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Sample records for music background young

  1. Background music as a risk factor for distraction among young-novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Warren; Slor, Zack

    2013-10-01

    There are countless beliefs about the power of music during driving. The last thing one would think about is: how safe is it to listen or sing to music? Unfortunately, collisions linked to music devices have been known for some time; adjusting the radio controls, swapping tape-cassettes and compact-discs, or searching through MP3 files, are all forms of distraction that can result in a near-crash or crash. While the decrement of vehicular performance can also occur from capacity interference to central attention, whether or not music listening is a contributing factor to distraction is relatively unknown. The current study explored the effects of driver-preferred music on driver behavior. 85 young-novice drivers completed six trips in an instrumented Learners Vehicle. The study found that all participants committed at-least 3 driver deficiencies; 27 needed a verbal warning/command and 17 required a steering or braking intervention to prevent an accident. While there were elevated positive moods and enjoyment for trips with driver-preferred music, this background also produced the most frequent severe driver miscalculations and inaccuracies, violations, and aggressive driving. However, trips with music structurally designed to generate moderate levels of perceptual complexity, improved driver behavior and increased driver safety. The study is the first within-subjects on-road high-dose double-exposure clinical-trial investigation of musical stimuli on driver behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Background Music and Background Feelings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2008-01-01

    With a focus on underscore music in film and television this report discusses the relations between music and emotions. The report will present and discuss an interdisciplinary theoretical framework connecting the experience of musical structures with emotional structures. Subsequently it discuss...... how music in the attachment to the audiovisual context contributes to the generation of different kinds of emotional experiences. The Danish television documentary Ballets droning (“The Queen of the Ball”) portraying the leader of the Danish right wing party The Danish Peoples’ Party...

  3. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  4. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  5. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  6. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sona Matloubi; Ali Mohammadzadeh; Zahra Jafari; Alireza Akbarzade Baghban

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female) with normal hearing, aged betw...

  7. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Matloubi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003 and the null music condition (p=0.01. The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.

  8. Piecing It Together: The Effect of Background Music on Children's Puzzle Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolidge, Louis; Holmes, Robyn M

    2018-04-01

    This study explored the effects of background music on cognitive (puzzle assembly) task performance in young children. Participants were 87 primarily European-American children (38 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 4.77 years) enrolled in early childhood classes in the northeastern United States. Children were given one minute to complete a 12-piece puzzle task in one of three background music conditions: music with lyrics, music without lyrics, and no music. The music selection was "You're Welcome" from the Disney movie "Moana." Results revealed that children who heard the music without lyrics completed more puzzle pieces than children in either the music with lyrics or no music condition. Background music without distracting lyrics may be beneficial and superior to background music with lyrics for young children's cognitive performance even when they are engaged independently in a nonverbal task.

  9. Background music: effects on attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Hsin-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that noise may affect worker attention. However, some background music in the work environment can increase worker satisfaction and productivity. This study compared how music with, and without, lyrics affects human attention. One hundred and two participants, aged 20-24 years, were recruited into this study. Fifty-six males and 46 females participated in this study. Background music with, and without lyrics, was tested for effects on listener concentration in attention testing using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. The comparison results revealed that background music with lyrics had significant negative effects on concentration and attention. The findings suggest that, if background music is played in the work environment, music without lyrics is preferable because songs with lyrics are likely to reduce worker attention and performance.

  10. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: Processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.

    OpenAIRE

    Sara eBottiroli; Alessia eRosi; Riccardo eRusso; Riccardo eRusso; Tomaso eVecchi; Tomaso eVecchi; Elena eCavallini

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performa...

  11. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music

    OpenAIRE

    Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Russo, Riccardo; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance...

  12. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: Processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eBottiroli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance over no music and white noise, but not always in the same manner. The theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings are discussed.

  13. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Russo, Riccardo; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance over no music and white noise, but not always in the same manner. The theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings are discussed.

  14. The Musical Taste of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a particular…

  15. Effects of background music on concentration of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong-Hwa; Shih, Yi-Nuo

    2011-01-01

    Background music is a common element in daily living and the workplace. Determination of whether background music affects human work concentration is a relevant concern. Studies have found background music influences human behavior, and this study attempts to understand how background music and listener fondness for types of music affects worker concentration. This study analyzes how different types of background music--and how listeners' degree of preference for the background music--can affect listener concentration in attention testing through Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Data were collected from 89 workers. The participants ranged in age between 19 and 28 years old, with an average age of 24 years old. We conclude background music influenced listener attention. This influence has more to do with listener fondness for the music than with type of music. Compared to situations without background music, the likelihood of background music affecting test-taker attention performance is likely to increase with the degree to which the test-taker likes or dislikes the music. It is important not to select music that workers strongly like or dislike when making a selection of background music to avoid negatively affecting worker concentration.

  16. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood

  17. Effects of placement point of background music on shopping website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Jung; Chiang, Chia-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Consumer on-line behaviors are more important than ever due to highly growth of on-line shopping. The purposes of this study were to design placement methods of background music for shopping website and examine the effect on browsers' emotional and cognitive response. Three placement points of background music during the browsing, i.e. 2 min., 4 min., and 6 min. from the start of browsing were considered for entry points. Both browsing without music (no music) and browsing with constant music volume (full music) were treated as control groups. Participants' emotional state, approach-avoidance behavior intention, and action to adjust music volume were collected. Results showed that participants had a higher level of pleasure, arousal and approach behavior intention for the three placement points than for no music and full music. Most of the participants for full music (5/6) adjusted the background music. Only 16.7% (3/18) participants for other levels turn off the background music. The results indicate that playing background music after the start of browsing is benefit for on-line shopping atmosphere. It is inappropriate to place background music at the start of browsing shopping website. The marketer must manipulated placement methods of background music for a web store carefully.

  18. General Music Teachers' Backgrounds and Multicultural Repertoire Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how teachers' backgrounds could contribute to their decisions to include music from diverse cultures. Analysis of interviews with three general music teachers indicated that their music training and experiences, ethnic backgrounds, and years of teaching experience may have influenced their…

  19. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mado Proverbio, C.A. Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or sil...

  20. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-09-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners).

  1. Sensorimotor adaptation is influenced by background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar

    2010-06-01

    It is well established that listening to music can modify subjects' cognitive performance. The present study evaluates whether this so-called Mozart Effect extends beyond cognitive tasks and includes sensorimotor adaptation. Three subject groups listened to musical pieces that in the author's judgment were serene, neutral, or sad, respectively. This judgment was confirmed by the subjects' introspective reports. While listening to music, subjects engaged in a pointing task that required them to adapt to rotated visual feedback. All three groups adapted successfully, but the speed and magnitude of adaptive improvement was more pronounced with serene music than with the other two music types. In contrast, aftereffects upon restoration of normal feedback were independent of music type. These findings support the existence of a "Mozart effect" for strategic movement control, but not for adaptive recalibration. Possibly, listening to music modifies neural activity in an intertwined cognitive-emotional network.

  2. Music performance anxiety in young musicians: comparison of playing classical or popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark; Spahn, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) is an issue frequently experienced by musicians. It occurs not only in experienced musicians but also in children and adolescents. Furthermore, most research on MPA has been done with musicians who specialized in classical music. This study investigated the development of MPA across the ages in young musicians focusing on the classical and popular genres. In a cross-sectional survey, 239 students at German music schools, aged between 7 and 20 yrs, were asked about their perceived MPA and musical background. The data were analyzed according to musical genre and age. Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the influences of musical experiences on MPA. The analyses yielded high levels of MPA for classical musicians between 7 and 16 yrs, which was reduced in older students; for popular musicians, low MPA was seen in the younger (7-11 yrs) and high MPA in the older (16+ yrs) musicians. MPA was influenced by gender and the number of performances in the classical music group and only by gender and age in the popular music group. The results showed clear different trends for the development of MPA between musical genres that should be taken into account for educational aspects in musical training.

  3. Background Music in Educational Games: Motivational Appeal and Cognitive Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Stephanie B.; Marte, Birgit; Albert, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Most game-designers likely stick to the assumption that background music is a design feature for fostering fun and game play. From a psychological point of view, these (intuitive) aspects act upon the intrinsic motivation and the flow experience of players. However, from a pure cognitive perspective on instructional design, background music could…

  4. Musical Home Environment, Family Background, and Parenting Style on Success in School Music and in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdzinski, Stephen; Dell, Charlene; Gumm, Alan; Rinnert, Nathan; Orzolek, Douglas; Yap, Ching Ching; Cooper, Shelly; Keith, Timothy; Russell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine influences of parental involvement-home music environment, family background, and parenting style factors on success in school music and in school. Participants (N = 1114) were music students in grades 4-12 from six regions of the United States. Data were gathered about parental involvement-home environment…

  5. Music listening while you learn: No influence of background music on verbal learning

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz; Sandmann, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still disputed. In this study we investigated the influence of listening to background music on verbal learning performance and the associated brain activations. Methods Musical excerpts were composed for this study to ensure that they were unknown to the subjects and designed to vary in tempo (fast vs. slow) and consonance (in-tune vs. out-of-tune). Noise was used as control stimulus. 75 subject...

  6. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mado Proverbio, C.A. Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  7. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding.

  8. Fast and Loud Background Music Disrupts Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William Forde; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Letnic, Adriana Katharine

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of background music on reading comprehension. Because the emotional consequences of music listening are affected by changes in tempo and intensity, we manipulated these variables to create four repeated-measures conditions: slow/low, slow/high, fast/low, fast/high. Tempo and intensity manipulations were selected to be…

  9. Creating Unity through Celebrating Diversity: A Case Study That Explores the Impact of Music Education on Refugee Background Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the impact of music education on students in an F-12 school in Victoria, Australia that is considered as having a high percentage of young people with a refugee background. Key findings from this research indicated that music education had a positive impact on this group of young…

  10. Music in the family: music making and music therapy with young children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Songs and singing games are a healthy part of young children's social, emotional and cognitive development. Such shared music making can facilitate and strengthen relationships between parents and children. Family health workers can encourage carers' informal uses of music with their children. In cases of developmental delay, disability, severe illness or family stress, music can continue to have a significant role in supporting children and parents. In some cases referral to specialist music therapy services may be appropriate for assessment and/or treatment.

  11. Young Pianists Exploring Improvisation Using Interactive Music Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Victoria; Triantafyllaki, Angeliki; Anagnostopoulou, Xristina

    2015-01-01

    The use of music technology in the enhancement of young pianists' musical improvisations has been scarcely explored in instrumental music teaching and learning research. In the present study, 19 piano pupils aged 6-10 from the UK and Greece used an interactive improvisation system called Musical Interaction Relying On Reflexion (MIROR)-Impro for…

  12. Musical Narratives: A Study of a Young Child's Identity Work in and through Music-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of infants' and young children's early musical engagement as singers, song-makers, and music-makers has provided some insight into children's early vocal and musical development. Recent research has highlighted the vital role of interactive vocalization or "communicative musicality" in infants' general development, including…

  13. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. Methods...

  14. Using Background Music To Enhance Memory and Improve Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scheree; Henke, Jeanette; McLaughlin, Maureen; Ripp, Mary; Tuffs, Patricia

    This report describes a program to enhance spelling word retention through the use of background music. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in three middle class communities located in the southwestern suburbs of Chicago. The problems for poor spelling retention were documented through data revealing the number of students…

  15. Music listening while you learn: No influence of background music on verbal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmann Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still disputed. In this study we investigated the influence of listening to background music on verbal learning performance and the associated brain activations. Methods Musical excerpts were composed for this study to ensure that they were unknown to the subjects and designed to vary in tempo (fast vs. slow and consonance (in-tune vs. out-of-tune. Noise was used as control stimulus. 75 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups and learned the presented verbal material (non-words with and without semantic connotation with and without background music. Each group was exposed to one of five different background stimuli (in-tune fast, in-tune slow, out-of-tune fast, out-of-tune slow, and noise. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. In addition, event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS of the EEG alpha-band were calculated as a measure for cortical activation. Results We did not find any substantial and consistent influence of background music on verbal learning. There was neither an enhancement nor a decrease in verbal learning performance during the background stimulation conditions. We found however a stronger event-related desynchronization around 800 - 1200 ms after word presentation for the group exposed to in-tune fast music while they learned the verbal material. There was also a stronger event-related synchronization for the group exposed to out-of-tune fast music around 1600 - 2000 ms after word presentation. Conclusion Verbal learning during the exposure to different background music varying in tempo and consonance did not influence learning of verbal material. There was neither an enhancing nor a detrimental effect on verbal learning performance. The EEG data suggest that the different acoustic background conditions evoke different cortical activations. The reason for

  16. Music listening while you learn: no influence of background music on verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Sandmann, Pascale

    2010-01-07

    Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still disputed. In this study we investigated the influence of listening to background music on verbal learning performance and the associated brain activations. Musical excerpts were composed for this study to ensure that they were unknown to the subjects and designed to vary in tempo (fast vs. slow) and consonance (in-tune vs. out-of-tune). Noise was used as control stimulus. 75 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups and learned the presented verbal material (non-words with and without semantic connotation) with and without background music. Each group was exposed to one of five different background stimuli (in-tune fast, in-tune slow, out-of-tune fast, out-of-tune slow, and noise). As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. In addition, event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of the EEG alpha-band were calculated as a measure for cortical activation. We did not find any substantial and consistent influence of background music on verbal learning. There was neither an enhancement nor a decrease in verbal learning performance during the background stimulation conditions. We found however a stronger event-related desynchronization around 800 - 1200 ms after word presentation for the group exposed to in-tune fast music while they learned the verbal material. There was also a stronger event-related synchronization for the group exposed to out-of-tune fast music around 1600 - 2000 ms after word presentation. Verbal learning during the exposure to different background music varying in tempo and consonance did not influence learning of verbal material. There was neither an enhancing nor a detrimental effect on verbal learning performance. The EEG data suggest that the different acoustic background conditions evoke different cortical activations. The reason for these different cortical activations is unclear. The most

  17. Using Recorded Music with Young Children: A Guide for Nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    1996-01-01

    Encourages the appreciation of music through listening, responding with body movement, and sharing with children. Points out that early childhood educators and children who are nonmusicians can make and understand music. Identifies basic problems with preschool teachers' current practices in using music with young children and provides a list of…

  18. Background reduction in a young interferometer biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H. K P; Subramaniam, V.; Kanger, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical Young interferometer (IOYI) biosensors are among the most sensitive label-free biosensors. Detection limits are in the range of 20 fg/mm2. The applicability of these sensors is however strongly hampered by the large background that originates from both bulk refractive index

  19. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  20. Making Music, Making Friends: Long-Term Music Therapy with Young Adults with Severe Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic…

  1. Young Adolescents' Usage of Narrative Functions of Media Music by Manipulation of Musical Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingstedt, Johnny; Brandstrom, Sture; Berg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates usage and knowledge of musical narrative functions in contemporary multimedia. A group of young adolescents were given the task of adapting musical expression, using the non-verbal research tool REMUPP, to fit different visual scenes shown on a computer screen. This was accomplished by manipulating seven musical parameters:…

  2. Music's relevance for adolescents and young adults with cancer: a constructivist research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Barry, Philippa; Thompson, Kate

    2012-04-01

    Music is one of the most widely used activities amongst young people, significant in personal and group identity, motivation, physical release, and emotional support. Adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA) require specialized care because of intensified challenges related to developmental vulnerability, treatment toxicity effects, and slower improvements in survival rates compared to other age groups. To advance effective supportive care for AYA, understanding their thoughts about music is necessary. This study examines AYAs' perspectives about music's role in their lives. A constructivist research approach with grounded theory design was applied. Twelve people, 15 to 25 years old, known to onTrac@PeterMac Victorian Adolescent & Young Adult Cancer Service, participated. Respondents completed a brief music demographic questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative inter-rater reliability was integrated. Participants mostly reported music's calming, supportive, and relaxing effects, which alleviated hardship associated with their cancer diagnoses. Themes encompassed: music backgrounds, changed "musicking", endurance and adjustment, time with music therapists, and wisdom. Music provided supportive messages, enabled personal and shared understandings about cancer's effects, and elicited helpful physical, emotional, and imagery states. Music therapy could also promote normalized and supportive connections with others. A musician, however, struggled to get music "back" post-treatment. Supportive music-based strategies were recommended for other AYA and their health care providers. Music can signify and creatively enable AYAs' hope, endurance, identity development, and adjustment through cancer treatment and post-treatment phases. Health professionals are encouraged to support AYAs' music-based self-care and "normalized" activities.

  3. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  4. Music, Violence and Music Therapy with Young People in Schools: A Position Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Katrina Skewes McFerran; Andreas Wölfl

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists have rarely involved themselves in the discourse linking music and violence. Instead, representatives of the profession have advocated for the positive outcomes that can result from the use of music by trained therapists working with people who have experienced violence or been violent. In this position paper, we will elaborate a much-needed position that first acknowledges the ways that music can promote violence, and then focuses on different ways to work with young peopl...

  5. The Consumption and Perceived Value of Music in the Digital Age : Adolescents and Young Adults as Music Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Happonen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    The music industry is a big business worldwide but the recording industry is facing major challenges and changes due to digitalization. Technology developments have altered the way music is distributed and made it possible for consumers to behave differently. The aim of this research is to study the behavior of adolescent and young adult music consumers between the ages 14-22. The main research question is related to the perceived value of music; how do young music consumers value music espec...

  6. Music and Moral Judgment: The Effect of Background Music on the Evaluation of Ads Promoting Unethical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Hoftman, Moran; Geyer, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Background music is often used in ads as a means of persuasion. Previous research has studied the effect of music in advertising using neutral or uncontroversial products. The aim of the studies reported here was to examine the effect of music on the perception of products promoting unethical behavior. Each of the series of three studies described…

  7. Effects of background music on objective and subjective performance measures in an auditory BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  8. Music! Young Discovery Library Series: 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Genevieve

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume presents stories about different aspects of music. The text explains how to listen to music, the main families of musical instruments, the importance of musical instruments in other cultures, and how a violin is constructed. Each…

  9. Influence of modern music on young generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babtrakinova O.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available in this article, the researchers have considered psychological impact of different musical genres and music clips on teenagers. Nowadays it is a very essential problem. Teenagers listen to music every day and of course, it is interesting for them to watch music videos on these songs. Listening to music and watching music videos can influence the mentality of a teenager. This influence can be both positive, and negative. In this article, the authors will try to examine the possible reasons of teenagers’ choice and study how musical genres, as well as «positive and negative clips» influence them.

  10. Effects of Classical Background Music on Stress, Anxiety, and Knowledge of Filipino Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Kevin; Macabasag, Romeo Luis A; Capili, Brylle; Castro, Timothy; Danque, Marilee; Evangelista, Hanzel; Rivero, Jenica Ana; Gonong, Michell Katrina; Diño, Michael Joseph; Cajayon, Sharon

    2017-10-28

    Previous work on the use of background music suggests conflicting results in various psychological, behavioral, and educational measures. This quasi-experiment examined the effect of integrating classical background music during a lecture on stress, anxiety, and knowledge. A total of 42 nursing students participated this study. We utilized independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance to examine the effect of classical background music. Our findings suggest that the presence or absence of classical background music do not affect stress, anxiety, and knowledge scores (Λ = 0.999 F(3, 78) = 0.029, p = 0.993). We provided literature to explain the non-significant result. Although classical music failed to establish a significant influence on the dependent variables, classical background music during lecture hours can be considered a non-threatening stimulus. We recommend follow up studies regarding the role of classical background music in regulating attention control of nursing students during lecture hours.

  11. Enhanced Learning for Young Music Students: Involving and Motivating Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Factors that determine the rate of a child's progress on a musical instrument include the quality, quantity, and regularity of home practice. Because a young pupil sometimes lacks the skills necessary to practice independently at times, music teachers could encourage and motivate parents/guardians to participate more fully in their child's music…

  12. Background Music and the Learning Environment: Borrowing from other Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human beings have always enjoyed a special relationship with the organisation of audible sound we call music. Through the passage of time, the roles and functions of music have represented manifold expressions to people, and in the present day music is ubiquitous and readily available to all who seek it. Recent advances in digital music technology…

  13. Accuracy of cochlear implant recipients in speech reception in the presence of background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia

    2012-12-01

    This study examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of 3 contrasting types of background music, and compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing adults. We tested 154 long-electrode CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 normal-hearing adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in 3 contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for speech in music were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multitalker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. The signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for speech in music varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (long-electrode, Hybrid, normal-hearing), and age. The thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and thresholds for speech in background noise; auditory status was an important predictor. Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music.

  14. Accuracy of Cochlear Implant Recipients on Speech Reception in Background Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study (a) examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of three contrasting types of background music, and (b) compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode (LE) devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing (NH) adults. Methods We tested 154 LE CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 NH adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in three contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Outcomes Signal-to-noise thresholds for speech in music (SRTM) were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multi-talker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. Results SRTM thresholds varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (LE, Hybrid, NH), and age. Thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and speech in background noise thresholds; auditory status was an important predictor. Conclusions Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music. PMID:23342550

  15. Music and Movement for Young Children's Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…

  16. Engaging Scottish Young Offenders in Education through Music and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstin; Overy, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined music and art classes as a way to engage young offenders in education, and to see if such engagement had an effect on their further participation in education, self-esteem, self-control, behaviour and literacy skills. The arts are often discussed as being an inviting and safe method of entry for young offenders who may have had…

  17. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study

    OpenAIRE

    Woloszyn, Michael R.; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were rec...

  18. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID

  19. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.

  20. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and

  1. Influence of Task Difficulty and Background Music on Working Memory Activity: Developmental Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniel, Shlomo; Aram, Dorit

    1998-01-01

    A study of 300 children in kindergarten, grade 2, and grade 6 found that background music improved visual discrimination task performance at the youngest and middle ages and had no effect on the oldest participants. On a square identification task, background music had no influence on easy and difficult tasks but lowered performance on…

  2. The Effects of Background Music on Learning Disabled Elementary School Students' Performance in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legutko, Robert S.; Trissler, Theodore T.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated effects of background music on writing performance of nine 6th grade students with learning disabilities at one suburban public elementary school in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. A single-subject A-B-A design was utilized, and results from graded writing prompts with and without background music over 21…

  3. Background music genre can modulate flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Alexandra; Meullenet, Jean-François; Harrington, Robert J; Humble, Rachel; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to determine whether background music genre can alter food perception and acceptance, but also to determine how the effect of background music can vary as a function of type of food (emotional versus non-emotional foods) and source of music performer (single versus multiple performers). The music piece was edited into four genres: classical, jazz, hip-hop, and rock, by either a single or multiple performers. Following consumption of emotional (milk chocolate) or non-emotional food (bell peppers) with the four musical stimuli, participants were asked to rate sensory perception and impression of food stimuli. Participants liked food stimuli significantly more while listening to the jazz stimulus than the hip-hop stimulus. Further, the influence of background music on overall impression was present in the emotional food, but not in the non-emotional food. In addition, flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli differed between music genres arranged by a single performer, but not between those by multiple performers. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that music genre can alter flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuli. Furthermore, the influence of music genre on food acceptance varies as a function of the type of served food and the source of music performer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Research on Foreign Background and Musical Thought of Teng Gu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TENG Gu is a famous art historian in Republic of China. Together with early Chinese scholars studying abroad like ZONG Bai-hua, ZHU Guang-qian, DENG Yi-zhe, MA Cai and FU Bao-shi, he constructed a framework of early Chinese Art. We still know his influence after a century. In his artistic thought, the essential music idea occupies 1/3.He had given music the highest position among all arts and cultures. In his view, culture won’t have any value if art is removed. And all arts follow the rhythm of music.

  5. Keeping brains young with making music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Kernbach, Julius; Schlaug, Gottfried; Gaser, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Music-making is a widespread leisure and professional activity that has garnered interest over the years due to its effect on brain and cognitive development and its potential as a rehabilitative and restorative therapy of brain dysfunctions. We investigated whether music-making has a potential age-protecting effect on the brain. For this, we studied anatomical magnetic resonance images obtained from three matched groups of subjects who differed in their lifetime dose of music-making activities (i.e., professional musicians, amateur musicians, and non-musicians). For each subject, we calculated a so-called BrainAGE score which corresponds to the discrepancy (in years) between chronological age and the "age of the brain", with negative values reflecting an age-decelerating brain and positive values an age-accelerating brain, respectively. The index of "brain age" was estimated using a machine-learning algorithm that was trained in a large independent sample to identify anatomical correlates of brain-aging. Compared to non-musicians, musicians overall had lower BrainAGE scores, with amateur musicians having the lowest scores suggesting that music-making has an age-decelerating effect on the brain. Unlike the amateur musicians, the professional musicians showed a positive correlation between their BrainAGE scores and years of music-making, possibly indicating that engaging more intensely in just one otherwise enriching activity might not be as beneficial than if the activity is one of several that an amateur musician engages in. Intense music-making activities at a professional level could also lead to stress-related interferences and a less enriched environment than that of amateur musicians, possibly somewhat diminishing the otherwise positive effect of music-making.

  6. Influence of background music on work attention in clients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Chen, Chi-Sheng; Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Chien-Hsiou

    2015-01-01

    Work attention in persons with chronic schizophrenia is an important issue in vocational rehabilitation. Some of the research literature indicates that background music may influence visual attention performance. Based on the theory of occupational therapy, environmental sounds, colors and decorations may affect individual performance, this study thus examined the influence of music on work attention in persons with schizophrenia. Participants were recruited from a halfway house in Taipei. Forty-nine (49) patients with chronic schizophrenia volunteered. They had been accepted into vocational rehabilitation and a work-seeking program. The sample included 20 females and 29 males. The participant ages ranged between 29 and 63 years old, and their average age was 47 years old. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study, the participants were assigned to one of three conditions: quiet environment as the control group (n= 16), classical light music as background music (n= 16), and popular music as background music (n= 17). For Group 1 (control group/quiet environment), there was no significant variance (sig = 0.172). For Group 2 (Classical light music), the intervention revealed significant variance (sig = 0.071*). For Group 3 (popular music), the intervention had significant variance (sig = 0.048**). The introduction of background music tended to increase attention test scores of persons with schizophrenia. Moreover, the increase in test attention scores was statistically significant when popular music was played in the background. This result suggested that background music may improve attention performance of persons with chronic schizophrenia. Future research is required with a larger sample size to support the study results.

  7. An investigation of the role of background music in IVWs for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Debbie; Fassbender, Eric; Bilgin, Ayse; Thompson, William Forde

    2008-01-01

    Empirical evidence is needed to corroborate the intuitions of gamers and game developers in understanding the benefits of Immersive Virtual Worlds (IVWs) as a learning environment and the role that music plays within these environments. We report an investigation to determine if background music of the genre typically found in computer-based role-playing games has an effect on learning in a computer-animated history lesson about the Macquarie Lighthouse within an IVW. In Experiment 1, music s...

  8. The effect of music background on the emotional appraisal of film sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of musical background on the emotional appraisal of film sequences was investigated. Four pairs of polar emotions defined in Plutchik’s model were used as basic emotional qualities: joy-sadness, anticipation-surprise, fear-anger, and trust disgust. In the preliminary study eight film sequences and eight music themes were selected as the best representatives of all eight Plutchik’s emotions. In the main experiment the participant judged the emotional qualities of film-music combinations on eight seven-point scales. Half of the combinations were congruent (e.g. joyful film - joyful music, and half were incongruent (e.g. joyful film - sad music. Results have shown that visual information (film had greater effects on the emotion appraisal than auditory information (music. The modulation effects of music background depend on emotional qualities. In some incongruent combinations (joysadness the modulations in the expected directions were obtained (e.g. joyful music reduces the sadness of a sad film, in some cases (anger-fear no modulation effects were obtained, and in some cases (trust-disgust, anticipation-surprise the modulation effects were in an unexpected direction (e.g. trustful music increased the appraisal of disgust of a disgusting film. These results suggest that the appraisals of conjoint effects of emotions depend on the medium (film masks the music and emotional quality (three types of modulation effects.

  9. Effect of background music on maximum acceptable weight of manual lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study used the psychophysical approach to investigate the impact of tempo and volume of background music on the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of participants engaged in lifting. Ten male college students participated in this study. They lifted a box from the floor, walked 1-2 steps as required, placed the box on a table and walked back twice per minute. The results showed that the tempo of music had a significant effect on both MAWL and HR. Fast tempo background music resulted in higher MAWL and HR values than those resulting from slow tempo music. The effects of both the tempo and volume on the RPE were insignificant. The results of this study suggest fast tempo background music may be used in manual materials handling tasks to increase performance without increasing perceived exertion because of its ergogenic effect on human psychology and physiology.

  10. The Relationship between Background Classical Music and Reading Comprehension on Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if there is any relationship on reading comprehension when background classical music is played in the setting of a 7th and 8th grade classroom. This study also examined if there was a statistically significant difference in test anxiety when listening to classical music while completing a test. Reading…

  11. Attention Drainage Effect: How Background Music Effects Concentration in Taiwanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Peter Tze-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether different types of background music affect the performance of a reading comprehension task in Taiwanese college students. There are two major research questions in this study. First, this study tries to find out whether listening to music affect the learner's concentration when they are doing a task…

  12. An Investigation of the Role of Background Music in IVWs for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Debbie; Fassbender, Eric; Bilgin, Ayse; Thompson, William Forde

    2008-01-01

    Empirical evidence is needed to corroborate the intuitions of gamers and game developers in understanding the benefits of Immersive Virtual Worlds (IVWs) as a learning environment and the role that music plays within these environments. We report an investigation to determine if background music of the genre typically found in computer-based…

  13. Communication and Language Development of Young Children with Autism: A Review of Research in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Andreou, Georgia

    2018-01-01

    Research demonstrates connections among children's music actions, their engagement abilities, and their language development. Although the link between music and the engagement abilities of young children with autism is well established, there is not enough evidence on the effectiveness of music strategies and music therapy interventions to…

  14. Scaramouche Goes to Preschool: The Complex Matrix of Young Children's Everyday Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    This article examines everyday musical practices and their connections to young children's learning and development, in and through music. It begins with a discussion of music learning in early childhood as a form of participation and levels of intention in learning. Next, conceptions of child that have dominated early childhood music education…

  15. The Effect of Background Music and Background Noise on the Task Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Gianna; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of music with high arousal potential and negative affect (HA), music with low arousal potential and positive affect (LA), and everyday noise, on the cognitive task performance of introverts and extraverts. Forty participants completed five cognitive tasks: immediate recall, free recall, numerical and delayed…

  16. Social Representation of "Loud Music" in Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Zhao, Fei; Widen, Stephen; Auzenne, Jasmin; Beukes, Eldré W; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Mahadeva, Deepthi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to recreational noise, particularly music exposure, is considered one of the biggest public health hazards of our time. Some important influencing factors such as socioeconomic status, educational background, and cross-cultural perspectives have previously been found to be associated with attitudes toward loud music and the use of hearing protection. Although culture seems to play an important role, there is relatively little known about how it influences perceptions regarding loud music exposure in young adults. The present study was aimed to explore cross-cultural perceptions of and reactions to loud music in young adults (18-25 yr) using the theory of social representations. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The study sample included young adults (n = 534) from five different countries (India, Iran, Portugal, the United States, and the United Kingdom) who were recruited using convenience sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, co-occurrence analysis, and also χ² analysis. Fairly equal numbers of positive and negative connotations (∼40%) were noted in all countries. However, the χ² analysis showed significant differences between the countries (most positive connotations were found in India and Iran, whereas the most negative connotations were found in the United Kingdom and Portugal) regarding the informants' perception of loud music. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category "negative emotions and actions" occurred most frequently, immediately followed by the category "positive emotions and actions." The other most frequently occurring categories included "acoustics," "physical aliment," "location," and "ear and hearing problems." These six categories formed the central nodes of the social representation of loud music exposure in the global index. Although some similarities and differences were noted among the social representations toward loud

  17. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Michael R; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities.

  18. The effect of background music on the perception of personality and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastinger, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to discover stereotypes people may have about different music genres and if these stereotypes are projected onto an individual. Also, the study investigates if music therapy students are more or less biased than non-music majors in this regard. Subjects (N=388) were comprised of student members of the American Music Therapy Association (N=182) and students from a college in the southeastern United States who were not music majors (N=206). Subjects were asked to listen to a recording and complete a short survey. Subjects assigned to the control condition heard only a person reading a script. Subjects assigned to one of the four experimental conditions heard the same recording mixed with background music and ambient crowd noise, intended to simulate a live performance. Subjects were asked to rate the person in the recording on personality descriptors and predict demographic information in the survey. Many of the survey responses were significantly affected by the genre of music. For example, it was shown that when in the presence of rap or country music, all subjects rated the personality of the person in the recording significantly more negative than when in the presence of classical, jazz, or no music. There were no significant differences between the groups for any variable or condition when comparing survey responses between college students and AMTA student members.

  19. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation:Two Musical Training Disciplines within Music Therapy Education and their theoretical Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    1999-01-01

    Describes subjects existing at Aalborg University since the middle eighties. "Intuitive Music" trains free improvisation through exercises including group-dynamic exercises, awareness exercises and parameter exercises. Students also create open compositions. "Graphic notation"concerns aural scores. Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language the...

  20. Signal-to-background ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jillian Gallant

    The purpose of this study was to identify listeners' signal-to-background-ratio (SBR) preference levels for vocal music and to investigate whether or not SBR differences existed for different music genres. The ``signal'' was the singer's voice, and the ``background'' was the accompanying music. Three songs were each produced in two different genres (total of 6 genres represented). Each song was performed by three male and three female singers. Analyses addressed influences of musical genre, singing style, and singer timbre on listener's SBR choices. Fifty-three normal-hearing California State University of Northridge students ranging in age from 20-52 years participated as subjects. Subjects adjusted the overall music loudness to a comfortable listening level, and manipulated a second gain control which affected only the singer's voice. Subjects listened to 72 stimuli and adjusted the singer's voice to the level they felt sounded appropriate in comparison to the background music. Singer and Genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in subject's SBR preferences, although the results clearly indicate Genre, Style and Singer interact in different combinations under different conditions. SBR differences for each song, each singer, and each subject did not occur in a predictable manner, and support the hypothesis that SBR preferences are neither fixed nor dependent merely upon music application or setting. Further investigations regarding psychoacoustical bases responsible for differences in SBR preferences are warranted.

  1. Reexamination of mood-mediation hypothesis of background-music-dependent effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarida, Toshiko K; Kubota, Takayuki; Nakajima, Saki; Isarida, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    The present study reexamined the mood-mediation hypothesis for explaining background-music-dependent effects in free recall. Experiments 1 and 2 respectively examined tempo- and tonality-dependent effects in free recall, which had been used as evidence for the mood-mediation hypothesis. In Experiments 1 and 2, undergraduates (n = 75 per experiment) incidentally learned a list of 20 unrelated words presented one by one at a rate of 5 s per word and then received a 30-s delayed oral free-recall test. Throughout the study and test sessions, a piece of music was played. At the time of test, one third of the participants received the same piece of music with the same tempo or tonality as at study, one third heard a different piece with the same tempo or tonality, and one third heard a different piece with a different tempo or tonality. Note that the condition of the same piece with a different tempo or tonality was excluded. Furthermore, the number of sampled pieces of background music was increased compared with previous studies. The results showed neither tempo- nor tonality-dependent effects, but only a background-music-dependent effect. Experiment 3 (n = 40) compared the effects of background music with a verbal association task and focal music (only listening to musical selections) on the participants' moods. The results showed that both the music tempo and tonality influenced the corresponding mood dimensions (arousal and pleasantness). These results are taken as evidence against the mood-mediation hypothesis. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  2. Factors Influencing Pop Music Preferences of Young Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J. David; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined and compared self-reported reasons for pop music preferences of 397 students in grades five, seven, nine, eleven, and college. Results revealed that characteristics such as melody, mood, rhythm, and lyrics were the most important reasons for selection. Differences in response by age and background characteristics were noted. (Author/SJL)

  3. Exploring the Literature on Music Participation and Social Connectedness for Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa A. I.; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Background: This article explores the literature on social connectedness and music for young people with disability. It then critically examines the level of congruence between the reported literature to date and current rights-based disability studies discourse. Method: A critical interpretive synthesis was used to examine 27 articles referencing…

  4. P1-18: The Effect of Background Music on Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hao Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies do visual working memory research under sundry sound conditions (Alley & Greene, 2008 Current Psychology 27 277–289; Iwanaga & Ito, 2002 Perceptual Motor Skills 94 1251–1258; Pring & Walker, 1994 Current Psychology 13 165–171. In order to understand more about background music, we modified previous studies to examine how the performance of working memory is affected by four different music conditions. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to listen to two different pop songs to see if they have the similar effect on the performance of working memory. They were required to do six trials of digit span tasks under each music condition (silence, classical music, non-vocal music, vocal music. After being shown ten digits, each for 800 ms, participants were asked to recall and write down the digits in the correct order within 20 s. The results showed that there was no significant difference between two pop songs. Therefore, data were pooled for further analysis and indicated that there are significant differences and correlations in working memory among the four music conditions. The finding that the effect of non-vocal music affects working memory is greater in this study than in that of western films (Alley & Greene, 2008; Pring & Walker, 1994, which is consistent with the previous study in Japan (Iwanaga & Ito, 2002. The application of this study will be discussed in detail.

  5. An investigation of the role of background music in IVWs for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Richards

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence is needed to corroborate the intuitions of gamers and game developers in understanding the benefits of Immersive Virtual Worlds (IVWs as a learning environment and the role that music plays within these environments. We report an investigation to determine if background music of the genre typically found in computer-based role-playing games has an effect on learning in a computer-animated history lesson about the Macquarie Lighthouse within an IVW. In Experiment 1, music stimuli were created from four different computer game soundtracks. Seventy-two undergraduate students watched the presentation and completed a survey including biographical details, questions on the historical material presented and questions relating to their perceived level of immersion. While the tempo and pitch of the music was unrelated to learning, music conditions resulted in a higher number of accurately remembered facts than the no music condition. One soundtrack showed a statistically significant improvement in memorisation of facts over other music conditions. Also an interaction between the levels of perceived immersion and ability to accurately remember facts was observed. Experiment 2, involving 48 undergraduate students, further investigated the effect of music, sense of immersion and how different display systems affect memory for facts.

  6. P1-18: The Effect of Background Music on Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ding-Hao Liu; Yi-Fang Shih; Pei-Jin Yang; Mei-Nian Lu; Yi-shan Su; Shiiau-hua Liu

    2012-01-01

    Many studies do visual working memory research under sundry sound conditions (Alley & Greene, 2008 Current Psychology 27 277–289; Iwanaga & Ito, 2002 Perceptual Motor Skills 94 1251–1258; Pring & Walker, 1994 Current Psychology 13 165–171). In order to understand more about background music, we modified previous studies to examine how the performance of working memory is affected by four different music conditions. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to listen to two different...

  7. The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control (NCC)--no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)--teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)--teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)--teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions.

  8. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K.; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes. PMID:27252619

  9. Music-Based iPad App Preferences of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Suzanne L.; Pearsall, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Music-based technology is frequently included in early childhood classrooms as an attempt to incorporate music education in the curriculum. However, there is a lack of research that addresses the educational benefits of music-based tablet applications (apps) for young children. Researchers in this study explored the preferences of 4-year-old…

  10. Best Practices for Young Children's Music Education: Guidance from Brain Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews best practices for young children's music experiences in light of developments in brain research. The first section reviews research music and brain topics including neuromyths, effect of music on structural brain changes and general intelligence, plasticity, critical and optimal periods, and at-risk student populations. The…

  11. EEG Beta power but not background music predicts the recall scores in an foreign-vocobulary learning tast

    OpenAIRE

    Küssner, M.B.; de Groot, A.M.B.; Hofman, W.F.; Hillen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    As tantalizing as the idea that background music beneficially affects foreign vocabulary learning may seem, there is-partly due to a lack of theory-driven research-no consistent evidence to support this notion. We investigated inter-individual differences in the effects of background music on foreign vocabulary learning. Based on Eysenck's theory of personality we predicted that individuals with a high level of cortical arousal should perform worse when learning with background music compared...

  12. Young people's topography of musical functions: personal, social and cultural experiences with music across genders and six societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald; Tekman, Hasan Gürkan; Abubakar, Amina; Njenga, Jane; Zenger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    How can we understand the uses of music in daily life? Music is a universal phenomenon but with significant interindividual and cultural variability. Listeners' gender and cultural background may influence how and why music is used in daily life. This paper reports the first investigation of a holistic framework and a new measure of music functions (RESPECT-music) across genders and six diverse cultural samples (students from Germany, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, and Turkey). Two dimensions underlie the mental representation of music functions. First, music can be used for contemplation or affective functions. Second, music can serve intrapersonal, social, and sociocultural functions. Results reveal that gender differences occur for affective functions, indicating that female listeners use music more for affective functions, i.e., emotional expression, dancing, and cultural identity. Country differences are moderate for social functions (values, social bonding, dancing) and strongest for sociocultural function (cultural identity, family bonding, political attitudes). Cultural values, such as individualism-collectivism and secularism-traditionalism, can help explain cross-cultural differences in the uses of music. Listeners from more collectivistic cultures use music more frequently for expressing values and cultural identity. Listeners from more secular and individualistic cultures like to dance more. Listeners from more traditional cultures use music more for expressing values and cultural identity, and they bond more frequently with their families over music. The two dimensions of musical functions seem systematically underpinned by listeners' gender and cultural background. We discuss the uses of music as behavioral expressions of affective and contemplative as well as personal, social, and sociocultural aspects in terms of affect proneness and cultural values.

  13. A grounded theory of young tennis players use of music to manipulate emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Daniel T; Karageorghis, Costas I; Loizou, Georgios

    2007-10-01

    The main objectives of this study were (a) to elucidate young tennis players' use of music to manipulate emotional states, and (b) to present a model grounded in present data to illustrate this phenomenon and to stimulate further research. Anecdotal evidence suggests that music listening is used regularly by elite athletes as a preperformance strategy, but only limited empirical evidence corroborates such use. Young tennis players (N = 14) were selected purposively for interview and diary data collection. Results indicated that participants consciously selected music to elicit various emotional states; frequently reported consequences of music listening included improved mood, increased arousal, and visual and auditory imagery. The choice of music tracks and the impact of music listening were mediated by a number of factors, including extramusical associations, inspirational lyrics, music properties, and desired emotional state. Implications for the future investigation of preperformance music are discussed.

  14. Emerging Musical Literacy: Investigating Young Children's Music Cognition and Musical Problem-Solving through Invented Notations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Joan

    A qualitative study was conducted in the winter of 2000 with children enrolled in a Clef Club, the fourth level of an early childhood music program sponsored by the Eastman School's Community Education Division (Rochester, NY). Eleven participants, ages 4.7 to 6.6, enrolled in 3 sections of the 10-week program taught by the researcher. Classroom…

  15. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness.

  16. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eKraus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of disadvantaged primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA for two years as they participated in the Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, the Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program—as defined by better attendance and classroom participation—developed stronger brain encoding of speech after two years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support for community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness.

  17. The effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation-scaling behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M; Zaums, K; Wilcox, C

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation scaling behavior in young adults. Three groups of college students, 10 who liked rock music, 10 who liked big band music, and 10 who liked classical music were tested. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of 10-sec, samples of rock music, big band music, and classical music. Analysis indicated that subjects who liked rock music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked big band and classical music. Subjects who liked big band music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked rock music and classical music. All subjects scaled classical music similarly regardless of their musical preferences. Results are discussed in reference to the literature concerned with personality and preference as well as spectrographic analyses of the three different types of music used in this study.

  18. Musical rhythms and their influence on P300 velocity in young females

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Cintia Ishii de; Pereira, Liliane Desguado

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to music may be useful in the P300 retest and avoid habituation. AIM: To verify the influence of the exposure to different kinds of music in P300 in young females. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty-five women aged from 20 to 36 years were evaluated. P300 was studied before and after musical stimulation with different rhythms. Brazilian songs, international songs, and classical music melodies were selected. Each song had its velocity altered and was named ...

  19. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  20. The effects of live music groups versus an educational children's television program on the emergent literacy of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Dena

    2004-01-01

    Research suggests that music is beneficial in teaching both social and academic skills to young children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a music therapy program designed to teach reading skills versus the "Between the Lions" television program on the early literacy behaviors of Kindergarten children from a low socioeconomic background. Subjects (n = 86) were children, aged 5-7 years, enrolled in one of four different Kindergarten classes at a public elementary school in Northwest Florida. Each class was assigned one of four treatment conditions: Music/Video (sequential presentation of each condition), Music-Only, Video-Only, and no contact Control group. Growth in early literacy skills was measured using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and 3 subtests of the Test of Early reading Ability-3rd edition (TERA-3). Teachers' perceptions of classroom literacy behaviors were measured using a pre and poststudy survey. This study also compared on- and off-task behavior of students during video versus music conditions. Results of the 7 subtests measuring early literacy were varied. The Music/Video and Music-Only groups achieved the highest increases in mean scores from pre to posttest on 4 of the 7 subtests. Students in the Video-Only group scored significantly better on the phonemic segmentation portion of the DIBELS than peers in the Music/Video condition. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between the Letter Naming, Initial Sounds Fluency tests, and total raw score of the TERA-3 tests for both pre and posttesting. Additionally, graphic analysis of mean off-task behavior per session indicated that students were more off-task during both video conditions (video alone and video portion of Music/Video condition) than during the music conditions. Off-task behavior was consistently lower during music sessions for the duration of the study. This study confirmed that music increases the on-task behavior of students

  1. Tonal Language Background and Detecting Pitch Contour in Spoken and Musical Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effect of tonal language background on discrimination of pitch contour in short spoken and musical items. It was hypothesized that extensive exposure to a tonal language attunes perception of pitch contour. Accuracy and reaction times of adult participants from tonal (Thai) and non-tonal (Australian English) language…

  2. The Effect of Background Music in Shark Documentaries on Viewers' Perceptions of Sharks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Nosal

    Full Text Available Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark 'attacks' and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries. Using three experiments, we show that participants rated sharks more negatively and less positively after viewing a 60-second video clip of swimming sharks set to ominous background music, compared to participants who watched the same video clip set to uplifting background music, or silence. This finding was not an artifact of soundtrack alone because attitudes toward sharks did not differ among participants assigned to audio-only control treatments. This is the first study to demonstrate empirically that the connotative attributes of background music accompanying shark footage affect viewers' attitudes toward sharks. Given that nature documentaries are often regarded as objective and authoritative sources of information, it is critical that documentary filmmakers and viewers are aware of how the soundtrack can affect the interpretation of the educational content.

  3. The Effect of Background Music in Shark Documentaries on Viewers' Perceptions of Sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Andrew P; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Philip A; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark 'attacks' and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries. Using three experiments, we show that participants rated sharks more negatively and less positively after viewing a 60-second video clip of swimming sharks set to ominous background music, compared to participants who watched the same video clip set to uplifting background music, or silence. This finding was not an artifact of soundtrack alone because attitudes toward sharks did not differ among participants assigned to audio-only control treatments. This is the first study to demonstrate empirically that the connotative attributes of background music accompanying shark footage affect viewers' attitudes toward sharks. Given that nature documentaries are often regarded as objective and authoritative sources of information, it is critical that documentary filmmakers and viewers are aware of how the soundtrack can affect the interpretation of the educational content.

  4. Effects of Stimulus Characteristics and Background Music on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Annette M. B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three stimulus variables and background music on paired-associate learning of foreign language (FL) vocabulary. The stimulus variables were the frequency and concreteness of the native language (L1) words and the (phonotactical) typicality of the FL words. Sixty-four L1-FL pairs were presented for learning six…

  5. Background Music in the Dissection Laboratory: Impact on Stress Associated with the Dissection Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2015-01-01

    Notable challenges, such as mental distress, boredom, negative moods, and attitudes, have been associated with learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory (CDL). The ability of background music (BM) to enhance the cognitive abilities of students is well documented. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of BM in the CDL and on…

  6. Cross-National Comparisons of Background and Confidence in Visual Arts and Music Education of Pre-Service Primary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Bowie, Deirdre

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study on pre-service teachers' background and confidence in music and visual arts education. The study involved 939 non-specialist pre-service primary teachers from five countries. Initially the paper identifies the students' perceptions of their background and confidence in relation to music and visual arts…

  7. EEG Beta Power but Not Background Music Predicts the Recall Scores in a Foreign-Vocabulary Learning Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küssner, Mats B.; de Groot, Annette M. B.; Hofman, Winni F.; Hillen, Marij A.

    2016-01-01

    As tantalizing as the idea that background music beneficially affects foreign vocabulary learning may seem, there is-partly due to a lack of theory-driven research-no consistent evidence to support this notion. We investigated inter-individual differences in the effects of background music on

  8. EEG Beta power but not background music predicts the recall scores in an foreign-vocobulary learning tast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küssner, M.B.; de Groot, A.M.B.; Hofman, W.F.; Hillen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    As tantalizing as the idea that background music beneficially affects foreign vocabulary learning may seem, there is-partly due to a lack of theory-driven research-no consistent evidence to support this notion. We investigated inter-individual differences in the effects of background music on

  9. Musical background not associated with self-perceived hearing performance or speech perception in postlingual cochlear-implant users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Christina; Free, Rolien; Maat, Bert; Baskent, Deniz

    In normal-hearing listeners, musical background has been observed to change the sound representation in the auditory system and produce enhanced performance in some speech perception tests. Based on these observations, it has been hypothesized that musical background can influence sound and speech

  10. Music in mind, a randomized controlled trial of music therapy for young people with behavioural and emotional problems: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam; Holmes, Valerie; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Chris; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Doran, Jackie; Rogan, Sheelagh

    2012-10-01

    This article is a report of a trial protocol to determine if improvizational music therapy leads to clinically significant improvement in communication and interaction skills for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural problems. Music therapy is often considered an effective intervention for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties. However, this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Music in mind is a multi-centred single-blind randomized controlled trial involving 200 young people (aged 8-16 years) and their parents. Eligible participants will have a working diagnosis within the ambit of international classification of disease 10 mental and behavioural disorders and will be recruited over 15 months from six centres within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services of a large health and social care trust in Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care alone or standard care plus 12 weekly music therapy sessions delivered by the Northern Ireland Music Therapy Trust. Baseline data will be collected from young people and their parents using standardized outcome measures for communicative and interaction skills (primary endpoint), self-esteem, social functioning, depression and family functioning. Follow-up data will be collected 1 and 13 weeks after the final music therapy session. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be carried out. This study will be the largest trial to date examining the effect of music therapy on young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties and will provide empirical evidence for the use of music therapy among this population. Trial registration. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Register, ISRCTN96352204. Ethical approval was gained in October 2010. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The Effect of Background Music While Silent Reading on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sakineh sahebdel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effect of background music while silent reading on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The participants were 57 Iranian EFL learners between the ages of 14 and 16 in two 3rd grade high schoolclasses at pre-intermediate proficiency level. Before treatment,both experimental and control groups took a reading comprehension pretest. In the experimental group, the researchers played Mozart sonatas as background music and asked them to read the passage silently and then answer the reading comprehension questions. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but no music was played while silent reading by the students. After ten sessions, the students of both groups were asked to answer another independent but parallel form of reading section of PET as their post-test. The independent samples t-testresultsindicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in reading comprehension posttest, and listening to background music while silent reading had a significantly positive effect on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The results of the present study have implications for EFL students, teachers, and teacher educators as well as syllabus designers and materials developers.

  12. Music Preferences with Regard to Music Education, Informal Infuences and Familiarity of Music Amongst Young People in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrota, Snježana; Ercegovac, Ina Reic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between music preference and music education, informal influences (attending classical music concerts and musical theatre productions) and familiarity of music. The research included students of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Split (N = 341). The results…

  13. The music of the Big Bang the cosmic microwave background and the new cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Balbi, Amedeo

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the afterglow of the big bang: a tenuous signal, more than 13 billion years old, which carries the answers to many of the questions about the nature of our Universe. It was serendipitously discovered in 1964, and thoroughly investigated in the last four decades by a large number of experiments. Two Nobel Prizes in Physics have already been awarded for research on the cosmic background radiation: one in 1978 to Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, who first discovered it, the other in 2006, to George Smoot and John Mather, for the results of the COBE satellite. Most cosmological information is encoded in the cosmic background radiation by acoustic oscillations in the dense plasma that filled the primordial Universe: a "music" of the big bang, which cosmologists have long been trying to reconstruct and analyze, in order to distinguish different cosmological models, much like one can distinguish different musical instruments by their timbre and overtones. Only lately, this...

  14. Let the music play! A short-term but no long-term detrimental effect of vocal background music with familiar language lyrics on foreign language vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Smedinga, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the

  15. A cross-sectional survey of young people attending a music festival: associations between drug use and musical preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Hocking, Jane S; Aitken, Campbell K

    2008-07-01

    Drug use is becoming normalised among young Australian people involved in music sub-cultures. We aimed to determine prevalences of illicit drug use in this population and associations between preferences for different music genres and recent use of particular illicit drugs. A cross-sectional questionnaire of young people (aged 16-29 years) attending a music festival. Of 939 respondents, 46% had used illicit drugs (principally cannabis) in the past month, a significantly higher proportion than among respondents to the 2004 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (18%). Participants who favoured dance/house or rap music were more likely to have used illicit drugs recently than the remainder of the sample, while those who favoured pop or alternative music were less likely to have used drugs in the past month. These data suggest that music festival attendees use illicit drugs more commonly than their age-matched cohort in the general community, and that music festivals venues (particularly those that cater for dance/house and rap) would be appropriate places for interventions to promote safer drug use.

  16. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. In this study, we tested the effect of music on sub maximal exercise performance time duration in young adults. 25 Male and 25 females were subjected to standard submaximal exercise with and without music. Resting HR and Max. HR during exercise and the exercise time duration was recorded. Total exercise duration in whole group with music (37.12 ± 16.26** min) was significantly greater than exercise duration without music (22.48 ± 10.26 min). Males (42.4 ± 15.6** min) outperformed significantly better than females (31.84 ± 15.48 min). Also, we observed statistically significant higher values of Maximal heart rate with music than without music. But there was no significant correlation between duration of exercise, music and change in Heart rate. We can conclude that Music increases duration of exercise in both sexes and hence endurance.

  17. The Effects of Music Salience on the Gait Performance of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Natalie; Kempster, Cody; Doucette, Angelica; Doan, Jon B; Hu, Bin; Brown, Lesley A

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a rhythmic beat in the form of a metronome tone or beat-accentuated original music can modulate gait performance; however, it has yet to be determined whether gait modulation can be achieved using commercially available music. The current study investigated the effects of commercially available music on the walking of healthy young adults. Specific aims were (a) to determine whether commercially available music can be used to influence gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability), (b) to establish the effect of music salience on gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability), and (c) to examine whether music tempi differentially effected gait (i.e., gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability). Twenty-five participants walked the length of an unobstructed walkway while listening to music. Music selections differed with respect to the salience or the tempo of the music. The genre of music and artists were self-selected by participants. Listening to music while walking was an enjoyable activity that influenced gait. Specifically, salient music selections increased measures of cadence, velocity, and stride length; in contrast, gait was unaltered by the presence of non-salient music. Music tempo did not differentially affect gait performance (gait velocity, stride length, cadence, stride time variability) in these participants. Gait performance was differentially influenced by music salience. These results have implications for clinicians considering the use of commercially available music as an alternative to the traditional rhythmic auditory cues used in rehabilitation programs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Music Preferences and Civic Activism of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ambrose; Kier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between music preferences and civic activism among 182 participants aged 14-24 years. Our analyses show that participants who regularly listened to certain music genres such as classical, opera, musicals, new age, easy listening, house, world music, heavy metal, punk, and ska were significantly more likely to…

  19. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo D.; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revea...

  20. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Jancke L; Brugger E; Brummer M; Scherrer S; Alahmadi N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. METHODS: 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The con...

  1. The effects of music genre on young people's alcohol consumption: an experimental observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Poelen, Evelien A P; Spijkerman, Renske; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether exposure to specific music genres in a social drinking setting leads to differences in drinking levels. An observational experimental design was used in which we invited peer groups of young adults into a bar lab, a lab which is furnished like an ordinary, small pub. Between two tasks, people had a break of 50 minutes in which they could order nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages. During the break, participants were exposed to a specific music genre: popular, hard rock, rap, or classical music. Those groups who were exposed to classical music drank significantly more alcohol than those who were exposed to other music genres. This pattern is quite robust and does not depend on participants' sex or age, drinking habits, own music preference, and relative importance of music in participant's lives. The study's limitations are mentioned.

  2. EEG Beta Power but Not Background Music Predicts the Recall Scores in a Foreign-Vocabulary Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küssner, Mats B; de Groot, Annette M B; Hofman, Winni F; Hillen, Marij A

    2016-01-01

    As tantalizing as the idea that background music beneficially affects foreign vocabulary learning may seem, there is-partly due to a lack of theory-driven research-no consistent evidence to support this notion. We investigated inter-individual differences in the effects of background music on foreign vocabulary learning. Based on Eysenck's theory of personality we predicted that individuals with a high level of cortical arousal should perform worse when learning with background music compared to silence, whereas individuals with a low level of cortical arousal should be unaffected by background music or benefit from it. Participants were tested in a paired-associate learning paradigm consisting of three immediate word recall tasks, as well as a delayed recall task one week later. Baseline cortical arousal assessed with spontaneous EEG measurement in silence prior to the learning rounds was used for the analyses. Results revealed no interaction between cortical arousal and the learning condition (background music vs. silence). Instead, we found an unexpected main effect of cortical arousal in the beta band on recall, indicating that individuals with high beta power learned more vocabulary than those with low beta power. To substantiate this finding we conducted an exact replication of the experiment. Whereas the main effect of cortical arousal was only present in a subsample of participants, a beneficial main effect of background music appeared. A combined analysis of both experiments suggests that beta power predicts the performance in the word recall task, but that there is no effect of background music on foreign vocabulary learning. In light of these findings, we discuss whether searching for effects of background music on foreign vocabulary learning, independent of factors such as inter-individual differences and task complexity, might be a red herring. Importantly, our findings emphasize the need for sufficiently powered research designs and exact replications

  3. EEG Beta Power but Not Background Music Predicts the Recall Scores in a Foreign-Vocabulary Learning Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats B Küssner

    Full Text Available As tantalizing as the idea that background music beneficially affects foreign vocabulary learning may seem, there is-partly due to a lack of theory-driven research-no consistent evidence to support this notion. We investigated inter-individual differences in the effects of background music on foreign vocabulary learning. Based on Eysenck's theory of personality we predicted that individuals with a high level of cortical arousal should perform worse when learning with background music compared to silence, whereas individuals with a low level of cortical arousal should be unaffected by background music or benefit from it. Participants were tested in a paired-associate learning paradigm consisting of three immediate word recall tasks, as well as a delayed recall task one week later. Baseline cortical arousal assessed with spontaneous EEG measurement in silence prior to the learning rounds was used for the analyses. Results revealed no interaction between cortical arousal and the learning condition (background music vs. silence. Instead, we found an unexpected main effect of cortical arousal in the beta band on recall, indicating that individuals with high beta power learned more vocabulary than those with low beta power. To substantiate this finding we conducted an exact replication of the experiment. Whereas the main effect of cortical arousal was only present in a subsample of participants, a beneficial main effect of background music appeared. A combined analysis of both experiments suggests that beta power predicts the performance in the word recall task, but that there is no effect of background music on foreign vocabulary learning. In light of these findings, we discuss whether searching for effects of background music on foreign vocabulary learning, independent of factors such as inter-individual differences and task complexity, might be a red herring. Importantly, our findings emphasize the need for sufficiently powered research designs and

  4. Music Education for Young Children in Scandinavia: Policy, Philosophy, or Wishful Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses current policies, philosophies, and educational practices of early childhood music education in Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) and to what extent they meet the challenges of music education for young children. Nearly all children use day care provisions, and they are a governmental responsibility. The author reviews…

  5. Informal Music Education: The Nature of a Young Child's Engagement in an Individual Piano Lesson Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the nature of a young child's engagement in an individual music lesson setting based on principles of informal learning. The informal educational space allowed the child to observe, explore, and interact with a musical environment as a process of enculturation and development (Gordon, 2013;…

  6. A Survey of Elementary and Secondary Music Educators' Professional Background, Teaching Responsibilities and Job Satisfaction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy K.; Koner, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this exploratory study was to examine the current trends of K-12 music educators in the United States regarding their (a) professional background, (b) classroom teaching responsibilities, and (c) job satisfaction. Participants included seven thousand four hundred and sixty-three (N = 7,463) currently employed music teachers who were…

  7. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  8. Musical background not associated with self-perceived hearing performance or speech perception in postlingual cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christina; Free, Rolien; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz

    2012-08-01

    In normal-hearing listeners, musical background has been observed to change the sound representation in the auditory system and produce enhanced performance in some speech perception tests. Based on these observations, it has been hypothesized that musical background can influence sound and speech perception, and as an extension also the quality of life, by cochlear-implant users. To test this hypothesis, this study explored musical background [using the Dutch Musical Background Questionnaire (DMBQ)], and self-perceived sound and speech perception and quality of life [using the Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire (NCIQ) and the Speech Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ)] in 98 postlingually deafened adult cochlear-implant recipients. In addition to self-perceived measures, speech perception scores (percentage of phonemes recognized in words presented in quiet) were obtained from patient records. The self-perceived hearing performance was associated with the objective speech perception. Forty-one respondents (44% of 94 respondents) indicated some form of formal musical training. Fifteen respondents (18% of 83 respondents) judged themselves as having musical training, experience, and knowledge. No association was observed between musical background (quantified by DMBQ), and self-perceived hearing-related performance or quality of life (quantified by NCIQ and SSQ), or speech perception in quiet.

  9. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, S?verine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these i...

  10. A Case Study of Teaching Musical Expression to Young Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Brenda; Strand, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean to teach musical expression to child performers? Is it teaching how to interpret a piece of music "correctly," or is there more involved? In this case study, we explored the beliefs and practices of five teachers who specialized in teaching children to perform in a variety of musical performance areas, including violin,…

  11. The Role of Music in Young Learners’ Oral Production in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Pérez Niño

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study conducted at Universidad Nacional de Colombia in the foreign language extension courses. The author shows how young learners who study English in this program can develop their oral production by making and listening to music. The study took place in the first semester of 2009 and followed the qualitative and descriptive approaches to classroom research. The author describes how young learners view music as a ludic tool that will improve their oral performance and how the activities applied by a music teacher help to reinforce the language topics studied in other English classes.

  12. The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götell, Eva; Brown, Steven; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Music and singing are considered to have a strong impact on human emotions. Such an effect has been demonstrated in caregiving contexts with dementia patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate vocally expressed emotions and moods in the communication between caregivers and persons with severe dementia during morning care sessions. Three types of caring sessions were compared: the "usual" way, with no music; with background music playing; and with the caregiver singing to and/or with the patient. Nine persons with severe dementia living in a nursing home in Sweden and five professional caregivers participated in this study. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine videotaped recordings of morning care sessions, with a focus on vocally expressed emotions and moods during verbal communication. Compared to no music, the presence of background music and caregiver singing improved the mutuality of the communication between caregiver and patient, creating a joint sense of vitality. Positive emotions were enhanced, and aggressiveness was diminished. Whereas background music increased the sense of playfulness, caregiver singing enhanced the sense of sincerity and intimacy in the interaction. Caregiver singing and background music can help the caregiver improve the patient's ability to express positive emotions and moods, and to elicit a sense of vitality on the part of the person with severe dementia. The results further support the value of caregiver singing as a method to improve the quality of dementia care.

  13. The Effects of Music Intervention on Background Pain and Anxiety in Burn Patients: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Mohades Ardebili, Fatimah; Rafii, Forough; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of music on the background pain, anxiety, and relaxation levels in burn patients. In this pretest-posttest randomized controlled clinical trial, 100 hospitalized burn patients were selected through convenience sampling. Subjects randomly assigned to music and control groups. Data related to demographic and clinical characteristics, analgesics, and physiologic measures were collected by researcher-made tools. Visual analog scale was used to determine pain, anxiety, and relaxation levels before and after the intervention in 3 consecutive days. Patients' preferred music was offered once a day for 3 days. The control group only received routine care. Data were analyzed using SPSS-PC (V. 20.0). According to paired t-test, there were significant differences between mean scores of pain (P < .001), anxiety (P < .001), and relaxation (P < .001) levels before and after intervention in music group. Independent t-test indicated a significant difference between the mean scores of changes in pain, anxiety, and relaxation levels before and after intervention in music and control groups (P < .001). No differences were detected in the mean scores of physiologic measures between groups before and after music intervention. Music is an inexpensive, appropriate, and safe intervention for applying to burn patients with background pain and anxiety at rest. To produce more effective comfort for patients, it is necessary to compare different types and time lengths of music intervention to find the best approach.

  14. Signal-to-background-ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jillian G.

    2005-04-01

    The primary purpose of speech is to convey a message. Many factors affect the listener's overall reception, several of which have little to do with the linguistic content itself, but rather with the delivery (e.g., prosody, intonation patterns, pragmatics, paralinguistic cues). Music, however, may convey a message either with or without linguistic content. In instances in which music has lyrics, one cannot assume verbal content will take precedence over sonic properties. Lyric emphasis over other aspects of music cannot be assumed. Singing introduces distortion of the vowel-consonant temporal ratio of speech, emphasizing vowels and de-emphasizing consonants. The phonemic production alterations of singing make it difficult for even those with normal hearing to understand the singer. This investigation was designed to identify singer-to-background-ratio (SBR) prefer- ences for normal hearing adult listeners (as opposed to SBR levels maxi-mizing speech discrimination ability). Stimuli were derived from three different original songs, each produced in two different genres and sung by six different singers. Singer and genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in SBR preferences, though results clearly indicate genre, style and singer interact in different combinations for each song, each singer, and for each subject in an unpredictable manner.

  15. The role of background music in the experience of watching YouTube videos about death and dying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Pentaris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available YouTube is the largest video sharing site live at the moment. It has been used to communicate a vast array of information, while it allows for user-generated content. This paper will focus on YouTube videos that communicate death, and in particular will present findings from a preliminary study undertaken by the authors considering the role that background music plays in these videos. Specifically, this study explores the experiences of the viewers of death-related YouTube videos with and without background music while it makes comparisons in relation to the impact that music has on the viewers’ emotional experiences. We conclude that background music elicits emotions and enhances feelings of sadness and sympathy in relation to the visual content of videos while recommendations for future research are made.

  16. The Effect of "Sad" and "Happy" Background Music on the Interpretation of a Story in 5 to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Goshen, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Children hear music in the background of a large variety of situations and activities. Throughout development, they acquire knowledge both about the syntactical norms of tonal music, and about the relationship between musical form and emotion. Five to six-year-old children heard a story, with a background "happy", "sad" or no…

  17. Musical rhythms and their influence on P300 velocity in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Cintia Ishii de; Pereira, Liliane Desguado

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to music may be useful in the P300 retest and avoid habituation. To verify the influence of the exposure to different kinds of music in P300 in young females. Clinical prospective. Forty-five women aged from 20 to 36 years were evaluated. P300 was studied before and after musical stimulation with different rhythms. Brazilian songs, international songs, and classical music melodies were selected. Each song had its velocity altered and was named as fast and slow. Subjects were divided into 2 groups exposed to music: one group was exposed to the fast version and the other to the slow version. The control group not exposed to music and was evaluated within the same time period of the others. There were statistically significant differences when comparing P300 amplitude in the first and third stimulation with the comparison group. In the same subject, several sequential registrations of P300 caused habituation, which was not seen during exposure to music before P300 recording. Exposure to music at preset different velocities did not affect the P300 in young females.

  18. The study of different attention states under different background music based on Event-Related potential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts the research on the attention sates based on ERP analysis when the subjects are under the quiet, flute and zither background music. The amplitude and latency of P300 are analyzed. The results show that there are greater P300 amplitudes and smaller P300 latencies of CZ, PZ, OZ and CP3 in music background than those in quiet background. The PCA and ICA achieve to select the effective data components and the head model is reconstructed. The active degree of brain areas are analyzed by using the source location methods. The result shows that the brain’s excitement is very obvious under the Bach's flute background. The study also indicates that some background music might help to improve the attention.

  19. Music induces different cardiac autonomic arousal effects in young and older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilz, Max J; Stadler, Peter; Gryc, Thomas; Nath, Juliane; Habib-Romstoeck, Leila; Stemper, Brigitte; Buechner, Susanne; Wong, Samuel; Koehn, Julia

    2014-07-01

    Autonomic arousal-responses to emotional stimuli change with age. Age-dependent autonomic responses to music-onset are undetermined. To determine whether cardiovascular-autonomic responses to "relaxing" or "aggressive" music differ between young and older healthy listeners. In ten young (22.8±1.7 years) and 10 older volunteers (61.7±7.7 years), we monitored respiration (RESP), RR-intervals (RRI), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BPsys, BPdia) during silence and 180second presentations of two "relaxing" and two "aggressive" classical-music excerpts. Between both groups, we compared RESP, RRI, BPs, spectral-powers of mainly sympathetic low-frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15Hz) and parasympathetic high-frequency (HF: 0.15-0.5Hz) RRI-oscillations, RRI-LF/HF-ratios, RRI-total-powers (TP-RRI), and BP-LF-powers during 30s of silence, 30s of music-onset, and the remaining 150s of music presentation (analysis-of-variance and post-hoc analysis; significance: pmusic-onset, "relaxing" music decreased RRI in older and increased BPsys in younger participants, while "aggressive" music decreased RRI and increased BPsys, LF-RRI, LF/HF-ratios, and TP-RRI in older, but increased BPsys and RESP and decreased HF-RRI and TP-RRI in younger participants. Signals did not differ between groups during the last 150s of music presentation. During silence, autonomic modulation was lower - but showed sympathetic predominance - in older than younger persons. Responses to music-onset, particularly "aggressive" music, reflect more of an arousal- than an emotional-response to music valence, with age-specific shifts of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance mediated by parasympathetic withdrawal in younger and by sympathetic activation in older participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Irene eAlonso; Irene eAlonso; Irene eAlonso; Delphine eDellacherie; Delphine eDellacherie; Séverine eSamson; Séverine eSamson

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotion...

  2. Sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory: the role of mood induced by background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences in visuospatial abilities are long debated. Men generally outperform women, especially in wayfinding or learning a route or a sequence of places. These differences might depend on women's disadvantage in underlying spatial competences, such as mental rotation, and on the strategies used, as well as on emotions and on self-belief about navigational skills, not related to actual skill-levels. In the present study, sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory in emotional contexts were investigated. Participants' mood was manipulated by background music (positive, negative or neutral) while performing on the Corsi Block-tapping Task (CBT) and Walking Corsi (WalCT) test. In order to assess the effectiveness of mood manipulation, participants filled in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and after carrying out the visuospatial tasks. Firstly, results showed that after mood induction, only the positive affect changed, whereas the negative affect remained unconfounded by mood and by sex. This finding is in line with the main effect of 'group' on all tests used: the positive music group scored significantly higher than other groups. Secondly, although men outperformed women in the CBT forward condition and in the WalCT forward and backward conditions, they scored higher than women only in the WalCT with the negative background music. This means that mood cannot fully explain sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory. Our results suggest that sex differences in the CBT and WalCT can be better explained by differences in spatial competences rather than by emotional contexts.

  3. Is Electronically Amplified Music too Loud? What do Young People Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Vlasta; Hohmann, Beat W.

    2002-01-01

    Listening to loud music has been associated, in a number of studies, with hearing loss and tinnitus among young people. However an unanswered question is whether or not these same young people want to have their music so loud. In our study 533 young men and 167 young women, in the age group 16 to 25, who were attending a vocational training centre, responded to a questionnaire and volunteered to have their hearing assessed. The questionnaire sought information on listening habits, on the kinds of events attended, on whether the music at these events was too loud or not, and if the respondents considered their hearing had been impaired. Analysis of this data indicated that 79% of the subjects attend discotheques, 52% pop and rock concerts, and 35% techno parties (e.g. raves). A significant number considered the music at these venues was too loud. Some 42% considered this was the case at discos, 35% thought pop and rock concerts too loud, and 39% held a similar view of techno parties. Conversely, fewer than 3% considered sound levels at these events to be too low. On the basis of the response to the questionnaire we estimate that over half the respondents (56.6%) have a sound exposure (L(eq)) from music of over 87 dB(A). It is not surprising therefore that 71% reported that they had suffered tinnitus following attendance at a music event. The hearing capacity of the sample was measured by audiometry. These measurements detected hearing loss in 11% of the 700 individuals tested. However it was not possible to show that the risk of hearing loss increased with increasing exposure to loud music. We conclude that young people neither demand nor require the excessive sound levels typical of most music events.

  4. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Brügger, Eliane; Brummer, Moritz; Scherrer, Stephanie; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2014-03-26

    Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The control group learned without background music while the 4 experimental groups were exposed to vocal or instrumental musical pieces during learning with different subjective intensity and valence. Thus, we employed 4 music listening conditions (vocal music with high intensity: VOC_HIGH, vocal music with low intensity: VOC_LOW, instrumental music with high intensity: INST_HIGH, instrumental music with low intensity: INST_LOW) and one control condition (CONT) during which the subjects learned the word lists. Since it turned out that the high and low intensity groups did not differ in terms of the rated intensity during the main experiment these groups were lumped together. Thus, we worked with 3 groups: one control group and two groups, which were exposed to background music (vocal and instrumental) during verbal learning. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. Here we measured immediate recall during five learning sessions (recall 1 - recall 5) and delayed recall for 15 minutes (recall 6) and 14 days (recall 7) after the last learning session. Verbal learning improved during the first 5 recall sessions without any strong difference between the control and experimental groups. Also the delayed recalls were similar for the three groups. There was only a trend for attenuated verbal learning for the group passively listened to vocals. This learning attenuation diminished during the following learning sessions. The exposure to vocal or instrumental background music during encoding did not

  5. “You’re not alone” : Music as a source of consolation among adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071628274; Vieno, Alessio; Doornwaard, S.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/353722618; Pastore, Massimiliano; van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17399394X

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether adolescents and young adults use music as an agent of consolation when dealing with daily sorrow and stress. We furthermore tested whether three aspects of music listening, i.e., the music itself, its lyrics, and experiences of closeness to artists and fans,

  6. The process of teaching and learning of music in the Vocational Schools of Art: A look at its historical background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Marín-Arias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work stems from a pedagogical research to contribute to learning developer of Musical Initiation from content integration with mathematics subject in the Vocational Schools of Art (EVA .In these institutions the problem of fragmentation of content is presented, limited understanding of the relative values of the notes or rhythmic figures, and therefore, learning Music developer. Since this problem situation, the need for an analysis of the historical background of the process of teaching and learning of mathematics and Musical Initiation ponders since its founding to the present.

  7. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

  8. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. eFonseca-Mora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n=63 learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control, and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

  9. Group Music Therapy as a Preventive Intervention for Young People at Risk: Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes

    2017-07-01

    Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Evidence of noise-induced hearing loss in young people studying popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    The number of students studying popular music, music technology, and sound engineering courses at both school and university to has increased rapidly in the last few years. These students are generally involved in music-making/recording and listening to a high level, usually in environments with amplified music. Recent studies have shown that these students are potentially exposed to a high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL( and are not covered by the same regulatory framework as employees. This study examined the pure tone air conduction hearing thresholds of 50 undergraduate students, including recent school leavers, on a range of popular music courses, to assess if there was evidence of hearing loss. Forty-four percent of students showed evidence of audiometric notch at 4-6 kHz, and 16% were classified under the UK Occupational Health and Safety guidelines as exhibiting mild hearing loss. Instance of audiometric notch was considerably higher than reported from studies of the general population but was around the same level or lower than that reported from studies of "traditional" music courses and conservatoires, suggesting no higher risk for popular music students than for "classical" music students. No relationship with age was present, suggesting that younger students were as likely to exhibit audiometric notch as mature students. This indicates that these students may be damaging their hearing through leisure activities while still at school, suggesting a need for robust education measures to focus on noise exposure of young people.

  11. The Influence of Background Music on Learning in the Light of Different Theoretical Perspectives and the Role of Working Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Janina A. M.; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how background music influences learning with respect to three different theoretical approaches. Both the Mozart effect as well as the arousal-mood-hypothesis indicate that background music can potentially benefit learning outcomes. While the Mozart effect assumes a direct influence of background music on cognitive abilities, the arousal-mood-hypothesis assumes a mediation effect over arousal and mood. However, the seductive detail effect indicates that seductive detai...

  12. The Effects of Background Music on Primary School Pupils' Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Price, John; Katsarou, Georgia

    2002-01-01

    Presents two studies that explored the effects of music perceived as calming and relaxing on arithmetic and memory performance tasks of 10- to 12-year-old children. Reports that the calming music led to better performance on both tasks when compared with the non-music condition. Includes references. (CMK)

  13. BACKGROUND MUSIC AT THE TIME OF ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT AS STRESS BUSTER: PERCEPTION OF THE STUDENTS AT GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE , BILASPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Manoharrao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Music has numerous applications within a clinical setting. It can be in the form of background music too. It is known that some students study and learn more effectively while listening to music. METHODS: The present study was intended to evaluate the perception of the students at medical college for the innovative idea of playing of background music during examination as a stress buster and their response for including it as one of the measure for reducing the stress among medical students. RESULT: The subjects were divided into three groups on t he basis of suffering from anxiety and stress during examination – No Anxiety (N, Occasional Anxiety (O, Anxiety (A. The groups were subjected to Spearman Correlation (SPSS. When the No Anxiety (N group and Occasional Anxiety (O group were compared, it showed positive correlation (0.482, but failed to show statistical significance [0.189]. However, the comparison of the Occasional Anxiety (O group and Anxiety (A group showed positive correlation (0.873 which was statistically significant. CONCLUSI ON: This study indicates that it is the innovative idea of playing background music liked by most of students and even may reduce anxiety and stress which is likely to improve performance. We are encouraged with the positive trends and results of the study

  14. Social representation of "music" in young adults: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Zhao, Fei; Widén, Stephen; Auzenne, Jasmin; Beukes, Eldré W; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Mahadeva, Deepthi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore perceptions of and reactions to music in young adults (18-25 years) using the theory of social representations (TSR). The study used a cross-sectional survey design and included participants from India, Iran, Portugal, USA and UK. Data were analysed using various qualitative and quantitative methods. The study sample included 534 young adults. The Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the countries regarding the informants' perception of music. The most positive connotations about music were found in the responses obtained from Iranian participants (82.2%), followed by Portuguese participants (80.6%), while the most negative connotations about music were found in the responses obtained from Indian participants (18.2%), followed by Iranian participants (7.3%). The participants' responses fell into 19 main categories based on their meaning; however, not all categories were found in all five countries. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category "positive emotions or actions" was the most frequent category occurring in all five countries. The results indicate that music is generally considered to bring positive emotions for people within these societies, although a small percentage of responses indicate some negative consequences of music.

  15. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  16. Errors and Predictors of Confidence in Condom Use amongst Young Australians Attending a Music Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Karina M.; Brieger, Daniel G.; De Silva, Sukhita H.; Pfister, Benjamin F.; Youlden, Daniel J.; John-Leader, Franklin; Pit, Sabrina W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the confidence and ability to use condoms correctly and consistently and the predictors of confidence in young Australians attending a festival. Methods. 288 young people aged 18 to 29 attending a mixed-genre music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, self-reported confidence using condoms, ability to use condoms, and issues experienced when using condoms in the past 12 months. Results. Self-reported confidence using condoms was high (77%). Multivariate...

  17. SoundScape: An Interdisciplinary Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greher, Gena R.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Dougherty, Margaret; Poto, Nataliya

    2010-01-01

    Service provision for adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is lacking, particularly post high school. We report on a music intervention program, outline our program model, and report some initial pilot data evaluating the program outcomes. We also discuss implications for undergraduate and graduate students who were…

  18. The Effects of Music Genre on Young People's Alcohol Consumption: An Experimental Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Spijkerman, R.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter

    2012-01-01

    he aim of this study was to test whether exposure to specific music genres in a social drinking setting leads to differences in drinking levels. An observational experimental design was used in which we invited peer groups of young adults into a bar lab, a lab which is furnished like an ordinary,

  19. How are young music artists configuring their media and sales platforms in the digital age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark Leenders; Mark Farrell; dr. Koos Zwaan; Tom ter Bogt

    2015-01-01

    Research on how music artists generate sales from their content through different platforms is scant. In this study, configuration theory is used to show that different market access configurations are viable simultaneously and that young musicians differ significantly in how they generate revenues.

  20. Can the Use of Background Music Improve the Behaviour and Academic Performance of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Price, John

    1998-01-01

    This study examined effects of providing "mood calming" background music in a special class for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Findings indicated a significant improvement in behavior and mathematics performance for all 10 of the children, with effects most noticeable for children with problems related to constant stimulus…

  1. The Relationship between a Linear Combination of Intelligence, Musical Background, Rhythm Ability and Tapping Ability to Typewriting Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Cheryl H.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to identify any predictor or combination of predictors of a beginning typewriting student's success. Variables of intelligence, rhythmic ability, musical background, and tapping ability were combined to study their relationship to typewriting speed and accuracy. A sample of 109 high school students was…

  2. Acculturation and Religion in Schools: The Views of Young People from Minority Belief Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…

  3. Filtered Music: A Hearing Test for Young Children | Waldman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 127 nursery school children were hearing-tested by means of filtered music audiometry; 18 failed to respond satisfactorily, and of these 11 were found to have previously unsuspected conductive hearing loss. Of the remaining 7 with normal hearing, 4 were subjected to language tests, and all 4 scored poorly.

  4. The Influence of Background Music on Learning in the Light of Different Theoretical Perspectives and the Role of Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Janina A M; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how background music influences learning with respect to three different theoretical approaches. Both the Mozart effect as well as the arousal-mood-hypothesis indicate that background music can potentially benefit learning outcomes. While the Mozart effect assumes a direct influence of background music on cognitive abilities, the arousal-mood-hypothesis assumes a mediation effect over arousal and mood. However, the seductive detail effect indicates that seductive details such as background music worsen learning. Moreover, as working memory capacity has a crucial influence on learning with seductive details, we also included the learner's working memory capacity as a factor in our study. We tested 81 college students using a between-subject design with half of the sample listening to two pop songs while learning a visual text and the other half learning in silence. We included working memory capacity in the design as a continuous organism variable. Arousal and mood scores before and after learning were collected as potential mediating variables. To measure learning outcomes we tested recall and comprehension. We did not find a mediation effect between background music and arousal or mood on learning outcomes. In addition, for recall performance there were no main effects of background music or working memory capacity, nor an interaction effect of these factors. However, when considering comprehension we did find an interaction between background music and working memory capacity: the higher the learners' working memory capacity, the better they learned with background music. This is in line with the seductive detail assumption.

  5. VirSchool: The Effect of Background Music and Immersive Display Systems on Memory for Facts Learned in an Educational Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Eric; Richards, Deborah; Bilgin, Ayse; Thompson, William Forde; Heiden, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Game technology has been widely used for educational applications, however, despite the common use of background music in games, its effect on learning has been largely unexplored. This paper discusses how music played in the background of a computer-animated history lesson affected participants' memory for facts. A virtual history lesson was…

  6. Let the Music Play!--A Short-Term but No Long-Term Detrimental Effect of Vocal Background Music with Familiar Language Lyrics on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Annette M. B.; Smedinga, Hilde E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background. The vocabulary to learn varied in concreteness…

  7. The effect of traditional Persian music on the cardiac functioning of young Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Behzad; Abbasi, Ataollah; Goshvarpour, Atefeh; Khosroshai, Hamid Tayebi; Javanshir, Elnaz

    In the past few decades, several studies have reported the physiological effects of listening to music. The physiological effects of different music types on different people are not similar. Therefore, in the present study, we have sought to examine the effects of traditional Persian music on the cardiac function in young women. Twenty-two healthy females participated in this study. ECG signals were recorded in two conditions: rest and music. For each of the 21 ECG signals (15 morphological and six wavelet based feature) features were extracted. SVM classifier was used for the classification of ECG signals during and before the music. The results showed that the mean of heart rate, the mean amplitude of R-wave, T-wave, and P-wave decreased in response to music. Time-frequency analysis revealed that the mean of the absolute values of the detail coefficients at higher scales increased during rest. The overall accuracy of 91.6% was achieved using polynomial kernel and RBF kernel. Using linear kernel, the best result (with the accuracy rate of 100%) was attained. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Musical Stories: Strategies for Integrating Literature and Music for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Humans have communicated through arts such as storytelling, music and dance throughout history, and have often used combinations of different art forms to express ideas. Just as traditional storytellers have done in many cultures through the ages, early childhood practitioners can use a variety of art forms when they share books and stories with…

  9. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  10. Autobiographical memories of young adults elicited by positive musical stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ana Margarida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia Studies on autobiographical memories have shown the presence of three main components: childhood amnesia, recency effect and reminiscence bump (Rubin, 1986). Previous research suggests that autobiographical memories elicited by positive stimuli are associated with highly, specific and generally pleasant episodes (Krumhansl & Zupnick, 2013). Music has an important and highly emotional and social role in individual’s lives. The p...

  11. Experiences of School Belonging for Young Children with Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…

  12. Exploring the Musical Interests and Abilities of Blind and Partially Sighted Children and Young People with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matawa, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the musical interests and talents of children and young people who are blind or partially sighted as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (RoP). The results from questionnaires completed by 37 parents were analysed using methods drawn from Ockelford et al.'s (2006) study of the musical interests and abilities of children with…

  13. Thinking big: The effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral

  14. Using a Music Video Parody to Promote Breastfeeding and Increase Comfort Levels Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Erin L; Beadle, Julie; Lukeman, Sionnach; Lukeman, Ellen; Aquino, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest). Two months later, a subset of participants watched the music video parody "Breastfeeding My Baby." In Phase 1, participants completed the picture-rating task again (posttest) after a 2-month delay, plus a survey to assess memory and perception of the video. In Phase 2, participants were reminded of the video before completing the comfort ratings, and in the final phase, posttest measures were administered only 1 week after exposure to the video. Across all phases, the video was perceived to be effective and was memorable. Breastfeeding comfort ratings were comparable at pretest across participant groups; comfort ratings improved at posttest for participants who saw the video but only if they were reminded of seeing it before providing their ratings. At shorter intervals between seeing the video and completing the posttests, comfort ratings for breastfeeding images increased for all participants, highlighting the general importance of exposure to breastfeeding. Young adults are receptive to using a music video parody to promote breastfeeding, which can help to increase comfort levels with breastfeeding.

  15. The Effect of Rap/Hip-Hop Music on Young Adult Smoking: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Bogt, Tom F M Ter

    2018-02-16

    Music may influence young people's behavior through its lyrics. Substance use references occur more frequently in rap/hip-hop than in other music genres. The aim was to examine whether the exposure to rap/hip-hop lyrics referring to substance use affected cigarette smoking. An experiment with a 3-group between subject design was conducted among 74 daily-smoking young adults ranging in age from 17 to 25 years old. Three conditions were tested in a mobile lab (camper vehicle) from May to December 2011, i.e., regular chart pop music (N = 28), rap/hip-hop with non-frequent references to substance use (N = 24), and rap/hip-hop with frequent references to substance use (N = 22). One-way ANOVA showed that participants listening to substance use infused rap/hip-hop songs felt significantly less pleasant, liked the songs less, and comprehended the songs less compared to participants listening to pop songs. Poisson loglinear analyses revealed that compared to the pop music condition, none of the two rap/hip-hop music conditions had a significant effect on acute smoking. Thus, contrary to expectations, the two different rap/hip-hop conditions did not have a significantly different effect on acute smoking. Listening to rap/hip-hop, even rap hip/hop with frequent referrals to substance use (primarily alcohol and drug use, and general smoking referrals), does not seem to encourage cigarette smoking among Dutch daily-smoking young adults, at least short term.

  16. Music Therapy as Procedural Support for Young Children Undergoing Immunizations: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2016-01-01

    Children undergoing routine immunizations frequently experience severe distress, which may be improved through music therapy as procedural support. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy during immunizations on (a) the behaviors of children, their parents, and their nurses; and (b) parental perceptions. Participants were children between the ages of 4 and 6 years (N = 58) who underwent immunizations, their parents (N = 62), and the nurses who administered the procedure (N = 19). Parent/child dyads were randomly assigned to receive music therapy (n = 29) or standard care (n = 29) during their immunization. Afterward, each parent rated their child's level of pain and the distress their child experienced compared to previous medical experiences. All procedures were videotaped and later viewed by trained observers, who classified child, parent, and nurse behaviors using the categories of the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised (CAMPIS-R). Significant differences between the music therapy and control groups were found in rates of child coping and distress behaviors and parent distress-promoting behaviors. Parents of children who received music therapy reported that their child's level of distress was less than during previous medical experiences, whereas parents of children in the control group reported that their child's level of distress was greater. No significant differences between groups were found in parents' ratings of children's pain or in rates of nurse behavior. Live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy has potential benefits for young children and their parents during immunizations. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Music for All: Including young people with intellectual disability in a university environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Daphne; Warren, Penny

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a continuing education course in creative music making, initiated to promote the inclusion of young people with intellectual disability in a university setting. Despite organizers' attempts to foster diversity within the student cohort, enrolments were almost exclusively from students who had intellectual disability. Being in the university environment, and in a place of higher learning, seemed to be valued by some. However, students' main focus was on group musicking in a dedicated music room rather than interacting with the wider university community. Those who did not identify as disabled believed it was important to continue to address the barriers to wider inclusion. While acknowledging the risks around mediating the social interactions of young people with intellectual disability, we argue that future courses should include activities specifically designed to bring them to classes with typical students and to the wider activities of the university.

  18. Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimčić Milenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing. Objective. Assessment of subjective difficulties occurring in young people when staying in places with a high noise level (cafes, disco clubs, rock concerts, which can produce health problems, due to loud music, in association with demographic data, addictions and personal life style data. One of the goals is to find factors leading to subjective difficulties, which would be objectively studied in the second stage of the research and marked as early predictors of possible health problems. Methods. The study was conducted among 780 students of the Higher Healthcare School of Professional Studied in Belgrade. We used a questionnaire with 20 questions, divided into four categories: demographic data, case-history data, subjective problems and addictions of the subjects. In the statistical data processing we used the methods of descriptive and exploratory analysis, chi-square tests, correlation tests and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. Results. After listening loud music, 54.0% of examined subjects felt ear buzzing, and 4.6% had hearing damage. The habit of visiting places with loud music, mostly once a week in duration of 2-3 hours per visit had 80.4% of subjects. The presence of subjective complaints after listening of loud music was in association with loud music listening and disco clubs visits. The major reasons of the present subjective difficulties could be predicated by listening of loud music and club visits (r=0.918 and r=0.857. A relative risk for subjective difficulties presentation was 1.599. Conclusion

  19. [Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimcić, Milenko; Ignatović, Snezana; Zivić, Ljubica

    2010-01-01

    For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing). Assessment of subjective difficulties occurring in young people when staying in places with a high noise level (cafes, disco clubs, rock concerts), which can produce health problems, due to loud music, in association with demographic data, addictions and personal life style data. One of the goals is to find factors leading to subjective difficulties, which would be objectively studied in the second stage of the research and marked as early predictors of possible health problems. The study was conducted among 780 students of the Higher Healthcare School of Professional Studied in Belgrade. We used a questionnaire with 20 questions, divided into four categories: demographic data, case-history data, subjective problems and addictions of the subjects. In the statistical data processing we used the methods of descriptive and exploratory analysis, chi-square tests, correlation tests and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. After listening loud music, 54.0% of examined subjects felt ear buzzing, and 4.6% had hearing damage. The habit of visiting places with loud music, mostly once a week in duration of 2-3 hours per visit had 80.4% of subjects. The presence of subjective complaints after listening of loud music was in association with loud music listening and disco clubs visits.The major reasons of the present subjective difficulties could be predicated by listening of loud music and club visits (r = 0.918 and r = 0.857). A relative risk for subjective difficulties presentation was 1.599. According to the results of our study, over half of children

  20. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  1. The variation in family background amongst young homeless shelter users in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    education, employment, mental illness, substance abuse problems and placement outside home in childhood for the young persons, and education, employment, civil status, mental illness and substance abuse problems for their parents. A cluster analysis identifies two groups, each comprising half of the young...... shelter users. In the first group, social marginalisation is transmitted between generations, as most parents have low education and mental illness or substance abuse problems, and are unemployed. In contrast, the young people in the second group come from wider socioeconomic backgrounds, with few...... of their parents having mental illness or substance abuse problems. These young people develop psychosocial problems and become homeless without strong predictors from their family background. Amongst the young shelter users from families with severe social problems a higher share are in the Not in Education...

  2. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival - who will pee and post?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. Methods We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia. Those who consented received a testing kit and were asked to return their urine or vaginal swab sample via post. Results Nine hundred and two sexually active music festival attendees aged 16-29 completed the survey; 313 (35%) opted to receive chlamydia testing kits, and 67 of 313 (21%) returned a specimen for testing. One participant was infected with chlamydia (1% prevalence). Independent predictors of consenting to receive a testing kit included older age, knowing that chlamydia can make women infertile, reporting more than three lifetime sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. Independent predictors of returning a sample to the laboratory included knowing that chlamydia can be asymptomatic, not having had an STI test in the past six months and not living with parents. Conclusions A low proportion of participants returned their chlamydia test, suggesting that this model is not ideal for reaching young people. Home-based chlamydia testing is most attractive to those who report engaging in sexual risk behaviours and are aware of the often asymptomatic nature and potential sequelae of chlamydia infection. PMID:20584287

  3. Young children pause on phrase boundaries in self-paced music listening: The role of harmonic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragness, Haley E; Trainor, Laurel J

    2018-05-01

    Proper segmentation of auditory streams is essential for understanding music. Many cues, including meter, melodic contour, and harmony, influence adults' perception of musical phrase boundaries. To date, no studies have examined young children's musical grouping in a production task. We used a musical self-pacing method to investigate (1) whether dwell times index young children's musical phrase grouping and, if so, (2) whether children dwell longer on phrase boundaries defined by harmonic cues specifically. In Experiment 1, we asked 3-year-old children to self-pace through chord progressions from Bach chorales (sequences in which metrical, harmonic, and melodic contour grouping cues aligned) by pressing a computer key to present each chord in the sequence. Participants dwelled longer on chords in the 8th position, which corresponded to phrase endings. In Experiment 2, we tested 3-, 4-, and 7-year-old children's sensitivity to harmonic cues to phrase grouping when metrical regularity cues and melodic contour cues were misaligned with the harmonic phrase boundaries. In this case, 7 and 4 year olds but not 3 year olds dwelled longer on harmonic phrase boundaries, suggesting that the influence of harmonic cues on phrase boundary perception develops substantially between 3 and 4 years of age in Western children. Overall, we show that the musical dwell time method is child-friendly and can be used to investigate various aspects of young children's musical understanding, including phrase grouping and harmonic knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Substance use patterns and in-hospital care of adolescents and young adults attending music concerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruest, Stephanie M; Stephan, Alexander M; Masiakos, Peter T; Biddinger, Paul D; Camargo, Carlos A; Kharasch, Sigmund

    2018-01-09

    Few studies describe medical complaints and substance use patterns related to attending music concerts. As such, the objective of this study is to describe patient demographics, substance use and intoxication patterns, and medical interventions provided to adolescents and young adults assessed in an emergency department (ED) for complaints directly related to concert attendance. A retrospective chart review of patients 13-30 years old who were transported to the ED directly from music concerts between January 2011 and December 2015 was conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze patient demographic, intervention, and substance use data. There were 115 concerts identified, of which 48 (42%) were linked to 142 relevant ED visits; the total number of attendees at each concert is unknown. The mean age of the 142 described patients was 19.5 years (SD 3.3) with 72% pop and electronic dance music concerts was associated with the widest ranges of GCS scores (8-15 and 6-14 respectively), mass casualty incident declarations, and among the highest mean blood alcohol levels (246 and 244 mg/dL, respectively). Substance use is the predominant reason for music concert related ED visits and patients may have serious levels of intoxication, receiving multiple medical interventions. These data demonstrate the need for additional large-scale studies to confirm trends and increase awareness of this important public health problem.

  5. The Influence of Background Music on Learning in the Light of Different Theoretical Perspectives and the Role of Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina A. M. Lehmann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how background music influences learning with respect to three different theoretical approaches. Both the Mozart effect as well as the arousal-mood-hypothesis indicate that background music can potentially benefit learning outcomes. While the Mozart effect assumes a direct influence of background music on cognitive abilities, the arousal-mood-hypothesis assumes a mediation effect over arousal and mood. However, the seductive detail effect indicates that seductive details such as background music worsen learning. Moreover, as working memory capacity has a crucial influence on learning with seductive details, we also included the learner’s working memory capacity as a factor in our study. We tested 81 college students using a between-subject design with half of the sample listening to two pop songs while learning a visual text and the other half learning in silence. We included working memory capacity in the design as a continuous organism variable. Arousal and mood scores before and after learning were collected as potential mediating variables. To measure learning outcomes we tested recall and comprehension. We did not find a mediation effect between background music and arousal or mood on learning outcomes. In addition, for recall performance there were no main effects of background music or working memory capacity, nor an interaction effect of these factors. However, when considering comprehension we did find an interaction between background music and working memory capacity: the higher the learners’ working memory capacity, the better they learned with background music. This is in line with the seductive detail assumption.

  6. The effects of mothers' musical background on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and exercise adherence in their 5-6-years-old children using movement-to-music video program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Raitanen, Jani; Husu, Pauliina; Kujala, Urho M; Luoto, Riitta M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether mothers' musical background has an effect on their own and their children's sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA). The aim was also to assess children's and their mothers' exercise adherence when using movement-to-music video program. Sub-group analysis of an intervention group in a randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN33885819). Seventy-one mother-child-pairs were divided into two categories based on mothers' musical background. Each pair performed 8 weeks exercise intervention using movement-to-music video program. SB and PA were assessed objectively by accelerometer, and exercise activity, fidelity, and enjoyment were assessed via exercise diaries and questionnaires. Logistic regression model was used to analyze associations in the main outcomes between the groups. Those children whose mothers had musical background (MB) had greater probability to increase their light PA during the intervention, but not moderate-to-vigorous PA compared to those children whose mothers did not have musical background (NMB). SB increased in both groups. Mothers in the NMB group had greater probability to increase their light and moderate-to-vigorous PA and decrease their SB than mothers in the MB group. However, exercise adherence decreased considerably in all groups. Completeness, fidelity, and enjoyment were higher among the NMB group compared to the MB group. The present results showed that mothers without musical background were more interested in movement-to-music exercises, as well as their children. For further studies it would be important to evaluate an effect of children's own music-based activities on their SB and PA.

  7. Exploring the literature on music participation and social connectedness for young people with intellectual disability: A critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa Ai; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-12-01

    This article explores the literature on social connectedness and music for young people with disability. It then critically examines the level of congruence between the reported literature to date and current rights-based disability studies discourse. A critical interpretive synthesis was used to examine 27 articles referencing the use of music for social connectedness. Areas of focus in the review are the nature of connections being fostered in music programs, the use of voice and collaboration. The majority of music programs reported on closed groups. Outdated 'expert' models of working persist. The use of participants' voice in the literature is growing, although there is a lack of collaboration and negative reporting. A shift in thinking heralds greater collaboration with participants, although this could be broadened to include decisions on research agendas, planning and evaluation. There is also need for active fostering of broader socio-musical pathways.

  8. The role of background music in the experience of watching YouTube videos about death and dying

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis Pentaris; Maria Yerosimou

    2015-01-01

    YouTube is the largest video-sharing site live at the moment. It has been used to communicate a vast array of information, while it allows for user-generated content. This paper will focus on YouTube videos that communicate death, and, in particular, will present findings from a preliminary study undertaken by the authors considering the role that background music plays in these videos. Specifically, this study explores the experiences of the viewers of death-related YouTube videos with and w...

  9. Musical rhythms and their influence on P300 velocity in young females Ritmos musicais diferentes: influência da velocidade no P300 em jovens mulheres

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Ishii de Sá; Liliane Desguado Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to music may be useful in the P300 retest and avoid habituation. AIM: To verify the influence of the exposure to different kinds of music in P300 in young females. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty-five women aged from 20 to 36 years were evaluated. P300 was studied before and after musical stimulation with different rhythms. Brazilian songs, international songs, and classical music melodies were selected. Each song had its velocity altered and was named ...

  10. Surveillance of drug use among young people attending a music festival in Australia, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Hocking, Jane S; Spelman, Tim D; Aitken, Campbell K

    2010-03-01

    In order to monitor trends in illicit drug use among youth, surveillance of drug use behaviours among a variety of populations in different settings is required. We monitored drug use among music festival attendees. Cross-sectional studies of young people's reported drug use were performed at a music festival in Melbourne from 2005 to 2008. Self-administered questionnaires collected information on drug use, demographics and other risk behaviour. From 2005 to 2008, over 5000 questionnaires were completed by people aged 16-29; 2273 men and 3011 women. Overall, use of any illicit drug in the past month was reported by 44%. After adjusting for demographic and behavioural characteristics, the prevalence of recent illicit drug use decreased significantly from 46% in 2005 to 43% in 2008 (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97). After adjusting for age and sex the downwards trend was repeated for amphetamines and cannabis, but a significant increase in prevalence was observed in hallucinogen, ecstasy and inhalant use. Drug use was more common among men, older participants and those engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. Illicit drug use was much more common in this sample than in the National Drug Strategy Household survey, but the direction of trends in drug use were similar; drug use prevalences were much lower than in the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System, the Illicit Drug Reporting System or National Needle and Syringe Program Survey. Music festival attendees are a potentially useful group for monitoring trends in illicit drug use.

  11. Eysenck's Theory of Personality and the Role of Background Music in Cognitive Task Performance: A Mini-Review of Conflicting Findings and a New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küssner, Mats B

    2017-01-01

    The question of whether background music is able to enhance cognitive task performance is of interest to scholars, educators, and stakeholders in business alike. Studies have shown that background music can have beneficial, detrimental or no effects on cognitive task performance. Extraversion-and its postulated underlying cause, cortical arousal-is regarded as an important factor influencing the outcome of such studies. According to Eysenck's theory of personality, extraverts' cortical arousal at rest is lower compared to that of introverts. Scholars have thus hypothesized that extraverts should benefit from background music in cognitive tasks, whereas introverts' performance should decline with music in the background. Reviewing studies that have considered extraversion as a mediator of the effect of background music on cognitive task performance, it is demonstrated that there is as much evidence in favor as there is against Eysenck's theory of personality. Further, revisiting Eysenck's concept of cortical arousal-which has traditionally been assessed by activity in the EEG alpha band-and reviewing literature on the link between extraversion and cortical arousal, it is revealed that there is conflicting evidence. Due to Eysenck's focus on alpha power, scholars have largely neglected higher frequency bands in the EEG signal as indicators of cortical arousal. Based on recent findings, it is suggested that beta power might not only be an indicator of alertness and attention but also a predictor of cognitive task performance. In conclusion, it is proposed that focused music listening prior to cognitive tasks might be a more efficient way to boost performance than listening to background music during cognitive tasks.

  12. Eysenck's Theory of Personality and the Role of Background Music in Cognitive Task Performance: A Mini-Review of Conflicting Findings and a New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats B. Küssner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether background music is able to enhance cognitive task performance is of interest to scholars, educators, and stakeholders in business alike. Studies have shown that background music can have beneficial, detrimental or no effects on cognitive task performance. Extraversion—and its postulated underlying cause, cortical arousal—is regarded as an important factor influencing the outcome of such studies. According to Eysenck's theory of personality, extraverts' cortical arousal at rest is lower compared to that of introverts. Scholars have thus hypothesized that extraverts should benefit from background music in cognitive tasks, whereas introverts' performance should decline with music in the background. Reviewing studies that have considered extraversion as a mediator of the effect of background music on cognitive task performance, it is demonstrated that there is as much evidence in favor as there is against Eysenck's theory of personality. Further, revisiting Eysenck's concept of cortical arousal—which has traditionally been assessed by activity in the EEG alpha band—and reviewing literature on the link between extraversion and cortical arousal, it is revealed that there is conflicting evidence. Due to Eysenck's focus on alpha power, scholars have largely neglected higher frequency bands in the EEG signal as indicators of cortical arousal. Based on recent findings, it is suggested that beta power might not only be an indicator of alertness and attention but also a predictor of cognitive task performance. In conclusion, it is proposed that focused music listening prior to cognitive tasks might be a more efficient way to boost performance than listening to background music during cognitive tasks.

  13. Amplified music and young people's hearing. Review and report of Australian findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, N.L.; Waugh, R.L.; Keen, K.; Murray, N.; Bulteau, V.G.

    1982-08-07

    We gave 944 young people (aged 16 to 20 years) pure-tone audiometry, electroacoustic impedance tests, and ear, nose and throat examination. We questioned them about their histories of exposure to occupational and recreational noise. The data do not support the view that there is wide-spread hearing loss caused by exposure to amplified music in young people under the age of 21 years. However, the accumulated exposure of some of them to noise is such that, if their recreational patterns remain the same, they are at risk of some noise-induced hearing loss by their mid-twenties. Further empirical studies are necessary to determine whether these hearing losses will eventuate.

  14. Providing earplugs to young adults at risk encourages protective behaviour in music venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nielsen, Lillian; Gilliver, Megan

    2016-06-01

    For some young people, nightclubs and other music venues are a major source of noise exposure, arising from a combination of very high noise levels; relatively long attendance duration; and frequent, sustained participation over several years. Responsibility for hearing protection is largely left to individuals, many of whom choose not to wear earplugs. In order to encourage earplug use in these settings, a new approach is needed. The aim of the study was to examine whether presentation of hearing health information would result in increased use of earplugs, or whether provision of earplugs alone would be sufficient to change behaviour. A total of 51 regular patrons of music venues were allocated to either a low-information (lo-info) or high-information (hi-info) group. Both groups completed a survey about their current noise exposure, earplug usage and perceived risk of hearing damage. Both groups were also provided with one-size-fits-all filtered music earplugs. The hi-info group was also provided with audio-visual and written information about the risks of excessive noise exposure. After 4 weeks, and again after an additional 12 weeks, participants were asked about their recent earplug usage, intention to use earplugs in the future, and perceived risk of hearing damage. The results showed that after 4 weeks, the hi-info group's perceived personal risk of hearing damage was significantly higher than that of the lo-info group. After 16 weeks, these differences were no longer evident; however, at both 4 and 16 weeks, both the lo- and hi-info groups were using the earplugs equally often; and both groups intended to use earplugs significantly more often in the future. This suggests that the information was unnecessary to motivate behavioural change. Rather, the simple act of providing access to earplugs appears to have effectively encouraged young at-risk adults to increase their earplug use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Music listening in families and peer groups: benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed.

  16. Music listening in families and peer groups: benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed. PMID:24847296

  17. Investigating the effect of traditional Persian music on ECG signals in young women using wavelet transform and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Behzad; Abbasi, Ataollah; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2017-05-01

    In the past few decades, several studies have reported the physiological effects of listening to music. The physiological effects of different music types on different people are different. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of listening to traditional Persian music on electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in young women. Twenty-two healthy females participated in this study. ECG signals were recorded under two conditions: rest and music. For each ECG signal, 20 morphological and wavelet-based features were selected. Artificial neural network (ANN) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifiers were used for the classification of ECG signals during and before listening to music. Collected data were separated into two data sets: train and test. Classification accuracies of 88% and 97% were achieved in train data sets using ANN and PNN, respectively. In addition, the test data set was employed for evaluating the classifiers, and classification rates of 84% and 93% were obtained using ANN and PNN, respectively. The present study investigated the effect of music on ECG signals based on wavelet transform and morphological features. The results obtained here can provide a good understanding on the effects of music on ECG signals to researchers.

  18. Errors and Predictors of Confidence in Condom Use amongst Young Australians Attending a Music Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Karina M; Brieger, Daniel G; De Silva, Sukhita H; Pfister, Benjamin F; Youlden, Daniel J; John-Leader, Franklin; Pit, Sabrina W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives . To determine the confidence and ability to use condoms correctly and consistently and the predictors of confidence in young Australians attending a festival. Methods . 288 young people aged 18 to 29 attending a mixed-genre music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, self-reported confidence using condoms, ability to use condoms, and issues experienced when using condoms in the past 12 months. Results . Self-reported confidence using condoms was high (77%). Multivariate analyses showed confidence was associated with being male ( P < 0.001) and having had five or more lifetime sexual partners ( P = 0.038). Reading packet instructions was associated with increased condom use confidence ( P = 0.011). Amongst participants who had used a condom in the last year, 37% had experienced the condom breaking and 48% had experienced the condom slipping off during intercourse and 51% when withdrawing the penis after sex. Conclusion . This population of young people are experiencing high rates of condom failures and are using them inconsistently or incorrectly, demonstrating the need to improve attitudes, behaviour, and knowledge about correct and consistent condom usage. There is a need to empower young Australians, particularly females, with knowledge and confidence in order to improve condom use self-efficacy.

  19. The Effect of Mozart's Music on Child Development in a Jordanian Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Jehan

    2013-01-01

    Young children who listen to music regularly demonstrate better development than those who do not. As children grow, their social, cognitive and physical skills can be enhanced by their relationship with music. The music of Mozart was introduced into the children's environment as a sensory background for the standard curriculum. The purpose of…

  20. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  1. Relating Language and Music Skills in Young Children: A First Approach to Systemize and Compare Distinct Competencies on Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Grolig, Lorenz; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well

  2. Relating language and music skills in young children: a first approach to systemize and compare distinct competencies on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cohrdes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed towards substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and

  3. Alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas and alcohol use of young people: current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of studies of the effects of alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas on alcohol consumption among young people. Moreover, we highlight important issues that need to be addressed in future research. Methods: This paper reviews the current literature on

  4. Alcohol Portrayals in Movies, Music Videos and Soap Operas and Alcohol Use of Young People: Current Status and Future Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of studies of the effects of alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas on alcohol consumption among young people. Moreover, we highlight important issues that need to be addressed in future research. Methods: This paper reviews the current literature on

  5. Watching your weight? The relations between watching soaps and music television and body dissatisfaction and restrained eating in young girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Strien, T. van

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research showed that the thin ideal provided by the media affects body image and eating behaviour in young children, less is known about specific media contents that are related to body image and eating behaviour. This study tested the associations between watching soaps and music

  6. MUSIC-CONTENT-ADAPTIVE ROBUST PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS FOR A SEMANTICALLY CONSISTENT SEPARATION OF FOREGROUND AND BACKGROUND IN MUSIC AUDIO SIGNALS

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos , Hélène; Ellis , Daniel P.W.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) is a technique to decompose signals into sparse and low rank components, and has recently drawn the attention of the MIR field for the problem of separating leading vocals from accompaniment, with appealing re-sults obtained on small excerpts of music. However, the perfor-mance of the method drops when processing entire music tracks. We present an adaptive formulation of RPCA that incorporates music content information to guid...

  7. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  8. The Rhythm's Gonna Get Ya'--Background Music in Primary Classrooms and Its Effect on Behaviour and Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Three classes in different primary schools in a west London borough were given four tests, two with music and two with silence, to see if the music had a measurable effect on the behaviour and attainment of the children during tests. The results were then cross-referenced with the children's self-evaluation of their own musicality to ascertain if…

  9. The influence of background music on reading comprehension of college students%背景音乐对大学生阅读理解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄盈双

    2017-01-01

    以多名高校生作为主要研究对象,认真细致地考察了不同类型音乐及有无背景音乐对其阅读理解的影响.结果显示,不同类型背景音乐对不同年级的影响不同,不同背景音乐对不同背景音乐偏好被试也产生了不同的影响.这其中,流行音乐对高校生阅读理解的影响非常大.%Taking the college students as the main research object, the paper carefully and meticulously examines the influence of different types of music on reading comprehension.The results show that different types of background music have different effects on different grades, and different background music has different effects on different background music preference subjects.Among them, the impact of popular music has great significance on reading comprehension of college students.

  10. [The influence of music on pictorial expression of young women--a comparative study of different music styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, L; Maugendre, M; Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    Questing one's personal identity and developing a coherent representation of oneself, the other and the world are major tasks in adolescence. Research showed that a satisfactory resolution of the crisis of adolescence can be favoured by psychological counselling based on artistic mediations. The objective of this study consisted in exploring the effect of music on the pictorial expression of a non clinical sample of female adolescents (N=157) aged from 17 to 28 years. We analysed free drawings realised by the test group with the help of a rating scale constructed in a phenomenological and structural perspective (Schiltz, 2006). The adolescents painted under musical induction. We proposed three different styles of music, i.e. baroque music (Georg Friedrich Händel and Johann Sebastian Bach), classical music (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven) and polish ethnical music (Kapela ze Wsi Warszawa-Warsaw Village Band). By using non parametric inferential and multi dimensional statistics, we could show that structural characteristics of music styles lead to differences in formal and content variables on the rating scales for the pictures. The results of our exploratory study open some tracks for future research. It would be pertinent to enlarge the population to other categories of age and to investigate the influence of gender.

  11. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and...

  12. The Patterns of Music: Young Children Learning Mathematics through Beat, Rhythm, and Melody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Geist, Eugene A.; Kuznik, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Research on music and music therapy suggests that math and music are related in the brain from very early in life. Musical elements such as steady beat, rhythm, melody, and tempo possess inherent mathematical principles such as spatial properties, sequencing, counting, patterning, and one-to-one correspondence. With new understanding about the…

  13. Kodaly, Literacy, and the Brain: Preparing Young Music Students to Read Pitch on the Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie S.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of Hungarian music educator Zoltan Kodaly can be particularly useful not only in teaching children how to read music notation but also in creating curiosity and enjoyment for reading music. Many of Kodaly's ideas pertaining to music literacy have been echoed by educators such as Jerome Bruner and Edwin Gordon, as well as current…

  14. Getting in Tune: The Powerful Influence of Music on Young Children's Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Claire; Ciervo, Lynette A.

    This pamphlet for parents describes the important influences of music on the cognitive development of infants and toddlers under the age of three years. The pamphlet focuses on three aspects of music: (1) bonding with one's child through music; (2) learning through melodies and movement; and (3) the music-creativity connection. For each aspect,…

  15. Connected up to Sound. Approach to the Musical Consumption of Young People´s Daily Life in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ligia Lavielle-Pullés

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the different cultural consumptions of young people, the musical consumption is one of the most trascendent. This is the topic of the following paper, which main proposal lies on the constant presence of musical sounds in youth daily life. Leisure, relaxation, sensation of company and moods are  transmitted by music. Besides, other cultural productions, artistic or not, such as, audiovisual materials are blended with musical products and take high places on people’s preferences. This research i based on the theoretical frameworks of consumption and youth. The narrow communion of quantitative and qualitative methodologies has allowed to articulate it and get an interpretative criteria about the musical consumption process, in which it has been important the consideration of the sound singularity and its influence in the media. Keywords: musical consumption, youth, musical preferences.

  16. The Role of Music in the Education of Young Male Workers in Nineteenth-Century Greece: The Case of Charity Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents music teaching in nineteenth-century Greece orphanages and schools of destitute children, which were the main schools for vocational training of the working class in that period. Five representative institutions were selected. Music education for young male workers in nineteenth-century Greece was both in accord with and…

  17. Effect of different musical tempo on post-exercise recovery in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Mallikarjuna, Reddy N; Rao, Chythra

    2010-01-01

    The role of music in increasing the exercise performance is well recognised. There is very little information about effect of music on time taken for post exercise recovery. We examined the effect of music and different musical tempo on post exercise recovery time, following treadmill work. 30 volunteers (15 male, 15 female) subjected to isotonic exercise (submaximal treadmill work) on three consecutive days. They were allowed to rest in silence on the first day, rest by hearing slow music on second day and rest with fast music on third day. Parameters such as Pulse rate, blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at predetermined intervals. Repeated measures ANOVA test showed that with slow music, recovery time of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (7.9 +/- 2.5), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (5.5 +/- 3.4) pulse rate recovery (PR) (8.0 +/- 2.3) and recovery from exertion (RPE) (7.7 +/- 2.5) were significantly faster when compared to both no music and fast music. The individual music preference made no significant difference in the relaxation time. The study concluded that music hastens post exercise recovery and slow music has greater relaxation effect than fast or no music, recovery time being independent of the gender and individual music preference.

  18. Partnerships Generating a Workforce Pipeline: Empowering Young People, from Diverse Backgrounds, to Become Tomorrow's Scientific Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T.; Goodwin, L.; Talley, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    There is a critical need to build students' scientific understanding and prepare them to fill the roles of future decision-makers and the scientific workforce. In particular, efforts are needed to reach the underserved communities, which represent the greatest untapped talent pool in the sciences. In order to build future leadership in this arena, we must employ innovative approaches that generate young peoples' interest and develop their capabilities early in their education so that an increased number will enter college interested in and prepared to pursue careers in scientific fields. Partnerships between early and informal education providers and scientists from academia, industry, and government agencies are essential to generate a pipeline of students able to and interested in making this transition. Ocean Discovery Institute's partnership model uses authentic scientific discovery to generate the spark that makes young people, from the most urban and diverse backgrounds, eager to learn. As these young people work alongside science mentors to discover the world around them, they discover themselves and their future as scientific leaders. The success of this model includes increasing students' science performance, attendance in college, selection of science and conservation majors, and contributions directly to the field of geoscience. Content assessments, surveys, interviews, and tracking data demonstrate 73% of student graduates declaring majors in science and conservation fields, higher scores on standardized tests relative to their peers, and contributions to science research including 10 publications and more than 30 scientific presentations. In addition, robust and long-term partnerships have been established with institutions including the University of San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sempra Energy, and the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. We will share lessons learned from over ten years of experience in partnering with

  19. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Design and Methods: Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face–name pairs. Participants’ memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Results: Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults’ associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults’ failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. Implications: These data have important practical implications for older adults’ ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. PMID:26035876

  20. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face-name pairs. Participants' memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults' associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults' failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. These data have important practical implications for older adults' ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Shared cultural knowledge: Effects of music on young children's social preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Gaye; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Adults use cultural markers to discern the structure of the social landscape. Such markers may also influence the social preferences of young children, who tend to conform to their own group and prefer others who do so. However, the forces that propel these preferences are unknown. Here, we use social preferences based on music to investigate these forces in four- and five-year-old children. First, we establish that children prefer other children whose favorite songs are familiar to them. Then we show that this effect depends on shared knowledge: children both prefer others who know songs they themselves know, and avoid others who know songs they do not know, irrespective of the target children's liking of the songs. These results suggest that young children have a remarkably selective sensitivity to shared cultural knowledge. Shared knowledge may be a powerful determinant of children's social preferences, both because it underpins effective communication and because it is conveyed by others through social interactions and therefore can serve as a marker of social group identity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Varying Reverberation on Music Perception for Young Normal-Hearing and Old Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N; Souza, Pamela E

    2018-01-01

    Reverberation enhances music perception and is one of the most important acoustic factors in auditorium design. However, previous research on reverberant music perception has focused on young normal-hearing (YNH) listeners. Old hearing-impaired (OHI) listeners have degraded spatial auditory processing; therefore, they may perceive reverberant music differently. Two experiments were conducted examining the effects of varying reverberation on music perception for YNH and OHI listeners. Experiment 1 examined whether YNH listeners and OHI listeners prefer different amounts of reverberation for classical music listening. Symphonic excerpts were processed at a range of reverberation times using a point-source simulation. Listeners performed a paired-comparisons task in which they heard two excerpts with different reverberation times, and they indicated which they preferred. The YNH group preferred a reverberation time of 2.5 s; however, the OHI group did not demonstrate any significant preference. Experiment 2 examined whether OHI listeners are less sensitive to (e, less able to discriminate) differences in reverberation time than YNH listeners. YNH and OHI participants listened to pairs of music excerpts and indicated whether they perceived the same or different amount of reverberation. Results indicated that the ability of both groups to detect differences in reverberation time improved with increasing reverberation time difference. However, discrimination was poorer for the OHI group than for the YNH group. This suggests that OHI listeners are less sensitive to differences in reverberation when listening to music than YNH listeners, which might explain the lack of group reverberation time preferences of the OHI group.

  3. The Music Experiences and Attitudes Of A First Cohort of Prelingually-Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults CI Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Smith, Rachel See; Scheperle, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the musical engagement (participation and attitude) of pediatric CI recipients who were implanted during early childhood and who have reached age 15 or older. A questionnaire was administered to a group of 31 prelingually deaf CI users who receive annual follow up services and assessment in a clinical research center. The questionnaire was used to examine involvement in and attitudes toward music in school, the community, and in the home; social affiliation (hearing, Deaf, both) and mode of communication (oral, manual, both) were also examined. Despite the technical limitations of cochlear implants in transmitting pitch, melody, and tone quality, over two thirds of this sample described music as being important or very important in their lives. A high level of past and present familial involvement in music was associated with higher levels of current involvement and importance of music in the lives of adolescent and young adult CI users. Comparisons were noted with data from prior studies of persons with hearing loss who were non-CI users. PMID:23565029

  4. Thinking big: the effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral music videos. Perceived and ideal body size were measured both before and after video exposure, using horizontally stretched and compressed photographs of the participant's own body in swimming garment. As expected, only women low (but not high) in self-esteem were negatively affected by the sexually objectifying content of the music videos: they perceived themselves as bigger and showed an increased discrepancy between their perceived and ideal body size after video exposure. The neutral music videos did not influence women's bodily self-perceptions. These findings suggest that body image is a flexible construct, and that high self-esteem can protect women against the adverse effects of sexually objectifying media. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital Music Toys for Young Children: Parents' Review of the "Munchkin Mozart Magic™ Cube"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Hunt, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gather information about caregivers' views of the value of a digital music toy, its musical features, as well as their comments about children's responses to the toy. Instead of asking parents to provide their opinions about a broad category of interactive music toys, the authors selected one of the many toys…

  6. Aesthetics in Young Children's Lives: From Music Technology Curriculum Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chia-Hui; Chou, Mei-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Music technology is a term commonly used to refer to electronic form of the musical arts, particularly devices and computer software that enable the facilitation, playback, recording, composition, storage, and performance of various musical compositions. There has been a growing awareness of the importance of aesthetics in early childhood…

  7. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness.

  8. Music listening in families and peer groups: Benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eBoer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood. Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture. Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed.

  9. Motivations for Selling Ecstasy among Young Adults in the Electronic Dance Music Club Culture in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Lysa S; Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Pechansky, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    This article describes data on the motivations for selling ecstasy among young adults in the electronic dance music (EDM) club culture in Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 individuals recruited for their involvement in the EDM club scene. Eligible participants were aged 18-39 and reported ecstasy and/or LSD use one or more times in the past 90 days. Exclusion criteria included current treatment for drug/alcohol problems and cognitive impairment or clinically evident psychiatric disorder. Mean age was 22.92 (SD 2.77), 60% were male, 45% reported 12 or more years of education, 50% did not have a primary partner, 50% were living alone, and all had friends who also used ecstasy. Three main themes emerged: (1) "easy" transition from ecstasy user to seller; (2) desire to achieve popularity and fame; and (3) need to sell ecstasy to maintain the high cost of EDM club scene participation. This is one of the first studies of ecstasy sellers in Brazil. The results demonstrate the ease with which the participants transition from ecstasy user to seller. Given the potential health and social dangers associated with ecstasy use, public health campaigns to prevent ecstasy use and policy initiatives to limit the ecstasy supply are warranted.

  10. Pilot Randomized Trial of Active Music Engagement Intervention Parent Delivery for Young Children With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E; Perkins, Susan M; Haut, Paul R; Henley, Amanda K; Knafl, Kathleen A; Tong, Yan

    2017-03-01

    To examine the feasibility/acceptability of a parent-delivered Active Music Engagement (AME + P) intervention for young children with cancer and their parents. Secondary aim to explore changes in AME + P child emotional distress (facial affect) and parent emotional distress (mood; traumatic stress symptoms) relative to controls. A pilot two-group randomized trial was conducted with parents/children (ages 3-8 years) receiving AME + P ( n  =  9) or attention control ( n  =  7). Feasibility of parent delivery was assessed using a delivery checklist and child engagement; acceptability through parent interviews; preliminary outcomes at baseline, postintervention, 30 days postintervention. Parent delivery was feasible, as they successfully delivered AME activities, but interviews indicated parent delivery was not acceptable to parents. Emotional distress was lower for AME + P children, but parents derived no benefit. Despite child benefit, findings do not support parent delivery of AME + P. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Perceptions of Everyday Interpersonal Discrimination among Young Men of Turkish Background in Cologne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Hartmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This small-scale, qualitative study examines how five young male second-generation Turkish immigrants perceive racial discrimination by ethnic Germans and to what extent this perception influences their collective identities. The typology of interactional patterns the interviewees describe as racial discrimination has four elements: a perception of distrust, a distancing gaze, denial of belonging and rule enforcement by members of the German majority. The interviewees, particularly those who are highly educated and socially mobile, identify with a common Ausländer (foreigner identity in response to experiences of discrimination. This identity is regarded a shared identity marker by immigrants of different backgrounds. It appears as a positive and affirmative identity of difference, which creates a unique type of social capital.

  12. Evaluation of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in the susceptibility to temporary hearing deterioration after music exposure in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppler Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to evaluate the predictive role of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in temporary hearing deterioration in young adults exposed to music. This was based on the fact that a noise-protective role of the medial olivocochlear (MOC system was observed in animals and that efferent suppression (ES measured using contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs is capable of exploring the MOC system. Knowing an individual′s susceptibility to cochlear damage after noise exposure would enhance preventive strategies for noise-induced hearing loss. The hearing status of 28 young adults was evaluated using pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs before and after listening to music using an MP3 player during 1 h at an individually determined loud listening level. CAS of TEOAEs was measured before music exposure to determine the amount of ES. Regression analysis showed a distinctive positive correlation between temporary hearing deterioration and the preferred gain setting of the MP3 player. However, no clear relationship between temporary hearing deterioration and the amount of ES was found. In conclusion, clinical measurement of ES, using CAS of TEOAEs, is not correlated with the amount of temporary hearing deterioration after 1 h music exposure in young adults. However, it is possible that the temporary hearing deterioration in the current study was insufficient to activate the MOC system. More research regarding ES might provide more insight in the olivocochlear efferent pathways and their role in auditory functioning.

  13. Surveillance of STI risk behaviour among young people attending a music festival in Australia, 2005-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Hellard, Margaret E; Aitken, Campbell K; Hocking, Jane S

    2009-10-01

    To explain rising rates of sexually transmitted infections it is necessary to monitor trends among high risk groups, such as youth. Surveillance of risk behaviours and testing among a variety of populations in different settings is required. We monitored self-reported sexual behaviour among music festival attendees. Cross-sectional studies of young people's behaviour were conducted annually at a music festival between 2005 and 2008 using self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression, adjusted for age and gender, determined trends in risk behaviours. More than 5,000 questionnaires were completed. The proportion reporting multiple sexual partners in the past year remained stable from 2005 to 2008 and condom use with these partners increased. Reporting a new sexual partner in the past three months decreased, while condom use with new partners increased. Reporting a casual sexual partner increased and condom use with casual partners remained stable. Reporting a recent STI test increased from 23% in 2006 to 32% in 2008. Despite increases in STI notifications, most risk behaviours are decreasing in this group, possibly as a function of increased STI testing. Music festivals are a useful setting for monitoring behaviour trends within a sub-population of young people at relatively high risk of STIs.

  14. Speech Recognition in Real-Life Background Noise by Young and Middle-Aged Adults with Normal Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Jin Tae; Heo, Hye Jeong; Choi, Chul-Hee; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Kyungjae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives People usually converse in real-life background noise. They experience more difficulty understanding speech in noise than in a quiet environment. The present study investigated how speech recognition in real-life background noise is affected by the type of noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and age. Subjects and Methods Eighteen young adults and fifteen middle-aged adults with normal hearing participated in the present study. Three types of noise [subway noise, vacu...

  15. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  16. Parents' Goals, Knowledge, Practices, and Needs Regarding Music Education for Their Young Children in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Hyun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore South Korean parents' understanding of and desires for music education for their children. Following a constructivist paradigm and qualitative research methodology, data collection involved in-depth interviews, observations, written questionnaires, family music materials, and the researcher's journals. The…

  17. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  18. "Everybody Gotta Have a Dream": Rap-centered Aspirations among Young Black Males Involved in Rap Music Production - A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B Brian

    Youth express diverse desires for their educational and occupational futures. Sometimes these aspirations are directed towards somewhat unconventional careers such as rapping and other types of involvement in rap music production. Although many studies have examined traditional educational and occupational aspirations, less is known about the factors that give rise to rap-centered aspirations and how individuals pursue them, particularly as they transition to early adulthood. Drawing on 54 semi- and unstructured interviews with 29 black young men involved in rap music production, I find that rap-centered aspirations are shaped by a range of factors, most notably feedback regarding one's rap skills, access to recording and production equipment, and the financial means to maintain involvement in rap music production while also ensuring personal and family economic stability. The young men in the study attached different meanings to their aspirations and sometimes recast their motivations for participating in rap music production in response to various social and economic factors.

  19. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we ...

  20. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: The case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S.; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts. PMID:23930986

  1. How musical engagement promotes well-being in education contexts: the case of a young man with profound and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina S; Shoemark, Helen

    2013-08-07

    Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenomenological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors' construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.

  2. Exploring the feasibility of a therapeutic music video intervention in adolescents and young adults during stem-cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Debra S; Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a therapeutic music video (TMV) intervention for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) undergoing stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Twelve AYAs (aged 11-24 years) were randomized to the TMV or an audio-book protocol. The TMV was designed to diminish symptom distress and improve coping, derived meaning, resilience, and quality of life by supporting AYAs in exploring thoughts and feelings. Six sessions with a board-certified music therapist were held twice a week for 3 weeks. The Adolescent Resilience Model guided the selection of a large, comprehensive battery of outcome measures. Major data collections occurred before admission, after intervention, and at 100 days after transplantation. Participants completed a brief set of measures at presession/postsessions 2, 4, and 6. Rates of consent, session completion, and questionnaire completion supported feasibility. Immediate follow-up measures suggest positive trends in the TMV group for hope, spirituality, confidence/mastery, and self-transcendence. Positive trends at 100 days include MOS, symptoms distress, defensive coping, spirituality, and self-transcendence. Therapeutic music video participants also demonstrated gains in quality of life. The TMV intervention may buffer the immediate after-effects of the stem-cell transplantation experience, and a larger study is warranted.

  3. Loud Music Exposure and Cochlear Synaptopathy in Young Adults: Isolated Auditory Brainstem Response Effects but No Perceptual Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that listeners with frequent exposure to loud music exhibit deficits in suprathreshold auditory performance consistent with cochlear synaptopathy. Young adults with normal audiograms were recruited who either did ( n = 31) or did not ( n = 30) have a history of frequent attendance at loud music venues where the typical sound levels could be expected to result in temporary threshold shifts. A test battery was administered that comprised three sets of procedures: (a) electrophysiological tests including distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem responses, envelope following responses, and the acoustic change complex evoked by an interaural phase inversion; (b) psychoacoustic tests including temporal modulation detection, spectral modulation detection, and sensitivity to interaural phase; and (c) speech tests including filtered phoneme recognition and speech-in-noise recognition. The results demonstrated that a history of loud music exposure can lead to a profile of peripheral auditory function that is consistent with an interpretation of cochlear synaptopathy in humans, namely, modestly abnormal auditory brainstem response Wave I/Wave V ratios in the presence of normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions and normal audiometric thresholds. However, there were no other electrophysiological, psychophysical, or speech perception effects. The absence of any behavioral effects in suprathreshold sound processing indicated that, even if cochlear synaptopathy is a valid pathophysiological condition in humans, its perceptual sequelae are either too diffuse or too inconsequential to permit a simple differential diagnosis of hidden hearing loss.

  4. Are age-related differences between young and older adults in an affective working memory test sensitive to the music effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo; Nucci, Massimo; Sciore, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM) Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words), are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults' performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni), which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task was analyzed. Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni). However, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music. Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are not sensitive to music effects.

  5. Are Age-Related Differences Between Young and Older Adults in an Affective Working Memory Test Sensitive to the Music Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eBorella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences showing that music can affect cognitive performance by improving our emotional state. The aim of the current study was to analyze whether age-related differences between young and older adults in a Working Memory (WM Span test in which the stimuli to be recalled have a different valence (i.e., neutral, positive, or negative words, are sensitive to exposure to music. Because some previous studies showed that emotional words can sustain older adults’ performance in WM, we examined whether listening to music could enhance the benefit of emotional material, with respect to neutral words, on WM performance decreasing the age-related difference between younger and older adults. In particular, the effect of two types of music (Mozart vs. Albinoni, which differ in tempo, arousal and mood induction, on age-related differences in an affective version of the Operation WM Span task were analyzed.Results showed no effect of music on the WM test regardless of the emotional content of the music (Mozart vs. Albinoni. However, as in previous studies, a valence effect for the words in the WM task was found with a higher number of negative words recalled with respect to positive and neutral ones in both younger and older adults. When individual differences, in terms of accuracy in the processing phase of the Operation Span task, were considered, only younger low-performing participants were affected by the type music, with the Albinoni condition that lowered their performance with respect to the Mozart condition. Such a result suggests that individual differences in WM performance, at least when young adults are considered, could be affected by the type of music.Altogether, these findings suggest that complex span tasks, such as WM tasks, along with age-related differences are less sensitive to music effects.

  6. Different types of asynchronous music and effects on performance of basketball foul shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, G; Leith, L M

    2001-12-01

    48 undergraduate women performed basketball foul shots with and without background music. Slow music, fast music, and music personally selected by subjects did not significantly affect shooting performance.

  7. Sport specificity background affects the principal component structure of vertical squat jump performance of young adult female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Various different profiles of FPD and TPD were detected due to different sporting background in young female athletes. Since TF superiority in SQJ was relied on the larger power production and a greater FPD, female indoor team sport athletes are suggested to execute jumping exercises adopting the jumping strategies utilized by TF.

  8. Social Background, Civic Education and Political Participation of Young People – the German Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Onken

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to social and political change the process of young citizens’ political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which influence the individual propensity to participate in politics. The impact of the financial and economic crisis in Europe on political attitudes will also be considered, taking in account sociological aspects. Based on the empirical findings we discuss implications for civic education. In contrast to many discussions in literature about this issue, in which the focus is on the need to put the various influences of political socialization into a broader context, we argue that the parental social background is the crucial upstream factor, prior to e.g. civic education. The conclusion indicates that a group‐specific educational approach, taking into account the social background, is the most promising one for reaching the normative goal of civic education: Politically self‐determined citizens. Aufgrund der sozialen und politischen Veränderungen ist die politische Sozialisation Jugendlicher in den Westeuropäischen Demokratien auf eine neue Grundlage gestellt worden. In diesem Beitrag diskutieren wir Aspekte dieser Entwicklung und zeigen, welche Folgen sich aus diesen ergeben. Wir analysieren empirische Befunde aus Deutschland mit dem Schwerpunkt auf die Frage, welche sozialen Faktoren relevant sind für die individuelle politische Partizipationsbereitschaft. Der Einfluss der Finanz‐ und Wirtschaftskrise in Europa auf politische Einstellungen wird dabei ebenfalls betrachtet. Dies geschieht unter Berücksichtigung der soziologischen Aspekte. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse Fragen wir nach den Folgen für die politische Bildung. Im Gegensatz zu dem in der Literatur häufig vertretenen Ansatz, die politische

  9. Smoking, alcohol use, socioeconomic background and oral health among young Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Tarja; Päkkilä, Jari; Karjalainen, Kaisa; Kämppi, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use in association with dental caries experience and signs of periodontal disease in a Finnish male group born in the early 1990s. The impacts of health behaviour and socioeconomic factors were included in the analyses. Oral health of 8539 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study (DT, DMFT and CPI). They also answered a questionnaire covering their habits of smoking and alcohol use as well as other behaviours and background factors. The bleeding on probing index (BOP) was available on 6529 conscripts. Cross-tabulation together with a chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used in the analyses. A mosaic figure was used to illustrate associations of smoking frequency, use of dental services and toothache. Majority (80.9%) in the study group consumed alcohol at least once a month, and 39.4% were daily smokers. Smoking was statistically significantly associated with high caries experience and high bleeding values of gums. Consumption of alcohol was not associated with dental caries and periodontal disease. The high BOP value had the strongest association with infrequent tooth brushing and smoking. The participant's own education level was the main protective factor of oral health. The smokers used dental services more frequently compared to the non-smokers mostly for acute care. Young men's health behaviour, especially of those with low education, does not promote oral health, which may indicate need for extensive healthcare services in the future. Health promotion should not be neglected. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 柔和背景音乐对脑力劳动绩效的影响%The Effect of Soft Background Music on Performance of Mental Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰丽; 连之伟; 潘黎

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the effect of soft background music on mental work was investigated experimentally with 17 neurobehavioral tests that quantitatively examined subjects' skills such as perception,memory and reasoning etc.,as well as with subjective assessments that related to subjects' feeling on mood,irritation,headache and other sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms.No improvement in task performance or emotion was found when the soft,slow-tempo background music was present.Conversely,the symptoms such as discomfort,ear ache and headache etc.,were intensified and the performance of complex tasks decreased in the presence of background music.It is suggested that no background music should be presented when people are engaging in creative or complex tasks that are highly required in cognitive resources.%该文采用17项神经行为能力测试,定量地测量人员的感知、记忆、推理等多方面能力,并结合对情绪、烦躁度以及头疼等病态综合症状的主观问卷调查,通过实验研究了柔和背景音乐对人员脑力劳动绩效的影响.结果表明,柔和、慢节奏的背景音乐对人员脑力劳动绩效和情绪没有积极作用,相反,在背景音乐环境下受试者的不舒适、耳痛和头疼症状有所增加,其复杂脑力劳动任务的绩效显著下降.因此,对从事复杂的、认知资源需求较高的脑力劳动的人,其工作环境中不宜添加背景音乐.

  11. The Impact of Listening Condition on Background Noise Acceptance for Young Adults with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E.; Estis, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different speech conditions on background noise acceptance. A total of 23 stimulus pairings, differing in primary talker gender (female, male, conventional), number of background talkers (1, 4, 12), and gender composition of the background noise (female, male, mixed) were used to evaluate background noise…

  12. The effect of background babble on working memory in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidleman, Michelle T; Wambacq, Ilse; Besing, Joan; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Koehnke, Janet

    2015-03-01

    Background noise has been found to negatively affect working memory. Numerous studies have also found that older adults perform more poorly on working memory tasks than young adults (YA). Hearing status has often been a confounding factor in older individuals. Therefore, it would be beneficial to investigate working memory functions in adverse listening conditions early in the aging process (i.e., middle-age), when hearing function is relatively unaffected. The focus of this study was to determine the influence of background babble on working memory in YA and middle-aged adults (MA) with normal hearing. Before testing was begun, we established that all participants could correctly identify words in a degraded experimental testing environment with 100% accuracy. Then, the participants listened to lists composed of five pairs of words in quiet and in 20-talker babble. After the final word pair, the participants were cued with the first word of one of the previous five word pairs. The participants were required to write down the second word of the pair. The percent correct scores for each of the five serial positions were analyzed comparing the two listening conditions for YA and MA. Ten YA and ten MA with normal hearing between 250-8000 Hz and a score of at least 26/30 on the Mini-Mental State Examination participated in the study. As different cognitive processes are used for initial, middle, and final serial positions, averaged scores were obtained for Positions 2 and 3 and for Positions 4 and 5. Subsequently, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted on mean scores of correctly recalled word pairs with serial positions (initial, middle, and final) and listening condition (quiet, babble) as the within-participant variables and age group (YA, MA) as the between-participant independent variable. This OMNIBUS repeated-measures ANOVA was then followed up with separate repeated-measures ANOVAS for the initial, middle, and final positions. Correct

  13. Music Teachers and Music Therapists: Helping Children Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allyson

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on music therapy. Discusses how music therapy works in the public school setting and offers advice to music teachers. Explores music therapy and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addressing the benefits of having access to music therapists. (CMK)

  14. International Musicological Conference Young Musicology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century, Kabinet hudební historie Etnologického ústavu AV ČR, Praha 5.–8. září 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2017), s. 236-237 ISSN 0018-7003. [International Music ological Conference Young Music ology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century. Prague, 05.10.2016-08.10.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : 20th Century * Young Music ology * Conference Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  15. Battling illness with wellness: a qualitative case study of a young rapper's experiences with music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hans Petter

    2015-07-03

    Mental health difficulties are connected with major interpersonal and social challenges. Recent qualitative research indicates that music therapy can facilitate many of the core elements found to promote social recovery and social inclusion, findings also reflected in results from a growing body of effect studies. The objective of this study was to explore how music therapy might afford possibilities for social recovery to one man with psychosis admitted to a psychiatric intensive care unit. This was achieved by means of a qualitative case study featuring a description of the music therapeutic process alongside first-hand accounts of the participant's subjective experiences. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings are presented in a narrative form reflecting processes and activities considered particularly important for the process of social recovery. Theoretical perspectives from the recovery literature and current perspectives in music therapy are discussed with a view to the possible use of music therapy for strengthening agency, (re)building identity, developing positive relationships, and expanding social networks.

  16. Experiments with a musical instrument. The continuator and young children aged between 3-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Addessi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between technology and learning is becoming increasingly important in the field of musical education. However there are few studies regarding the interaction between children and musical instruments. This article looks at a study carried out with children aged between 3 and 5, and a particular interactive musical system: the Continuator, which was created by the SONY-Computer Science Laboratory in Paris. An analysis of the studies shows that the Continuator is capable of developing interesting interaction between children and the machine and creative musical processes in early childhood. It is possible to observe an evolution in interaction and microprocesses similar to those seen in adult/child interaction. The abilty of the system ton to attract and maintain attention in the children as been interpreted through Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow Theory . This article gives an overview of literature regarding musical education and new technologies, a description of the interactive system used in our experimental project, the pilot protocol and the analysis of the two case studies. We also draw certain conclusions regarding the psychological and pedagogical implications of the results.

  17. A Framework for Music-Speech Segregation using Music Fingerprinting and Acoustic Echo Cancellation Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Habib, H. A.; Khan, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background interference creates voice intelligibility issue for listerner. This research work considers background music as interference for communication through smart phone in areas with loud background music. This paper proposes a novel framework for background music segregation from human speech using music fingerprinting and acoustic echo cancellation. Initially, background music is searched in the database by music fingerprinting. Identified background music is registered and segregated using acoustic echo cancellation. Proposed approach generates better quality music speech segregation than existing algorithms. The research work is novel and segregates background music completely in comparison to existing approaches where single instruments are segregated successfully. (author)

  18. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival--who will pee and post?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Gold, Judy; Aitken, Campbell K; Hellard, Margaret E

    2010-06-28

    Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia. Those who consented received a testing kit and were asked to return their urine or vaginal swab sample via post. Nine hundred and two sexually active music festival attendees aged 16-29 completed the survey; 313 (35%) opted to receive chlamydia testing kits, and 67 of 313 (21%) returned a specimen for testing. One participant was infected with chlamydia (1% prevalence). Independent predictors of consenting to receive a testing kit included older age, knowing that chlamydia can make women infertile, reporting more than three lifetime sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. Independent predictors of returning a sample to the laboratory included knowing that chlamydia can be asymptomatic, not having had an STI test in the past six months and not living with parents. A low proportion of participants returned their chlamydia test, suggesting that this model is not ideal for reaching young people. Home-based chlamydia testing is most attractive to those who report engaging in sexual risk behaviours and are aware of the often asymptomatic nature and potential sequelae of chlamydia infection.

  19. Popular Music in Malaysia: Education from the outside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shahanum Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    The musical preference of most Malaysian young people, their knowledge of music in general and popular music in particular are shaped through informal music education. Factors that contribute to this include the wide dissemination of popular music, the status of music in the school curriculum, and the perception of most Malaysians towards music.…

  20. FROM TATTOOS, VEILS AND NOTEBOOKS: REPRESENTATIONS OF OTHERNESS AND IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES IN YOUNG STUDENTS WITH MIGRANT BACKGROUNDS IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Olmos Alcaraz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study relationally analyses the processes of the construction of difference and the processes of identity construction in which young adolescents and pre-adolescents with migrant backgrounds within formal educational contexts are involved. The text aims to show and describe how otherness and identity work in an intersectional way. Our analysis considers intersectionality as the most appropriate way of approximation to the reality observed. To do so, we work from biographical interviews and life stories of young people produced through our own respective fieldwork. This material had been analyzed looking for the relations between identity categories (gender, religion, nationality... and how these categories are interpreted for the young adolescents involved in the research. We research in twelve andalusian high schools with students, teachers and families. Along three scholar years, we made 132 interviews and 13 discussion groups. This allows us to address the theoretical objects of the study (otherness/identity in a contextual and process-based way.

  1. William Horsley: Music Master at Miss Black's Boarding-School for Young Ladies, 1828-1840

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Susan

    2009-01-01

    William Horsley (1775-1858) was active in London from the late 1790s. A founder member of the Philharmonic Society, Horsley was at the heart of the musical establishment, working as a composer, organist, commentator and teacher. His teaching career spanned over 50 years, during which time he took private pupils, trained choristers and organists…

  2. Music Therapy Promotes Self-Determination in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadberry, Anita L.; Harrison, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Self-determination leads to a higher quality of life, yet many individuals with autism spectrum disorder struggle with the component skills necessary for self-determination. Music therapy is one method of treatment for persons with autism spectrum disorder and has the ability to improve or develop skills in communication, self-awareness,…

  3. Young Listeners' Music Style Preferences: Patterns Related to Cultural Identification and Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners ("N" = 543) in grades 4, 5, and 6 rated their preference for 10 instrumental and vocal selections from various styles, including four popular music selections with versions performed in English, Spanish, or an Asian language. Participants estimated their identification with Spanish/Hispanic/Latino and Asian cultures, the number…

  4. Are Schools Promoting Social and Economic Integration of Migrant and Ethnic Minorities? The Experiences of Some Young People of Ecuadorian Background in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Balsera, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Although school is usually considered the most promising institution for the social and economic integration of young people of migration background, the educational outcomes of young people of Ecuadorian background signal a broken promise. Their families, peers, and teachers mediate the effect of the intersections of age, gender, class and…

  5. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The…

  6. Social Background, Civic Education and Political Participation of Young People--The German Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Holger; Lange, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Due to social and political change the process of young citizens' political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which…

  7. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an immigrant background : The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Diana D.; Saharso, Sawitri

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  8. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an Immigrant background: The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.D.; Saharso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  9. Ethnic Self-Labeling in Young American Adults from Chinese Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Self-reported ethnic labels were examined among 242 young American adults with Chinese ancestry (age range = 18-32 years, M = 23.97; 73% female, 27% male). Ethnic labels fell under broad categories whereby 22% reported heritage national labels (e.g., Chinese), 35% added American to their heritage national label (e.g., Chinese American), and 42%…

  10. Vocal Connections: How Voicework in Music Therapy Helped a Young Girl with Severe Learning Disabilities and Autism to Engage in her Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Warnock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the use of the non-verbal voice in music therapy with children with severe learning disabilities, complex needs and autism. Recent literature on the use of the voice in music therapy is summarised and links are made between the aims of music therapy and those of special educational establishments. Theories regarding the voice and the self, and the important connection between body awareness and emotion as precursors to learning are referred to, particularly in relation to learning disability. Through a case study, I demonstrate how a young girl used voicework to build connections with herself and the music therapist, whereby consequently she became more motivated to interact with her surroundings. I argue hence that the use of the non-verbal voice in music therapy, through its intrinsic connection to identity and internal emotional states can contribute significantly towards the healthy developments necessary for a person to be able to learn. Therefore, by increasing our knowledge about the actual process of learning, and the significance of our work within that process, we can move towards demonstrating clearer outcomes of music therapy in the educational context and have a stronger ‘voice’ within the multi-disciplinary teams that serve this population.

  11. The use of music on Barney & Friends: implications for music therapy practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire , K M

    2001-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the music content of 88 episodes from the PBS television show Barney & Friends, which aired from September 1992 to September 1998, in an attempt to quantify musical examples and presentations that may be considered introductory music experiences for preschoolers. Using many of the procedures identified by Wolfe and Stambaugh (1993) in their study on the music of Sesame Street, 25% of Barney & Friends' 88 episodes were analyzed by using the computer observation program SCRIBE in determining: (a) the temporal use of music; (b) performance medium; and (c) intention of music use. Furthermore, each structural prompt presentation (n = 749) from all 88 episodes was examined for: (a) tempo; (b) vocal range; (c) music style; (d) word clarity; (e) repetition; (f) vocal modeling; and (g) movement. Results revealed that the show contained more music (92.2%) than nonmusic (7.8%), with the majority of this music containing instrumental sounds (61%). The function of this music was distributed equally between structural prompt music (48%) and background music (48%). The majority of the structural prompt music contained newly composed material (52%), while 33% consisted of previously composed material. Fifteen percent contained a combination of newly composed and previously composed material. The most common tempo range for presentations on the show was 80-100 bpm, while vocal ranges of a 9th, 8th, 6th, and 7th were predominant and most often sung by children's voices. The adult male voice was also common, with 84% of all adult vocals being male. The tessitura category with the greatest number of appearances was middle C to C above (n = 133), with the majority of the presentations (n = 435, 73%) extending singers' voices over the register lift of B above middle C. Children's music and music of the American heritage were the most common style categories observed, and these two categories combined on 260 (35%) presentations. The use of choreographed

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Biagi Almeida Santos; Otávio Bandeira De Lamônica Freire

    2013-01-01

    This present paper shows the influence of music used in a retail environment in relation to consumer behavior. For obtaining the information, we based this research on a literature review in national and international journals, by 4 databases including: Proquest, EBSCO Host, CAPES periódicos and Mendeley, in the period of 2008 and 2012, by the keywords: music behavior, music in retail environment, background music, music consumer, environmental music, music and consumer behavior and music in ...

  13. “What is Essential is Invisible to the Eye” - A Music Therapy Tale of a Young Woman with Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Dauber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the case of Maria, a young woman with visual impairment and mild learning difficulties, whose involvement in music therapy helped her develop an understanding of the importance of music for her personal life. Whereas in the sessions her verbal comments about herself were very negative to start with, focusing on her back pains and everyday problems caused by her visual impairment, her singing brought to light a gifted musical personality in the course of therapy who felt strongly about her musicality. During a period of one and a half years of individual music therapy sessions at a creative day centre for people with disabilities, Maria developed a strong sense of confidence in her musical abilities, which made her believe more in herself as a musician. The joy of music making and singing as well as the interpersonal therapeutic relationship based on mutual trust and respect made her focus away from perceiving herself as ‘disabled’ and engage in searching for a new musical identity. The case study summarises this process and explains how Maria was helped by temporarily ‘stepping out’ of the boundaries of therapy in order to communicate her musical skills to a wider community at the annual summer concerts where she could ‘try out’ this new identity. The case of Maria shall further be used to reflect on how disabled people in Greece can find support at local creative day centres, which are essential infrastructural support facilities that contribute to their care and wellbeing locally. I shall also argue that music therapy is an ideal therapeutic intervention for such settings, as it is able to address individual needs of programme attendees, focusing its therapeutic interventions on a person’s existing and at first glance ‘invisible’ hidden possibilities and talents. This essentially humanistic therapeutic approach employed by the author and described below, shall be exemplified by employing examples of the

  14. Accuracy of Repetition of Digitized and Synthesized Speech for Young Children in Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drager, Kathryn D. R.; Clark-Serpentine, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Kate E.; Roeser, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the intelligibility of digitized and synthesized speech output in background noise for children 3-5 years old. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there was a difference in the intelligibility (ability to repeat) of 3 types of speech output (digitized, DECTalk synthesized, and MacinTalk…

  15. Analysis of an automated background correction method for cardiovascular MR phase contrast imaging in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Hilpipre, Nicholas; Boylan, Emma E.; Popescu, Andrada R.; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); McNeal, Gary R. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Customer Solutions Group, Cardiovascular MR R and D, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Choi, Grace [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for evaluating vessel blood flow. Inherent errors in acquisition, such as phase offset, eddy currents and gradient field effects, can cause significant inaccuracies in flow parameters. These errors can be rectified with the use of background correction software. To evaluate the performance of an automated phase contrast MRI background phase correction method in children and young adults undergoing cardiac MR imaging. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing routine clinical cardiac MRI including phase contrast MRI for flow quantification in the aorta (Ao) and main pulmonary artery (MPA). When phase contrast MRI of the right and left pulmonary arteries was also performed, these data were included. We excluded patients with known shunts and metallic implants causing visible MRI artifact and those with more than mild to moderate aortic or pulmonary stenosis. Phase contrast MRI of the Ao, mid MPA, proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) using 2-D gradient echo Fast Low Angle SHot (FLASH) imaging was acquired during normal respiration with retrospective cardiac gating. Standard phase image reconstruction and the automatic spatially dependent background-phase-corrected reconstruction were performed on each phase contrast MRI dataset. Non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected net flow, forward flow, regurgitant volume, regurgitant fraction, and vessel cardiac output were recorded for each vessel. We compared standard non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected mean flow values for the Ao and MPA. The ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp:Qs) was calculated for the standard non-background and background-phase-corrected data and these values were compared to each other and for proximity to 1. In a subset of patients who also underwent phase contrast MRI of the MPA, RPA, and LPA a comparison was made between standard non-background

  16. Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews literature on effects of music on the brain in childhood development. Areas include: (1) early synaptic growth; (2) nature versus nurture; (3) background music; (4) musical practice; (5) music learning and cognitive skills; (6) transfer of music learning; (7) musical instrument practice; (8) children and music; and (9) transfer effects.…

  17. Use it or lose it : Music preferences and uses related to psychosocial functioning among adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822345

    2008-01-01

    Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes

  18. First-Time Mothers' Use of Music and Movement with Their Young Infants: The Impact of a Teaching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlismas, Wendy; Bowes, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examined impact of a 5-week music/movement program involving relaxation, kinesics, singing, visual contact, and tactile stimulation on first-time mothers' use of music and movement with their infants. Found that the program extended mothers' use of relaxation to music and rhythmical movement with their infants but not the use of song and massage…

  19. Use it or lose it : Music preferences and uses related to psychosocial functioning among adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, J.

    2008-01-01

    Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes suicide. The most notorious music genres in this regard are rap/hip hop, and harder forms of rock such as heavy metal and punk. This thesis focused on the role of ‘music taste’ by; analyzing the consis...

  20. Young People's Exposure to Loud Music. A Summary of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This descriptive summary of the literature provides an overview of the available studies (published before October 2006) on sociodemographic, psychosocial, and other correlates of risk and protective behaviors for hearing loss in young people aged 12 to 25 years. Methods: Publications

  1. Structured Narrative Retell Instruction for Young Children from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Adlof

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, structured narrative retell instruction (SNRI, and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children’s books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI. Each group received 12, 40-minute instructional sessions over six weeks. Pre- and posttests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on four of the seven meaning-related measures (p < .10. In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on two of seven meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  2. Long-Term Perspectives of Family Quality of Life Following Music Therapy With Young Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grace A

    2018-01-13

    Parents of children on the autism spectrum have consistently reported feeling uncertain in their parenting role, and desire more practical advice from service providers about how to support their child in the home. There is growing recognition of the need for interventions to provide support to the family as well as fostering child development outcomes. This study explores mothers' follow-up perspectives of family-centered music therapy (FCMT) four years after participating in a 16-week home-based program, and therefore provides a unique long-term viewpoint on FCMT outcomes. Eight mothers who previously participated in FCMT sessions with their young children on the autism spectrum were interviewed to explore their perception of any long-term outcomes. A descriptive phenomenological analysis revealed five global themes, including: improvement in mothers' confidence to engage their child; rare opportunities for mutual mother-child enjoyment; improved child social communication and quality of life; mothers' new understanding of the child's interests and strengths; and more opportunities for continuing the child's interest in music. Mothers perceived long-term benefits to social relationships within the family, leading to perceived enrichment in child and family quality of life following music therapy sessions. © American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Music-Making and Musical Comprehension with Robotic Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Being able to express oneself musically and experiment with music composition is traditionally determined by one’s ability to play an actual instrument with a certain degree of craftsmanship. Lack of skills may cause difficulties for children and young people to experience the joy of musical crea...

  4. Looking at the (mis) fortunes of others while listening to music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.; Feddes, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether eye gaze behaviour regarding pictures of other people in fortunate (positive) and unfortunate (negative) circumstances is influenced by background music. Sixtythree participants were randomly assigned to three background music conditions (happy music, sad music, or

  5. The involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two conditions: after being exposed to their own chosen music, and in silence. Compared to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked in the "Music" condition were found to be more specific, accompanied by more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. In addition, these memories engaged less executive processes. Thus, with all these characteristics and the fact that they are activated by a perceptual cue (i.e., music), music-evoked autobiographic memories have all the features to be considered as involuntary memories. Our paper reveals several characteristics of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients and offers a theoretical background for this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Move...to Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Hope

    1977-01-01

    Through simple and pleasurable movement experiences a very young child can be led to an understanding of the intricate craft of music and the signs and symbols of the music "language", while developing at the same time an increasing appreciation and perception of music as an artistic expression. (Author)

  7. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and music intervention for therapeutic purposes and to describe the perspective of gamelan music used in nursing interventionMethods: Using five bibliography databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Science Direct, Interscience, and Proquest were searched from 1999-2010 for original clinical reports or reviews that evaluated the use of complementary therapy for therapeutic intervention in patients with ventilator support. The term of complementary therapy, anxiety, and pain were used in a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Articles were screened and excluded based on the title and abstract information.Results: Music brings about helpful changes in the emotional and physical health of patients, and has the ability to provide an altered state of physical arousal and subsequent mood improvement by processing a progression of musical notes of varying tone, rhythm, and instrumentation for a pleasing effect.Conclusion: Music can be used for therapeutic purposes, for instance to reduce anxiety, to decrease pain sensation, and some effects of psychological impact. Include, the gamelan music can be offer for patients for Javanese people in Indonesia.Key words: Music, music intervention, therapeutic purposes

  8. Music: A Shared Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how sixth form girls in England provided music experiences to young children (ages 3-9) with severe learning difficulties. The weekly sessions involve individual sessions and use of various instruments. The relationship of the music therapy program to the National Curriculum is noted. (DB)

  9. Creativity in Music and Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)

  10. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    OpenAIRE

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investiga...

  11. Music Communication, Projection and Analogy of Handicapped Children in Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lipský, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    /Abstract Music Communication, Projection and Analogy of Handicapped Children in Music Therapy Presented work takes an interest in music contents produced by handicapped children attending music therapy sessions. The contents of music were gained from the children by the method of improvisation, particularly by "concert technique". In the theoretical part we present philosophical background for the music therapy in a field of special education and research. This background thought we have fou...

  12. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people's risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliver, Megan; Carter, Lyndal; Macoun, Denise; Rosen, Jenny; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening) face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual's motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer's music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs) and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers' behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals' perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  13. Daily Family Interactions among Young Adults in the United States from Latin American, Filipino, East Asian, and European Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Andrew; Masten, Carrie L.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in young adults' interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in young adults' family interactions, and the…

  14. Beyond Twinkle, Twinkle: Using Music with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlakian, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    For very young children, music has power and meaning that go beyond words. First, and most important, sharing music with young children is simply one more way to give love and receive love. Music and music experiences also support the formation of important brain connections that are being established over the first three years of life. This…

  15. The Music Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    http://www.njmt.no/bookreview_2006071.html "The music effect is not about a particular composer, musical style, geographic location, language, or performance group. It is, at once, about all of these" (p. 249). This book is written by two people with very different educational backgrounds. Dr...... into music physiology. We have already seen them working together in 2001 in Berger’s book Music Therapy, Sensory Integration and the Autistic Child published by Jessica Kingsley, and this time their collaboration results in a book that is about the attributes of scientific reality (physics) as embedded....... Schneck is a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and Dorita S. Berger, MA, is a Board Certified music therapist. They have in common that both play music and perform professionally, and together they integrate various theories from scientific reality and music aesthetic...

  16. Aesthetic responses to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istok, Eva; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We explored the content and structure of the cognitive, knowledge-based concept underlying aesthetic responses to music. To this aim, we asked 290 Finnish students to verbally associate the aesthetic value of music and to write down a list of appropriate adjectives within a given time limit....... No music was presented during the task. In addition, information about participants' musical background was collected. A variety of analysis techniques was used to determine the key results of our study. The adjective "beautiful" proved to be the core item of the concept under question. Interestingly......, the adjective "touching" was often listed together with "beautiful". In addition, we found music-specific vocabulary as well as adjectives related to emotions and mood states indicating that affective processes are an essential part of aesthetic responses to music. Differences between music experts and laymen...

  17. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  18. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  19. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eFerreri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. 22 healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  20. The Effects of Background Music on the Middle School Students' Recognition of the Expository Text Information%背景音乐对中学生说明文文本信息再认的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明; 张裕鼎; 张立春

    2012-01-01

    以某中学一年级221名学生为被试,考察了不同类型及不同声压水平的背景音乐对中学生说明文文本信息再认过程的影响。实验结果表明:(1)音乐类型主效应显著,声压水平主效应不显著,两者交互作用显著,高音条件下不同音乐类型产生显著的再认成绩差异,而低音条件下未产生显著性差异。(2)高音条件下,不同类型的背景音乐对中学生的说明文文本信息再认成绩产生不同程度的影响。与无音乐环境相比,古典音乐对成绩产生显著的促进作用;流行音乐含中文歌词、流行音乐含日语歌词两个水平均产生显著的干扰作用;流行音乐不含歌词对再认无显著影响;此外,流行音乐含中文歌词干扰作用最大,但与流行音乐含日文歌词相比差异不显著。%We investigate the effects of different types of background music on recognition of the expository text information. The 221 participants are from 5 classes of Grade 1 of one middle school, with the likely same level of the Chinese course. The results of the experiments are as follows: (1) The main effect of the type of background music is significant while that of sound pressure level is not, and the interactive effect is significant: on the condition of high sound pressure level, the type of background music significant effect on the recognition score, but it has no effect on condition of the low sound pressure level. (2) On the condition of high sound pressure level, different types of background music take significantly different effect on the recognition score of the expository text information: comparing with no sound level, the classic music take significant facilitation effect, both the pop music with Chinese lyric and with Japanese lyric produce significant interference effect, and the pop music without lyric produces no effect. Besides, the interference effect taken by the pop music with Chinese is the

  1. 基于AU6850C芯片的智能家居背景音乐播放模块的设计%Design of intelligent Home Furnishing background music playing module based on AU6850C chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建聪

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of hardware and software of intelligent Home Furnishing background music to STC12C5A60S2 decoding chip and MP3 AU6850C as the core of the playing module.This module provides USB and SD card interface, with liquid crystal display,serial communication and power-off memory function,intelligent Home Furnishing control board can realize the background music playing through the control of the music playing module.%本文介绍了以STC12C5A60S2单片机和MP3解码芯片AU6850C为核心的智能家居背景音乐播放模块的硬件及软件设计。该模块提供了USB和SD卡的接口,具有液晶显示、串口通讯及断电记忆功能,智能家居控制板可通过对音乐播放模块的控制实现背景音乐的播放。

  2. The Effect of Family Background, University Quality and Educational Mismatch on Wage: An Analysis Using a Young Cohort of Italian Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of university quality, family background and mismatch on the wages of young Italian graduates. An empirical analysis is undertaken using a representative sample of graduates merged with a dataset containing information on the characteristics of universities. By utilizing quantile regression techniques, some evidence…

  3. Effects of background color and symbol arrangement cues on construction of multi-symbol messages by young children without disabilities: implications for aided AAC design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Jennifer J; Wilkinson, Krista

    2017-09-01

    Children whose speech does not meet their communication needs often benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The design of an AAC display may influence the child's ability to communicate effectively. The current study examined how symbol background color cues and symbol arrangement affected construction of multi-symbol messages using line-drawing symbols, by young children with typical development. Participants (N = 52) heard a spoken phrase matching a photograph and selected line drawings within a 4 × 4 array. Friedman two-way ANOVAs evaluated speed and accuracy of multi-symbol message construction under four conditions in which the background color and arrangement of symbols was manipulated. Participants demonstrated significantly faster response times when symbols were arranged by word-class category compared to no symbol arrangement. The majority of children responded faster when symbols had white backgrounds, but this effect failed to reach statistical significance. This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting the importance of symbol arrangement for young children. The findings highlight the need for caution when incorporating background color on displays for young children. Future research is needed to examine the effect of visual cues on children who use AAC and consider additional factors that could influence efficacy of symbol arrangement and background color use.

  4. Music Hath Charms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dana

    1988-01-01

    The article describes a program which introduced classical music to 18 students in a residential treatment program for adolescents with a history of substance abuse. Use as background music progressed to students requesting tape copies for personal use and group attendance at a symphony rehearsal and concert. (DB)

  5. Music therapy for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E.; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes C.F.; Vink, Annemiek C.; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music

  6. The power of musical sound and its implications for primary education in South Africa: An experiential discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Auerbach

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the power of musical sound and its transformative effects on human beings are explored, as perceived since ancient times and discussed in recent literature. An evolving research project is then reviewed, with a group of primary school children from disadvantaged backgrounds with no prior formal musical training. In essence, the aim of the study in progress is to determine how musical sound can be used to facilitate mindfulness, develop wholeness and facilitate the holistic growth of young South African learners, especially those from deprived backgrounds. Initial findings suggest that when musical sound experiences are included in everyday education of young learners, there are moments of joy, spontaneity, a sense of unity and well-being. The listening capacity of the children in the group has refined and performance levels at school have improved.

  7. Music Learning Based on Computer Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baihui Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to better develop and improve students’ music learning, the authors proposed the method of music learning based on computer software. It is still a new field to use computer music software to assist teaching. Hereby, we conducted an in-depth analysis on the computer-enabled music learning and the music learning status in secondary schools, obtaining the specific analytical data. Survey data shows that students have many cognitive problems in the current music classroom, and yet teachers have not found a reasonable countermeasure to them. Against this background, the introduction of computer music software to music learning is a new trial that can not only cultivate the students’ initiatives of music learning, but also enhance their abilities to learn music. Therefore, it is concluded that the computer software based music learning is of great significance to improving the current music learning modes and means.

  8. Musical meaning and logical inference from the perspective of Peircean pragmatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, L.F.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Manzolli, J.; Gonzalez, M.E.Q.; Tsougras,, C.; Parncutt,, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background in music theory. Music theory has established a large amount of work characterizing musical structure. Nevertheless, recently some efforts have been made to investigate musical function, especially regarding its perception and understanding. Beyond the precise and objective description of

  9. Genç Kadın ve Erkeklerin Müzik Ürünü Dinleme Cihazı ve Korsan Ürünler Karşısındaki Tutum Farklılıkları(The Attitude Differences of Young Women and Men Against Music Listening Products and Pirates Music Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz YILMAZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All developments taking place in computers, internet, music product formats and audio device technologies have an impact on the location of music product sales, the amount and method of such sales, the people in the music industry and even the industry model itself. In regards to the music industry, which is one that is extremely open to such changes, people’s attitudes towards devices for listening to music and copyright piracy are highly variable. As in the case of worldwide sales, Turkish sales of music products have also been negatively influenced by pirate sales, and the largest group of the buyers are the youth population, therefore resulting in a need of investigation of the attitude of Turkish youth towards these changes and piracy. Hence, the aim of this study is to pinpoint differences in the choice of devices used for listening to music in young women and men, and to investigate their points of view towards physical and digital piracy.

  10. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suse ePetersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry (MUSCI—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N=97. The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  11. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry-including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets-was used to assess the students' musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students' perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students' sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  12. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self. PMID:27303337

  13. The Role of Music in Young Learners' Oral Production in English (El papel de la música en la producción oral en inglés de niños y jóvenes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Niño, Daniel Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted at Universidad Nacional de Colombia in the foreign language extension courses. The author shows how young learners who study English in this program can develop their oral production by making and listening to music. The study took place in the first semester of 2009 and followed the qualitative and…

  14. Family Music Concerts: Bringing Families, Music Students, and Music Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how conductors of the top performing groups and music education faculty at one university collaborated to create a Family Concert Series for parents and children of all ages, including infants in arms. Recognizing the conflict between "The first three years of life are the most important for educating a young child in…

  15. Sound Health: Music Gets You Moving and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases and conditions,” he explains. Your Brain on Music The brain is a complex processing hub. It’s ... out a person’s voice in a noisy background. Music Therapy Listening to and making music on your ...

  16. Musician effect on perception of spectro-temporally degraded speech, vocal emotion, and music in young adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Başkent, Deniz; Fuller, Christina; Galvin, John; Schepel, Like; Gaudrain, Etienne; Free, Rolien

    2018-01-01

    In adult normal-hearing musicians, perception of music, vocal emotion, and speech in noise has been previously shown to be better than non-musicians, sometimes even with spectro-temporally degraded stimuli. In this study, melodic contour identification, vocal emotion identification, and speech

  17. Jovens estudantes de música na cibercultura musical: facebook e educação musical 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Bechara, Silvia Regina de Camera Corrêa [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    My experiences with young people in the classroom, observing their dynamics in transit in different contexts - online, offline, school, music - awakened in me the curiosity to better understand how to get along these relationshi ps, and in what this implied a Musical Education contemporaneity. Thus, this research deals with the interactions between young music students and music cyberculture in Facebook social media and its implications for the field of music education. It also proposes to un...

  18. Parental perspectives on a behavioral health music intervention for adolescent/young adult resilience during cancer treatment: report from the children's oncology group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sharron L; Robb, Sheri L; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Donovan Stickler, Molly; Haase, Joan

    2013-02-01

    This article describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes of resilience and quality of life. A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents' perspectives. A maximum-variation purposive sampling technique was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semistructured open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days after the AYA's transplant. Results were grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during the acute phase of transplant. Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted behavioral intervention. Thus, parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy, and identify approaches for future study. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parental Perspectives on a Behavioral Health Music Intervention for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Cancer Treatment: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Biagi Almeida Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This present paper shows the influence of music used in a retail environment in relation to consumer behavior. For obtaining the information, we based this research on a literature review in national and international journals, by 4 databases including: Proquest, EBSCO Host, CAPES periódicos and Mendeley, in the period of 2008 and 2012, by the keywords: music behavior, music in retail environment, background music, music consumer, environmental music, music and consumer behavior and music in purchase decision. The use of music has been applied in traditional areas such as psychology, trough the discipline of environmental psychology (DONOVAN & ROSSITER, 1982.; marketers use this tool as a motivator in a purchase decision in different shopping environments. This paper shows that there is an influence of background music in purchase decision but it’s still needs an explanations of some variables. At the end this paper will present some suggestions for future research.

  1. How Music Technology Can Make Sound and Music Worlds Accessible to Student Composers in Further Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Leah

    2012-01-01

    I am a composer, producer, pianist and part-time music lecturer at a Further Education college where I teach composing on Music Technology courses at levels 3 (equivalent to A-level) and 4 (Undergraduate/Foundation Degree). A "Music Technology" course, distinct from a "Music" course, often attracts applicants from diverse musical backgrounds; it…

  2. The Therapeutic Relationship as Predictor of Change in Music Therapy with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössler, Karin; Gold, Christian; Aßmus, Jörg; Schumacher, Karin; Calvet, Claudine; Reimer, Silke; Iversen, Gun; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2017-09-21

    This study examined whether the therapeutic relationship in music therapy with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder predicts generalized changes in social skills. Participants (4-7 years, N = 48) were assessed at baseline, 5 and 12 months. The therapeutic relationship, as observed from session videos, and the generalized change in social skills, as judged by independent blinded assessors and parents, were evaluated using standardized tools (Assessment of the Quality of Relationship; ADOS; SRS). Linear mixed effect models showed significant interaction effects between the therapeutic relationship and several outcomes at 5 and 12 months. We found the music therapeutic relationship to be an important predictor of the development of social skills, as well as communication and language specifically.

  3. Where Have All the Youngsters Gone? The Background and Consequences of Young Adults’ Outmigration from Hungarian Small Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkai Bernadett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the general demographic situation in Hungary and the recent overall crisis of this traditional settlement-type, Hungarian small towns have been facing an intensive shrinking since the last decade. Although natural decrease and migration loss are almost equal factors of population decline, outmigration seems to be a more strategic, critical problem for these settlements. There are hardly any reliable data available about the migrants leaving small towns, but some of them seem to support the wellknown assumption that the young people, who leave these towns are looking for wider horizons and better perspectives. The aim of the present paper is to analyse the outmigration of young adults from small towns, and give estimation about the international aspects of migration, which is hardly ever published in official statistics. The paper also aims at revealing the impact of the intensive migration on the local labour market. A short statistical analysis based on census data and two empirical surveys conducted by the authors are also included. One was carried out with the support of volunteer contributors, former small-town students, who tried to reconstruct the post-secondary school migration of their former classmates. The other survey contains a series of interviews focusing on the consequences of the young adults’ migration on the labour market. The results facilitate the estimation regarding the (weak capability of small towns to keep their young population, and highlight the problems of local developmental options within the context of demographic shrinkage.

  4. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  5. Reimagine Procrastination: Music Preference and Health Habits as Factors on Self-Perceived Procrastination of Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shu

    2018-01-01

    As the buzzword phenomenon, procrastination holds a continued need for a comprehensive examination of its nature and the associated factors. The presented study explores the potential relationship between music taste, life style and the youngsters' procrastination through quantitative modelling. To handle the big set of survey statistics and the uncertainty caused by the data missingness, the combined methods of factor analysis, multiple imputation (MI) and Ordered logit regression are employ...

  6. "Beatlemania" in the General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2012-01-01

    In Geoff Edgers's biography of the Beatles, "Who Were the Beatles?", young readers learn of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and George Harrison's youth and growth as musicians, the band's formation, and their contributions to music in popular culture. "General Music Today" columnist, Cardany provides music teachers with related music…

  7. A music educational environment for preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Retra, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an interactive computer environment that envisions to contribute to young children's musical learning. The intent is to stimulate the child's inherent musical abilities by engaging the child in active musical interaction with the environment. The

  8. Reflections on Progress in Musical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaman, William

    2008-01-01

    This article raises questions about three features of musical education that have been explored in the pages of the "British Journal of Music Education" ("BJME") over the last 25 years: the assessment of creative work; the nurturing of an elite among young musicians; the uses of electronics in music classrooms. The article…

  9. Musical agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; McBurney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music.......The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music....

  10. Music in the Early Years: Pathways into the Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…

  11. Music Therapy in the Interdisciplinary Care of Children with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Valerie Kalsbeck

    Music therapy, the systematic application of music and musical activities to elicit specific changes in emotional, physical, or social behavior, can help pediatric cancer patients to decrease their anxiety and cope with hospitalization. Because music is a nonverbal means of expression, it is an especially effective medium for young children who…

  12. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio José Pereira de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

  13. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  14. Music for Hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, B; Ketema Wassie, F; Agnholt, Hanne

    Music for hemodialysis patients Background Patients starting a new regimen of dialysis often experience anxiety and other psychological disturbances. They struggle with the unknown situation, feelings of uncertainty and on top of that, a high level of sophisticated technological equipment. Music...... is known from literature to influence and dampen anxiety and tension and has been used for millennia in the treatment of illness. Here we report a study on the influence of music on patients undergoing dialysis and whether music has a potential for lowering discomfort in patients during first-time dialysis.......   Purpose To investigate whether music can reduce feelings of anxiety, tension and restlessness in patients new to dialysis treatment and make them more relaxed during the treatment.   Method Twenty patients aged 42-84 were selected for participation in the study, which took place over two separate dialysis...

  15. Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Jakob Gaber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article presents diagnostic rates for specific mental disorders in a German pediatric inpatient population over a period of 20 years with respect to migration background and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods: Diagnostic data were obtained over a period of 20 years from 8,904 patients who visited a child and adolescent psychiatry mental health service in Germany. Data from 5,985 diagnosed patients (ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria were included with respect to gender, migration background, and SES. Results:Migration- and gender-specific effects were found for both periods of assessment. The group of boys with a migration background showed significantly higher rates of reactions to severe stress, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder compared to their male, non-migrant counterparts. Conversely, boys without a migration background showed a significantly higher percentage rate of hyperkinetic disorders than male migrants. Similar results were found for female migrants in the latter assessment period (ICD-10. In addition, female migrants showed lower rates of emotional disorders whose onset occurs in childhood compared to their non-migrant counterparts. Conclusions: Data from this investigation provide preliminary evidence that the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is influenced by migration background and SES.

  16. Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, What a Musical Child You Are!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzino, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Children are born with innate musical talent. This precious gift has to be nurtured in the earliest years of life, or it will wither rather than bloom. Developmental delays and disabilities do not necessarily affect the young child's potential to learn music. Parents of young children with special needs know the power of music to facilitate growth…

  17. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.

  18. Mediating factors in martial arts and combat sports: an analysis of the type of martial art, characteristics, and social background of young participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertonghen, Jikkemien; Theeboom, Marc; Pieter, Willy

    2014-02-01

    To date, most studies regarding the social-psychological effects of martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) on young people focus on measuring effects without considering mediating factors. The aim of the present study was to analyze three mediating factors that might be influential when examining outcomes of MA&CS for youth (i.e., the type of MA&CS, participants' characteristics, and social background). Young MA&CS participants (N = 477, M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 2.13) practicing judo, aikido, kick-/Thai boxing or karate, as well as their parents (N = 307), were assessed in terms of their goal orientations, aggressiveness, psychosocial behavior, and social background. It was concluded that differences exist in the characteristics and social background of participants depending on the type of MA&CS being practiced. The fact that differences in these mediating factors can be identified indicates that in future research these and possible other mediating factors should be considered when trying to determine social-psychological outcomes of MA&CS.

  19. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  20. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eRönnberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC and updating ability (UA. The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing MLL. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech-fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  1. Latent profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their association with behavioural addictions and substance use disorders in young Swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmet, Simon; Studer, Joseph; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Gmel, Gerhard

    2018-05-04

    Recent theories suggest that behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may be the result of the same underlying vulnerability. The present study investigates profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their associations with seven behavioural addictions (to the internet, gaming, smartphones, internet sex, gambling, exercise and work) and three substance use disorder scales (for alcohol, cannabis and tobacco). The sample consisted of 5287 young Swiss men (mean age = 25.42) from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). A latent profile analysis was performed on family background, personality and mental health factors. The derived profiles were compared with regards to means and prevalence rates of the behavioural addiction and substance use disorder scales. Seven latent profiles were identified, ranging from profiles with a positive family background, favourable personality patterns and low values on mental health scales to profiles with a negative family background, unfavourable personality pattern and high values on mental health scales. Addiction scale means, corresponding prevalence rates and the number of concurrent addictions were highest in profiles with high values on mental health scales and a personality pattern dominated by neuroticism. Overall, behavioural addictions and substance use disorders showed similar patterns across latent profiles. Patterns of family background, personality and mental health factors were associated with different levels of vulnerability to addictions. Behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may thus be the result of the same underlying vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed.

  3. "You Are My Sunshine My Only Sunshine": Current Music Activities in Kindergarten Classrooms in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvis, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Music in early years classrooms is an important learning area for young children. Young children need access to hear different genres of music, learn a variety of repertoire, engage in composing and play musical instruments. With the changing reform agenda in early childhood education however, little is known about the way music is positioned in…

  4. Pupils' Perceptions of Informal Learning in School Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Creech, Andrea; McQueen, Hilary

    2018-01-01

    Music education has faced considerable challenges in trying to bridge the gap between music in young people's lives and that taking place in the classroom. The 'Musical Futures' initiative aimed to devise new and imaginative ways of engaging young people, aged 11-19, in music activities through a process of informal learning based initially on…

  5. Songwriting in music-caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Valgerdur

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces songwriting as a music therapeutic approach used in a research study in progress.  The title of the research is:  The lived experience of a group of mothers having young children with special-needs, participating ina music therapy group defined as music-caring within the fra......-up session.  The last interveiw was conducted the 4th of January 2007.  Baker, F., & Wigram, T. (Eds,), (2005). Songwriting: Methods, Techniques and Clinical Applications for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators and Students.  London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.......This paper introduces songwriting as a music therapeutic approach used in a research study in progress.  The title of the research is:  The lived experience of a group of mothers having young children with special-needs, participating ina music therapy group defined as music-caring within...... the framework of early intervention.  The paper discusses the rationale for choosing songwriting for providing music-caring, describes its progression, presents few songs, and some perspectives about its meaning. This paper presentation introduces songwriting as a central music therapeutic approach used...

  6. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  7. What Is Music Education For? Understanding and Fostering Routes into Lifelong Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Stephanie E.

    2017-01-01

    Music education has a long history of defending its place in the school curriculum, with practitioners and researchers alike arguing for the creative, social and cognitive benefits of music in young people's lives. Meanwhile, those who doubt the benefits of musical learning--or more likely give them very little thought--are themselves the product…

  8. Juvenile delinquency, social background and suicide--a Swedish national cohort study of 992,881 young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2011-12-01

    As the suicide rates in young adults do not show a clear decline, it is important to elucidate possible risk factors. Juvenile delinquency has been pointed out as a possible risk behaviour. This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1972 and 1981 in Sweden. We followed 992,881 individuals from the age of 20 years until 31 December 2006, generating 10 210 566 person-years and 1482 suicides. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of a crime between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Estimates of risk of suicide were calculated as incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounding by their own and their parents' mental illness or substance abuse, parental education, single parenthood, social assistance, adoption and foster care. Among females, 5.9%, and among males, 17.9%, had at least one conviction between the ages 15 and 19 years. In the fully adjusted model, females with one conviction had a suicide risk of 1.7 times higher (95% CI 1.2-2.4), the corresponding IRR for men was 2.0 (95% CI 1.7-2.4) and 5.7 (95% CI 2.5-13.1) and 6.6 (95% CI 5.2-8.3), for women and men with five or more convictions. The effect of severe delinquency on suicide was independent of parental educational level. This study supports the hypothesis that individuals with delinquent behaviour in late adolescence have an increased risk of suicide as young adults. Regardless of causality issues, repeated juvenile offenders should be regarded by professionals in health, social and correctional services who come into contact with this group as a high-risk group for suicide.

  9. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  10. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet , Martin; Kian , Arash; Berthaut , Florent; Franco , Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine , Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  11. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "play-driven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  12. The Utilisation of Music by Casino Managers: An Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.

  13. Sun-related behaviours among young Australians with Asian ethnic background: differences according to sociocultural norms and skin tone perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A K; Wilson, C J; Hutchinson, A D; Roberts, R M

    2015-07-01

    Deliberate tanning, poor sun protection and sun exposure increase an individual's risk for skin cancer. Recent evidence suggests that individuals of Asian heritage have lower incidence of skin cancer than Caucasians but that their post-diagnosis outcomes are often worse. In Western cultures tanning behaviours are often motivated by a desire for 'attractive' tanned skin. Conversely, a light complexion is desired in a number of Asian cultures and may consequently serve to protect this group from excessive and risky sun exposure behaviours. This possibility is yet to be tested, with little known about the sun-related behaviours of Asian people residing in Australia. The present study involves 140 South Australian young adults who report having Asian heritage. Results show that the majority of female participants, and significantly fewer males, reported participating in deliberate outdoor tanning behaviour. Perceptions of family, peer and media tanning norms influenced behaviour, with peer norms being the strongest predictor. The desire for a lighter skin tone was associated with increased sun-protective behaviour and a lower number of previous severe sunburns. As a significant proportion of participants engaged in deliberate tanning behaviour, it is recommended that future research continue to explore factors associated with tanning, including an explicit measure of culture. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The emotional impact of national music on young and older adults differing in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon, Moshe; Bodner, Ehud; Shrira, Amit

    2017-10-01

    In spite of previous evidence regarding the function of national songs as a contextual stimulus, their effect on the emotional state of older adults living with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not be been examined. Following the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, we examined the emotional effects of listening to happy national songs (songs of Independence Day) and sad national songs (Memorial Day songs) on young (N = 144, mean age = 29.4) and older adults (N = 132, mean age = 68.5). Respondents were exposed to happy or sad national songs, and completed measures of exposure to missile attacks, related PTSD symptoms, and positive and negative emotions. Sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among young adults who were lower on PTSD symptoms, but not among their older counterparts. In contrast, sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among older adults who were higher on PTSD symptoms, but not among their young counterparts. These findings support the strength and vulnerability model, as they demonstrate that relative to young adults, older adults are generally more capable to withstand negative stimuli, yet are more sensitive to negative stimuli when they suffer from chronic vulnerability, as in the case of higher level of PTSD symptoms.

  15. Personality traits correlate with characteristics of music-induced movement

    OpenAIRE

    Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2009-01-01

    Individual factors such as personality are essential for understanding musical experiences and engagement with music. Personality has been shown to be related to musical preferences and experiences, but little is known about how it affects music-related movement. The current study examined whether personality traits were related to the way in which people moved spontaneously to music. Twenty young adults (7 males, and 13 females, mean age 24.0 years) were asked to move spontaneously to a 12 b...

  16. 中英流行背景音乐对大学生中英词汇记忆的影响%The influence of Chinese and English background pop music to the memory of Chinese and English words in Chinese undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淇; 白学军

    2018-01-01

    本研究探讨了无背景音乐、中文流行背景音乐和英文流行背景音乐对熟悉与不熟悉中英字词记忆的影响.以90名通过CET6的大学生为被试.实验1使用熟悉中英名词各32对进行即时回忆任务.实验2增加了任务难度, 使用不熟悉中英字词各10个进行即时再认任务.结果表明, 无音乐条件下记忆量显著高于中英流行音乐条件;在实验1中, 中文流行音乐条件下对熟悉词汇的回忆量显著低于英文流行音乐条件; 在实验2中, 中英文流行音乐条件下的词汇再认量没有显著差异, 但中文流行音乐条件下对中文不熟悉字词识记干扰更小, 英文流行音乐条件下对英文不熟悉字词识记干扰更小, 提示听觉输入语言熟悉度和视觉任务难度都会影响无关言语效应的大小, 听觉语言熟悉度的影响受视觉任务难度高低的制约.%It was generally found that pop music would do harm to the efficiency and accuracy of visual activity when it was as a kind of background music. This is called irrelevant sound effect, which means that the presence of irrelevant sound significantly impairs people's performance on main visual task. Some researchers believe that the reason of this phenomenon is because the lyrics of the background pop music add extra workload to the working memory, which interferes with the visual task. Moreover, it was shown that the first language lyrics impaired participants' performance more seriously than a strange language. To participants, the second language is less familiar than the first language but more than a strange language. So how about the irrelevant sound effect when lyrics are participants' second language? And how about it when the visual task contains the second language? This study aimed to investigate the influence of different language lyrics to the visual memory task, the familiarity of whose materials was different in two experiments. It was hypothesized that there

  17. Suicidal ideation among young French adults: association with occupation, family, sexual activity, personal background and drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, S; Beck, F; Peretti-Watel, P; Chau, N; Firdion, J M

    2010-06-01

    To assess associations among young adults between suicidal ideation in the previous year and adverse childhood events, occupation, education, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, cannabis use in the previous month, illicit drug use, sexual orientation and activity, depression, physical violence in the previous year, and lifetime forced sexual intercourse. A subsample of 4075 French adults aged 18-30 years was drawn from a random national telephone survey in 2005. Major depressive episode and alcohol abuse were assessed using CIDI-SF and AUDIT-C (score above 4). Data were analysed with logistic regressions. Suicidal ideation affected 5.7% of men and 4.9% of women. Among men depression had the highest adjusted odds ratio (ORa=8.06, 5.07-12.79), followed by homosexual intercourse (3.37, 1.62-7.04), absence of sexual activity (2.83, 1.80-4.44); ORa between 1.6 and 2.0 were observed for living alone, daily tobacco smoking, being unemployed, serious health event concerning the father, age 26-30 and bad relationships between parents. Among women, depression had the highest ORa (7.60, 4.70-12.29), followed by lifetime experience of forced sexual intercourse (5.37, 2.89-9.96), having consumed illicit drugs other than cannabis (4.01, 1.48-10.89); ORa between 1.7 and 2.5 were observed for living alone, being unemployed, bad relationship between parents and age 26-30. Cross-sectional survey, sexual orientation inferred from sexual activity. Suicide prevention should integrate the fact that besides depression, unemployment, family history, age, and sexual activity and orientation are specific risk factors among men, whereas illicit drug use, violence and forced sexual intercourse are more important among women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Building the first music therapy programme… - a reflection on new music therapy in new place

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwika Konieczna

    2009-01-01

    This story presents the reflections on building a music therapy programme in a new place. The description of the experiences of a young clinician who started music therapy programme in a facility for abused and neglected children in Poland is given. Both professional and personal challenges that were faced by the music therapist are discussed. The story of the author might not be different from those that happen to music therapists in similar situations all over the world. Therefore, the auth...

  19. Mentoring Music Educators in Gospel Music Pedagogy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patrice Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, gospel music has become increasingly popular in the United States. The popularity is making it appealing to perform in public schools. However, many choral and general music educators did not experience the tradition during their formative years and/or have not received training or background in its instruction. …

  20. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  1. Satire in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Stefanija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys the scope of satire and suggests its range. It is divided into six sections. The introductory comment (The semantics of music briefly outlines the fact that music has always been a part of communicative endeavors. The historical background of the semantic issues in music is described (Historical surmises, which is necessary to define satire in music as a specific genre combining features from different musical forms. The third section discusses six areas as the most common contexts of musical satire: 1 satirical music theater works, such as the opera Il Girello by Jacopo Melani, the famous Coff ee Cantata (Schweigt Still, plaudert nicht, BWV 211 by Johann Sebastian Bach, Der Schulmeister by Georg Philipp Telemann, The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay, and so on; 2 musical genres associated with satire, either a within vocal-instrumental music; for instance, opera buffa, Singspiel, operetta, cabaret, vaudeville, and so on, or b in instrumental pieces, such as capriccios, grotesques, scherzos, burlesques, and so on; 3 individual features or compositional parts related to satire; for example, in a vocal music, the Satiro in Orfeo by Luigi Rossi, the range of the Orlando character in eighteenth-century opera, who “may be satire, a fool or hero, but never all together” (Harris, 1986, 106, the satirical antihero Matěj Brouček in Leoš Janáček’s work, and also Lady Macbeth, and in b instrumental music, such as the sermon of St. Anthony in Gustav Mahler’s Second Symphony, his marches, and “low-brow tunes,” a number of episodes in Dmitri Shostakovich’s works, and so on; 4 works variously related to criticism, such as the work of Eric Satie, Kurt Weill, Luigi Nono, Maurizio Kagel, and Vinko Globokar, as well as Fran Milčinski (a.k.a. Ježek, Laibach, or Bob Dylan; 5 music journalism, from Johann Beer and Louis-Abel Beffroy de Reigny and his popular pieces de circonstance, to nineteenth-century music journalism, George

  2. Imagery, Music, Cognitive Style and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette

    Paired associate memory was tested with imagery and repetition instructions, with and without background music. Subjects were 64 students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. Music was found to have no effect with imagery instructions, but significantly improved performance with the repetition instructions. Music had different effects on…

  3. Learning Music via Tangible and Corporeal Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    to consider an existing teaching tool from the computer science domain, computational cards, and modify it to cope with the specific problems found in musical education; we re-designed it, simplified and generalized its notation. The new tool, musiCards, also permits corporeal interaction, so children can......Young music learners face a number of challenges, mostly because musical theory and practice are deeply interrelated. Many musical teaching theories and methodologies exist, and music is taught today from primary school, in a variety of ways, and to different degrees of success. We proposal...... design interactive musical machines, implement them physically, then enact the interaction to generate musical performances. MusiCards enables pupils to explore music-related concepts such as rhythm and polyphonic performance; moreover it supports active involvement, imitation, group learning...

  4. Music publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Alberto; Almeida, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to define relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. We want an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source t...

  5. Community Music in Cultural Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, Quirijn; Bisschop Boele, Evert; Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Higgins, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Community Music presents a contested field. Its art status, its methods and its effects all are under scrutiny as the various actors involved in community music practices frequently have very different backgrounds and different objectives. Aesthetic intentions, social objectives and economic

  6. Characteristics of Independent Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…

  7. Music to Teach German By.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Leo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how music can be intergrated with regular lesson plans to teach German vocabulary, grammar, and history and to give insights into German culture. Also included are sources for basic background information, a list of recordings of the German music, and notes on selecting and presenting it in the language class. (SED)

  8. PROJECT AND ACTON STAGE OD DESIGNING FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ ETHNOCULTURAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiayu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue of developing future music teachers’ ethnocultural training in the process of their professional training is revealed. The author emphasizes on the relevance of the issue as future music teachers’ ethnocultural training contributes to, on the one hand, completing mastering the national system of cultural values of native people by students of higher musical educational institutions and, on the other hand, involving perception and understanding of other nations’ cultural values, allowing future music teachers to transmit values expressed by the young generation to their professional activity. It is reported that the main feature of future music teachers’ ethnocultural training is a system of ethnic and cultural values which is the background of musical and psychological-pedagogical and art training; it is actively engaged as value tools musical folk art and national art. Value methods that are involved in the process of training are methods of traditional pedagogy, as well as the basis of pedagogical communication – people’s ethics. It is noted that developing future music teachers’ ethnocultural training requires designing the special methodology. The constant items of this methodology are thought to be the forms, methods, techniques and means of pedagogical and ethnopedagogical impacts as tools for developing students’ ethnopedagogical thinking in the process of musical and pedagogical activities; the system of controlling future music teachers’ ethnopedagogical, ethnological, ethnomusical knowledge and skills as a combination of methods that enables an opportunity to compare the level of mastering the knowledge and skills at different stages of educational process; to organize tuition using innovative technologies. The special attention is paid to professional and active component of this methodology. The diagnostic tests according to the criterion of “a degree of professional effectiveness in

  9. Survey of young patients with polio and a foreign background at a Swedish post-polio outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, polio survivors aged under 60 years are non-native Swedes which pose new aspects and challenges to a post-polio outpatient clinic. To analyze the medical data, walking aids, occupational, and family situation in non-native polio survivors aged less than 60 years at a Swedish post-polio outpatient clinic. Retrospective data analysis. Data were retrieved from medical records at the post-polio outpatient clinic. Actual age, age at acute polio infection, walking capacity, pain, concomitant diseases, working and family situation, and ethnical origin were analyzed. Data are presented in numbers and percentage. 153 patients were included. Mean age was 45 (17-60) years, and mean age at acute polio infection was 2 (0-12) years. Paresis of the lower extremities was the most common disability. 10 % were wheelchair dependent. Pain occurred in 70 % with a mean intensity of 55 measured with the visual analog scale. Hypertension was the most common concomitant disease. Half of the polio survivors were working at least part time, and roughly half were singles. Data were comparable with data earlier published in Swedish native polio survivors. Non-native polio survivors aged under 60 years showed similarities in age at acute polio infection, paresis, prevalence, and intensity of pain when compared with native Swedish polio survivors. They were, however, younger, and were less often working and married/cohabitants than native Swedish polio survivors. The results of this study underline the importance of social and vocational rehabilitation tailoring rehabilitation suitable for polio survivors with a foreign background.

  10. Music Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval has received increasing attention from both the industrial and the research communities in recent years. Many audio extraction techniques providing content-based music information have been developed, sparking the need for intelligent storage and retrieval facilities. ...

  11. Influence of a sport-specific training background on vertical jumping and throwing performance in young female basketball and volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, G; Paoli, A; Bellafiore, M; Bianco, A; Palma, A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3 years of sport-specific training background (SSTB) on vertical jumping and throwing performance in young female basketball and volleyball players. Thirty-one healthy adolescent girls, of which 11 age-matched control subjects [C], 10 basketballers (BP) and 10 volleyballers (VP) participated to the study. The throwing performance was assessed by seated backward overhead ball throw (SBOMBT) and seated chest pass throw (SCPT) using a 3-kg rubber medicine ball. Instead, the vertical jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump with (CMJ-AS) and without arm swing (CMJ) using Optojump system (Microgate srl, Italy). During SJ and CMJ with and without arm swing VP group showed a higher vertical jump performance than BP and C ones. In particular we showed that VP exhibited a higher flight time and jump height than C (Pbasketball athletes' maximal power compared to age-matched control subjects.

  12. Sexual risk behaviours associated with unlicensed driving among young adults in Miami's electronic dance music nightclub scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Paul, Roddia J

    2017-11-01

    Literature indicates that unlicensed driving (UD) offenders report substance use risk behaviours, yet data related to sexual risk behaviours is unknown. This study examined sexual and other risk behaviours among young adults in Miami, Florida, comparing UD and non-UD offenders (n=498). Compared with others, UD offenders were more likely to report group sex history, being high for sex half the time or more, purchasing sex and sexually transmissible infection history. Results suggest that locating sexual risk reduction interventions inside of the justice system would benefit UD offenders.

  13. Disadvantaged family background and depression among young adults in the United States: the roles of chronic stress and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossakowski, Krysia N

    2015-02-01

    Although several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that having a disadvantaged family background is a risk factor for subsequent symptoms of depression, few studies have examined the mediating mechanisms that explain this long-term relationship. Thus, this study uses US national longitudinal data and integrates social stress theory with the life course perspective by focusing on two mediating mechanisms-the chronic stress of poverty and self-esteem during the transition to adulthood. Results reveal that self-esteem largely mediates the inverse relationship between parental education and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. However, the inverse relationship between parental occupational prestige and depressive symptoms among young adults is not mediated by self-esteem, but rather long durations of poverty across 16 years. Overall, these findings suggest that different components of family socioeconomic status can leave a lasting imprint on mental health via the self-concept and the chronic stress of poverty throughout the journey to adulthood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Music & Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Gemma; Camps, Laia; Herrera, Isabel Herrera; Guillamat, Roser; Vallés, Vicenç; Sanz, Maite; Martínez, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that music may serve as therapeutic function among populations with different illnesses or disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies that incorporate music activity or music method shown an increase activation in several brain areas, with widespread bilateral hemodynamic responses in occipital lobe, bilateral cerebellum, temporal lobe, in the right lateral prefrontal cortex as well hemodynamic responses in the left middle frontal gyrus.Music activ...

  15. Music Teachers' Everyday Conceptions of Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstrom, Sture

    1999-01-01

    Investigates music teachers' everyday conceptions of musicality through (1) a pilot study involving music teachers in higher education and (2) interviews with teachers in music teacher education and in compulsory school. Finds in the pilot the categories of musical achievement, musical experience, and musical communication, while the interviews…

  16. "But I Never Thought I'd Teach the Little Kids": Secondary Teachers and Early-Grades Music Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Karen; Corbett, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Even in states with K-12 music licensure, not all music education students take a course in elementary music methods, and even fewer take a course that specifically addresses early childhood music instruction. In this article, a music teacher educator and a self-described "band guy," who initially struggled to work with young children,…

  17. Attending to "Culture in the Small": A Narrative Analysis of the Role of Play, Thought and Music in Young Children's World-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the role of interactive play, thought and language in children's development has been acknowledged, less is known of the role of interactive play, thought and "music." Children's early music-making is both generative and performative in nature and provides a means by which they engage with self and others. Their independent…

  18. Genomics studies on musical aptitude, music perception, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Irma

    2018-03-23

    When searching for genetic markers inherited together with musical aptitude, genes affecting inner ear development and brain function were identified. The alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA), located in the most significant linkage region of musical aptitude, was overexpressed when listening and performing music. The GATA-binding protein 2 gene (GATA2) was located in the best associated region of musical aptitude and regulates SNCA in dopaminergic neurons, thus linking DNA- and RNA-based studies of music-related traits together. In addition to SNCA, several other genes were linked to dopamine metabolism. Mutations in SNCA predispose to Lewy-body dementia and cause Parkinson disease in humans and affect song production in songbirds. Several other birdsong genes were found in transcriptome analysis, suggesting a common evolutionary background of sound perception and production in humans and songbirds. Regions of positive selection with musical aptitude contained genes affecting auditory perception, cognitive performance, memory, human language development, and song perception and production of songbirds. The data support the role of dopaminergic pathway and their link to the reward mechanism as a molecular determinant in positive selection of music. Integration of gene-level data from the literature across multiple species prioritized activity-dependent immediate early genes as candidate genes in musical aptitude and listening to and performing music. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Analysis of Output Levels of an MP3 Player: Effects of Earphone Type, Music Genre, and Listening Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyunyong; Lee, Seungwan; Koo, Miseung; Kim, Jinsook

    2018-02-26

    To prevent noise induced hearing losses caused by listening to music with personal listening devices for young adults, this study was aimed to measure output levels of an MP3 and to identify preferred listening levels (PLLs) depending on earphone types, music genres, and listening durations. Twenty-two normal hearing young adults (mean=18.82, standard deviation=0.57) participated. Each participant was asked to select his or her most PLLs when listened to Korean ballade or dance music with an earbud or an over-the-ear earphone for 30 or 60 minutes. One side of earphone was connected to the participant's better ear and the other side was connected to a sound level meter via a 2 or 6 cc-couplers. Depending on earphone types, music genres, and listening durations, loudness A-weighted equivalent (LAeq) and loudness maximum time-weighted with A-frequency sound levels in dBA were measured. Neither main nor interaction effects of the PLLs among the three factors were significant. Overall output levels of earbuds were about 10-12 dBA greater than those of over-the-ear earphones. The PLLs were 1.73 dBA greater for earbuds than over-the-ear earphones. The average PLL for ballad was higher than for dance music. The PLLs at LAeq for both music genres were the greatest at 0.5 kHz followed by 1, 0.25, 2, 4, 0.125, 8 kHz in the order. The PLLs were not different significantly when listening to Korean ballad or dance music as functions of earphone types, music genres, and listening durations. However, over-the-ear earphones seemed to be more suitable to prevent noise induce hearing loss when listening to music, showing lower PLLs, possibly due to isolation from the background noise by covering ears.

  20. Appeal of love themes in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Silvia; Zillmann, Dolf

    2003-12-01

    The relationship between romantic satisfaction versus discontent and a preference for music celebrating versus lamenting love is explored. The satisfaction/discontent was ascertained in 60 college undergraduate women and men who later freely listened to music from a sampling of selections. The duration of their self-determined exposure to love-celebrating versus love-lamenting music was unobtrusively recorded by computer software. Romantically satisfied women and men showed a preference for love-celebrating music, whereas discontented women and men preferred love-lamenting music. Romantically discontent women and men preferred love-lamenting music presented by performers of their own sex. The findings indicate young adults' inclination to match emotions expressed in music about love with the emotions experienced in their own romantic situation.

  1. [Suicidality and musical preferences: a possible link?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, Gladys; Desseilles, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Music is an important part of young people's lives. In this article, we attempt to answer two questions on the links between music et suicide. First, we examine if certain types of music favor suicidal process (ideation and acting out); and, secondly, we examine if music can constitute a tool to reduce the risk of suicide. Several factors possibly involved in links between musical preferences and the suicidal process are developed: the Velten effect and the musical mood induction procedure, the identification and the learning by imitation, the media influence as well as the individual characteristics. A multifactor approach is necessary to understand the complex and birectional links that unite musical preferences and suicide risk.

  2. Cultural constraints on music perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Demorest, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that music, like language, is both a biological predisposition and a cultural universal. While humans naturally attend to and process many of the psychophysical cues present in musical information, there is a great - and often culture-specific - diversity of musical practices differentiated in part by form, timbre, pitch, rhythm, and other structural elements. Musical interactions situated within a given cultural context begin to influence human responses to music as early as one year of age. Despite the world's diversity of musical cultures, the majority of research in cognitive psychology and the cognitive neuroscience of music has been conducted on subjects and stimuli from Western music cultures. From the standpoint of cognitive neuroscience, identification of fundamental cognitive and neurological processes associated with music requires ascertaining that such processes are demonstrated by listeners from a broad range of cultural backgrounds and in relation to various musics across cultural traditions. This chapter will review current research regarding the role of enculturation in music perception and cognition and the degree to which cultural influences are reflected in brain function. Exploring music cognition from the standpoint of culture will lead to a better understanding of the core processes underlying perception and how those processes give rise to the world's diversity of music forms and expressions.

  3. Transforming the Landscape through Music Creation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This author is quite often described by respected critics and musical peers as one of the finest artists in the world--making the young pianist's mark on music both undeniable and admirable. In this speech he shares his thoughts on improvisation. The ability to improvise is integral to the future of classical music. Classical pianists are still…

  4. Playing Digital: Music Instruction for the Next Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Active involvement in music can yield significant intellectual and emotional benefits. A Washington-area high school features a digitally literate music teacher and a piano lab with 25 workstations allowing music-loving students to express their creativity. MIDI sequencers and synthesizers aid young composers' efforts. (MLH)

  5. From Music Student to Professional: The Process of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Haddon, Elizabeth; Potter, John; de Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the question of whether higher education music courses adequately prepare young musicians for the critical transition from music undergraduate to professional. Thematic analyses of interviews with 27 undergraduate and portfolio career musicians representing four musical genres were compared. The evidence suggests that the…

  6. Research in Early Childhood Music and Movement Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellaccio, Cherie K.; McCarthy, Marie

    Because intuitive aptitude for music stabilizes at about age 9 years, the early childhood years are critical to the development of children's potential for comprehending and producing music. This literature review centers on studies that have expanded knowledge of how young children perform, perceive, and create music and thus develop their…

  7. Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

  8. Meme Engineers: Children as Producers of Musical Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which young children construct and negotiate musical meaning as song-makers in a post-modern consumerist musical world. A critical analysis of the presentation of music in two popular Australian children's television programmes (Play School and Hi-5) and the ways in which such media impact upon children's…

  9. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  10. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  11. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschrich, Susann; Münte, Thomas F; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2008-01-01

    Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval. PMID:18505596

  12. Unforgettable film music: The role of emotion in episodic long-term memory for music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altenmüller Eckart O

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific pieces of music can elicit strong emotions in listeners and, possibly in connection with these emotions, can be remembered even years later. However, episodic memory for emotional music compared with less emotional music has not yet been examined. We investigated whether emotional music is remembered better than less emotional music. Also, we examined the influence of musical structure on memory performance. Results Recognition of 40 musical excerpts was investigated as a function of arousal, valence, and emotional intensity ratings of the music. In the first session the participants judged valence and arousal of the musical pieces. One week later, participants listened to the 40 old and 40 new musical excerpts randomly interspersed and were asked to make an old/new decision as well as to indicate arousal and valence of the pieces. Musical pieces that were rated as very positive were recognized significantly better. Conclusion Musical excerpts rated as very positive are remembered better. Valence seems to be an important modulator of episodic long-term memory for music. Evidently, strong emotions related to the musical experience facilitate memory formation and retrieval.

  13. The Efficiency of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG Probiotic in Complex Treatment of Food Allergy at the Background of Pancreas Pathology in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Savitskaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the prevalence of food allergy in children of younger age has become increasingly widespread. For today, secondary pancreatic insufficiency manifested by relative pancreatic insufficiency, is the second largest patho­logy caused by food allergens. The aim of the study was to prove and substantiate the efficacy of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG in the combined therapy of food allergy, occurring against the background of pancreatic pathology in young children. There were observed 54 children, which were divided into two groups: the main group received complex treatment with LGG and the comparison group received traditional therapy. The results of the study indicated the beneficial effect of LGG on the clinical course of symptoms (pain, dyspeptic, asthenoneurotic symptoms, reduction of skin allergic reactions combined with functional pancreatic pathology (dysfunction of Oddi’s sphincter via the pancreatic type with the signs of pancreatic relative insufficiency in children with food allergies. Catamnesis data indicate a longer period of remission when a treatment scheme included LGG.

  14. Music Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Odgaard, Rasmus Emil; Bitsch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of breaking the barrier between deaf and hearing people when it comes to the subject of making music. Suggestions on how deaf and hearing people can collaborate in creating music together, are presented. The conducted research will focus on deaf people...... with a general interest in music as well as hearing musicians as target groups. Through reviewing different related research areas, it is found that visualization of sound along with a haptic feedback can help deaf people interpret and interact with music. With this in mind, three variations of a collaborative...

  15. Parents and Young Children with Disabilities: The Effects of a Home-Based Music Therapy Program on Parent-Child Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yen-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Responsive parenting style and synchronous parent-child interactions have a positive impact on children in terms of language, cognitive, and social-emotional development. Despite widely documented benefits of music therapy on parent-child interactions, empirical evidence for the effects of music therapy on parent-child synchrony is lacking. To examine effects of parent-child dyads' participation in a six-week home-based music therapy program on parent response, child initiation, and parent-child synchrony, as well as parents' daily use of musical activities with their child. Twenty-six parent-child dyads participated in this pretest-posttest within-subject single-group design study. Participating dyads included parents and their child with disabilities or developmental delays (ages 1-3 years inclusive). Parent-child dyads participated in a home-based music therapy program that included six weekly 40-minute sessions, and incorporated five responsive teaching strategies (i.e., affect, match, reciprocity, shared control, and contingency). Observational data were recorded for parent-child interactions and parent-child synchrony. Parents' positive physical and verbal responses, as well as children's positive verbal initiations, increased significantly pre- to post-intervention; however, children's positive physical initiations did not increase significantly. Parent-child synchrony also improved significantly pre- to post-intervention. Findings support the use of home-based music therapy programs to facilitate parent-child interactions in the areas of parental responsiveness and child-initiated communication, as well as parent-child synchrony. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Band Effect – physically strenuous music making increases aesthetic appreciation of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal aesthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed aesthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants aesthetically assessed similar music. Data are reported from two experiments where different patient groups performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments aesthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more aesthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived aesthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal aesthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical styles that they might otherwise be reluctant to listen to (e

  17. Pleasurable emotional response to music: a case of neurodegenerative generalized auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R; Chang, Chiung-Chih; De May, Mary; Engstrom, John; Miller, Bruce L

    2009-06-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies implicate the network of mesolimbic structures known to be active in reward processing as the neural substrate of pleasure associated with listening to music. Psychoacoustic and lesion studies suggest that there is a widely distributed cortical network involved in processing discreet musical variables. Here we present the case of a young man with auditory agnosia as the consequence of cortical neurodegeneration who continues to experience pleasure when exposed to music. In a series of musical tasks, the subject was unable to accurately identify any of the perceptual components of music beyond simple pitch discrimination, including musical variables known to impact the perception of affect. The subject subsequently misidentified the musical character of personally familiar tunes presented experimentally, but continued to report that the activity of 'listening' to specific musical genres was an emotionally rewarding experience. The implications of this case for the evolving understanding of music perception, music misperception, music memory, and music-associated emotion are discussed.

  18. Ghost Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo.......Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo....

  19. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  20. Visualizing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Music has always been an important aspect of teenage life, but with the portability of the newest technological devices, it is harder and harder to separate students from their musical influences. In this article, the author describes a lesson wherein she incorporated their love of song into an engaging art project. In this lesson, she had…

  1. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  2. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  3. Musical appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Maria del Consuelo

    2002-11-01

    Pre-school listening to music is the principal way that leads to the appreciation of music that later facilitates knowledge and pleasure in the history of music. At the prescholastic age it is a very important aspect of education, and reasons and suggestions will be given. The activities must be brief, the teachers of music can at the most develop the activity every five minutes, leaving time for rest or expansion. Another suitable way to bring the child to music is through stories, which please all children; let them go to an unreal and fantastic world and listen to a story or an exciting adventure. The story then, should be brief, simple, with action, with familiar characters, but with some mystery; some repetitive element; and an ending both surprising and happy. It is preferable to include small folkloric tales from the universal repertoire, with works of simple and clear structure.

  4. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  5. Current Situation and Future Perspectives of Chinese Popular Music in Global Arena

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Music industry, as a rising star of cultural industries, is playing an increasingly important role in globalization of international economy. Nowadays western music has cornered most of the modern music market for a long time while Korea and Japan’s modern music developed quickly these last 20 years which gave Chinese music market huge pressure. Under the background the author aims to observe and analyze present market situation and future perspective of Chinese popular music in this study. ...

  6. Music Ensemble Participation: Personality Traits and Music Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Tracy A.; Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationship between personality type and ensemble choice and (2) to examine the differences in personality across age and music experience in young adults. Participants (N = 137; 68 instrumentalists, 69 vocalists) completed a demographic survey and the Big Five Personality Inventory.…

  7. While the music lasts : on music and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke; Page, Kate; Alheit, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book has been written for musicians who want to engage with audiences beyond the concert hall and other traditional venues. The study is equally worthwhile for conservatoires and music academies aiming to change the increasingly unrealistic goal of training young musicians solely for the stage.

  8. Body Movement Music Score – Introduction of a newly developed model for the analysis and description of body qualities, movement and music in music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Agnieszka Skrzypek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In music therapy, there is a range of music therapy concepts that, in addition to music, describe and analyse the body and movement. A model that equally examines the body, movement and music has not been developed. The Body Movement Music Score (BMMS is a newly developed and evaluated music therapy model for analysing body qualities, movement, playing style of musical instruments and music and to describe body behaviour and body expression, movement behaviour and movement expression, playing behaviour and musical expression in music therapy treatment. The basis for the development of the Body Movement Music Score was the evaluation of the analytical movement model Emotorics-Emotive Body Movement Mind Paradigm (Emotorics-EBMMP by Yona Shahar Levy for the analysis and description of the emotive-motor behaviour and movement expression of schizophrenic patients in music therapy treatment. Participants and procedure The application of the Body Movement Music Score is presented in a videotaped example from the music therapy treatment of one schizophrenic patient. Results The results of applying the Body Movement Music Score are presented in the form of Body Qualities I Analysis, Body Qualities II Analysis, Movement Analysis, Playing Style Analysis and Music Analysis Profiles. Conclusions The Body Movement Music Score has been developed and evaluated for the music therapy treatment of schizophrenic patients. For the development of the model, a proof of reliability is necessary to verify the reliability and limitations of the model in practice and show that the Body Movement Music Score could be used for both practical and clinical work, for documentation purposes and to impact research in music therapy.

  9. Still Making Music: How Students with Traumatic Brain Injury Can Continue with Musical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in the United States. All age groups are at risk for TBI, but there is a larger occurrence among school-age children and young adults. No matter the severity of a student's injury, he or she can benefit from music education, whether listening to music, singing, or performing on an instrument. Students can…

  10. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  11. Influence of Music Style and Rate on Repetitive Finger Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Tatz, Joshua R; Warnecke, Alison; Hibbing, Paul; Bates, Brandon; Zaman, Andrew

    2018-03-09

    Auditory cues, including music, are commonly used in the treatment of persons with Parkinson's disease. Yet, how music style and movement rate modulate movement performance in persons with Parkinson's disease have been neglected and remain limited in healthy young populations. The purpose of this study was to determine how music style and movement rate influence movement performance in healthy young adults. Healthy participants were asked to perform repetitive finger movements at two pacing rates (70 and 140 beats per minute) for the following conditions: (a) a tone only, (b) activating music, and (c) relaxing music. Electromyography, movement kinematics, and variability were collected. Results revealed that the provision of music, regardless of style, reduced amplitude variability at both pacing rates. Intermovement interval was longer, and acceleration variability was reduced during both music conditions at the lower pacing rate only. These results may prove beneficial for designing therapeutic interventions for persons with Parkinson's disease.

  12. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    OpenAIRE

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are...

  13. Effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement in young poor readers: a pragmatic cluster-randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Brandão de Ávila, Clara Regina; Ploubidis, George B; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [pmusic lessons as public policy.

  14. Music's Relevance for People Affected by Cancer: A Meta-Ethnography and Implications for Music Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; McDermott, Fiona; Reid, Philippa; Michael, Natasha; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R; Edwards, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Evidence supports music-based oncologic support interventions including music therapy. By comparison, little is understood about music-based self-care. This meta-ethnography examined five published qualitative studies to extend understanding of music's relevance, including helpfulness, for people affected by cancer; including children, adolescents, and adults with cancer, carers, and the bereaved. To improve understanding of music's broad relevance for those affected by cancer. Meta-ethnography strategies informed the analysis. Five studies were synthesized that included 138 participants: 26 children and 28 parents of children with cancer; 12 adolescents and young adults with cancer; 52 adults with cancer; 12 carers; and 8 bereaved. Studies' category and thematic findings were compared and integrated into third-order interpretations, and a line of argument. Perspectives from the five studies that illuminated the line of argument were developed. Music usage can remain incidental, continue normally, and/or change because of cancer's harsh effects. Music can be a lifeline, support biopsychosocial and spiritual well-being, or become elusive, that is, difficult to experience. Music helps or intrudes because it extends self-awareness and social connections, and prompts play, memories, imageries, and legacies. Music therapists may help patients and carers to recover or extend music's helpful effects. Cancer care can be improved through offering music-based resources/services, which give cancer patients and carers opportunities to extend music usage for personal support and, for carers, to support patients. Music therapists can advocate for such resources and educate health professionals about assessing/recognizing when patients' and carers' changed music behaviors signify additional support needs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Navid; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-10-01

    To describe the history of Kool's music-themed promotions and analyse the role that music played in the promotion of the brand. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents, legal documents, and promotional materials. Brown & Williamson started Kool sponsorship of musical events in 1975 with Kool Jazz concerts. Music was considered to be an effective marketing tool because: (1) music helped consumers make emotional connections with the brand; (2) music concerts were effective for targeted marketing; (3) music tied together an integrated marketing campaign; and (4) music had potential to appeal widely to a young audience. Brown & Williamson's first music campaigns successfully targeted young African-American male audiences. Subsequent campaigns were less effective, exploring different types of music to achieve a broader young adult appeal. This case study suggests Brown & Williamson used music most successfully for targeted marketing, but they failed to develop a wider audience using music because their attempts lacked consistency with the Kool brand's established identity. The 2004 "Kool Mixx" campaign both returned to Brown & Williamson's historic practice targeting young African-American males, and also exploited a musical genre with much more potential to bring Kool more universal appeal, as hip-hop music is increasingly popular among diverse audiences. Tobacco control efforts led by African-American community activists to oppose these marketing strategies should continue; expanding these coalitions to include the hip-hop community may further increase their effectiveness.

  16. Music to my ears: Age-related decline in musical and facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Ryan; Rendell, Peter G; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Ruffman, Ted

    2017-12-01

    We investigated young-old differences in emotion recognition using music and face stimuli and tested explanatory hypotheses regarding older adults' typically worse emotion recognition. In Experiment 1, young and older adults labeled emotions in an established set of faces, and in classical piano stimuli that we pilot-tested on other young and older adults. Older adults were worse at detecting anger, sadness, fear, and happiness in music. Performance on the music and face emotion tasks was not correlated for either age group. Because musical expressions of fear were not equated for age groups in the pilot study of Experiment 1, we conducted a second experiment in which we created a novel set of music stimuli that included more accessible musical styles, and which we again pilot-tested on young and older adults. In this pilot study, all musical emotions were identified similarly by young and older adults. In Experiment 2, participants also made age estimations in another set of faces to examine whether potential relations between the face and music emotion tasks would be shared with the age estimation task. Older adults did worse in each of the tasks, and had specific difficulty recognizing happy, sad, peaceful, angry, and fearful music clips. Older adults' difficulties in each of the 3 tasks-music emotion, face emotion, and face age-were not correlated with each other. General cognitive decline did not appear to explain our results as increasing age predicted emotion performance even after fluid IQ was controlled for within the older adult group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Music Influences Ratings of the Affect of Visual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldie E Hanser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of recent studies that have examined how music influences the judgment of emotional stimuli, including affective pictures and film clips. The relevant findings are incorporated within a broader theory of music and emotion, and suggestions for future research are offered.Music is important in our daily lives, and one of its primary uses by listeners is the active regulation of one's mood. Despite this widespread use as a regulator of mood and its general pervasiveness in our society, the number of studies investigating the issue of whether, and how, music affects mood and emotional behaviour is limited however. Experiments investigating the effects of music have generally focused on how the emotional valence of background music impacts how affective pictures and/or film clips are evaluated. These studies have demonstrated strong effects of music on the emotional judgment of such stimuli. Most studies have reported concurrent background music to enhance the emotional valence when music and pictures are emotionally congruent. On the other hand, when music and pictures are emotionally incongruent, the ratings of the affect of the pictures will in- or decrease depending on the emotional valence of the background music. These results appear to be consistent in studies investigating the effects of (background music.

  18. Classification of Nigerian Gospel Music Styles | Adedeji | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gospel music in Nigeria, a distinct christian musical genre on one hand and a part of popular culture on the other has witnessed diverse innovations in the contemporary time; a trend which has led to the evolution of diverse styles. The study of the definitive concepts, historical background and musical qualities of the styles ...

  19. Educational Benefits of Music in an Inclusive Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Susan; Yu, Sanna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to highlight literature concerning the effects of music therapy on children with disabilities. The paper is organized in the following sections: (1) background of music and children with disabilities, (2) the aims of music therapy, (3) main contributions to cognitive, biopsychosocial development of children with…

  20. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  1. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  2. Music Teachers' Personal Concepts: Qualitative Classroom Research in Music Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Niessen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How do music teachers reflect on planning and performing school lessons? How do their experiences influence their teaching arrangements? In a qualitative research project the author uses the "Individualkonzept" (personal concept to explore what music teachers think while planning music lessons. In addition, the relationship between personal concepts and biographical experiences is investigated. In accordance with grounded theory methodology, interviews with teachers were analyzed first at the level of the single interviews; followed by developing a grounded theory about the music teachers' personal concepts and their embedding in biography. In doing so an integrative pattern emerged unfolding in time as a learning process. Results of the research suggest finding forms of in-service-training for teachers that will allow them to foster a self-conscious acquaintance with their own biographical background. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080178

  3. Personal and Professional Characteristics of Music Education Professors: Factors Associated with Expectations and Preferences of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Tiger

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine music education undergraduate students' expectations of and preferences for their music education faculty members' personal and professional backgrounds and compare them to the actual backgrounds of current music teacher educators. The research questions were: Do music education undergraduate students…

  4. Music and communication in music psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Ian Ralph

    2014-01-01

    There is a general consensus that music is both universal and communicative, and musical dialogue is a key element in much music-therapeutic practice. However, the idea that music is a communicative medium has, to date, received little attention within the cognitive sciences, and the limited amount of research that addresses how and what music communicates has resulted in findings that appear to be of limited relevance to music therapy. This paper will draw on ethnomusicological evidence and ...

  5. Music, Technology and National Development: Rethinking Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is equally the tacit acceptance of the importance of the role of technology for music in particular and development in general. This paper examines the background assumptions that set in motion the conference theme, to find out what music can genuinely contribute to national development, given the trajectories which ...

  6. Musical hallucinations : Review of treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coebergh, Jan A. F.; Lauw, R. F.; Bots, R.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Blom, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. Objective: To review the

  7. Musical hallucinations : review of treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coebergh, Jan A F; Lauw, R F; Bots, R; Sommer, I E C; Blom, J D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. OBJECTIVE: To review the

  8. Dynamic compression and sound quality of music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van R.A.J.M.; Wagenaars, W.M.; Houtsma, A.J.M.; Stikvoort, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Amplitude compression is often used to match the dynamic: range of music to a particular playback situation in order to ensure, e .g ., continuous audibility in a noisy environment or unobtrusiveness if the music is intended as a quiet background. Since amplitude compression is a nonlinear process,

  9. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliuchko, Marina; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Monacis, Lucia; Gold, Benjamin P; Heikkilä, Kauko V; Spinosa, Vittoria; Tervaniemi, Mari; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician's auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale) was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person's life (or music importance). Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103), amateur musicians (N = 44), and professional musicians (N = 50). The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive) listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background) listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual's noise sensitivity.

  10. Toward a Neural Chronometry for the Aesthetic Experience of Music

    OpenAIRE

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Music is often studied as a cognitive domain alongside language. The emotional aspects of music have also been shown to be important, but views on their nature diverge. For instance, the specific emotions that music induces and how they relate to emotional expression are still under debate. Here we propose a mental and neural chronometry of the aesthetic experience of music initiated and mediated by external and internal contexts such as intentionality, background mood, attention, and experti...

  11. Musical listening and abductive reasoning: Contributions of C.S. Peirce’s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, L.F.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Manzolli, J.; Gonzalez, M.E.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Background in music philosophy. Questions about musical meaning are usually discussed within the area of philosophy of music. These questions gained particular urgencyin the Modern Age, when music had lost its connection with the old cosmologies that assured its position among the other disciplines

  12. The role of attention and intention in synchronization to music: effects on gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Waclawik, Kristina; Grahn, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    Anecdotal accounts suggest that individuals spontaneously synchronize their movements to the 'beat' of background music, often without intending to, and perhaps even without attending to the music at all. However, the question of whether intention and attention are necessary to synchronize to the beat remains unclear. Here, we compared whether footsteps during overground walking were synchronized to the beat when young healthy adults were explicitly instructed to synchronize (intention to synchronize), and were not instructed to synchronize (no intention) (Experiment 1: intention). We also examined whether reducing participants' attention to the music affected synchronization, again when participants were explicitly instructed to synchronize, and when they were not (Experiment 2: attention/intention). Synchronization was much less frequent when no instructions to synchronize were given. Without explicit instructions to synchronize, there was no evidence of synchronization in 60% of the trials in Experiment 1, and 43% of the trials in Experiment 2. When instructed to synchronize, only 26% of trials in Experiment 1, and 14% of trials in Experiment 2 showed no evidence of synchronization. Because walking to music alters gait, we also examined how gait kinematics changed with or without instructions to synchronize, and attention to the music was required for synchronization to occur. Instructions to synchronize elicited slower, shorter, and more variable strides than walking in silence. Reducing attention to the music did not significantly affect synchronization of footsteps to the beat, but did elicit slower gait. Thus, during walking, intention, but not attention, appears to be necessary to synchronize footsteps to the beat, and synchronization elicits slower, shorter, and more variable strides, at least in young healthy adults.

  13. Tune in or tune out: age-related differences in listening to speech in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    To examine age-related differences in listening to speech in music. In the first experiment, the effect of music familiarity on word identification was compared with a standard measure of word identification in multitalker babble. The average level of the backgrounds was matched and two speech-to-background ratios were tested. In the second experiment, recognition recall was measured for background music heard during a word identification task. For older adults, word identification did not depend on the type of background, but for younger adults word identification was better when the background was familiar music than when it was unfamiliar music or babble. Younger listeners remembered background music better than older listeners, with the pattern of false alarms suggesting that younger listeners consciously processed the background music more than older listeners. In other words, younger listeners attempted to "tune in" the music background, but older listeners attempted to "tune out" the background. These findings reveal age-related differences in listening to speech in music. When older listeners are confronted with a music background they tend to focus attention on the speech foreground. In contrast, younger listeners attend to both the speech foreground and music background. When music is familiar, this strategy adopted by younger listeners seems to be beneficial to word identification.

  14. Music exposure and hearing disorders: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Manchaiah, Vinaya K C; French, David; Price, Sharon M

    2010-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that excessive exposure to loud music causes various hearing symptoms (e.g. tinnitus) and consequently leads to a risk of permanent hearing damage, known as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Such potential risk of NIHL due to loud music exposure has been widely investigated in musicians and people working in music venues. With advancements in sound technology and rapid developments in the music industry, increasing numbers of people, particularly adolescents and young adults, are exposing themselves to music on a voluntary basis at potentially harmful levels, and over a substantial period of time, which can also cause NIHL. However, because of insufficient audiometric evidence of hearing loss caused purely by music exposure, there is still disagreement and speculation about the risk of hearing loss from music exposure alone. Many studies have suggested using advanced audiological measurements as more sensitive and efficient tools to monitor hearing status as early indicators of cochlear dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to provide further insight into the potential risk of hearing loss caused by exposure to loud music, and thus contribute to further raising awareness of music induced hearing loss.

  15. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  16. The efficacy of musical emotions provoked by Mozart's music for the reconciliation of cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masataka, Nobuo; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Debates on the origin and function of music have a long history. While some scientists argue that music itself plays no adaptive role in human evolution, others suggest that music clearly has an evolutionary role, and point to music's universality. A recent hypothesis suggested that a fundamental function of music has been to help mitigating cognitive dissonance, which is a discomfort caused by holding conflicting cognitions simultaneously. It usually leads to devaluation of conflicting knowledge. Here we provide experimental confirmation of this hypothesis using a classical paradigm known to create cognitive dissonance. Results of our experiment reveal that the exposure to Mozart's music exerted a strongly positive influence upon the performance of young children and served as basis by which they were enabled to reconcile the cognitive dissonance.

  17. Huge music archives on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, H.; Bischl, B.; Botteck, M.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of huge nonvolatile storage capacities such as flash memory allows large music archives to be maintained even in mobile devices. With the increase in size, manual organization of these archives and manual search for specific music becomes very inconvenient. Automated dynamic...... organization enables an attractive new class of applications for managing ever-increasing music databases. For these types of applications, extraction of music features as well as subsequent feature processing and music classification have to be performed. However, these are computationally intensive tasks...... and difficult to tackle on mobile platforms. Against this background, we provided an overview of algorithms for music classification as well as their computation times and other hardware-related aspects, such as power consumption on various hardware architectures. For mobile platforms such as smartphones...

  18. Exploring a neuroplasticity model of music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Given that music therapists work across a wide range of disabilities, it is important that therapists have at least a fundamental understanding of the neurophysiology associated with the client/patient populations that they serve. Yet, there is a large gap of evidence regarding the neurophysiological changes associated with applying music as therapy. The purpose of this article is to provide music therapists with a general background in neuroplasticity principles that can be applied to the use of music therapy with multiple populations. This article will review literature on neuroplasticity and literature supporting the specific attributes of music therapy that apply to neuroplasticity. Finally, examples of how to use neuroplasticity principles to explain and support clinical music therapy will be provided. Using the material presented in this review, music therapists will be equipped with information to effectively communicate why music therapy works using three neuroplasticity principles; increase in dopamine, neural synchrony, and a clear signal. Music therapy is a powerful tool to enhance neuroplasticity in the brain. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Graph theoretical analysis of EEG functional connectivity during music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjie; Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Chu; Liu, Dongwei; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle

    2012-11-05

    The present study evaluated the effect of music on large-scale structure of functional brain networks using graph theoretical concepts. While most studies on music perception used Western music as an acoustic stimulus, Guqin music, representative of Eastern music, was selected for this experiment to increase our knowledge of music perception. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from non-musician volunteers in three conditions: Guqin music, noise and silence backgrounds. Phase coherence was calculated in the alpha band and between all pairs of EEG channels to construct correlation matrices. Each resulting matrix was converted into a weighted graph using a threshold, and two network measures: the clustering coefficient and characteristic path length were calculated. Music perception was found to display a higher level mean phase coherence. Over the whole range of thresholds, the clustering coefficient was larger while listening to music, whereas the path length was smaller. Networks in music background still had a shorter characteristic path length even after the correction for differences in mean synchronization level among background conditions. This topological change indicated a more optimal structure under music perception. Thus, prominent small-world properties are confirmed in functional brain networks. Furthermore, music perception shows an increase of functional connectivity and an enhancement of small-world network organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The functions of music and their relationship to music preference in India and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Tipandjan, Arun; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Is the use of music in everyday life a culturally universal phenomenon? And do the functions served by music contribute to the development of music preferences regardless of the listener's cultural background? The present study explored similarities and dissimilarities in the functions of music listening and their relationship to music preferences in two countries with different cultural backgrounds: India as an example of a collectivistic society and Germany as an example of an individualistic society. Respondents were asked to what degree their favorite music serves several functions in their life. The functions were summarized in seven main groups: background entertainment, prompt for memories, diversion, emotion regulation, self-regulation, self-reflection, and social bonding. Results indicate a strong similarity of the functions of people's favorite music for Indian and German listeners. Among the Indians, all of the seven functions were rated as meaningful; among the Germans, this was the case for all functions except emotion regulation. However, a pronounced dissimilarity was found in the predictive power of the functions of music for the strength of music preference, which was much stronger for Germans than for Indians. In India, the functions of music most predictive for music preference were diversion, self-reflection, and social bonding. In Germany, the most predictive functions were emotion regulation, diversion, self-reflection, prompt for memories, and social bonding. It is concluded that potential cultural differences hardly apply to the functional use of music in everyday life, but they do so with respect to the impact of the functions on the development of music preference. The present results are consistent with the assumption that members of a collectivistic society tend to set a higher value on their social and societal integration and their connectedness to each other than do members of individualistic societies.

  1. Family-centred music therapy to promote social engagement in young children with severe autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G A; McFerran, K S; Gold, C

    2014-11-01

    Limited capacity for social engagement is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), often evident early in the child's development. While these skills are difficult to train, there is some evidence that active involvement in music-making provides unique opportunities for social interaction between participants. Family-centred music therapy (FCMT) endeavours to support social engagement between child and parent within active music-making, yet the extent of benefits provided is unknown. This study investigated the impacts of FCMT on social engagement abilities. Twenty-three children (36-60 months) with severe ASD received either 16 weeks of FCMT in addition to their early intervention programmes (n = 12), or their early intervention programme only (n = 11). Change in social engagement was measured with standardized parent-report assessments, parent interviews and clinician observation. Intention-to-treat analysis for the Vineland Social Emotional Early Childhood Scale indicated a significant effect in favour of FCMT. Thematic qualitative analysis of the parent interviews showed that the parent-child relationship grew stronger. FCMT improves social interactions in the home and community and the parent-child relationship, but not language skills or general social responsiveness. This study provides preliminary support for the use of FCMT to promote social engagement in children with severe ASD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF FUTURE MUSIC ART TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR SINGING ACTIVITY OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL SENIOR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the functional analysis of future music art teachers’ training for singing activity of comprehensive school senior students is depicted. This issue is very important because improving educators and musicians’ training contributes not only to professional selfactualisation, but also to young generation’s encouraging for thorough learning music art works and their creative development in the process of group music tuitions. Extracurricular singing activity also plays an important part. It reveals art images to students, enriching creativity experience, forms the spiritual world, develops independent thinking, awakens creativity. The author points out the main functions of future music art teachers’ training. They are system and value, information, communication, creative and transformative, projective functions. The special attention is paid to characterizing the features of each function. The author claims that system and value function relates to the necessity to analyze the results of the educational process that contributes to productive solving problems by students and main tasks of music training. Information function is a subject background of art music teachers’ and pedagogical activities. Communicative function is realized in a teacher’s ability to develop the student’ initiative to plan cooperative activities, to be able to distribute duties, to carry out instructions, to coordinate cooperative activities, to create special situations for the implementation of educational influence. The analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature shows that The creative and transformative function is manifested in the creative use of pedagogical and methodological ideas in specific pedagogical conditions. The projective function is thought to promote the most complete realization of content of comprehensive and art education. Functional analysis of students’ training of art faculties at pedagogical universities to

  3. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Navid; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the history of Kool's music‐themed promotions and analyse the role that music played in the promotion of the brand. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents, legal documents, and promotional materials. Results Brown & Williamson started Kool sponsorship of musical events in 1975 with Kool Jazz concerts. Music was considered to be an effective marketing tool because: (1) music helped consumers make emotional connections with the brand; (2) music concerts were effective for targeted marketing; (3) music tied together an integrated marketing campaign; and (4) music had potential to appeal widely to a young audience. Brown & Williamson's first music campaigns successfully targeted young African‐American male audiences. Subsequent campaigns were less effective, exploring different types of music to achieve a broader young adult appeal. Conclusions This case study suggests Brown & Williamson used music most successfully for targeted marketing, but they failed to develop a wider audience using music because their attempts lacked consistency with the Kool brand's established identity. The 2004 “Kool Mixx” campaign both returned to Brown & Williamson's historic practice targeting young African‐American males, and also exploited a musical genre with much more potential to bring Kool more universal appeal, as hip‐hop music is increasingly popular among diverse audiences. Tobacco control efforts led by African‐American community activists to oppose these marketing strategies should continue; expanding these coalitions to include the hip‐hop community may further increase their effectiveness. PMID:16998169

  4. Effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement in young poor readers: a pragmatic cluster-randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cogo-Moreira

    Full Text Available Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum.To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age with reading difficulties.235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114, and five served as controls (n = 121. Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT, and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE estimation method, which took compliance status into account.The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]. As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children, more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year.The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves, enough to make music lessons as public

  5. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  6. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  7. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sarah Shi Hui; Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children's music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal's sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children's music compositional creativity.

  8. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children’s music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal’s sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children’s music compositional creativity. PMID:28296965

  9. Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Music Club

    2011-01-01

    MUSIC ON THE LAWN 2011 As part of the Fete de la Musique 2011, the CERN MusiClub is organizing Music on the Lawn, an informal concert for Club musicians/bands. The event will take place from 14h00 to 20h00 on Saturday 25th June on the terrace of restaurant no 1. This year 8 MusiClub bands will be performing… WOT Home Cookin’ Picture Flame DANGLERZ The Nearlies RISE A Drop of Red The Groovy Gang So put the date in your diaries and spend a sunny afternoon listening to some great live music (and unlike Paleo and Montreux it’s FREE!!!!) For more information on the CERN MusiClub see http://muzipod.free.fr/  

  10. Autonomic Effects of Music in Health and Crohn's Disease: The Impact of Isochronicity, Emotional Valence, and Tempo

    OpenAIRE

    Krabs, Roland Uwe; Enk, Ronny; Teich, Niels; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Music can evoke strong emotions and thus elicit significant autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. However, previous studies investigating music-evoked ANS effects produced inconsistent results. In particular, it is not clear (a) whether simply a musical tactus (without common emotional components of music) is sufficient to elicit ANS effects; (b) whether changes in the tempo of a musical piece contribute to the ANS effects; (c) whether emotional valence of music influences ANS...

  11. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  12. Music Therapy for Preschool Cochlear Implant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides research and clinical information relevant to music therapy for preschool children who use cochlear implants (CI). It consolidates information from various disciplinary sources regarding (a) cochlear implantation of young prelingually-deaf children (~age 2-5), (b) patterns of auditory and speech-language development, and (c) research regarding music perception of children with CIs. This information serves as a foundation for the final portion of the article, which describes typical music therapy goals and examples of interventions suitable for preschool children. PMID:23904691

  13. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas eRönnberg; Niklas eRönnberg; Mary eRudner; Mary eRudner; Thomas eLunner; Thomas eLunner; Thomas eLunner; Thomas eLunner; Stefan eStenfelt; Stefan eStenfelt

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise t...

  14. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  15. We "Are" Musical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.

    2005-01-01

    The challenge for music education is to nurture and develop each individual's basic musicality. Assuming normal neurological functioning and development, we are all musical. Our musical development begins pre-birth, with musical behaviours in one form or another being evident across the lifespan. Nevertheless, early enculturation can both foster…

  16. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  17. Educating the Music User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  18. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Benítez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and their structure may vary from one person to another, depending on their musical experience. Throughout this review, we will present the background related to the benefits of musical training in cognitive development of children during early childhood, emphasizing differences that involves receptive training compared to active, extending the effects to the field of music therapy and the use of techniques with therapeutic purposes.

  19. Global music approach to persons with dementia: evidence and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound-music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic-rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic-rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia.

  20. Musical and emotional attunement - unique and essential in music therapy with children on the autism spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla; Geretsegger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: In improvisational music therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), facilitating musical and emotional attunement has been found to be one of the unique and essential principles. Methods: Using videotaped sequences of therapy sessions from an international study (TIME...

  1. Wrap it in rap! - Music Making with Adolescent CI Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Pedersen, Ellen Raben

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine 1) the potential effects of an intensive musical ear training program on the perception of music and speech in prelingually hearing impaired adolescent cochlear implant (CI) users and 2) these adolescents’ music engagement. Eleven adolescent CI users parti...... and repetitive focus on language, articulation, rhythm and rhyme and might even represent a possible form of artistic expression for some of the young CI users....

  2. Perspectives on Queer Music Therapy: A Qualitative Analysis of Music Therapists' Reactions to Radically Inclusive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggan, Catherine E; Grzanka, Patrick R; Bain, Candice L

    2018-01-13

    The queer music therapy model was designed by Bain, Grzanka, and Crowe in 2016 as a novel therapeutic approach to affirm and empower LGBTQ+ identity through music. No data have been generated on how this model might actually be implemented, or the strengths and limitations of the model according to music therapy professionals. The purpose of this study was to build on Bain and colleagues' work by collecting music therapists' perspectives on queer music therapy and using these data to critically evaluate the model. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with twelve music therapists who identify as LGBTQ+ or have experience working with LGBTQ+ clients. Participants were prompted to discuss their music therapy backgrounds, experiences with LGBTQ+ clients, and reactions to the queer music therapy model. Interviews were analyzed using a critical discourse analysis approach. The qualitative findings revealed major strengths of the queer music therapy model and ways in which it could be improved by attending to: (a) the structural limitations of the music therapy discipline, including the demographic composition of the field and lack of critical perspectives in music therapy training; and (b) intersectional considerations of ageism and ableism within diverse LGBTQ+ populations. Queer music therapy has positive implications for future work with LGBTQ+ individuals, but it must more substantively integrate intersectionality theory to serve a diverse range of LGBTQ+ clients. Further, it must critically attend to the structural limitations of the music therapy discipline itself. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Music Therapy Association. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Orff Music Therapy: History, Principles and Further Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Voigt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orff Music Therapy, a developmental approach to music therapy, was developed by Gertrud Orff within the framework of social paediatrics in Munich, Germany. A short historical background of Orff Music Therapy is discussed. The history of the clinical setting in which it was developed is described as is Gertrud Orff’s professional background. The role of Orff-Schulwerk in Orff Music Therapy and the development of theoretical foundations are discussed. Current principles and practice of Orff Music Therapy, illustrated by a case example show how the profile of Orff Music Therapy has developed. On the basis of the case example, theory is related to practice. Finally, changes influencing Orff Music Therapy today, training and research are considered.

  4. Demanding Epistemic Democracy and Indirect Civics Pedagogy: The Performance-Oriented Music Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrcz, Greg; MacLean, Tessa; Hopkins, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The participation of young adults in performance-oriented music ensembles can be seen to enhance democratic capacities and virtues. Much, however, turns on the particular conception of democracy at work. Although contemporary currents in music education tend towards models of liberal and participatory democracy to govern music ensembles, this…

  5. A Case Study of Diverse Multimodal Influences on Music Improvisation Using Visual Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study employed multimodal methods and visual analysis to explore how a young multilingual student used music improvisation to form a speech rap. This student, recently arrived in Australia from Ethiopia, created piano music that was central to his music identity and that simultaneously, through dialogue with his mother, enhanced his…

  6. The Effects of Music Instruction on Learning in the Montessori Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…

  7. High School Music Programmes as Potential Sites for Communities of Practice--A Canadian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June

    2009-01-01

    My exploration of the nature of the high school music experience was undertaken with 33 young adults who had graduated from high school one to six years previous to the data collection. All of these participants had been involved in their school music programmes and 30 had not continued formal music study following graduation. One might predict…

  8. See Hear: psychological effects of music and music-video during treadmill running

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Jasmin C.; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Jones, Leighton

    2015-01-01

    Background:\\ud There is a paucity of work addressing the distractive, affect-enhancing, and motivational influences of music and video in combination during exercise.\\ud \\ud Purpose:\\ud We examined the effects of music and music-and-video on a range of psychological and psychophysical variables during treadmill running at intensities above and below ventilatory threshold (VT)\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud Participants (N = 24) exercised at 10 % of maximal capacity below VT and 10 % above under music-onl...

  9. Using music as a signal for biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Ilias; Seinfeld, Sofia; Arroyo-Palacios, Jorge; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the potential benefits of conveying biofeedback stimulus using a musical signal have appeared in recent years with the intent of harnessing the strong effects that music listening may have on subjects. While results are encouraging, the fundamental question has yet to be addressed, of how combined music and biofeedback compares to the already established use of either of these elements separately. This experiment, involving young adults (N = 24), compared the effectiveness at modulating participants' states of physiological arousal of each of the following conditions: A) listening to pre-recorded music, B) sonification biofeedback of the heart rate, and C) an algorithmically modulated musical feedback signal conveying the subject's heart rate. Our hypothesis was that each of the conditions (A), (B) and (C) would differ from the other two in the extent to which it enables participants to increase and decrease their state of physiological arousal, with (C) being more effective than (B), and both more than (A). Several physiological measures and qualitative responses were recorded and analyzed. Results show that using musical biofeedback allowed participants to modulate their state of physiological arousal at least equally well as sonification biofeedback, and much better than just listening to music, as reflected in their heart rate measurements, controlling for respiration-rate. Our findings indicate that the known effects of music in modulating arousal can therefore be beneficially harnessed when designing a biofeedback protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of Infants' Behaviors with Electronic Music Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkow, Carla H.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to previous generations, young children today hear music that differs not only in its content but also in its source of production, mode of transmission, and integration with other activities or social contexts (Young, 2009). In fact, Young (2009) argues that digital technologies allow the home, as opposed to community sites, to be the…

  11. Can Music in Schools Live up to Its Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Ingrid; Mould, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Music helps to bring out the best in young people. It nourishes self-esteem and keeps them engaged. The starting point for any good school program is the teacher, whether that program teaches English, math, science, history, arts--or music. So why is it that, at the elementary level, we have so many generalist classroom teachers--with no…

  12. Music Therapy with Bereaved Teenagers: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through…

  13. How musical are music video game players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.

  14. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  15. Music Training Can Improve Music and Speech Perception in Pediatric Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoting; Liu, Yangwenyi; Shu, Yilai; Tao, Duo-Duo; Wang, Bing; Yuan, Yasheng; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Due to limited spectral resolution, cochlear implants (CIs) do not convey pitch information very well. Pitch cues are important for perception of music and tonal language; it is possible that music training may improve performance in both listening tasks. In this study, we investigated music training outcomes in terms of perception of music, lexical tones, and sentences in 22 young (4.8 to 9.3 years old), prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking CI users. Music perception was measured using a melodic contour identification (MCI) task. Speech perception was measured for lexical tones and sentences presented in quiet. Subjects received 8 weeks of MCI training using pitch ranges not used for testing. Music and speech perception were measured at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after training was begun; follow-up measures were made 4 weeks after training was stopped. Mean baseline performance was 33.2%, 76.9%, and 45.8% correct for MCI, lexical tone recognition, and sentence recognition, respectively. After 8 weeks of MCI training, mean performance significantly improved by 22.9, 14.4, and 14.5 percentage points for MCI, lexical tone recognition, and sentence recognition, respectively ( p music and speech performance. The results suggest that music training can significantly improve pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI users' music and speech perception.

  16. An examination of cue redundancy theory in cross-cultural decoding of emotions in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoun, Soo-Jin

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of structural features of music (i.e., variations in tempo, loudness, or articulation, etc.) and cultural and learning factors in the assignments of emotional meaning in music. Four participant groups, young Koreans, young Americans, older Koreans, and older Americans, rated emotional expressions of Korean folksongs with three adjective scales: happiness, sadness and anger. The results of the study are in accordance with the Cue Redundancy model of emotional perception in music, indicating that expressive music embodies both universal auditory cues that communicate the emotional meanings of music across cultures and cultural specific cues that result from cultural convention.

  17. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  18. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  19. Symmetry in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, O F

    2010-01-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  20. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  1. Longitudinal analysis of music education on executive functions in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Honing, H.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    Background: Research on the effects of music education on cognitive abilities has generated increasing interest across the scientific community. Nonetheless, longitudinal studies investigating the effects of structured music education on cognitive sub-functions are still rare. Prime candidates for

  2. Musical intervention enhances infants' neural processing of temporal structure in music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-05-10

    Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test the effects of a laboratory-controlled music intervention on young infants' neural processing of music and speech. Nine-month-old infants were randomly assigned to music (intervention) or play (control) activities for 12 sessions. The intervention targeted temporal structure learning using triple meter in music (e.g., waltz), which is difficult for infants, and it incorporated key characteristics of typical infant music classes to maximize learning (e.g., multimodal, social, and repetitive experiences). Controls had similar multimodal, social, repetitive play, but without music. Upon completion, infants' neural processing of temporal structure was tested in both music (tones in triple meter) and speech (foreign syllable structure). Infants' neural processing was quantified by the mismatch response (MMR) measured with a traditional oddball paradigm using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The intervention group exhibited significantly larger MMRs in response to music temporal structure violations in both auditory and prefrontal cortical regions. Identical results were obtained for temporal structure changes in speech. The intervention thus enhanced temporal structure processing not only in music, but also in speech, at 9 mo of age. We argue that the intervention enhanced infants' ability to extract temporal structure information and to predict future events in time, a skill affecting both music and speech processing.

  3. Young Adults with Immigrant Background and their Transition to the German System of Vocational Training. The Role of Preferences, Resources, and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Claudia; Friedrich, Michael; Hall, Anja

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the extent and the causes of ethnic inequalities in access to apprenticeship training positions within the German system of vocational training. Analyses are based on pooled data from three surveys of high school graduates conducted at the German Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB). The role of the following differences between German and applicants with an immigrant background for vocational training positions is analyzed: their preferen...

  4. "Tristan Chords and Random Scores": Exploring Undergraduate Students' Experiences of Music in Higher Education through the Lens of Bourdieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Within a theoretical framework drawn from Bourdieu, this article explores the relationship between undergraduate students' experiences of music in higher education and their musical backgrounds and prior music education experiences. More critically, this study aims to discover whether ideologies surrounding musical value impact on the student…

  5. Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Mehr, Samuel A.; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children’s cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs  with preschool children investigating the ...

  6. Global music approach to persons with dementia: evidence and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raglio A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfredo Raglio,1,2 Stefania Filippi,2 Daniele Bellandi,3 Marco Stramba-Badiale4 1Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2APSP “Margherita Grazioli”, Povo, Trento, Italy; 3Geriatric Department, Sospiro Foundation, Sospiro, Cremona, Italy; 4Department of Geriatrics and Cardiovascular Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy Abstract: Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D. The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound–music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic–rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches, active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic–rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life

  7. Communicative Musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    university, Stephen Malloch listened to tapes of mothers and their babies ‘chatting’ with each other, recorded by Trevarthen in the 70’s. One of the first tapes was the vocal interaction of Laura and her mother. “As I listened, intrigued by the fluid give and take of the communication, and the lilting speech...... of the mother as she chatted with her baby, I began to tap my foot. I am, by training, a musician, so I was very used to automatically feeling the beat as I listened to musical sounds.… I replaced the tape, and again, I could sense a distinct rhythmicity and melodious give and take to the gentle prompting...... therapy as purely protomusic. But with Malloch & Trevarthen’s focus on musicality as the innate human abilities that make music production and appreciation possible, this discussion can easily move on. These and many other essential discussions await us – thanks to this comprehensive – and demanding...

  8. Is music really my best friend? : reflections of two maturing women on one's relationship with music

    OpenAIRE

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Baird, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This text provides a unique perspective on the ways young people engage with music by reflecting on one woman’s relationship with music, both as a teenager and into her younger adulthood. Most explorations of this topic seek similarities between the experiences of many people using interview or survey data as the basis for identifying patterns. Whilst the theories and results of these investigations are extremely interesting, they often do not match with any one individual’s experience and ca...

  9. Musics, Cultures and Meanings: Music as Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores interpretations of concepts that lie at the focus of Richard Widdess's paper—"music", and "culture"—with the aim of specifying frameworks within which issues of musical meaning can fruitfully be addressed.

  10. Towards a well-being focussed language pedagogy: enabling arts-based, multilingual learning spaces for young people with refugee backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Frimberger, K

    2016-01-01

    The following article explores the conceptual background and pedagogical realities of establishing a well-being focussed language pedagogy in the context of an informal educational event called ‘Language Fest’. The event was organised as part of the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded large grant project ‘Researching Multilingually at the Borders of Language, the Body, Law and the State’ – for the UK’s ‘Being Human Festival’ 2014. The event aimed to celebrate the multiple languages...

  11. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy statement--Impact of music, music lyrics, and music videos on children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Music plays an important role in the socialization of children and adolescents. Popular music is present almost everywhere, and it is easily available through the radio, various recordings, the Internet, and new technologies, allowing adolescents to hear it in diverse settings and situations, alone or shared with friends. Parents often are unaware of the lyrics to which their children are listening because of the increasing use of downloaded music and headphones. Research on popular music has explored its effects on schoolwork, social interactions, mood and affect, and particularly behavior. The effect that popular music has on children's and adolescents' behavior and emotions is of paramount concern. Lyrics have become more explicit in their references to drugs, sex, and violence over the years, particularly in certain genres. A teenager's preference for certain types of music could be correlated or associated with certain behaviors. As with popular music, the perception and the effect of music-video messages are important, because research has reported that exposure to violence, sexual messages, sexual stereotypes, and use of substances of abuse in music videos might produce significant changes in behaviors and attitudes of young viewers. Pediatricians and parents should be aware of this information. Furthermore, with the evidence portrayed in these studies, it is essential for pediatricians and parents to take a stand regarding music lyrics.

  12. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  13. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural) reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses...

  14. The effectiveness of music on pain among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Tarja; Korhonen, Anne

    The objective of this review is to synthesize the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of music as pain relieving method among preterm infants during painful procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit.Review questions are: Among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, is music effective in reducing BACKGROUND: Preterm infants (i.e. babies born at or before 37 gestational weeks) compose a patient group of the most vulnerable to pain. Infants treated in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are exposed to a variety of painful procedures (e.g. heel prick, iv cannula insertion, endotracheal suctioning) and to environmental stress (e.g. noise, light). Simons et al., for example, described an average 14 +/- 4 painful procedures during the first 2 weeks of life within a period of 24 hours among 151 neonates. Many studies have shown that repeated and sustained pain can have direct and long-term consequences on the neurological and behavior-oriented development of the neonates during the rapid development phase of the central nervous system. Pain can cause detectable physiological, behavioral and hormonal changes and contribute to the altered development of the pain system during later childhood and adolescence. Instead, live music such as singing is excellent type of music when it is steady, constant, quiet, soothing and directed to the infants. Graven emphasizes that recorded sound should not replace human voice exposure in the NICU; therefore, health care providers should provide ample opportunity for the infant to hear parent's voices live, such as singing or humming, in interactions between the parent and the infant at the bedside.The AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health has recommended safe levels of sound, and these recommendations have been updated by an expert team of practitioners. Recommendations specify that continuous sound should not exceed an hourly equivalent sound level of 50 A-weighted decibels (d

  15. Music Making, Transcendence, Flow, and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between flow, transcendent music making experiences, transcendent religious experiences, and music education. As a teacher-researcher, I studied my graduate students' autobiographical accounts of their experiences making music. Across these narrative writings produced over the past four years, a pattern…

  16. Musical Experience and the Aging Auditory System: Implications for Cognitive Abilities and Hearing Speech in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L.; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18–30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45–65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  17. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Parbery-Clark

    Full Text Available Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30, we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65, potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory. Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline.

  18. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-05-11

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline.

  19. Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…

  20. Music You Can See

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shannon Sweny

    2012-01-01

    Children of all ages love painting to music. Aside from discovering the natural correlation between music and art, the author's students learned about Mozart's life and work in music class. In this article, students discover the influence that music can have on their art. (Contains 1 online resource.)