of the power density spectra of ion current through P66 after blockage with these NEs revealed no chemical reaction responsible for channel block. Interestingly, the blockage of the single-channel conductance of P66 by these NEs occurred in about eight subconductance states, indicating that the P66 channel could be an oligomer of about eight individual channels. The organization of P66 as a possible octamer was confirmed by Blue Native PAGE and immunoblot analysis, which both demonstrated that P66 forms a complex with a mass of approximately 460 kDa. Two dimension SDS PAGE revealed that P66 is the only polypeptide in the complex.

  10. Biomechanical Modelling of Musical Performance: A Case Study of the Guitar

    OpenAIRE

    Costalonga, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/2517 on 07.20.2017 by CS (TIS) Computer-generated musical performances are often criticised for being unable to match the expressivity found in performances by humans. Much research has been conducted in the past two decades in order to create computer technology able to perform a given piece music as expressively as humans, largely without success. Two approaches have been often adopted to research into modelling expressive music perform...

  11. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. In this study, we tested the effect of music on sub maximal exercise performance time duration in young adults. 25 Male and 25 females were subjected to standard submaximal exercise with and without music. Resting HR and Max. HR during exercise and the exercise time duration was recorded. Total exercise duration in whole group with music (37.12 ± 16.26** min) was significantly greater than exercise duration without music (22.48 ± 10.26 min). Males (42.4 ± 15.6** min) outperformed significantly better than females (31.84 ± 15.48 min). Also, we observed statistically significant higher values of Maximal heart rate with music than without music. But there was no significant correlation between duration of exercise, music and change in Heart rate. We can conclude that Music increases duration of exercise in both sexes and hence endurance.

  12. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. Methods...

  13. VIOLENCE TO WOMEN IN ENTERTAINMANT INDUSTRY and MEDIA: MUSIC PERFORMER BERGEN EXAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalis KUYUCU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make emphasize how the traditional printed media use violence to woman on the example of music performer Bergen. Women are mostly regarded with their sexuality more than their artistic performance in entertainment industry. In music industry which is a part of entertainment industry women face violence, discrimination and abuse in their carrier, These things sometimes can cost to the life of a woman. In this search the music performer Bergen and the violence that s...

  14. Body sway reflects leadership in joint music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew; Livingstone, Steven R; Bosnyak, Dan J; Trainor, Laurel J

    2017-05-23

    The cultural and technological achievements of the human species depend on complex social interactions. Nonverbal interpersonal coordination, or joint action, is a crucial element of social interaction, but the dynamics of nonverbal information flow among people are not well understood. We used joint music making in string quartets, a complex, naturalistic nonverbal behavior, as a model system. Using motion capture, we recorded body sway simultaneously in four musicians, which reflected real-time interpersonal information sharing. We used Granger causality to analyze predictive relationships among the motion time series of the players to determine the magnitude and direction of information flow among the players. We experimentally manipulated which musician was the leader (followers were not informed who was leading) and whether they could see each other, to investigate how these variables affect information flow. We found that assigned leaders exerted significantly greater influence on others and were less influenced by others compared with followers. This effect was present, whether or not they could see each other, but was enhanced with visual information, indicating that visual as well as auditory information is used in musical coordination. Importantly, performers' ratings of the "goodness" of their performances were positively correlated with the overall degree of body sway coupling, indicating that communication through body sway reflects perceived performance success. These results confirm that information sharing in a nonverbal joint action task occurs through both auditory and visual cues and that the dynamics of information flow are affected by changing group relationships.

  15. The effect of music on robot-assisted laparoscopic surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Suh, Irene H; Mukherjee, Mukul; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Stergiou, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Music is often played in the operating room to increase the surgeon's concentration and to mask noise. It could have a beneficial effect on surgical performance. Ten participants with limited experience with the da Vinci robotic surgical system were recruited to perform two surgical tasks: suture tying and mesh alignment when classical, jazz, hip-hop, and Jamaican music were presented. Kinematics of the instrument tips of the surgical robot and surface electromyography of the subjects were recorded. Results revealed that a significant music effect was found for both tasks with decreased time to task completion (P = .005) and total travel distance (P = .021) as well as reduced muscle activations ( P = .016) and increased median muscle frequency (P = .034). Subjects improved their performance significantly when they listened to either hip-hop or Jamaican music. In conclusion, music with high rhythmicity has a beneficial effect on robotic surgical performance. Musical environment may benefit surgical training and make acquisition of surgical skills more efficient.

  16. The performative pleasure of imprecision: a diachronic study of entrainment in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eGeeves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses in on a moment of live performance in which the entrainment amongst a musical quartet is threatened. Entrainment is asymmetric in so far as there is an ensemble leader who improvises and expands the structure of a last chorus of a piece of music beyond the limits tacitly negotiated during prior rehearsals and performances. Despite the risk of entrainment being disturbed and performance interrupted, the other three musicians in the quartet follow the leading performer and smoothly transition into unprecedented performance territory. We use this moment of live performance to work back through the fieldwork data, building a diachronic study of the development and bases of entrainment in live music performance. We introduce the concept of entrainment and profile previous theory and research relevant to entrainment in music performance. After outlining our methodology, we trace the evolution of the structure of the piece of music from first rehearsal to final performance. Using video clip analysis, interviews and field notes we consider how entrainment shaped and was shaped by the moment of performance in focus. The sense of trust between quartet musicians is established through entrainment processes, is consolidated via smooth adaptation to the threats of disruption. Nonverbal communicative exchanges, via eye contact, gesture and spatial proximity, sustain entrainment through phase shifts occurring swiftly and on the fly in performance contexts. These exchanges permit smooth adaptation promoting trust. This frees the quartet members to play with the potential disturbance of equilibrium inherent in entrained relationships and to play with this tension in an improvisatory way that enhances audience engagement and the live quality of performance.

  17. Transforming the Landscape through Music Creation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This author is quite often described by respected critics and musical peers as one of the finest artists in the world--making the young pianist's mark on music both undeniable and admirable. In this speech he shares his thoughts on improvisation. The ability to improvise is integral to the future of classical music. Classical pianists are still…

  18. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  19. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music—one chosen to match each wine—were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine–music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience.

  20. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian (Janice)

    2015-01-01

    At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music—one chosen to match each wine—were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine–music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience. PMID:27433313

  1. The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Mild positive affect has been shown in the psychological literature to improve cognitive skills of creative problem-solving and systematic thinking. Individual preferred music listening offers opportunity for improved positive affect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preferred music listening on state-mood and cognitive performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Twenty-four professional computer information systems developers (CISD) from a North American IT company participated in a 3-week study with a music/no music/music weekly design. During the music weeks, participants listened to their preferred music "when they wanted, as they wanted." Self-reports of State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect, and Cognitive Performance were measured throughout the 3 weeks. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in both state-mood and cognitive performance scores. "High-cognitive demand" is a relative term given that challenges presented to individuals may occur on a cognitive continuum from need for focus and selective attention to systematic analysis and creative problem-solving. The findings and recommendations have important implications for music therapists in their knowledge of the effect of music on emotion and cognition, and, as well, have important implications for music therapy consultation to organizations.

  2. Body sway reflects leadership in joint music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R.; Bosnyak, Dan J.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2017-01-01

    The cultural and technological achievements of the human species depend on complex social interactions. Nonverbal interpersonal coordination, or joint action, is a crucial element of social interaction, but the dynamics of nonverbal information flow among people are not well understood. We used joint music making in string quartets, a complex, naturalistic nonverbal behavior, as a model system. Using motion capture, we recorded body sway simultaneously in four musicians, which reflected real-time interpersonal information sharing. We used Granger causality to analyze predictive relationships among the motion time series of the players to determine the magnitude and direction of information flow among the players. We experimentally manipulated which musician was the leader (followers were not informed who was leading) and whether they could see each other, to investigate how these variables affect information flow. We found that assigned leaders exerted significantly greater influence on others and were less influenced by others compared with followers. This effect was present, whether or not they could see each other, but was enhanced with visual information, indicating that visual as well as auditory information is used in musical coordination. Importantly, performers’ ratings of the “goodness” of their performances were positively correlated with the overall degree of body sway coupling, indicating that communication through body sway reflects perceived performance success. These results confirm that information sharing in a nonverbal joint action task occurs through both auditory and visual cues and that the dynamics of information flow are affected by changing group relationships. PMID:28484007

  3. Trained Musical Performers' and Musically Untrained College Students' Ability to Discriminate Music Instrument Timbre as a Function of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dennis Alan

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of trained musicians and musically untrained college students to discriminate music instrument timbre as a function of duration. Specific factors investigated were the thresholds for timbre discrimination as a function of duration, musical ensemble participation as training, and the relative discrimination abilities of vocalists and instrumentalists. The subjects (N = 126) were volunteer college students from intact classes from various disciplines separated into musically untrained college students (N = 43) who had not participated in musical ensembles and trained musicians (N = 83) who had. The musicians were further divided into instrumentalists (N = 51) and vocalists (N = 32). The Method of Constant Stimuli, using a same-different response procedure with 120 randomized, counterbalanced timbre pairs comprised of trumpet, clarinet, or violin, presented in durations of 20 to 100 milliseconds in a sequence of pitches, in two blocks was used for data collection. Complete, complex musical timbres were recorded digitally and presented in a sequence of changing pitches to more closely approximate an actual music listening experience. Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the threshold for timbre discrimination as a function of duration is at or below 20 ms. Even though trained musicians tended to discriminate timbre better than musically untrained college students, musicians cannot discriminate timbre significantly better then those subjects who have not participated in musical ensembles. Additionally, instrumentalists tended to discriminate timbre better than vocalists, but the discrimination is not significantly different. Recommendations for further research include suggestions for a timbre discrimination measurement tool that takes into consideration the multidimensionality of timbre and the relationship of timbre discrimination to timbre source, duration, pitch, and loudness.

  4. Influence of music on performance and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercise preceded by fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on time to exhaustion and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercise performed in fatigued and non-fatigued conditions. Fourteen healthy men performed moderate-intensity exercise (60% Wmax) until exhaustion under four different conditions: with and without pre-fatigue (induced by 100 drop jumps) and listening and not listening to music. Time to exhaustion was lower in the fatigued than the non-fatigued condition regardless listening to music. Similarly, RPE was higher in the fatigued than the non-fatigued condition, but music had no effect. On the other hand, listening to music decreased the associative thoughts regardless of fatigue status. Heart rate was not influenced by any treatment. These results suggest that listening to music changes attentional focus but is not able to reverse fatigue-derived alteration of performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Elucidating the relationship between work attention performance and emotions arising from listening to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Chien, Wei-Hsien; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2016-10-17

    In addition to demonstrating that human emotions improve work attention performance, numerous studies have also established that music alters human emotions. Given the pervasiveness of background music in the workplace, exactly how work attention, emotions and music listening are related is of priority concern in human resource management. This preliminary study investigates the relationship between work attention performance and emotions arising from listening to music. Thirty one males and 34 females, ranging from 20-24 years old, participated in this study following written informed consent. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed in this study, which consisted of six steps and the use of the standard attention test and emotion questionnaire. Background music with lyrics adversely impacts attention performance more than that without lyrics. Analysis results also indicate that listeners self-reported feeling "loved" while music played that implied a higher score on their work-attention performance. Moreover, a greater ability of music to make listeners feel sad implied a lower score on their work-attention performance. Results of this preliminary study demonstrate that background music in the workplace should focus mainly on creating an environment in which listeners feel loved or taken care and avoiding music that causes individuals to feel stressed or sad. We recommend that future research increase the number of research participants to enhance the applicability and replicability of these findings.

  6. [Analysis and evaluation of acute injuries in musical performers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, E M; Groneberg, D A; Quarcoo, D

    2011-09-01

    Specific requirements in the Musical field such as the versatility of abilities in dancing, singing and acting, the aspiration for perfection as well as the high number of performances, lead to a high amount of occupational accidents not yet evaluated. Aim of this study is, therefore, to analyze and evaluate occupational accidents in Musical performers and to suggest preventive concepts. The data of this evaluation comprise occupational accident reports of consultants, accident reports of various Berlin theatres as well as case records of all Berlin State Theatres (n = 89, m: 58, f: 31) of the Berlin State Accident Insurance covering a period 12-year period. A total of 60.3 % of the accidents happen during performances, 24.4 % during rehearsals, and 6.7 % during the training. Lower extremity injuries (m: 61.1 %, f: 58.2 %) are the most common for performers. The majority of injuries (m: 46.3 %, f: 50.0 %) happens during ordinary dance movements. Altogether 66.7 % of the injuries have a uniquely defined exogenous cause. The dance partner is with 17.9 % the most common exogenous cause, followed by props (15.4 %) and dance floor (11.6 %). 66.3 % of all accidents happen in the first three hours after starting work with an incidence in the evenings. There are gender specific differences. Parallels can be drawn (e. g. injured structures, type of injuries) to the professional dance and the dance theatre, however, there are also differences (e. g. age, injury location) Due to the results and the work specific requirements the Musical is to be considered as an autonomous field among the performing arts. Above all, the majority of injuries are - compared to other dance styles - caused by exogenous factors. Modifications may here reduce the incidence. At that, an early interaction in the planning progress of a production, an optimal selection of physical and psychic qualified performers as well as an improvement of training conditions are primary steps towards

  7. Effects of Aging on Musical Performance in Professional Orchestral Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2018-03-01

    The physical and psychological demands of playing a musical instrument are likely to be affected by age-related decline in function, including physical, cognitive, psychological, and organ-related changes. However, the complex neurophysiological demands of playing a musical instrument may delay many normal aging-related changes. This study compared professional classical musicians of different ages, using a range of physical and psychological measures, to discover how increasing age might affect work performance and to identify possible risk and protective factors for physical and psychological health as the musicians age. 377 professional orchestral musicians from eight Australian orchestras (70% response rate), ages 18 to 68 yrs (mean 42.1). Multiple standardized physical and psychological tools were used to evaluate the impact of age on a range of physical and mental health variables. Age was not statistically associated with frequency or severity of performance-related musculoskeletal disorders, ratings of perceived exertion, QuickDASH scores, use of beta-blockers, workplace satisfaction, and most psychological tests. Differences were observed on SPIN (social anxiety) scores, with lowest scores in the oldest age group (10.66 in 55+ yrs vs 17.83 in 18-30 yrs, p=0.016). Older musicians had higher BMIs and fewer practice sessions per day than younger musicians and also were more likely to consume alcohol on 5+ days/wk (44% vs 9%, p=0.003). Advancing age does not appear to exert undue negative impacts on physical and psychological health or performance capacity of professional orchestral musicians. However, dwindling numbers in the older age groups may suggest a "survivor" effect, whereby those who develop significant age-related decrements may cease professional performance at earlier ages. Longitudinal studies on the professional trajectories of professional orchestral musicians are needed to explore this question further.

  8. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  9. "With Grace under Pressure": How Critique as Signature Pedagogy Fosters Effective Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by seminal writings on Critique as Signature Pedagogy in the Arts and performance as Signature Pedagogy in Music, this article unifies these two concepts into a study of how critique as signature pedagogy in music-performance promotes student learning. This essay seeks to first define the notion of different mindsets as musicians perform…

  10. Student Musicians' Self- and Task-Theories of Musical Performance: The Influence of Primary Genre Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Allan

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-five undergraduate music students studying in Scotland completed a 30-statement Q-sort to describe their self- and task-theories of musical performance. Statements reflected the importance of effort, confidence, technical ability, significant others and luck/chance in determining a successful performance. The Q-sorts were…

  11. The razor's edge: Australian rock music impairs men's performance when pretending to be a surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancourt, Daisy; Burton, Thomas Mw; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-12-12

    Over the past few decades there has been interest in the role of music in the operating theatre. However, despite many reported benefits, a number of potentially harmful effects of music have been identified. This study aimed to explore the effects of rock and classical music on surgical speed, accuracy and perceived distraction when performing multiorgan resection in the board game Operation. Single-blind, three-arm, randomised controlled trial. Imperial Festival, London, May 2016. Members of the public (n = 352) aged ≥ 16 years with no previous formal surgical training or hearing impairments. Participants were randomised to listen through noise-cancelling headphones to either the sound of an operating theatre, rock music or classical music. Participants were then invited to remove three organs from the board game patient, Cavity Sam, using surgical tweezers. Time taken (seconds) to remove three organs from Cavity Sam; the number of mistakes made in performing the surgery; and perceived distraction, rated on a five-point Likert-type scale from 1 (not at all distracting) to 5 (very distracting). Rock music impairs the performance of men but not women when undertaking complex surgical procedures in the board game Operation, increasing the time taken to operate and showing a trend towards more surgical mistakes. In addition, classical music was associated with lower perceived distraction during the game, but this effect was attenuated when factoring in how much people liked the music, with suggestions that only people who particularly liked the music of Mozart found it beneficial. Rock music (specifically Australian rock music) appears to have detrimental effects on surgical performance. Men are advised not to listen to rock music when either operating or playing board games.

  12. Flexibility of Expressive Timing in Repeated Musical Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pantelis Demos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Performances by soloists in the Western classical tradition are normally highly prepared, yet must sound fresh and spontaneous. How do musicians manage this? We tested the hypothesis that they achieve the necessary spontaneity by varying the musical gestures that express their interpretation of a piece. We examined the tempo arches produced by final slowing at the ends of phrases in performances of J.S. Bach’s No. 6 (Prelude for solo cello (12 performances and the Italian Concerto (Presto for solo piano (8 performances. The performances were given by two experienced concert soloists during a short time period (3½ months for the Prelude, 2 weeks for the Presto after completing their preparations for public performance. We measured the tempo of each bar or half-bar, and the stability of tempo across performances (difference of the tempo of each bar/half bar from each of the other performances. There were phrase arches for both tempo and stability with slower, less stable tempi at beginnings and ends of phrases and faster, more stable tempi mid-phrase. The effects of practice were complex. Tempo decreased overall with practice, while stability increased in some bars and decreased in others. One effect of practice may be to imbue well-learned, automatic motor sequences with freshness and spontaneity through cognitive control at phrase boundaries where slower tempi and decreased stability provide opportunities for slower cognitive processes to modulate rapid automatic motor sequences.

  13. Flexibility of Expressive Timing in Repeated Musical Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Alexander P; Lisboa, Tânia; Chaffin, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Performances by soloists in the Western classical tradition are normally highly prepared, yet must sound fresh and spontaneous. How do musicians manage this? We tested the hypothesis that they achieve the necessary spontaneity by varying the musical gestures that express their interpretation of a piece. We examined the tempo arches produced by final slowing at the ends of phrases in performances of J. S. Bach's No. 6 (Prelude) for solo cello (12 performances) and the Italian Concerto (Presto) for solo piano (eight performances). The performances were given by two experienced concert soloists during a short time period (3½ months for the Prelude, 2 weeks for the Presto) after completing their preparations for public performance. We measured the tempo of each bar or half-bar, and the stability of tempo across performances (difference of the tempo of each bar/half bar from each of the other performances). There were phrase arches for both tempo and stability with slower, less stable tempi at beginnings and ends of phrases and faster, more stable tempi mid-phrase. The effects of practice were complex. Tempo decreased overall with practice, while stability increased in some bars and decreased in others. One effect of practice may be to imbue well-learned, automatic motor sequences with freshness and spontaneity through cognitive control at phrase boundaries where slower tempi and decreased stability provide opportunities for slower cognitive processes to modulate rapid automatic motor sequences.

  14. Association between temporomandibular disorders and music performance anxiety in violinists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, M I T; Jorge, A I L

    2016-10-01

    Professional violin playing has been associated with a predisposition to develop temporomandibular disorder (TMD). There are a number of risk factors, including physical trauma from the playing posture and the presence of parafunctional habits. Music performance anxiety (MPA) may also be a factor, as it has been associated with playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). To evaluate a possible association between the presence of TMD and the level of MPA in violin players. An observational study using a written questionnaire that retrieved data related to TMD symptoms (Fonseca Anamnestic Questionnaire), MPA level (Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory, K-MPAI), instrument practice time, chinrest type, sex and age. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Ninety-three professional or semi-professional violinists performing in and around Lisbon, Portugal, completed the questionnaire (73% response rate). TMD was present in 50 violinists (58%). There was a statistically significant association between the presence of TMD and high MPA levels (P < 0.001) and the most anxious violinists were six times (95% confidence interval 2.51-15.33; P < 0.001) more likely to report TMD symptoms when compared with the least anxious players. Violin players had a high prevalence of reported TMD symptoms, which was significantly associated with high MPA levels. It may therefore be necessary to address psychological and physical factors simultaneously in musicians who do not improve with physical therapy alone. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Measurement of the tissue to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic kerma ratio at two p(66)Be neutron therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, K M; Binns, P J; Schreuder, A N; Lennox, A J; Deluca, P M Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The ICRU tissue to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic kerma ratio is needed for neutron therapy dosimetry. The current ICRU protocol for neutron dosimetry recommends using a common conversion factor of 0.95 at all high-energy neutron therapy facilities. In an effort to determine facility specific ICRU tissue to A-150 plastic kerma ratios, an experimental approach was pursued. Four low pressure proportional counters that differed in wall materials (i.e. A-150, carbon, zirconium and zirconium-oxide) were used as dosimeters and integral kerma ratios were determined directly in the clinical beam. Measurements were performed at two p(66)Be facilities: iThemba LABS near Cape Town and Fermilab near Chicago. At the iThemba facility the clinical neutron beam is routinely filtered by a flattening and hardening filter combination. The influence of beam filtration on the kerma ratio was evaluated. Using two recent gas-to-wall dose conversion factor (r m,g value) evaluations a mean ICRU tissue to A-150 plastic kerma ratio of 0.93 ± 0.05 was determined for the clinical beam at iThemba LABS. The respective value for the Fermilab beam is 0.95 ± 0.05. The experimentally determined ICRU tissue to A-150 plastic kerma ratios for the two clinical beams are in agreement with theoretical evaluations. Beam filtration reduces the kerma ratio by 3 ± 2%

  17. "Found Performance": Towards a Musical Methodology for Exploring the Aesthetics of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stuart

    2017-09-18

    Concepts of performance in fine art reflect key processes in music therapy. Music therapy enables practitioners to reframe patients as performers, producing new meanings around the clinical knowledge attached to medical histories and constructs. In this paper, music therapy practices are considered in the wider context of art history, with reference to allied theories from social research. Tracing a century in art that has revised the performativity of found objects (starting with Duchamp's "Fountain"), and of found sound (crystallised by Cage's 4' 33) this paper proposes that music therapy might be a pioneer methodology of "found performance". Examples from music therapy and contemporary socially engaged art practices are brought as potential links between artistic methodologies and medical humanities research, with specific reference to notions of Aesthetics of Care.

  18. The Effects of Music on Microsurgical Technique and Performance: A Motion Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Afaaf; Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Paek, Laurence S; McGoldrick, Rory B; Chetta, Matthew D; Hui, Kenneth; Lee, Gordon K

    2017-05-01

    Music is commonly played in operating rooms (ORs) throughout the country. If a preferred genre of music is played, surgeons have been shown to perform surgical tasks quicker and with greater accuracy. However, there are currently no studies investigating the effects of music on microsurgical technique. Motion analysis technology has recently been validated in the objective assessment of plastic surgery trainees' performance of microanastomoses. Here, we aimed to examine the effects of music on microsurgical skills using motion analysis technology as a primary objective assessment tool. Residents and fellows in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery program were recruited to complete a demographic survey and participate in microsurgical tasks. Each participant completed 2 arterial microanastomoses on a chicken foot model, one with music playing, and the other without music playing. Participants were blinded to the study objectives and encouraged to perform their best. The order of music and no music was randomized. Microanastomoses were video recorded using a digitalized S-video system and deidentified. Video segments were analyzed using ProAnalyst motion analysis software for automatic noncontact markerless video tracking of the needle driver tip. Nine residents and 3 plastic surgery fellows were tested. Reported microsurgical experience ranged from 1 to 10 arterial anastomoses performed (n = 2), 11 to 100 anastomoses (n = 9), and 101 to 500 anastomoses (n = 1). Mean age was 33 years (range, 29-36 years), with 11 participants right-handed and 1 ambidextrous. Of the 12 subjects tested, 11 (92%) preferred music in the OR. Composite instrument motion analysis scores significantly improved with playing preferred music during testing versus no music (paired t test, P music was significant even after stratifying scores by order in which variables were tested (music first vs no music first), postgraduate year, and number of anastomoses (analysis of variance, P music in

  19. The effects of music on time perception and performance of a driving game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, G G; Macdonald, R A R

    2010-12-01

    There is an established and growing body of evidence highlighting that music can influence behavior across a range of diverse domains (Miell, MacDonald, & Hargreaves 2005). One area of interest is the monitoring of "internal timing mechanisms", with features such as tempo, liking, perceived affective nature and everyday listening contexts implicated as important (North & Hargreaves, 2008). The current study addresses these issues by comparing the effects of self-selected and experimenter-selected music (fast and slow) on actual and perceived performance of a driving game activity. Seventy participants completed three laps of a driving game in seven sound conditions: (1) silence; (2) car sounds; (3) car sounds with self-selected music, and car sounds with experimenter-selected music; (4) high-arousal (70 bpm); (5) high-arousal (130 bpm); (6) low-arousal (70 bpm); and (7) low-arousal (130 bpm) music. Six performance measures (time, accuracy, speed, and retrospective perception of these), and four experience measures (perceived distraction, liking, appropriateness and enjoyment) were taken. Exposure to self-selected music resulted in overestimation of elapsed time and inaccuracy, while benefiting accuracy and experience. In contrast, exposure to experimenter-selected music resulted in poorest performance and experience. Increasing the tempo of experimenter-selected music resulted in faster performance and increased inaccuracy for high-arousal music, but did not impact experience. It is suggested that personal meaning and subjective associations connected to self-selected music promoted increased engagement with the activity, overriding detrimental effects attributed to unfamiliar, less liked and less appropriate experimenter-selected music. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  20. Bodily Movement and Facial Actions in Expressive Musical Performance by Solo and Duo Instrumentalists: Two Distinctive Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane W.

    2012-01-01

    The research literature concerning gesture in musical performance increasingly reports that musically communicative and meaningful performances contain highly expressive bodily movements. These movements are involved in the generation of the musically expressive performance, but enquiry into the development of expressive bodily movement has been…

  1. The Relationship between Pre-Service Music Teachers' Self-Efficacy Belief in Musical Instrument Performance and Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Demet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Strong self-efficacy bring achievement in instrument education as in other disciplines. Achievement will increase the quality of instrument education, and it will be reflected in the professional lives of pre-service teachers and their students. This suggests that research on belief in musical instrument performance is necessary.…

  2. Wisdom from Conservatory Faculty: Insights on Success in Classical Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2010-01-01

    What does it take to become a successful performer of Western classical music in the United States today? What factors, beyond technical proficiency and musicality, come into play? We started exploring these questions in a study of gatekeepers' (e.g., critics, artistic directors) views on key variables that contribute to the career trajectories of…

  3. Students' Performance When Aurally Identifying Musical Harmonic Intervals: Experimentation of a Teaching Innovation Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsatí, Imma; Miranda, Joaquim; Amador, Miquel; Godall, Pere

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the performance reached by students (N = 138) when aurally identifying musical harmonic intervals (from m2 to P8) after having experienced a teaching innovation proposal for the Music Conservatories of Catalonia (Spain) based on observational methodology. Its design took into account several issues, which had…

  4. The Effects of Altering Environmental and Instrumental Context on the Performance of Memorized Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jennifer; Backlin, William

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether musical memory was context dependent. Instrumental musicians memorized music in one context and recalled in either the same or a different context. Contexts included atypical performing environments (Experiment 1: lobby/conference room) or commonly encountered environments (Experiment 2: practice room,…

  5. Ecological Development and Validation of a Music Performance Rating Scale for Five Instrument Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, William J.; Emmerson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the quality of music performance evaluation in an effort to address the accountability imperative in tertiary music education. An enhanced scientific methodology was employed incorporating ecological validity and using recognized qualitative methods involving grounded theory and quantitative methods…

  6. Does Listening to Slow Tempo Classical Music During Independent Writing Affect Children's On-Task Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Rosemary

    This project explored the effects of slow tempo classical music on children's on-task performance during independent writing. The project sample consisted of 24 students from a first grade classroom in the New York City Public School System. The students' on-task behavior was observed with and without use of slow tempo classical music playing, and…

  7. Music Performance Anxiety: An Overview of Technological Advances in Therapy, Psychopharmacology & Bio-Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, John

    Incidence of anxiety among musicians has been investigated mostly among classical players and music students. This paper determines that any intervention requires a comprehensive understanding of the primary problem. The presentation of music performance anxiety varies from individual to individual with many possible sources of origin as well as…

  8. The Effect of Background Music and Background Noise on the Task Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Gianna; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of music with high arousal potential and negative affect (HA), music with low arousal potential and positive affect (LA), and everyday noise, on the cognitive task performance of introverts and extraverts. Forty participants completed five cognitive tasks: immediate recall, free recall, numerical and delayed…

  9. The Effects of Background Music on Learning Disabled Elementary School Students' Performance in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legutko, Robert S.; Trissler, Theodore T.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated effects of background music on writing performance of nine 6th grade students with learning disabilities at one suburban public elementary school in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. A single-subject A-B-A design was utilized, and results from graded writing prompts with and without background music over 21…

  10. Gender Differences in Musical Aptitude, Rhythmic Ability and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Karadimou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vasilios

    2005-01-01

    Most of the preschool curricula involve integrated movement activities that combine music, rhythm and locomotor skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether there are any differences between boys and girls at the age of five concerning their musical aptitude, rhythmic ability and performance in gross motor skills. Ninety-five…

  11. Does music enhance cognitive performance in healthy older adults? The Vivaldi effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2007-10-01

    Controversial evidence suggests that music can enhance cognitive performance. In the present study, we examined whether listening to an excerpt of Vivaldi's "Four Seasons" had a positive effect on older adults' cognitive performance in two working memory tasks. With a repeated-measures design, older adults were presented with the forward version of the digit span and phonemic fluency in classical music, white-noise and no-music conditions. Classical music significantly increased working memory performance compared with the no-music condition. In addition, this effect did not occur with white noise. The authors discuss this finding in terms of the arousal-and-mood hypothesis and the role of working memory resources in aging.

  12. Black Edens, country Eves: Listening, performance, and black queer longing in country music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Francesca T

    2017-07-03

    This article explores Black queer country music listening, performance, and fandom as a source of pleasure, nostalgia, and longing for Black listeners. Country music can be a space for alliance and community, as well as a way of accessing sometimes repressed cultural and personal histories of violence: lynching and other forms of racial terror, gender surveillance and disciplining, and continued racial and economic segregation. For many Black country music listeners and performers, the experience of being a closeted fan also fosters an experience of ideological hailing, as well as queer world-making. Royster suggests that through Black queer country music fandom and performance, fans construct risky and soulful identities. The article uses Tina Turner's solo album, Tina Turns the Country On! (1974) as an example of country music's power as a tool for resistance to racial, sexual, and class disciplining.

  13. Temporal Coordination and Adaptation to Rate Change in Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, Janeen D.; Large, Edward W.; Palmer, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    People often coordinate their actions with sequences that exhibit temporal variability and unfold at multiple periodicities. We compared oscillator- and timekeeper-based accounts of temporal coordination by examining musicians' coordination of rhythmic musical sequences with a metronome that gradually changed rate at the end of a musical phrase…

  14. The performance of identity in Chinese popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Popular music in Chinese languages both reflects and influences how its audiences perceive themselves and their position in the world around them. This book analyses the role of popular music in identity formation through detailed comparisons of the pop star Faye Wong, the rock band Second Hand Rose

  15. Audience Research for the Performing Arts: Romanian Music Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin G. LUCHIAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the strategic marketing tools (instruments such as segmentation and targeting for a better understanding of current and potential audiences of classical music festivals. Arts administrators need to locate and address the audience segmentation, enhancing communication with audiences of all segments. The marketing strategies for music festivals should include improving music festival branding as well as developing diverse programs and engaging with the community on multiple levels. The study incorporates a literature review of the recent sociological research dealing with the consumption of arts products and a case study approach on the fifteenth edition of Romanian Music Festival in Iași, involving an audience survey. The research can be used as a tool to inform marketing and audience development plans for the organisers of Romanian Music Festival and other arts organisations. It also contains insights that organisations might find useful in the development of an arts activity itself.

  16. Effect of pre-task music on sports or exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, Bruno P

    2017-01-01

    Pre-task music is a very common strategy among sports competitors. However, as opposed to in-task music, the scientific evidence to support its ergogenic effects on either sports or exercise performance is limited. This brief review critically addresses the existing literature investigating the effects of pre-task music on sports and exercise performance, focusing on the methods and results of experimental studies, and offers basic and practical recommendations. In July 2015, a comprehensive literature search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar using the following key words in combination: "pre-task music," "pre-test music," "pre-exercise music," "exercise performance," "sports performance." The literature search was further expanded by both hand searching review articles on the topic and by searching the reference lists from the articles retrieved for any relevant references. Overall, a total of 15 studies in 14 articles were included. Pre-task music research has been unsystematic, methodologically limited and infrequent. Using this review as a starting point to overcome previous methodological limitations when designing future experiments may contribute to the development of pre-task music research, which is still in its infancy. Currently, there is no sufficient evidence to support the overall ergogenic effects of pre-task music on sports or exercise performance. Nonetheless, pre-task music has showed a likely ergogenic effect on shorter and predominantly anaerobic tasks such as grip strength, Wingate test, and short-duration sports or sports-like tasks, in contrast to longer and predominantly aerobic tasks.

  17. Piano Performance in a Semiotic Key : Society, Musical Canon and Novel Discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Navickaitė-Martinelli, Lina

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to expand and enrich the existing trends of musical performance studies, as well as exploit the potentials of semiotic analysis, this dissertation offers the theoretical perspective that enables the unfolding of the multiple meanings generated by and communicated through the performer s art. Without denying that musical performance is inevitably associated with the opus, the semiotic approach, it is proposed here, should study performance as encompassing all the exogenic me...

  18. Effects of music and white noise on working memory performance in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S; Rämä, P; Artchakov, D; Linnankoski, I

    1997-09-08

    It has been suggested that Mozart's music may have beneficial effects on the performance of cognitive tasks in humans. In the present study the effects of Mozart's piano music, white noise, simple rhythm and silence were studied on the performance of a delayed response (DR) task in monkeys. The acoustic treatments were given for 15 min, either before or during DR testing. The acoustic treatments did not affect DR performance when given before testing. However, Mozart's piano music played during DR testing caused a significant deterioration in the performance of the monkeys, whereas white noise improved it. It is suggested that Mozart's music serves as distractive stimulation during DR performance thus affecting working-memory-related neuronal processing and performance. White background noise, on the other hand, may improve DR performance by protecting against environmental distraction during testing.

  19. MUSIC TEMPO'S EFFECT ON EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: COMMENT ON DYER AND McKUNE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Priscila Missaki

    2015-06-01

    Dyer and McKune (2013) stated that music tempo has no influence on performance, physiological, and psychophysical variables in well-trained cyclists during high intensity endurance tasks. However, there are important limitations in the methodology of the study. The participants' music preferences and tempo change were not well measured. It is not possible to affirm that music tempo does not influence athletes' performance. Potential areas of future research include: (a) use of instruments to assess the qualities of music; (b) standardizing music of tempo according to exercise type (e.g., running, cycling, etc.); (c) considering training level of the participants (i.e., athletes and non-athletes); and (d) use of instruments to assess concentration during exercise.

  20. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    auditory interference. Motor imagery aided pitch accuracy overall when interference conditions were manipulated at encoding (Experiment 1) but not at retrieval (Experiment 2). Thus, skilled performers' imagery abilities had distinct influences on encoding and retrieval of musical sequences.

  1. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    auditory interference. Motor imagery aided pitch accuracy overall when interference conditions were manipulated at encoding (Experiment 1) but not at retrieval (Experiment 2). Thus, skilled performers' imagery abilities had distinct influences on encoding and retrieval of musical sequences. PMID:23847495

  2. The effect of music performance on the transcriptome of professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Kuusi, Tuire; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Järvelä, Irma

    2015-03-25

    Music performance by professional musicians involves a wide-spectrum of cognitive and multi-sensory motor skills, whose biological basis is unknown. Several neuroscientific studies have demonstrated that the brains of professional musicians and non-musicians differ structurally and functionally and that musical training enhances cognition. However, the molecules and molecular mechanisms involved in music performance remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the effect of music performance on the genome-wide peripheral blood transcriptome of professional musicians by analyzing the transcriptional responses after a 2-hr concert performance and after a 'music-free' control session. The up-regulated genes were found to affect dopaminergic neurotransmission, motor behavior, neuronal plasticity, and neurocognitive functions including learning and memory. Particularly, candidate genes such as SNCA, FOS and DUSP1 that are involved in song perception and production in songbirds, were identified, suggesting an evolutionary conservation in biological processes related to sound perception/production. Additionally, modulation of genes related to calcium ion homeostasis, iron ion homeostasis, glutathione metabolism, and several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases implied that music performance may affect the biological pathways that are otherwise essential for the proper maintenance of neuronal function and survival. For the first time, this study provides evidence for the candidate genes and molecular mechanisms underlying music performance.

  3. Music in CrossFit®—Influence on Performance, Physiological, and Psychological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Brupbacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining increasing popularity within the fitness sector, CrossFit® serves as an appealing and efficient high intensity training approach to develop strength and endurance on a functional level; and music is often utilized to produce ergogenic effects. The present randomized, controlled, crossover study aimed at investigating the effects of music vs. non-music on performance, physiological and psychological outcomes. Thirteen (age: 27.5, standard deviation (SD 6.2 years, healthy, moderately trained subjects performed four identical workouts over two weeks. The order of the four workouts (two with, and two without music, 20 min each was randomly assigned for each individual. Acute responses in work output, heart rate, blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion, perceived pain, and affective reaction were measured at the 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th min during the training sessions. Training with music resulted in a significantly lower work output (460.3 repetitions, SD 98.1 vs. 497.8 repetitions, SD 103.7; p = 0.03. All other parameters did not differ between both music conditions. This is partly in line with previous findings that instead of providing ergogenic effects, applying music during CrossFit® may serve as a more distractive stimulus. Future studies should separate the influence of music on a more individual basis with larger sample sizes.

  4. EFFECTS OF MUSIC TEACHER CANDIDATES’ ATTITUDES RELATED TO BOOK READING ON PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasan OKAY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Music education depends on processing complex applications by considering educational aims because of its nature. Deep and multi dimensional form of music performance requires a detailed teoritical substructure in every disciplines related to music making. Knowing well that teoritical substructure by musicians or music making learners/teachers effects directly deepness of musical cause and quality and so on achievement. These elements requires to be powered on that substructure for who are related to music making subject. Reading books whiches are about mentioned music making theoritical substructure is a affective way standing on the front of the elements that help everybody linked musicianship. This research aims to evaluate relationships of music candidates’ book reading attitudes with academic achievement of instrument or vocal performance lessons. “Öğretmen Adaylarının Kitap Okuma Alışkanlığına Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği” (The Attitudes Scale of of Teacher Candidates’ Reading Book Trends is used to gather data by taking permission Mrs. Kırmızı who developed this scale.

  5. The Development of Some Empirical Approaches to Integrating the Physicality of Musical Performance with the Philosophy of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.; Westney, William

    ), a neuroscientist and an engineer specializing in motion-capture technology. We introduced this study at last year's London NNIMIPA meeting, and much has happened since then: Inspired by prior work on musical gesture by Godøy, Leman, Jensenius and others, the research team is pursuing the investigation of musical...... meaning and expression by first distilling the movements of performing instrumentalists into the movements of their avatars generated by markered motion capture technology. This remediation of their performances reduces the movement and gesturing of the performers to something that is perceived far more...... the first rendition was to be played according to one specific instruction given by the researchers, and the second one according to a contrasting instruction. This pair of instructions was identical for all performers. The next phase of experimentation in May 2013 moved the motion capture results...

  6. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  7. Being Who You Aren't; Doing What You Can't: Community Music Therapy & the Paradoxes of Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Ansdell

    2005-01-01

    This article gives some introductory thoughts on the 'paradoxes of performance' in contemporary music therapy, through the perspective of the evolving practice and discourse of Community Music Therapy—where aspects of the practice, theory and ethics of performance in music therapy are currently being debated. The article looks at these aspects in two ways: firstly, through a case study of a Community Music Therapy project in East London which is being tracked as part of a larger research stud...

  8. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Anna; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a " bodily turn " in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we

  9. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  10. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  11. Supply Responses to Digital Distribution: Recorded Music and Live Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Holland Mortimer; Chris Nosko; Alan Sorensen

    2010-01-01

    Changes in technologies for reproducing and redistributing digital goods (e.g., music, movies, software, books) have dramatically affected profitability of these goods, and raised concerns for future development of socially valuable digital products. However, broader illegitimate distribution of digital goods may have offsetting demand implications for legitimate sales of complementary non-digital products. We examine the negative impact of file-sharing on recorded music sales and offsetting ...

  12. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state. PMID:29740300

  13. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians ( N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5-7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15-29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  14. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Boasen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG. However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG. With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13 in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  15. Development of a performance anxiety scale for music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çirakoğlu, Okan Cem; Şentürk, Gülce Çoskun

    2013-12-01

    In the present research, the Performance Anxiety Scale for Music Students (PASMS) was developed in three successive studies. In Study 1, the factor structure of PASMS was explored and three components were found: fear of stage (FES), avoidance (AVD) and symptoms (SMP). The internal consistency of the subscales of PASMS, which consisted of 27 items, varied between 0.89 and 0.91. The internal consistency for the whole scale was found to be 0.95. The correlations among PASMS and other anxiety-related measures were significant and in the expected direction, indicating that the scale has convergent validity. The construct validity of the scale was assessed in Study 2 by confirmatory factor analysis. After several revisions, the final tested model achieved acceptable fits. In Study 3, the 14-day test-retest reliability of the final 24-item version of PASMS was tested and found to be extremely high (0.95). In all three studies, the whole scale and subscale scores of females were significantly higher than for males.

  16. Motivational Constructs Influencing Undergraduate Students' Choices to become Classroom Music Teachers or Music Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether any of the six motivational constructs in the expectancy-value model of motivation (i.e., expectancy, ability perceptions, intrinsic interest value, attainment value, social utility value, and cost) would predict whether students intended to have a career teaching classroom music or…

  17. Performing on the top of one’s musical game:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunde Hatfield

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present mixed method study was to investigate personal benefits, perceptions, and the effect of a 15-week sport psychological skills training program adapted for musicians. The program was individually tailored for six music performance students with the objective of facilitating the participants’ instrumental practice and performance. The participants learnt techniques such as goal setting, attentional focus, arousal regulation, imagery and acceptance training/self-talk. Zimmerman’s (1989 cyclical model of self-regulated learning was applied as a theoretical frame for the intervention. The present study’s mixed-method approach (i.e., quan+ QUAL included effect size, semi-structured interviews, a research log, and practice diaries of the participants (Creswell, 2009. Thematic analysis revealed that participants had little or no experience concerning planning and goal setting in regard to instrumental practice. Concentration, volition, and physical pain were additional issues that the participants struggled with at the time of pre-intervention. The study found that psychological skills training (with special emphasis on planning and goal setting facilitated cyclical self-regulated learning patterns in the participants. In essence, the intervention was found to facilitate the participants’ concentration, self-observation, self-efficacy, and coping in the face of failure. The appliance of practice journals facilitated the participants` self-observation, self-evaluation, and awareness of instrumental practice. Finally, the psychological skills intervention reduced participants’ worry and anxiety in performance situations. An eight-month follow up interview revealed that the participants were still actively applying psychological skills.

  18. EFFECT OF MUSIC THERAPY ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION, PHYSICAL SELF EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Sharma; Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is increasingly used in sports for enhancing sport performance. It provides a mean of improving mental strength among sportspersons. The purpose of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation, physical self-efficacy and performance of female football players through music therapy. For this purpose, twenty two female football players, in the age group of 21-26 were screened on the basis of their scores on Sport Motivation Scale and Physical Self-Efficacy Scale. Then, they were ...

  19. Characteristics of A-150 plastic equivalent gas in A-150 plastic ionization chambers for p(66)Be(49) neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.; Ten Haken, R.K.; Pearson, D.W.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Attix, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The average energy necessary to produce an electron-ion pair (anti W) of a gas mixture having an atomic composition very close to that of A-150 plastic has been studied through use in different size ionization chambers made of that plastic in a p(66)Be(49) neutron therapy beam. A tentative value for anti W(A-150-gas) of 27.3 +/ -0.5 J C -1 was derived. The anti W value of the A-150 equivalent gas mixture is compared to those of methane-based tissue-equivalent gas and of air for the p(66)Be(49) neutron beam as well as to corresponding values found in similar experiments using 14.8 MeV monoenergetic neutrons

  20. Multimodal Detection of Music Performances for Intelligent Emotion Based Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Esben Oxholm Skjødt; Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Playing music is about conveying emotions and the lighting at a concert can help do that. However, new and unknown bands that play at smaller venues and bands that don’t have the budget to hire a dedicated light technician have to miss out on lighting that will help them to convey the emotions...... of what they play. In this paper it is investigated whether it is possible or not to develop an intelligent system that through a multimodal input detects the intended emotions of the played music and in realtime adjusts the lighting accordingly. A concept for such an intelligent lighting system...... is developed and described. Through existing research on music and emotion, as well as on musicians’ body movements related to the emotion they want to convey, a row of cues is defined. This includes amount, speed, fluency and regularity for the visual and level, tempo, articulation and timbre for the auditory...

  1. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5-4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  2. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eROCHETTE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5 to 4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically-trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  3. Investigating the Value of DJ Performance for Contemporary Music Education and Sensorimotor Synchronisation (SMS Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas MacCutcheon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to establish a more complete picture of the skills that might be accessed through learning to DJ and the potential value of those skills for music education. The first employed open-ended methods to explore perspectives on the value of DJing for music education. The second employed experimental methods to compare the ability of DJs to synchronise movement to auditory metronomes. Twenty-one participants (seven professionally trained musicians, seven informally trained DJs, seven non-musicians took part in both studies. Qualitative data suggested that all participant groups felt DJs learn valuable musical skills such as rhythm perception, instrumental skills, knowledge of musical structure, performance skills, and a majority agreed that DJing had equal relevance with other musical forms e.g. classical music. Quantitative data showed that informally trained DJs produced more regular timing intervals under baseline and distracting conditions than the other experimental groups. The implications of the findings for the inclusion of DJing into formal music curricula are discussed.

  4. Fit to Perform: An Investigation of Higher Education Music Students’ Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward Health

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Liliana S.; Wasley, David; Perkins, Rosie; Atkins, Louise; Redding, Emma; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Making music at the highest international standards can be rewarding, but it is also challenging, with research highlighting pernicious ways in which practicing and performing can affect performers’ health and wellbeing. Several studies indicate that music students’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health and healthy living are less than optimal, especially considering the multiple physical and psychological demands of their day-to-day work. This article presents the results of a ...

  5. Performing Our World: Affirming Cultural Diversity through Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a culturally responsive music curriculum through which students and teachers affirmed diverse stories of individuals present in our public school community. An arts-integrated curriculum project helped make learning more meaningful while concurrently creating a safe learning space for students. This grant-funded project…

  6. Intrinsic Motivation and Flow Condition on the Music Teacher's Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Delgado, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of these research is to identify if music teachers and teachers from other areas are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, to identify the dimensions of the flow state, and to identify if there is a relationship between intrinsic motivation and flow state in these teachers. The sample was made up of 738 active teachers. The presence of…

  7. Developing Musical Creativity through Improvisation in the Large Performance Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an ideal way to develop musical creativity in ensemble settings. This article describes two prominent theoretical frameworks related to improvisation. Next, based on research with developing and expert improvisers, it discusses how to sequence improvisatory activities so that students feel accomplished at every step. Finally, the…

  8. Whose Music of a Century? Performance, History and Multiple Voices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It's the small words that do the most cultural work. THE MUSIC OF A CENTURY, the title of the conference for which this paper was written, imputes a spurious singularity to a multiplicity of cultural practices, and begs the question of in whose interests this singularity is being constructed. An alternative question, 'WHOSE ...

  9. Performing with Tape: Music for Clarinet and Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errante, F. Gerard

    1985-01-01

    In the past several decades, clarinet repertoire has increased enormously. Many pieces have been written that explore the wide range of timbral effects developed in the late 1950s and 1960s. This interest in timbre is due in large measure to the explorations taking place in electronic music. (RM)

  10. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Braden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  11. Redundancy control in music performance : towards an understanding of the role of constraint satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, H.J.I.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated two redundancy control problems related to music performance, one in computer science and one in motor control research, viz., score-performance matching and guitar fingering. In score-performance matching, a score and a performance have to be compared note by note to find the

  12. Fit to Perform: An Investigation of Higher Education Music Students' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Liliana S; Wasley, David; Perkins, Rosie; Atkins, Louise; Redding, Emma; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Making music at the highest international standards can be rewarding, but it is also challenging, with research highlighting pernicious ways in which practicing and performing can affect performers' health and wellbeing. Several studies indicate that music students' perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health and healthy living are less than optimal, especially considering the multiple physical and psychological demands of their day-to-day work. This article presents the results of a comprehensive screening protocol that investigated lifestyle and health-related attitudes and behaviors among 483 undergraduate and postgraduate students (mean age = 21.29 years ± 3.64; 59% women) from ten conservatoires. The protocol included questionnaires measuring wellbeing, general health, health-promoting behaviors, perfectionism, coping, sleep quality, and fatigue. On each measure, the data were compared with existing published data from similar age groups. The results indicate that music students have higher levels of wellbeing and lower fatigue than comparable samples outside of music. However, they also reveal potentially harmful perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health. Specifically, engagement in health responsibility and stress management was low, which along with high perfectionistic strivings, limited use of coping strategies, poor sleep quality, and low self-rated health, paints a troubling picture both for the music students and for those who support their training. The findings point to the need for more (and more effective) health education and promotion initiatives within music education; in particular, musicians should be better equipped with mental skills to cope with constant pressure to excel and high stress levels. In part, this calls for musicians themselves to engage in healthier lifestyles, take greater responsibility for their own health, and be aware of and act upon health information in order to achieve and sustain successful practice

  13. Effect of youth culture music on high school students' academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J C; Collins, B R

    1975-03-01

    This study investigated the assumption that youth culture orientation adversely affects school performance, using rock music as the youth culture component. Adolescents in grades 9-12 were assigned to a subject matter topic in the area of literature, mathematics, physical science, or social science and requested to study this topic intensely for 30 min in a music condition consisting of rock, classical, or no music. The subjects then were tested on their retention of the factual content of the article either immediately after the study period, 1 day later, or 3 days later. Retention was significantly lower in the rock music condition. Students recalled more content in the literature topic and in the immediate test. The results are discussed with reference to a social learning theory interpretation of youth culture.

  14. Reversible blockade of complex I or inhibition of PKCβ reduces activation and mitochondria translocation of p66Shc to preserve cardiac function after ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Yang

    Full Text Available Excess mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS play a vital role in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR injury. P66Shc, a splice variant of the ShcA adaptor protein family, enhances mROS production by oxidizing reduced cytochrome c to yield H2O2. Ablation of p66Shc protects against IR injury, but it is unknown if and when p66Shc is activated during cardiac ischemia and/or reperfusion and if attenuating complex I electron transfer or deactivating PKCβ alters p66Shc activation during IR is associated with cardioprotection.Isolated guinea pig hearts were perfused and subjected to increasing periods of ischemia and reperfusion with or without amobarbital, a complex I blocker, or hispidin, a PKCβ inhibitor. Phosphorylation of p66Shc at serine 36 and levels of p66Shc in mitochondria and cytosol were measured. Cardiac functional variables and redox states were monitored online before, during and after ischemia. Infarct size was assessed in some hearts after 120 min reperfusion.Phosphorylation of p66Shc and its translocation into mitochondria increased during reperfusion after 20 and 30 min ischemia, but not during ischemia only, or during 5 or 10 min ischemia followed by 20 min reperfusion. Correspondingly, cytosolic p66Shc levels decreased during these ischemia and reperfusion periods. Amobarbital or hispidin reduced phosphorylation of p66Shc and its mitochondrial translocation induced by 30 min ischemia and 20 min reperfusion. Decreased phosphorylation of p66Shc by amobarbital or hispidin led to better functional recovery and less infarction during reperfusion.Our results show that IR activates p66Shc and that reversible blockade of electron transfer from complex I, or inhibition of PKCβ activation, decreases p66Shc activation and translocation and reduces IR damage. These observations support a novel potential therapeutic intervention against cardiac IR injury.

  15. Combining EEG, MIDI, and motion capture techniques for investigating musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidhof, Clemens; Kästner, Torsten; Makkonen, Tommi

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a setup for the simultaneous recording of electrophysiological data (EEG), musical data (MIDI), and three-dimensional movement data. Previously, each of these three different kinds of measurements, conducted sequentially, has been proven to provide important information about different aspects of music performance as an example of a demanding multisensory motor skill. With the method described here, it is possible to record brain-related activity and movement data simultaneously, with accurate timing resolution and at relatively low costs. EEG and MIDI data were synchronized with a modified version of the FTAP software, sending synchronization signals to the EEG recording device simultaneously with keypress events. Similarly, a motion capture system sent synchronization signals simultaneously with each recorded frame. The setup can be used for studies investigating cognitive and motor processes during music performance and music-like tasks--for example, in the domains of motor control, learning, music therapy, or musical emotions. Thus, this setup offers a promising possibility of a more behaviorally driven analysis of brain activity.

  16. Beethoven recordings reviewed: a systematic method for mapping the content of music performance criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Elena; Williamson, Victoria J; Eiholzer, Hubert; Williamon, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Critical reviews offer rich data that can be used to investigate how musical experiences are conceptualized by expert listeners. However, these data also present significant challenges in terms of organization, analysis, and interpretation. This study presents a new systematic method for examining written responses to music, tested on a substantial corpus of music criticism. One hundred critical reviews of Beethoven's piano sonata recordings, published in the Gramophone between August 1934 and July 2010, were selected using in-depth data reduction (qualitative/quantitative approach). The texts were then examined using thematic analysis in order to generate a visual descriptive model of expert critical review. This model reveals how the concept of evaluation permeates critical review. It also distinguishes between two types of descriptors. The first characterizes the performance in terms of specific actions or features of the musical sound (musical parameters, technique, and energy); the second appeals to higher-order properties (artistic style, character and emotion, musical structure, communicativeness) or assumed performer qualities (understanding, intentionality, spontaneity, sensibility, control, and care). The new model provides a methodological guide and conceptual basis for future studies of critical review in any genre.

  17. Exploratory factor analysis of Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI) in a Brazilian musician sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elisa Medeiros Barbar; José Alexandre de Souza; Flávia de Lima Osório

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI) is very significant among the available instruments which measures Musical Performance Anxiety (MPA). Objective The aim of this study is to find evidence of validity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its translated and adapted Brazilian version, through the study of its factor structure. Methods A convenience sample of 230 amateur musicians completed the K-MPAI. Results The initial facto...

  18. 37 CFR 253.4 - Performance of musical compositions by PBS, NPR and other public broadcasting entities engaged in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... background or theme music in a PBS program: 2003-2007 $56.81 (3) For performance of such a work in a feature... music in a program of a station of PBS: 2003-2007 $4.04 (5) For the performance of such a work in a... theme music in an NPR program: 2003-2007 $5.51 (7) For the performance of such a work in a feature...

  19. 37 CFR 381.4 - Performance of musical compositions by PBS, NPR and other public broadcasting entities engaged in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... background or theme music in a PBS program: 2008-2012 $57.66 (3) For performance of such a work in a feature... music in a program of a station of PBS: 2008-2012 $4.10 (5) For the performance of such a work in a... theme music in an NPR program: 2008-2012 $5.59 (7) For the performance of such a work in a feature...

  20. Fit to Perform: An Investigation of Higher Education Music Students’ Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Liliana S.; Wasley, David; Perkins, Rosie; Atkins, Louise; Redding, Emma; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Making music at the highest international standards can be rewarding, but it is also challenging, with research highlighting pernicious ways in which practicing and performing can affect performers’ health and wellbeing. Several studies indicate that music students’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health and healthy living are less than optimal, especially considering the multiple physical and psychological demands of their day-to-day work. This article presents the results of a comprehensive screening protocol that investigated lifestyle and health-related attitudes and behaviors among 483 undergraduate and postgraduate students (mean age = 21.29 years ± 3.64; 59% women) from ten conservatoires. The protocol included questionnaires measuring wellbeing, general health, health-promoting behaviors, perfectionism, coping, sleep quality, and fatigue. On each measure, the data were compared with existing published data from similar age groups. The results indicate that music students have higher levels of wellbeing and lower fatigue than comparable samples outside of music. However, they also reveal potentially harmful perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health. Specifically, engagement in health responsibility and stress management was low, which along with high perfectionistic strivings, limited use of coping strategies, poor sleep quality, and low self-rated health, paints a troubling picture both for the music students and for those who support their training. The findings point to the need for more (and more effective) health education and promotion initiatives within music education; in particular, musicians should be better equipped with mental skills to cope with constant pressure to excel and high stress levels. In part, this calls for musicians themselves to engage in healthier lifestyles, take greater responsibility for their own health, and be aware of and act upon health information in order to achieve and sustain successful

  1. Fit to Perform: An Investigation of Higher Education Music Students’ Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana S. Araújo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Making music at the highest international standards can be rewarding, but it is also challenging, with research highlighting pernicious ways in which practicing and performing can affect performers’ health and wellbeing. Several studies indicate that music students’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health and healthy living are less than optimal, especially considering the multiple physical and psychological demands of their day-to-day work. This article presents the results of a comprehensive screening protocol that investigated lifestyle and health-related attitudes and behaviors among 483 undergraduate and postgraduate students (mean age = 21.29 years ± 3.64; 59% women from ten conservatoires. The protocol included questionnaires measuring wellbeing, general health, health-promoting behaviors, perfectionism, coping, sleep quality, and fatigue. On each measure, the data were compared with existing published data from similar age groups. The results indicate that music students have higher levels of wellbeing and lower fatigue than comparable samples outside of music. However, they also reveal potentially harmful perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health. Specifically, engagement in health responsibility and stress management was low, which along with high perfectionistic strivings, limited use of coping strategies, poor sleep quality, and low self-rated health, paints a troubling picture both for the music students and for those who support their training. The findings point to the need for more (and more effective health education and promotion initiatives within music education; in particular, musicians should be better equipped with mental skills to cope with constant pressure to excel and high stress levels. In part, this calls for musicians themselves to engage in healthier lifestyles, take greater responsibility for their own health, and be aware of and act upon health information in order to achieve and

  2. Relationship between musical characteristics and temporal breathing pattern in piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Sakaguchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon’s exercise, J. S. Bach’s Invention, Mozart’s Sonatas, and Debussy’s Clair de lune, was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. 1 Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. 2 Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. 3 Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise, but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. 4 Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. 5 Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  3. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  4. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules

  5. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ivan Giraldo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1 quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2 analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3 discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4 assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules’ performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the

  6. A Machine Learning Approach to Discover Rules for Expressive Performance Actions in Jazz Guitar Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Sergio I; Ramirez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Expert musicians introduce expression in their performances by manipulating sound properties such as timing, energy, pitch, and timbre. Here, we present a data driven computational approach to induce expressive performance rule models for note duration, onset, energy, and ornamentation transformations in jazz guitar music. We extract high-level features from a set of 16 commercial audio recordings (and corresponding music scores) of jazz guitarist Grant Green in order to characterize the expression in the pieces. We apply machine learning techniques to the resulting features to learn expressive performance rule models. We (1) quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the induced models, (2) analyse the relative importance of the considered musical features, (3) discuss some of the learnt expressive performance rules in the context of previous work, and (4) assess their generailty. The accuracies of the induced predictive models is significantly above base-line levels indicating that the audio performances and the musical features extracted contain sufficient information to automatically learn informative expressive performance patterns. Feature analysis shows that the most important musical features for predicting expressive transformations are note duration, pitch, metrical strength, phrase position, Narmour structure, and tempo and key of the piece. Similarities and differences between the induced expressive rules and the rules reported in the literature were found. Differences may be due to the fact that most previously studied performance data has consisted of classical music recordings. Finally, the rules' performer specificity/generality is assessed by applying the induced rules to performances of the same pieces performed by two other professional jazz guitar players. Results show a consistency in the ornamentation patterns between Grant Green and the other two musicians, which may be interpreted as a good indicator for generality of the ornamentation rules.

  7. Exploratory Study on the Impact of Information on Performance Psychology on Stress and Anxiety Levels of Brazilian Music Performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of information on psychology of music on Stress and Anxiety Levels of Brazilian students of music performance, both undergraduate and graduate, and cross information on their levels of stress and anxiety. It includes an investigation on curricular programs of Brazilian public universities based on previous investigation by the authors (RAY; et al, 2011. The main goals: 1 to investigate how much information Brazilian music performance students has access to access during their courses; and 2 to identify potential indicators of the impact this information may have on the levels of stress and anxiety in the performances of these students; Methodology:  Students from six Brazilian public universities were requested to fill out three forms: the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI; the Inventory of Stress Symptoms LIPP and an additional form that investigated the participants routine for preparation to performance. Results: information on music performance psychology is only presented privately at teacher’s discretion. As compulsory classes have not been included in the curriculum, it was not possible to infer results on this subject. More than half of the participants (51,72% don’t present stress condition. Almost half of them (48,27% have some level of stress. All participants fit within some level of anxiety.

  8. The Effect of Body Movement on Listeners' Perceptions of Musicality in Trombone Quartet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect body movement would have on listeners' (N = 90) perceptions of a professional chamber ensemble performance. Specifically, an audio/video recording of a trombone quartet performance was used for the music stimulus. Listeners were asked to rate each performance on the basis of perceived…

  9. Different Mental Rotation Performance in Students of Music, Sport and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Jansen, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effect of long-term physical and musical activity on spatial cognitive performance, measured by mental rotation performance, is investigated in detail. Mental rotation performance is the ability to rotate a three-dimensional object using the imagination. Three groups, each consisting of 40 students, and divided by the subjects,…

  10. How does Architecture Sound for Different Musical Instrument Performances?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saher, Konca; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses how consideration of sound _in particular a specific musical instrument_ impacts the design of a room. Properly designed architectural acoustics is fundamental to improve the listening experience of an instrument in rooms in a conservatory. Six discrete instruments (violin, c...... different instruments and the choir experience that could fit into same category of room. For all calculations and the auralizations, a computational model is used: ODEON 7.0....

  11. Performing Leadership: Observations from the World of Music

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Bathurst; Donna Ladkin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores leadership as an emergent social process. We begin by discussing and contesting the tradition privileging linear management processes, and offer as a counterpoint accounts of distributed leadership out of which our focus on leadership as a plural process grows. Our concept of leadership as a plural process is enriched by an inquiry into musical ensembles with formal leaders as well as those which are leaderless that find ways of moving collectively towards shared goals. Th...

  12. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  13. The Apprehension and views of the students of music education department about studio recording performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaattin CANBAY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Being individually staged of music has been a performance process that always requires intensive concentration, attention and long - running work for performers. At the end of this process, generally during their performance, musicians feel apprehensive and excited about some reasons like carrying out work's musical and technical factors properly and sense of being appreciated by audiences. In many surveys, it is known that ,in concerts and their own instrument exams, the apprehension of undergraduate student s of music education department ,who have experienced this process, affects their performances negatively. Thus, the aim of this study is to specify the music education undergraduate students' apprehension level before a studio recording that needs a very special performance according to different variables. Also in this study, students' views about their studio recording experiences are taken. In the study, descriptive research is used and the technical qualitative research is imposed. In the study carried out for two months, working party is designated by the students of Çomu - Faculty of Education, Department of Fine arts education, Department of music education.

  14. Context and meter enhance long-range planning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eMathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural responses demonstrate evidence of resonance, or oscillation, during the production of periodic auditory events. Music contains periodic auditory events that give rise to a sense of beat, which in turn generates a sense of meter on the basis of multiple periodicities. Metrical hierarchies may aid memory for music by facilitating similarity-based associations among sequence events at different periodic distances that unfold in longer contexts. A fundamental question is how metrical associations arising from a musical context influence memory during music performance. Longer contexts may facilitate metrical associations at higher hierarchical levels more than shorter contexts, a prediction of the range model, a formal model of planning processes in music performance (Palmer and Pfordresher, 2003; Pfordresher et al., 2007. Serial ordering errors, in which intended sequence events are produced in incorrect sequence positions, were measured as skilled pianists performed musical pieces that contained excerpts embedded in long or short musical contexts. Pitch errors arose from metrically similar positions and further sequential distances more often when the excerpt was embedded in long contexts compared to short contexts. Musicians’ keystroke intensities and error rates also revealed influences of metrical hierarchies, which differed for performances in long and short contexts. The range model accounted for contextual effects and provided better fits to empirical findings when metrical associations between sequence events were included. Longer sequence contexts may facilitate planning during sequence production by increasing conceptual similarity between hierarchically associated events. These findings are consistent with the notion that neural oscillations at multiple periodicities may strengthen metrical associations across sequence events during planning.

  15. A study on Improvisation in a Musical performance using Multifractal Detrended Cross Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shankha; Banerjee, Archi; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-11-01

    MFDFA (the most rigorous technique to assess multifractality) was performed on four Hindustani music samples played on same 'raga' sung by the same performer. Each music sample was divided into six parts and 'multifractal spectral width' was determined for each part corresponding to the four samples. The results obtained reveal that different parts of all the four sound signals possess spectral width of widely varying values. This gives a cue of the so called 'musical improvisation' in all music samples, keeping in mind they belong to the bandish part of the same raga. Formal compositions in Hindustani raga are juxtaposed with the improvised portions, where an artist manoeuvers his/her own creativity to bring out a mood that is specific for that particular performance, which is known as 'improvisation'. Further, this observation hints at the association of different emotions even in the same bandish of the same raga performed by the same artist, this interesting observation cannot be revealed unless rigorous non-linear technique explores the nature of musical structure. In the second part, we applied MFDXA technique to explore more in-depth about 'improvisation' and association with emotion. This technique is applied to find the degree of cross-correlation (γx) between the different parts of the samples. Pronounced correlation has been observed in the middle parts of the all the four samples evident from higher values of γx ​whereas the other parts show weak correlation. This gets further support from the values of spectral width from different parts of the sample - width of those parts is significantly different from other parts. This observation is extremely new both in respect of musical structure of so called improvisation and associated emotion. The importance of this study in application area of cognitive music therapy is immense.

  16. Influence of fitness and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity to musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, David; Taylor, Adrian; Backx, Karianne; Williamon, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the relationships between physical activity and fitness and reactivity to a musical performance stressor (MPS). Numerous studies suggest that being fitter and more physically active has a beneficial effect on individuals' cardiovascular responses to laboratory-based mental challenges. The results are equivocal regarding the transfer of such benefits to real world contexts such as musical performance. Forty six advanced music students completed this assessment. All participants completed a 20-min pre-performance assessment of heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and blood pressure. Participants also completed baseline measures and a sub-maximal fitness assessment on a separate day. A positive association between fitness and HR pre-MPS was found. Fitness was also positively associated with root mean square SD RR(interval) before the MPS. Higher fitness was related to lower state anxiety post-MPS. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to classical musicians' day-to-day work and performance.

  17. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Einarsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a “bodily turn” in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014 and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016 in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction—and embodied mental simulation—of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances

  18. Effects of Relaxing Music on Mental Fatigue Induced by a Continuous Performance Task: Behavioral and ERPs Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Ren, Jie; Wang, Biye; Zhu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether listening to relaxing music would help reduce mental fatigue and to maintain performance after a continuous performance task. The experiment involved two fatigue evaluation phases carried out before and after a fatigue inducing phase. A 1-hour AX-continuous performance test was used to induce mental fatigue in the fatigue-inducing phase, and participants' subjective evaluation on the mental fatigue, as well as their neurobehavioral performance in a Go/NoGo task, were measured before and after the fatigue-inducing phase. A total of 36 undergraduate students (18-22 years) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the music group and control group. The music group performed the fatigue-inducing task while listening to relaxing music, and the control group performed the same task without any music. Our results revealed that after the fatigue-inducing phase, (a) the music group demonstrated significantly less mental fatigue than control group, (b) reaction time significantly increased for the control group but not for the music group, (c) larger Go-P3 and NoGo-P3 amplitudes were observed in the music group, although larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes were detected for both groups. These results combined to suggest that listening to relaxing music alleviated the mental fatigue associated with performing an enduring cognitive-motor task.

  19. The effect of improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on reducing pianists' music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngshin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two music therapy approaches, improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on ameliorating the symptoms of music performance anxiety (MPA) among student pianists. Thirty female college pianists (N = 30) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) improvised music-assisted desensitization group (n = 15), or (b) music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and imagery group (n = 15). All participants received 6 weekly music therapy sessions according to their assigned group. Two lab performances were provided; one before and one after the 6 music therapy sessions, as the performance stimuli for MPA. All participants completed pretest and posttest measures that included four types of visual analogue scales (MPA, stress, tension, and comfort), the state portion of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Music Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (MPAQ) developed by Lehrer, Goldman, and Strommen (1990). Participants' finger temperatures were also measured. When results of the music-assisted PMR and imagery condition were compared from pretest to posttest, statistically significant differences occurred in 6 out of the 7 measures-MPA, tension, comfort, STAI, MPAQ, and finger temperature, indicating that the music-assisted PMR and imagery treatment was very successful in reducing MPA. For the improvisation-assisted desensitization condition, the statistically significant decreases in tension and STAI, with increases in finger temperature indicated that this approach was effective in managing MPA to some extent. When the difference scores for the two approaches were compared, there was no statistically significant difference between the two approaches for any of the seven measures. Therefore, no one treatment condition appeared more effective than the other. Although statistically significant differences were not found between

  20. The effect of music on 10-km cycle time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Jana; Foster, Carl; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose; de Koning, Jos J; Mikat, Richard P; Hendrix, Charles R; Porcari, John P

    2013-01-01

    Music is widely used as an ergogenic aid in sport, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness during closed-loop athletic events. In order to determine the effectiveness of music as an ergogenic aid, well-trained and task-habituated cyclists performed 10-km cycle time trials either while listening to self-selected motivational music or with auditory input blocked. There were no statistically significant differences in performance time or physiological or psychological markers related to music (time-trial duration17.75 ± 2.10 vs 17.81 ± 2.06 min, mean power output 222 ± 66 vs 220 ± 65 W, peak heart rate184 ± 9 vs 183 ± 8 beats/min, peak blood lactate12.1 ± 2.6 vs 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol/L, and final rating of perceived exertion 8.4 ± 1.5 vs 8.5 ± 1.6). It is concluded that during exercise at competitive intensity, there is no meaningful effect of music on either performance or physiology.

  1. The Rehearsal and Performance of Holiday Music: Philosophical Issues in "Stratechuk v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, William M.

    2016-01-01

    This philosophical study addresses the implications of the legal case "Stratechuk v. Board of Education" ruling that a policy prohibiting the performance of religious-themed holiday music did not violate the United States Constitution. Two questions are investigated: the differences between the classroom study and public performance of…

  2. Narrative and Music: A Flexible Partnership on the Performing Stage and in the Rehearsal Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.; Westney, WIlliam

    2011-01-01

    As is indicated by the title, this presentation deals with implemented narrativity on two fronts within the complex process of live musical performance: a “concert story” told by the musician in front of the live audience in the performance situation and a structured complex of verbal and non-ver...

  3. Connecting Music Education and Virtual Performance Practices from YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayari, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    The Internet has inspired musicians to explore technologies to produce recorded music performances. Social media sites like YouTube provide spaces for musicians to share their works, and the advances of technologies that afford venues and opportunities for performers to share their crafts. As amateur Internet musicians develop practices to create…

  4. Effects of dopaminergic and subthalamic stimulation on musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris T; Schüpbach, Michael; Altenmüller, Eckart; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Hälbig, Thomas D

    2013-05-01

    Although subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an efficient treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on fine motor functions are not clear. We present the case of a professional violinist with PD treated with STN-DBS. DBS improved musical articulation, intonation and emotional expression and worsened timing relative to a timekeeper (metronome). The same effects were found for dopaminergic treatment. These results suggest that STN-DBS, mimicking the effects of dopaminergic stimulation, improves fine-tuned motor behaviour whilst impairing timing precision.

  5. Redundancy control in music performance : towards an understanding of the role of constraint satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heijink, H.J.I.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated two redundancy control problems related to music performance, one in computer science and one in motor control research, viz., score-performance matching and guitar fingering. In score-performance matching, a score and a performance have to be compared note by note to find the optimal correspondence between the two. There are exponentially many possible correspondences, but we found that a general algorithmic technique that uses structural information in the score performs wel...

  6. Awake Surgery for a Violin Player: Monitoring Motor and Music Performance, A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitória; Vos, Sandra H; Idelberger, Reinhard; Gans, Pauline; Doorduin, Jonne; Ter Laan, Mark

    2018-02-27

    We report the case of a professional violin player who underwent an awake craniotomy to resect a tumor in the left supplementary motor area, an area involved in motor planning. A careful pre- and intraoperative monitoring plan for music performance and complex motor function was established that could be used in combination with cortical stimulation. The patient suffered an epileptic seizure during cortical stimulation. The monitoring of complex motor and musical functions was implemented with the patient playing the violin while the resection was performed. Almost complete resection was achieved with no notable postoperative deficits contributing to functional impairment. The multidisciplinary approach, involving neurosurgery, neuropsychology, anesthesiology, and clinical neurophysiology, allowed us to successfully cope with the theoretical and practical challenges associated with tailored care for a professional musician. The music and motor monitoring plan is reported in detail to enable other sites to reproduce and adapt it accordingly.

  7. Auditory feedback and memory for music performance: sound evidence for an encoding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Steven A; Palmer, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Research on the effects of context and task on learning and memory has included approaches that emphasize processes during learning (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975) and approaches that emphasize a match of conditions during learning with conditions during a later test of memory (e.g., Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977; Proteau, 1992; Tulving & Thomson, 1973). We investigated the effects of auditory context on learning and retrieval in three experiments on memorized music performance (a form of serial recall). Auditory feedback (presence or absence) was manipulated while pianists learned musical pieces from notation and when they later played the pieces from memory. Auditory feedback during learning significantly improved later recall. However, auditory feedback at test did not significantly affect recall, nor was there an interaction between conditions at learning and test. Auditory feedback in music performance appears to be a contextual factor that affects learning but is relatively independent of retrieval conditions.

  8. Attitudes and Perspectives of Teacher Performers on Pedagogy and Perceived Student Learning in the Elementary and Secondary School Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, John L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the lives of three active music teacher performers and how their performing experience impacted pedagogy and perceived student learning in the classroom. At the time of data collection, one participant was a full-time elementary school music teacher, and the other two participants were full-time secondary school music…

  9. SUBJECTIVITY AND HYBRIDITY IN THE AGE OF INTERACTIVE INTERNET MEDIA: THE MUSICAL PERFORMANCES OF CHARICE PEMPENGCO AND ARNEL PINEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi-Anne Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines hybrid subjectivity in the performances by and in the reception of musical artists utilizing the technology of interactive Internet media. It focuses on the career trajectories of the popular Filipino music performers Charice Pempengco and Arnel Pineda, taking into account how their transnational presence and dissemination through internet media communities affect perceptions of locality, nationality and race.

  10. Simulating and stimulating performance: Introducing distributed simulation to enhance musical learning and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron eWilliamon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Musicians typically rehearse far away from their audiences and in practice rooms that differ significantly from the concert venues in which they aspire to perform. Due to the high costs and inaccessibility of such venues, much current international music training lacks repeated exposure to realistic performance situations, with students learning all too late (or not at all how to manage performance stress and the demands of their audiences. Virtual environments have been shown to be an effective training tool in the fields of medicine and sport, offering practitioners access to real-life performance scenarios but with lower risk of negative evaluation and outcomes. The aim of this research was to design and test the efficacy of simulated performance environments in which conditions of real performance could be recreated. Advanced violin students (n=11 were recruited to perform in two simulations: a solo recital with a small virtual audience and an audition situation with three expert virtual judges. Each simulation contained back-stage and on-stage areas, life-sized interactive virtual observers, and pre- and post-performance protocols designed to match those found at leading international performance venues. Participants completed a questionnaire on their experiences of using the simulations. Results show that both simulated environments offered realistic experience of performance contexts and were rated particularly useful for developing performance skills. For a subset of 7 violinists, state anxiety and electrocardiographic data were collected during the simulated audition and an actual audition with real judges. Results display comparable levels of reported state anxiety and patterns of heart rate variability in both situations, suggesting that responses to the simulated audition closely approximate those of a real audition. The findings are discussed in relation to their implications, both generalizable and individual-specific, for

  11. Simulating and stimulating performance: introducing distributed simulation to enhance musical learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamon, Aaron; Aufegger, Lisa; Eiholzer, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Musicians typically rehearse far away from their audiences and in practice rooms that differ significantly from the concert venues in which they aspire to perform. Due to the high costs and inaccessibility of such venues, much current international music training lacks repeated exposure to realistic performance situations, with students learning all too late (or not at all) how to manage performance stress and the demands of their audiences. Virtual environments have been shown to be an effective training tool in the fields of medicine and sport, offering practitioners access to real-life performance scenarios but with lower risk of negative evaluation and outcomes. The aim of this research was to design and test the efficacy of simulated performance environments in which conditions of "real" performance could be recreated. Advanced violin students (n = 11) were recruited to perform in two simulations: a solo recital with a small virtual audience and an audition situation with three "expert" virtual judges. Each simulation contained back-stage and on-stage areas, life-sized interactive virtual observers, and pre- and post-performance protocols designed to match those found at leading international performance venues. Participants completed a questionnaire on their experiences of using the simulations. Results show that both simulated environments offered realistic experience of performance contexts and were rated particularly useful for developing performance skills. For a subset of 7 violinists, state anxiety and electrocardiographic data were collected during the simulated audition and an actual audition with real judges. Results display comparable levels of reported state anxiety and patterns of heart rate variability in both situations, suggesting that responses to the simulated audition closely approximate those of a real audition. The findings are discussed in relation to their implications, both generalizable and individual-specific, for performance training.

  12. Relational invariance of expressive microstructure across global tempo changes in music performance: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, B H

    1994-01-01

    This study addressed the question of whether the expressive microstructure of a music performance remains relationally invariant across moderate (musically acceptable) changes in tempo. Two pianists played Schumann's "Träumerei" three times at each of three tempi on a digital piano, and the performance data were recorded in MIDI format. In a perceptual test, musically trained listeners attempted to distinguish the original performances from performances that had been artificially speeded up or slowed down to the same overall duration. Accuracy in this task was barely above chance, suggesting that relational invariance was largely preserved. Subsequent analysis of the MIDI data confirmed that each pianist's characteristic timing patterns were highly similar across the three tempi, although there were statistically significant deviations from perfect relational invariance. The timing of (relatively slow) grace notes seemed relationally invariant, but selective examination of other detailed temporal features (chord asynchrony, tone overlap, pedal timing) revealed no systematic scaling with tempo. Finally, although the intensity profile seemed unaffected by tempo, a slight overall increase in intensity with tempo was observed. Effects of musical structure on expressive microstructure were large and pervasive at all levels, as were individual differences between the two pianists. For the specific composition and range of tempi considered here, these results suggest that major (cognitively controlled) temporal and dynamic features of a performance change roughly in proportion with tempo, whereas minor features tend to be governed by tempo-independent motoric constraints.

  13. The contribution of intimate live music performances to the quality of life for persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vleuten, Maaike; Visser, Adriaan; Meeuwesen, Ludwien

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intimate live music performances delivered by professional singers on the quality of life of persons with mild and severe dementia in nursing homes. A sample of 54 persons with varying degrees of dementia participated in the study. Complete data sets are available for 45 persons. Using a quasi-experimental design, quality of life was assessed on the dimensions of participation (human contact, care relationship and communication) and mental well-being (positive emotions, negative emotions and communication). Observational rating scales were completed by caregivers and family after the performance. Intimate live music performances have a positive effect on human contact, care relationships, positive emotions and negative emotions, especially for the mild dementia group. They lead to improved human contact, better communication, more positive and less negative emotions, and an improved relationship between caregiver and receiver. Intimate live music performances are an inexpensive, non-invasive, feasible way to improve a deteriorating quality of life for persons suffering from dementia. This form of supplementary care may also alleviate the task of caregivers. Nursing homes should make more use of intimate live music performances as forms of complementary care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of expert performance microtiming on listeners’ experience of groove in swing or funk music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Senn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' groove experience. Two professional rhythm section (bass/drums performances in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several magnitude levels. Music expert (n=79 and non-expert (n=81 listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation. Findings show that music expert listeners were more sensitive to microtiming manipulations than non-experts. Across both expertise groups and for both styles, groove ratings were high for microtiming magnitudes equal or smaller than those originally performed and decreased for exaggerated microtiming magnitudes. In particular, both the fully quantized music and the music with the originally performed microtiming pattern were rated equally high on groove. This means that neither the claims of PD theory (that microtiming deviations are necessary for groove nor the opposing exactitude hypothesis (that microtiming deviations are detrimental to groove were supported by the data.

  15. Immediate effects of Alpha/theta and Sensory-Motor Rhythm feedback on music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, J H; Hirst, L; Holmes, P; Leach, J

    2014-07-01

    This is one of a series of investigations comparing two EEG-neurofeedback protocols - Alpha/theta (A/T) and Sensory-Motor Rhythm (SMR) - for performance enhancement in the Arts, here with the focus on music. The original report (Egner and Gruzelier, 2003) established a beneficial outcome for elite conservatoire musicians following A/T training in two investigations. Subsequently this A/T advantage was replicated for both advanced instrumental and novice singing abilities, including improvisation, while SMR training benefited novice performance only (Gruzelier, Holmes et al., 2014). Here we report a replication of the latter study in university instrumentalists who as before were novice singers with one design change - post-training performances were conducted within the tenth final session instead of on a subsequent occasion. As before expert judges rated the domains of Creativity/Musicality, Communication/Presentation and Technique. The proximity to training of the music performances within the last session likely compromised gains from A/T learning, but perhaps reinforced the impact of SMR training efficacy. In support of validation there was evidence of strong within- and across-session A/T learning and positive linear trends for across-session SMR/theta and SMR/beta-2 ratio learning. In support of mediation learning correlated with music performance. The A/T outcome was markedly discrepant from previous studies and should dispel any impression that the hypnogogic state itself is transferred to the performance context. The effects of SMR ratio training are consistent with an impact on lower-order abilities required in novice performance such as sustained attention and memory, and benefiting all three domains of music assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interventions for music performance anxiety: results from a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Burin

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Music performance anxiety (MPA is characterised by fears related to performing music. It may result in damages to personal life and professional career, so treatment and prevention are very important. Objective To undertake a systematic literature review on the effectiveness/efficacy of MPA interventions and to integrate these findings to those in the literature reviewed previously. Methods We used PubMed, PsycINFO and SciELO databases and keywords music*, performance anxiety, treatment, therapy and intervention and manual research. We selected articles published between October-2002/July-2016. Results Out of 97 articles, 23 were reviewed. Sixteen studies presented inter-group experimental design, and seven presented pre-post experimental design. The intervention modalities reviewed were cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, virtual reality exposure, biofeedback, yoga, meditation, music therapy and the Alexander technique. Although the interventions presented some indicators of efficacy in the MPA outcomes and improvement in performance quality, important methodological limitations were observed: low number of individuals and non-specific criteria for their inclusion/exclusion. This reinforces previous findings regarding methodological fragilities associated with this context. Discussion CBT is the most frequently studied modality and with the greatest number of effectiveness indicators. The remaining modalities indicate tendencies in positive outcomes that require further and efficient investigation in more rigorous studies with greater methodological control.

  17. The Effect of Concurrent Music Reading and Performance on the Ability to Detect Tempo Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark Carlton

    1989-01-01

    Measures the ability of three groups of musicians to detect tempo change while reading and performing music. Compares this ability with that of the same musicians to detect tempo change while listening only. Found that for all groups the ability to detect tempo changes was inhibited by the playing task, although to different degrees for each…

  18. How Parents' and Teachers' Emotional Skills Foster Academic Performance in School Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campayo-Muñoz, Emilia; Cabedo-Mas, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the importance and effects of parents' and teachers' attitudes on students' academic performance in music. To this end, the research literature on the effects of parental and teacher behaviour on the behaviour of their children and students is reviewed, focusing on parents' and teachers' emotional skills. The review looks at…

  19. The Effects of Performance Quality Ratings on Perceptions of Instrumental Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Jacqueline C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the perceptions of observers instructed to rate the quality of students' performances within ensemble rehearsals and applied lessons differ from those not so instructed. Music education majors (N = 52) wrote statements of observation during their viewing of a stimulus tape. All participants were informed of…

  20. The Performing Arts: Music, Dance, and Theater in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralek, Derry

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mimi Brodsky Chenfeld, a longtime early childhood teacher, author, teacher educator, and advocate for integrating the arts with every aspect of the curriculum. In this interview, Chenfeld shares her thoughts about the performing arts: music, dance, and theater. She explains why it is important for young…

  1. From Network to Research – Ten Years of Music Informatics, Performance and Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Søren; Grund, Cynthia M.; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the history of the Nordic Network of Music Informatics, Performance and Aesthetics (NNIMIPA) and its roots in previous research networks and milieus. It explains how a cross-disciplinary network works and gives rise to research projects that bridge the gap between...

  2. Experience Playing a Musical Instrument and Overnight Sleep Enhance Performance on a Sequential Typing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Nguyen, Nam; Stickgold, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The smooth, coordinated fine motor movements required to play a musical instrument are not only highly valued in our society; they also predict academic success in areas that generalize beyond the motor domain, including reading and math readiness, and verbal abilities. Interestingly, motor skills that overlap with those required to play a musical instrument (e.g., sequential finger tapping) markedly improve (get faster) over a night of sleep, but not after a day spent awake. Here we studied whether individuals who play musical instruments that require fine finger motor skill are better able to learn and consolidate a simple motor skill task compared to those who do not play an instrument, and whether sleep-specific motor skill benefits interact with those imparted by musical experience. We used the motor sequence task (MST), which taps into a core skill learned and used by musicians, namely, the repetition of learned sequences of key presses. Not surprisingly, we found that musicians were faster than non-musicians throughout the learning session, typing more correct sequences per 30-sec trial. In the 12hrs that followed learning we found that sleep and musical experience both led to greater improvement in performance. Surprisingly, musicians retested after a day of wake performed slightly better than non-musicians who had slept between training and retest, suggesting that musicians have the capacity to consolidate a motor skill across waking hours, while non-musicians appear to lack this capacity. These findings suggest that the musically trained brain is optimized for motor skill consolidation across both wake and sleep, and that sleep may simply promote a more effective use of this machinery. In sum, there may be something special about musicians, perhaps a neurophysiological advantage, that leads to both the expected-greater motor speed at learning-and the surprising-greater motor skill improvement over time.

  3. Experience Playing a Musical Instrument and Overnight Sleep Enhance Performance on a Sequential Typing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Tucker

    Full Text Available The smooth, coordinated fine motor movements required to play a musical instrument are not only highly valued in our society; they also predict academic success in areas that generalize beyond the motor domain, including reading and math readiness, and verbal abilities. Interestingly, motor skills that overlap with those required to play a musical instrument (e.g., sequential finger tapping markedly improve (get faster over a night of sleep, but not after a day spent awake. Here we studied whether individuals who play musical instruments that require fine finger motor skill are better able to learn and consolidate a simple motor skill task compared to those who do not play an instrument, and whether sleep-specific motor skill benefits interact with those imparted by musical experience. We used the motor sequence task (MST, which taps into a core skill learned and used by musicians, namely, the repetition of learned sequences of key presses. Not surprisingly, we found that musicians were faster than non-musicians throughout the learning session, typing more correct sequences per 30-sec trial. In the 12hrs that followed learning we found that sleep and musical experience both led to greater improvement in performance. Surprisingly, musicians retested after a day of wake performed slightly better than non-musicians who had slept between training and retest, suggesting that musicians have the capacity to consolidate a motor skill across waking hours, while non-musicians appear to lack this capacity. These findings suggest that the musically trained brain is optimized for motor skill consolidation across both wake and sleep, and that sleep may simply promote a more effective use of this machinery. In sum, there may be something special about musicians, perhaps a neurophysiological advantage, that leads to both the expected-greater motor speed at learning-and the surprising-greater motor skill improvement over time.

  4. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  5. Expressive Timing, Musical Tension, and Listener-Performer Synchronicity: Commentary on Ohriner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gingras

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ohriner (this volume empirically investigated the ability of listeners to rhythmically entrain to performances of Chopin's mazurkas and suggested that performers can manipulate listeners' expectations and influence their perceived musical tension by using eccentric or unpredictable patterns of tempo variation. In this commentary, I attempt to situate Ohriner's research in a broader context, while elaborating on his findings and proposing alternative interpretations in some cases. I suggest that, although mazurkas are particularly suitable for a study of entrainment due to their clear metrical structure, it would be appropriate to study musical genres in which the metrical structure is obscure or even absent. I also question Ohriner's interpretation of a lack of synchronicity as being predominantly associated with negative emotions. Furthermore, in order to examine more rigorously the influence of synchronicity on perceived musical tension, I present a controlled experimental design to disentangle the effects of tempo and rubato, which would involve measuring both entrainment and musical tension while asking participants to rate the perceived eccentricity of the performances.

  6. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, Charles J; Braun, Allen R

    2008-02-27

    To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences) was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar) cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance) as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone). This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  7. Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Limb

    Full Text Available To investigate the neural substrates that underlie spontaneous musical performance, we examined improvisation in professional jazz pianists using functional MRI. By employing two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity, we found that improvisation (compared to production of over-learned musical sequences was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex: extensive deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbital regions with focal activation of the medial prefrontal (frontal polar cortex. Such a pattern may reflect a combination of psychological processes required for spontaneous improvisation, in which internally motivated, stimulus-independent behaviors unfold in the absence of central processes that typically mediate self-monitoring and conscious volitional control of ongoing performance. Changes in prefrontal activity during improvisation were accompanied by widespread activation of neocortical sensorimotor areas (that mediate the organization and execution of musical performance as well as deactivation of limbic structures (that regulate motivation and emotional tone. This distributed neural pattern may provide a cognitive context that enables the emergence of spontaneous creative activity.

  8. Musical background not associated with self-perceived hearing performance or speech perception in postlingual cochlear-implant users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Christina; Free, Rolien; Maat, Bert; Baskent, Deniz

    In normal-hearing listeners, musical background has been observed to change the sound representation in the auditory system and produce enhanced performance in some speech perception tests. Based on these observations, it has been hypothesized that musical background can influence sound and speech

  9. Nigerian Music Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well researched articles in any of the following areas: Musicology, Ethnomusicology, African Music, Music Education, Performance, Composition, Music Technology, Music ...

  10. Genetic inactivation of mitochondria-targeted redox enzyme p66ShcA preserves neuronal viability and mitochondrial integrity in response to oxidative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eForte

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential to neuronal viability and function due to their roles in ATP production, intracellular calcium regulation, and activation of apoptotic pathways. Accordingly, mitochondrial dysfunction has been indicated in a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke and multiple sclerosis (MS. Recent evidence points to the permeability transition pore (PTP as a key player in mitochondrial dysfunction in these diseases, in which pathologic opening leads to mitochondrial swelling, rupture, release of cytochrome c, and neuronal death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are inducers of PTP opening, have been prominently implicated in the progression of many of these neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, inactivation of a mitochondria-targeted redox enzyme p66ShcA (p66 has been recently shown to prevent the neuronal cell death leading to axonal severing in the murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. To further characterize the response of neurons lacking p66, we assessed their reaction to treatment with oxidative stressors implicated in neurodegenerative pathways. Specifically, p66-knockout (p66-KO and wild-type (WT neurons were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO, and assessed for cell viability and changes in mitochondrial properties, including morphology and ROS production. The results showed that p66-KO neurons had greater survival following treatment with oxidative stressors and generated less ROS when compared to WT neurons. Correspondingly, mitochondria in p66-KO neurons showed diminished morphological changes in response to these challenges. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of developing mitochondria-targeted therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders, and emphasize p66, mitochondrial ROS, and the PTP as key targets for maintaining mitochondrial and neuronal

  11. Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90 min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

  12. From Network to Research – Ten Years of Music Informatics, Performance and Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Søren R.; Grund, Cynthia M.; Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the history of the Nordic Network of Music Informatics, Performance and Aesthetics (NNIMIPA) and its roots in previous research networks and milieus. It explains how a cross-disciplinary network works and gives rise to research projects that bridge the gap between...... the disciplines involved. As examples, three thematically linked projects within NNIMIPA are presented. These projects all have performance interaction (between musicians and between musician and audience) as their nexus....

  13. Physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of the cerebral cortex in relation to musical instrument performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, Mark Jude

    2004-05-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of fine-motor skills underlying musical instrument performance rely on the development, integration, and plasticity of neural systems localized within specific subregions of the cerebral cortex. Cortical representations of a motor sequence, such as a sequence of finger movements along the keys of a saxophone, take shape before the figure sequence occurs. The temporal pattern and spatial coordinates are computed by networks of neurons before and during the movements. When a finger sequence is practiced over and over, performance gets faster and more accurate, probably because cortical neurons generating the sequence increase in spatial extent, their electrical discharges become more synchronous, or both. By combining experimental methods such as single- and multi-neuron recordings, focal stimulation, microanatomical tracers, gross morphometry, evoked potentials, and functional imaging in humans and nonhuman primates, neuroscientists are gaining insights into the cortical physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of musical instrument performance.

  14. Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Hambrick, David Z; Oswald, Frederick L

    2014-08-01

    More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing-but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Linking melodic expectation to expressive performance timing and perceived musical tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Pearce, Marcus T; Goodchild, Meghan; Dean, Roger T; Wiggins, Geraint; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This research explored the relations between the predictability of musical structure, expressive timing in performance, and listeners' perceived musical tension. Studies analyzing the influence of expressive timing on listeners' affective responses have been constrained by the fact that, in most pieces, the notated durations limit performers' interpretive freedom. To circumvent this issue, we focused on the unmeasured prelude, a semi-improvisatory genre without notated durations. In Experiment 1, 12 professional harpsichordists recorded an unmeasured prelude on a harpsichord equipped with a MIDI console. Melodic expectation was assessed using a probabilistic model (IDyOM [Information Dynamics of Music]) whose expectations have been previously shown to match closely those of human listeners. Performance timing information was extracted from the MIDI data using a score-performance matching algorithm. Time-series analyses showed that, in a piece with unspecified note durations, the predictability of melodic structure measurably influenced tempo fluctuations in performance. In Experiment 2, another 10 harpsichordists, 20 nonharpsichordist musicians, and 20 nonmusicians listened to the recordings from Experiment 1 and rated the perceived tension continuously. Granger causality analyses were conducted to investigate predictive relations among melodic expectation, expressive timing, and perceived tension. Although melodic expectation, as modeled by IDyOM, modestly predicted perceived tension for all participant groups, neither of its components, information content or entropy, was Granger causal. In contrast, expressive timing was a strong predictor and was Granger causal. However, because melodic expectation was also predictive of expressive timing, our results outline a complete chain of influence from predictability of melodic structure via expressive performance timing to perceived musical tension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: validation of sensitive period effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behavior is strongest during the early years of childhood. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training prior to age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Watanabe et al., 2007; Bailey and Penhune, 2010, 2012). Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey et al., 2013; Steele et al., 2013). The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N = 77) and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST), a previously used auditory-motor RST. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier, however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in playing music.

  17. The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: Validation of sensitive period effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Bailey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behaviour is strongest during the early childhood years. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training before age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Bailey & Penhune, 2010; 2012; Watanabe, Savion-Lemieux, & Penhune, 2007. Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey, Zatorre, & Penhune, under review; Steele, Bailey, Zatorre, & Penhune, 2013. The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N=77 and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST, a previously used auditory-motor rhythm synchronization task. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier; however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in

  18. Perception of music performance on historical and modern commercial recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.

    2007-01-01

    Performing styles as well as recording styles have changed considerably within the 20th century. To what extent do the age of a recording, the unfamiliarity with performing style, and the quality of a reproduction of a recording systematically influence how we perceive performances on record? Four

  19. The production and perception of emotionally expressive walking sounds: similarities between musical performance and everyday motor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Giordano

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the encoding and perception of emotional expressivity in music performance. A relevant question concerns how the ability to communicate emotions in music performance is acquired. In accordance with recent theories on the embodiment of emotion, we suggest here that both the expression and recognition of emotion in music might at least in part rely on knowledge about the sounds of expressive body movements. We test this hypothesis by drawing parallels between musical expression of emotions and expression of emotions in sounds associated with a non-musical motor activity: walking. In a combined production-perception design, two experiments were conducted, and expressive acoustical features were compared across modalities. An initial performance experiment tested for similar feature use in walking sounds and music performance, and revealed that strong similarities exist. Features related to sound intensity, tempo and tempo regularity were identified as been used similarly in both domains. Participants in a subsequent perception experiment were able to recognize both non-emotional and emotional properties of the sound-generating walkers. An analysis of the acoustical correlates of behavioral data revealed that variations in sound intensity, tempo, and tempo regularity were likely used to recognize expressed emotions. Taken together, these results lend support the motor origin hypothesis for the musical expression of emotions.

  20. Complex Hand Dexterity: A Review of Biomechanical Methods for Measuring Musical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Diane Metcalf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation.The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities.

  1. The radiosensitizing effect of Ku70/80 knockdown in MCF10A cells irradiated with X-rays and p(66)+Be(40) neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersickel, Veerle; Mancini, Monica; Slabbert, Jacobus; Marras, Emanuela; Thierens, Hubert; Perletti, Gianpaolo; Vral, Anne

    2010-04-27

    A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DNA repair after low- and high-LET radiations represents a research priority aimed at improving the outcome of clinical radiotherapy. To date however, our knowledge regarding the importance of DNA DSB repair proteins and mechanisms in the response of human cells to high-LET radiation, is far from being complete. We investigated the radiosensitizing effect after interfering with the DNA repair capacity in a human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF10A) by lentiviral-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of the Ku70 protein, a key-element of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. Following irradiation of control and Ku-deficient cell lines with either 6 MV X-rays or p(66)+Be(40) neutrons, cellular radiosensitivity testing was performed using a crystal violet cell proliferation assay. Chromosomal radiosensitivity was evaluated using the micronucleus (MN) assay. RNAi of Ku70 caused downregulation of both the Ku70 and the Ku80 proteins. This downregulation sensitized cells to both X-rays and neutrons. Comparable dose modifying factors (DMFs) for X-rays and neutrons of 1.62 and 1.52 respectively were obtained with the cell proliferation assay, which points to the similar involvement of the Ku heterodimer in the cellular response to both types of radiation beams. After using the MN assay to evaluate chromosomal radiosensitivity, the obtained DMFs for X-ray doses of 2 and 4 Gy were 2.95 and 2.66 respectively. After neutron irradiation, the DMFs for doses of 1 and 2 Gy were 3.36 and 2.82 respectively. The fact that DMFs are in the same range for X-rays and neutrons confirms a similar importance of the NHEJ pathway and the Ku heterodimer for repairing DNA damage induced by both X-rays and p(66)+Be(40) neutrons. Interfering with the NHEJ pathway enhanced the radiosensitivity of human MCF10A cells to low-LET X-rays and high-LET neutrons, pointing to the importance of the Ku heterodimer for repairing damage induced by both

  2. Listening to Music during Warming-Up Counteracts the Negative Effects of Ramadan Observance on Short-Term Maximal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to examine whether listening to music during warming-up might influence short-term maximal performance (STMP), cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, and enjoyment during Ramadan, and whether these affects might predict STMP. Methods Nine male physical education students (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.04 m; body mass: 83 ± 5 kg) volunteered to participate in the present study. A within-subjects design consisted of four experimental sessions: Two sessions occurred one week before Ramadan and two others took place during Ramadan. They were scheduled at 5 p.m. and were conducted as follows: After a 10-minute warm-up either with or without listening to music, each participant performed a 5-m multiple shuttle run test, after which he was asked to answer items intended to assess his affective state during the experimental task. Results Our findings revealed that STMP was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the no-music condition. Additionally, it was found that STMP was higher in the music condition than in the no-music condition during Ramadan, and that STMP measured before Ramadan did not differ from that measured during Ramadan in the music condition. Regarding affects, the findings revealed that enjoyment was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the music condition, and that cognitive anxiety was lower in the music condition than in the no-music condition before Ramadan. Self-confidence was not influenced by the experimental conditions. Conclusion This study showed that listening to music during warming-up not only would be beneficial for STMP in Ramadan fasters, but also would counteract the negative effects of Ramadan observance on STMP. PMID:26301508

  3. Are the robots coming? Designing with autonomy & control for musical creativity & performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This paper1 expands upon our previous work, and starts to unpack notions of autonomy and control in musical composition and performance-based systems. The term autonomous has become synonymous with technologies such as “autonomous vehicles” and “drones”, while notions of control have mainly been raised in respect to the “control” of industrial systems and in respect to protocols. This position piece disrupts these notions and provides a platform, introducing a more radical proposition in resp...

  4. The most crabbed of all earthly music: the performance of Bach's vocal music in Dublin in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Barra

    2004-01-01

    When the 'Crucifixus' from Bach's Mass in B minor was performed for the first time in Ireland, by the University of Dublin Choral Society in May 1865, the Dublin Daily Express described it as 'this most crabbed of all earthly music'.

  5. Beyond Expectations in Music Performance Modules in Higher Education: Rethinking Instrumental and Vocal Music Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simones, Lilian Lima

    2017-01-01

    Music performance in the higher educational context is shaped by a reciprocal chain of interactions between students, part-time tutors and full-time teaching staff, each with specific expectations about the teaching and learning process. Such expectations can provide valuable insights not only for designing and implementing meaningful educational…

  6. Short-term effects of exercise and music on cognitive performance among participants in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Hsiao, Evana T; Hill, Scott M; Frid, David J

    2003-01-01

    Exercise has been associated with improved cognitive performance among patients with coronary artery disease. Music listening has been associated with enhanced cognitive functioning among healthy adults. This study evaluated the combined influence of exercise and music listening on cognitive performance among patients in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Using a within-subjects repeated measures design, this study was conducted in an outpatient University-based CR facility. Thirty-three men and women (mean age = 62.6 +/- 10.5 years) participated in this study. Participants completed 1 exercise session accompanied by music and a second exercise session without music. Order of conditions was assigned randomly. Before and after each exercise session, participants completed a brief assessment of depression and anxiety, and a cognitive test of verbal fluency. The music condition was associated with significant improvements in verbal fluency, but the no-music control condition was not associated with cognitive change. The study provides preliminary evidence of the combined benefit of exercise and music listening for cognitive performance among patients in CR.

  7. Musical background not associated with self-perceived hearing performance or speech perception in postlingual cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christina; Free, Rolien; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz

    2012-08-01

    In normal-hearing listeners, musical background has been observed to change the sound representation in the auditory system and produce enhanced performance in some speech perception tests. Based on these observations, it has been hypothesized that musical background can influence sound and speech perception, and as an extension also the quality of life, by cochlear-implant users. To test this hypothesis, this study explored musical background [using the Dutch Musical Background Questionnaire (DMBQ)], and self-perceived sound and speech perception and quality of life [using the Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire (NCIQ) and the Speech Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ)] in 98 postlingually deafened adult cochlear-implant recipients. In addition to self-perceived measures, speech perception scores (percentage of phonemes recognized in words presented in quiet) were obtained from patient records. The self-perceived hearing performance was associated with the objective speech perception. Forty-one respondents (44% of 94 respondents) indicated some form of formal musical training. Fifteen respondents (18% of 83 respondents) judged themselves as having musical training, experience, and knowledge. No association was observed between musical background (quantified by DMBQ), and self-perceived hearing-related performance or quality of life (quantified by NCIQ and SSQ), or speech perception in quiet.

  8. Monitoring individual and joint action outcomes in duet music performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loehr, Janeen; Kourtis, Dimitrios; Vesper, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether people monitor the outcomes of their own and their partners’ individual actions as well as the outcome of their combined actions when performing joint actions together. Pairs of pianists memorized both parts of a piano duet. Each pianist then performed one part while their...

  9. VIOLENCE TO WOMEN IN ENTERTAINMANT INDUSTRY and MEDIA: MUSIC PERFORMER BERGEN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalis KUYUCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make emphasize how the traditional printed media use violence to woman on the example of music performer Bergen. Women are mostly regarded with their sexuality more than their artistic performance in entertainment industry. In music industry which is a part of entertainment industry women face violence, discrimination and abuse in their carrier, These things sometimes can cost to the life of a woman. In this search the music performer Bergen and the violence that she faced from her husband has been examined. In the first part of the study there has been a conceptual search on the concept of entertainment, and the subject of violence to women in Turkey. In the second part of the study there has been a research for Bergen and the violence which has caused her to die and how this used as news in traditional press. In this stage there has been done a content analysis for the newspaper printed between 15 th and 22 nd of August 1989 which is the first week of Bergen’s death. In the research it has been examined how the printed media use the case of Bergen as an example of “violence to woman” and there has been done a critical determination for discussing the role of media and violence to woman.

  10. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Keller, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the esthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%), which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners' hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness) in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners' judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer's actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual's action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  11. Facial Recognition of Happiness Is Impaired in Musicians with High Music Performance Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Alini Daniéli Viana; Camargo, Cristielli M; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Osório, Flávia L

    2018-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be defined as a lasting and intense apprehension connected with musical performance in public. Studies suggest that MPA can be regarded as a subtype of social anxiety. Since individuals with social anxiety have deficits in the recognition of facial emotion, we hypothesized that musicians with high levels of MPA would share similar impairments. The aim of this study was to compare parameters of facial emotion recognition (FER) between musicians with high and low MPA. 150 amateur and professional musicians with different musical backgrounds were assessed in respect to their level of MPA and completed a dynamic FER task. The outcomes investigated were accuracy, response time, emotional intensity, and response bias. Musicians with high MPA were less accurate in the recognition of happiness ( p  = 0.04; d  = 0.34), had increased response bias toward fear ( p  = 0.03), and increased response time to facial emotions as a whole ( p  = 0.02; d  = 0.39). Musicians with high MPA displayed FER deficits that were independent of general anxiety levels and possibly of general cognitive capacity. These deficits may favor the maintenance and exacerbation of experiences of anxiety during public performance, since cues of approval, satisfaction, and encouragement are not adequately recognized.

  12. music performance as a therapy for managing stress amongst

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    performance as therapy would be a vital tool for managing stress amongst the .... work with the elderly, processing and relaxation work, and rhythmic entrainment for .... male and female lecturers on the strategies for stress management using.

  13. Aussi vite que possible… As fast as possible…Virtuosity, a truth of musical performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Hennion

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La virtuosité est au cœur de l’interprétation musicale, mais elle a un statut ambivalent. Elle est à la fois le comble de l’art, et une tentation dangereuse. En m’appuyant sur la comparaison entre des genres différents, je voudrais suggérer qu’au delà de l’opposition classique entre les musiques du corps, du spectacle, du collectif en transe, et les musiques de l’écrit, centrées sur la composition d’une œuvre et dans une large mesure élaborées en s’opposant à la séduction virtuose, il est possible de redonner à la virtuosité sa capacité d’exprimer une vérité de la musique, en faisant d’elle une esthétique de la performance : moins une prouesse technique qu’une inscription nécessaire de l’œuvre dans la fragilité d’un présent qu’il faut toujours reconquérir.Virtuosity is at the heart of musical performance, but it has an ambivalent status. It is both the acme of art, and a dangerous temptation. Drawing on a comparison between different genres, I would like to suggest that beyond the classical opposition between body, entertainment, collective trance music, on a side, and written music that focuses on the composition of a work and is largely developed by opposing virtuoso seduction, on the other, it is possible to give virtuosity its ability to express a musical truth by turning it into an aesthetic of performance: less a technical feat than a  necessary positioning of the work in the fragility of a present that is always to be recovered.

  14. Use of electronic music as an occupational therapy modality in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: an occupational performance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B; Nantais, T

    1996-05-01

    This article describes an electronic music program that allows clients with spinal cord injury (SCI) to form musical bands and play songs while performing therapeutic exercise in an occupational therapy program. Clients create the music by activating upper extremity exercise devices that are connected to a synthesizer through a computer. The bands choose the songs they would like to play and meet twice a week for 1 hr to practice. The 8-week program often concludes with a public performance. The music program is intended to motivate client participation in physical rehabilitation while promoting self-esteem, emotional expression, and peer support. It is based on the model of occupational performance and the theory of purposeful activity. To date, 33 persons have taken part. Client, therapist, and public response has been positive because this program highlights the abilities of persons with SCI, thereby encouraging their reintegration into the community.

  15. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  16. Influence of videogames and musical instruments on performances at a simulator for robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Andrea; Perrone, Vittorio; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Morelli, Luca; Boggi, Ugo; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-06-01

    To assess if exposure to videogames, musical instrument playing, or both influence the psychomotor skills level, assessed by a virtual reality simulator for robot-assisted surgery (RAS). A cohort of 57 medical students were recruited: playing musical instruments (group 1), videogames (group 2), both (group 3), and no activity (group 4); all students executed four exercises on a virtual simulator for RAS. Subjects from group 3 achieved the best performances on overall score: 527.09 ± 130.54 vs. 493.73 ± 108.88 (group 2), 472.72 ± 85.31 (group 1), and 403.13 ± 99.83 (group 4). Statistically significant differences (p videogames is higher than that in those practicing either one alone. The effect of videogames appears negligible in individuals playing the piano.

  17. LISTENING TO MUSIC AND MUSIC PREFERENCES IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Ina Reić; Dobrota, Snježana; Surić, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Music plays an important role in the life of adolescents. Dealing with music represents a very important free-time activity during adolescence, while by listening to music or performing music adolescents can satisfy a range of needs, both personal and those of social nature. Therefore, this paper presents the results of research on musical taste and listening to music habits in early adolescence. We hypothesized that students generally like listening to music and that they mostly prefer do...

  18. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose eEngel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the aesthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%, which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners’ hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners’ judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer’s actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual’s action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  19. Music Performance Anxiety: Causes, Symptoms and Coping Strategies for Flute Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Sinico

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the causes, symptoms and coping strategies used by undergraduate flute students from three universalities in Brazil to cope with music performance anxiety (MPA during jury recitals. The data collection and analysis procedures used were similar to a study by Siw Nielsen (1999, i.e., recital participant behavioral observation and verbal reports using semi-structured interviews. Both procedures were recorded in audio and video. As a result, the study highlights sixteen causes, nineteen symptoms, and eighteen strategies used by flute students to cope with MPA. Anxiety among the participants was constantly present to a greater or lesser degree. Its main cause was the repertoire for solo flute; nervousness was the symptom most reported by the participants; and positive self-talk was the most used coping strategy. The research concluded that, since anxiety is an inherent emotion in performing music, musicians must use a broad range of strategies—before and during the performance—to thoroughly deal with the causes and symptoms of anxiety. The article also highlights the importance of music professors in knowing the causes of MPA and its symptoms so that they can plan a strategy consistent with the needs of their students that will help them cope with the negative effects of anxiety.

  20. Music and Intercultural Dialogue Rehearsing Life Performance at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Maria de Sao Jose

    2011-01-01

    The performing arts can play a key role in intercultural education in a variety of contexts. New creative initiatives are constantly developed, but there is still little theory to support such initiatives. The fusion of Ethnomusicology and Education offers a particularly fruitful perspective as a theoretical dimension to the work being done. This…

  1. A comparison of the potential therapeutic gain of p(66)/Be neutrons and d(14)/Be neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabbert, Jacobus P.; Theron, Therina; Zoelzer, Friedo; Streffer, Christian; Boehm, Lothar

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between photon sensitivity and neutron sensitivity and between neutron RBE and photon resistance for two neutron modalities (with mean energies of 6 and 29 MeV) using human tumor cell lines spanning a wide range of radiosensitivities, the principal objective being whether or not a neutron advantage can be demonstrated. Methods and Materials: Eleven human tumor cell lines with mean photon inactivation doses of 1.65-4.35 Gy were irradiated with 0-5.0 Gy of p(66)/Be neutrons (mean energy of 29 MeV) at Faure, S.A. and the same plating was irradiated on the same day with 0-10.0 Gy of Cobalt-γ-rays . Twelve human tumor cell lines, many of which were identical with the above selection, and spanning mean photon inactivation doses of 1.75-4.08 Gy, were irradiated with 0-4 Gy of d(14)/Be neutrons (mean energy of 6 MeV) and with 0-10 Gy of 240 kVp X-rays at the Essen Klinikum. Cell survival was determined by the clonogenic assay, and data were fitted to the linear quadratic equation. Results: 1. Using the mean inactivation dose, a significant correlation was found to exist between neutron sensitivity and photon sensitivity. However, this correlation was more pronounced in the Faure beam (r 2 = 0.89 , p ≤ 0.0001) than in the Essen beam (r 2 = 0.65, p = 0.0027). 2. No significant relationship could be established between neutron RBE and photon resistance for both modalities (p = 0.69 and p = 0.07, respectively). 3. Using α-coefficients as a criterion, the neutron sensitivity for the Faure beam correlated with photon sensitivity (p = 0.001), but this did not apply to the Essen beam (p = 0.27). 4. The neutron RBE for the Essen beam derived from α-coefficients showed a steep increase with photon resistance (p = 0.003). In the Faure beam there was no increase of RBE with photon resistance (p = 0.494). Conclusion: Radiobiological differences between high-energy and low-energy neutrons are particularly apparent in the dependence of the

  2. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF FORMING FUTURE MUSIC TEACHER’S CREATIVE THINKING IN INSTRUMENTAL AND PERFORMING TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Lavrentieva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article conceptual bases of forming students’ creative thinking in the instrumental and performing activities are revealed, taking current training trends into account. The contradictions between the requirements of society to create favorable conditions to realize future music teachers’ creative potential and current directions of a higher educational establishment to ‘a result”, which causes a specific system of promotion and support students’ value orientations and encourages students to master existing knowledge, algorithms, and performing models, depict the relevant problems of making out the system of the future music teachers’ instrumental and performing training that is aimed at developing their creative thinking. It is noted that while defining such phenomena as creative thinking and cognitive work a great number of scientists emphasizes on the word “create” which means finding and creating something that hasn’t been found in the previous individual or social experience. The aim of the article is to disclose the content and stages of implementing structural and functional model of forming future music teachers’ creative thinking The model is formed as an alternative to information and reproductive approach to training future specialists. The concept model is based on the target of forming future music teachers’ creative and methodological thinking, professional competence, activity and approaches to the students’ training to complete fulfillment of modern needs of professional and music education. The author specifies criteria of structural model of future music teachers’ creative thinking. They are value and motivational, cognitive and educational, action and technological, creative and modulating ones The effectiveness of the future music teachers’ creative thinking in instrumental and performing training depends on the level of forming clear science-based system that has a certain conceptual

  3. Psychophysiological activation during preparation, performance, and recovery in high- and low-anxious music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA.

  4. Effect of Instruction in Appropriate Rubato Usage on the Onset Timings and Perceived Musicianship of Musical Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates how instruction in specific rhythmic nuances influences the performed timings of a musical performance. Volunteers learned and performed a piece, then were taught rhythmic tendencies identified in the finest performances of the piece. Finds that subjects used significantly more rubato (freedom of tempo) and came closer to model…

  5. Cantores paraenses e mercado musical brasileiro: rádio, memórias, carreiras e performances, 1940 a 1970 * Paraense singers and Brazilian music business: radio, memories, careers and performances, 1950 to 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO MAURÍCIO DIAS DA COSTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo analisa a produção de memórias em torno das carreiras e performances de três cantores populares com trajetórias iniciadas em emissoras de rádio paraenses em meados do século XX. A pesquisa se concentrou no levantamento da história de vida dos cantores abordados. Buscou-se, com isso, avaliar o desenvolvimento de carreiras e performances como ajustes a padrões de profissionalização no mercado musical. Sucesso e/ou insucesso de inserção no mercado da música são analisados como aprendizado sociocultural, reavaliado continuamente pela memória.Palavras-chave: Cantores de Rádio – Memória – Carreira – Performance – Mercado Musical.Abstract: The article analyses the creation of memories concerning the careers and performances of three popular singers who started working in Pará state radio stations in the mid Twentieth Century. The research focused on the life history of these singers. Thus, it was possible to evaluate the development of careers and performances as adjustments to professionalizing patterns in the music business. Success and/or failure in joining the music business are analyzed as social and cultural apprenticeship, continually re-evaluated by memory.Keywords: Radio Singers – Memory – Career – PerformanceMusic Business.

  6. Padrões físicos inadequados na performance musical de estudantes de violino Inadequate physical patterns in musical performance of violin students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valverde Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo, uma exposição resumida da dissertação de mestrado (2008, discute a observação e avaliação dos problemas corporais que permeiam a prática de seis estudantes de violino do curso de Graduação da Escola de Música da UFMG. Dados foram colhidos através de observação, filmes e fotos de seis alunos de violino em quatro situações diferentes de performance no contexto do curso, além de avaliações fisioterápicas realizadas no consultório de Fisioterapia da pesquisadora. Estes dados foram apresentados a um painel composto por quatro observadores da área da saúde e da música. A análise destes dados revela que os seis alunos de violino apresentaram padrões físicos inadequados que poderiam prejudicar sua saúde e, consequentemente, sua performance. Além disso, foi conduzida uma pesquisa bibliográfica envolvendo estudos relacionados à Anatomia, Biomecânica e Cinesiologia. Esperamos que este artigo possa chamar a atenção dos violinistas e professores de violino para a importância de uma consciência corporal durante a performance do instrumento, que vise mais simetria e relaxamento das regiões corporais envolvidas no ato de tocar o violino.This article, a summary of the Master thesis (2008, discusses the observation and evaluation of physical problems presented by six Bachelors students of the Music School of UFMG (Brazil, in their violin practice. Data was collected through observation, films and photos of six violin students at four different situations of performance in the context of their program, besides the physiotherapeutic assessments held in the office of the physiotherapist researcher. This data was then submitted to a panel composed of four observers, health and music specialists. The analysis of this data reveals that the six violin students showed inappropriate physical patterns that could jeopardize their performance as well as their health. Also, a bibliographic survey related to the Anatomy

  7. The creation of folk music program on Radio Belgrade before World War Two: Editorial policies and performing ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the establishing of the organizing models, on one side, and with folk music and its aesthetic characteristics in the interwar period, on the other. This problem significantly contributed to the present meaning of the term “folk music” (“narodna muzika”. The program of Radio Belgrade (founded in 1929 contained a number of folk music shows, often with live music. In order to develop folk music program, numerous vocal and instrumental soloists were hired, and different bands accompanied them. During that time, two official radio ensembles emerged - the Folk Radio Orchestra and the Tambura Radio Orchestra - displacing from the program the ensembles that were not concurrent to their technical and repertoire level. The decisive power in designing the program concept and content, but also in setting standards for the aesthetic values, was at the hands of music editorship of Radio Belgrade. The radio category of folk music was especially influenced by Petar Krstić (folk music editor in the period from 1930 to 1936 and his successor Mihajlo Vukdragović (1937-1940, who formally defined all of the aforementioned characteristics, but in rather different ways. A general ambivalence in the treatment of the ensembles that performed at the radio reflects the implementation of their policies. In comparison to the official orchestras, the tavern singers and players received poor reviews in the editors’ reports, despite their strong presence on the program. On the other side, the official orchestras were divided according to the regional folklore instrumentarium, but also according to the quality of playing. The Folk Radio Orchestra probably had double leadership, so it was possible to observe different approaches to the music folklore, which eventually resulted in a unique tendency towards cherishing folk music. This paper represents an attempt to show how the media term “folk music” was constructed and where it currently

  8. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  9. Musical information processing reflecting its structure

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraga, Rumi

    1999-01-01

    In pursuit of generating expressive musical rendition with rules, the computer music project Psyche has greatly concerned musical structure. Although described implicitly, musical structure exists innately and absolutely in musical scores. This thesis demonstrates the successful introduction of musical structure to computer music systems that are related to performance synthesis. Two systems, a performance visualization system and a computer-assisted musical analysis system Daphne, are descri...

  10. The effects of using a portable music player on simulated driving performance and task-sharing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Lenné, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the effects of performing scrollable music selection tasks using a portable music player (iPod Touch™) on simulated driving performance and task-sharing strategies, as evidenced through eye glance behaviour and secondary task performance. A total of 37 drivers (18-48 yrs) completed the PC-based MUARC Driver Distraction Test (DDT) while performing music selection tasks on an iPod Touch. Drivers' eye glance behaviour was examined using faceLAB eye tracking equipment. Results revealed that performing music search tasks while driving increased the amount of time that drivers spent with their eyes off the roadway and decreased their ability to maintain a constant lane position and time headway from a lead vehicle. There was also evidence, however, that drivers attempted to regulate their behaviour when distracted by decreasing their speed and taking a large number of short glances towards the device. Overall, results suggest that performing music search tasks while driving is problematic and steps to prohibit this activity should be taken. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  12. Ansiedade na performance musical: tradução, adaptação e validação do Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI) para a língua portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Sérgio de Figueiredo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Gattaz, Wagner Farid

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXTO: A performance musical requer alto nível de habilidade em diversos parâmetros, como coordenação motora, atenção e memória, o que a torna particularmente suscetível aos estados de ansiedade. Pesquisas nessa área têm avançado com a introdução de instrumentos específicos para abordar a ansiedade na performance musical, como é o caso da Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI). OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivo traduzir, adaptar e validar a K-MPAI para a língua po...

  13. The Impact of Mozart Music on Translator Students' Performance and its Relationship with Students' Extraversion or Introversion Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Ghasemzade

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to investigate the effect of background Mozart Classical music on translator students' performance. In this study, the researchers focused not only on the relationship between music and translation but also on the relationship between music and personality traits. The main question this study tried to answer was whether using background music might enhance students' translation scores. To answer this question, 32 students from Islamic Azad University of Quchan, Iran, participated in this study. They were selected out of 40 students, employing Nelson proficiency test and were randomly assigned to two groups. The participants in experimental group were asked to translate three texts accompanied by background music, but the subjects in the control group were asked to translate the same texts without background music during three sessions. Students’ translations were scored based on Kim's (2009 meaning-oriented translation assessment model. Statistical analyses were applied for qualitative data and an interview was designed for the qualitative research question. Researchers concluded that there was a significant difference between the translation scores of the experimental and control groups. The former outperformed the latter group on the translation task.

  14. Effects of music tempo on performance, psychological, and physiological variables during 20 km cycling in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of music on trained athletes during high intensity endurance tasks. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different music tempi on performance, psychological, and physiological responses of well-trained cyclists to time trial cycling. 10 male road cyclists (M age = 35 yr., SD = 7), with a minimum of three years racing experience, performed four 20-km time trials on a Computrainer Pro 3D indoor cycle trainer over a period of four weeks. The time-trials were spaced one week apart. The music conditions for each trial were randomised between fast-tempo (140 bpm), medium-tempo (120 bpm), slow-tempo (100 bpm), and no music. Performance (completion time, power output, average speed and cadence), physiological (heart rate, oxygen consumption, breathing frequency and respiratory exchange ratio), psychophysical (RPE), and psychological (mood states) data were collected for each trial. Results indicated no significant changes in performance, physiological, or psychophysical variables. Total mood disturbance and tension increased significantly in the fast-tempo trial when compared with medium and no-music conditions.

  15. Salvianolic acid A preconditioning confers protection against concanavalin A-induced liver injury through SIRT1-mediated repression of p66shc in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yan; Zhai, Xiaohan; Lin, Musen [Department of Pharmacology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Chen, Zhao; Tian, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Feng [Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Gao, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaochi [Department of Pharmacology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Lv, Li, E-mail: lv_li@126.com [Department of Pharmacology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yao, Jihong, E-mail: Yaojihong65@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is a phenolic carboxylic acid derivative extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. It has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SalA on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatic injury in Kunming mice and to explore the role of SIRT1 in such an effect. The results showed that in vivo pretreatment with SalA significantly reduced ConA-induced elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and decreased levels of the hepatotoxic cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, the SalA pretreatment ameliorated the increases in NF-κB and in cleaved caspase-3 caused by ConA exposure. Whereas, the pretreatment completely reversed expression of the B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). More importantly, the SalA pretreatment significantly increased the expression of SIRT1, a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, which was known to attenuate acute hypoxia damage and metabolic liver diseases. In our study, the increase in SIRT1 was closely associated with down-regulation of the p66 isoform (p66shc) of growth factor adapter Shc at both protein and mRNA levels. In HepG2 cell culture, SalA pretreatment increased SIRT1 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner and such an increase was abrogated by siRNA knockdown of SIRT1. Additionally, inhibition of SIRT1 significantly reversed the decreased expression of p66shc, and attenuated SalA-induced p66shc down-regulation. Collectively, the present study indicated that SalA may be a potent activator of SIRT and that SalA can alleviate ConA-induced hepatitis through SIRT1-mediated repression of the p66shc pathway. - Highlights: • We report for the first time that SalA protects against ConA-induced hepatitis. • We find that SalA is a potential activator of SIRT1. • SalA's protection against hepatitis involves SIRT1-mediated repression of p

  16. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  17. Auditory N1 reveals planning and monitoring processes during music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Brian; Gehring, William J; Palmer, Caroline

    2017-02-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between planning processes and feedback monitoring during music performance, a complex task in which performers prepare upcoming events while monitoring their sensory outcomes. Theories of action planning in auditory-motor production tasks propose that the planning of future events co-occurs with the perception of auditory feedback. This study investigated the neural correlates of planning and feedback monitoring by manipulating the contents of auditory feedback during music performance. Pianists memorized and performed melodies at a cued tempo in a synchronization-continuation task while the EEG was recorded. During performance, auditory feedback associated with single melody tones was occasionally substituted with tones corresponding to future (next), present (current), or past (previous) melody tones. Only future-oriented altered feedback disrupted behavior: Future-oriented feedback caused pianists to slow down on the subsequent tone more than past-oriented feedback, and amplitudes of the auditory N1 potential elicited by the tone immediately following the altered feedback were larger for future-oriented than for past-oriented or noncontextual (unrelated) altered feedback; larger N1 amplitudes were associated with greater slowing following altered feedback in the future condition only. Feedback-related negativities were elicited in all altered feedback conditions. In sum, behavioral and neural evidence suggests that future-oriented feedback disrupts performance more than past-oriented feedback, consistent with planning theories that posit similarity-based interference between feedback and planning contents. Neural sensory processing of auditory feedback, reflected in the N1 ERP, may serve as a marker for temporal disruption caused by altered auditory feedback in auditory-motor production tasks. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Prolonged performance-related neuroendocrine activation and perseverative cognition in low- and high-anxious university music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Patrick; Nielsen, Carole; Studer, Regina K; Hildebrandt, Horst; Klumb, Petra L; Nater, Urs M; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta

    2018-05-14

    Music performances are social-evaluative situations that can elicit marked short-term neuroendocrine activation and anxious thoughts especially in musicians suffering from music performance anxiety (MPA). The temporal patterns of neuroendocrine activity and concert-related worry and rumination (perseverative cognition, PC) days before and after a concert in low- and high-anxious musicians are unknown. The first goal of the present study was to investigate the prolonged effects of a solo music performance and the effects of trait MPA on salivary cortisol (sC), alpha-amylase (sAA), and concert-related PC. The second goal was to investigate whether concert-related PC is associated with neuroendocrine activity and mediates the effects of measurement day and trait MPA on neuroendocrine responses. Seventy-two university music students collected saliva samples and reported their PC for seven consecutive days. On the fifth day, they performed solo. Measurement day and trait MPA were tested as main predictors of the diurnal area under the curve with respect to ground (sC AUCg, sAA AUCg), awakening responses, and PC. SC AUCg, sAA AUCg, and concert-related PC were highest on concert day. SC AUCg decreased only partially on post-concert days. SAA AUCg remained elevated on the first post-concert day among students with moderate to very high trait MPA. Throughout the assessment period, trait MPA was associated with smaller sC AUCg and higher concert-related PC. Concert-related PC showed significant positive associations with sC AUCg and sAA AUCg but did not mediate the effects of measurement day and trait MPA on these measures. These findings suggest that solo music performances have prolonged neuroendocrine effects and that trait MPA is an important factor having specific effects on university music students' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system, and cognitive activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Musical Students’ Concert Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Plokhotnyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents detailed analysis of performance training of future teachers of music at higher educational establishments and offers ways to overcome the problem of musical students’ concert practice organization.

  20. Science as Performance: Communicating and Educating through Theater, Music, and Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian B.

    2010-01-01

    Theater, music, dance, the literary and the visual arts can convey the joys and controversies of science. We describe a program at the Graduate Center entitled Science & the Arts which is designed to communicate to the public the excitement and wonder of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Over the past few years there have been major successes in communicating science to the public through the arts. This is especially evident in theater, film and opera with such recent plays as Copenhagen, the Oscar winning film A Beautiful Mind and the opera Doctor Atomic at the Met. The performance series Science & the Arts has been developed and tested at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY) in mid-Manhattan for more than nine years, see http://web.gc.cuny.edu/sciart/ . We have established working relationships with actors, playwrights, dancers, choreographers, musicians, composers, artists and scientists who work at the intersection of science and the arts. In this presentation we will illustrate many of our collaborations in theater, dance, music and art. Faculty members, professionals and students from the university, other educational institutions, museums, theaters and government laboratories as well as the public with an interest science and arts programs should find this presentation of particular interest. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation, NSF PHY-0431660.

  1. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine E; Grahn, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the "contextual interference effect." While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  2. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine E.; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the “contextual interference effect.” While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  3. Optimizing music learning: Exploring how blocked and interleaved practice schedules affect advanced performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Carter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the contextual interference effect. While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (twelve minutes per piece and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (three minutes per piece, alternating until a total of twelve minutes of practice were completed on each piece. Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated

  4. Development and validation of a music performance anxiety inventory for gifted adolescent musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Margaret S; Kenny, Dianna T

    2005-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) is a distressing experience for musicians of all ages, yet the empirical investigation of MPA in adolescents has received little attention to date. No measures specifically targeting MPA in adolescents have been empirically validated. This article presents findings of an initial study into the psychometric properties and validation of the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A), a new self-report measure of MPA for this group. Data from 381 elite young musicians aged 12-19 years was used to investigate the factor structure, internal reliability, construct and divergent validity of the MPAI-A. Cronbach's alpha for the full measure was .91. Factor analysis identified three factors, which together accounted for 53% of the variance. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant positive relationships with social phobia (measured using the Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory [Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (1995). A new inventory to assess childhood social anxiety and phobia: The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Psychological Assessment, 7(1), 73-79; Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (1998). Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems Inc.]) and trait anxiety (measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory [Spielberger, C. D. (1983). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI (Form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.]). The MPAI-A demonstrated convergent validity by a moderate to strong positive correlation with an adult measure of MPA. Discriminant validity was established by a weaker positive relationship with depression, and no relationship with externalizing behavior problems. It is hoped that the MPAI-A, as the first empirically validated measure of adolescent musicians' performance anxiety, will enhance and promote phenomenological and treatment research in this area.

  5. {SW}ARMED: Captive Portals, Mobile Devices, and Audience Participation in Multi-User Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Abram

    2013-01-01

    Audience participation in computer music has long been limited byresources such as sensor technology or the material goods necessary toshare such an instrument. A recent paradigm is to take advantageof the incredible popularity of the smart-phone, a pocket sizedcomputer, and other mobile devices, to provide the audience aninterface into a computer music instrument. In this paper we discuss amethod of sharing a computer music instrument's interface with anaudience to allow them to interact via...

  6. The elementary school musical as an authentic, integrated performing arts experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bespflug, Kevin Sean

    2009-01-01

    While musicals are often common arts activities in high schools in North America, little has been written about their place in elementary schools. This is surprising when many elementary schools, particularly independent schools, are starting to include them in their fine arts programming. This thesis looks carefully at the elementary school musical by first undertaking a review of literature connected to the staging of musicals. The research and writings of various theorists and educators ar...

  7. Student Experiences of "Soul Healing" in Music and Dance Performance Courses at The University of California, Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Rann, Lara Diane

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation illuminates students’ experiences of “soul healing” through the cultivation of spirituality, self-love/ self-knowledge, mentorship, and community in the context of two UCLA courses: the Music and Dance of Ghana World Music Performance Ensemble, taught by master drummer Kobla Ladzekpo of the Anlo-Ewe ethnic group in Ghana, West Africa, and “Advanced Hip Hop,” taught by “street dance” pioneer and choreographer Rennie Harris, of Philadelphia, PA. My definition of soul healing ...

  8. Effect of musical training on pitch discrimination performance in older normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    -discrimination performance for NH listeners. It is unclear whether a comparable effect of musical training occurs for listeners whose sensory encoding of F0 is degraded. To address this question, F0 discrimination was investigated for three groups of listeners (14 young NH, 9 older NH and 10 HI listeners), each......Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, as well as elderly listeners, typically have a reduced ability to discriminate the fundamental frequency (F0) of complex tones compared to young normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Several studies have shown that musical training, on the other hand, leads to improved F0...... including musicians and non-musicians, using complex tones that differed in harmonic content. Musical training significantly improved F0 discrimination for all groups of listeners, especially for complex tones containing low-numbered harmonics. In a second experiment, the sensitivity to temporal fine...

  9. Performing Gender to Dangdut’s Drum: Place, Space, and Infrastructure in Indonesian Popular Music

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Andrea Louise

    2016-01-01

    Few genres of popular music around the world are more infamous for objectification of women’s bodies than dangdut, a popular dance music of Indonesia, which has thrived among audiences of lower classes for more than forty years. In Dangdut Stories: A Social and Musical History of Indonesia’s Most Popular Music, Andrew Weintraub credits dangdut’s popularity in part to its easy danceability. The steps are simple: back and forth, in duple meter, a basic step anyone can join or elaborate upon. Bu...

  10. Can the Use of Background Music Improve the Behaviour and Academic Performance of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Price, John

    1998-01-01

    This study examined effects of providing "mood calming" background music in a special class for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Findings indicated a significant improvement in behavior and mathematics performance for all 10 of the children, with effects most noticeable for children with problems related to constant stimulus…

  11. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response.

  12. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  13. A Study of Music Students' Tempo Changes of a Soloist's Performance of Mozart's 1st Horn Concerto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to investigate music students' tempo changes of a soloist's performance in an excerpt from Mozart's "Concerto No. 1 in D Major for Horn and Orchestra." We then compared the composite rubato pattern to tendencies found in a previous investigation using Mozart's "Concerto No. 2 in E[flat] Major for Horn…

  14. Nigerian Music Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Music Reveiw. ... Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well ... Performance practice and functions of local wine and beer parlor songs in rural Yoruba Communities in Ogbomoso · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. MUSIC OF ANTIQUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    BEAUTIFUL music is flowing out from the fingertips of a dozen old men. They hail from the remote snowcapped Yulong mountain of Lijiang, located in southwestern China’s Yunnan Province. The music that they play has a history of more than one thousand years. Performed in traditional costume with antique-looking musical instruments, the thoroughly original concert of ancient

  16. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. The Virtual Conductor: Learning and Teaching about Music, Performing, and Conducting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Ebbers, Rob; ter Maat, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Conductor is an artificial conducting system for tutoring purposes that uses real-time audio analysis of music played by musicians and uses this analysis to animate a virtual human that acts as a conductor. The analysis detects the tempo and the dynamics of the music, compares the

  18. Chimpanzee drumming : a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valerie; Poulin, Nicolas; Cure, Charlotte; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species,

  19. Effects of Style, Tempo, and Performing Medium on Children's Music Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert

    1981-01-01

    Fifth-graders listened to a tape incorporating fast and slow vocal and instrumental excerpts within the generic styles of rock/pop, country, older jazz, newer jazz, art music, and band music. A preference hierarchy emerged favoring the popular styles. Across pooled styles, faster tempos and instrumentals were slightly preferred. (Author/SJL)

  20. E-Learning Software for Improving Student's Music Performance Using Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M.; Fajardo, W.; Molina-Solana, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades there have been several attempts to use computers in Music Education. New pedagogical trends encourage incorporating technology tools in the process of learning music. Between them, those systems based on Artificial Intelligence are the most promising ones, as they can derive new information from the inputs and visualize them…

  1. An Investigation of Music Teacher Candidates' Performance Anxiety Levels in Piano Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2018-01-01

    Examination anxiety in piano education, one of the important courses in music education, can negatively affect both success in examinations and the education of students. This study aimed to determine the anxiety levels of students in the music education departments of universities in western Turkey regarding their piano examinations and their…

  2. Performing Disability in Music Teacher Education: Moving beyond Inclusion through Expanded Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes, Tuulikki; Westerlund, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Disability is a neglected field of diversity within music education scholarship and practices. The study reported in this article sought alternatives for the hierarchical practice-model and ableist discourses that have thus far pervaded music teacher education, through a reconceptualization of expertise. The focus is on a Finnish university…

  3. We are not a female band, we are a band!”: Female performance as a model of gender transgression in Serbian popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenić Iva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental performance, leadership, and authorship by women in music has historically been subjected to various repressive regimes, while many of the prejudices and restrictions regarding female musicking can still be discerned in contemporary popular music practices in Serbia. These mechanisms have been transferred into contemporary music with different ideological and stylistic inclination, such as indie music cohorts and folk- or tradition-based genres and scenes. The structural preconditions that articulate the subject position of female instrumentalists, regardless of genre or the scene they belong to are the lack of history of female playing and the requirement that they reach the supposedly higher standards of male musicians. This article starts with a brief genealogy of female instrumental music performance from late socialism to the diversity of contemporary popular music in its present neo-liberal context. Against that background it interprets the disciplining mechanisms restricting female musical creativity and performance, addressing the issues of identity and power through female agency in music.

  4. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  5. Can music lessons increase the performance of preschool children in IQ tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Hossein; Mirbaha, Hilda; Pournaseh, Mehrangiz; Sagan, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    The impact of music on human cognition has a distinguished history as a research topic in psychology. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effects of music instruction on the cognitive development of preschool children. From a sample of 154 preschool children of Tehran kindergartens, 60 children aged between 5 and 6 were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving music lessons and the other (matched for sex, age and mother's educational level) not taking part in any music classes. Children were tested before the start of the course of music lessons and at its end with 4 subtests of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (TSB). The experimental group participated in twelve 75-min weekly music lessons. Statistical analysis showed significant IQ increase in participants receiving music lessons, specifically on the TSB verbal reasoning and short-term memory subtests. The numerical and visual/abstract reasoning abilities did not differ for the two groups after lessons. These data support studies that found similar skills enhancements in preschool children, despite vast differences in the setting in which the instruction occurred. These findings appear to be consistent with some neuroimaging and neurological observations which are discussed in the paper.

  6. Ansiedade na performance musical: estudo molecular de associação e validação da escala de \\"K-MPAI

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio de Figueiredo Rocha

    2012-01-01

    A performance musical requer um alto nível de habilidade em diversos parâmetros como coordenação motora, atenção e memória, o que a torna uma atividade particularmente susceptível aos estados de ansiedade. Pesquisas nessa área têm avançado com a introdução de instrumentos específicos para abordar a ansiedade na performance musical (MPA), como é o caso da the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI). Estudos recentes apontam polimorfismos genéticos envolvidos na base do quadro de ans...

  7. Effects of Music and Tonal Language Experience on Relative Pitch Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Strybel, Thomas Z

    2016-01-01

    We examined the interaction between music and tone language experience as related to relative pitch processing by having participants judge the direction and magnitude of pitch changes in a relative pitch task. Participants' performance on this relative pitch task was assessed using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index of expertise, based on a ratio of discrimination over consistency in participants' relative pitch judgments. Testing took place in 2 separate sessions on different days to assess the effects of practice on participants' performance. Participants also completed the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), an existing measure comprising subtests aimed at evaluating relative pitch processing abilities. Musicians outperformed nonmusicians on both the relative pitch task, as measured by the CWS index, and the MBEA, but tonal language speakers outperformed non-tonal language speakers only on the MBEA. A closer look at the discrimination and consistency component scores of the CWS index revealed that musicians were better at discriminating different pitches and more consistent in their assessments of the direction and magnitude of relative pitch change.

  8. Differential effects of wakeful rest, music and video game playing on working memory performance in the n-back task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim S Kuschpel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. We investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music breaks on working memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (i eyes-open resting, (ii listening to music and (iii playing the video game Angry Birds before performing the n-back working memory task. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, we found that playing the Angry Birds video game during a short learning break led to a decline in task performance over the course of the task as compared to eyes-open resting and listening to music, although overall task performance was not impaired. This effect was associated with high levels of daily mind wandering and low self-reported ability to concentrate. These findings indicate that video games can negatively affect working memory performance over time when played in between learning tasks. We suggest further investigation of these effects because of their relevance to everyday activity.

  9. Differential effects of wakeful rest, music and video game playing on working memory performance in the n-back task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschpel, Maxim S; Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J; Heinzel, Stephan; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. We investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on working memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (i) eyes-open resting, (ii) listening to music and (iii) playing the video game "Angry Birds" before performing the n-back working memory task. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, we found that playing the "Angry Birds" video game during a short learning break led to a decline in task performance over the course of the task as compared to eyes-open resting and listening to music, although overall task performance was not impaired. This effect was associated with high levels of daily mind wandering and low self-reported ability to concentrate. These findings indicate that video games can negatively affect working memory performance over time when played in between learning tasks. We suggest further investigation of these effects because of their relevance to everyday activity.

  10. Differential effects of wakeful rest, music and video game playing on working memory performance in the n-back task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschpel, Maxim S.; Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J.; Heinzel, Stephan; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. We investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on working memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (i) eyes-open resting, (ii) listening to music and (iii) playing the video game “Angry Birds” before performing the n-back working memory task. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, we found that playing the “Angry Birds” video game during a short learning break led to a decline in task performance over the course of the task as compared to eyes-open resting and listening to music, although overall task performance was not impaired. This effect was associated with high levels of daily mind wandering and low self-reported ability to concentrate. These findings indicate that video games can negatively affect working memory performance over time when played in between learning tasks. We suggest further investigation of these effects because of their relevance to everyday activity. PMID:26579055

  11. Using Informal Education through Music Video Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayari, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Music video creation provides students a new way to express themselves and become better performers and consumers of media. This article provides a new perspective on Lucy Green's informal music pedagogy by enabling students to create music videos in music classrooms; thus, students are able to create music videos that informally develop…

  12. Pitch Gestures in Generative Modeling of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Generative models of music are in need of performance and gesture additions, i.e. inclusions of subtle temporal and dynamic alterations, and gestures so as to render the music musical. While much of the research regarding music generation is based on music theory, the work presented here is based...

  13. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  14. The Music Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    http://www.njmt.no/bookreview_2006071.html "The music effect is not about a particular composer, musical style, geographic location, language, or performance group. It is, at once, about all of these" (p. 249). This book is written by two people with very different educational backgrounds. Dr...... into music physiology. We have already seen them working together in 2001 in Berger’s book Music Therapy, Sensory Integration and the Autistic Child published by Jessica Kingsley, and this time their collaboration results in a book that is about the attributes of scientific reality (physics) as embedded....... Schneck is a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and Dorita S. Berger, MA, is a Board Certified music therapist. They have in common that both play music and perform professionally, and together they integrate various theories from scientific reality and music aesthetic...

  15. 37 CFR 381.6 - Performance of musical compositions by other public broadcasting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to this section shall furnish to ASCAP, BMI and SESAC, upon request, a music-use report during one... total population data, from a research company generally recognized in the broadcasting industry, for...

  16. Assyrian Music and Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Paim Pozzer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sources about music in ancient Mesopotamia are numerous, there are hundreds of cuneiform tablets in Sumerian and Akkadian language, and also iconic representations of material culture have been rescued by archeology. The texts of varied nature show myths, staves and musical theories, displaying speci?c vocabulary about the act of musical performance, on musicians and musical instruments. In these documents, the rich iconography of war among the Assyrians is also revealing of musical practice, including in military contexts. There is evidence of foreign musicians within the Assyrian royal courts in the cuneiform tablets, in the stone

  17. Music as design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of the sounds of the surrounding world in music is today a familiar phenomenon on the electronic music and audio art scenes, and to some extent also in contemporary music. It is rarer for a contemporary audio or visual artist to use music as the form-giving element for a semi......-realistic event or narrative. In a way the phenomenon can be compared to Puccini's operas, or to the ground-breaking dance performances for which the choreographer Pina Bauch became famous, where musicalization produced stylizations fo everyday events. Familiar, readable events were reinforced and relocated...

  18. Dependence of charge collection distributions and dose on the gas type filling the ionization chamber for a p(66)Be(49) clinical neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awschalom, M.; Haken, R.K.T.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of central axis depth charge distributions (CADCD) in a p(66)Be(49) clinical neutron beam using A-150 TE plastic ionization chambers (IC) have shown that these distributions are dependent on the gas type filling the ICs. IC volumes from 0.1 to 8 cm 3 and nine different gases were investigated. Off axis ratios and build-up measurements do not seem to be as sensitive to gas type. The gas dosimetry constants given in the AAPM Protocol for Neutron Beam Dosimetry for air and methane based TE gases were tested for consistency in water and in TE solution filled phantoms at depths of 10 cm, when used in conjunction with an IC having 5 mm thick walls of A-150. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. Effects of Musical Aptitude, Academic Ability, Music Experience, and Motivation on Aural Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Carole S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of 142 college music theory students on the influence of musical aptitude, academic ability, music experience, and motivation on the development of aural skills. Finds that musical aptitude had the largest effect on performance and motivation for music did not affect aural skills performance. (CFR)

  20. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  1. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies—one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  2. An expressive bodily movement repertoire for marimba performance, revealed through observers’ Laban effort-shape analyses, and allied musical features: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Musicians’ expressive bodily movements can influence observers’ perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers’ music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies – one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers’ perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players’ bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the

  3. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies-one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  4. Exploratory factor analysis of Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI in a Brazilian musician sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Medeiros Barbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI is very significant among the available instruments which measures Musical Performance Anxiety (MPA. Objective The aim of this study is to find evidence of validity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI, in its translated and adapted Brazilian version, through the study of its factor structure. Methods A convenience sample of 230 amateur musicians completed the K-MPAI. Results The initial factor analysis yielded eight factors, explaining 62.4% of variance. However, due to the factors’ composition and internal consistency values lower than 0.50, the number of factors was later set at three, considering the internal consistency of those, the theoretical propositions and symptomatology aspects that supported the construction of scale. They were named “Worries and insecurity” (α = 0.82, “Depression and hopelessness” (α = 0.77 and “Early parental relationships” (α = 0.57. Discussion/Conclusions These results point to the scale’s construct validity, since they support the theoretical basis used for the development of the K-MPAI and the clinical manifestations of the MPA.

  5. Music Regulators in Two String Quartets: A Comparison of Communicative Behaviors between Low- and High-Stress Performance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Concina, Eleonora; Wasley, David; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviors as a sort of “language” to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This article focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance) and eye contact. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in non-verbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how they are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of two string quartet performances (Quartet A performing Bartók and Quartet B performing Haydn) were analyzed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP), undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP) during a public recital. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e., the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gesture) during HSP than LSP. Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contact during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviors are less standardized and may change according to idiosyncratic performance conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance. PMID:27610089

  6. Music regulators in two string quartet ensembles: a comparison of communicative behaviours between low- and high-stress performance conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Biasutti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In ensemble performances, group members use particular bodily behaviours as a sort of language to supplement the lack of verbal communication. This research study focuses on music regulators, which are defined as signs to other group members for coordinating performance. The following two music regulators are considered: body gestures for articulating attacks (a set of movements externally directed that are used to signal entrances in performance and eye contacts. These regulators are recurring observable behaviors that play an important role in nonverbal communication among ensemble members. To understand how these regulators are used by chamber musicians, video recordings of members of two string quartet ensemble performances (Quartet Ensemble A performing Bartók and Quartet Ensemble B performing Haydn were analysed under two conditions: a low stress performance (LSP, undertaken in a rehearsal setting, and a high stress performance (HSP during a live concert. The results provide evidence for more emphasis in gestures for articulating attacks (i.e. the perceived strength of a performed attack-type body gestures during HSP than LSP. . Conversely, no significant differences were found for the frequency of eye contact between HSP and LSP. Moreover, there was variability in eye contacts during HSP and LSP, showing that these behaviours are less standardised and may change according to idiosyncratic performing conditions. Educational implications are discussed for improving interpersonal communication skills during ensemble performance.

  7. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    OpenAIRE

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investiga...

  8. Freeing the performer’s mind: A structural exploration of how mindfulness influences music performance anxiety, negative affect and self-consciousness among musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Vilte, Luz-Sofía; Lecuona, Oscar; Moreno-Jiménez, Jennifer; De Rivas, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Music performing usually binds intense psychological experiences, from which music performance anxiety (MPA) is amongst the most damaging and pervasive ones. Alongside, some constructs seem to be associated with MPA, like negative affect and self-consciousness. In the interaction between these three elements, mindfulness seems to be an effective tool to cope with MPA by altering the relationships between it and self-consciousness or negative affect. In this study, a structural model is propos...

  9. The Association of Music Experience, Pattern of Practice and Performance Anxiety with Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems (PRMP) in Children Learning Instrumental Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence supporting the social and cognitive benefits of music education. However aspects of music practice, such as an increase in frequency and intensity of practice, are associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in adult musicians, though with limited evidence in children. The aim of this study was to describe the music…

  10. Attitudes of Select Music Performance Faculty toward Students Teaching Private Lessons after Graduation: A USA Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, William E.; Moore, Christopher; Gavin, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to pilot test an adjusted version of a questionnaire, used in earlier studies with college music students, to determine opinions of college music faculty on the topic of private lesson teaching. Full-time tenure-track college music faculty, with primary appointments in applied music at two universities in the United…

  11. Motivation and engagement in music and sport: testing a multidimensional framework in diverse performance settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J

    2008-02-01

    The present study assessed the application of a multidimensional model of motivation and engagement (the Motivation and Engagement Wheel) and its accompanying instrumentation (the Motivation and Engagement Scale) to the music and sport domains. Participants were 463 young classical musicians (N=224) and sportspeople (N=239). In both music and sport samples, the data confirmed the good fit of the four hypothesized higher-order dimensions and their 11 first-order dimensions: adaptive cognitions (self-efficacy, valuing, mastery orientation), adaptive behaviors (planning, task management, persistence), impeding/maladaptive cognitions (uncertain control, anxiety, failure avoidance), and maladaptive behaviors (self-handicapping, disengagement). Multigroup tests of factor invariance showed that in terms of underlying motivational constructs and the composition of and relationships among these constructs, key subsamples are not substantially different. Moreover-and of particular relevance to issues around the generalizability of the framework-the factor structure for music and sport samples was predominantly invariant.

  12. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND FLOW CONDITION ON THE MUSIC TEACHER´S PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA TORRES DELGADO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these research is to identify if music teachers and teachers from other areas are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated, to identify the dimensions of the flow state, and to identifyif there is a relationship between intrinsic motivation and flow state in these teachers. The sample was made up of 738 active teachers. The presence of flow in teaching, means that the teacher has control in their actions, feel joy and a deep sense of satisfaction. The music teachers show a higher grade of satisfaction without an external reward. The teachers do not identify the loss of self-consciousness or inhibition or they do not maintain this dimension. The optimal experience and intrinsic motivation are highly related with satisfaction without external rewards in teacher and music teacher.

  13. Music Education and Medicine: Music and the Neurology of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frank R.

    1991-01-01

    Explores how the body's biological clock affects the way musicians practice and perform. Delineates questions concerning this phenomenon. Discusses the implications for music teaching and focuses on areas for collaborative research between neurology researchers and music educators. (NL)

  14. The Effects of Musical Aptitude and Musical Training on Phonological Production in Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhengwei; Wu, Yidi; Xiang, Xiaocui; Qian, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates 128 Chinese college students to examine the effects of their musical aptitude and musical training on phonological production in four foreign languages. Results show that musically-trained students remarkably possessed stronger musical aptitude than those without musical training and performed better than their counterpart…

  15. Radar target classification method with high accuracy and decision speed performance using MUSIC spectrum vectors and PCA projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secmen, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    This paper introduces the performance of an electromagnetic target recognition method in resonance scattering region, which includes pseudo spectrum Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA) technique. The aim of this method is to classify an "unknown" target as one of the "known" targets in an aspect-independent manner. The suggested method initially collects the late-time portion of noise-free time-scattered signals obtained from different reference aspect angles of known targets. Afterward, these signals are used to obtain MUSIC spectrums in real frequency domain having super-resolution ability and noise resistant feature. In the final step, PCA technique is applied to these spectrums in order to reduce dimensionality and obtain only one feature vector per known target. In the decision stage, noise-free or noisy scattered signal of an unknown (test) target from an unknown aspect angle is initially obtained. Subsequently, MUSIC algorithm is processed for this test signal and resulting test vector is compared with feature vectors of known targets one by one. Finally, the highest correlation gives the type of test target. The method is applied to wire models of airplane targets, and it is shown that it can tolerate considerable noise levels although it has a few different reference aspect angles. Besides, the runtime of the method for a test target is sufficiently low, which makes the method suitable for real-time applications.

  16. Learning Features of Music from Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Thickstun, John; Harchaoui, Zaid; Kakade, Sham

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new large-scale music dataset, MusicNet, to serve as a source of supervision and evaluation of machine learning methods for music research. MusicNet consists of hundreds of freely-licensed classical music recordings by 10 composers, written for 11 instruments, together with instrument/note annotations resulting in over 1 million temporal labels on 34 hours of chamber music performances under various studio and microphone conditions. The paper defines a multi-label clas...

  17. Radiosensitivity variations in human tumor cell lines exposed in vitro to p(66)/Be neutrons or 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabbert, J.P.; Theron, T.; Serafin, A.; Jones, D.T.L.; Boehm, L.; Schmitt, G.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron therapy should be beneficial to patients with tumor types which are resistant to photons but relatively sensitive to high-LET radiation. In this work the potential therapeutic gain of a clinical neutron beam is evaluated by quantifying the variations in radiosensitivity of different cell lines to neutrons and photons. Different cell lines were exposed in vitro to p(66)/Be neutrons or 60 Co γ-rays. Micronuclei frequencies in binucleated cells and surviving fractions were determined for each cell type. Following exposure to either 1 or 1.5 Gy neutrons, micronuclei frequencies were significantly correlated with that observed for 2 Gy photons. A weak but significant correlation between the variation in neutron RBE values, determined from survival curve inactivation parameters and the mean inactivation doses for photon exposures, was also established. It is concluded that although neutron and photon sensitivities are related, the use of this high energy neutron source may constitute a potential therapeutic gain for tumor types that can be identified as very resistant to photons. Considering that a definitive oxygen gain factor has been established for this neutron beam the observed therapeutic gain is expected to be further enhanced in tumors where hypoxia protects cells from conventional radiation damage. (orig.) [de

  18. Replication of elite music performance enhancement following alpha/theta neurofeedback and application to novice performance and improvisation with SMR benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, J H; Holmes, P; Hirst, L; Bulpin, K; Rahman, S; van Run, C; Leach, J

    2014-01-01

    Alpha/theta (A/T) and sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback were compared in university instrumentalists who were novice singers with regard to prepared and improvised instrumental and vocal performance in three music domains: creativity/musicality, technique and communication/presentation. Only A/T training enhanced advanced playing seen in all three domains by expert assessors and validated by correlations with learning indices, strongest with Creativity/Musicality as shown by Egner and Gruzelier (2003). Here A/T gains extended to novice performance - prepared vocal, improvised vocal and instrumental - and were recognised by a lay audience who judged the prepared folk songs. SMR learning correlated positively with Technical Competence and Communication in novice performance, in keeping with SMR neurofeedback's known impact on lower-order processes such as attention, working memory and psychomotor skills. The importance of validation through learning indices was emphasised in the interpretation of neurofeedback outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Materiality for Musical Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Rikard; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    Nordic universities. Electronic music instrument makers participated in providing the course. In eleven days the students designed and built interfaces for musical expressions , composed a piece, and performed at the Norberg electronic music festival. The students explored the relationship between......We organised an elven day intense course in materiality for musical expressions to explore underlying principles of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) in higher education. We grounded the course in different aspects of ma-teriality and gathered interdisciplinary student teams from three...... technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer...

  20. "Walking with a Ghost": Arts-Based Research, Music Videos, and the Re-Performing Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Pamela G.; Wilder, Shannon O.; Helms, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    In folk-rock duo Tegan and Sara's 2004 music video "Walking with a Ghost," two women face one another, mirrored images in black and white. One is dressed in black--grunge shirt, pants and boots, while the other stands barefoot in a simple white dress. The black-clad figure removes three red paper hearts from her twin's chest, leaving crimson…

  1. Community of Learning: Music Learning and Performance Practices among the Native Peoples of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J. Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Through descriptions drawn from interviews of Native American musicians and observations of tribal musical events, this paper presents a challenge to the "conservative educational practices" in public schools of the United States. In conclusion, the paper suggests that by more closely examining different cultural learning, values and traditions,…

  2. Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction and Musical Performance Skills. CITE Report No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael

    This paper is a transcription from memory of a short talk that used overhead projector slides, with musical examples played on an Apple Macintosh computer and a Yamaha CX5 synthesizer. The slides appear in the text as reduced "icons" at the point where they would have been used in the talk. The paper concerns ways in which artificial intelligence…

  3. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of a Developmentally Appropriate Music and Movement Program on Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachopoulou, E.; Tsapakidou, A.; Derri, V.

    2004-01-01

    Basic motor skills development is achieved through the implementation of different types of physical education programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program and of a developmentally appropriate physical education program on the development of jumping and…

  5. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suse ePetersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry (MUSCI—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N=97. The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  6. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry-including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets-was used to assess the students' musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students' perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students' sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  7. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self. PMID:27303337

  8. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  9. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  10. A Worthy Function for Music in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The evidence from many sources is unambiguous in that music is one of the most important elements in the life of all humans. Most people listen to music as opposed to performing music. Although there are societies where everyone participates in singing and dancing, music is mostly performed by a small elite often for the pleasure and enjoyment of…

  11. Musical agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; McBurney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music.......The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music....

  12. [Music and Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plange, N

    2017-02-01

    Music may have multiple influences on the human organism. A possible therapeutic effect for patients with glaucoma has been postulated, aside from the known impact of music on the cardiovascular system, psychogenic effects and a short-term improvement in mental performance (Mozart effect). The higher level of mental stress in patients with glaucoma and type-A personality behaviour may be related to higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Relaxing music may have a positive impact in these patients, related to a reduction in intraocular pressure or its fluctuations. However, only limited data exist on the effects of music on intraocular pressure. No clinical studies have yet been performed to investigate the effect of music or music therapy on glaucoma progression. The music of Mozart may influence visual field examinations, possibly due to a positive short term effect on mental performance. This factor needs to be addressed in studies dealing with the effect of music in glaucoma. The relevance of intraocular pressure increases in professional wind instrument players is controversial. An increased level of care might be advisable in patients with advanced glaucoma. The influences of music on humans, altered personality profiles in patients with glaucoma and the studies showing some effect of stress on intraocular pressure stress the relevance of psychological support for glaucoma patients, who are confronted with a disease with a high longterm risk of blindness. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Eysenck's Theory of Personality and the Role of Background Music in Cognitive Task Performance: A Mini-Review of Conflicting Findings and a New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küssner, Mats B

    2017-01-01

    The question of whether background music is able to enhance cognitive task performance is of interest to scholars, educators, and stakeholders in business alike. Studies have shown that background music can have beneficial, detrimental or no effects on cognitive task performance. Extraversion-and its postulated underlying cause, cortical arousal-is regarded as an important factor influencing the outcome of such studies. According to Eysenck's theory of personality, extraverts' cortical arousal at rest is lower compared to that of introverts. Scholars have thus hypothesized that extraverts should benefit from background music in cognitive tasks, whereas introverts' performance should decline with music in the background. Reviewing studies that have considered extraversion as a mediator of the effect of background music on cognitive task performance, it is demonstrated that there is as much evidence in favor as there is against Eysenck's theory of personality. Further, revisiting Eysenck's concept of cortical arousal-which has traditionally been assessed by activity in the EEG alpha band-and reviewing literature on the link between extraversion and cortical arousal, it is revealed that there is conflicting evidence. Due to Eysenck's focus on alpha power, scholars have largely neglected higher frequency bands in the EEG signal as indicators of cortical arousal. Based on recent findings, it is suggested that beta power might not only be an indicator of alertness and attention but also a predictor of cognitive task performance. In conclusion, it is proposed that focused music listening prior to cognitive tasks might be a more efficient way to boost performance than listening to background music during cognitive tasks.

  14. Eysenck's Theory of Personality and the Role of Background Music in Cognitive Task Performance: A Mini-Review of Conflicting Findings and a New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats B. Küssner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether background music is able to enhance cognitive task performance is of interest to scholars, educators, and stakeholders in business alike. Studies have shown that background music can have beneficial, detrimental or no effects on cognitive task performance. Extraversion—and its postulated underlying cause, cortical arousal—is regarded as an important factor influencing the outcome of such studies. According to Eysenck's theory of personality, extraverts' cortical arousal at rest is lower compared to that of introverts. Scholars have thus hypothesized that extraverts should benefit from background music in cognitive tasks, whereas introverts' performance should decline with music in the background. Reviewing studies that have considered extraversion as a mediator of the effect of background music on cognitive task performance, it is demonstrated that there is as much evidence in favor as there is against Eysenck's theory of personality. Further, revisiting Eysenck's concept of cortical arousal—which has traditionally been assessed by activity in the EEG alpha band—and reviewing literature on the link between extraversion and cortical arousal, it is revealed that there is conflicting evidence. Due to Eysenck's focus on alpha power, scholars have largely neglected higher frequency bands in the EEG signal as indicators of cortical arousal. Based on recent findings, it is suggested that beta power might not only be an indicator of alertness and attention but also a predictor of cognitive task performance. In conclusion, it is proposed that focused music listening prior to cognitive tasks might be a more efficient way to boost performance than listening to background music during cognitive tasks.

  15. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio José Pereira de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

  16. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  17. The amphibology of musical arts in Nigerian contemporary music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term 'musical arts' is valid in African indigenous system but could be so ambiguous in application. In a sense, music as an art involves the arts of writing, reading, composing arranging and performing. This is already taught in the music curricula of higher institutions of learning. On the other hand, the term is used to ...

  18. Psychoacoustic Performance and Music and Speech Perception in Prelingually Deafened Children with Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyu Hwan; Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R.; Jameyson, Elyse; Miyasaki, Gary; Norton, Susan J.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2012-01-01

    The number of pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients has increased substantially over the past 10 years, and it has become more important to understand the underlying mechanisms of the variable outcomes in this population. In this study, psychoacoustic measures of spectral-ripple and Schroeder-phase discrimination, the Clinical Assessment of Music Perception, and consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) word recognition in quiet and spondee reception threshold (SRT) in noise tests have been pres...

  19. Music in the recovering brain

    OpenAIRE

    Särkämö, Teppo

    2011-01-01

    Listening to music involves a widely distributed bilateral network of brain regions that controls many auditory perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and motor functions. Exposure to music can also temporarily improve mood, reduce stress, and enhance cognitive performance as well as promote neural plasticity. However, very little is currently known about the relationship between music perception and auditory and cognitive processes or about the potential therapeutic effects of listening to music ...

  20. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID

  1. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesised that analyses of expressive expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors differed according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigour and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive

  2. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  3. Transcribing for Greater Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Bob

    1995-01-01

    States that transcribing is notating the performance of a musical composition or improvisation as the music is grasped aurally. Maintains that transcribing is effective for high school and college students who want to understand jazz techniques. Includes eight suggestions for teaching transcribing. (CFR)

  4. Remote Music Tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Duffy; D. Williams; I. Kegel; T. Stevens; A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); P. Healey

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many

  5. Popular Music and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    the collapse of the Soviet Union: What present trends can be observed?  How has the Soviet context influenced the popular music of today?  How is music performed and consumed?  How has the interrelationship between cultural industry and performers developed?  How are nationalist sensibilities affecting popular......Fifteen years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, popular music is thriving in the former Soviet territories and covers a broad variety of genres.  Among these are rock bands formed in the Soviet era, surviving legends of Soviet pop, and younger bands and performers of the 1990s and 2000s.......   Local and foreign musics blend as new impulses arrive from without and arise from within the region.  Thanks to the most recent wave of Russian emigrants, these popular musics have also spread to various localities around the world, as exemplified by the phenomenon of "Russendisko" in Berlin...

  6. The Poetic and Musical Forms of Yoruba Songs | Vidal | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a) Performing modes and contents (b) Occasion for performance or context (c) Musical instrument used as accompaniments and (d) Social functions of the music, all of which excluded the structural form; an important musical and analytical ...

  7. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  8. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  9. The Guide to Teaching with Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    Popular music is often characterized as a short work with a prominent melody and simple chordal accompaniment. Yet, teaching with pop music in the era of standards-based curriculum can present challenges. These standards offer teachers a blueprint for teaching music performance, composition, improvisation, and the relationship of music to other…

  10. Multifaceted Approaches to Music Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, C.C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Music is a multifaceted phenomenon: beyond addressing our auditory channel, the consumption of music triggers further senses. Also in creating and communicating music, multiple modalities are at play. Next to this, it allows for various ways of interpretation: the same musical piece can be performed

  11. Computer Music Synthesis and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lydia

    What is computer music composition? Composers are using the computer for everything from MIDI instruments communicating with computer sequencers, pitch trackers analyzing the sounds of acoustic instruments and converting them to pitch information, live performers with recorded music, performers with interactive computer programs, computer music produced by dancers using sensors, automatic music composition with the computer programs composing the music, composing with sounds or parts of sounds rather than notes, how to structure the use of time, composing with timbres, or the colors of sounds, and timbre morphing, such as a gong morphing to a voice, composing with textures and texture morphing, such as fluttertonguing morphing to pitch, granular synthesis, trills and convolution.

  12. Brain-Activity-Driven Real-Time Music Emotive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Sergio; Ramirez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Active music listening has emerged as a study field that aims to enable listeners to interactively control music. Most of active music listening systems aim to control music aspects such as playback, equalization, browsing, and retrieval, but few of them aim to control expressive aspects of music to convey emotions. In this study our aim is to enrich the music listening experience by allowing listeners to control expressive parameters in music performances using their perceived emotional stat...

  13. Identifying attachment ruptures underlying severe music performance anxiety in a professional musician undertaking an assessment and trial therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Kenny has proposed that severe music performance anxiety that is unresponsive to usual treatments such as cognitive-behaviour therapy may be one manifestation of unresolved attachment ruptures in early life. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy specifically targets early relationship trauma. Accordingly, a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with severely anxious musicians was implemented to assess whether resolution of attachment ruptures resulted in clinically significant relief from music performance anxiety. Volunteer musicians participating in a nationally funded study were screened for MPA severity. Those meeting the critical cut-off score on the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory were offered a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations and rationale for the treatment approach, followed by sections of a verbatim transcript and process analysis of the assessment phase of treatment that comprised a 3-h trial therapy session. The 'case' was a professional orchestral musician (male, aged 55) who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire career, which spanned more than 30 years at the time he presented for treatment following his failure to secure a position at audition. The participant was able to access the pain, rage and grief associated with unresolved attachment ruptures with both parents that demonstrated the likely nexus between early attachment trauma and severe music performance anxiety. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy is a potentially cost-effective treatment for severe music performance anxiety. Further research using designs with higher levels of evidence are required before clinical recommendations can be made for the use of this therapy with this population.

  14. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet , Martin; Kian , Arash; Berthaut , Florent; Franco , Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine , Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  15. Music's relevance for children with cancer: music therapists' qualitative clinical data-mining research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Dun, Beth; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa

    2013-01-01

    Music is central in most children's lives. Understanding its relevance will advance efficacious pediatric supportive cancer care. Qualitative clinical data-mining uncovered four music therapists' perspectives about music and music therapy's relevance for pediatric oncology patients up to 14 years old. Inductive and comparative thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts and qualitative interrater reliability integrated. Music can offer children a safe haven for internalizing a healthy self-image alongside patient identity. Music therapy can calm, relieve distress, promote supportive relationships, enable self-care, and inspire playful creativity, associated with "normalcy" and hope. Preferred music and music therapy should be available in pediatric oncology.

  16. Democracy, open source and music education? : A Deweyan investigation of music education in digital domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorgersen, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    Democracy, open source and music education? A Deweyan investigation of music education in digital domains.   Music has not been solely temporal for more than a century, and musical performance has not been created exclusively in real time by humans since the piano roll entered the stage in the late 19th century.  The mechanical, and later the digital, music industry has changed music as a social phenomena, increasing the availability of music to listen to, tools to create music with as well a...

  17. Ansiedade na performance musical: tradução, adaptação e validação do Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI para a língua portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Figueiredo Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A performance musical requer alto nível de habilidade em diversos parâmetros, como coordenação motora, atenção e memória, o que a torna particularmente suscetível aos estados de ansiedade. Pesquisas nessa área têm avançado com a introdução de instrumentos específicos para abordar a ansiedade na performance musical, como é o caso da Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI. OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivo traduzir, adaptar e validar a K-MPAI para a língua portuguesa. MÉTODOS: Após autorização da autora, a escala K-MPAI foi traduzida e validada. A escala em língua portuguesa foi aplicada a 218 músicos de ambos os sexos, amadores e profissionais. Para a validação concorrente, foi utilizado o Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado (IDATE, versão validada na língua portuguesa da State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. RESULTADOS: A análise da consistência interna apresentou alfa de Cronbach = 0,957 com p < 0,001, reprodutibilidade com p = 0,378 e validação concorrente com a IDATE com alfa de Cronbach = 0,642 e p < 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo permite considerar a amostra com graus de confiabilidade e reprodutibilidade elevados, o que traduz este estudo como provindo de uma amostra não tendenciada e replicável a outras populações. A validação concorrente entre a K-MPAI e a IDATE permite inferir que ambas as escalas são comparáveis na capacidade de medir os níveis de ansiedade em musicistas.

  18. Increased gray matter volume of left pars opercularis in male orchestral musicians correlate positively with years of musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kareem, Ihssan A; Stancak, Andrej; Parkes, Laura M; Sluming, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    To compare manual volumetry of gray matter (GM) / white matter (WM) of Broca's area subparts: pars opercularis (POP) and pars triangularis (PTR) in both hemispheres between musicians and nonmusician, as it has been shown that these regions are crucial for musical abilities. A previous voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study conducted in our laboratory reported increased GM density in Broca's area of left hemisphere in male orchestral musicians. Functional segregation of POP/PTR justified separate volumetric analysis of these parts. We used the same cohort for the VBM study. Manual morphometry (stereology) was used to compare volumes between 26/26 right-handed orchestral musicians/nonmusicians. As expected, musicians showed significantly increased GM volume in the Broca's area, specifically in the left POP. No significant results were detected in right POP, left/right PTR GM volumes, and WM volumes for all regions. Results were positively correlated with years of musical performance (r = 0.7, P = 0.0001). This result corroborates the VBM study and is in line with the hypothesis of critical involvement of POP in hearing-action integration being an integral component of frontoparietotemporal mirror neuron network. We hypothesize that increased size of musicians' left POP represent use-dependent structural adaptation in response to intensive audiomotor skill acquisition. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fast tempo music (FM) on self-paced running performance (heart rate, running speed, ratings of perceived exertion), and slow tempo music (SM) on post-exercise heart rate and blood lactate recovery rates. Twelve participants (5 women) completed three randomly assigned conditions: static noise (control), FM and SM. Each condition consisted of self-paced treadmill running, and supine postexercise recovery periods (20 min each). Average running speed, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the treadmill running period, while HR and blood lactate were measured during the recovery period. Listening to FM during exercise resulted in a faster self-selected running speed (10.8±1.7 vs. 9.9±1.4 km•hour-1, Peffect P<0.001) and blood lactate at the end of recovery (2.8±0.4 vs. 4.7±0.8 mmol•L-1, P<0.05). Listening to FM during exercise can increase self-paced intensity without altering perceived exertion levels while listening to SM after exercise can accelerate the recovery rate back to resting levels.

  20. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted.

  1. "I'm not hiding in the shadows anymore": o queer e a performance musical na representação midiática de Mykki Banco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Menegat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo geral deste artigo é apresentar uma análise da multiplicidade performática do rapper Mykki Blanco no vídeo Mykki Blanco On Set For Milk, objeto escolhido por seu caráter híbrido quanto aos formatos comunicacionais. O vídeo dialoga com a maneira como Blanco é midiaticamente representado: um corpo em constante transformação que exalta sua multiplicidade e subverte concepções normativas sobre identidade na cultura musical na qual está inserido. A partir da análise do audiovisual, cruzando concepções de identidade e teoria queer, aliadas à perspectiva dos Estudos Culturais, o texto aborda as subversões das normas reguladoras de gênero e sexualidade no universo musical e as desconstruções dos elementos que compõem a performance musical de Blanco.

  2. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F 2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  3. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004. There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007, although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM, unfamiliar arousing music (UAM, or no music (NM groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR, peripheral temperature (PT, and heart rate (HR were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14. GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  4. Noise performance of the multiwavelength sub/millimeter inductance camera (MUSIC) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    MUSIC is a multi-band imaging camera that employs 2304 Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) in 576 spatial pixels to cover a 14 arc-minute field of view, with each pixel simultaneously sensitive to 4 bands centered at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. In April 2012 the MUSIC instrument was commissioned at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with a subset of the full focal plane. We examine the noise present in the detector timestreams during observations taken in the first year of operation. We find that fluctuations in atmospheric emission dominate at long timescales (< 0.5 Hz), and fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of the probe signal due to readout electronics contribute significant 1/f-type noise at shorter timescales. We describe a method to remove the amplitude, phase, and atmospheric noise using the fact that they are correlated among carrier tones. After removal, the complex signal is decomposed, or projected, into dissipation and frequency components. White noise from the cryogenic HEMT amplifier dominates in the dissipation component. An excess noise is observed in the frequency component that is likely due to fluctuations in two-level system (TLS) defects in the device substrate. We compare the amplitude of the TLS noise with previous measurements

  5. Noise performance of the multiwavelength sub/millimeter inductance camera (MUSIC) detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. R.

    2015-07-01

    MUSIC is a multi-band imaging camera that employs 2304 Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) in 576 spatial pixels to cover a 14 arc-minute field of view, with each pixel simultaneously sensitive to 4 bands centered at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. In April 2012 the MUSIC instrument was commissioned at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with a subset of the full focal plane. We examine the noise present in the detector timestreams during observations taken in the first year of operation. We find that fluctuations in atmospheric emission dominate at long timescales (electronics contribute significant 1/f-type noise at shorter timescales. We describe a method to remove the amplitude, phase, and atmospheric noise using the fact that they are correlated among carrier tones. After removal, the complex signal is decomposed, or projected, into dissipation and frequency components. White noise from the cryogenic HEMT amplifier dominates in the dissipation component. An excess noise is observed in the frequency component that is likely due to fluctuations in two-level system (TLS) defects in the device substrate. We compare the amplitude of the TLS noise with previous measurements.

  6. Performing sound of the past: Remix in electronic dance music culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Irina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term remix, defined as an activity of taking data from pre-existing materials to combine them into new forms according to personal taste, relates to various elements and areas of contemporary culture. Whichever model used, consideration of the remix depends on recognition of pre-existing cultural codes. Therefore, as a second layer, the remix relies on the authority of the original and it functions at the meta-level. The audience may see a trace of history with the pre-existing object and the meaning creates in the viewer(s, reader(s, listener(s or, in the contemporary world of DJs and popular electronic dance music culture - in dancer(s. With the aim of specifying modes of creating particular ambients, this paper will consider and examine the song Why Don’t You? remixed by Marko Milićević, a Serbian DJ also known as Gramophonedzie, and illuminate how material from the past can create a constructive (musical dialogue.

  7. Complexity measures of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, April; Mahmoodi, Korosh; West, Bruce J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique to search for the presence of crucial events in music, based on the analysis of the music volume. Earlier work on this issue was based on the assumption that crucial events correspond to the change of music notes, with the interesting result that the complexity index of the crucial events is mu ~ 2, which is the same inverse power-law index of the dynamics of the brain. The search technique analyzes music volume and confirms the results of the earlier work, thereby contributing to the explanation as to why the brain is sensitive to music, through the phenomenon of complexity matching. Complexity matching has recently been interpreted as the transfer of multifractality from one complex network to another. For this reason we also examine the mulifractality of music, with the observation that the multifractal spectrum of a computer performance is significantly narrower than the multifractal spectrum of a human performance of the same musical score. We conjecture that although crucial events are demonstrably important for information transmission, they alone are not suficient to define musicality, which is more adequately measured by the multifractality spectrum.

  8. HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b: Two Transiting Inflated Hot Jupiters and Observational Evidence for the Reinflation of Close-in Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Bhatti, W.; Penev, K.; Bieryla, A.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, G.; Torres, G.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Buchhave, L.; Kovács, T.; Quinn, S.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Fulton, B. J.; Everett, M. E.; Esquerdo, G.; Béky, B.; Szklenar, T.; Falco, E.; Santerne, A.; Boisse, I.; Hébrard, G.; Burrows, A.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of the transiting exoplanets HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, with orbital periods of 2.6055 and 2.9721 days, masses of 0.527+/- 0.083 {M}{{J}} and 0.783+/- 0.057 {M}{{J}}, and inflated radii of 1.89+/- 0.13 {R}{{J}} and {1.59}-0.10+0.16 {R}{{J}}, respectively. They orbit moderately bright (V=13.145+/- 0.029 and V=12.993+/- 0.052) stars of mass 1.212+/- 0.050 {M}⊙ and {1.255}-0.054+0.107 {M}⊙ . The stars are at the main-sequence turnoff. While it is well known that the radii of close-in giant planets are correlated with their equilibrium temperatures, whether or not the radii of planets increase in time as their hosts evolve and become more luminous is an open question. Looking at the broader sample of well-characterized close-in transiting giant planets, we find that there is a statistically significant correlation between planetary radii and the fractional ages of their host stars, with a false-alarm probability of only 0.0041%. We find that the correlation between the radii of planets and the fractional ages of their hosts is fully explained by the known correlation between planetary radii and their present-day equilibrium temperatures; however, if the zero-age main-sequence equilibrium temperature is used in place of the present-day equilibrium temperature, then a correlation with age must also be included to explain the planetary radii. This suggests that, after contracting during the pre-main-sequence, close-in giant planets are reinflated over time due to the increasing level of irradiation received from their host stars. Prior theoretical work indicates that such a dynamic response to irradiation requires a significant fraction of the incident energy to be deposited deep within the planetary interiors. Based on observations obtained with the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology

  9. Connecting Oceanography and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Capturing and retaining the interest of non-science majors in science classes can be difficult, no matter what type of science. At Berklee College of Music, this challenge is especially significant, as all students are music majors. In my Introductory Oceanography course, I use a final project as a way for the students to link class material with their own interests. The students may choose any format to present their projects to the class; however, many students write and perform original music. The performances of ocean-themed music have become a huge draw of the Introductory Oceanography course. In an effort to expand the reach of this music, several colleagues and I organized the first Earth Day event at Berklee, `Earthapalooza 2015.' This event included performances of music originally written for the final projects, as well as other musical performances, poetry readings, guest talks, and information booths. Although the idea of an Earth Day event is not new, this event is unique in that student performances really resonate with the student audience. Additionally, since many of these students will enter professional careers in the performance and recording industries, the potential exists for them to expose large audiences to the issues of oceanography through music. In this presentation, I will play examples of original student compositions and show video of the live student performances. I will also discuss the benefits and challenges of the final projects and the Earth Day event. Finally, I will highlight the future plans to continue ocean-themed music at Berklee.

  10. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  11. Shakespeare's Philosophy of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Sulka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare is one of the most widely read figures in literature, but his use of music is not usually touched on in literary discussions of his works. In this paper, I discuss how Shakespeare portrays music within the context of his plays, through both dialogue and songs performed within each work. In Shakespeare’s time, Boethius’s philosophy of the Music of the Spheres was still highly popular. This was the idea that the arrangement of the cosmos mirrored musical proportions. As a result, every aspect of the universe was believed to be highly ordered, and this idea is prominent throughout Shakespeare’s works, from "Hamlet" to "A Midsummer Night’s Dream." To make this clear to the reader, I discuss dialogue symmetry weaved throughout "The Merchant of Venice," clear allusions to the music of the spheres in "Pericles," and the use of music as a signifier of the strange and mysterious – from madness to love – in numerous works, always relating these topics back to the philosophy of the music of the spheres. In order to compile this information and make it clear, I researched the philosophy of music during Shakespeare’s era. I also researched how he uses music thematically to emphasize different characters’ struggles as well as plot details. After examining his plays as well as the other sources available on the subject, it is clear that Shakespeare was highly influenced by the philosophical and practical ideas regarding music of his time, specifically the theory of the music of the spheres.

  12. Classical Music Clustering Based on Acoustic Features

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xindi; Haque, Syed Arefinul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we cluster 330 classical music pieces collected from MusicNet database based on their musical note sequence. We use shingling and chord trajectory matrices to create signature for each music piece and performed spectral clustering to find the clusters. Based on different resolution, the output clusters distinctively indicate composition from different classical music era and different composing style of the musicians.

  13. The neuroaesthetics of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter offers an overview on the state-of-the-art research under the agenda of the neuroaesthetics of music. This research agenda, inspired by the neuroaesthetics of visual art, represents a paradigm shift from neuroimaging studies focused exclusively on music perception, cognition...... and emotion to studies that consider aesthetic responses such as liking, preference, and aesthetic judgments. The existing models depicting information processing stages of the musical aesthetic experiences and their loci in the brain are summarized. The latest findings point at a synergy between neural...... systems, and particularly between superior temporal gyrus and limbic reward areas for issuing aesthetic responses to music. Future challenges for the field are the discovery of the neural mechanisms of inter-subject communication during musical performance leading to an efficacious aesthetic experience....

  14. Music publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Alberto; Almeida, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to define relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. We want an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source t...

  15. [Music and health--what kind of music is helpful for whom? What music not?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, H-J

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that music not only may improve quality of life (QoL) but also have different effects on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV). Music emphasis and rhythmic phrases are tracked consistently by physiological variables. Autonomic responses are synchronized with music, which might therefore convey emotions through autonomic arousal during crescendos or rhythmic phrases. A greater modulation of HR, HRV and modulations in cardiac autonomic nerve activity was revealed with a greater effect for music performance than music perception. Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggested that cardiorespiratory variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that relaxing music decreases significantly the level of anxiety in a preoperative setting to a greater extent than orally administered midazolam (p effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make preoperative relaxing music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery. Music intervention should be offered as an integral part of the multimodal regime administered to the patients that have undergone cardiovascular surgery. It is a supportive source that increases relaxation. Music is also effective in under conditions and music can be utilized as an effective intervention for patients with depressive symptoms, geriatrics and in pain, intensive care or palliative medicine. However, careful selected music that incorporates a patient's own preferences may offer an effective method to reduce anxiety and to improve quality of life. The most benefit on health is visible in classic music, meditation music whereas heavy metal music or technosounds are even ineffective or dangerous and will lead to stress and/or life threatening arrhythmias. There are many composers most

  16. Music, memory and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Fair, Laura

    2012-01-01

    I his paper examines the music and career of Siti binti Saadi, a famous taarab musician who performed in Zanzibar during the 1920s and 1930s. Relying on four distinctive types of evidence: her recorded music, written documentation produced in East Africa, interviews with men and women who heard her perform and records of company executives I compare perspectives regarding the source of power and authority attributed to her voice as well as the meaning of her music. Siti binti Saadi was the fi...

  17. Avaliação de performances por ouvintes: um estudo com estudantes de licenciatura em música da FAMES Evaluation of performances for listeners: a study with undergraduate music students from FAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fortunato Soares de Quadros Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a relação entre a variação de expressividade e a preferência de performances na opinião de ouvintes, tomando como objeto de estudo os estudantes do curso de licenciatura em música da FAMES. Partindo da premissa que correlaciona positivamente uma performance expressiva ao nível de apreciação do ouvinte, este trabalho submeteu os estudantes a três performances distintas de uma mesma obra. Dessa maneira, cada performance considerada previamente por juízes independentes como de alta, média e baixa expressividade, recebeu um nível de preferência atribuído por cada aluno e a premissa foi avaliada. Os estudantes também foram solicitados a indicar quais aspectos musicais eles consideram preponderantes na construção de uma performance musical expressiva. Os resultados apontam para uma relação direta entre o nível de expressividade e a preferência de performance. Quanto aos aspectos musicais relacionados à expressividade, confirmam-se as associações feitas pelos ouvintes entre a expressividade na performance musical e as variações de dinâmica, intensidade, tempo, agógica, articulação, altura e timbre.This study investigated the relationship between expressivity variation and performances preference in the opinion of listeners, taking as study object undergraduate music students from FAMES. Assuming that an expressive performance and the listener's appreciation level are positively correlated, this paper submitted the students to three different performances of the same piece. Thus, each performance, previously considered by independent judges as having a high, medium and low expressivity, received a preference level given by each student, and the premise was evaluated. Students were also requested to indicate which musical aspects they consider preponderant on the construction of an expressive music performance. The results indicate a direct relation between the level of expressivity and the

  18. What Can You Teach with Electronic Dance Music? A Music Teacher's Guide to EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halick, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Music teachers, who are working to develop students' musicianship skills, often focus on exposing students to new styles and genres of music. These initiatives encourage students to analyze, develop opinions, create, and perform music they may not normally hear. The purpose of this article is to introduce music educators to Electronic Dance Music…

  19. Enculturation Effects in Music Cognition: The Role of Age and Music Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J.; Demorest, Steven M.; Stambaugh, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors replicate and extend findings from previous studies of music enculturation by comparing music memory performance of children to that of adults when listening to culturally familiar and unfamiliar music. Forty-three children and 50 adults, all born and raised in the United States, completed a music memory test comprising unfamiliar…

  20. Music Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval has received increasing attention from both the industrial and the research communities in recent years. Many audio extraction techniques providing content-based music information have been developed, sparking the need for intelligent storage and retrieval facilities. ...

  1. Satire in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Stefanija

    2011-12-01

    örgy Ligeti; c certain cultural norms, as in Marko Mihevc’s Hallelujah. 5. The musical stream is hardly connected with concrete musical or broader cultural norms, but its semantic potential emerges out of some “physical cognitive universals,” as indicated by programmatic genres and performance indications, such as scherzo, scherzoso, scherzando, grotesque, and burlesque.

  2. Music & Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Gemma; Camps, Laia; Herrera, Isabel Herrera; Guillamat, Roser; Vallés, Vicenç; Sanz, Maite; Martínez, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that music may serve as therapeutic function among populations with different illnesses or disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies that incorporate music activity or music method shown an increase activation in several brain areas, with widespread bilateral hemodynamic responses in occipital lobe, bilateral cerebellum, temporal lobe, in the right lateral prefrontal cortex as well hemodynamic responses in the left middle frontal gyrus.Music activ...

  3. Music Teachers' Everyday Conceptions of Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstrom, Sture

    1999-01-01

    Investigates music teachers' everyday conceptions of musicality through (1) a pilot study involving music teachers in higher education and (2) interviews with teachers in music teacher education and in compulsory school. Finds in the pilot the categories of musical achievement, musical experience, and musical communication, while the interviews…

  4. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "play-driven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  5. Músicas em movimento. Dos contextos, tempos e geografias da performance musical em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Abreu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O texto propõe-se desenvolver uma reflexão acerca das dinâmicas territoriais dos mercados culturais, discutindo a forma como essas dinâmicas reflectem tensões inerentes à lógica própria da produção/criação cultural, às prioridades impostas pelo crescimento dos mercados da cultura (concorrência e disputa de públicos escassos e a exigências de legitimação social e política das actividades culturais. A discussão far-se-á a partir da análise do caso particular do mercado do espectáculo musical no nosso país, recorrendo a dados produzidos no âmbito de um projecto de investigação realizado no CES/FEUC e recentemente finalizado. Os resultados produzidos possibilitam a identificação de traços marcantes relativos à geografia, aos tempos e aos contextos da produção de espectáculos musicais, permitindo a sua discussão no âmbito das principais linhas de estruturação das actuais políticas culturais (centrais e locais e da esfera cultural no nosso país.

  6. Exploring South Africa’s ‘black diamonds’ at live music performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Problem under investigation: This exploratory study fills a gap in the literature by profiling ‘black diamonds’, the South African up-and-coming middle-class market, at live music concerts. Design, methodology and approach: A destination-based survey at five concerts in South Africa in 2012 extracted a sample of 164 black diamond attendees from the rest of the audience. The attendance motives of this sample were used to identify different market segments within the sample. Findings and implications: Factor analysis identified five key motives and five key management factors for a memorable experience, and a cluster analysis found three types of black diamond concertgoers: Enthusiasts, Sentimentalists and Novices. The three clusters differed significantly in terms of their socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and especially in terms of what they regarded as important for a memorable experience at a live concert. These results will enable managers to package live concerts accordingly in order to develop this market in South Africa. The research emphasises that attendees at live concerts cannot be regarded as homogeneous in terms of their profiles, needs and preferences.

  7. Variation in posture quality across musical instruments and its impact during performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez Vidal, Aurora

    2018-06-01

    Bad posture increases the risk that a musician may suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. This study compared posture quality required by different instruments or families of instruments. Using an ad-hoc postural observation instrument embracing 11 postural variables, four experts evaluated the postures of 100 students attending a Spanish higher conservatory of music. The agreement of the experts' evaluations was statistically confirmed by a Cohen's κ value between 0.855 and 1.000 and a Kendall value between 0.709 and 1.000 (p instrument families and seated posture with respect to pelvic attitude, dorsal curvature and head alignment in both sagittal and frontal planes. This analysis also showed an association between instrument families and standing posture with respect to the frontal plane of the axis of gravity, pelvic attitude, head alignment in the frontal plane, the sagittal plane of the shoulders and overall posture. While certain postural defects appear to be common to all families of instruments, others are more characteristic of some families than others. The instrument associated with the best posture quality was the bagpipe, followed by percussion and strings.

  8. Community Music during the New Deal: The Contributions of Willem Van de Wall and Max Kaplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikun, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Willem Van de Wall (1887-1953) and Max Kaplan (1911-98) built careers spanning music performance, music education, adult education, sociology, social work, music therapy and community music. Willem Van de Wall was a seminal influence on the development of the fields of music therapy and adult education--researching the role of music in…

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Treatment of Music Performance Anxiety: A Pilot Study with Student Vocalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos, David G; Heinrichs, Glenn A; Towle, Philip; Duffy, Kiera; Grand, Sebastian M; Morgan, Matthew C; Smith, Jonathan D; Kalkus, Evan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as a treatment for music performance anxiety (MPA) in an uncontrolled pilot design. ACT is a newer, "third-wave" therapy that differs from previous MPA treatments, because its goal is not to reduce symptoms of MPA. Rather, ACT aims to enhance psychological flexibility in the presence of unwanted symptoms through the promotion of six core processes collectively known as the ACT "Hexaflex." A small group of student vocalists ( N = 7) from an elite choral college were recruited using objective criteria for evaluating MPA. Participants received 12 ACT sessions, and their baseline functioning served as a pre-treatment control. Treatment consisted of an orientation to ACT, identifying experientially avoidant behaviors, facilitation of Hexaflex processes, group performances in which valued behaviors were practiced in front of one another, meditations, homework, and completion of self-report measures before, during, and after treatment (at a 1- and 3-month follow-up). Improvements were observed in participants' cognitive defusion, acceptance of MPA symptoms, and psychological flexibility at post-treatment and follow-ups. Students also appeared to improve their performance quality and reduce their shame over having MPA. These results add to existing research suggesting ACT is a promising intervention for MPA, while also highlighting how vocal students may be less impaired by physical MPA symptoms.

  10. An extravaganza of old church music

    OpenAIRE

    Mercieca, Simon

    2005-01-01

    To celebrate the completion of its first course in Diploma in Music (Sacred Music), the Mediterranean Institute has invited the Choir of the University of Palermo to Malta to give three public performances in local Churches.

  11. Performative, Arts-Based, or Arts-Informed? Reflections on the Development of Arts-Based Research in Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Alison; McCaffrey, Tríona

    2015-01-01

    Arts-based research (ABR) has emerged in music therapy in diverse ways, employing a range of interpretive paradigms and artistic media. It is notable that no consensus exists as to when and where the arts are included in the research process, or which music therapy topics are most suited to arts-based study. This diversity may pose challenges for music therapists who are developing, reading, and evaluating arts-based research. This paper provides an updated review of arts-based research literature in music therapy, along with four questions for researchers who are developing arts-based research. These questions are 1) When should the arts be introduced? 2) Which artistic medium is appropriate? 3) How should the art be understood? and 4) What is the role of the audience? We argue that these questions are key to understanding arts-based research, justifying methods, and evaluating claims arising from arts-based research. Rather than defining arts-based research in music therapy, we suggest that arts-based research should be understood as a flexible research strategy appropriate for exploring the complexities of music therapy practice. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Popular Music and the Instrumental Ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, George

    1999-01-01

    Discusses popular music, the role of the musical performer as a creator, and the styles of jazz and popular music. Describes the pop ensemble at the college level, focusing on improvisation, rehearsals, recording, and performance. Argues that pop ensembles be used in junior and senior high school. (CMK)

  13. Effects of Conducting Instruction on the Musical Performance of Beginning Band Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven N.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conducting instruction on beginning band students' individual rhythmic performance, group rhythmic performance, group performance of legato and staccato, and group performance of phrasing and dynamics. The students represented diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Concludes the conducting instruction is a useful tool…

  14. Tsonga popular music: negotiating ethnic identity in 'global' music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identity performance'. Although ethnic identity continues to be performed in contemporary black South African popular music, this article argues for the existence of a performance of, and discourse on, identities that go beyond ethnicity. Here the ...

  15. Family Music Concerts: Bringing Families, Music Students, and Music Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how conductors of the top performing groups and music education faculty at one university collaborated to create a Family Concert Series for parents and children of all ages, including infants in arms. Recognizing the conflict between "The first three years of life are the most important for educating a young child in…

  16. [Physiological aspects of music and longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymnikowa, M

    The article provides an overview of the results of studies on the effect of music on the function of various physiological systems of the organism including the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, also on the effect of Mozart's music and the later mature Baroque music. Particular attention is paid to information on the influence of different kinds of music (classical, jazz and rock), of the nature and of the degree of musical activity (listeners, amateurs and professional performers) on cognitive and behavioral function, on health status, life expectancy and longevity. Structural acoustical attributes of music defining its treatment effect, are described with the comparison of aspects of rock music and of classical music. The article also considers the prospects for using of music in the treatment and prevention of age-associated diseases.

  17. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  18. Deep Predictive Models in Interactive Music

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Charles P.; Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Torresen, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Automatic music generation is a compelling task where much recent progress has been made with deep learning models. In this paper, we ask how these models can be integrated into interactive music systems; how can they encourage or enhance the music making of human users? Musical performance requires prediction to operate instruments, and perform in groups. We argue that predictive models could help interactive systems to understand their temporal context, and ensemble behaviour. Deep learning...

  19. Genomics studies on musical aptitude, music perception, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Irma

    2018-03-23

    When searching for genetic markers inherited together with musical aptitude, genes affecting inner ear development and brain function were identified. The alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA), located in the most significant linkage region of musical aptitude, was overexpressed when listening and performing music. The GATA-binding protein 2 gene (GATA2) was located in the best associated region of musical aptitude and regulates SNCA in dopaminergic neurons, thus linking DNA- and RNA-based studies of music-related traits together. In addition to SNCA, several other genes were linked to dopamine metabolism. Mutations in SNCA predispose to Lewy-body dementia and cause Parkinson disease in humans and affect song production in songbirds. Several other birdsong genes were found in transcriptome analysis, suggesting a common evolutionary background of sound perception and production in humans and songbirds. Regions of positive selection with musical aptitude contained genes affecting auditory perception, cognitive performance, memory, human language development, and song perception and production of songbirds. The data support the role of dopaminergic pathway and their link to the reward mechanism as a molecular determinant in positive selection of music. Integration of gene-level data from the literature across multiple species prioritized activity-dependent immediate early genes as candidate genes in musical aptitude and listening to and performing music. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. The History of Jazz Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔荣斌

    2004-01-01

    "Is jazz a kind of folk music? Is it a performing style? How is it different from other kinds of music?" There is no simple answer to these questions, because the most important quality (特性,品质) of jazz comes from its unique combination (独特的组合) of different musical sources over a period of almost dO0 years.

  1. Music Perception in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n = 5), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. Taking working memory performance into account, no specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis, or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation.

  2. Effects on driving performance of interacting with an in-vehicle music player: a comparison of three interface layout concepts for information presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Trotter, Margaret J; Lenné, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Interface design is an important factor in assessing the potential effects on safety of interacting with an in-vehicle information system while driving. In the current study, the layout of information on a visual display was manipulated to explore its effect on driving performance in the context of music selection. The comparative effects of an auditory-verbal (cognitive) task were also explored. The driving performance of 30 participants was assessed under both baseline and dual task conditions using the Lane Change Test. Concurrent completion of the music selection task with driving resulted in significant impairment to lateral driving performance (mean lane deviation and percentage of correct lane changes) relative to the baseline, and significantly greater mean lane deviation relative to the combined driving and the cognitive task condition. The magnitude of these effects on driving performance was independent of layout concept, although significant differences in subjective workload estimates and performance on the music selection task across layout concepts highlights that potential uncertainty regarding design use as conveyed through layout concept could be disadvantageous. The implications of these results for interface design and safety are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Moved through Music: The Effect of Experienced Emotions on Performers' Movement Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zijl, Anemone G. W.; Luck, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Do performers who feel sad move differently compared to those who express sadness? Although performers' expressive movements have been widely studied, little is known about how performers' experienced emotions affect such movements. To investigate this, we made 72 motion-capture recordings of eight violinists playing a melodic phrase in response…

  4. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  5. RHYTHMIC MUSIC PEDAGOGY: A SCANDINAVIAN APPROACH TO MUSIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauge Torunn Bakken

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic music pedagogy is a relatively new Scandinavian approach to classroom music education that offers a variety of methods and strategies for teaching and learning music, especially within the performance of improvised and rhythmic music. This article is based on two earlier projects published in Norwegian, in which the concept of rytmisk musikkpedagogikk (or “rhythmic music pedagogy” as well as its applications and implications were thoroughly described. This research confirms that rhythmic music pedagogy may be an effective strategy for learning music in general, but most especially for learning skills associated with ensemble musicianship and playing by ear. In a multicultural and fluid society in which there are tendencies toward passivity and fragmentation, it may be more important than ever to maintain the idea of music as a collaborative creative process that extends across borders; in this context, rhythmic music pedagogy can play a central role in children’s social development. As a social medium, ensemble playing requires the participant to decentralize socially, since the perspectives of the other participants are necessary for a successful performance. The activity’s general potential for re-structuring social settings and moving boundaries in a positive way should not be underestimated.

  6. Music perception in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n=5) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. No specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation. PMID:27802226

  7. Music critic Gustav Michel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The writers whose real vocation was not music left significant traces in the history of Serbian music critics and essayism of the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Numerous authors, literary historians theoreticians and critics, jurists and theatre historians, wrote successfully on music in Serbian daily newspapers, literary and other magazines, until the Second World War. This study is devoted to Gustav Michel (1868 - 1926, one of the music amateurs who ought to be remembered in the history of Serbian music critics. Gustav Michel was a pharmacist by vocation. He ran a private pharmacy in Belgrade all his life. But he was a musician as well. He played the viola in the second (in chronological order of foundation Serbian String Quartet. The ensemble mostly consisted of amateurs, and it performed standard pieces of chamber music (W. A. Mozart L. v. Beethoven, F. Schubert, F. Mendelsohn-Bartholdy, A. Dvořžak. These musicians had performed public concerts in Belgrade since 1900 up until Michel’s death. Belgrade music critics prised the performances of this string ensemble highly. Gustav Michel was also a music critic. Until now only seven articles, published by this author between 1894 and 1903, in Order (Red, Folk Newspaper (Narodne novine and Serbian Literary Magazine (Srpski književni glasnik have been found. Michel’s preserved articles unambiguously prove that their author had a solid knowledge of music theory and history, the knowledge that exceeded amateurism. Nevertheless, Michel did not burden his first critics with expert language of musicology. Later on, in Serbian Literary Magazine, the magazine which left enough room for music, Michel penetrated more into musical terminology, thus educating slowly forming Serbian concert-going public. The analysis of Michel’s texts showed that he was not, in contrast to the majority of professional music critics, an opponent of virtuosity. Gentle and liberal, he did not

  8. Mathematics and Computation in Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 5th Biennial International Conference for Mathematics and Computation in Music (MCM 2015) took place June 22–25, 2015, at Queen Mary University of London, UK, co-hosted by the School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science (Centre for Digital Music) and the School of Mathematical...... Sciences. As the flagship conference of the Society for Mathematics and Computation in Music (SMCM), MCM 2015 provided a dedicated platform for the communication and exchange of ideas among researchers in mathematics, informatics, music theory, composition, musicology, and related disciplines. It brought...... together researchers from around the world who combine mathematics or computation with music theory, music analysis, composition, and performance. This year’s program – full details at http://mcm2015.qmul.ac.uk – featured a number of distinguished keynote speakers, including Andrée Ehresmann (who spoke...

  9. Music Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Odgaard, Rasmus Emil; Bitsch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of breaking the barrier between deaf and hearing people when it comes to the subject of making music. Suggestions on how deaf and hearing people can collaborate in creating music together, are presented. The conducted research will focus on deaf people...... with a general interest in music as well as hearing musicians as target groups. Through reviewing different related research areas, it is found that visualization of sound along with a haptic feedback can help deaf people interpret and interact with music. With this in mind, three variations of a collaborative...

  10. Analysis of the learning curve for transurethral resection of the prostate. Is there any influence of musical instrument and video game skills on surgical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaçake, Kleiton Gabriel Ribeiro; Nakano, Elcio Tadashi; Soares, Iva Barbosa; Cordeiro, Paulo; Srougi, Miguel; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the learning curve for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) among urology residents and study the impact of video game and musical instrument playing abilities on its performance. A prospective study was performed from July 2009 to January 2013 with patients submitted to TURP for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Fourteen residents operated on 324 patients. The following parameters were analyzed: age, prostate-specific antigen levels, prostate weight on ultrasound, pre- and postoperative serum sodium and hemoglobin levels, weight of resected tissue, operation time, speed of resection, and incidence of capsular lesions. Gender, handedness, and prior musical instrument and video game playing experience were recorded using survey responses. The mean resection speed in the first 10 procedures was 0.36 g/min and reached a mean of 0.51 g/min after the 20(th) procedure. The incidence of capsular lesions decreased progressively. The operation time decreased progressively for each subgroup regardless of the difference in the weight of tissue resected. Those experienced in playing video games presented superior resection speed (0.45 g/min) when compared with the novice (0.35 g/min) and intermediate (0.38 g/min) groups (p=0.112). Musical instrument playing abilities did not affect the surgical performance. Speed of resection, weight of resected tissue, and percentage of resected tissue improve significantly and the incidence of capsular lesions reduces after the performance of 10 TURP procedures. Experience in playing video games or musical instruments does not have a significant effect on outcomes.

  11. Interpretação - reprodução musical - teoria da performance: reunindo-se os elementos para uma reformulação conceitual da(s prática(s interpretativa(s Interpretation - musical reproduction - theory of performance: bringing together the elements for a conceptual reform of the interpretative and the performance practice as a scholar discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Michael Carlos Kuehn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Notam-se nas ciências humanas enormes dificuldades na definição e no emprego dos conceitos que designam fenômenos culturais. Isso vale também para a área da música, onde costuma se notar certa confusão quando se passa para o entendimento do que designam os termos interpretação e performance. O presente ensaio quer responder a essa tarefa, urgente tanto do ponto de vista teórico quanto científico. Como a análise envolve a tradução e a transliteração de conceitos fundamentais de um idioma para outro, abordam-se primeiramente os critérios que norteiam a sua aplicação no contexto histórico da tradição musical clássico-romântica vienense. O objetivo central é demonstrar como esses conceitos diferem em sentido e fim. O próximo passo consiste numa análise criteriosa do conceito de reprodução musical. Por fim, propõe-se o trinômio reprodução musical, interpretação e performance como arcabouço conceitual para o ensino e a pesquisa da(s prática(s interpretativa(s. Ao mesmo tempo, o campo teórico da disciplina aumenta em sua abrangência migrando de uma noção embasada quase que unicamente na interpretação para a de um processo artístico multiforme de grande potencial produtivo e transformador que inclui também os elementos extramusicais da reprodução.Great difficulties are noted in human sciences regarding the definition and use of the concepts designating cultural phenomena. This also stands good for the musical area, in which not often arise certain confusion when one moves to the understanding of what the terms interpretation and performance designate. The present essay aims to answer to this task, urgent both from the theoretical and from the scientific viewpoints. As the analysis involves the translation and transliteration of fundamental concepts from one idiom to another, we first approach the criteria guiding their application within the historical context of the classical-romantic Viennese musical

  12. Music therapy in neurological rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic musical exercises is performed. They make use of the executive peculiarity of musical instruments and musical structures to prime, cue and coordinate movements. Among musical components, a repetitive rhythm plays a significant role. It regulates physiologic and behavioural functions through the mechanism of entrainment (synchronization of biological rhythms with musical rhythm based on acoustic resonance). It is especially relevant for patients with a deficient internal timing system in the brain. Additionally, regular rhythmic patterns facilitate memory encoding and decoding of non-musical information hence music is an efficient mnemonic tool. The music as a hierarchical, compound language of time, with its unique ability to access affective/motivational systems in the brain, provides time structures enhancing perception processes, mainly in the range of cognition, language and motor learning. It allows for emotional expression and improvement of the motivation for rehabilitation activities. The new technologies of rhythmic sensory stimulation (i.e. Binaural Beat Stimulation) or rhythmic music in combination with rhythmic light therapy appear. This multimodal forms of stimulation are used in the treatment of stroke, brain injury, dementia and other cognitive deficits. Clinical outcome studies provide evidence of the significant superiority of rehabilitation with music over the one without music.

  13. Learning Music via Tangible and Corporeal Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    to consider an existing teaching tool from the computer science domain, computational cards, and modify it to cope with the specific problems found in musical education; we re-designed it, simplified and generalized its notation. The new tool, musiCards, also permits corporeal interaction, so children can......Young music learners face a number of challenges, mostly because musical theory and practice are deeply interrelated. Many musical teaching theories and methodologies exist, and music is taught today from primary school, in a variety of ways, and to different degrees of success. We proposal...... design interactive musical machines, implement them physically, then enact the interaction to generate musical performances. MusiCards enables pupils to explore music-related concepts such as rhythm and polyphonic performance; moreover it supports active involvement, imitation, group learning...

  14. Biological bases of human musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Capano, Carla; Volpicelli, Floriana; di Porzio, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    Music is a universal language, present in all human societies. It pervades the lives of most human beings and can recall memories and feelings of the past, can exert positive effects on our mood, can be strongly evocative and ignite intense emotions, and can establish or strengthen social bonds. In this review, we summarize the research and recent progress on the origins and neural substrates of human musicality as well as the changes in brain plasticity elicited by listening or performing music. Indeed, music improves performance in a number of cognitive tasks and may have beneficial effects on diseased brains. The emerging picture begins to unravel how and why particular brain circuits are affected by music. Numerous studies show that music affects emotions and mood, as it is strongly associated with the brain's reward system. We can therefore assume that an in-depth study of the relationship between music and the brain may help to shed light on how the mind works and how the emotions arise and may improve the methods of music-based rehabilitation for people with neurological disorders. However, many facets of the mind-music connection still remain to be explored and enlightened.

  15. Mentoring Music Educators in Gospel Music Pedagogy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patrice Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, gospel music has become increasingly popular in the United States. The popularity is making it appealing to perform in public schools. However, many choral and general music educators did not experience the tradition during their formative years and/or have not received training or background in its instruction. …

  16. Imagery, Music, Cognitive Style and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette

    Paired associate memory was tested with imagery and repetition instructions, with and without background music. Subjects were 64 students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. Music was found to have no effect with imagery instructions, but significantly improved performance with the repetition instructions. Music had different effects on…

  17. Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa (JMAA) is published by NISC (Pty) Ltd in association with the South African College of Music at the University of Cape Town. It is an accredited, internationally refereed journal that aims to combine ethnomusicological, musicological, music educational and performance-based ...

  18. On Common Techniques of Music Instrument Perfor-mance and the References%乐器演奏的通用技法和借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馨元

    2014-01-01

    The performance techniques of a lot of music instru-ments are extremely similar and interlinked, especially hand styles, fingering, tone tuning, and so on. Therefore, common per-formance techniques of some music instruments were summa-rized to help learners draw inferences from what they've learned, instead of being restricted by the concept of "different instru-ments with different techniques", and in this way they can get more access to the learning of music instrument types with limited energies in limited time. The references to the interlink and and intercommunication of the performance techniques will give im-petus to a better understanding, inheritance, breakthrough and flexible use of the music instruments.%很多乐器的演奏方法都有着极其相似之处,尤其是手型、指法、调音等,相通之处更多。因此,总结出部分乐器演奏的通用技法,让乐器学习者可以举一反三、触类旁通,而不是拘泥于“术业有专攻”的限制,这样就可以在有限的时间内、用有限的精力对乐器种类有更为广泛的接触和学习,从而借鉴演奏方法上的相通之处和相互联系,进一步推动对这些乐器更好地了解、传承、突破及灵活运用。

  19. Mozart, music and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Ernest K J; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Music Circulation and Transmission in Tbilisi, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Sebald, Brigita

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation, based upon two years research in Tbilisi, Georgia, questions how popular music travels from the performer to the audience and how it circulates among audience members. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, the state-run music industry collapsed, taking the infrastructure for music distribution with it. In the years since, a music industry has not been rebuilt due to uncertain economic realities and a shaky political situation. Because of this, per...

  1. The Band Effect – physically strenuous music making increases aesthetic appreciation of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal aesthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed aesthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants aesthetically assessed similar music. Data are reported from two experiments where different patient groups performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments aesthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more aesthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived aesthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal aesthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical styles that they might otherwise be reluctant to listen to (e

  2. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    The toolbox for empirically exploring the ways that artistic endeavors convey and activate meaning on the part of performers and audiences continues to expand. Current work employing methods at the intersection of performance studies, philosophy, motion capture and neuroscience to better understand...... musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  3. "It's Your Problem. Deal with It." Performers' Experiences of Psychological Challenges in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecen, Ellis; Collins, David J; MacNamara, Áine

    2017-01-01

    Musicians need to deal with a range of challenges during their performance career and in response to these have reported a number of conditions that impact on their performance. Although social support from peers and teachers has been identified as part of the process of dealing with these challenges, little is understood about musicians' coping methods, beliefs and their attitudes toward support. Therefore, this study aimed to explore (a) performers' previous experiences of psychological challenges, (b) the types of support they used and, (c) how this might inform future support programs in learning environments. Fifteen interviews were conducted with pre-elite ( n = 5) transitioning elite ( n = 3) and established elite performers ( n = 7) in order to elicit data on psychological challenges, coping, beliefs and preferences for support. Inductive content analysis suggested that elite performers in this sample reported positive health habits, philosophical views of performance, health and life, positive anxiety reappraisal, and use of various psychological strategies, albeit without being explicitly aware of it. The need for various professional skills (e.g., communication, business, self-management, and organizational skills) was emphasized by all participants. Transition into conservatoire was marked by severe psychological challenges, disorders and trauma. Primary sources of support included friends, family and self-help literature. Professional help was predominantly sought for physical problems. The impact of teachers was paramount, yet securing good teachers was considered a matter of "luck." The most negative aspects recounted included abusive teachers, unsupportive environments, social comparison, competition, and disillusionment after entering the profession. Participants believed that talent could be developed and also valued wellbeing in relation to performance. Positive effects of late specialization on social development and professional skills were

  4. Music Objectives for Choral Festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Anthony L.

    1979-01-01

    Five goals are suggested for making a choral festival benefit participants musically: (1) meet the specific musical needs of the students; (2) expose students to a guest conductor; (3) acquaint students with a challenging repertory; (4) develop performance techniques; and (5) introduce teacher-conductors to rehearsal techniques. (Author/SJL)

  5. Agua Caliente and Their Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryterband, Roman

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the traditional music of the Agua Caliente band of California's Desert Cahuilla Indian tribe, including accompanying instruments, types of songs, thematic material, and performance routines. Exploring the structure of the music, the article describes meter, tempo, harmony and tonal gravitations, and use of words. (DS)

  6. Ghost Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo.......Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo....

  7. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  8. Visualizing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Music has always been an important aspect of teenage life, but with the portability of the newest technological devices, it is harder and harder to separate students from their musical influences. In this article, the author describes a lesson wherein she incorporated their love of song into an engaging art project. In this lesson, she had…

  9. Ọmọ̀jọ́lá, Bodé. Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century: Identity, Agency and Performance Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vallier, Gilles-Félix

    2017-01-01

    Ọmọ̀jọ́lá, Bodé. — Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century : Identity, Agency and Performance Practice. New York, University of Rochester Press ; Eastman, Rochester Studies in Ethnomusicology, 2012, 285 p., bibl., ill., CD. Yorùbá Music in the Twentieth Century de Bodé Ọmọ̀jọ́lá déconstruit efficacement la notion d'une culture musicale yorùbá singulière, découvrant à la place une tapisserie pittoresque de traditions socialement et esthétiquement diverses, lesquelles sont unies, dans bien des ...

  10. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  11. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  12. Musical appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Maria del Consuelo

    2002-11-01

    Pre-school listening to music is the principal way that leads to the appreciation of music that later facilitates knowledge and pleasure in the history of music. At the prescholastic age it is a very important aspect of education, and reasons and suggestions will be given. The activities must be brief, the teachers of music can at the most develop the activity every five minutes, leaving time for rest or expansion. Another suitable way to bring the child to music is through stories, which please all children; let them go to an unreal and fantastic world and listen to a story or an exciting adventure. The story then, should be brief, simple, with action, with familiar characters, but with some mystery; some repetitive element; and an ending both surprising and happy. It is preferable to include small folkloric tales from the universal repertoire, with works of simple and clear structure.

  13. Music in the Third Reich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeLora J. Neuschwander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music played a prominent role in the rise of Nazi culture in Germany and was used extensively in propaganda and indoctrination of the entire country; the Nazi party brought music and politics together and sought to shape their ideal culture by elevating their ideas of pure music to the highest status and outlawing what they defined as inferior. This study addresses Hitler’s specific views on music and explores several of the factors and individuals that contributed to his views. His views were directly inferred into the core of the Nazi party. Hitler himself was an artist and felt that art and music were a vital part of life and culture. He was deeply influenced by Wagner’s views as well as his music, and Hitler saw many parallels between Wagner’s conception of Germany and the stories which the composer used in his operas. This study also explores how the Nazis used music to spread their propaganda, what was considered to be “pure” music, and the impact which the idea of “pure” art had on Jewish musicians and composers. The party made significant use of music to strengthen their political events and indoctrinate the individual citizen. Not only was the actual music used to portray Nazi ideology, but Nazi doctrine played a significant role in the fate of Jewish composers and performers. Many Jewish musicians lost their jobs and found themselves banned from mainstream cultural and musical organizations. Arnold Schoenberg is the prime example of the effect of the Nazi ideology on the music and perception of a Jewish composer, while Wagner is the perfect example of the response to a composer who met the Nazi criteria of pure Aryanism. This study attempts to examine these historical facts in an effort to promote a better understanding of the cultural aspects of the Third Reich in the hopes that the informed individual will ensure that such views will never again permeate government and society.

  14. The Relationship between Studying Music and Mathematics Performance on the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Kristie L.

    2011-01-01

    On assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999) and Program for International Assessment (PISA) ("PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World", 2007) students in the United States have not been performing as well in mathematics as students in other countries. In…

  15. Effects of Model Performances on Music Skill Acquisition and Overnight Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Carla D.; Allen, Sarah E.; Simmons, Amy L.; Duke, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which the presentation of an auditory model prior to learning a novel melody affects performance during active practice and the overnight consolidation of procedural memory. During evening training sessions, 32 nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody with their left…

  16. A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Kerimov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works and traditional singing of sacred hymns, folk songs and music of different nations. In contrast to the music scholarship, where typically image is a certain regularity, discipline and harmony, beauty of the traditional Indian music in the free improvisation, which is used by the performer. Listening carefully of this music, the man in a new world, a different sounds and explore a different idea of music for himself. The aim of the Indian music, unlike European musical culture define, explore, create and move depths to people's moods. And the Indian instruments is a miracle, that could reflect all these philosophical and aesthetic views. Along with the vocal art, this musical tradition has rich variety of melodic and rhythmic instruments.

  17. Improvisation as a Way of Knowing Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    This paper examines improvisation and points to improvisational practice as the central transforming force in music and the educational practice of the Rhythmic Music Conservatory (RMC). In less than 25 years RMC has radically changed its education methodology from one based on jazz and African....../African-American/Cuban orientation in a worldview of music as an ontological, intransitive fact to ‘music-as-artwork’ – as an extemporal, physically explicit art object; from a performance-based focus on live bands playing as a central source and key of learning and excellence with little or no theoretical awareness to project...... of improvisation in popular music that can inform the construction of meaningful and relevant popular music programs based on music improvisation is discussed. The author argues for a need to critically examine the tacit auxiliary hypotheses that seem to govern our understanding of musical improvisation through...

  18. Nocturne aquatique (musical composition)

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    19 minutes duration; original performance version two stereo stems. Performance materials available from the composer. A musical composition, commissioned by Radio France/INA-GRM, world premiere given at Auditorium Saint-Germain, Paris, 24th January 2015 as part of the Akousma Festival programme.

  19. The Opinions of Music Education Students about 20th and 21st Centuries Classical Music: Uludag University Exemplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Ajda Senol

    2016-01-01

    The debates of music historians, composers, and performers on difficulties in understanding the 20th and 21st Centuries international classical music and the reasons have been ongoing for years. The opinions of music education students on this matter and their interests in music of these periods are a matter of curiosity. With this research,…

  20. How music affects soundscape: Musical preferences in Skadarlija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I analyze musical preferences in the context of tavern performances in Skadarlija, a popular tourist quarter in Belgrade, Serbia, on the basis of ethnographic data collection. I argue that this specific musicscape relies on communicative and affective aspects of particular performances. I pay special attention to the repertoires performed and the way in which they interweave. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how musical preferences influence sound environment, especially in the context of the tourism industry. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 177004: Serbian Musical Identities Within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  1. MUSICAL LANDSCAPE IN THE CULTURAL LIFE OF CHISINAU AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY (PRELIMINARY TO A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADRAJAN SVETLANA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article covers some aspects of the cultural musical phenomenon at the beginning of the 21st century in the social area of Chisinau, which represents is a kaleidoscope of musical events; these address a specific audience and reflect the fashion, needs and preferences of different social strata. We outlined some musical landscapes, which we consider to be representative, having continuity, history, and tradition in the cultural life of Chisinau or even perhaps they are relatively new, but prominent and the results of modern technological advancements: Western literate music; Secular choral music with rich local traditions; Religious worship music; Music related to state representation; Music for film and dramatic performance; Band music; Jazz-pop-rock music; Western pop music and Latin American music; Folk music; Traditional romance music; Concert café music; Mainstream pop music; Music used in advertising; Street music; Intonations used by street sellers.

  2. The importance of music to adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, A C; Hargreaves, D J; O'Neill, S A

    2000-06-01

    The study aims to determine the importance of music to adolescents in England, and investigates why they listen to and perform music. A total of 2465 adolescents (1149 males; 1266 females; 50 participants did not state their sex) between 13 and 14 years of age who were attending Year 9 at one of 22 secondary schools in the North Staffordshire region of England. A questionnaire asked participants (a) about their degree of involvement with musical activities; (b) to rate the importance of music relative to other activities; and (c) to rate the importance of several factors that might determine why they and other people of their age and sex might listen to/perform pop and classical music. Responses indicated that i) over 50% of respondents either played an instrument currently or had played regularly before giving up, and the sample listened to music for an average of 2.45 hours per day; ii) listening to music was preferred to other indoor activities but not to outdoor activities; iii) listening to/playing pop music has different perceived benefits to listening to/playing classical music; iv) responses to suggested reasons for listening to music could be grouped into three factors; and v) responses to suggested reasons for playing music could be grouped into four factors. These results indicate that music is important to adolescents, and that this is because it allows them to (a) portray an 'image' to the outside world and (b) satisfy their emotional needs.

  3. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-01-01

    Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval. PMID:18505596

  4. Comparison of psychomotor function between music students and students participating in music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansirinukor, Wunpen; Khemthong, Supalak

    2014-07-01

    To compare psychomotor function between a music student group who had music education and a non-music student group who participated in music training. Consecutive sampling was used for completing questionnaires, testing reaction times (visual, auditory, and tactile system), measuring electromyography of upper trapezius muscles both sides and taking photos of the Craniovertebral (CV) angle in the sitting position. Data collection was made twice for each student group: the music students at one-hour intervals for resting and conducting nonmusic activities, the non-music students at two-day intervals, 20 minutes/session, and performed music training (by a manual of keyboard notation). The non-music students (n = 65) improved reaction times, but responded slower than the music students except for the tactile system. The music students (n = 28) showed faster reaction times and higher activities of the trapezius muscle than the non-music students at post-test. In addition, the CV angle of the non-music students was significantly improved. The level of musical ability may influence the psychomotor function. Significant improvement was observed in visual, auditory and tactile reaction time, and CV angle in the non-music students. However upper trapezius muscle activities between both student groups were unchanged.

  5. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenmüller Eckart O

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval.

  6. Unforgettable film music: the role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-05-28

    Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval.

  7. Effects of an Integrated Physical Education/Music Program in Changing Early Childhood Perceptual-Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judy; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children ages 4-6 were investigated. Fifteen children (the experimental group) received integrated physical education/music instruction based on Kodaly and Dalcroze (Eurhythmics) concepts. The control group received movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Significant…

  8. (A)musicality in Williams syndrome: examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D; Shivers, Carolyn M; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing (TD) population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and TD individuals with and without amusia.

  9. (A)musicality in Williams syndrome: examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing (TD) population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and TD individuals with and without amusia. PMID:23966965

  10. General Health Status, Music Performance Anxiety, and Coping Methods of Musicians Working in Turkish State Symphony Orchestras: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topoğlu, Onur; Karagülle, Derya; Keskin, Tuba U; Abacigil, Filiz; Okyay, Pinar

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the general health, music performance anxiety (MPA), and coping methods of musicians working in six state orchestras in Turkey. All musicians working in the state symphony orchestras (n=384) were invited to participate in the study. In face-to-face interviews, the authors administered a questionnaire, which consisted of five sections: sociodemographic information, history of musical performance, health status, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and MPA scale. Mann-Whitney U-test, Student's t-test, and Spearman's correlation test were used to analyze the questionnaire data. The 220 musicians who participated included 121 (55%) males and 99 (45%) females, with a mean age of 42.4±11.3 yrs. For musculoskeletal symptoms, 87.6% reported at least one symptom with the most common being pain. For general health status, the GHQ-12 showed 64% of musicians were at low risk, 18.7% at moderate risk, and 17.3% at high risk in terms of mental health. The prevalence of MPA before or during performance was 81.8%, and 60% of musicians stated that performance anxiety negatively affected their performances. Results indicate that musicians working in Turkish state symphony orchestras encounter numerous health problems (tinnitus, hearing loss, musculoskeletal symptoms, etc.) due to their profession. No specific health support is provided, especially education and health service provision.

  11. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  12. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  13. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  14. Creative Thinking in Music: Developing a Model for Meaningful Learning in Middle School General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Creativity can be experienced in many roles of musicianship: performing, improvising, and composing. Yet, activities that encourage creative thought in our music classrooms can be a challenge to implement. A strong music education curriculum for middle school general music is important; as this may be the last time we reach students who do not…

  15. Music and communication in music psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Ian Ralph

    2014-01-01

    There is a general consensus that music is both universal and communicative, and musical dialogue is a key element in much music-therapeutic practice. However, the idea that music is a communicative medium has, to date, received little attention within the cognitive sciences, and the limited amount of research that addresses how and what music communicates has resulted in findings that appear to be of limited relevance to music therapy. This paper will draw on ethnomusicological evidence and ...

  16. Using open source music software to teach live electronics in pre-college music education

    OpenAIRE

    Roels, Hans

    2010-01-01

    A basic course of live electronics is needed in pre- college music education to teach children how to perform on a digital musical instrument. This paper describes the basic components of such a live electronics course, examines whether open source music software is suited to realize these components and finally presents Abunch, a library in Pure Data created by the author, as a solution for the potential educational disadvantages of open source music softw...

  17. A Batucada fantástica de Luciano Perrone : sua performance musical no contexto dos arranjos de Radamés Gnattali

    OpenAIRE

    Damasceno, Alexandre Augusto Correa Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Tese arquivada ao abrigo da Portaria nº 227/2017 de 25 de Julho Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo embrenhar-se no universo musical do baterista/percussionista Luciano Perrone, e - através de pesquisas de campo, entrevistas, audições, transcrições, análises - identificar aspectos idiomáticos deste músico. O recorte se deu em suas performances ao lado do amigo, maestro e compositor Radamés Gnattali, mais especificamente com o seu Sexteto. Nas peças analisadas, nas quais Perrone in...

  18. Playing with the performer in Medieval music: Machaut’s ideas on love and order in Quant vraie Amour / O series summe rata / Super omnes speciosa (Motet 17)

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaart, J.

    2009-01-01

    Machaut’s seventeenth motet might be one of his earliest works. Under its simple appearance it hides essential poetic reflections about the problematic relationship between paradoxical Love and the regular order of the universe, a problem which he kept pondering all his life. This problem is expressed both by the texts and by the music. To bring his performers to an understanding of his thought, Machaut first misled them, in a clever play with the ambiguities of the notational system of his t...

  19. Success Teaching Spelling with Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mariellen

    1983-01-01

    A spelling approach which incorporates music on a cassette with spelling, pronunciation, and definition of specific words was successful in improving junior high learning disabled students' spelling performance, self-esteem, and sequential memories. (CL)

  20. Immersion Music: a Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nakra, Teresa M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the artistic projects undertaken at ImmersionMusic, Inc. (www.immersionmusic.org) during its three-yearexistence. We detail work in interactive performance systems,computer-based training systems, and concert production.